Sample records for activation analysis estudo

  1. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Frazao, Selma Violato


    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis potentialities in archaeological ceramics studies; Potencialidades da analise por ativacao com neutrons instrumental em estudos de ceramicas arqueologicas

    Paiva, Rosemeire P.; Munita, Casimirio S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Alves, Marcia A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia


    In this work, precision and sensitivity of the determination of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn in ceramic samples by INAA were evaluated. Two clay samples Brick Clay (NIST-SRM-697 reference material)and Ohio Red Clay (a well known clay sample) were analyzed for this purpose. Archaeological ceramic fragments from Agua Limpa Site, in Monte Alto city, SP were also analyzed. The archaeological ceramics were produced in the quotidian activities of non writing preterite societies, in sedentarization process. The ceramic chemical information are used to identify raw material sources and to study production and distribution models, which allow the reconstruction of the socio-cultural development and integration of extinguished societies. (author) 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Gênero e feminismo no Brasil: uma análise da Revista Estudos Feministas Gender and feminist studies in Brazil: an analysis of Revista Estudos Feministas

    Debora Diniz


    was analysed the title, abstracts and keywords of the articles and the topics of the dossier, totalising 20 editorials, 105 articles and 20 dossiers. The classification and indexation of the material was guided by the controlled vocabulary of the "Tesauro para Estudos de Gênero e sobre Mulheres", from Fundação Carlos Chagas. The results show that 95% of the authors are women, and that 54% are from Socials Sciences. There are articles in all thematic areas suggested by the Tesauro except on "Science and Technology" and "Education", with a concentration on the following thematic areas: "Socials Sciences and Culture" (26%, "Language, Literature, Religion and Philosophy" (17% and "History and Social Transformation" (17%. The most discussed topics were in this order: sexual division of work, literary analysis, reproduction, and feminist theory. The analysis of REF suggests that gender and feminist research is a solitary activity, with a few number of articles published in partnership. There is a strong preference for qualitative methodologies (92%. This article aims to facilitate the process of identification some marginal areas in the gender and feminist studies in Brazil, empowering the educational and political work of the journal.

  4. Comparative study between the PIXE technique and neutron activation analysis for Zinc determination; Estudo comparativo entre a tecnica de inducao de raios X por particulas e analise por ativacao com neutrons na determinacao do metal pesado zinco

    Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). CNPDIA. E-mail:; Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    This work presents a comparative study between the PIXE, proton beams and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques, for determination of total zinc concentration. Particularly, soil samples from the Pindorama, Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, experimental station have been analysed and measuring the zinc contents in {mu}g/g. The results presented good correlation between the mentioned techniques. The PIXE and NAA analyses have been carried out by using the series S, 2.4 MeV proton beams Pelletron accelerator and the IPEN/CNEN-IEA-R1 reactor, both installed at the Sao Paulo - Brazil university.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city; Analise de liquens por ativacao neutronica para estudo da poluicao atmosferica da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Marcelli, Marcelo P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia]. E-mail:


    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at {mu}g g{sup -1} levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g{sup -1} levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  6. Enzymatic activity of granulations tissues under low doses of radiation. Biochemical analysis in rats; Estudo da atividade enzimatica em tecidos de granulacao de ratos submetidos a baixas doses de radiacao

    Tosoni, Guilherme Monteiro [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico e Cirurgia; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Cury, Jaime Aparecido [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Estomatologia


    This paper was designed to investigate in the rat subcutaneous sponge-induced granulation tissue under low doses of X-ray, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, 5`nucleotide phosphodiesterase and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes. One hundred and fourteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups, as follows: Group I as control, Group II that received single 7,14 R in split-dosis immediately after sponge-implantation at the third and fifth days postoperatively. Biopsies were taken after 7, 11, 14, 21 and 28 days and the activity of the three enzymes was determined. The results have shown that in Group II alkaline phosphatase had higher activity in the 14th day of tissue evolution when compared to Groups I and III . The 5`nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in Group I was similar in all days checked, although in Group II the enzyme showed higher activity in 7th day and lower in 21st. In Group III the activity was higher after 14 and 7 days and lower after 28 and 21 days. There was no observation of changing in adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity when the three groups were compared. (author) 28 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Desafios no estudo de famílias nucleares: etapas iniciais de análise Challengers in nuclear family studies: first steps in data analysis

    Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes Forjaz


    possible existence of familiar aggregation and genetic influence on phenotypes marking physical activity, fitness, and health status. However, few studies were conducted with Portuguese speaking populations, and even fewer with Brazilian populations. Therefore, the present paper aims to discuss, at an introductory level, important aspects about nuclear family studies. The first two phases of Genetic Epidemiology research outline - familiar aggregation and heritability - were approached. The different steps of analysis were exemplified with real data collected in nuclear families from a study conducted in Muzambinho-MG. We hope this paper provides enough background and stimuli for the newcomers in this area of study.

  8. Gênero e feminismo no Brasil: uma análise da Revista Estudos Feministas Gender and feminist studies in Brazil: an analysis of Revista Estudos Feministas

    Debora Diniz; Paula Foltran


    A Revista Estudos Feministas (REF) é uma das mais importantes publicações sobre gênero e feminismo no Brasil. Este artigo descreve o perfil das autoras e dos temas dos artigos publicados na REF de 1992 até 2002. Foram analisados os títulos, os resumos e as palavras-chaves dos artigos avulsos e os temas dos dossiês, em um total de 20 editoriais, 105 artigos avulsos e 20 dossiês. A classificação e indexação temática do material seguiram o vocabulário controlado do “Tesauro para E...

  9. Gestão de custos florestais: um estudo de caso utilizando o Activity-Based Costing Forest management costs: a case study utilizing Activity-Based Costing

    Alcir Ribeiro Carneiro de Almeida


    Full Text Available No atual cenário de industrialização globalizada, tornou-se fundamental a eficácia no gerenciamento dos custos considerados inevitavelmente necessários. Programas convencionais de redução dos custos não consideram o grau de agregação de valor das atividades de rotina pela distorção dos sistemas contábeis atuais. No presente estudo, apresentam-se os principais motivos da falta de relevância das informações de custo, comenta-se sobre o problema da redução de desperdícios florestais e suas conseqüências. A partir de um estudo de caso em uma empresa do setor florestal, demonstra-se uma simulação do Activity Based Costing (ABC em uma determinada área da empresa, concluindo-se que a adoção de sistemas de custeio mais aprimorados, tal como o ABC, devem fazer parte de programas que busquem o aumento da competitividade do setor florestal.In the current view of globalized industrialization, it has become fundamental to manage essential costs effectively. Conventional programs for reducing costs, do no consider the value agregation grade of routine activities because of the distortion of current accounting systems. This study, presents the main reasons for the lack of relevance of the cost information, commenting on the problem of the reduction of forest waste and its consequences. Using a case study in a company from the forest sector, a simulation of Activity Based Costing (ABC is demonstrated in a determined area of the company it is concluded that the adoption of a more refined cost system, such as the ABC, should be included in programs, that seek to increase the competitiveness of the forest sector.

  10. Estudo da relação estrutura-atividade de saponinas hemolíticas e/ou imunoadjuvantes mediante uso de análise multivariada Study of the structure-activity relationship of adjuvant and/or hemolytic saponins by use of multivariate analysis

    Samuel Kaiser


    saponins by the analysis of the different groups linked to aglycone, with the use of multivariate statistical techniques. For this, we had twenty triterpenic saponins previously isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum, Dolichos lablab. and Glycine max species. Their adjuvant and hemolytic activities are available in the literature. These saponins were analyzed as groups linked to the triterpenic ring and biological activities resulting in an array of date that was submitted to cluster analysis and principal components analysis. The results confirm the importance of sugars in C-3 for hemolytic activity. However, the effect caused by the presence of a hydroxyl in C-16, CH2OH in C-17, acetyl in C-22 and acyl in C-21 on the hemolytic activity seems to be more important. On the other way, the presence of a hydroxyl in C-21, a methyl in C-17 and two sugars linked to aglycone seem determinant for adjuvant activity. Moreover, there is an inverse relationship between adjuvant and hemolytic activities in the set of saponins analyzed.

  11. A study on antimony determination in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis: validation of the methodology and determination of the uncertainty of the measurement; Estudo sobre a determinacao de antimonio em amostras ambientais pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons: validacao da metodologia e determinacao da incerteza da medicao

    Matsubara, Tassiane Cristina Martins


    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest due to the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application in industry. The determination of antimony has been a challenge for researchers since this element is found in low concentrations which make its analysis a difficult task. Therefore, although neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an appropriate method for the determination of various elements in different types of matrix, in the case of Sb its analysis presents some difficulties, mainly due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the NAA method for Sb determination in environmental samples. To establish appropriate conditions for Sb determinations, preliminary assays were carried out for further analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). The experimental procedure was to irradiate samples with a synthetic Sb standard for a period of 8 or 16 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, followed by gamma ray spectrometry. The quantification of Sb was performed by measuring the radioactive isotopes of {sup 122}Sb and '1{sup 24}Sb. The results of preliminary assays indicated the presence of Sb in Whatman no 40 filter paper used in the preparation of the synthetic standard, but at very low concentrations, which could be considered negligible. In the case of the plastic material used in bags for the sample irradiation, it should be chosen carefully, because depending on the thickness, they may contain Sb. The analyses of the stability of the diluted Sb standard solution showed no change in the Sb concentration within eight months after its preparation. Results obtained in the analysis of certified reference materials indicated the interference of {sup 76}As and also of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 152}Eu in the Sb determinations by measuring '1{sup 22}Sb, due to the proximity of the gamma ray energies. The high activity of '2{sup 4}Na

  12. Estudo in vitro da ação antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas contra Enterococcus faecalis In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos estudos têm sido realizados para avaliar o potencial terapêutico das plantas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antimicrobiana dos extratos etanólicos da aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, da aroeira-do-sertão (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., da ameixa-do-mato (Ximenia americana L., da quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.] e do hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl a 2,5%, contra o Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado teste de difusão em ágar, pelo método do poço, utilizando-se como controle positivo a clorexidina a 0,12%. Os microrganismos foram semeados em caldo BHI e incubados a 37ºC por 24 horas. Posteriormente, as suspensões microbianas foram semeadas em placas Petri, com ágar Mueller Hinton, sendo confeccionados seis poços equidistantes. As placas foram mantidas à temperatura ambiente por 2 horas, para ocorrer a pré-difusão das substâncias, e incubadas a 37ºC por 48 horas. Foram feitas as análises e medições dos halos de inibição em triplicata e os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente (teste de análise de variância [ANOVA]. RESULTADOS: A quixabeira apresentou os menores halos de inibição (teste t, p INTRODUCTION: Several studies have evaluated the therapeutic benefits of plants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, aroeira (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., Olacaceae (Ximenia americana L., quixaba (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.], and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 2.5% against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METHODS: The agar diffusion test was performed and 0.12% chlorhexidine was applied as positive control. The microorganisms were allowed to grow in a brain-heart infusion broth (BHI and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. Subsequently, the microbial suspensions were seeded on Petri dishes

  13. Active Ageing: An Analysis

    Alina-Cristina Nuta


    Full Text Available The problem of ageing is a highly topical for Romania and for European Union. In this framework, to create and implement some strategies for active ageing is an important objective. The international and regional forums set (supported by official statistics that the number of older people growing rapidly. Romania needs some programmes (with labour, social, economic, health care aspects to deal with the demographic changes, programs that will reform the existing working life structures and legislation. Despite the actual pension reform, which tries to close the opportunity of early retirement (by penalizing the total pension flows, or increasing the retirement age, etc., the labour system does not sets some important targets for this area.

  14. Homens e violência conjugal: uma análise de estudos brasileiros Men and conjugal violence: an analysis of Brazilian studies

    Kátia Lenz Cesar de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O estudo analisou qualitativamente 54 textos brasileiros sobre homens e violência conjugal, relacionados a atividades de pesquisa ou de intervenção. Primeiramente caracterizou-se o material quanto aos temas abordados, ao foco principal e ao tipo de texto. A seguir fizeram-se sínteses e análises das principais considerações dos textos a partir dos eixos temáticos encontrados: diferentes inteligibilidades da problemática, magnitude da violência conjugal, sentidos de homens relacionados à violência e intervenções e/ou políticas junto a homens agressores. A análise teve como parâmetro o ramo de discussões nacionais e internacionais que se esforça por ultrapassar a polêmica em torno da definição do problema como "violência de gênero" ou "violência conjugal", cunhando sobretudo o pressuposto de que existem diversos estilos de conjugalidade violenta. Concluiu-se que a maior unanimidade dos estudos é pensar a problemática como questão relacional de gênero. Defendeu-se, por fim, a ideia de que a escolha da melhor abordagem articuladora entre os polos da polêmica ainda demanda mais investigações, com metodologias qualitativas junto a atores de diferentes camadas e grupos sociais. Quanto às intervenções, propõem-se investimentos no maior número possível de alternativas, valorizando a singularidade dos casos.This study consisted of a qualitative analysis of 54 Brazilian texts about men and conjugal violence related to research or intervention activities. Initially, the material was divided up according to the topics under scrutiny, the main focus and the type of text. Analysis and synthesis of the main considerations of the texts, based on the thematic points revealed, was then carried out. This included the different approaches to the problem, the magnitude of conjugal violence, the attitudes of men vis-à-vis violence and interventions and/or policies towards male aggressors. The parameter for the analysis was the

  15. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.


    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T......, which is shown to be approximated by a χ2 distribution. Application of this test to the results of determinations of manganese in human serum by a method of established precision, led to the detection of airborne pollution of the serum during the sampling process. The subsequent improvement in sampling...... conditions was shown to give not only increased precision, but also improved accuracy of the results....

  16. Análise experimental do comportamento e sociedade: um novo foco de estudo Experimental analysis of behavior and society: a new field of investigation

    João Claudio Todorov


    Full Text Available O estudo do comportamento em sociedades foi relegado por quase 50 anos, apesar das reiteradas propostas de Skinner considerando sua importância. No ano de 1980, Sigrid Glenn criou o conceito de metacontingência que contribui como uma importante ferramenta para a descrição e análise do comportamento social. Neste artigo são apresentados alguns estudos envolvendo metacontingências e discute-se o papel do analista do comportamento no desenvolvimento de temas que abordam questões sociais, incluindo análise e modificação de práticas culturais.Although there are many citations where Skinner writes about the importance of the study of cultural practices in behavior analysis, these studies were forgotten for almost fifty years. Working in this plan Sigrid Glenn has created the concept of metacontingency, a great contribution as a tool in the description and analysis of social behavior. Some metacontingency studies are presented in this paper and the behavior analyst's function in social issues is discussed, including analysis and modification of cultural practices.

  17. Study of mineral and essential trace elements in milk and dairy products by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and neutron activation analysis; Estudo da composicao mineral e dos elementos-traco essenciais em amostras de leite e produtos lacteos por espectrometria de emissao atomica com plasma induzido e analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Kira, Carmen Silvia


    The importance of food composition related to nutritional and toxicological contents has been emphasized in recent years. Some chemical elements are needed for cell metabolism, while excess or deficiency may be responsible for disorders. Milk is considered the most important food during the first months of life, nutritional needs of children being satisfied by milk and dairy products. These foods provide the main trace elements for the good growth of different tissues as well as the functioning of several enzymatic systems. Important deficiencies in mineral during this period can interfere with children's development. Determination of mineral and trace elements by using spectroscopic techniques generally involves a pretreatment of sample. Sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because of the long preparation time and the possibilities for contamination and losses of the analyte associated with this step. Different procedures of sample preparation (dry ashing digestion, wet digestion using an open focused microwave and a hot plate) were evaluated for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk and dairy products by the ICP OES technique. In this work the concentrations obtained for the elements determined by the ICP OES technique after using the different treatments of sample were compared to the results obtained by the INAA technique, that does not require dissolution of sample. The partial digestion with diluted hydrochloric acid was found to be suitable for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk samples and dairy products. (author)

  18. Síndrome de Down e Moyamoya: estudo através de metanálise Moyamoya and Down syndrome: study conducted by meta-analysis

    Paulo Alves Junqueira


    Full Text Available Apresentamos o estudo clínico-epidemiológico de dois pacientes e metanálise (período 1977-2000 sobre a comorbidade entre síndrome de Down (SD e síndrome de "moyamoya" (SMM. Entre os 42 pacientes catalogados no presente estudo, a metanálise permitiu verificar: maior número de publicações de pesquisadores do Japão e Estados Unidos, seguidos pelo Brasil e Itália; predomínio do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC em lactentes e pré-escolares; sintomatologia inaugural, hemiparesia (78,6%, distúrbio da fala (26,2%; predomínio de infarto isquêmico (76,2%; episódios isquêmicos recorrentes (62%; comprometimento bilateral (83,3%. Esta análise permitiu concluir que, na investigação clínico-neurológica de pacientes com SD e episódios de hemiparesia aguda, a SMM deve ser incluída como diagnóstico mais provável .We present a clinic-epidemiological study of two patients and meta-analysis (period 1977-2000 of the co-morbidity of the Down syndrome (DS and moyamoya syndrome (MMS. Among the 42 patients listed in this survey, meta-analysis permitted to find the highest number of publications by researchers from Japan and United States, followed by Brazil and Italy; prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in suckling and pre school children; first symptomatology was hemiparesis (78.6%, speech disorders (26.2%; ischemic infarction (76.2%; recurring ischemic episodes (62%; bilateral impairment (83.3%. This analysis led to the conclusion that in the clinic-neurological investigation of DS patients with acute hemiparesis episodes, MMS should be included as the most probable diagnosis.

  19. Estudo preliminar da atividade antibacteriana das cascas de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae (Leguminosae Preliminary study of the antibacterial activity of Erythrina velutina Willd. Fabaceae (Leguminosae bark

    S. Virtuoso


    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina é popularmente conhecida como suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga dentre outros. Das várias espécies distribuídas pelo mundo cerca de doze estão no Brasil. A casca é utilizada, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro, pelas propriedades sudorífica, calmante, emoliente, peitoral, anestésica local e outras. Considerando-se que não existem estudos sobre o potencial microbiológico das cascas de Erythrina velutina este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliá-lo preliminarmente contra oito bactérias patogênicas. Foram utilizados os métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima para o extrato etanólico bruto e difusão em disco para a fração hexano. A atividade contra o Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes foi evidenciada para ambas as amostras. A viabilidade de futuras pesquisas com outras frações e substâncias isoladas na busca de novas alternativas, visando uma terapêutica racional a partir de fontes naturais foi apontada pelos resultados.Erythrina velutina is popularly known as suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga among others. Of the several species spread around the world about twelve are found in Brazil. Mainly in the Brazilian northeast the bark is used due to its sudorific, sedative, emollient, pectoral and topical anesthetic properties. Considering that there are no studies about the antibacterial potential of Erythrina velutina, this research aimed at evaluating, at least preliminarily, bark activity against eight pathogenic bacteria. The crude ethanol extract was tested by the disk diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the hexane fraction by the disk diffusion method. Both samples demonstrated activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The results pointed to the viability of future research on other fractions and substances isolated from Erythrina velutina in search for new rational therapeutic alternatives

  20. Products modeling for application in risk analysis, reducing uncertainties; Modelagem de produtos em estudos de risco, reduzindo incertezas

    Sodre, Carlos F.; Mendes, Renato F.; Saker, Leonardo F. [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:;; Oliveira, Edimilson J.; Aguiar, Paulo Cesar; Pinto, Ulysses Brandao; Badaro, Sonia M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    Accidental repercussions due to hydrocarbon releases are required on risk analysis studies and contingency plans. The physical effects estimation from releases on vessels or pipelines through out orifices and the estimation of limits for vapor cloud require several modeling, such us: pseudo-mixture estimation, source calculation and dispersion models. These models require physical and chemical properties of the real products in study, so a deep analysis of the original product and the recommended mixtures is demanded. This paper assesses some PETROBRAS refined products and defines pseudo-mixture in order to emulate the physical and chemical properties, for these original products. Finally, it was suggested mixture profiles for some products such as, gasoline, diesel and crude (light), to be applied in next risk studies. (author)

  1. Eletromiografia laríngea e análise vocal em pacientes com Mal de Parkinson: estudo comparativo Laryngeal electromyography and acoustic voice analysis in Parkinson's disease: a comparative study

    Ana Paula Zarzur


    Full Text Available A doença ou Mal de Parkinson se deve à deficiência dopaminérgica nos núcleos da base que geram alterações motoras. Comprometimento da comunicação verbal ocorre em 70 a 90% dos doentes. Existem poucas referências da aplicação da eletromiografia no estudo dos músculos laríngeos em pacientes com a doença de Parkinson. OBJETIVOS: Definir o padrão contrátil da musculatura intrínseca da laringe e sua correlação com a análise acústica vocal nos parkinsonianos. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo onde 26 adultos com o diagnóstico de Mal de Parkinson foram submetidos à eletromiografia laríngea e análise acústica vocal. Foram coletados potenciais de ação, tanto em repouso vocal quanto em fonação. Para a análise acústica da voz foram utilizados os programas VOXMETRIA® e GRAM 5.1.6®. RESULTADOS: O padrão eletromiográfico predominante no grupo estudo foi o de hipercontratibilidade (ou recrutamento aumentado durante repouso vocal que ocorreu em 73% dos indivíduos, sem que houvesse registro eletromiográfico de tremor. Quanto às características vocais, detectou-se a presença de tremor vocal no traçado do espectrograma (VOXMETRIA E GRAM e na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva em 69,5 % e 61 % dos sujeitos, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O tremor vocal foi a característica acústica predominante no grupo estudado, sem que houvesse correlação eletromiográfica.Parkinson's disease (PD involves a progressive depletion of dopamine in the basal ganglia leading to motor alterations. Oral communication impairment occurs in 75% to 90% of patients and has been poorly studied. AIM: to asses laryngeal electromyography (LEMG patterns and correlate them to vocal analysis in patients with Parkinson's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study. Twenty six adults with PD underwent laryngeal electromyography. Rest and phonation potentials were analyzed. VOXMETRIA® and GRAM 5.1.6. ® were used in acoustic analysis

  2. Estudo histomorfométrico da interface óssea do parafuso expansor cervical Histomorphometric analysis of bone-screw interface of expansive cervical screw

    Leandro Sérgio da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar estudo experimental para a avaliação histomorfométrica da interface óssea dos parafusos expansores utilizados no sistema de fixação anterior da coluna cervical. Métodos: Foram utilizadas no estudo cinco vértebras cervicais de ovelhas (C4, nas quais os parafusos foram inseridos. O parafuso expansor de 18,5mm de comprimento e 5,0mm de diâmetro externo (Ulrich foi inserido em ambos os lados da véterbra C4. No lado esquerdo o parafuso era inserido sem o parafuso interno de expansão e, no lado direito, com o parafuso de expansão interna. Na porção inferior da vértebra foi confeccionado o orifício-piloto com broca de 2,5mm sem a introdução de implante. A região da vértebra contendo os parafusos e o orifício-piloto foi preparada para estudo histológico da interface dos implantes e o tecido ósseo da parede do orifício-piloto. Por meio do estudo histomorfométrico foi avaliada a densidade óssea total, a densidade óssea externa (fora da rosca do parafuso, a densidade interna (dentro da rosca do parafuso e a medida linear de contato entre o tecido ósseo e o implante. RESULTADOS: A densidade óssea total foi maior no grupo I (parafuso expandido em relação ao grupo III (controle. A densidade óssea externa foi maior nos grupos I (parafuso expandido e II (não expandido em relação ao grupo III. A densidade interna foi maior no grupo I em relação aos grupos II e III e maior no grupo II em relação ao grupo III. O contato linear foi maior no grupo I em relação aos grupos II e III. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações da estrutura do tecido ósseo ao redor dos parafusos expansores, detectadas imediatamente após a sua aplicação, forneceram subsídios para o entendimento da maior resistência ao arrancamento desses implantes, que poderiam estar relacionadas com a compactação do osso esponjoso ao redor do mesmo, proporcionando maior área de contato entre o implante e o tecido ósseo.OBJECTIVE: To perform an

  3. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.


    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  4. Linfadenocromatografia perigástrica com carbono ativado (CH40: estudo experimental Perigastric lymphadenochromatography with activated carbon (CH40: experimental study

    Minao Okawa


    coelhos e ratos, o tecido celular subcutâneo da região inguinal foi fortemente corado de preto. Também, em todos ratos, linfonodos da região aórtica abdominal foram tingidos pelo CH40. CONCLUSÃO: A linfadenocromatografia com CH40 não mostrou toxicidade nas três espécies de animais estudadas. O carbono ativado foi efetivo no tingimento de linfonodos neste estudo.BACKGROUND: Well instituted and planned surgical procedures are still the only effective therapy for gastric cancer. However, results of cure have not significantly improved in the last decades, especially in the western world. The main benefit of the introduction of dyes and colouring in gastric submucosa through endoscopy, is to facilitate moderate lymphadectomy, making it easier to accurately locate lymph nodes. Besides this, lymphadenochromatography makes future research possible in detecting sentinel lymph nodes and its rational and selective applicability in precise lymphadectomy indication, especially in groups submitted to more complicated lymph node ressection which have increased possibility of complications. Carbon actived (CH40 lymphadenochromatography was analysed in this experimental study (phase 1. AIM: To test the effectiveness and innocuity of lymphadenochromatography with CH40, in three different animal species. METHODS: As established by the Brazilian Association of Clinical Research (Resolutions nº 196/96 e 251/97, CNS/MS, three different animal species were used: three dogs, 10 rabbits and 20 rats. In all of the dogs, the introduction of CH40 in the submucosa layer of the stomach was performed using gastric endoscopy, as well as needle polyethylene catheters, usually employed in sclerosis of esophageal varicosis. The observation period varied between 43 to 125 days, when surgical procedures were performed. In all rabbits and rats, the introduction of CH40 was made through hypodermic needle and insulinic syringe in the subcutaneous inguinal region. The observation period was between

  5. Activation analysis of meteorites. 3

    Nagai, H.; Honda, M.; Sato, H. [Nihon Univ., College of Humanities and Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, M.; Oura, Y.; Setoguchi, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan)


    A long-lived cosmogenic nuclide, {sup 53}Mn in extra-terrestrial materials has been determined in the DR-1 hole of the JRR-3M reactor, applying the well-thermalized neutron flux. The neutron flux intensities are variable with the depths whereas the fast thermal ratios are not quite variable. By this method, {sup 53}Mn contents in iron meteorites and metal phases in general could be routinely determined in many samples. The chemical separation method has been modified and a convenient short circuit method has been proposed to shorten the process. The short method is to count the activities of {sup 54}Mn just after the irradiation without further purification of manganese. (author)

  6. Neutron Activation Analysis of Water - A Review

    Buchanan, John D.


    Recent developments in this field are emphasized. After a brief review of basic principles, topics discussed include sources of neutrons, pre-irradiation physical and chemical treatment of samples, neutron capture and gamma-ray analysis, and selected applications. Applications of neutron activation analysis of water have increased rapidly within the last few years and may be expected to increase in the future.

  7. um estudo de caso

    Costa, Cátia Filipa Pereira da


    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia Jurídica As situações de abuso sexual de crianças nas quais o perpetrador pertence ao sexo feminino obtiveram ao longo dos últimos anos um acrescido reconhecimento por parte da comunidade científica, evidenciado pelo significativo incremento das investigações no âmbito desta temática consistindo na sua maioria estudos de caso. Um conjunto de particularidades encont...

  8. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail:; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  9. Estudos farmacoeconômicos e carga da doença em esquizofrenia Overview about pharmacoeconomics analysis and burden-of-illness in schizophrenia

    Claudiane Salles Daltio


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A preocupação com a saúde e os benefícios das terapêuticas ao paciente continua sendo o foco da medicina, mas conhecer os custos envolvidos e fazer a gestão dos recursos disponíveis é fundamental na atualidade. OBJETIVO: Este artigo pretende fazer uma revisão sobre alguns conceitos utilizados nos estudos farmacoeconômicos, tais como tipos de custos (diretos, indiretos, intangíveis, tipos de análises econômicas e carga de doença na esquizofrenia. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma revisão na base de dados Medline sobre os principais estudos farmacoeconômicos realizados em esquizofrenia. RESULTADOS: Foram detalhados estudos sobre custos na esquizofrenia realizados nos EUA em 2002, Canadá em 2004 e Inglaterra 2004/2005, com destaque para o único estudo brasileiro realizado até agora, referente ao ano de 1998. CONCLUSÃO: Os estudos estimam uma pesada carga da esquizofrenia para a sociedade, alertando para a importância desses achados quanto às questões econômicas e de política de saúde.BACKGROUND: The concern with the health and the benefits of the therapeutical ones to the patient continues being the focus of the medicine, but to know the costs involved and to make the management of the available resources are basic in the present time. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews some concepts used in the pharmacoeconomics studies such as types of costs (direct, indirect, intangible costs, types of economic analyses as well as the burden of illness. METHOD: Search at Medline database of the main pharmacoeconomics studies carried out on schizophrenia. RESULTS: We had been detailing studies on costs in the schizophrenia developed in USA in 2002, Canada in 2004 and England 2004/2005, as well as the single Brazilian study carried out in 1998. CONCLUSION: The studies show a heavy burden-of-illness in schizophrenia for the society, alerting for the importance of these findings to the economic questions and of politics of health.

  10. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique


    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  11. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan


    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  12. ANATI QUANTI: software de análises quantitativas para estudos em anatomia vegetal ANATI QUANTI: quantitative analysis software for plant anatomy studies

    T.V. Aguiar


    Full Text Available Em diversos estudos interdisciplinares em que a Anatomia Vegetal é utilizada, análises quantitativas complementares são necessárias. Geralmente, a avaliação micromorfométrica é feita manualmente e/ou utilizando programas computacionais de análise de imagens não específicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um programa específico para Anatomia Vegetal quantitativa e testar sua eficiência e aceitação por usuários. A solução foi elaborada na linguagem Java, visando maior mobilidade em relação ao sistema operacional a ser usado. O software desenvolvido foi denominado ANATI QUANTI e testado pelos alunos, pesquisadores e professores do Laboratório de Anatomia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV. Todos os entrevistados receberam fotos para efetuarem medições no ANATI QUANTI e comparar com os resultados obtidos utilizando o software disponível. Os voluntários, através de questionários previamente formulados, destacaram as principais vantagens e desvantagens do programa desenvolvido em relação ao software disponível. Além de ser mais específico, simples e ágil do que o software disponível, o ANATI QUANTI é confiável, atendendo à expectativa dos entrevistados. Entretanto, há necessidade de acrescentar recursos adicionais, como a inserção de novas escalas, o que aumentaria a gama de usuários. O ANATI QUANTI já está em uso nas pesquisas desenvolvidas por usuários na UFV. Por ser um software livre e de código aberto, será disponibilizado na internet gratuitamente.Complementary quantitative analyses are necessary for several interdisciplinary studies using Plant Anatomy. Generally, micromorphometric evaluation is performed manually and/or using non-specific software for image analyses. This work aimed to develop specific quantitative analysis software for Plant Anatomy and test its efficiency and acceptance by users. The solution was elaborated in the JAVA language, which has a greater

  13. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  14. Multiscale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    Gamborino, Diana; Martinell, Julio J


    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps which are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions we show that the multiscale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also be extracted from the analysis.

  15. Estudo qualitativo utilizando observação participante - análise de uma experiência Qualitative study using participant observation: analysis of an experience

    Ingrid Elsen


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é relatar os principais aspectos relativos à minha experiência em desenvolver um estudo qualitativo, no qual adotei, como método de coleta de dados a observação participante. Além disso, as estratégias utilizadas na aproximação com os informantes, o processo de decisão utilizado e os sentimentos experienciados ao longo do estudo são apresentados de acordo com o modelo de observação participante adotado na coleta de dados, o qual prevê a existência de quatro fases: observação inicial, observação inicial com alguma participação, participação com alguma observação e observação reflexivaThe objective of this article is to present the main aspects related to my personal experience in developing a qualitative study where I adopted, as a means of collecting data, the participant observation (Leininger, 1985 Primary observation, primary observation with some participation, primary participation with some observation and reflective observations of impact. Among the strategies presented are those used for approximation with informers, the decision processes that permeated the study and the feelings experienced throughout it

  16. Impacto da atividade física na qualidade de vida de mulheres de meia idade: estudo de base populacional Impact of physical activity on quality of life in middle-aged women: a population based study

    Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da prática de atividade física na qualidade de vida de mulheres de meia idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional e corte transversal, que incluiu uma amostra estratificada de 370 mulheres de meia idade entre 40 a 65 anos, recrutadas a partir de uma população de 20.801 mulheres atendidas no período de um ano nas redes básicas de saúde, inseridas nos quatro distritos (Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste que compõem o sistema de saúde da cidade de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, de junho a setembro de 2011. O cálculo da amostra teve por base um nível de confiança de 95%, com poder do teste de 80%, erro de estimativa de 5% e considerou-se a proporção de pacientes classificadas com qualidade de vida adequada (indicador >26 da amostra piloto. Os dados foram coletados enquanto as mulheres aguardavam na sala de espera para a consulta de rotina. Para avaliar a qualidade de vida geral, utilizou-se a versão abreviada do WHOQOL (WHOQOL-Bref-WHO Quality of Life - BREF, e sua relação com os sintomas do climatério foi avaliada por meio do Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. O nível de atividade física foi avaliado pelo questionário International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, versão curta, semana usual. Para obter-se a classificação dos níveis de atividade física, utilizaram-se três categorias: sedentária, moderadamente ativa e muito ativa. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o programa estatístico Minitab, versão 16. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das mulheres foi de 49,8 anos (±8.1, foram predominantemente caucasianas (72,7%, casadas (61,6%, não fumantes (93,5% e com o Ensino Médio completo (47,8%. Considerando os domínios presentes no WHOQOL-Bref para avaliar qualidade de vida, os escores foram significativamente diferentes entre os grupos de mulheres sedentárias, moderadamente ativas e muito ativas (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of physical activity on the quality of life of middle

  17. Estudo da atividade hormonal de mulheres tratadas com tamoxifeno no menacme A study of hormone activity in premenopausal tamoxifen-treated women

    Júlio Roberto de M. Bernardes Jr


    Full Text Available Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito do tamoxifeno nos níveis séricos de progesterona, estradiol, prolactina, hormônio luteinizante (LH, hormônio folículo-estimulante (FSH e da globulina transportadora dos hormônios sexuais (SHBG, quando administrado a mulheres no menacme, nas doses de 10 e 20 mg/dia por 22 dias. Métodos: Estudo aleatório e duplo-cego. Foram incluídas 43 mulheres pré-menopausadas e eumenorréicas. Foram distribuídas em 3 grupos: A (N = 15; placebo, B (N = 15; 10 mg/dia e C (N = 13; 20 mg/dia. Foram realizadas duas dosagens hormonais, sendo a primeira no 22º dia do ciclo menstrual que precedeu o uso da droga e a segunda após 22 dias de uso do medicamento. Utilizaram-se os testes de Levene e t-pareado para avaliar a homogeneidade da amostra e a variação das dosagens hormonais, respectivamente. Resultados: As concentrações séricas de estradiol, progesterona e SHBG aumentaram significantemente nos grupos B e C. No grupo C, observou-se ainda elevação no nível sérico de FSH (p Purpose: to evaluate the effects of tamoxifen (TAM on plasma levels of estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and steroid hormone-binding globulin (SHBG when given to premenopausal women in the doses of 10 and 20 mg/day for 22 days. Patients and Methods: a randomized double-blind study was performed with 43 premenopausal eumenorrheic women. The patients were divided into three groups: A (N = 15, placebo; B (N = 15, TAM 10 mg/day and C (N = 13, 20 mg/day. They started taking an oral dose of TAM or placebo on the very first day of the menstrual cycle. Two hormone determinations were performed, both on the 22nd day of the menstrual cycle: the first in the cycle that preceded the use of the drug and the second, in the following cycle, after 22 days of using the medication. We used the Levine and Student tests in order to evaluate the homogeneity of the sample and the variation of the hormone

  18. Revisão sistemática sobre estudos de espacialização da dengue no Brasil Systematic review of spatial analysis studies on dengue in Brazil

    José Raimundo de Araújo


    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre estudos de geoprocessamento do vetor da dengue e da doença no Brasil. A busca dos trabalhos foi realizada nas bases de dados Pubmed, Bireme e Scielo. A seleção foi realizada por critérios de inclusão, sendo estes: artigos originais sobre dengue e emprego de técnicas de geoprocessamento, publicados em inglês ou português de 1998 a 2007; trabalhos de finalização de curso; e trabalhos apresentados em congresso. Trabalhos que avaliaram essa doença em outros países foram excluídos. As palavras-chaves utilizadas na identificação dos artigos foram: "distribuição espacial e dengue", "dengue e geoprocessamento", "análise espacial e dengue", "Sistema de Informações Geográficas e dengue" e suas traduções para língua inglesa. Na base de busca do Scielo foram encontrados 15 artigos, dos quais selecionou-se 8; na Pubmed 11 trabalhos foram identificados, dos quais utilizou-se 3; e na Bireme, 20 trabalhos, dos quais selecionou-se 2. A revisão realizada permitiu analisar 7 estudos de espacialização dos casos de dengue, 5 trabalhos com vetores da dengue e um estudo que avaliou os casos e os vetores, simultaneamente. Foi freqüente a não-utilização de técnicas de geoprocessamento. Aspectos sociais foram freqüentemente associados à distribuição espacial da dengue. Desta forma, concluiu-se que os estudos de espacialização da dengue no Brasil, especialmente aqueles que avaliam os seus vetores, subutilizam as ferramentas do geoprocessamento. Os aspectos socioeconômicos são importantes para o entendimento da distribuição espacial da dengue.The present study aimed to carry out a systematic review of geoprocessing studies on the dengue vector and the disease in Brazil. The search was conducted in the Pubmed and Bireme databases and in Scielo virtual library. The selection was carried out using inclusion criteria, such as: original articles on dengue and the use

  19. Collection and analysis of active particles

    DeLong, C.W.


    When it became apparent that particles were emanating from the stacks of the separations plants, it become important that the source, size, activity and composition of the particles be determined in order to evaluate the hazard to persons working in and neer the stack areas. The present report will give the results of radiochemical analysis of particles collected by electrostatic precipitation from ``B`` plant canyon ventilation air, not from the off-gas ventilation line. Of importance is the fact the particles analyzed consist not only of particles from the ventilation air but also, unavoidably, of rust from the iron manifold used to conduct the gases to the precipitator. This makes a determination of the activity versus weight ratio impossible, but should not invalidate the radiochemical data.

  20. Estudos de QSAR-3D em derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente 3D QSAR studies of 5-nitrothiophene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Andrea Masunari


    Full Text Available Campos moleculares extraídos de aplicativos utilizados em estudos de QSAR-3D apresentam, em geral, grande número de informações, muitas vezes irrelevantes na expressão da atividade biológica. O programa Volsurf converte as informações presentes em mapas de energia de interação tridimensionais em número reduzido de descritores bidimensionais que se caracterizam como de fácil entendimento e interpretação. Assim, foram avaliados, neste estudo, dezoito derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente, correlacionando as características tridimensionais destes ligantes com a referida atividade. Para o desenho e conversão tridimensional dos ligantes foram utilizados os aplicativos Sybyl (Tripos Inc e CORINA (Molecular Networks GmbH Computerchemie, respectivamente. Os campos de interação molecular foram calculados no programa GRID (Molecular Discovery Ltd. A aplicação do programa Volsurf (Molecular Discovery Ltd resultou em modelo estatisticamente robusto (r² = 0,93, q² = 0,87 com 48 descritores estruturais, mostrando ser a hidrofobicidade propriedade fundamental no condicionamento da atividade antimicrobiana.Studies in three-dimensional molecular fields generally contain a large amount of data, some of which are redundant or not relevant. The program Volsurf, a quite fast method, is able to compress the relevant information present in 3D molecular structures into a few easy bidimensional descriptors. This study correlates the antimicrobial activity of eighteen 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with three-dimensional molecular fields of these ligands. For molecular structures sketching and 3D conversion, Sybyl and CORINA programs were used, respectively. The GRID force field was applied to generate the 3D interaction energies. The Volsurf characterization results on significant statistic model with 48 descriptors (r

  1. Aplicação de estudos de QSAR-2D em derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente (MRSA 2D QSAR studies of 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Andrea Masunari


    Full Text Available O avanço de estudos de QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships como método de modificação molecular racionalmente planejada vem se constituindo, nos últimos anos, em alternativa bastante viável para o desenvolvimento de ligantes candidatos potenciais a fármacos. Sendo assim, aliando a excelente aplicabilidade deste método com o fenômeno de multi-resistência bacteriana, realizou-se, neste trabalho, o estudo, em duas dimensões, das relações quantitativas entre a estrutura química e a potência antimicrobiana de 5-nitro-2-tiofilideno benzidrazidas substituídas, considerando faixa de hidrofobicidade ótima pré-determinada experimentalmente. A aplicação da Análise de Hansch/Fujita possibilitou a determinação da influência de descritores estruturais de caráter físico-químico sobre a referida atividade, indicando ser a hidrofobicidade a propriedade de maior impacto no desempenho da atividade biológica analisada. Evidenciou-se, a partir das correlações obtidas, o forte potencial de derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos como possível alternativa para o desenvolvimento racional, em nível molecular, de novos fármacos com atividade antimicrobiana.With the constant advance of QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships studies as molecular modification methodology, a frequent application of this procedure in many science areas was observed. Besides, the rational ligand development for many diseases has been growing in recent years. Thus, in order to ally these medicinal chemistry advances with the necessity to combat the high incidence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, the purpose of this study was the 2D-QSAR study of p-substituted 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, considering hydrophobicity range experimentally determined. The statistical significant correlations obtained by Hansch/Fujita Analysis showed significant influence of

  2. Estudo do dengue em área urbana favelizada do Rio de Janeiro: considerações iniciais Dengue in a Rio de Janeiro slum: a preliminary analysis

    Márcia de Freitas Lenzi


    Full Text Available Este estudo é parte de um programa que visa ao controle e prevenção do dengue em área urbana favelizada vizinha à Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Como resultado da aplicação de um questionário acompanhado de levantamento entomológico, pôde-se observar problemas ligados a informações veiculadas pelas campanhas de saúde pública para o controle do dengue, e suas interpretações por parte da população local, ao se verificar práticas que favorecem a procriação do mosquito, resultantes do esquecimento dessas mensagens ou de interpretação parcial das mesmas. Os dados provenientes do questionário são relativos ao nível de informação sobre dengue, criadouros mais freqüentes; conhecimento e hábitos da população local no tocante à endemia. As conclusões deste estudo apontam para a necessidade de: elaboração de mensagens que informem não só práticas preventivas ideais, mas também ofereçam soluções possíveis; divulgação permanente de mensagens através da mídia; planejamento de atividades de educação em saúde para o estreitamento da relação entre profissionais de saúde e população, com o objetivo da construção de alternativas sustentáveis para o controle do dengue.This study is part of a program to control and prevent dengue in a slum bordering on the grounds of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results obtained from a questionnaire and entomological survey called attention to problems pertaining to the information transmitted by public health campaigns and its interpretation, since many practices result from misunderstanding or forgetting preventive messages. Dengue-related data include most frequent vector breeding sites, people's knowledge, and dengue-related habits. The study's conclusions in terms of dengue prevention point to the need for drafting messages not only about ideal preventive practices but also teaching possible solutions: disseminating

  3. Relações familiares e cotidiano: a análise de quatro estudos à luz de Michel Maffesoli Family relationships and daily living process: analysis of four studies based on Michel Maffesoli

    Edilza Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o processo de viver no cotidiano, evidenciando as relações familiares. Para o alcance do mesmo, optamos por fazer uma análise de documentos, ou seja, de três dissertações de mestrado e uma tese de doutorado, sendo que os dados foram coletados a partir de quatro questões norteadoras vinculadas ao objetivo geral do estudo: quais os componentes do processo de viver as relações familiares no cotidiano? Quais as dificuldades que as famílias encontram na convivência cotidiana com o doente mental? Quais as formas de manejos apresentadas pelas famílias em diferentes situações no convívio cotidiano com o alcoolista? Qual a percepção do ser e viver saudável da mulher no seu cotidiano? Na análise dos dados, buscamos convergências e divergências que nos permitissem uma melhor compreensão dos aspectos em estudo. Para alcançar esta compreensão, utilizamos as categorias de análise do cotidiano - propostas por Maffesoli (1984 - jogo duplo, astúcia, silêncio, aceitação da vida e solidariedade orgânicaThis study aims at analyzing the daily living process emphasizing family relationships. In order to do so, we opted for doing an analysis of documents, i.e., three Master course dissertations and a doctorate thesis. We collected the data having in mind four guiding questions linked to the general objective of the study: what were the components of the process of living the family relationships in the daily routine? What difficulties do families have to cope with mentally handicapped individuals? How do families handle different situations in daily living with alcohol addicted individuals? What was the women’s perception regarding being and living healthy in their daily routine? When analyzing the data, we looked for convergences and divergences which provided better understanding of the aspects under study. To reach this understanding, we used the categories of daily routine analysis - proposed by

  4. Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae); Estudo quimico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae)

    Pacheco, Alison G.; Silva, Thiago M.; Manfrini, Rozangela M.; Sallum, William S.T.; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila; Alcantara, Antonio F. de C., E-mail: aalcantara@zeus.qui.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Knupp, Vagner F. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and {beta}-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and {beta}-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes. (author)

  5. Estudo químico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae kuntze (Aristolochiaceae Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae

    Alison G. Pacheco


    Full Text Available From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and β-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and β-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes.

  6. Análise exploratória aplicada no estudo de medicamentos contendo piroxicam Exploratory analysis applied in study of pharmaceutical formulations with piroxicam

    Graciele Parisotto


    correction (MSC, using three types of linkage methods: single, flexible and incremental. By applying the hierarchical cluster analysis the formation of two distinct groups: one with the active principles and another group with the inactive ingredients was proved. These results demonstrate that the DRIFTS associated with chemometrics tools, constitute a quality control alternative of drugs production processes.

  7. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities


    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities Karen...Ü~åÖÉ= - 47 - Panel 3. Systems Engineering : New Thinking for a New Age Wednesday, May 4, 2016 11:15 a.m. – 12:45 p.m. Chair: John D. Burrow...Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, Test, & Evaluation (DASN RDT&E) Rethinking the Systems Engineering Process in Light

  8. Phytochemical study and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae)

    Ignoato, Marlene Capelin; Fabrao, Rodrigo Monteiro; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Botelho, Marcos Felipe Pinatto; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Souza, Maria Conceicao de, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia


    Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2{beta} ->7, 4{beta} ->8)- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated (author)

  9. Study of the catalytic activity of ceramic nano fibers in the methane combustion; Estudo da atividade catalitica de nanofibras ceramicas na combustao de metano

    Reolon, R.P.; Berutti, F.A.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos


    In this work titanium oxide fibers, doped with cerium and copper, were synthesized using the electro spinning process. Titanium propoxide was used as a precursor in the electro spinning synthesis. The obtained fibers were heat treated after receive a spray with an alcoholic solution of cerium acetate and copper nitrate. The non-tissue material obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction to determine the phase and crystallite size, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), BET method to determine the surface and SEM to analyze the microstructure of the fibers. The catalytic activity was evaluated by methane and air combustion under different temperatures. The amount of combustion gases such as NO{sub x}, C{sub x}H{sub y}, CO e CO{sub 2}, were analyzed. (author)

  10. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo


    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  11. estudo de caso

    Cardoso, Maria Leonor Lontro


    Monografia apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa para obtenção do grau de Licenciada em Fisioterapia Introdução: O síndrome fémoro-rotuliano (SFR) é uma das patologias do joelho mais fre-quentes nos adolescentes e jovens adultos, desportistas ou não desportistas (Labella, 2004; Earl et al., 2007). Manifesta-se clinicamente por uma dor que se associa inevitavelmente à limitação da funcionalidade, podendo tornar-se incapacitante na realização da actividade des-portiva ou mesmo nas activ...

  12. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Majstorović Branislava M.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  13. Epidemiology of leisure-time physical activity: a population-based study in southern Brazil Epidemiologia da atividade física no lazer: um estudo de base populacional no sul do Brasil

    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa


    Full Text Available We aimed to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI during leisure time and to identify variables associated with it in a southern Brazilian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,968 subjects aged 20-69 years. Weekly participation in leisure-time physical activity was addressed. For each activity, energy expenditure was calculated using data on duration, metabolic equivalent, and body weight. Energy expenditures of individual activities were summed to give a weekly total. PI was defined as fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per week. The prevalence of PI was 80.7% (95%CI: 78.9-82.4. After adjusted analyses, the following variables were positively associated with the outcome: female gender, age, living with a partner, and smoking. Schooling and economic status were inversely associated with PI. Chronically undernourished individuals were significantly more likely to be inactive. We found no differences according to skin color or alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the prevalence of PI in this adult population was higher than in populations from developed countries, but the associated variables were similar.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de inatividade física (IF no lazer e fatores associados, em uma população adulta (20-69 anos, residente no sul do Brasil. Um estudo transversal de base populacional foi conduzido, com amostragem em múltiplos estágios. A prática semanal de atividade física foi avaliada. Para cada atividade, o gasto energético foi calculado usando dados de duração, equivalentes metabólicos e peso corporal. Os gastos energéticos das atividades foram somados para calcular-se um gasto semanal total. IF foi definida como gasto semanal inferior a 1.000kcal/semana. A prevalência de IF foi de 80,7% (IC95%: 78,9-82,4. Após análise ajustada, as seguintes variáveis se associaram positivamente com IF: sexo feminino, idade, viver

  14. Assimetria causal: um estudo

    Túlio Aguiar


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, examinamos o aspecto assimétrico da relação causal, confrontando-o com o ponto de vista humiano e neo-humiano. Seguindo Hausman e Ehring, favorecemos uma abordagem situacional para a assimetria causal. Nós exploramos a análise do famoso exemplo do mastro (Flagpole, esclarecendo as conexões entre causação e explicação. Nosso diagnóstico geral é que a tradição neo-humiana supõe, equivocadamente, que as relações nômicas, com exceção de pequenos detalhes, exaurem as relações causais.This paper examines the asymmetrical aspect of causal relation, confronting it to Humean and Neo-Humean's view. Following Hausman and Ehring, we favor a situational approach to causal asymmetry. We explore the Hausman's analysis of flagpole's example, clearing the connexions between causation and explanation. Our general diagnosis is that the Neo-humean tradition wrongly supposes that nomic relations, with the exception of minor details, exhaust the causal relations.

  15. Progress in neutron activation analysis for uranium

    杜鸿善; 李贵群; 董桂芝; 李俊兰; K.H.Chiu; C.M.Wai


    A new type of extractant, sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyhydroxamic acid (HL) is introduced. The extractions of UO22+, Na+, K+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Br- were studied with HL in chloroform. The results obtained show that UO22+ can be quantitatively extracted at pH values above 5, whereas the extractions of K+, Na+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Br- are negligible in the pH range of 2 - 7. The dependence of the distribution ratio of U(VI) on both the concentration of the HL and pH are linear, and they have the same slope of 2. This suggests that U(VI) appears to form a 1:2 complex with ligand. Uranium(VI) can be selectively separated and concentrated from interfering elements such as Na, K, Sr and Br by solvent extraction with HL under specific conditions. The recovery of uranium is nearly 100% and the radionudear purity of uranium is greater than 99.99%. Therefore, neutron activation analysis has greatly improved the sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of trace uranium from seawater.

  16. Motivação à prática regular de atividade física: um estudo exploratório Regular practical motivation for physical activity: an exploratory study

    Marcos Alencar Abaide Balbinotti


    Full Text Available A motivação na perspectiva da Teoria da Autodeterminação (TAD sugere que uma pessoa pode ser motivada em diferentes níveis. Neste estudo essas diferenças são exploradas através de comparações dos níveis gerais de motivação, observando-se as variáveis "sexo e faixa etária". Uma amostra de 635 praticantes de ambos os sexos e com idades variando de 18 a 55 anos respondeu o "Inventário de Motivação à Prática Regular de Atividade Física e Esportiva" (IMPRAFE-126. Os resultados indicam haver diferença significativa (F(2, 632 = 7,214; p = 0,001 somente quando controlada a faixa etária. As diferenças foram interpretadas conforme preconiza a TAD e com relação aos estados e tarefas do desenvolvimento.Motivation in Self-Determination Theory (SDT suggests that one may be motivated in different levels. In this study these differences are explored through comparisons of the motivation general levels, taking into account the "gender and age groups" variables. A sample of 635 participants from both gender and ages between 18 and 55 years old answered the Motivation to the Regular Practice of Physical and Sports Activity Inventory (IMPRAFE-126. Results point significant difference (F(2, 632 = 7,214; p = 0,001 only when controlled the age group. Differences were interpreted as recommended by SDT and related to the states and tasks of the development.

  17. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia


    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  18. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  19. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)


    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  20. The RAM +L analysis methodology: the refinery plants case study; Analise RAM +L: um estudo integrado de varias unidades de producao de uma refinaria

    Calixto, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Bretas, Rogerio [PETROBRAS S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Refinaria Gabriel Passos (REGAP)


    The RAM (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) main objective is assess the system and equipment performance in order to identify the critical issues to implement system's improvements. The first step is define equipment failure modes and it's PDF as well as repair time for each failure mode. The second step is modeling system regarding diagram block logic dependency among equipment and its failures which cause system production losses. The third step is simulating model in defined period of time in order to identify critical equipment to propose system improvement. Despite being having been used constantly to assess system performances, those methodology do not consider the logistic complex assumptions in so many cases to huge systems and it RDB logic do not represent the real effect in production losses. Even if that good enough to perform system analysis it's not quite enough to complex system with logistic resources regarding system's products efficiency. By the other way round, in logistic complex system analysis methodologies, equipment failures details are not regarded in so many times, showing that there's a necessary improvement in those analysis. Therefore, the RAM + L analysis is a methodology which regards all equipment failures issues as well as logistic assumptions being a more realistic analysis. The refinery case study Will be propose to demonstrate a new vision of two recognized methodologies regarding a complex system with over than 200 equipment comprising two tanks, two pumps and five Unit Plants as Vacuum Distillation, Atmospheric Distillation, Hydrogen Generation, Diesel Hydrotreating Unit and DEA. (author)

  1. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    Ahmed, Noveera T.


    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  2. The Analysis of Activated Carbon Regeneration Technologies



    A series of methods for activated carbon regeneration were briefly introduced.Such as thermal regeneration,chemical regeneration,biochemical regeneration,and newly supercritical fluid regeneration, electrochemical regeneration,light-catalyzed regeneration,and microwave radiation method,and the developing trend of activated carbon regeneration was predicted.

  3. Estudos e pesquisas sobre a intersexualidade: uma análise sistemática da literatura especializada Studies and researches about intersexuality: a systematic analysis of specialized literature

    Moara de Medeiros Rocha Santos


    Full Text Available Apesar de abarcar estudos e intervenções ao longo de mais de cinco décadas, a temática da intersexualidade continua a impor desafios epistemológicos, metodológicos, clínicos e éticos. Visando, portanto, contribuir para uma fundamentação criteriosa e abrangente que subsidie reflexões críticas e ações coerentes, realizou-se uma revisão sistemática dos estudos nacionais e internacionais publicados nas duas últimas décadas. Os textos foram selecionados por meio da busca bibliográfica efetuada em bancos de dados eletrônicos. Para a classificação das publicações, adotou-se um protocolo de organização. Em seguida, empregou-se a análise de recorrência para classificar os trabalhos de acordo com os delineamentos metodológicos, as variáveis estudadas e os instrumentos adotados. Conclui-se pela necessidade de pesquisas longitudinais apoiadas nos avanços teórico-metodológicos das diversas subáreas da Psicologia.In spite of embracing studies and interventions along more than five decades, the thematic of intersexuality continues to impose epistemological, methodological, clinical and ethical challenges. In addition, to contribute for an including base that subsidizes critical reflections and coherent actions, a systematic revision of national and international studies published in the last two decades has been done. The articles were selected through a bibliographical search made in electronic databases. For classifying the publications, an organization protocol was adopted. Soon after, the recurrence analysis was used to classify the works in agreement with the methodological outline, the studied variables and the adopted instruments. It is concluded that there is still the need of the accomplishment of longitudinal researches supported by theoretical-methodological progresses in several Psychology sub areas.

  4. Fatores associados à rosácea em amostras populacionais do Sul do Brasil: análise de estudos casos-controles Factors associated with rosacea in population samples of Southern Brazil: analysis of case-control studies

    Renan Rangel Bonamigo


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A rosácea é dermatose que apresenta uma série de variáveis associadas a seu surgimento. A maioria dos estudos é proveniente dos Estados Unidos da América e de países europeus, sendo escasso o conhecimento produzido e publicado acerca da doença no Hemisfério Sul, particularmente no Brasil. OBJETIVOS: Descrever os principais fatores clínicos e histopatológicos associados à rosácea em amostras populacionais do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Dois estudos casos-controles realizados em seqüência, com análise univariada e bivariada, utilizando-se p BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a dermatosis that has many factors associated with its onset. Most studies on this condition come from the United States and European countries, with little information produced and published about the disease in the Southern hemisphere, particularly in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To describe the main clinical and histopathological factors associated with rosacea in population samples from southern Brazil. METHODS: Two case-control studies performed sequentially, with univariate and bivariate analysis, using p<0.05 for statistical significance (Chi-square test and Mantel-Haenzel, for stratifications RESULTS: Rosacea is most frequent among women and in the age range of 40-50 years. Almost all cases have phototypes II and III. The inflammatory forms of rosacea are more often diagnosed than the vascular form and there is an association with serological positivity to Helicobacter pylori and with histopathological presence of Demodex folliculorum (p<0.05. Emotional and climatic changes, exposure to the sun and intake of alcoholic beverages were the main factors described as provoking or worsening the disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have obtained an overview of rosacea in a sample of the southern population of Brazil. While some data are similar to those already described internationally, other aspects, such as economic issues and the factors described as provoking or worsening the

  5. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian


    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  6. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Ryel, Sung; Kang, Young Hwan; Lee, Kil Yong; Yeon, Yeon Yel; Cho, Seung Yeon


    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis.

  7. Contribuições da Análise Conversacional ao estudo do traumatismo craneo-encefálico: relato de um caso Contributions of Conversation Analysis to the study of traumatic brain injury: a single case report

    Véronique Agnes Guernet Steiner


    Full Text Available A persistência de dificuldades no processo de comunicação em sujeitos acometidos por um traumatismo craneo-encefálico requer a utilização de instrumentos de avaliação, sensíveis às alterações lingüístico-cognitivas apresentadas, que possam facilitar a reintegração desses indivíduos na sociedade. O presente estudo de caso investiga as contribuições da Análise Conversacional, na avaliação das habilidades funcionais de um jovem de 27 anos, acometido por um traumatismo craneo-encefálico grave. Analisa uma interação conversacional espontânea por meio do estudo do mecanismo colaborativo da tomada de turno, do gerenciamento do tópico e das reformulações, comparando os resultados com testes formais de linguagem. Discute as contribuições dessa abordagem ao processo de reabilitação fonoaudiológica. Enquanto os testes formais não indicaram alterações de linguagem, a Análise Conversacional permitiu, ao analisar a seqüência de turnos e as reações mútuas dos interlocutores, identificar problemas comunicativos e verificar como os interlocutores lidavam com os mesmos. A Análise Conversacional mostrou-se sensível às alterações lingüístico-cognitivas apresentadas pelo traumatismo craneo-encefálico, fornecendo elementos concretos para, no processo de reabilitação, abordar, de forma organizada, o discurso mais utilizado no cotidiano.The persistence of communication impairments in individuals who sustained a traumatic brain injury requires the use of sensitive tools to evaluate the linguistic-cognitive problems they present, aiming at their reintegration in society. This single case study investigates the contributions of Conversation Analysis to the evaluation of the pragmatic abilities of a 27 year-old man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury. It analyses a spontaneous conversational interaction through the study of the collaborative mechanism of turn-taking, topic management and repairs, comparing the

  8. Phytochemical analysis of cultivated specimens of cumaru (Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith.);Estudo fitoquimico de especimes cultivados de cumaru (Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith.)

    Canuto, Kirley Marques; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha, E-mail: kirley@cnpat.embrapa.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Bezerra, Antonio Marcos Esmeraldo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia


    Due to the threat of extinction of Amburana cearensis, a tree of medicinal importance for the Northeastern Brazil, a phytochemical analysis was performed with specimens obtained by seed germination. Ten compounds were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, ayapin, (E/Z)-melilotosides are being reported for the first time for the genus, besides coumarin, isokaempferide, vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, amburosides A and B which have already been found in the trunk bark. Based on physical and NMR spectroscopy evidences the structures of several melilotosides already described in the literature have been suggested to be revised. (author)

  9. Activity Landscape Plotter: A Web-based Application for the Analysis of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    González-Medina, Mariana; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Medina-Franco, Jose Luis


    Activity landscape modeling is a powerful method for the quantitative analysis of structure-activity relationships. This cheminformatics area is in continuous growth and several quantitative and visual approaches are constantly being developed. However, these approaches often fall into disuse due to their limited access. Herein, we present Activity Landscape Plotter as the first freely available web-based tool to automatically analyze structure-activity relationships of compound data sets. Based on the concept of activity landscape modeling, the online service performs pair-wise structure and activity relationships from an input data set supplied by the user. For visual analysis, Activity Landscape Plotter generates Structure-Activity Similarity and Dual Activity Difference maps. The user can interactively navigate through the maps and export all the pairwise structure-activity information as comma delimited files. Activity Landscape Plotter is freely accessible at

  10. Estudo multicasos sobre atividades inovativas

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin


    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre competitividade argumenta-se que as empresas necessitam de estratégias baseadas em inovações e de capacidades internas em constantes e intensas transformações, não somente nos padrões tecnológicos, mas também no encadeamento do processo de gestão das atividades inovativas, como processos dinâmicos, não lineares e diversificados, em função de múltiplos fatores dos ambientes interno e externo. Para contribuir com essas discussões, neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo multicasos em quatro indústrias de médio e grande portes, de segmentos, densidades tecnológicas e históricos com inovações diferentes entre si. Como principais resultados, salientam-se o encadeamento das atividades inovativas como parte de uma estratégia organizacional para obter resultados com inovação e a afluência de todas as pessoas, e não somente as alocadas em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, para o cumprimento dessa estratégia.

  11. Study of preparations of bee pollen extracts, antioxidant and antibacterial activity Estudo das preparações de extratos de pólen apícola, atividade antioxidante e antibacteriana

    Solange Teresinha Carpes


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity, phenolic content and antibacterial activity of pollen extracts obtained with different concentrations of ethanol. Each extraction condition (ethanol solutions from 40 to 90% had a different effect in the phenolic compounds content. Although, the pollen extract obtained at 60, 70 and 80% of ethanol showed relatively higher levels of phenolic compounds (>10 mg/g and did not present statistical significant difference between the extraction conditions. The amount of total phenolics ranged from 3.6 to 8.1 and 6.6 to 10.9 mg GAE/g for Alagoas state and Parana state pollen, respectively. The higher value for antioxidant activity index was 83.30% for the pollen from Alagoas state and 81.15 % for Parana state pollen. The highest degree of antioxidant activity was found in the extraction at 60% of ethanol solution for Parana state pollen, which also showed the highest concentration of polyphenol compounds. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by the ethanolic extract of Alagoas state pollen in all the concentrations of solvent, except the ethanolic extract of pollen at 90%. The extract at 60% of ethanol solution (Parana sample inhibited Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp.Objetivou-se, neste estudo determinar compostos fenólicos, a atividade antioxidante a antibacteriana dos extratos etanólicos de pólen, obtidos com diferentes concentrações de etanol. As diferentes condições de extração (etanol de 40 a 90% apresentaram diferentes efeitos no conteúdo dos compostos fenólicos extraídos. Os extratos de pólen obtidos com etanol a 60, 70 e 80% apresentaram maiores níveis de compostos fenólicos (>10 mg/g e não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre essas condições de extração. A quantidade de compostos fenólicos nos extratos de pólen variou de 3.6 a 8.1 e 6.6 a 11 mg de equivalente em ácido gálico por g de pólen (GAE, para os estados de Alagoas

  12. Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid: a prospective pilot study of eight consecutive cases Retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa do fluido sub-retiniano: um estudo piloto prospectivo de oito casos consecutivos

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe an alternative surgical technique for the management of retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B using transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. METHODS: In a prospective, interventional study, eight consecutive patients with retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B underwent transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. Transconjunctival external drainage of subretinal fluid was achieved by using a 29 gauge needle placed in the subretinal space under indirect ophthalmoscopic monitoring. Active suction was performed (500 mmHg vacuum using a vitrectomy line coupled to the needle. After retinal reattachment, cryotherapy was applied to the scleral region corresponding to the area of the retinal break(s. RESULTS: In all cases there was retinal attachment at the end of surgery. Retinal redetachment occurred in four pseudophakic patients who then underwent pars plana vitrectomy. The four phakic patients maintained retinal attachment during follow-up (13-20 months. CONCLUSION: Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid represents a useful, faster, and cheaper alternative to scleral buckling for retinal detachments with no or minimal proliferative retinopathy in phakic patients and, unlike scleral buckling, is not associated with induced myopia.OBJETIVO: Descrever uma técnica cirúrgica alternativa para o tratamento de descolamento da retina sem ou com mínima vitreorretinopatia proliferativa (grau B usando uma retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa do fluido sub-retiniano. MÉTODOS: Prospectivo estudo intervencional, com oito pacientes consecutivos com descolamento da retina com nenhum ou mínima vitreorretinopatia proliferativa (grau B que foram submetidos a retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa ativa do fluido sub

  13. Teaching-Learning Activity Modeling Based on Data Analysis

    Kyungrog Kim


    Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently being carried out on personalized services based on data analysis to find and provide valuable information about information overload. Furthermore, the number of studies on data analysis of teaching-learning activities for personalized services in the field of teaching-learning is increasing, too. This paper proposes a learning style recency-frequency-durability (LS-RFD model for quantified analysis on the level of activities of learners, to provide the elements of teaching-learning activities according to the learning style of the learner among various parameters for personalized service. This is to measure preferences as to teaching-learning activity according to recency, frequency and durability of such activities. Based on the results, user characteristics can be classified into groups for teaching-learning activity by categorizing the level of preference and activity of the learner.

  14. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  15. Silicon high vacuum brazing study and microstructural analysis of the joint formation; Estudo da brasagem de silicio em alto vacuo e analise microestructural da juncao

    Santana, E.C.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Francisco, F.R.; Bagnato, O.R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:


    On the project of Synchrotron Light Source, silicon-crystal are often used as monochromator and mirrors, to reflect the electrons beam. Silicon is known as a very fragile material, and its optical elements must be designed carefully. Usually, it is bonded in a cooling support made by copper. Thermal contact between the crystal plate and cooling support is made of In-Ga liquid alloy. Due to the difficult of this bonding, brazing tests are being taken with Fe-Ni alloy, in order to improve the silicon mirrors application and performance. Wet ability tests were performed between the silicon plate and commercial fillers. A brazing test was made of silicon and Al12Si, as filler, with Fe-Ni, as base material. Results of microstructure analysis indicated that the braze of a silicon plate is quite promissory. (author)

  16. Analysis of cogeneration system using fuel cell: cases study; Analise de sistema de cogeracao utilizando celula de combustivel: estudo de casos

    Silveira, Jose Luz; Leal, Elisangela Martins [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails:;


    In this paper, a methodology for the study of a molten carbonate fuel cell cogeneration system associated to an absorption refrigeration system, for the electricity and cold water production, and applied to two establishments, is presented. This system permits the recovery of waste heat, available between 600 deg C e 700 deg C. Initially, some technical information about the most diffusing types of the fuel cell demonstration in the world are presented. In the next step, an energetic, exergetic and economic analysis are carry out, seeking the use of fuel cells, in conditions of prices and interest of Brazil. In conclusion, the fuel cell cogeneration system may have an excellent opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in the Brazilian energy scene. (author)

  17. Insurer’s activity as object of economic analysis

    O.O. Poplavskiy


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of theoretical fundamentals of insurer’s analysis and peculiarities of its implementation. The attention has been focused on the important role of economic analysis in economic science which is confirmed by its active use in research and practical orientation. The author summarizes the classification and principles of insurer’s activity analysis, supplements it with specific principles for insurer’s environment, publicity and risk-orientation which enable increasingly to take into account the peculiarities of insurance relations. The paper pays attention to the specification of elements of analysis and its key directions including the analysis of insurer’s financing, the analysis of insurance operations and the analysis of investment activity which will allow the effective functioning of risk management system.

  18. Introduction of Prompt Gamma Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis at CARR

    WANG; Xing-hua; XIAO; Cai-jin; ZHANG; Gui-ying; YAO; Yong-gang; JIN; Xiang-chun; WANG; Ping-sheng; HUA; Long; NI; Bang-fa


    CARR will provide with maximal neutron flux in Asia,the third of the world.By using the high quality neutron beam and the advanced international experience,Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis(PGNAA)facility will be setup at high level.PGNAA on CARR will promote the development of nuclear analysis technology and improve Chinese status in the nuclear analysis field.

  19. Opportunities for innovation in neutron activation analysis

    Bode, P.


    Neutron activation laboratories worldwide are at a turning point at which new staff has to be found for the retiring pioneers from the 1960s–1970s. A scientific career in a well-understood technique, often characterized as ‘mature’ may only be attractive to young scientists if still challenges for f

  20. Design professional activity analysis in design management

    Claudia de Souza Libanio


    Full Text Available Design use perception, as an essential element for achieving competitive advantage, also suggests the need to manage the design activities in companies. However, a few is discussed about the activity of these design professionals who participate in this process, their roles, functions and competencies, including  their connections to a company and other involved sectors. This article aims to analyze, during the design management processes, the work relations of design professionals connected to organizations both internal and externally, in order to comprehend the structure and intervenient factors on the activity of these professionals, as well as the interactions with their main coworkers. The methodology was exploratory and qualitative, using in-depth interviews with three design professionals. Subsequently, the responses were analyzed allowing the comparison of these obtained data to the theoretical bases researched. Through this case study, it was possible to realize the aspects and the structure of the design professional activity, connected intern and externally to organizations, as well as its relations with the main coworkers.

  1. Estudo comparativo das análises cefalométricas manual e computadorizada A comparative study of manual vs. computerized cephalometric analysis

    Priscila de Araújo Guedes


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: realizar uma análise comparativa dos traçados manual e computadorizado utilizando um software específico, com a finalidade de definir os resultados inter e intra-avaliadores. MÉTODOS: foi utilizada uma amostra composta por 50 radiografias cefalométricas em norma lateral, sendo todas padronizadas, contendo pacientes de ambos os gêneros e de várias faixas etárias. A análise das radiografias foi realizada por dois avaliadores, os quais realizaram os traçados manuais e computadorizados das 50 radiografias. Para compor as medições, foram selecionadas medidas angulares e lineares, que posteriormente foram submetidas ao teste estatístico de Mann-Whitney, com o objetivo de comparar os resultados entre os dois tipos de traçados inter e intra-avaliadores. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: conclui-se que pode ser aumentada a confiança nos traçados cefalométricos computadorizados, haja vista que as discrepâncias encontradas entre as medidas dos traçados cefalométricos manual e computadorizado inter e intra-avaliadores, em sua maioria, não foram estatisticamente significativas.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comparative analysis between manual and computerized tracings using specific software, in order to define inter- and intra-evaluator results. METHODS: A sample was used consisting of 50 standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs, of male and female patients of various age groups. The radiographs were analyzed by two evaluators, who each performed the manual and computerized tracings of all 50 radiographs. Angular and linear measurements were obtained, which were later submitted to the Mann-Whitney test in order to compare the inter- and intra-evaluator results between the two types of tracings. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: the study concluded that confidence can be increased in tracings obtained from computer-assisted cephalometric analysis, as the discrepancies found between inter- and intra-evaluator tracings, both manual and

  2. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven;


    This work contains a clinical validation using biological landmarks of a Geometry Constrained Diffusion registration of mandibular surfaces. Canonical Correlations Analysis is extended to analyse 3D landmarks and the correlations are used as similarity measures for landmark clustering. A novel Ac...

  3. Analysis of economic feasibility of sale of surplus electricity in cogeneration: case study; Analise de viabilidade economica de venda de energia eletrica excedente em cogeracao: estudo de caso

    Fodra, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Universidade Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil)], email:; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], email:


    The production of energy in large quantity and at competitive prices is crucial for economic development, which allied to the environmental question, has incentivated the use of renewable sources of energy. One of the most promising sources of renewable energy is the cogeneration from the residues of cane. Currently, the scenario for this kind of energy production is not consolidated, as production prices are not stable, inducing a risky situation for the environment. This work was aimed to study the economic viability of installing a main site for cogeneration of electricity, in a regional sugarcane factory located in the central region of Sao Paulo state that currently uses residues of sugar cane as fuel. The risk factor that was taken into consideration was the price paid for the MWh sold to the Chamber of Commerce of Electricity. The Monte Carlo Method was used to assess the risk factors for the analysis, by using of New Present Value (NPV), in a scenario that uses 20% of the initial investment made by the energy dealer. After the simulations were finished, considering the conditions used in this work, the project tends to be not feasible, as the behavior of the prices of cogenerated MWh are not sufficient for paying the initial investment and the operational costs. (author)

  4. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed


    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    result in a fully evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network. For suspicious emails detection and email author identification, a cluster-based text classification model has been proposed. The model outperformed...... traditional models for both of the tasks. Apart from these globally organized crimes and cybercrimes, there happen specific world issues which affect geographic locations and take the form of bursts of public violence. These kinds of issues have received little attention by the academicians. These issues have...... to describe the phenomenon of contagious public outrage, which eventually leads to the spread of violence following a disclosure of some unpopular political decisions and/or activity. The results shed a new light on terror activity and provide some hint on how to curb the spreading of violence within...

  6. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Primož Pevcin


    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  7. Reprodutibilidade do questionário de avaliação de atividade física para crianças aplicado no Estudo Saúdes: Vitória The reproducibility of the Saúdes: Vitória Study's physical activity assessment questionnaire for children

    Karina Checon


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a reprodutibilidade de um questionário de atividade física (AF para crianças de 7 a 10 anos em participantes do estudo Saúdes Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal realizado em uma amostra aleatória de 91 crianças matriculadas em escolas da rede pública e privada do município. Um questionário estruturado com 13 perguntas foi enviado ao domicílio do escolar para preenchimento em duas ocasiões, com intervalo de 15 dias entre elas. O teste de concordância de Kappa foi utilizado na avaliação da reprodutibilidade das variáveis qualitativas, e o teste de correlação de Pearson ou de Spearman na avaliação das variáveis quantitativas, seguido da análise de dispersão. RESULTADOS: os índices de concordância Kappa variaram de moderados a altos e foram estatisticamente significantes para todas as variáveis qualitativas, e (k= 0,72 a 0,98. Da mesma forma, os valores dos coeficientes de correlação para as respostas numéricas variaram de moderado a alto (r= 0,51 a 1,00, exceto para o tempo de uso de vídeo game e duração da prática de segunda modalidade esportiva. CONCLUSÕES: o questionário Saúdes permitiu coletar dados sobre AF com boa reprodutibilidade, porém apresentou limitações na quantificação do tempo de atividades de menor frequência diária, como o tempo de uso do vídeo game e tempo de uma segunda prática esportiva.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the reproducibility of a physical activity assessment questionnaire for children aged between 7 and 10 years among participants of the Saúdes Vitória Study in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out in a random sample of 91 children enrolled in public and private sector schools in the municipality. A structured questionnaire with 13 questions was sent to the home of selected children, to be filled out twice, with an interval of 15 days. To evaluate the reproducibility the Kappa

  8. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    Naillon, Martine


    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  9. Análise da madeira de Pinus oocarpa parte I: estudo dos constituintes macromoleculares e extrativos voláteis Chemical analysis of Pinus oocarpa wood part I: quantification of macromolecular components and volatile extractives

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais


    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram analisados os principais componentes químicos da madeira de Pinus oocarpa, cultivado na região do cerrado. A composição química dessa madeira foi: 59,05% de a-celulose, 21,22% de hemiceluloses A e B, 25,18% de lignina, 2,78% de extrativos em diclorometano, 4,38% de extrativos em etanol:tolueno, 4,31% de extrativos em água quente e 1,26% de cinzas. O conteúdo de celulose foi relativamente elevado, indicando que essa madeira possui grande potencial para produção de pasta de celulose. Investigou-se, também, a composição dos extrativos. Os principais constituintes do extrato diclorometano dessa madeira foram os ácidos diterpênicos, além dos ácidos palmítico e oléico. No óleo essencial, extraído por aparelho de Clevenger, os principais componentes identificados foram aromadendreno, ledano, hexadecanal e ácido oléico.The chemical composition of Pinus oocarpa wood cultivated in the Brazilian cerrado was established. The obtained results were: a-cellulose (59.05%, hemicelluloses A and B (21.22%, lignin (25.18%, dichloromethane extractives (2.78%, ethanol:toluene extractives (4.38%, hot water extractives (4.31% and ash (1.26%. The cellulose content was high. This result opens perspectives for using Pinus oocarpa wood in pulp and paper industries. Most of the dichloromethane extractives were diterpenic, palmitic and oleic acids. The volatile composition, obtained by means of the Clevenger method followed by GC-MS analysis was constituted mainly by aromadendrene, ledane, hexadecanal and oleic acid.

  10. Um estudo sobre a integração dos níveis de análise dos sistemas de valores A study about the integration of the analysis levels of the value systems

    Cícero Pereira


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma investigação sobre a integração dos níveis de análise dos sistemas de valores de estudantes universitários. No estudo realizado (N=406, foram identificados 4 sistemas subjacentes à organização dos valores dos estudantes: materialista, hedonista, religioso e pós-materialista. A análise da convergência entre os sistemas e os tipos motivacionais da teoria de Schwartz mostrou a semelhança entre o materialismo e os valores da autopromoção, entre o sistema hedonista e a abertura à mudança, entre o sistema religioso e os valores de conservação e entre o pós-materialismo e o tipo motivacional da autotranscendência. Na discussão, enfatiza-se a natureza societal dos valores relacionando suas fontes às ideologias sociais.This work is a study on the articulation of the analysis levels of university students' value systems. The results (N=406 show 4 systems underlying the organization of the students' value systems: materialist; hedonist; religious; post-materialist. The analyses of the convergences between values systems and motivacional types of Schwartz's theory showed that there are correlations between materialist and self-enhancement values, between hedonist system and opening to change values types, between religious and conservation values, and between post-materialism and self-transcendence motivational value type. The discussion emphasizes the societal nature of the values system connecting their sources to social ideologies.

  11. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James


    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...

  12. Nortriptyline blood levels and clinical outcome: meta-analysis of published studies Níveis sangüíneos de nortriptilina e resposta clínica: metanálise dos estudos publicados

    Mônica G Ribeiro


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An optimum range has been suggested for nortriptyline blood levels, above or below which patients respond poorly or do not respond at all to treatment. METHODS: A meta-analysis of published studies was performed to verify the existence of an optimal blood concentration range or therapeutic window in nortriptyline-treated depression patients. A MEDLINE search through the years 1970-1999 was carried out to identify original papers and review articles. Data concerning blood levels and percentage improvement were obtained concerning all included pacients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for data comparison. Possible confounding variables, such as pre-treatment, setting (in or outpatients, and duration of treatment were also evaluated. RESULTS: From the 22 published studies found, only six of them with patients' individual data were included. We found an optimal range for nortriptyline concentrations (OR= 2.25, 95% CI = 1.15 to 4.39, p= 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: There may be a biphasic relationship of efficacy to plasma concentrations of nortriptyline, with a therapeutic window between 46 to 236 ng/ml.INTRODUÇÃO: Sugere-se a existência de uma faixa de concentração ótima para os níveis sangüíneos da nortriptilina, acima e abaixo da qual os pacientes não respondem ao tratamento ou o fazem pobremente. MÉTODOS: Realizamos metanálise dos estudos publicados com o propósito de verificar a existência de uma faixa de concentração sangüínea ótima (janela terapêutica para os pacientes deprimidos tratados com nortriptilina. A busca através do MEDLINE envolvendo os anos de 1970 a 1999 foi realizada com o objetivo de identificar artigos originais e de revisão. Dados sobre níveis sangüíneos e percentagem de melhora foram obtidos. Foram realizadas análises uni e multivariadas para a comparação dos dados. Avaliamos possíveis variáveis de confusão como: período de pré-tratamento, ambiente (hospitalar ou

  13. Specific classification of financial analysis of enterprise activity

    Synkevych Nadiia I.


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that one can find a big variety of classifications of types of financial analysis of enterprise activity, which differ with their approach to classification and a number of classification features and their content, in modern scientific literature, their complex comparison and analysis of existing classification have not been done. This explains urgency of this study. The article studies classification of types of financial analysis of scientists and presents own approach to this problem. By the results of analysis the article improves and builds up a specific classification of financial analysis of enterprise activity and offers classification by the following features: objects, subjects, goals of study, automation level, time period of the analytical base, scope of study, organisation system, classification features of the subject, spatial belonging, sufficiency, information sources, periodicity, criterial base, method of data selection for analysis and time direction. All types of financial analysis significantly differ with their inherent properties and parameters depending on the goals of financial analysis. The developed specific classification provides subjects of financial analysis of enterprise activity with a possibility to identify a specific type of financial analysis, which would correctly meet the set goals.


    Agnieszka Kisło


    Full Text Available The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability criterion, which is distinguished by inexhaustible and exhaustible resources. Exhaustible resources may include solar, wind, energy, ocean currents and the energy of the Earth. Exhaustible resources, however, are the elements of nature that as a result of the operation can be completely depleted or destroyed. These resources include: water, soil, plant world, animal world natural resources. The greater the intensity of acquiring human resources, the faster will be the depleted. There is also a very important division of exhaustible resources: non-renewable resources, renewable and very difficult reproducible (living areas. Non-renewable resources are mainly minerals, such as iron ore, crude oil, coal, sulfur, natural gas, useful stones, limestone, salt, and many other minerals. After extraction resources are processed, and the bed from which they were extracted can no longer be used. It is different from renewable resources; they are characterized by the fact that over time they are reconstituted, although, for this to happen balance of the environment through the rational use must be maintained. These resources include, among others, soil, water, flora and fauna, as well as atmospheric air.

  15. Estudo da interferência de óleos essenciais sobre a atividade de alguns antibióticos usados na clínica Study of the interference of essential oils on the activity of some antibiotic used clinically

    Rinalda A. Guerra de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência dos óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides Cham, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spr., Conyza bonariensis L. e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook sobre o efeito de antibióticos utilizados na clínica. Os ensaios foram realizados com ampicilina (10 µg/mL, cefalotina (30 µg/mL, cloranfenicol (30 µg/mL, gentamicina (10 µg/mL e tetraciclina (30 µg/mL isolados e em associação com os óleos essenciais (4% v/v através do método de difusão em meio sólido utilizando discos de papel de filtro. Os resultados mostraram interferência de alguns óleos essenciais sobre a atividade dos antibióticos ensaiados. Observou-se o desenvolvimento de halos de inibição do crescimento bacteriano com diferentes diâmetros quando da aplicação de antibióticos isolados e em combinação com os óleos essenciais. A ocorrência de comportamento sinérgico ou antagônico foi observada mais proeminentemente nas interações com cepas de S. aureus e S. epidermidis. De outra forma, observou-se uma menor interferência dos óleos essenciais no efeito dos antibióticos sobre as cepas Gram negativas, principalmente P. aeruginosa. Estes resultados mostram que o uso de produtos derivados de plantas pode em algumas situações interferir sobre a efetividade de antibióticos de uso no tratamento clínico.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of essential oils from Lippia sidoides Cham, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spr., Conyza bonariensis L. and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on the antibacterial effect of clinically used antibiotics. The assays were carried out with ampicillin (10 µg/mL, cephalotin (30 µg/mL, chloraphenicol (30 µg/mL, gentamicin (10 µg/mL and tetracyclin (30 µg/mL isolated and associated with essential oils (4% v/v by the solid medium diffusion procedure using filter paper discs. The results showed interference of some essential oils on the antibacterial activity of the assayed antibiotics

  16. Neutron Activation Analysis of Inhomogeneous Large Samples; An Explorative Study

    Baas, H.W.


    Neutron activation analysis is a powerful technique for the determination of trace-element concentrations. Since both neutrons that are used for activation and gamma rays that are detected have a high penetrating power, the technique can be applied for relatively large samples (up to 13 L), as demon

  17. Activation and Dose Rate Analysis of 316 Stainless Steel

    XU; Zhi-long; SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xing-min; WAN; Hai-xia


    <正>In order to conduct research on 316 stainless steel to be used in reactors, neutron activation during irradiation and dose rate after irradiation in China Experiment Fast Reactor (CEFR) are calculated and analyzed. Based on 1 g of 316 stainless steel specimen, analysis on the activity of 316 stainless steel irradiated

  18. Performance analysis of active schedules in identical parallel machine

    Changjun WANG; Yugeng XI


    Active schedule is one of the most basic and popular concepts in production scheduling research. For identical parallel machine scheduling with jobs' dynamic arrivals, the tight performance bounds of active schedules under the measurement of four popular objectives are respectively given in this paper. Similar analysis method and conclusions can be generalized to static identical parallel machine and single machine scheduling problem.

  19. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors


    subjective estimate of their activity level over the past week using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE).3 This instrument dealt with...May 2004. Talaty M. Models for Gait Analysis. 5th SIAMOC (Societa Italiana Di Analisi Del Movimento in Clinica) Congress, Loano, Italy November

  20. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna


    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  1. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee


    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  2. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju


    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. Structural Analysis Extended with Active Fault Isolation - Methods and Algorithms

    Gelso, Esteban R.; Blanke, Mogens


    on system inputs can considerably enhance fault isolability. This paper investigates this possibility of active fault isolation from a structural point of view. While such extension of the structural analysis approach was suggested earlier, algorithms and case studies were needed to explore this theory....... The paper develops algorithms for investigation of the possibilities of active structural isolation and it offers illustrative examples and a larger case study to explore the properties of active structural isolability ideas....

  4. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss

    Mai Mohammed Farid; Sameh Reda Hussein; Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim; Mohammed Ali El Desouky; Amr Mohammed Elsayed; Ahmad Ali El Oqlah; Mahmoud Mohammed Saker


    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results:Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01%of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions:The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  5. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Mai; Mohammed; Farid; Sameh; Reda; Hussein; Lamiaa; Fawzy; Ibrahim; Mohammed; Ali; El; Desouky; Amr; Mohammed; Elsayed; Ahmad; Ali; El; Oqlah; Mahmoud; Mohammed; Saker


    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss.(A. palaestinum)(black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity.Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, He La, Hep G2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities.Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated(luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin,isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds.Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition,chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  6. Concentric needle single fiber electromyography: normative jitter values on voluntary activated Extensor Digitorum Communis Eletromiografia de fibra única com agulha concêntrica: valores normativos do jitter no estudo por contração voluntária do músculo Extensor Digitorum Communis

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian


    Full Text Available Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG is the most sensitive clinical neurophysiological test for neuromuscular junction disorders, particularly myasthenia gravis. Normal values for jitter obtained with SFEMG electrode have been published, but there are few publications for concentric needle electrode (CNE. The aim of this study was to discuss the possibilities to analyse the jitter in CNE recordings and to get normal values of jitter for voluntary activated Extensor Digitorum Communis using disposable CNE. Fifty normal subjects were studied, 16 male and 34 female with a mean age of 37.1±10.3 years (19-55. The jitter values of action potentials pairs of isolated muscular fibers were expressed as the mean consecutive difference (MCD after 20 analysed potential pairs. The mean MCD (n=50 obtained was 24.2±2.8 µs (range of mean values in each subject was 18-31. Upper 95% confidence limit is 29.8 µs. The mean jitter of all potential pairs (n=1000 obtained was 24.07±7.30 µs (range 9-57. A practical upper limit for individual data is set to 46 µs. The mean interpotential interval (MIPI was 779±177 µs (range of individual mean values was 530-1412; there were no potentials with impulse blocking. The present study confirms that CNE is suitable for jitter analysis although certain precautions must be mentioned. Our findings of jitter values with CNE were similar to some other few reports in literature.Eletromiografia de fibra única (SFEMG é o método eletrofisiológico mais sensível para diagnóstico das desordens de junção neuromuscular, particularmente miastenia gravis. Jitter obtido por meio de eletrodo de SFEMG já foi padronizado, porém há poucas publicações com uso de eletrodo de agulha concêntrica (CNE. O objetivo deste estudo é discutir as possibilidades de analisar o jitter por registro com CNE e obter valores normativos para o músculo Extensor Digitorum Communis por ativação muscular mínima. Foram estudados 50 indiv

  7. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae

    Arquimedes Gasparotto Jr.


    Full Text Available The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (- mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR ¹H, NMR 13C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (- mammea A/BB showed LD50 = 0.67 ppm and LD90 = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV.

  8. Behavioral activation treatments of depression: a meta-analysis.

    Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Warmerdam, Lisanne


    Activity scheduling is a behavioral treatment of depression in which patients learn to monitor their mood and daily activities, and how to increase the number of pleasant activities and to increase positive interactions with their environment. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized effect studies of activity scheduling. Sixteen studies with 780 subjects were included. The pooled effect size indicating the difference between intervention and control conditions at post-test was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.60 - 1.15). This is a large effect. Heterogeneity was low in all analyses. The comparisons with other psychological treatments at post-test resulted in a non-significant pooled effect size of 0.13 in favor of activity scheduling. In ten studies activity scheduling was compared to cognitive therapy, and the pooled effect size indicating the difference between these two types of treatment was 0.02. The changes from post-test to follow-up for activity scheduling were non-significant, indicating that the benefits of the treatments were retained at follow-up. The differences between activity scheduling and cognitive therapy at follow-up were also non-significant. Activity scheduling is an attractive treatment for depression, not only because it is relatively uncomplicated, time-efficient and does not require complex skills from patients or therapist, but also because this meta-analysis found clear indications that it is effective.

  9. A grid for a precise analysis of daily activities.

    Wojtasik, V; Olivier, C; Lekeu, F; Quittre, A; Adam, S; Salmon, E


    Assessment of daily living activities is essential in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Most current tools quantitatively assess overall ability but provide little qualitative information on individual difficulties. Only a few tools allow therapists to evaluate stereotyped activities and record different types of errors. We capitalised on the Kitchen Activity Assessment to design a widely applicable analysis grid that provides both qualitative and quantitative data on activity performance. A cooking activity was videotaped in 15 patients with dementia and assessed according to the different steps in the execution of the task. The evaluations obtained with our grid showed good correlations between raters, between versions of the grid and between sessions. Moreover, the degree of independence obtained with our analysis of the task correlated with the Kitchen Activity Assessment score and with a global score of cognitive functioning. We conclude that assessment of a daily living activity with this analysis grid is reproducible and relatively independent of the therapist, and thus provides quantitative and qualitative information useful for both evaluating and caring for demented patients.

  10. Disturbios da olfacao: estudo retrospectivo

    Luciano Lobato Gregorio


    Full Text Available Introdução: O olfato, fenômeno subjetivo de grande importância, é pouco compreendido e estudado no ser humano. Médicos com maior conhecimento sobre os distúrbios desse sentido tendem a considerar a doença mais importante e manejar melhor o diagnóstico e o tratamento. Objetivo: Descrever a amostra dos pacientes com queixa principal de distúrbios do olfato e mostrar a experiência do serviço no manejo e tratamento. Delineamento: Estudo retrospectivo de coorte histórica com corte transversal. Materiais e métodos: Descrição da amostra e avaliação de resposta ao tratamento de pacientes com queixa principal de hiposmia ou anosmia atendidos no ambulatório de Rinologia no período de janeiro de 2005 a outubro de 2011. Resultados: Dos 38 pacientes com distúrbio da olfação, 68,4% dos pacientes apresentaram queixa de hiposmia e 31,5% de anosmia, com duração média de 30,8 meses. Os diagnósticos etiológicos principais foram idiopática (31,5%, rinopatia alérgica (28,9% e RSC com pólipos (10,5%. As respostas ao tratamento com corticosteroide tópico e ácido alfa-lipoico foram variáveis, assim como na literatura. Conclusão: Maior importância deve ser dada aos distúrbios do olfato na prática do otorrinolaringologista, uma vez que o diagnóstico diferencial é amplo e pode trazer grande morbidade ao paciente, com impacto na sua qualidade de vida.

  11. A package for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis

    M E Medhat; A Abdel-Hafiez; Z Awaad; M A Ali


    A package for gamma spectrum analysis (PGSA) was developed using object oriented Borland C++ design for MS-windows. This package consists of five programs which can be used for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis. The advantages of PGSA are its simple algorithms and its need for only minimum amount of input information.

  12. Analysis of nuclear activity of ten polar ring galaxies

    Freitas-Lemes, P; Dors, O L; Faúndez-Abans, M


    The accumulation of mass from the interaction process that forms the polar ring galaxies is a factor that favors the conditions necessary to trigger nonthermal nuclear activities.. This fact encouraged the chemical analysis of ten polar ring galaxies. In order to verify the presence of an active nucleus in these galaxias, we built diagnostic diagrams using lines H{\\beta}, [OIII], [HI], H{\\alpha}, [NII], and [SII] and classified the type of nuclear activity. For galaxies that do not show shock, the parameters N2 and O3N2 were also determined. From this sample, we identified seven galaxies with an active nucleus and three that behave as HII regions. One galaxy with an active nucleus was classified as Seyfert. Although our data do not provide a statistically significant sample, we can speculate that polar ring galaxies are a setting conducive to trigger non-thermal nuclear activities.

  13. Performance Analysis for Dispensing Mechanism of Active Code


    The dispensing mechanism of active code is a key technology in an active network. Conventional capsule and programmable switch approaches have their own shortcomings. The DCCAN(distributed code caching for active network) mechanism presented in this paper overcomes these shortcomings. In this paper, capsule and programmable switch approaches are introduced, and their shortcomings are analyzed. The principle of the DCCAN mechanism is described. The theory analysis in transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism and capsule approach are described. The theory analysis shows that the DCCAN mechanism has many good characteristics and can improve the efficiency of an active network. Key factors which affect the transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism are discussed. The using condition of the DCCAN mechanism is also discussed.


    D.A. Kalinich


    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  15. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till


    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  16. Inference of splicing regulatory activities by sequence neighborhood analysis.

    Michael B Stadler


    Full Text Available Sequence-specific recognition of nucleic-acid motifs is critical to many cellular processes. We have developed a new and general method called Neighborhood Inference (NI that predicts sequences with activity in regulating a biochemical process based on the local density of known sites in sequence space. Applied to the problem of RNA splicing regulation, NI was used to predict hundreds of new exonic splicing enhancer (ESE and silencer (ESS hexanucleotides from known human ESEs and ESSs. These predictions were supported by cross-validation analysis, by analysis of published splicing regulatory activity data, by sequence-conservation analysis, and by measurement of the splicing regulatory activity of 24 novel predicted ESEs, ESSs, and neutral sequences using an in vivo splicing reporter assay. These results demonstrate the ability of NI to accurately predict splicing regulatory activity and show that the scope of exonic splicing regulatory elements is substantially larger than previously anticipated. Analysis of orthologous exons in four mammals showed that the NI score of ESEs, a measure of function, is much more highly conserved above background than ESE primary sequence. This observation indicates a high degree of selection for ESE activity in mammalian exons, with surprisingly frequent interchangeability between ESE sequences.


    M. A. Nosov


    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in an adoptive transfer model is caused by injecting animal with activated T cells specific for a CNS antigen, e.g., basic myelin protein. Development of autimmune inflammation in such a model is connected with changed functional stateof encephalytogenic (EG T cells in the coure of disease progression, as reflected by changes in their activation, proliferation and motility levels. Present work describes an original technique allowing for in vitro analysis of encephalytogenic T cell motility, and studying effects of certain compomemts of extracellular matrix upon migration and functional activities of EG T cells.

  18. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A;


    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing...

  19. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Frutiger, Sally A.;


    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing. Hum. Brain Mapping 15...

  20. Inorganic composition determination and evaluation of the biological activity of Peperomia pellucida in the Aspergillus flavus growth; Estudo da composicao inorganica e avaliacao da atividade biologica de Peperomia pellucida no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio


    In recent decades, there has been a great advancement in research in developing drugs from plants. Nevertheless, little significant care exists in the literature about the stable concentration of elements, as well as the activity concentration of '2{sup 38}U and {sup 232}Th decay products in plants used for this purpose in Brazil. The presence of stable elements and radionuclides in plants constitutes the pathway for their migration to humans, via uptake of tea or remedies made with medicinal herbs. Peperomia pellucida, whose popular name is 'erva de jabuti', is a plant known by its medicinal usages, such as healing and analgesic properties plus antibacterial and antifungal activities against food fungi. In this study, the elemental composition of Peperomia pellucida and surrounding soil samples collected in the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro was determined; the elemental concentration in the alcoholic extract and infusion processes of dry plants was also determined. The elemental concentration of As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn was determined in the leaves, aerial parts, including leaves, stems and roots of Peperomia pellucida, in their extracts obtained by maceration and infusions and in the surrounding soil by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical methodology used to determine the elements Cd, Hg and Pb was the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS); the activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were carried out by gross alpha and beta counting, after radiochemical separation. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen, IAEA-Soil-7, IAEA-326 Radionuclides in soil, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves and NIST 1542 Peach Leaves. The relative standard deviations and the relative errors obtained in these analyses indicated good precision and accuracy of the results. The essential

  1. Análise crítica de estudos brasileiros sobre deficiência de vitamina A no grupo materno-infantil Critical analysis of Brazilian studies about vitamin A deficiency in maternal-child group

    Andréa Ramalho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma análise crítica de estudos da literatura sobre a deficiência de vitamina A (DVA no Brasil, segundo o indicador bioquímico retinol sérico, considerando-se o impacto negativo da DVA na saúde reprodutiva e no desenvolvimento infantil. FONTES DE DADOS: os bancos de dados Medline e BVS, no período de 1994 a 2007, foram rastreados com a combinação de descritores: "vitamin A deficiency", "Brazil", "pregnant", "children" e "retinol serum level". A inclusão dos artigos foi realizada com base em critérios de elegibilidade referentes à população, desenho do estudo e idioma, enfatizando-se estudos com gestantes, puérperas, nutrizes, lactentes e pré-escolares que não apresentassem doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis ou infecciosas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: dos 27 artigos selecionados, 25 eram estudos transversais, um era caso-controle e um estudo longitudinal. Identificou-se que 71% e 25% dos trabalhos com gestantes e crianças, respectivamente, adotaram valores de retinol sérico OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature regarding vitamin A deficiency (VAD in Brazil, according to biochemical indicators, considering that VAD has a negative impact upon reproductive health and child development. DATA SOURCE: Medline and BVS databases were searched from 1994 to 2007, using the combination of the following terms: "vitamin A deficiency", "Brazil", "pregnant", "children" and "retinol serum level". Inclusion criteria were based on characteristics of the studied population, study design and language, with emphasis on studies with the following subjects: pregnant, postpartum and nursing women, infants and preschool children without chronic or infectious diseases. DATA SYNTHESIS: Among the 27 selected studies, 25 were cross-sectional, one was a case-control, and one was a cohort study. 71% and 25% of the studies with pregnant women and with children, respectively, adopted retinol serum level <1.05µmol/L as the cut

  2. Statistical analysis of acoustic wave parameters near active regions

    Soares, M Cristina Rabello; Scherrer, Philip H


    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyse the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call `nearby regions'), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disc locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring diagram analysis of all active regions observed by HMI during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhancement (the `acoustic halo effect') is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes...

  3. Leisure-time physical activity among women in a neighbourhood in Bogotá, Colombia: prevalence and socio-demographic correlates Estudo de prevalência e fatores associados com exercício físico em mulheres de uma área urbana de Bogotá, Colômbia

    Luis Fernando Gómez


    Full Text Available This study measured the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity in women from 18 to 69 years of age and identified correlated social factors in the neighborhood of Santafe, Bogotá, Colombia. Levels of physical activity were calculated through a population survey (n = 1,045. Logistic regression modeling identified factors associated with inactivity. Some 79.1% of respondents reported being inactive; 15.7% practiced physical exercise irregularly; and 5.2% regularly practiced physical exercise. After adjustment of covariates, physical inactivity was associated with not participating in recreational weekend activities on Sundays and not planning to lose weight. The results of this study show the high proportion of physically inactive women in a community in Bogotá Intervention strategies should be developed to reinforce recreational weekend activities on promoted by the Municipality.O estudo mediu a prevalência de exercício físico em mulheres de 18 a 69 anos de idade e identificou correlatos sociais no bairro de Santa Fé, em Bogotá, Colômbia. Os níveis de atividade física foram calculados por meio de um estudo populacional com uma amostra de 1.045 mulheres. Um modelo de regressão logística identificou fatores associados com sedentarismo. De acordo com os resultados, 79,1% das mulheres foram classificadas como inativas; 15,7% relataram atividade física irregular e apenas 5,2% praticavam exercícios físicos regularmente. Após o ajuste das covariáveis, a inatividade física estava associada com a falta de participação em atividades dominicais de lazer e com a falta de planos para perder peso. Os resultados do estudo demonstram a alta proporção de mulheres fisicamente inativas numa comunidade de baixa renda de Bogotá. Estratégias de intervenção devem ser desenvolvidas para reforçar os exercícios físicos promovidos nas áreas de lazer reservadas aos domingos pelo governo municipal de Bogotá.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.


    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  5. Making Sense of Total VET Activity: An Initial Market Analysis

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016


    Following the successful first national publication of total vocational education and training (VET) activity and presentation of various informative data products, NCVER has continued to undertake further analysis of the submitted data. This paper is the first in a suite of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) authored…

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some ayurvedic medicines: Pt. 1

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Vinchurkar, M.S. (Poona Univ., Pune (India). Dept. of Chemistry)


    Several medicines have been manufactured and prescribed to overcome mineral deficiencies in the human body. Such medicines are mixtures of several components. The present work is undertaken to analyze various Ayurvedic medicines, mainly of herbal origin and used for different purposes, for their elemental contents, by neutron activation analysis. (author).

  7. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique using Subsecond Radionuclides

    Nielsen, H.K.; Schmidt, J.O.


    The fast irradiation facility Mach-1 installed at the Danish DR 3 reactor has been used in boron determinations by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using12B with 20-ms half-life. The performance characteristics of the system are presented and boron determinations of NBS standard...

  8. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity Annual Report 2001


    The Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity annual Report 2001 summarizes work done to support the development of evidence-based...Hepatitis, Temporomandibular Disorders, Thyroid Disorders, Diabetes Mellitus, Abnormal Pap Smear, Enuresis, and Varicocele. Over 1,575,000 enlisted

  9. Application of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis

    Chung, Yong Sam; Park, Kwang Won; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    This technical report is written for the promotion to utilization of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis facility to be installed in HANARO reactor. It is described for a practical aspects including experiment and equipments, methodology, current status of the research and development and its applications. 102 refs., 32 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  10. In-beam activation analysis facility at MLZ, Garching

    Révay, Zs., E-mail: [Heinz Maier-Leibniz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kudějová, P.; Kleszcz, K.; Söllradl, S. [Heinz Maier-Leibniz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Genreith, Christoph [Heinz Maier-Leibniz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6: Nuclear Waste and Reactor Safety Fuel Cycle, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, 52428 Jülich (Germany)


    The reconstruction of the prompt gamma activation analysis facility and the construction of the new low-background counting chamber at MLZ, Garching is presented. The improvement of the shielding and its effect on the radiation background is shown. The setting up and the fine-tuning of the electronics and their characterization are also discussed. The upgraded facility has been demonstrated to be applicable for both PGAA and neutron activation analysis using in-beam activation and decay counting in the low-background counting chamber. - Highlights: • Radiation background at the PGAA facility was efficiently reduced. • In-beam irradiation facility in the strongest neutron beam. • The best signal-to-background ratio at a PGAA facility was achieved.

  11. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)


    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  12. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    Md. Rashed-Al-Mahfuz; Md. Rabiul Islam; Keikichi Hirose; Md. Khademul Islam Molla


    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component.

  13. Analysis of Some Egyptian Cosmetic Samples by Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    Medhat, M E; Fayez-Hassan, M


    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This generator can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. In our work, the concentration of the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe, were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis.

  14. Estresse no trabalho e interrupção de atividades habituais, por problemas de saúde, no Estudo Pró-Saúde Job stress and interruption of routine activities due to health problems, according to the Pró-Saúde Study

    Luís Eduardo Teixeira de Macedo


    Full Text Available Queixas relativas à saúde têm sido mais freqüentemente associadas a problemas no trabalho do que a qualquer outro aspecto da vida, incluindo problemas financeiros ou familiares. Nesse estudo, investigamos a associação entre estresse no trabalho e a interrupção das atividades habituais por problemas de saúde. Esta investigação, do tipo transversal, se insere em um estudo prospectivo de 2.343 funcionários técnico-administrativos de uma universidade no Estado do Rio de Janeiro - Estudo Pró-Saúde. Procederam-se as análises multivariadas valendo-se dos modelos lineares generalizados e assumindo-se uma distribuição binomial e função de ligação logarítmica. Os homens em atividades com alta exigência apresentaram prevalência da interrupção das atividades habituais duas vezes maior do que aqueles cujas atividades não foram classificadas nessa categoria (baixa exigência; ativo; passivo, ajustando-se por idade (RP = 2,06; IC95%: 1,54-2,76. Entre as mulheres, a prevalência do desfecho foi 45% maior (RP = 1,45; IC95%: 1,17-1,79.Health-related complaints have been associated with work problems more frequently than with any other aspect of life, including financial and family problems. This study focuses on the association between stress at work and interruption of routine activities due to health problems. The study adopted a cross-sectional approach and is part of a prospective study of 2,343 technical and administrative employees at a public university in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, known as the Pró-Saúde Study. Multivariate analyses were conducted using the generalized linear models and assuming a binomial distribution and log-link function. Men in jobs with heavy demands showed twice the prevalence of interruption of routine activities as compared to those not classified in this category (low demand; active; passive, after adjusting for age (PR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.54-2.76. Among women, the outcome prevalence was 45


    Venkanna Lunavath


    Full Text Available The trend of using natural products has increased and the active plant extracts are frequently screened for new drug discoveries. The present study deals with the screening of Casia occidentalis leaves for their antimicrobial activity against various strains of bacteria. Plant Cassia occidentalis belongs to family Caesalpiniaceae, is a diffuse offensively odorous under shrub. Casia occidentalis were shade dried, powered and was extracted using solvents Methanol. The antimicrobial activity test performed by the disc diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts fractions of HXF, CTF, CFF and AQF showed the presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, phytosterols, fixed oils and phenolic compounds. The AQF fraction of C. occidentalis showed high activity across pseudomonas aeuruginosa and staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of Casia occidentalis leaves in the treatment of various diseases caused by micro-organisms.

  16. Effect of psychological stress on blood pressure increase: a meta-analysis of cohort studies Efeito do estresse psicológico no aumento da pressão arterial: uma metanálise de estudos de coorte

    Daniela Gasperin


    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that chronic exposure to stress may have an influence on increased blood pressure. A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis was conducted aiming to assess the effect of psychological stress on blood pressure increase. Research was mainly conducted in Ingenta, Psycinfo, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were: published in any language; from January 1970 to December 2006; prospective cohort design; adults; main exposure psychological/emotional stress; outcome arterial hypertension or blood pressure increase > 3.5mmHg. A total of 2,043 studies were found, of which 110 were cohort studies. Of these, six were eligible and yielded 23 comparison groups and 34,556 subjects. Median follow-up time and loss to follow-up were 11.5 years and 21%. Results showed individuals who had stronger responses to stressor tasks were 21% more likely to develop blood pressure increase when compared to those with less strong responses (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.14-1.28; p Estudos sugerem que a exposição crônica ao estresse tenha influência no aumento dos níveis pressóricos. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática seguida de metanálise com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do estresse psicológico no aumento da pressão arterial. As principais bases de dados utilizadas foram Ingenta, Psycinfo, PubMed, Scopus e Web of Science. Os critérios de inclusão foram: publicado entre janeiro de 1970 e dezembro de 2006, delineamento de coorte prospectiva, adultos, estresse psicológico/emocional como exposição principal, hipertensão arterial ou aumento na pressão arterial > 3,5mmHg como desfecho. A busca resultou em 2.043 artigos, sendo 110 coortes. Desses, seis eram elegíveis, os quais geraram 23 grupos de comparação e 34.556 sujeitos. A mediana do tempo de seguimento e do percentual de perdas foi 11,5 anos e 21%. Indivíduos com maior reação a tarefas estressoras possuíam 21% mais chances de apresentar aumento na press

  17. Estudo do comportamento vocal no ciclo menstrual: avaliação perceptivo-auditiva, acústica e auto-perceptiva Vocal behavior during menstrual cycle: perceptual-auditory, acoustic and self-perception analysis

    Luciane C. de Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Durante o período pré-menstrual é comum a ocorrência de disfonia, e são poucas as mulheres que se dão conta dessa variação da voz dentro do ciclo menstrual (Quinteiro, 1989. OBJETIVO: Verificar se há diferença no padrão vocal de mulheres no período de ovulação em relação ao primeiro dia do ciclo menstrual, utilizando-se da análise perceptivo-auditiva, da espectrografia, dos parâmetros acústicos e quando esta diferença está presente, se é percebida pelas mulheres. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso-controle. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra coletada foi de 30 estudantes de Fonoaudiologia, na faixa etária de 18 a 25 anos, não-fumantes, com ciclo menstrual regular e sem o uso de contraceptivo oral. As vozes foram gravadas no primeiro dia de menstruação e no décimo-terceiro dia pós-menstruação (ovulação, para posterior comparação. RESULTADOS: Observou-se durante o período menstrual que as vozes estão rouco-soprosa de grau leve a moderado, instáveis, sem a presença de quebra de sonoridade, com pitch e loudness adequados e ressonância equilibrada. Há pior qualidade de definição dos harmônicos, maior quantidade de ruído entre eles e menor extensão dos harmônicos superiores. Encontramos uma f0 mais aguda, jitter e shimmer aumentados e PHR diminuída. CONCLUSÃO: No período menstrual há mudanças na qualidade vocal, no comportamento dos harmônicos e nos parâmetros vocais (f0,jitter, shimmer e PHR. Além disso, a maioria das estudantes de Fonoaudiologia não percebeu a variação da voz durante o ciclo menstrual.During the premenstruation period dysphonia often can be observed and only few women are aware of this voice variation (Quinteiro, 1989. AIM: To verify if there are vocal quality variations between the ovulation period and the first day of the menstrual cycle, by using perceptual-auditory and acoustic analysis, including spectrography, and the self perception of the vocal changes when it occurs. STUDY DESIGN: Case

  18. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of optogenetic modulation of neural activity

    Kumar, S.; Gu, L.; Ghosh, N.; Mohanty, S. K.


    Here, we introduce a computational procedure to examine whether optogenetically activated neuronal firing recordings could be characterized as multifractal series. Optogenetics is emerging as a valuable experimental tool and a promising approach for studying a variety of neurological disorders in animal models. The spiking patterns from cortical region of the brain of optogenetically-stimulated transgenic mice were analyzed using a sophisticated fluctuation analysis method known as multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). We observed that the optogenetically-stimulated neural firings are consistent with a multifractal process. Further, we used MFDFA to monitor the effect of chemically induced pain (formalin injection) and optogenetic treatment used to relieve the pain. In this case, dramatic changes in parameters characterizing a multifractal series were observed. Both the generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum effectively differentiates the neural activities during control and pain induction phases. The quantitative nature of the analysis equips us with better measures to quantify pain. Further, it provided a measure for effectiveness of the optogenetic stimulation in inhibiting pain. MFDFA-analysis of spiking data from other deep regions of the brain also turned out to be multifractal in nature, with subtle differences in the parameters during pain-induction by formalin injection and inhibition by optogenetic stimulation. Characterization of neuronal firing patterns using MFDFA will lead to better understanding of neuronal response to optogenetic activation and overall circuitry involved in the process.

  19. Redução da prevalência de úlcera duodenal: um estudo brasileiro (análise retrospectiva na última década: 1996-2005 Prevalence reduction of duodenal ulcer: a Brazilian study. (retrospective analysis in tha last decade: 1996-2005

    Carlos Saul


    gradativa voltou a ser observada. O valor médio de queda anual, aplicando o teste de regressão linear, foi da ordem de 1,3% ao ano, no período analisado (10 anos. Este teste mostrou também significância estatística. A raça branca representou a maioria, com 78% dos pacientes, em relação a raça negra. O sexo masculino, em todos os períodos analisados, exceto em um (1997, foi o sexo mais acometido, com uma relação final masculino/feminino da ordem de 1.17/1.0. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se então, neste estudo efetuado no Brasil, também uma redução da prevalência da úlcera duodenal, já apontada pela literatura em outros países. Estudos posteriores devem ser efetuados no sentido de apontar as razões desta importante observação.BACKGROUND: The duodenal ulcer always represented a very prevalent pathology among the gastrointestinal tract diseases worldwide. The average prevalence is approximately 10% of the world population. In the 90s the literature (both European and North American begin to show a crescent reduction of this prevalence in many countries. AIM: To show through a retrospective analysis the annual prevalence of the duodenal ulcer in the last 10 years in a Digestive Endoscopy Service which is referred to public medical system in Porto Alegre and its suburban area and countryside of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data analyzed is from March 1996 to December 2005. Specific data: transversal retrospective study with documented analysis of endoscopic diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the diagnosis of the 13.130 procedures of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between 1996 and 2005. The Sakita classification was used to verify the duodenal ulcer activity taking into consideration the patients who have lesions on A1 to S1 levels. To verify if there was a statistical significant results, a linear regression test was done (linear regression model. RESULTS: A gradate decrease of the prevalence

  20. Offgas Analysis and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Sawdust by Chemical Activation With KOH

    TIAN Yong; LIU Ping; WANG Xiufang; ZHONG Guoying; CHEN Guanke


    Bamboo sawdust was used as the precursor for the multipurpose use of waste.Offgases released during the activation process of bamboo by KOH were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively by a gas analyzer. TG/DTG curves during the pyrolysis process with different impregnation weight ratios (KOH to bamboo) were obtained by a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis mechanism of bamboo was proposed. The results showed that the offgases were composed of CO, NO,SO2 and hydrocarbon with the concentration of 1 372, 37, 86, 215 mg/L, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the pyrolytic process mainly experienced two steps. The first was the low temperature activation step (lower than 300 ℃), which was the pre-activation and induction period.The second was the high temperature activation step(higher than 550 ℃), which was a radial activation followed by pore production. The second process was the key to control the pore distribution of the final product.

  1. Development and coupling analysis of active skin antenna

    Zhou, Jinzhu; Huang, Jin; He, Qingqang; Tang, Baofu; Song, Liwei


    An active skin antenna is a multifunctional composite structure that can provide load-bearing structure and steerable beam pointing functions, and is usually installed in the structural surface of aircraft, warships, and armored vehicles. This paper presents an innovative design of the active skin antenna, which consists of a package layer, control and signal processing layer, and RF (radio frequency) layer. The RF layer is fabricated by low temperature co-fired ceramics, with 64 microstrip antenna elements, tile transmitting and receiving modules, microchannel heat sinks, and feeding networks integrated into a functional block 2.8 mm thick. In this paper, a full-sized prototype of an active skin antenna was designed, fabricated, and tested. Moreover, a coupling analysis method was presented to evaluate the mechanical and electromagnetic performance of the active skin antenna subjected to aerodynamic loads. A deformed experimental system was built to validate the effectiveness of the coupling analysis method, which was also implemented to evaluate the performance of the active skin antenna when subjected to aerodynamic pressure. The fabricated specimen demonstrated structural configuration feasibility, and superior environmental load resistance.

  2. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Burbank, D.A.


    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  3. Multi-scale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    Gamborino, Diana; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Martinell, Julio J.


    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps that are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions, we show that the multi-scale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also to be extracted from the analysis.

  4. Analysis of Usnea fasciata crude extracts with antineoplastic activity.

    Periera, E C; Nascimento, S C; Lima, R C; Silva, N H; Oliveira, A F; Bandeira, E; Boitard, M; Beriel, H; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E


    Different fractions, isolated from the lichen Usnea fasciata, were analyzed by PC, TLC, and RP-HPLC. Analysis of the organic phases, mainly containing phenolics, revealed that usnic acid is the main product from secondary metabolites, whereas the polysaccharides isolichenin and raffinose are the most abundant water-soluble carbohydrates. Fractions containing usnic acid, as well as those containing isolichenin, showed moderate activity against sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich tumor cells. High antitumoral activity, near 90% inhibition, was found associated with the fraction containing raffinose.

  5. Digital methods of photopeak integration in activation analysis.

    Baedecker, P. A.


    A study of the precision attainable by several methods of gamma-ray photopeak integration has been carried out. The 'total peak area' method, the methods proposed by Covell, Sterlinski, and Quittner, and some modifications of these methods have been considered. A modification by Wasson of the total peak area method is considered to be the most advantageous due to its simplicity and the relatively high precision obtainable with this technique. A computer routine for the analysis of spectral data from nondestructive activation analysis experiments employing a Ge(Li) detector-spectrometer system is described.

  6. Active Greens : An Analysis of the Determinants of Green Party Members' Activism in Environmental Movements

    Botetzagias, Iosif; van Schuur, Wijbrandt


    This article investigates green party members' activism in the environmental movement and tests how a number of predictors, theoretically suggested in the past yet rarely empirically tested, can account for it. The authors' analysis is based on an extensive data set of members of 15 green parties in

  7. Some Applications of Fast Neutron Activation Analysis of Oxygen

    Owrang, Farshid


    illustrated how the activated water would propagate along that pipe. C) Combustion products. In order to investigate the oxidation in combustion products (deposits), the total amount of oxygen in the deposits collected from combustion chambers of a modern gasoline engine was measured, using cyclic fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). As a compartment, the organic compounds containing oxygen were identified using {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results of FNAA showed that the amount of oxygen in deposits varies depending on where the deposits have been formed. {sup 13}C NMR has showed that the carbon backbone of the deposits exists as highly oxidized poly aromatics and/or graphitic structure. D) On-line fast neutron activation analysis. On-line neutron activation analysis was used to detect the amount of oxygen in bulk liquids. The method was optimised for on-line detection of oxygen in rapeseed oil. The goal was to develop a non-intrusive method for measurement of the total amount of oxygen in oil during combustion/oxidation.

  8. Analysis of foreign physical activity recommendations and guidelines for schools

    Jan Pavelka


    Full Text Available Background:An adequate level of physical activity is an important part of children's lifestyle. The school environment plays a significant role in the area of interventions and strategies aiming to increase the level of physical activity in children. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyse foreign recommendations leading to an increased level of physical activity in children and young people in Czech schools. Methods: A systematic search of studies published between 1988 and 2012 in the English language was completed in library databases Medline, Sport Discus, ProQuest, PsychInfo, ERIC, Wiley InterScience using the following keywords: physical activity, guidelines, recommendations, school and youth. The studies were then classified based on abstract and full-text analyses. Using a content analysis the expert team formulated the final recommendations to increase the level of physical activity for schools in the Czech Republic (CR. Results: Out of the total number of 91 identified foreign studies, 25 met the predetermined criteria and were used as a basis for formulating the recommendations. These foreign studies included 15 papers published in USA, two in Australia, two in Great Britain, two in Canada, one in the European Union, one in New Zealand and one international paper (an international consensus of experts from 34 countries. Based on the interpretation of the evidence, its justification and final consensus of the expert team, the basic areas for the recommendations to increase the level of physical activity in schools in the CR were identified. Conclusions: An analysis of foreign recommendations to increase the level of physical activity designed for schools and school facilities is one of the possible methods of formulating domestic recommendations. This recommendation could contribute to deeper understanding of the issue of the deteriorating lifestyle of school-aged children in the CR and reflects the efforts for improvement.

  9. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that

  10. Analyses of Oxyanion Materials by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    Firestone, Richard B; Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Leung, K.-N.; Garabedian, G.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.


    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to analyze metal ion oxyanion materials that have multiple applications, including medicine, materials, catalysts, and electronics. The significance for the need for accurate, highly sensitive analyses for the materials is discussed in the context of quality control of end products containing the parent element in each material. Applications of the analytical data for input to models and theoretical calculations related to the electronic and other properties of the materials are discussed.

  11. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.


    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  12. Antitumor activity of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis

    Jukić, Marijana; Rastija, Vesna; Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Bajić, Miroslav; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica


    The aim of this study was to evaluate nine newly synthesized amidine derivatives of 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene (3,4-EDOT) for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and to perform a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for the antitumor activity of a total of 27 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives. Induction of apoptosis was investigated on the selected compounds, along with delivery options for the optimization of activity. The best obtained QSAR models include the following group of descriptors: BCUT, WHIM, 2D autocorrelations, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY descriptors, 2D frequency fingerprint and information indices. Obtained QSAR models should be relieved in elucidation of important physicochemical and structural requirements for this biological activity. Highly potent molecules have a symmetrical arrangement of substituents along the x axis, high frequency of distance between N and O atoms at topological distance 9, as well as between C and N atoms at topological distance 10, and more C atoms located at topological distances 6 and 3. Based on the conclusion given in the QSAR analysis, a new compound with possible great activity was proposed.

  13. Genetic analysis of lipolytic activities in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Li, Haijuan; Liebl, Wolfgang


    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 displays lipolytic activity for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study we performed a mutational in vivo analysis of esterases and lipases that confer growth on tributyrin. We interrupted 10 ORFs suspected to encode lipolytic enzymes. Two chromosomal loci were identified that resulted in reduced hydrolysis capabilities against tributyrin and various para-nitrophenyl acyl esters. By implementation of a convenient new one-step method which abstains from the use of selectable markers, a mutant strain with multiple scar-less deletions was constructed by sequentially deleting ORFs TT_C1787, TT_C0340, TT_C0341 and TT_C0904. The quadruple deletion mutant of T. thermophilus exhibited significantly lower lipolytic activity (approximately 25% residual activity compared to wild type strain) over a broad range of fatty acyl esters and had lost the ability to grow on agar plates containing tributyrin as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we were able to determine the impact of each gene disruption on the lipolytic activity profile in this model organism and show that the esterase activity in T. thermophilus HB27 is due to a concerted action of several hydrolases having different substrate preferences and activities. The esterase-less T. thermophilus multi-deletion mutant from this study can be used as a screening and expression host for esterase genes from thermophiles or metagenomes.

  14. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won


    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.

  15. Corticomuscular coherence analysis on hand movement distinction for active rehabilitation.

    Lou, Xinxin; Xiao, Siyuan; Qi, Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yiwen; Zheng, Xiaoxiang


    Active rehabilitation involves patient's voluntary thoughts as the control signals of restore device to assist stroke rehabilitation. Although restoration of hand opening stands importantly in patient's daily life, it is difficult to distinguish the voluntary finger extension from thumb adduction and finger flexion using stroke patients' electroencephalography (EMG) on single muscle activity. We propose to implement corticomuscular coherence analysis on electroencephalography (EEG) and EMG signals on Extensor Digitorum to extract their intention involved in hand opening. EEG and EMG signals of 8 subjects are simultaneously collected when executing 4 hand movement tasks (finger extension, thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest). We explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the coherence and observe statistically significant corticomuscular coherence appearing at left motor cortical area and different patterns within beta frequency range for 4 movement tasks. Linear discriminate analysis is applied on the coherence pattern to distinguish finger extension from thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. The classification results are greater than those by EEG only. The results indicate the possibility to detect voluntary hand opening based on coherence analysis between single muscle EMG signal and single EEG channel located in motor cortical area, which potentially helps active hand rehabilitation for stroke patients.

  16. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    Fischer, J.


    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  17. Behavioural activation for depression; an update of meta-analysis of effectiveness and sub group analysis.

    David Ekers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. METHOD: Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. RESULTS: Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD -0.74 CI -0.91 to -0.56, k = 25, N = 1088 and medication (SMD -0.42 CI -0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283. Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. CONCLUSIONS: The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base.

  18. Neutron activation analysis for the demonstration of amphibolite rock-weathering activity of a yeast.

    Rades-Rohkohl, E; Hirsch, P; Fränzle, O


    Neutron activation analysis was employed in a survey of weathering abilities of rock surface microorganisms. A yeast isolated from an amphibolite of a megalithic grave was found actively to concentrate, in media and in or on cells, iron and other elements when grown in the presence of ground rock. This was demonstrated by comparing a spectrum of neutron-activated amphibolite powder (particle size, 50 to 100 mum) with the spectra of neutron-activated, lyophilized yeast cells which had grown with or without amphibolite powder added to different media. The most active yeast (IFAM 1171) did not only solubilize Fe from the rock powder, but significant amounts of Co, Eu, Yb, Ca, Ba, Sc, Lu, Cr, Th, and U were also mobilized. The latter two elements occurred as natural radioactive isotopes in this amphibolite. When the yeast cells were grown with neutron-activated amphibolite, the cells contained the same elements. Furthermore, the growth medium contained Fe, Co, and Eu which had been solubilized from the amphibolite. This indicates the presence, in this yeast strain, of active rockweathering abilities as well as of uptake mechanisms for solubilized rock components.

  19. Eye movement analysis for activity recognition using electrooculography.

    Bulling, Andreas; Ward, Jamie A; Gellersen, Hans; Tröster, Gerhard


    In this work, we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. Eye movement data were recorded using an electrooculography (EOG) system. We first describe and evaluate algorithms for detecting three eye movement characteristics from EOG signals-saccades, fixations, and blinks-and propose a method for assessing repetitive patterns of eye movements. We then devise 90 different features based on these characteristics and select a subset of them using minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) feature selection. We validate the method using an eight participant study in an office environment using an example set of five activity classes: copying a text, reading a printed paper, taking handwritten notes, watching a video, and browsing the Web. We also include periods with no specific activity (the NULL class). Using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and person-independent (leave-one-person-out) training, we obtain an average precision of 76.1 percent and recall of 70.5 percent over all classes and participants. The work demonstrates the promise of eye-based activity recognition (EAR) and opens up discussion on the wider applicability of EAR to other activities that are difficult, or even impossible, to detect using common sensing modalities.

  20. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions. I. Intrinsic dimension and correlation analysis

    Moon, Kevin R; Delouille, Veronique; De Visscher, Ruben; Watson, Fraser; Hero, Alfred O


    Complexity of an active region is related to its flare-productivity. Mount Wilson or McIntosh sunspot classifications measure such complexity but in a categorical way, and may therefore not use all the information present in the observations. Moreover, such categorical schemes hinder a systematic study of an active region's evolution for example. We propose fine-scale quantitative descriptors for an active region's complexity and relate them to the Mount Wilson classification. We analyze the local correlation structure within continuum and magnetogram data, as well as the cross-correlation between continuum and magnetogram data. We compute the intrinsic dimension, partial correlation, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of image patches of continuum and magnetogram active region images taken from the SOHO-MDI instrument. We use masks of sunspots derived from continuum as well as larger masks of magnetic active regions derived from the magnetogram to analyze separately the core part of an active region fr...

  1. Activity optimization method in SPECT: A comparison with ROC analysis

    D(I)AZ Marlén Pérez; RIZO Oscar Díaz; D(I)AZ Adlin López; APARICIO Eric Estévez; D(I)AZ Reinaldo Roque


    A discriminant method for optimizing activity in nuclear medicine studies is validated by comparison with ROC performed with a cardiac phantom. Three different lesions (L1, L2 and L3) were placed in the myocardium-wall by pairs for each SPECT. Three activities (84, 37 or 18.5 MBq) of 99mTc were used as background. Linear discriminant analysis was used to select the parameters that characterize image quality among the measured variables in the images [(Background-to-Lesion (B/Li) and Signal-to-Noise (Si/N) ratio s)]. Two clusters with different image quality (P=0.021) were obtained. The ratios B/L1, B/L2 and B/L3are the parameters used to construct the function with 100% of cases correctly classified into the clusters. The value of 37 MBq was the lowest tested activity for which good results for the B/Li ratios were obtained. The result coincides with the applied ROC-analysis (r=0.89).

  2. Elemental analysis of rain- and fresh water by neutron activation analysis


    Analysis of rain-and fresh water for trace constituents is a manda tory part of environmental monitoring. This text gives a survey of neutron activation analysis (NAA) within the framework of current environmental water research pro grammes, based on the practice developed in co-operation with the Dutch Energy Research Centre at Petten (ECN). While the procedures reported in literature cover about thirty five elements, our routine procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is limited to ten to fifteen elements. The use of some dedicated ra diochemical separations (RNAA) adds another six, some of which are speciated as well. Current contributions of NAA to water analysis center on determination and speciation of anionic trace elements, notably Br, I, As. and Se, on the assay of some ultra traces like Ag, Au and Hg and on validation.

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of sectioned hair strands for arsenic

    Guinn, V.P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a valuable and proven method for the quantitative analysis of sectioned human head hair specimens for arsenic - and, if arsenic is found to be present at high concentrations, the approximate times when it was ingested. Reactor-flux thermal-neutron activation of the hair samples produces 26.3-h {sup 76}As, which is then detected by germanium gamma-ray spectrometry, measuring the 559.1-keV gamma-ray peak of {sup 76}As. Even normal levels of arsenic in hair, in the range of <1 ppm up to a few parts per million of arsenic can be measured - and the far higher levels associated with large internal doses of arsenic, levels approaching or exceeding 100 ppm arsenic, are readily and accurately measurable. However, all phases of forensic investigations of possible chronic (or in some cases, acute) arsenic poisoning are important, i.e., not just the analysis phase. All of these phases are discussed in this paper, based on the author`s experience and the experience of others, in criminal cases. Cases of chronic arsenic poisoning often reveal a series of two to four doses, perhaps a few months apart, with increasing doses.

  4. Is adaptation or transformation needed? Active nanomaterials and risk analysis

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Roberts, John Patrick


    Nanotechnology has been a key area of funding and policy for the United States and globally for the past two decades. Since nanotechnology research and development became a focus and nanoproducts began to permeate the market, scholars and scientists have been concerned about how to assess the risks that they may pose to human health and the environment. The newest generation of nanomaterials includes biomolecules that can respond to and influence their environments, and there is a need to explore whether and how existing risk-analysis frameworks are challenged by such novelty. To fill this niche, we used a modified approach of upstream oversight assessment (UOA), a subset of anticipatory governance. We first selected case studies of "active nanomaterials," that are early in research and development and designed for use in multiple sectors, and then considered them under several, key risk-analysis frameworks. We found two ways in which the cases challenge the frameworks. The first category relates to how to assess risk under a narrow framing of the term (direct health and environmental harm), and the second involves the definition of what constitutes a "risk" worthy of assessment and consideration in decision making. In light of these challenges, we propose some changes for risk analysis in the face of active nanostructures in order to improve risk governance.

  5. Search for accuracy in activation in activation analysis of trace elements in different matrices. [Neutrons

    Meloni, S.; Ganzerli-Valentini, M.T.; Caramella-Crespi, V.; Maxia, V.; Maggi, L.; Pisani, U.; Soma, R.; Borroni, P.


    Different factors may affect accuracy in activation analysis of trace elements. The evaluation of these factors often requires a number of time consuming experiments, but the statement of accuracy in activation analysis is of great value to cast some light on the overall reliability of the method itself. It can be pointed out that accuracy is often inversely proportional to the number of steps of the whole analytical procedure, from sampling to calculation of results. Several techniques of activation analysis were developed and applied to the determination of trace element content in standard reference materials and in samples chosen for intercomparison among laboratories. Emphasis was put on limiting the number of steps to improve the accuracy and on achieving the best of precision. Results are presented and discussed, together with the criteria for the choice of the most appropriate separation technique. Other sources of systematic errors, such as the reliability of the content of the reference standards and dead-time corrections when short-lived isotopes are involved, were taken into account and discussed.

  6. Neutron activation analysis applied to nutritional and foodstuff studies

    Maihara, Vera A.; Santos, Paola S.; Moura, Patricia L.C.; Castro, Lilian P. de, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Assistencia Social. Div. de Alimentacao


    Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA, has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. NAA has become an important and useful research tool due to the methodology's advantages. These include high accuracy, small quantities of samples and no chemical treatment. This technique allows the determination of important elements directly related to human health. NAA also provides data concerning essential and toxic concentrations in foodstuffs and specific diets. In this paper some studies in the area of nutrition which have been carried out at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP will be presented: a Brazilian total diet study: nutritional element dietary intakes of Sao Paulo state population; a study of trace element in maternal milk and the determination of essential trace elements in some edible mushrooms. (author)

  7. A Revista Estudos Feministas faz 10 anos: uma breve história do feminismo no Brasil Revista Estudos Feministas is ten years old: a brief history of feminism in Brazil

    Miriam Pillar Grossi


    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma versão da trajetória da Revista Estudos Feministas em sua primeira fase na UFSC (1999/2002. O artigo está subdivido em três partes: na primeira é feita uma rápida revisão da literatura sobre o feminismo e os estudos de gênero no Brasil, na segunda é relatada a transferência da Revista Estudos Feministas do Rio de Janeiro para Santa Catarina e na terceira é feita uma reflexão sobre o papel desta revista acadêmica no diálogo com o movimento e com campo de estudos de gênero, feminista e de estudos sobre mulher no Brasil.This article is a report on the activities of Revista Estudos Feministas during its first phase at UFSC (1999-2002. It is divided into three parts: the first presents a brief review of literature about feminism and gender studies in Brazil; the second covers the move of Estudos Feministas from Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina, and the third presents some considerations on the role of this periodical in relation to the movement and to the field of gender, feminist and women's studies in Brazil.

  8. Radiochemical photon activation analysis of Halogens in meteorites

    Oura, Yasuji; Latif, S.A.; Setoguchi, Mina; Nakamoto, Tomoshi; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Nakahara, Hiromichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu


    Halogens (F, Cl, Br and I) in meteorites and rocks are determined by a radiochemical photon activation analysis (RPAA) and compared with that of NPAA. We tried to determine all halogen elements at one time by one irradiation with 20 or 30 MeV maximum energy (E{sub 0}) by controlling irradiation for 2 or 6 hours with cooling. Average current is about 110 {mu}A. After irradiation, the sample was separated by radiochemical analysis. Allende meteorite, JR-I and d-41-7 were analyzed. The value of F, Cl and Br showed good reproducibility and agreed with the value in the reference. However, I showed small value. It may indicate volatilizing of I. (S.Y.)

  9. Analysis of innovation activity of Slovak and Czech enterprises

    Emília Spišáková


    Full Text Available European innovation scoreboard is used to monitor and compare the innovation performance of European countries, according to which was the Slovak Republic, together with two other V4 countries, i.e. Hungary and Poland, at the time of last available data from this area, classified into the last, fourth group of countries named “catching-up countries”. These countries were characterized by the lack of innovation activity, which was well below the EU 27 average. From the V4 countries, Czech Republic achieved the best results, belongs to “moderate innovators” and is the most close to the European average. At a present time all four countries are included in a group of moderate innovators. The innovation performance of whole country is particularly influenced by innovation activities of enterprises operating in this country. For this reason, the article deals with the detailed analysis of innovative activity of enterprises by their size and sector of their operation in Czech and Slovak Republic, and also deals with the cooperation of enterprises in these activities in terms of the type of partner and the countries of their interaction.

  10. Fractal analysis of granular activated carbons using isotherm data

    Khalili, N.R.; Pan, M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Sandi, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Utilization of adsorption on solid surfaces was exercised for the first time in 1785. Practical application of unactivated carbon filters, and powdered carbon were first demonstrated in the American water treatment plant, and a municipal treatment plant in New Jersey, in 1883 and 1930, respectively. The use of activated carbon became widespread in the next few decades. At present, adsorption on carbons has a wide spread application in water treatment and removal of taste, odor, removal of synthetic organic chemicals, color-forming organics, and desinfection by-products and their naturally occurring precursors. This paper presents an analysis of the surface fractal dimension and adsorption capacity of a group of carbons.

  11. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Active Magnetic Bearings

    K.P. Lijesh


    Full Text Available In the present research work Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA of an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB has been presented. Various possible failures modes of AMBs and the corresponding effects of those failures on performance of AMBs have been identified. The identified failure modes of AMBs will facilitate designer to incorporate necessary design features that would prevent the occurrence of the failure. The severity, occurrence and detection of the failures modes are determined based on a rating scale of 1 to 5 to quantify the Risk Priority Number (RPN of the failure modes. The methods to eliminate or reduce the high-risk-failure modes are proposed.

  12. Analysis of graphic representations of activity theory in international journals

    Marco André Mazzarotto


    Full Text Available Activity theory is a relevant framework for the Design field, and their graphic representations are cognitive artifacts that aid the understanding, use and communication of this theory. However, there is a lack of consistency around the graphics and labels used in these representations. Based on this, the aim of this study was to identify, analyze and evaluate these differences and propose a representation that aims to be more suitable for the theory. For this, uses as method a literature review based on Engeström (2001 and its three generations of visual models, combined with graphical analysis of representations collected in a hundred papers from international journals.

  13. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y


    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

  14. Automated monitoring of activated sludge using image analysis

    Motta, Maurício da; M. N. Pons; Roche, N; A.L. Amaral; Ferreira, E. C.; Alves, M.M.; Mota, M.; Vivier, H.


    An automated procedure for the characterisation by image analysis of the morphology of activated sludge has been used to monitor in a systematic manner the biomass in wastewater treatment plants. Over a period of one year, variations in terms mainly of the fractal dimension of flocs and of the amount of filamentous bacteria could be related to rain events affecting the plant influent flow rate and composition. Grand Nancy Council. Météo-France. Brasil. Ministério da Ciênc...

  15. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Trigona Apicalis propolis extract

    Rosli, Nur Liyana; Roslan, Husniyati; Omar, Eshaifol Azam; Mokhtar, Norehan; Hapit, Nor Hussaini Abdul; Asem, Nornaimah


    Propolis is a resinous substance found in beehives. It provides beneficial effects on human health and has been used to treat many diseases since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to analyze the phytochemical profile of propolis derived from local T. apicalis species and its antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract of propolis was subjected to HPLC analysis to analyze its phytochemical profile. The propolis extract was later tested for antioxidant capacities by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. TPC and TFC were performed to determine the correlation with its antioxidant activities. TEAC for each serial dilution sample was 2621.15 (4.76 mg/mL), 2050.85 (2.38 mg/mL), 1883.27 (1.19 mg/mL), 1562.67 (0.59 mg/mL), 1327.82 (0.29 mg/mL), 1164.49 (0.15 mg/mL), 983.27 (0.07 mg/mL), and 944.79 (0.04 mg/mL). The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract were dose dependent. The IC50 of propolis for DPPH assay was 4.27 mg/ml. Correlation values of TPC and TFC against DPPH indicate that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract used in this study could be mainly influenced by the phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings highlighted the importance of quality analysis in order to ensure the consistency of biological effects or therapy of a natural product, such as propolis.

  16. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense.

    Gomez-Verjan, J C; Estrella-Parra, E A; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I; Rivero-Segura, N A; Vazquez-Martinez, R; Magos-Guerrero, G; Mendoza-Villanueva, D; Cerbón-Cervantes, M A; Reyes-Chilpa, R


    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) was administered orally to male mice (CD-1) at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA) and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755.

  17. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense

    J.C. Gomez-Verjan


    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1 mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1 was administered orally to male mice (CD-1 at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755.

  18. Physical Workload Analysis Among Small Industry Activities Using Postural Data.

    Rabiul Ahasan, M; Väyrynen, Seppo; Kirvesoja, Heli


    Small industry workers are often involved in manual handling operations that require awkward body postures, therefore, musculoskeletal disorders and occupational injuries are a major problem. In this study, various types of tasks were recorded with a video camera to chart and analyze different postures by computerized OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System). Collected data showed that poor postures were adopted not only for lifting or hammering operation but also for other tasks; mostly with bent and twisted back. The main aim was to determine the physical workload by identifying harmful postures and to develop recommendations for improving the existing situation. Forty-eight male workers from eight different units (M age = 37 years) participated. The performed activities were then divided into 26 subtasks. Altogether, 1,534 postures were selected for analysis and then classified into different OAC (OWAS Action Categories). From all observations, unhealthy postures, for which corrective measures had to be considered immediately (i.e., 10.6% classified as OAC III, and 3.3% as OAC IV), were found. The applied method was useful in determining the physical workload by locating potential activities due to harmful postures, providing a detailed description with analysis, and suggesting successful means to reduce postural load.

  19. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.


    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  20. Neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the analysis of fresh, pasteurised and powder milk

    Wasim, M.; Rehman, S.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.


    This study shows the application of semi-absolute k{sub 0} instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA), epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) for the determination of 21 elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sc Sr, and Zn) in different types of milk samples. The ENAA was required for the determination of iodine, AAS for Cu, Ni and Pb and the rest of the elements were measured by k{sub 0}-INAA. Thirteen elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, Sr and Zn) were identified in all milk samples. Ni was detected in eleven and Pb in two samples. Concentrations of most of the elements were within the ranges of the world reported data. The data was further explored by principal component analysis to find relationships between samples and elements. (orig.)

  1. Estudo comparativo entre as metodologias preconizadas pelo CLSI e pelo EUCAST para avaliação da atividade antifúngica Comparative study of the recommended methodologies by CLSI and EUCAST for activity evaluation antifungal

    Marcos Aurélio Stoppa


    Full Text Available The international organizations CLSI and EUCAST developed reference methodologies for activity evaluation antifungal. The aim of this work was to compare the recommended methodologies by the CLSI and EUCAST in the antifungal activity evaluation of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica and green propolis. The results showed that the MIC values determined by the EUCAST methodology were smaller than that determined by the CLSI. Nevertheless, both methodologies were satisfactory to detect and evaluate antifungal activity of the crude extracts and isolated compounds. The EUCAST methodology showed advantage by making possible to obtain results in less time.

  2. Análise dos óbitos em idosos no Estudo SABE Análisis de la muerte de ancianos en el Estudio SABE Analysis of deaths of elderly people in the SABE survey

    Flávia de Oliveira Motta Maia


    Full Text Available O Estudo SABE - Saúde, Bem Estar e Envelhecimento - foi coordenado pela Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde, envolvendo sete países da América Latina e Caribe. No Brasil, foi desenvolvido no município de São Paulo, em 2000. Para a amostra de 2.143 idosos, foi aplicado um instrumento, composto por onze seções, em duas fases. O presente estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar e analisar as causas de óbito dos idosos, durante o período da coleta dos dados do SABE. Do total de óbitos ocorridos, 55,3% pertenciam ao sexo masculino e a idades avançadas. A maioria dos idosos vivia acompanhada e não precisou de ajuda para responder ao questionário. As doenças que apresentaram maior incidência foram: aparelho circulatório, neoplasias e aparelho respiratório. Espera-se que os resultados desse estudo possam contribuir para a adoção de medidas preventivas que visem à diminuição dos riscos relacionados aos óbitos entre idosos.El Estudio SABE - Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento - fue coordinado por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, involucrando a siete países de América Latina y el Caribe. En el Brasil, fue desarrollado en el municipio de Sao Paulo, en el 2000. Para la muestra de 2,143 ancianos, se aplicó un instrumento, compuesto por once secciones, en dos fases. En el presente estudio se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar y analizar las causas de muerte de los ancianos, durante el período de la recolección de los datos del SABE. Del total de muertes ocurridas, el 55,3% pertenecía al sexo masculino y a edades avanzadas. La mayoría de los ancianos vivía acompañado y no necesitó de ayuda para responder el cuestionario. Las enfermedades que presentaron mayor incidencia fueron del aparato circulatorio, neoplasias y aparato respiratorio. Se espera que los resultados del estudio contribuyan a la adopción de medidas preventivas que visen la disminución de los riesgos relacionados a la muerte de los ancianos.The Pan

  3. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

    Andrzejewski Marcin


    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  4. Modeling and experimental vibration analysis of nanomechanical cantilever active probes

    Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Bashash, Saeid; Jalili, Nader


    Nanomechanical cantilever (NMC) active probes have recently received increased attention in a variety of nanoscale sensing and measurement applications. Current modeling practices call for a uniform cantilever beam without considering the intentional jump discontinuities associated with the piezoelectric layer attachment and the NMC cross-sectional step. This paper presents a comprehensive modeling framework for modal characterization and dynamic response analysis of NMC active probes with geometrical discontinuities. The entire length of the NMC is divided into three segments of uniform beams followed by applying appropriate continuity conditions. The characteristics matrix equation is then used to solve for system natural frequencies and mode shapes. Using an equivalent electromechanical moment of a piezoelectric layer, forced motion analysis of the system is carried out. An experimental setup consisting of a commercial NMC active probe from Veeco and a state-of-the-art microsystem analyzer, the MSA-400 from Polytec, is developed to verify the theoretical developments proposed here. Using a parameter estimation technique based on minimizing the modeling error, optimal values of system parameters are identified. Mode shapes and the modal frequency response of the system for the first three modes determined from the proposed model are compared with those obtained from the experiment and commonly used theory for uniform beams. Results indicate that the uniform beam model fails to accurately predict the actual system response, especially in multiple-mode operation, while the proposed discontinuous beam model demonstrates good agreement with the experimental data. Such detailed and accurate modeling framework can lead to significant enhancement in the sensitivity of piezoelectric-based NMC sensors for use in variety of sensing and imaging applications.

  5. Study of Rn-222 exhalation in phosphogypsum through the adsorption technique in activated coal; Estudo da exalacao de Rn-222 em fosfogesso por meio da tecnica de adsorcao em carvao ativado

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Campos, Marcia Pires de, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.b, E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The radon exhalation was estimated through the adsorption in activated carbon technique. Classified as TENORM, the radon exhalation determination on the phosphogypsum piles was performed through the adsorption ratio of radon in activated carbon, from the concentration of descendants of {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi obtained by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained in this work were compatibles with the values found in the literature

  6. Estudo termoanalítico de comprimidos revestidos contendo captopril através de termogravimetria (TG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC Thermal analysis study of captopril coated tablets by thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

    Giovana Carolina Bazzo


    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram desenvolvidos comprimidos de captopril revestidos com hidroxipropilmetilcelulose (HPMC, Opadry®, polivinilpirrolidona (PVP, Eudragit® E e goma laca. Foi realizado estudo termoanalítico do fármaco e das formulações através de termogravimetria (TG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. Através da análise das curvas DSC verificou-se que não houve a ocorrência de interação entre o fármaco e os excipientes lactose, celulose microcristalina, croscarmelose sódica, Aerosil® e talco, utilizados na formulação do comprimido. Através desta técnica detectou-se a possibilidade de interação entre captopril e estearato de magnésio. De acordo com os resultados obtidos através de DSC não foram observadas alterações na cristalinidade do fármaco decorrentes dos processos de compressão e revestimento. A termogravimetria foi utilizada para o estudo da cinética de degradação do captopril e dos comprimidos. Os parâmetros cinéticos foram determinados através do método de Ozawa. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve alteração da estabilidade térmica do captopril na forma de comprimido. A formulação revestida com HPMC foi a que apresentou maior estabilidade térmica, quando comparada às demais formulações de revestimento.In the present study, captopril coated tablets with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, Opadry®, polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP, Eudragit® and shellac were produced. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetry (TG were used to evaluate the thermal properties of the drug and the formulations. On the basis of DSC results, captopril was found to be compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium croscarmellose, Aerosil® and talc. Some possibility of interaction between drug-excipient was observed with magnesium stearate. However, additional techniques to confirm the results obtained are needed. There was no influence of mechanical treatment (tableting

  7. Análise de contingências de um portador de diabetes mellitus tipo 2: estudo de caso Contingency analysis of a type 2 diabetes mellitus pacient: a case study

    Camila Ribeiro Coelho


    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus é uma doença crônica e o seu tratamento é altamente complexo. Pesquisas têm surgido com o objetivo de compreender as contribuições do estilo de vida e dos fatores comportamentais no desenvolvimento e no controle da doença. O presente estudo realizou uma análise de contingências dos comportamentos de adesão e de não-adesão ao tratamento, buscando, para isso, relações de dependência entre eventos comportamentais e ambientais, a partir de um estudo de caso único com uma paciente portadora de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. O procedimento adotado para a coleta de dados foi a caracterização dos comportamentos de acordo com as seguintes categorias: mensuração da glicemia, administração da insulina, controle da dieta e prática de exercício físico. Os resultados indicaram a prevalência de contingências aversivas e demonstraram a necessidade de se ensinar estratégias de autocontrole ao paciente, e regras por parte da equipe de saúde, que descrevam as contingências em operação no ambiente.Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease wich requires a highly complex treatment. Researches have been done with the objective of understanding the role that life style and behavioral factors play on the onset and control of the disease. The present study aimed at analysing the contingencies involved in the behavior of adherence and non adherence to treatment of a type 2diabetes mellitus patient and the dependency relationship between behavioral and environmental variables in a single case study. The procedure adopted for data collection was the characterization of behaviors according to the following categories: glucemia measurement, insulin administration, diet control and the practice of physical exercise. Results indicate the prevalence of aversive contingencies and demonstrate the need of teaching the pacient self control strategies, and rules by the health team which describe the environmental contingencies in operation.

  8. Dictionary learning and sparse recovery for electrodermal activity analysis

    Kelsey, Malia; Dallal, Ahmed; Eldeeb, Safaa; Akcakaya, Murat; Kleckner, Ian; Gerard, Christophe; Quigley, Karen S.; Goodwin, Matthew S.


    Measures of electrodermal activity (EDA) have advanced research in a wide variety of areas including psychophysiology; however, the majority of this research is typically undertaken in laboratory settings. To extend the ecological validity of laboratory assessments, researchers are taking advantage of advances in wireless biosensors to gather EDA data in ambulatory settings, such as in school classrooms. While measuring EDA in naturalistic contexts may enhance ecological validity, it also introduces analytical challenges that current techniques cannot address. One limitation is the limited efficiency and automation of analysis techniques. Many groups either analyze their data by hand, reviewing each individual record, or use computationally inefficient software that limits timely analysis of large data sets. To address this limitation, we developed a method to accurately and automatically identify SCRs using curve fitting methods. Curve fitting has been shown to improve the accuracy of SCR amplitude and location estimations, but have not yet been used to reduce computational complexity. In this paper, sparse recovery and dictionary learning methods are combined to improve computational efficiency of analysis and decrease run time, while maintaining a high degree of accuracy in detecting SCRs. Here, a dictionary is first created using curve fitting methods for a standard SCR shape. Then, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is used to detect SCRs within a dataset using the dictionary to complete sparse recovery. Evaluation of our method, including a comparison to for speed and accuracy with existing software, showed an accuracy of 80% and a reduced run time.

  9. Técnicas de processamento de imagens e de análise espacial para estudo de áreas florestais sob a exploração madeireira Image processing and spatial analysis techniques to study areas covered by rainforest under timber explotation

    Fernando  Del Bon Espírito-Santo


    Full Text Available As atividades de exploração madeireira vêm sendo intensificadas na região amazônica, apesar dos esforços de controle e fiscalização por parte dos órgãos ambientalistas, que têm procurado estabelecer diretrizes para um uso sustentável da floresta. As imagens de satélite e as técnicas de tratamento de dados têm sido importantes ferramentas para subsidiar os processos de caracterização, inventário e monitoramento da cobertura florestal do país. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho objetivou analisar a influência da rede viária na distribuição espacial das áreas de exploração madeireira e, inclusive, quantificar esse tipo de prática em áreas de preservação permanente. Uma área situada no Mato Grosso (MT, com intensa atividade madeireira, foi utilizada como estudo, em que os vários planos de informações, derivados de imagens Landsat/TM, foram tratados por técnicas de análise espacial, através do uso de operadores algébricos de decisão. A análise resultante demonstra uma significativa relação entre as dimensões das áreas de exploração madeireira e a proximidade da malha viária e que a espacialização das áreas de corte seletivo permite verificar que essa prática também ocorre em áreas definidas como de preservação permanente, ao lado da rede de drenagem.Timber exploitation activities have grown significantly in the Amazon region, in spite of efforts to control and monitor made by environmental agencies, which are seeking to establish regulations for forest sustainable use. Satellite images and data processing techniques are important tools to subsidize the processes of characterization, inventory and monitoring of forest cover in Brazil. In this context, the objective of this study is to analyze the influence of the road net on the spatial distribution of timber exploitation areas, as well as to quantify this type of practice in areas of permanent protection. A test-site located in Mato Grosso State

  10. Utilização de estratificação e modelo de regressão logística na análise de dados de estudos caso-controle Using of stratification and the logistic regression model in the analysis of data of case-control studies

    Suely Godoy Agostinho Gimeno


    Full Text Available Exemplifica-se a aplicação de análise multivariada, por estratificação e com regressão logística, utilizando dados de um estudo caso-controle sobre câncer de esôfago. Oitenta e cinco casos e 292 controles foram classificados segundo sexo, idade e os hábitos de beber e de fumar. As estimativas por ponto dos odds ratios foram semelhantes, sendo as duas técnicas consideradas complementares.Data of a case-control study of esophageal cancer were used as an example of the use of multivariate analysis with stratification and logistic regression. Eighty-five cases and 292 controls were classified according to sex, age and smoking and drinking habits. The point estimates of the odds ratios were similar, and the techniques were considered complementary.

  11. EMG analysis of peroneal and tibialis anterior muscle activity prior to foot contact during functional activities.

    McLoda, T A; Hansen, A J; Birrer, D A


    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the pre-activity of the tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), and peroneus brevis (PB) prior to foot contact during three conditions. Twenty-six subjects (age 22 +/- 2 yrs; 15 male, 11 female) with no lower extremity injuries reported for data collection. Data were collected from each subject's dominant leg using surface electromyography (EMG). EMG electrodes were applied over the test muscles using a standard protocol. A heel-toe strike transducer was affixed to the bottom of the subject's shoe. The subject completed two randomized trials of walking on a treadmill (5.6 kph), jogging on a treadmill (9.3 kph) and drop landing from a 38 cm box. Isometric reference positions (IRPs) were recorded for the TA, PL, and PB. Muscle data were normalized to IRPs and the average processed EMG for the 200 ms prior to heel strike during walking and jogging and prior to toe strike when dropping from the box was used for analysis. A one-way repeated measures MANOVA was used to detect differences in pre-activity of the muscles between the three conditions. Univariate tests were used to determine differences for each muscle and Tukey's was applied post hoc to determine individual effect differences. The MANOVA revealed significant differences among the three conditions (F2.50 = 10.770; P < .0005). Average TA activity was significantly higher during jogging (Tukey's; P < .0005). Significant differences existed between each condition for the TA. Average PL and PB activity was significantly higher when drop landing (Tukey's; P < .0005). There was no significant difference between walking and jogging for the PL and PB. The amount of muscle pre-activity occurring before heel or toe strike provides useful information for the examination of reaction times to unexpected inversion during dynamic activities.

  12. Quantitative neutron capture resonance analysis verified with instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Blaauw, M. E-mail:; Postma, H.; Mutti, P


    The newly developed elemental analysis technique Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA) was verified by analyzing a prehistoric bronze arrowhead with both NRCA and Instrumental Activation Analysis (INAA). In NRCA, elements are identified through their neutron resonance capture energies as determined through detection of prompt capture gamma-rays as a function of time of flight. The quantification is obtained from the resonance peak areas. Corrections are required for neutron-energy-dependent dead time and self-shielding, the latter also depending on Doppler broadening. The analysis program REFIT, of which the intended use is the determination of the resonance parameters, was used to this end. The agreement observed between INAA and NRCA results indicates that the NRCA results obtained are accurate.

  13. Comparative studies of utilization of industrial electron accelerators and adsorption with activated carbon for industrial effluent treatment; Estudo comparativo da utilizacao de aceleradores industriais de eletrons e adsorcao com carvao ativado para tratamento de efluentes industriais

    Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Rela, Paulo R.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Las Casas, Alexandre; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Omi, Nelson M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    A technical and economical feasibility study was performed comparing the use electron beam and activated charcoal for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study was used synthetic solutions, prepared in laboratory with organic compounds standards, where the composition was focused on the critical organic contaminants usually presented in wastewater from petrochemical industry. For the sample irradiation was used an industrial electron beam from Radiation Dynamics Inc. 1.5 MeV - 37.5 kW setup in IPEN. The doses ranged from 5 kGy to 100 kGy. A common granulated activated charcoal in a fixed-bed absorber glass column was used to study the pollutants absorption performance. The results show that if the adequate irradiation dose was delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is, in aspect of organic removal efficiency, similar to the activated carbon process. (author)

  14. Administered activities of {sup 18}F-FDG PET clinics in pediatrics patients in Brazil- preliminary study; Atividades administradas de {sup 18}F-FDG aos pacientes pediatricos nas clinicas PET no Brasil - estudo preliminar

    Oliveira, Cassio Miri, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Silva, Teogenes A. da, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sa, Lidia V. de, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    A survey was conducted among the Brazilian clinical PET, with the purpose of investigating the activities administered to pediatric oncology patients and assess whether significant differences between the protocols adopted. In addition, this survey can cooperate to the suggestion diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in nuclear medicine. Although the methodology for delivering doses by most clinics be based on patient's weight, the results showed variations of up to 191, 6% between the activities administered in clinics, even for similar devices. The average value of the distribution of activities reported was 4.46 {+-} 1,6 MBq /kg. These data demonstrate the need for harmonization and optimization of {sup 18}F-FDG/PET procedures, as well as training for professionals involved in the clinical routine.

  15. Contribuição ao estudo fitoquímico de Dorstenia multiformis Miquel (Moraceae com abordagem em atividade antioxidante Contribution to the phytochemical study of Dorstenia multiformis Miquel (Moraceae with approach in antioxidant activity

    Luciana Balestrin


    Full Text Available Conhecida como carapiá, a espécie Dorstenia multiformis Miquel, Moraceae, é largamente empregada na medicina popular contra doenças de pele. Neste trabalho determinou-se a atividade antioxidante de substâncias isoladas, do extrato etanólico, e frações hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. Todas as amostras testadas apresentaram atividade antioxidante, sendo que a fração clorofórmio foi a que apresentou maior atividade antioxidante.The species Dorstenia multiformis Miquel, Moraceae, known as "carapiá", is largely employed in folk medicine against skin diseases. In this paper the antioxidant activity of isolated substances, from the ethanol extract, and hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions has been determined. All of the tested samples showed antioxidant activity, and the chloroform fraction was the one that presented the largest antioxidant activity.

  16. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity; Estudo da influencia do involucro protetor de contaminacao no frasco de radiofarmacos na medicao da atividade

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid {sup 137}Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of multimetallic accumulation in dolomites

    Zovko Emira


    Full Text Available The reason for exploring polymetallic ores, which are found in dolomite structures of the Veovača and Borovica zone near Vareš, lies in the fact that there is very little information about its chemical structure. The isolated concentrates that we analyzed from surface mines, have shown significant difference in quantity of trace elements. Deep probing of the whole area was not performed, but there are presumptions that there are roots of ore-rich dolomites in the areas of 30 - 40 km. The future concept of exploitation of these mines in the Vareš zone would probably require deeper probing. There are prospects for finding higher quality deposits with significant quantities of polymetallic components. By the method of neutron activation analysis the existence of mercury in amounts of about 0.4 % was confirmed. Because of the presence of mercury, these concentrates are not appropriate for pyrometallurgy, since it may result in environment contamination.

  18. The analysis and reconciliation of students' rebuttals in argumentation activities

    Lin, Yu-Ren; Hung, Jeng-Fung


    The present study investigated the guidance provided by science teachers to resolve conflicts during socioscientific issue-based argumentation activities. A graphical representation (GR) was developed as a tool to code and analyze the dialogue interaction process. Through the GR and qualitative analysis, we identified three types of dialogue reconciling strategies. The first one consists of teacher management, in which the teacher temporarily maintains the right to speak when students get mired in an emotional rebuttal situation. The second strategy involves the use of qualifiers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of an opposing argument. The third strategy consists of providing students with guidance to keep both parties (i.e. the students taking, respectively, the affirmative and negative positions) on the same discussion topic and can be used to assist teachers with forming broad questions that prompt students to conduct deeper discussions. These reconciling strategies were beneficial in that they helped students to argue in a more reflective way.

  19. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Actively Cooled Compound Gun Barrel

    WU Bin; XIA Wei


    when a gun fires, a large amount of heat is brought in the barrel. Erosion/wear and security problems(self ignition of the propellant) associated with this high thermal energy have to be solved owing to the use of higher combustion gas temperature for improved cannon performance and firing at the sustained high rates. Barrel cooling technologies are the effective measures for addressing this issue. In view of the importance of having knowledge of the heat flux, an approach to calculate heat flux based on measurements was presented and validated. The calculated heat flux is used as the inner boundary condition for modeling heat transfer in a 155 mm mid-wall cooled compound gun barrel. Theoretical analysis and simulated results show that natural air cooling is dramatically slower than the forced liquid mid-wall cooling, accordingly wear life of actively cooled barrel is increased and barrel overheating is prevented.


    Raul Fernandez-Rojas


    Full Text Available In this study we present a method of signal processing to determine dominant channels in near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. To compare measuring channels and identify delays between them, cross correlation is computed. Furthermore, to find out possible dominant channels, a visual inspection was performed. The outcomes demonstrated that the visual inspection exhibited evoked-related activations in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 after stimulation which is consistent with comparable studies and the cross correlation study discovered dominant channels on both cerebral hemispheres. The analysis also showed a relationship between dominant channels and adjacent channels. For that reason, our results present a new method to identify dominant regions in the cerebral cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. These findings have also implications in the decrease of channels by eliminating irrelevant channels for the experiment.

  1. Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong

    Jin-Ao Duan


    Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae, is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

  2. Activation analysis using {gamma} photons; Analyse par activation aux photons {gamma}

    Engelmann, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This report summarizes all the data required for using photonuclear reactions in the field of analysis. After a brief review of the elementary properties of nuclear reactions induced by photon irradiation, the main characteristics are given of high energy (E > 20 MeV) Bremsstrahlung sources. The principle of activation analysis based on the use of photons is given. Actual examples of the analytic possibilities are described in detail, in particular in the case of the determination of very small quantities (< 10{sup -6}) of C, N, O and F. The influence of interfering nuclear reactions is discussed. (author) [French] Ce rapport se propose de resumer l'ensemble des connaissances indispensables pour l'utilisation des reactions photonucleaires a des fins analytiques. Apres quelques rappels concernant les proprietes elementaires des reactions nucleaires induites par irradiation dans les photons, les principales caracteristiques des sources de rayonnement de freinage de haute energie (E > 20 MeV)| sont donnees. Le principe de l'analyse par activation aux photons est rappele. Des exemples concrets sur les possibilites analytiques sont developpes, particulierement en ce qui concerne la determination de quantites tres faibles (< 10{sup -6}) de C, N, O et F. L'influence des reactions nucleaires parasites est discutee. (auteur)

  3. Analysis of umayyad islamic silver coins (Dirhams) by using instrumental neutron activation analysis


    Islamic silver coins (Dirhams) running the period between 107 to 126 Hijri (726-743AD), which belong to the Umayyad Empire period, 41-132 hijri (661-750AD), were selected for analysis by using instrumentalneutron activation analysis techniques.During this period (105-126H),(724-743AD), the Caliph Hisham Eben Abdlemalek ruled the Umayyad Empire.Dirhams were irradiated in a reactor neutron activation facility.Levels of various elements viz.Cu, Ag and Au were estimated.It was found that the average silver concentration, the baseconstituent of the Dirham, was about 88wt%.Correlation between thecomposition of Dirhams and the historical implications was discussed.



    Helicopter is a complex dynamic system with many rotating components. The rotor blades operate in a highly complex aerodynamic environment. The vibratory hub load, which is caused by cyclic variation of centrifugal and aerodynamic load of the rotating blades in flight, is transmitted to the fuselage, resulting in serious vibration and noise of the structure. It is one of the most important exciting sources in helicopters.  There has long been a desire to reduce helicopter vibration and to improve its performance. Control schemes adopted so far can be classified as either passive or active control technologies. The passive technologies include optimization of rotor hub, blade and the fuselage, hub or blade mounted passive vibration absorbers and anti-resonant vibration isolators. One of the major disadvantages with passive technologies is that they are designed to provide maximum vibration reduction at a specific frequency; therefore, their performance is degraded significantly with changes in the operating conditions of the rotor system.  With the development of computer science and active control technology, increasing efforts have been devoted to active control technologies to benefit helicopter vibration suppression in recent years. Earlier studies include Higher Harmonic Control (HHC)[1] and Individual Blade Control (IBC)[2], which is aimed to reduce the vibratory blade load by oscillating the blade in pitch motion using hydraulic actuators. It is successful in suppressing the vibration of the fuselage; however, its application is limited by serious energy consumption.  To overcome these difficulties, a new concept in helicopter vibration control is the smart rotor system. In this scheme, actuators are embedded in composite blades. They are used to activate the trailing edge flaps in higher harmonic pitch motion to adjust the lift force actively. Under the regulation of a control system, the vibratory hub load can be counteracted actively at

  5. Active contour model based on force field analysis

    HOU Zhi-qiang; HAN Chong-zhao


    The traditional snake initial contour should be close to the true boundary of an object of interest in an image;otherwise,an incorrect result will be obtained.Next,active contours have difficulties progressing into boundary concavities.Moreover,the traditional snake as well as almost all of its improved methods can be easily obtained from the local minimum because snake models are nonconvex.An active contour model based on force field analysis (FFA),namely,FFA snake model,is presented in this paper.Based on analyzing force distribution rules of the distance potential force field,a standard is introduced here to distinguish the false one from contour points.The result is not considered as the final solution when the snake energy is minimal.Furthermore,estimation and calculation should be made according to the established standard;only then can the result be considered final.Thus,the snake is prevented from running into the local minimum.The simulation results show that the FFA snake model has a large capture range and can move a snake into the boundary concavities,and that it is able to obtain the object of interest's contour precisely.Compared with the gradient vector flow snake,this new model has a low computational cost.

  6. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals, 6-Year Exposure Analysis

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder


    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. The test uses nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated materials buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), Type 316L stainless steel (S31603), nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6 (A96061), and a zirconium alloy (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) are also included in the test. This paper briefly describes the ongoing test and presents the results of corrosion analysis from coupons exposed underground for 1, 3, and 6 years.

  7. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.


    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  8. Revisiting Greek Propolis: Chromatographic Analysis and Antioxidant Activity Study

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M.; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Machera, Kyriaki


    Propolis is a bee product that has been extensively used in alternative medicine and recently has gained interest on a global scale as an essential ingredient of healthy foods and cosmetics. Propolis is also considered to improve human health and to prevent diseases such as inflammation, heart disease, diabetes and even cancer. However, the claimed effects are anticipated to be correlated to its chemical composition. Since propolis is a natural product, its composition is consequently expected to be variable depending on the local flora alignment. In this work, we present the development of a novel HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS targeted method, used to identify and quantify 59 phenolic compounds in Greek propolis hydroalcoholic extracts. Amongst them, nine phenolic compounds are herein reported for the first time in Greek propolis. Alongside GC-MS complementary analysis was employed, unveiling eight additional newly reported compounds. The antioxidant activity study of the propolis samples verified the potential of these extracts to effectively scavenge radicals, with the extract of Imathia region exhibiting comparable antioxidant activity to that of quercetin. PMID:28103258

  9. Modeling place field activity with hierarchical slow feature analysis

    Fabian eSchoenfeld


    Full Text Available In this paper we present six experimental studies from the literature on hippocampal place cells and replicate their main results in a computational framework based on the principle of slowness. Each of the chosen studies first allows rodents to develop stable place field activity and then examines a distinct property of the established spatial encoding, namely adaptation to cue relocation and removal; directional firing activity in the linear track and open field; and results of morphing and stretching the overall environment. To replicate these studies we employ a hierarchical Slow Feature Analysis (SFA network. SFA is an unsupervised learning algorithm extracting slowly varying information from a given stream of data, and hierarchical application of SFA allows for high dimensional input such as visual images to be processed efficiently and in a biologically plausible fashion. Training data for the network is produced in ratlab, a free basic graphics engine designed to quickly set up a wide range of 3D environments mimicking real life experimental studies, simulate a foraging rodent while recording its visual input, and training & sampling a hierarchical SFA network.

  10. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)


    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  11. Coincidence Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    R.P. gandner; C.W. Mayo; W.A. Metwally; W. Zhang; W. Guo; A. Shehata


    The normal prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for either bulk or small beam samples inherently has a small signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio due primarily to the neutron source being present while the sample signal is being obtained. Coincidence counting offers the possibility of greatly reducing or eliminating the noise generated by the neutron source. The present report presents our results to date on implementing the coincidence counting PGNAA approach. We conclude that coincidence PGNAA yields: (1) a larger signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, (2) more information (and therefore better accuracy) from essentially the same experiment when sophisticated coincidence electronics are used that can yield singles and coincidences simultaneously, and (3) a reduced (one or two orders of magnitude) signal from essentially the same experiment. In future work we will concentrate on: (1) modifying the existing CEARPGS Monte Carlo code to incorporate coincidence counting, (2) obtaining coincidence schemes for 18 or 20 of the common elements in coal and cement, and (3) optimizing the design of a PGNAA coincidence system for the bulk analysis of coal.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.


    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.


    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  14. Rescaled range (R/S) analysis on seismic activity parameters


    The rescaled range (R/S) analysis, proposed by Hurst, is a newstatistical method. Being different from traditional statistical method, R/S analysis can provide the information of maximum fluctuation (range) of statistical parame-ters. At present paper, several modern instrumental earthquake catalogues in different spatial scale, temporal scale, and with different seismic activity background are studied, and R/S method is used to analyze the variation of range of seismic parameters such as earthquake frequency, and earthquake time interval. For different seismic parameters, the ratio of range to standard deviation - R/S is a power law function of the length of time, and the exponent H of power law is always greater than 0.5. As we know, H=0.5 is the characteristics of all ideal random processes. Our results indicate that earthquake series is not an ideal Poisson process, on the contrary, the earth-quake as a phenomenon bears dual characteristics of randomicity and regularity, and the greater H departs from 0.5, the more regularity the time series will show, and vice versa. With time scale changing, one can give the conserva-tive estimate of the fluctuation, which might occur in a relatively long time scale, only by using the limited and known time records.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center


    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.


    V. Narasimham


    Full Text Available As a developing country, economic and environmental performance has to be balanced in India. Green supply chain management (GSCM is emerging as an important proactive approach for Indian enterprises for improving environmental performance of processes and products in accordance with the requirements of environmental regulations. This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity,construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM requirements. This study examines the consistency approaches by Confirmatory factor analysis that determines the adoption and implementation of Sustainable supply chain management activities in small & medium scale industries. The requirements include Management commitment, customer coordination, sustainable design & production, green procurement and eco logistics for sustainable supply chains. This study suggested that the five factor model with eighteen items of the sustainable supply chain design had a good fit. Further, the study showed a valid and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the requirements of sustainable supply chains.

  17. Social-environmental fragility analysis for diagnosis of watershed in study of hydroelectric projects; Analise de fragilidade socioambiental para o diagnostico de bacias hidrograficas no estudo de empreendimentos hidreletricos

    Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Dzedzej, Maira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Samuel Torres de; Flauzino, Barbara [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba, (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)


    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the social-environmental fragility of a watershed where there is potential for installation of hydropower projects. The method includes dividing the watershed into sub areas (by analysis of similar characteristics) and, subsequently, the use of 23 indicators grouped into six social-environmental components (Water Resources and Aquatic Ecosystems, Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Physical Environment, Territorial Organization, Way of Life, Economic Base and Indigenous Communities and Traditional Populations), which together seek to portray all aspects involved in the fragility of the area. The technique was applied in the basin of the Coxim river in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, assuming that there is interest or the possibility of installing hydropower plants within its boundaries. The basin was divided into three sub areas, considering physical parameters (such as topography, rainfall and hydrology), which were ranked by calculating the fragility of each one of the social-environmental indicators. As a result, a map was created to indicate the sub areas more susceptible to damage and those which should be more resistant to the installation of impacting activities, such as hydropower plants. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the work of a multidisciplinary team can reduce the degree of subjectivity of the methodology and allow, (by modifying some considerations inherent in the partial calculations,) its application in other situations where the possibility of installing hydropower projects is not considered. (author)

  18. Thermal analysis of activated carbons modified with silver metavanadate

    Goscianska, Joanna; Nowicki, Piotr; Nowak, Izabela [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Pietrzak, Robert, E-mail: [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of the activated carbons from waste materials as new supports for AgVO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition of AgVO{sub 3} to V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag{sup 0} for the samples 1 and 3 wt.% Ag-V is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples containing 5 wt.% Ag-V decompose to vanadyl species as intermediate compounds. - Abstract: The effect of silver metavanadate doping on physicochemical properties and thermal behaviour of the activated carbons obtained from waste materials was investigated. The carbonaceous supports were subjected to carbonisation at 400 or 600 Degree-Sign C. The samples carbonised at 600 Degree-Sign C have much more developed surface area and porous structure than the analogous samples obtained at 400 Degree-Sign C. Impregnation of activated carbons with silver metavanadate leads to a decrease in their surface area and pore volume. According to thermal analysis (TG, DTG) in the samples containing 1 and 3 wt.% of silver metavanadate, AgVO{sub 3} is fully decomposed to do vanadium oxide and Ag, with no intermediate products, while in the samples containing 5 wt.% AgVO{sub 3}, this salt is decomposed to vanadyl species as intermediate compounds at 350 Degree-Sign C before the formation of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at 500 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, in all samples impregnated with silver metavanadate the nanoparticles of silver undergo crystallisation leading to reduction of Ag{sup +} ions from the vanadium salt to Ag{sup 0}.

  19. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study; Tratamento de efluentes industriais utilizando a radiacao ionizante de acelerador industrial de eletrons e por adsorcao com carvao ativado. Estudo comparativo

    Las Casas, Alexandre


    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  20. Detailed Analysis of the Interoccurrence Time Statistics in Seismic Activity

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Aizawa, Yoji


    The interoccurrence time statistics of seismiciry is studied theoretically as well as numerically by taking into account the conditional probability and the correlations among many earthquakes in different magnitude levels. It is known so far that the interoccurrence time statistics is well approximated by the Weibull distribution, but the more detailed information about the interoccurrence times can be obtained from the analysis of the conditional probability. Firstly, we propose the Embedding Equation Theory (EET), where the conditional probability is described by two kinds of correlation coefficients; one is the magnitude correlation and the other is the inter-event time correlation. Furthermore, the scaling law of each correlation coefficient is clearly determined from the numerical data-analysis carrying out with the Preliminary Determination of Epicenter (PDE) Catalog and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Catalog. Secondly, the EET is examined to derive the magnitude dependence of the interoccurrence time statistics and the multi-fractal relation is successfully formulated. Theoretically we cannot prove the universality of the multi-fractal relation in seismic activity; nevertheless, the theoretical results well reproduce all numerical data in our analysis, where several common features or the invariant aspects are clearly observed. Especially in the case of stationary ensembles the multi-fractal relation seems to obey an invariant curve, furthermore in the case of non-stationary (moving time) ensembles for the aftershock regime the multi-fractal relation seems to satisfy a certain invariant curve at any moving times. It is emphasized that the multi-fractal relation plays an important role to unify the statistical laws of seismicity: actually the Gutenberg-Richter law and the Weibull distribution are unified in the multi-fractal relation, and some universality conjectures regarding the seismicity are briefly discussed.

  1. Comparative evaluation of activity-based costing and variable costing: a case study at IPEN; Avaliacao comparativa do custeio baseado em atividades e do custeio variavel: um estudo de caso no IPEN

    Esteves, Josefina Maria da Silva SILVA


    This research aims to compare the results with the application of Activity Based Costing and Variable Costing methods in an administrative unit of the Brazilian Federal Government: the Radiopharmacy Facility of IPEN (Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research), which produces radiopharmaceuticals products and develops R and D activities. Faced with the need to adopt a more economical and managerial public administration, this research has provided information to assess which of the two costing methods proves more suitable for cost management in that unit. The research is exploratory and a single-case study. We traced about 80% of material costs by observation 'in loco' of the entire manufacturing process of technetium generator, which represents the main product in terms of production volume and revenues. The results show that the Contribution Margin Variable Costing of 29.12% is very close to the operating income of 28.86%, ahead of support activities, obtained by ABC. It is also noted that the operational result of the product does not change by using either one or another costing method. In the two costing methods the end result is 24.20%. This occurs because the production is on demand. There is no inventory of finished product because it is radioactive. The research has revealed that both methods provide useful information for the management and optimization of costs and results of processes/activities, and that the two methods, in this case, may be used in an integrated and complementary approach, enabling to use the best information content of both. (author)

  2. Análise clínica e estudo anatomopatológico do prepúcio de pacientes submetidos à postectomia Clinical analysis and anatomopathologic research on patient prepuces referred to postectomy

    Marice Emanuela El Achkar


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS E OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as características histológicas do prepúcio na presença de fimose e a incidência de líquen escleroso (LE como causa de fimose. MÉTODOS: O Estudo prospectivo incluiu 40 pacientes do sexo masculino com idade entre cinco e 14 anos, com diagnóstico de fimose e indicação cirúrgica como tratamento. Os pacientes - distribuídos em dois grupos em relação ao tempo de doença: fimose primária e secundária - foram submetidos à postectomia no Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão, e as peças excisadas, examinadas separadamente por três patologistas. De acordo com as características histopatológicas, os pacientes foram distribuídos em três grupos: achado histológico normal de pele, infiltrado liquenóide e LE. RESULTADOS: As intercorrências clínicas mais freqüentes relatadas pelos pacientes com fimose foram a balanopostite e a infecção do trato urinário (ITU. A maioria deles, 65%, não apresentou alteração histológica da pele; em 22,5% encontrou-se infiltrado liquenóide; e 12,5% dos casos apresentaram alterações próprias de LE. Predominaram os casos de fimose adquirida, representando 57,5% do total. Todos os casos de LE ocorreram nos pacientes com fimose adquirida. A principal indicação cirúrgica desta casuística foi a falência do tratamento clínico (45%, seguida por balanopostite de repetição (25%, estenose grave do prepúcio (17,5%, ITU de repetição (10% e doença urinária associada (2,5%. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, os autores concluíram que o LE, como causa de fimose, mostrou a incidência de 12,5%.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to analyze the histologic features of the prepuce with phimosis and the incidence of lichen sclerosus (LS causing phimosis. METHODS: Our prospective study included 40 male patients from 05 to 14 years of age, with phimosis referred for circumcision. The patients were distributed into two groups

  3. Estudos comparados, projeto histórico e análise de políticas públicas: entrevista com Hugo Zemelman Compared studies, historical project and a public policies analysis: an interview with Hugo Zemelman

    Nora Rut Krawczyk


    Full Text Available Conhecido pelo seu vasto conhecimento e experiência nas áreas da epistemologia e das políticas sociais, o professor Hugo Zemelmam aborda nesta entrevista os problemas metodológicos envolvidos nas análises políticas que trabalham com a noção de comparação nos processos históricos. Salienta o desafio da construção de um conhecimento sobre a realidade latino-americana que incorpore a historicidade dos diferentes processos nacionais, isto é, a complexidade dos fenômenos políticos, sociais, culturais e/ou econômicos no momento em que eles são abordados, e que não se restrinja à comparação de indicadores ou à elaboração de analogias, tentação, a seu ver, enganadora, na qual teriam caído muitos estudos comparados produzidos nos últimos anos.Renowned for his huge knowledge and experience in the fields of epistemology and social policies, professor Hugo Zemelmam tackles the methodological problems involved in the political analyses that compare historical processes. As for the Latin American reality, he highlights how challenging it is to build knowledge that takes in consideration the historicity of the different national processes, that is, the complexity of the political, social, cultural and/or economical phenomena of the moment they are dealt with. Such knowledge should not limit to comparing indicators or elaborating analogies, a temptation he considers as deceiving and that spoils many compared studies produced lately.

  4. Metanálise de estudos de bioequivalência: a intercambiabilidade de genéricos e similares que contêm Hidroclorotiazida é possível, mas não àqueles com Maleato de Enalapril Meta-analysis for bioequivalence studies: interchangeability of generic drugs and similar containing Hydrochlorothiazide is possible but not with Enalapril Maleate

    Renato Almeida Lopes


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O programa de genéricos no Brasil propiciou maior acesso da população a medicamentos. Para garantir a intercambiabilidade entre medicamentos referência e genérico ou similar, é necessário que eles sejam bioequivalentes. Com o crescimento do número de medicamentos genéricos, é comum que pacientes o substituam por outro genérico ou similar. Contudo, essa troca pode não garantir a manutenção da bioequivalência. Para avaliar a segurança na intercambiabilidade entre diferentes genéricos e similares com Hidroclorotiazida e Maleato de Enalapril, foi realizada metanálise de vários estudos de bioequivalência que utilizaram esses medicamentos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados provenientes de estudos de bioequivalência de genéricos e similares registrados pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa. A compatibilidade dos dados de cada um dos estudos foi analisada, e a determinação de um intervalo de confiança para as diferenças entre as médias dos parâmetros farmacocinéticos, área sob a curva (ASC e concentração plasmática máxima (Cmáx , foi feita para cada estudo por meio da metanálise. RESULTADOS: A intercambiabilidade entre as combinações dos três produtos com Hidroclorotiazida foi confirmada com base nos intervalos de confiança obtidos. Para os medicamentos com Maleato de Enalapril, a intercambiabilidade não foi confirmada em 50% das comparações estudadas dos produtos. CONCLUSÃO: A intercambiabilidade foi comprovada entre os três produtos com Hidroclorotiazida. No entanto, para o Maleato de Enalapril, metade dos produtos estudados não é intercambiável, uma vez que não contempla os intervalos preconizados pelos testes de bioequivalência; portanto, a resposta farmacocinética e, por conseguinte, a efetividade do medicamento podem ser alteradas.INTRODUCTION: The generic drugs program provided a better population's access to medicines. To ensure interchangeability between a brand

  5. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA): Technique of choice for nondestructive bulk analysis of returned comet samples

    Lindstrom, David J.; Lindstrom, Richard M.


    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a well-developed analytical technique. The technique involves irradiation of samples in an external neutron beam from a nuclear reactor, with simultaneous counting of gamma rays produced in the sample by neutron capture. Capture of neutrons leads to excited nuclei which decay immediately with the emission of energetic gamma rays to the ground state. PGAA has several advantages over other techniques for the analysis of cometary materials: (1) It is nondestructive; (2) It can be used to determine abundances of a wide variety of elements, including most major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), volatiles (H, C, N, F, Cl, S), and some trace elements (those with high neutron capture cross sections, including B, Cd, Nd, Sm, and Gd); and (3) It is a true bulk analysis technique. Recent developments should improve the technique's sensitivity and accuracy considerably.


    Alba S. B. Lopes


    Full Text Available Arquiteturas reconfiguráveis são dispositivos de hardware capazes de modificar sua estrutura de hardware de acordo com a aplicação a ser executada. Tais dispositivos surgiram como uma alternativa às soluções de hardware tradicionais na tentativa de equilibrar flexibilidade e desempenho. Uma das principais formas de utilização de arquiteturas reconfiguráveis corresponde a um bloco reconfigurável anexado a um processador hospedeiro. Esse processador é responsável por executar diversas tarefas críticas, incluindo o particionamento hardware/software e indicar o momento do bloco reconfigurável executar. Apesar de existirem diversas propostas de arquiteturas reconfiguráveis na literatura, pouco se estudou sobre o impacto do processador hospedeiro na arquitetura. Nesse contexto, esse artigo apresenta um estudo sobre o impacto do processador hospedeiro no desempenho da arquitetura reconfigurável híbrida. Como estudo de caso foi realizada uma avaliação sobre o uso dos processadores SPARC V8 da Sun Microsystems e Nios II da Altera como processadores hospedeiros da arquitetura reconfigurável híbrida RoSA. O objetivo deste estudo é realizar a comparação entre o desempenho desses processadores e identificar qual deles é o mais adequado para anexar a arquitetura em questão. Os resultados mostraram que foi possível alcançar até 47% de ganho de desempenho com o uso do processador Nios II em comparação ao SPARC V8, indicando o primeiro como mais adequado para a arquitetura RoSA. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: arquiteturas reconfiguráveis, processador hospedeiro, desempenho.

  7. Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues Estudo preliminar da atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Mentha x villosa Hudson, rotundifolona e seus análogos

    Thúlio. A. Arruda


    Full Text Available Essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. In this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson ("hortelã da folha miúda", its major component (rotundifolone and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+-pulegone against strain standards of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomona aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (171c from human clinic. The method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. The results showed that the oil of Mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of S. aureus and C. albicans. All of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and antifungal activity for C. albicans ATCC 76645. None of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, representatives of the Gram negative bacteria.Os óleos essenciais apresentam atividade antimicrobiana contra uma variedade de bactérias e fungos, incluindo espécies resistentes a antibióticos e antimicóticos. Neste contexto, este trabalho objetiva a avaliação da atividade de antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Mentha x villosa Hudson (hortelã-da-folha-miúda - seu componente majoritário (rotundifolona e quatro análogos sintéticos da rotundifolona (epóxi-limoneno epóxi-pulegona, epóxi-carvona e (+-pulegona frente a cepas padrão de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 e uma cepa de Staphylococcus aureus meticilina - resistente

  8. Isolation, characterisation and antibacterial activity studies of coumarins from Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae Estudos de isolamento, caracterização e atividade antibacteriana de cumarinas de Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae



    Full Text Available Six coumarins daphnin (1, daphnetin (2, daphnetin glucoside (3, rhodonetin (4, rhodonin (5 and umbelliferone (6 were isolated from the methanolic extract of Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae (aerial part. The compounds and their acetyl derivatives were screened for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-15187, Escherichia coli ATCC-8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 by microdilution method as compared to the reference ciprofloxacin. Compound 2 displayed the best antibacterial activity with MIC 125 μg/mL against S. aureus ATCC-29213 and MRSA ATCC-15187 followed by 4 which exhibited the MIC value of 250 μg/mL against all the four tested strains. All molecules showed better antibacterial activity than their acyl derivatives.Seis cumarinas dafinina (1, dafinetina (2, dafinetina glicosídeo (3, rodonetina (4, rodonina (5 e umbeliferona (6 foram isoladas do extrato metanólico das partes aéreas de Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae. Os compostos e seus derivados acetilados foram testados para verificar sua atividade antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213, Escherichia coli resistente à meticilina, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-15187, ATCC-8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027, pelo método de microdiluição, usando ciprofloxacina como referência. A substância 2 apresentou a melhor atividade antibacteriana com o MIC 125 μg/mL contra S. aureus ATCC-29213 e MRSA ATCC-15187 seguido pela substância 4, que apresentou o valor de CIM de 250 μg/mL contra as quatro cepas testadas. Todas as moléculas apresentaram melhor atividade antibacteriana do que seus derivados acetilados.

  9. Atividade antioxidante do beta-caroteno e da vitamina A. Estudo comparativo com antioxidante sintético beta-carotene and vitamin A antioxidant activity. Comparative study with synthetic antioxidant

    José Afonso PASSOTTO


    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade antioxidante da vitamina A na forma de acetato de retinol e de seu principal precursor, o beta-caroteno, adicionados a um sistema de óleo de soja previamente sensibilizado à oxidação. Os parâmetros utilizados como grau de atividade oxidativa foram: índice de peróxidos, teores de malonaldeído durante os intervalos de 24 a 72 horas, e perfil dos ácidos linoléico e linolênico após 144 horas de oxidação. Pelos resultados pode-se verificar que o retinol apresentou atividade antioxidante superior ao beta-caroteno. As determinações das atividades antioxidantes foram comparadas à do butilhidroxitolueno (BHT. A eficiência antioxidante da vitamina A e do beta-caroteno foram proporcionais às suas resistências à decomposição no sistema oxidativo. O acetato de retinol, a exemplo do BHT, mostrou uma rápida interação com os radicais ativos, pois já no início de sua adição ao óleo de soja, reduziu o nível da oxidação em relação ao respectivo controle.In soybean oil suceptible to oxidation the authors studied the antioxidant activity of the vitamin A as retinol acetate and the beta-carotene was studied. The oxidation index of the system was determined by peroxide and malonaldehyde values during the intervals from 24 to 72 hours and profile of the linoleic and linolenic acids after 144 hours of oxidation. It was observed that the retinol acetate had an antioxidant activity greater than beta-carotene. The antioxidant activity of retinol acetate and beta-carotene were compared to the butyl hidroxi toluene (BHT and was observed that the antioxidant efficiency was directly proportional to degradation resistance of them in the oxidative system. The retinol acetate, as such BHT, showed a fast interaction with actives radicals, in the beginning of the addition to the soybean oil, reducing the oxidation level when compared to the control.

  10. Representação social da pesquisa e da atividade científica: um estudo com doutorandos Social representation of research and scientific activity: a study with PhD students

    Edna Maria Querido de Oliveira Chamon


    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa os processos e conteúdos representacionais de doutorandos na área de ciências exatas com relação à pesquisa. Para isso, foram realizadas 26 entrevistas com alunos de diversas áreas das ciências exatas. Uma análise de conteúdo informatizada dessas entrevistas revelou uma classe de discursos ligada ao tema pesquisa, com uma nítida separação entre pesquisa fundamental e aplicada, além de considerações éticas sobre o "bom" e "mau" uso dos produtos da ciência e a responsabilidade do pesquisador com respeito a esse uso. Foi possível identificar nesse caso os processos psicossociais de objetivação e ancoragem, que estão na gênese da representação social da pesquisa.This paper analyzes the social representation of the concept of research constructed by students enrolled in a doctoral program. The social representation was obtained from the content analysis of a set of 26 interviews. This analysis showed a separation between basic and applied research, the presence of ethic notions about "good" and "bad" use of science findings and the researcher responsibility of this use. We were able to identify the basic processes that generate the social representation of research for this group.

  11. Highly sensitive index of sympathetic activity based on time-frequency spectral analysis of electrodermal activity.

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Álvaro D; Chon, Ki H


    Time-domain indices of electrodermal activity (EDA) have been used as a marker of sympathetic tone. However, they often show high variation between subjects and low consistency, which has precluded their general use as a marker of sympathetic tone. To examine whether power spectral density analysis of EDA can provide more consistent results, we recently performed a variety of sympathetic tone-evoking experiments (43). We found significant increase in the spectral power in the frequency range of 0.045 to 0.25 Hz when sympathetic tone-evoking stimuli were induced. The sympathetic tone assessed by the power spectral density of EDA was found to have lower variation and more sensitivity for certain, but not all, stimuli compared with the time-domain analysis of EDA. We surmise that this lack of sensitivity in certain sympathetic tone-inducing conditions with time-invariant spectral analysis of EDA may lie in its inability to characterize time-varying dynamics of the sympathetic tone. To overcome the disadvantages of time-domain and time-invariant power spectral indices of EDA, we developed a highly sensitive index of sympathetic tone, based on time-frequency analysis of EDA signals. Its efficacy was tested using experiments designed to elicit sympathetic dynamics. Twelve subjects underwent four tests known to elicit sympathetic tone arousal: cold pressor, tilt table, stand test, and the Stroop task. We hypothesize that a more sensitive measure of sympathetic control can be developed using time-varying spectral analysis. Variable frequency complex demodulation, a recently developed technique for time-frequency analysis, was used to obtain spectral amplitudes associated with EDA. We found that the time-varying spectral frequency band 0.08-0.24 Hz was most responsive to stimulation. Spectral power for frequencies higher than 0.24 Hz were determined to be not related to the sympathetic dynamics because they comprised less than 5% of the total power. The mean value of time

  12. Medical application of in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.


    The clinical usefulness of total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) was clearly established at an IAEA panel meeting in Vienna in 1972. It is best demonstrated by the studies involving the measurement of total-body calcium. This measurement provides data useful for the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disorders. It should be emphasized, however, that while most of the applications to date have involved calcium and phosphorus, the measurement of sodium, chlorine and nitrogen also appear to be useful clinically. Total-body calcium measurements utilizing TBNAA have been used in studies of osteoporosis to establish absolute and relative deficits of calcium in patients with this disease in comparison to a normal contrast population. Changes in total-body calcium (skeletal mass) have also been useful for quantitating the efficacy of various therapies in osteoporosis. Serial measurements over periods of years provide long-term balance data by direct measurement with a higher precision (+- 2%) than is possible by the use of any other technique. In the renal osteodystrophy observed in patients with renal failure, disorders of both calcium and phosphorus, as well as electrolyte disturbances, have been studied. The measure of total-body levels of these elements gives the clinician useful data upon which to design dialysis therapy. The measurement of bone changes in endocrine dysfunction has been studied, particularly in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In parathyroidectomy, the measurement of total-body calcium, post-operatively, can indicate the degree of bone resorption. Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly and Cushing's disease have also been investigated by TBNAA. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidney have also been measured in-vivo by prompt-gamma neutron activation and associated with hypertension, emphysema and cigarette smoking.

  13. Predictive Analysis of Landslide Activity Using Remote Sensing Data

    Markuzon, N.; Regan, J.; Slesnick, C.


    Landslides are historically one of the most damaging geohazard phenomena in terms of death tolls and socio-economic losses. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of landslides and how environmental phenomena affect their frequency and severity is of critical importance. Of specific importance for mitigating future damage is increasing our understanding of how climate change will affect landslide severity, occurrence rates, and damage. We are developing data driven models aimed at predicting landslide activity. The models learn multi-dimensional weather and geophysical patterns associated with historical landslides and estimate location-dependent probabilities for landslides under current or future weather and geophysical conditions. Our approach uses machine learning algorithms capable of determining non-linear associations between dependent variables and landslide occurrence without requiring detailed knowledge of geomorphology. Our primary goal in year one of the project is to evaluate the predictive capabilities of data mining models in application to landslide activity, and to analyze if the approach will discover previously unknown variables and/or relationships important to landslide occurrence, frequency or severity. The models include remote sensing and ground-based data, including weather, landcover, slope, elevation and drainage information as well as urbanization data. The historical landslide dataset we used to build our preliminary models was compiled from City of Seattle landslide files, United States Geological Survey reports, newspaper articles, and a verified subset of the Seattle Landslide Database that consists of all reported landslides within Seattle, WA, between 1948 and 1999. Most of the landslides analyzed to-date are shallow. Using statistical analysis and unsupervised clustering methods we have thus far identified subsets of weather conditions that lead to a significantly higher landslide probability, and have developed

  14. Analysis of Solar Magnetic Activity with the Wavelet Coherence Method

    Velasco, V. M.; Perez-Peraza, J. A.; Mendoza, B. E.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Sosa, O.; Alvarez-Madrigal, M.


    The origin, behavior and evolution of the solar magnetic field is one of the main challenges of observational and theoretical solar physics. Up to now the Dynamo theory gives us the best approach to the problem. However, it is not yet able to predict many features of the solar activity, which seems not to be strictly a periodical phenomenon. Among the indicators of solar magnetic variability there is the 11-years cycle of sunspots, as well as the solar magnetic cycle of 22 years (the Hale cycle). In order to provide more elements to the Dynamo theory that could help it in the predicting task, we analyze here the plausible existence of other periodicities associated with the solar magnetic field. In this preliminary work we use historical data (sunspots and aurora borealis), proxies (Be10 and C14) and modern instrumental data (Coronal Holes, Cosmic Rays, sunspots, flare indexes and solar radio flux at 10.7 cm). To find relationships between different time-frequency series we have employed the t Wavelet Coherence technique: this technique indicates if two time-series of solar activity have the same periodicities in a given time interval. If so, it determines whether such relation is a linear one or not. Such a powerful tool indicates that, if some periodicity at a given frequency has a confidence level below 95%, it appears very lessened or does not appear in the Wavelet Spectral Analysis, such periodicity does not exist . Our results show that the so called Glaisberg cycle of 80-90 years and the periodicity of 205 years (the Suess cycle) do not exist . It can be speculated that such fictitious periodicities hav been the result of using the Fourier transform with series with are not of stationary nature, as it is the case of the Be10 and C14 series. In contrast we confirm the presence of periodicities of 1.3, 1.7, 3.5, 5.5, 7, 60, 120 and 240 years. The concept of a Glaisberg cycle falls between those of 60 and 120 years. We conclude that the periodicity of 120 years

  15. Análise de peças anatômicas preservadas com resina de poliester para estudo em anatomia humana Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study

    Ítalo Martins de Oliveira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o uso da resina de poliéster na preservação de peças anatômicas para estudo da anatomia humana. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 150 peças anatômicas, sendo as mesmas não fixadas (frescas, fixadas em formol a 10% e moldes vasculares de órgãos injetados com acetato de vinil e a resina de poliéster. A solução utilizada foi composta de resina de poliéster com seu diluente monômero de estireno e catalisador (peroxol. Foram obtidos, após a inclusão nesta solução, modelos em resina transparente, que permitiam a plena observação das estruturas e conservação da peça utilizada. RESULTADOS: na avaliação das peças, foi observado grau de extrema transparência, promovendo uma completa visualização das estruturas com a perfeita preservação da anatomia. A duração média para a completa finalização da inclusão foi 48 horas. Apenas 14 peças (9,3% foram inutilizadas durante o preparo. CONCLUSÃO: a resina de poliéster pode ser utilizada para a preservação de peças anatômicas para o ensino da anatomia humana, de maneira prática, estética e duradoura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. METHODS: We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh, fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol. After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. RESULTS: upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3% were lost during the preparation. CONCLUSION

  16. Diálogos na dissertação escolar: um estudo sobre os enunciados de senso comum e de polêmica / Dialogues at the scholarly argumentative text: an analysis of consensual and polemical enunciates

    Rinaldo Guariglia


    Full Text Available Este estudo examina duas categorias dialógicas regidas pela argumentação nas redações argumentativas escolares, que respondem pela propagação de sentidos do senso comum (categoria de consenso e de sentidos que se contrapõem ao senso comum (categoria de polêmica. Há três matrizes dialógicas observadas em redações escolares: os diálogos do sujeito-produtor com outras vozes sociais, com a proposta de redação e, principalmente, com o interlocutor-examinador. Esses diálogos inserem um conjunto de propriedades que ora são manifestações da categoria consensual ora da polêmica, e estão de acordo com o exercício argumentativo do texto. Entre as propriedades dialógicas estão a aplicação de noções generalizantes, a organização de enunciados descritivos, a observação de um raciocínio lógico formalizado, o rompimento com a proposta de redação, a inserção de enunciados interrogativo-retóricos e o uso de paráfrases extraídas da proposta.This paper examines two dialogical categories of the scholarly argumentative text: consensual one (common sense enunciates and polemical one (opposed to common sense contents. Three dialogical matrices are investigated: the dialogue between subject-producer and other social voices, and text-proposal, and interlocutor-examiner. These dialogues insert a set of textual and discursive properties which are consensual category manifestations or polemical ones in accordance with the argumentative arrangement of text. Among the dialogical properties are wholeness enunciates, argumentative-descriptive enunciates, strict logical reasoning, breakage of text-proposal, interrogative-rhetoric enunciates and paraphrases from the text-proposal.

  17. Estudo retrospectivo dos níveis de ácido hipúrico urinário em exames de toxicologia ocupacional A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams

    Kelly Cristina Gonzalez


    Full Text Available O ácido hipúrico é o principal metabólito do tolueno, solvente amplamente utilizado em processos industriais e com importantes efeitos tóxicos, fato que justifica a preocupação em monitorar regularmente sujeitos com risco de exposição ocupacional a este solvente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de ácido hipúrico encontrados em trabalhadores submetidos à monitorização biológica. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com dados dos anos de 2002 a 2005, no qual foram analisados os resultados e a situação do empregado na oportunidade do exame (periódico, demissional e admissional. Os resultados indicam uma redução significativa nos níveis de ácido hipúrico em 2005. Exames periódicos obtiveram resultados superiores aos exames admissionais e demissionais, e não foi verificada diferença significativa nas proporções dos sujeitos agrupados de acordo com a situação funcional em cada um dos intervalos estabelecidos segundo o valor de referência e o índice biológico máximo permitido. Os níveis de ácido hipúrico detectados indicam um baixo de risco de exposição ao tolueno na população avaliada, provavelmente em decorrência da preocupação crescente com a implantação de medidas de higiene ocupacional.Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams. Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant

  18. O desempenho de idosos institucionalizados com alterações cognitivas em atividades de vida diária e mobilidade: estudo piloto Performance in daily living activities and mobility among institutionalized elderly people with cognitive impairments: pilot study

    DLC Oliveira


    and Go" (TUG test, and daily living activities (DLA via the Katz Index. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between mobility assessed by TUG and performance in the MMSE (Pearson's r = 0.234; p = 0.232. A positive association was detected between the elderly people's performance in the TUG test and their achievement in bathing, dressing and transferal tasks measured by the Katz Index (p = 0.039; p = 0.000; p = 0.001, respectively; ANOVA. There was no significant association between cognitive impairment detected by MMSE and the elderly people's performance in the five activities of the Katz Index (bathing: p= 0.774; dressing: p = 0.567; hygiene: p = 0.857; transferal: p = 0.824; continence: p= 0.947; ANOVA. Increasing age did not demonstrate any significant correlation with performance in any of the tests (TUG: p = 0.466, r = 0.144; MMSE: p = 0.841, Pearson's r = 0.040. Conclusion: The cognitive impairment of these elderly people, detected via the MMSE, did not have any association with their performance in the mobility and DLA tests. However, there was a significant association between their performance in the mobility test and their achievement in bathing, dressing and transferal activities.

  19. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, fatty acids composition, and functional group analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum.

    Ahmad, Sohail; Ahmad, Shabir; Bibi, Ahtaram; Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Kanwal, Farina; Zakir, Muhammad; Fatima, Farid


    Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL) and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL) of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00), stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10), and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02) divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%), eicosadienoic acid (15.12%), oleic acid (8.72%), and palmitic acid (8.14%) were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model.

  20. Multidimensional analysis and probabilistic model of volcanic and seismic activities

    Fedorov, V.


    .I. Gushchenko, 1979) and seismological (database of USGS/NEIC Significant Worldwide Earthquakes, 2150 B.C.- 1994 A.D.) information which displays dynamics of endogenic relief-forming processes over a period of 1900 to 1994. In the course of the analysis, a substitution of calendar variable by a corresponding astronomical one has been performed and the epoch superposition method was applied. In essence, the method consists in that the massifs of information on volcanic eruptions (over a period of 1900 to 1977) and seismic events (1900-1994) are differentiated with respect to value of astronomical parameters which correspond to the calendar dates of the known eruptions and earthquakes, regardless of the calendar year. The obtained spectra of volcanic eruptions and violent earthquake distribution in the fields of the Earth orbital movement parameters were used as a basis for calculation of frequency spectra and diurnal probability of volcanic and seismic activity. The objective of the proposed investigations is a probabilistic model development of the volcanic and seismic events, as well as GIS designing for monitoring and forecast of volcanic and seismic activities. In accordance with the stated objective, three probability parameters have been found in the course of preliminary studies; they form the basis for GIS-monitoring and forecast development. 1. A multidimensional analysis of volcanic eruption and earthquakes (of magnitude 7) have been performed in terms of the Earth orbital movement. Probability characteristics of volcanism and seismicity have been defined for the Earth as a whole. Time intervals have been identified with a diurnal probability twice as great as the mean value. Diurnal probability of volcanic and seismic events has been calculated up to 2020. 2. A regularity is found in duration of dormant (repose) periods has been established. A relationship has been found between the distribution of the repose period probability density and duration of the period. 3

  1. Examples of analysis by activation; Exemples d'analyse par activation

    Leveque, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    We were used various nuclear reactions to do some analysis by neutron or by X-ray activation. We used the french reactor core Zoe as neutrons sources and an Allis-Chalmers betatron as X-rays sources for the dosage of the light elements. The described processes were revealed fast and particularly useful for determination of traces. The fact that most of them don't require any chemical operations, is especially substantial when the solubilization of the sample is difficult. (M.B.) [French] Nous avons utilise des reactions nucleaires diverses pour effectuer des analyses par activation neutronique ou par rayon X. Nous avons utilise la pile francaise Zoe comme sources de neutrons et un betatron Allis-Chalmers comme sources de rayons X pour le dosage des elements legers. Les procedes decrits se sont reveles rapides et particulierement utiles dans la determination des traces. Le fait que, pour la plupart, ils n'exigent pas d'operations chimiques, est particulierement appreciable lorsque la solubilisation des echantillons est difficile. (M.B.)

  2. Estudo da atividade antioxidante do extrato e do óleo essencial obtidos das folhas de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. Study of the antioxidant activity and essential oil from wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf

    Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci Pereira


    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de antioxidantes naturais, extraídos de plantas, contribuem para a descoberta de novas fontes de compostos químicos. A alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. é uma planta conhecida por seus aspectos medicinais e pelo uso na culinária. A atividade antioxidante do extrato bruto e do óleo essencial das folhas de alfavaca foi comprovada através do método do tiocianato férrico. A porcentagem de inibição da oxidação lipídica foi de 96,89% para o extrato bruto e de 92,44% para o óleo essencial, ambos na concentração de 0,02%. O extrato bruto foi purificado através da cromatografia em coluna com sílica-gel e fase móvel hexano:acetato de etila em diferentes proporções. Para a identificação, foram utilizadas análises espectrais (infravermelho, ressonância magnética de hidrogênio e carbono 13. A substância isolada foi o eugenol, que apresentou 86,56% de atividade antioxidante. Alguns constituintes do óleo essencial foram caracterizados por cromatografia de fase gasosa, sendo o eugenol o principal componente (53,90%. Desta forma, a alfavaca apresenta-se como uma nova fonte de eugenol e, conseqüentemente, de antioxidante natural.The isolation and identification of natural antioxidants from plants contribute to the discovery of new sources of chemical compounds. Wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. is used as a herbal medicine and also as a culinary spice. The antioxidant activity of wild basil leaf crude extract and essential oil was confirmed by the ferric thiocyanate method. The crude extract showed 96.89% inhibition of lipid oxidation, while the essential oil showed 92.44% inhibition, both in a 0.02% concentration. The crude extract was purified by column chromatography using silica gel and different proportions of hexane:ethyl acetate as an eluant. The plant’s chemical compounds were identified by spectral analyses using NMR (hydrogen and 13C and infrared spectroscopy. The isolated substance was

  3. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Blaauw, M.


    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on {gamma}-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a {gamma}-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the {gamma}-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A {gamma}-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the {gamma}-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a {gamma}-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all {gamma}-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this `holistic` approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of {gamma}-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP).

  4. Study of a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute radionuclide activity measurement using plastic scintillators; Estudo de um sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a medida absoluta de atividade de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Piuvezam Filho, Helio


    The present work was intended to study a coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} for absolute activity measurement using plastic scintillators in 4{pi} geometry. Along with experiments on the coincidence system, simulations were also performed applying the Monte Carlo Method, by means of codes PENELOPE and ESQUEMA. These simulations were performed in order to calculate the extrapolation curve of the coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} and compare it to experimental data. A new geometry was proposed to the coincidence system adding up a second photomultiplier tube to the previous system for improving light collection from the plastic scintillator, as this system presented limitations in the minimum detected energy due to the presence of electronic noise and low gain. The results show that an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, as well as in the minimum detected energy. Moreover, there was an increase in the detection efficiency. With these modifications, it is now possible to calibrate radionuclides which emit low energy electrons or X-rays, increasing the number of radionuclides that can be standardized with this type of system.(author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis and provenance study of Tupiguarani Tradition pottery

    Faria, Gleikam Lopes de Oliveira [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/ CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Ciencia e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais], e-mail:; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/ CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail:; Ribeiro, Loredana; Jacome, Camila [Cooperativa dos Empreendedores em Acoes Culturais - COOP. CULTURA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Arqueologia], e-mail:


    Archaeology can fill the gap between ancient population and modern society elucidating the evidences found in archaeological sites. The fingerprint identified, that is the chemical composition of the ceramics, can help understanding this connection between the past and the present. The Tupiguarani Tradition vestiges found by archaeologists will be a way to know about the last two millennia of the Brazilian prehistory. This archaeological site is located along the coast of the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo, where the main evidence is a pretty ceramic with the occurrence of plastic and painted decoration. When the Portuguese settlers arrived in this region, in sixteenth century, several Missoes Jesuiticas (Jesuitical Missions) were built along the Brazilian coast. In spite of living within the Mission and been catechized, the Indians kept on producing traditional handicraft, as the decorated ceramic, however, they introduced European elements to the decoration. During the research expeditions made to the archaeological site of the Tupiguarani Tradition, many sherds were found. The identification and classification of ceramics through a multielemental chemistry analysis will be used to determine if they have the same origin. This paper shows the first elemental concentration results of the sherds collected from archaeological site determined at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 nuclear reactor, applying the neutron activation technique, k{sub 0}-method. (author)

  6. Design and Analysis of a Multiscale Active Queue Management Scheme

    Qi-Jin Ji; Yong-Qiang Dong


    Since Internet is dominated by TCP-based applications, active queue management (AQM) is considered as an effective way for congestion control. However, most AQM schemes suffer obvious performance degradation with dynamic traffic. Extensive measurements found that Internet traffic is extremely bursty and possibly self-similar. We propose in this paper a new AQM scheme called multiscale controller (MSC) based on the understanding of traffic burstiness in multiple time scale. Different from most of other AQM schemes, MSC combines rate-based and queue-based control in two time scales. While the rate-based dropping on burst level (large time scales) determines the packet drop aggressiveness and is responsible for low and stable queuing delay, good robustness and responsiveness, the queue-based modulation of the packet drop probability on packet level (small time scales) will bring low loss and high throughput. Stability analysis is performed based on a fluid-flow model of the TCP/MSC congestion control system and simulation results show that MSC outperforms many of the current AQM schemes.

  7. Environmental and Economic Analysis of Thermal Active Building System

    Paulo Fabiano Reis Lessa


    Full Text Available This paper is regarding one promising technological solution – which is so called Thermal Active Building Systems (TABS –for one of the most critical problems both in environmental and economic aspects, which is the raising energy consumption. Buildings are the principal application target of the solution once that population spends most part of their time inside them. Therefore, more energy is required to supply an increasingly demand in lighting, air conditioning, heating, electronic devices and so on. In this context, TABS emerge like a possible solution. To ensure the system efficiency or, in other words, prove its viability, it will be applied an environmental management tool (SWOT Analysis weighting all the pros and comparing with its drawbacks, based on previous experiences in implantation of such system, available in literature. A basic theoretical background, which is extremely important to a better comprehension of the system, covering both engineering and environmental management areas, is presented on this paper. Results shown that TABS are efficient mechanisms in the reduction of power consumption, committed with sustainable development, and which worth the investments in a Life Cycle Cost evaluation

  8. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  9. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN- SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  10. Low-cost activation analysis at small research reactors

    Westphal, G P; Lemmel, H; Niedermaier, M R; Joestl, K; Schröder, P; Böck, H H; Schachner, H; Klapfer, E


    A software implementation of a loss-free counting multichannel analyzer, storing immediately into the multimegabyte memory of a low-cost 486 or Pentium type PC, enables the real-time control of a rabbit system as well as the collection of up to 1000 pairs of simultaneously recorded loss-corrected and non-corrected spectra of 16 k channels each, in a true sequence without time gaps in between, at throughput rates of up to 200 kc/s. Intended for activation analysis of short-lived isomeric transitions, the system renders possible peak to background optimizations and separations of lines with different half-lives without an a priori knowledge of sample composition by summing up appropriate numbers of spectra over appropriate intervals of time. By automatically adapting the noise filtering time to individual pulse intervals, the Preloaded Digital Filter (PLDF) combines low- to medium-rate resolutions comparable to those of high-quality Gaussian amplifiers with throughput rates of up to 100 kc/s, and high-rate reso...

  11. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:;;; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  12. Analysis of competitive activity of qualified handball players

    Tyshchenko V. A.


    Full Text Available The results of competition activity of leading masculine handball commands are considered on Olympiad-2012 on the basis of estimation of efficiency of throws on a gate. Protocols of games are studied. Viewing of the videotape recordings of matches and analysis of reports of complex scientific groups which worked on Olympiad is conducted. The results of estimation of efficiency of throws of ball on a gate, executed from different positions are got. It is set that for 8 conducted games olympic champions (France, executed 363 throws on a gate (on the average 45,38 throws for a game, hammered in 229 goal (28,63 goal for a game and attained the greatest effectiveness - 63%. It is set that efficiency of throws of handball commands is expressly up-diffused in a descending order, in obedience to busy on Olympiad places. Directions the correction of the programs of preparation of skilled handballers and control of their implementation are offered for the collapsible command of Ukraine.

  13. Calculation of Raman optical activity spectra for vibrational analysis.

    Mutter, Shaun T; Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A; Blanch, Ewan W


    By looking back on the history of Raman Optical Activity (ROA), the present article shows that the success of this analytical technique was for a long time hindered, paradoxically, by the deep level of detail and wealth of structural information it can provide. Basic principles of the underlying theory are discussed, to illustrate the technique's sensitivity due to its physical origins in the delicate response of molecular vibrations to electromagnetic properties. Following a short review of significant advances in the application of ROA by UK researchers, we dedicate two extensive sections to the technical and theoretical difficulties that were overcome to eventually provide predictive power to computational simulations in terms of ROA spectral calculation. In the last sections, we focus on a new modelling strategy that has been successful in coping with the dramatic impact of solvent effects on ROA analyses. This work emphasises the role of complementarity between experiment and theory for analysing the conformations and dynamics of biomolecules, so providing new perspectives for methodological improvements and molecular modelling development. For the latter, an example of a next-generation force-field for more accurate simulations and analysis of molecular behaviour is presented. By improving the accuracy of computational modelling, the analytical capabilities of ROA spectroscopy will be further developed so generating new insights into the complex behaviour of molecules.

  14. Exergy Analysis of Human Respiration Under Physical Activity

    Jurandir Itizo Yanagihara


    Full Text Available

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of the human body under physical activity. A model of the respiratory system and a model of the thermal system were used for this purpose. These models consider heat and mass transfers in lungs, tissues and blood. Each component of these models is represented by a uniform compartment governed by equations for diffusion, convection, O2 consumption, CO2/heat generation and heat and mass transfer with the environment. The models allow the calculation of the exergy destruction in the lung and tissues, and the contribution of each entropy generation mechanism in the total generation. Furthermore, a discussion is proposed regarding the efficiency of the human body under physical exercise.

  15. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.


    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  16. Associação entre fatores sócio-demográficos e prática de atividade física de lazer no Estudo Pró-Saúde The association between socio-demographic factors and leisure-time physical activity in the Pró-Saúde Study

    Rosana Salles-Costa


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar a associação de fatores sócio-demográficos com a prática de atividade física de lazer (AFL. O estudo de base, do tipo seccional, foi realizado entre 4.030 funcionários de uma universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, através de questionário preenchível pelos próprios indivíduos. AFL foi obtida através da avaliação das atividades físicas praticadas nas duas semanas anteriores ao preenchimento do questionário, avaliada através da estimativa do Equivalente Metabólico semanal (EMS. Os valores de razão de chances entre fatores sócio-demográficos e AFL, e foram estimados através de modelos de regressão logística multinomial. As perguntas elaboradas para avaliar a prática de AFL apresentaram reprodutibilidade moderada, com o coeficiente kappa variando entre 0,45 a 0,88 entre as atividades avaliadas. A prevalência de praticantes de AFL foi maior entre os homens (52,2% homens; 40,8% mulheres. Tanto para homens como para as mulheres, quanto maior a escolaridade e a renda familiar per capita, maior a prática de AFL, quando se comparou o terço extremo de EMS com inatividade física de lazer. A prática de AFL foi maior entre os homens, sendo observado associação entre AFL e variáveis sócio-demográficas em ambos os sexos.This study evaluated the relationship between socio-demographic variables and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA. A baseline survey questionnaire was completed by 4,030 employees. LPTA was assessed as engagement in physical activities during the previous two weeks. The metabolic cost of LTPA was calculated based on frequency and amount of time participating in physical activities, assigning weekly metabolic equivalents (METs to each activity. Odds ratios (OR to express the relationship between socio-demographic factors and LTPA were estimated from multinomial regression models. The questions used to evaluate LTPA presented moderate reproducibility, with kappa

  17. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro


    é-sináptico. O objetivo da pesquisa é avaliar a capacidade da crotoxina em induzir paralisia transitória de músculos extraoculares e faciais em seres humanos. MÉTODOS: As doses utilizadas de crotoxina foram de 2 a 5 unidades (U, sendo que cada unidade correspondia a uma DL-50. Na primeira etapa, aplicou-se 2U de crotoxina em músculos extraoculares de 3 indivíduos amauróticos, candidatos à evisceração. Na segunda etapa, realizaram-se 12 aplicações de crotoxina em músculos extraoculares de 9 indivíduos estrábicos e amblíopes. Na terceira e última etapa, utilizou-se a crotoxina para o tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial em 3 indivíduos. RESULTADOS: Nenhum paciente demonstrou qualquer efeito sistêmico ou alteração da visão ou de qualquer estrutura ocular. O único efeito local adverso foi hiperemia conjuntival, que melhorou espontaneamente. Em 2 pacientes não houve alteração do desvio ocular após a aplicação de 2U de crotoxina. Observou-se em 8 das 12 aplicações, limitação do movimento ocular no campo de ação do músculo aplicado. A diminuição do desvio ocular com 2U crotoxina (9 aplicações foi em média de 15,7 dioptrias prismáticas (DP; na dosagem de 4U (2 aplicações foi em média de 37,5 DP e na única aplicação de 5U, obteve-se redução de 16 DP no desvio ocular. A alteração do alinhamento ocular manteve-se por 1 a 3 meses. Dois dos 3 pacientes portadores de blefaroespasmo apresentaram melhora dos espasmos hemifacias, os quais voltaram após 2 meses. CONCLUSÕES: Através dos resultados observados neste estudo, acreditamos que a crotoxina possa ser útil no tratamento do estrabismo e do blefaroespasmo. Novos estudos precisam ser realizados para confirmar a eficácia e a segurança da crotoxina como opção terapêutica para diversas áreas da medicina que atualmente utilizam a toxina botulínica.

  18. Estudo in vivo de atividade anti-radicalar por quantificação de peróxidos cutâneos In vivo antiradicalar activity by skin peroxidies quantification

    Rodrigo Fuscelli Pytel


    efficacy of a new high-activity antioxidant complex (tocopheryl acetate, licopene and a pool of chlorogenic acids rich in cafeic acid. METHODS: In this non-invasive and placebo controlled assay, the measure of the peroxide rates was performed in different areas, three after UV radiation, two treated, one non-treated, and an other non-treated and non-irradiated. The peroxide presence was detected through a fluorescent probe on samples stripped form the sites above mentioned. The free-radical scavenger activity is calculated through the fluorimetry results. RESULTS: Based on non-irradiated areas data’s, the irradiated and complex-treated areas presented skin-peroxide concentration 116% lower, statistically significant (p=0,02% compared to the non-treated irradiated areas. Although, placebo-treated irradiated areas presented skin-peroxide concentration 49% lower, a non-statistically significant rate (p=0,501% compared to the irradiated areas. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that studied-complex, have significant skin-protective action against the free-radicals, usually formed after sun exposure.

  19. In vitro studies of the anthelmintic activity of Picrolemma sprucei Hook. f. (Simaroubaceae Estudos in vitro da atividade anti-helmíntica de Picrolemma sprucei Hook. f. (Simaroubaceae

    Rita de Cássia Saraiva Nunomura


    Full Text Available 1300 ppm (1.3 g / L, water and ethanol extracts prepared from stems or roots of Picrolemma sprucei Hook. f. were lethal (85-90 % mortality in vitro to Haemonchus contortus (Barber Pole Worm larvae, a gastrointestinal nematode parasite found in domestic and wild ruminants. Neosergeolide and isobrucein B were isolated in 0.0083 and 0.0070 % yield from dry, ground P. sprucei stems (0.89 kg. Neosergeolide, isobrucein B and the anthelmintic drug standard levamisole all caused comparable mortality rates (68-77 % in vitro to H. contortus at similar concentrations (81-86 ppm. The anthelmintic activity of P. sprucei infusions (teas, alcohol extracts, and neosergeolide and isobrucein B, has therefore been demonstrated for the first time.Na concentração de 1300 ppm (1.3 g / L, extratos aquosos e etanólicos preparados a partir dos caules ou raízes de Picrolemma sprucei Hook. f. apresentaram letalidade (85-90 % de mortalidade in vitro para Haemonchus contortus, um nematóide parasítico do aparelho gastrointestinal de ruminantes domesticos e silvestres. Neosergeolida e isobruceina B foram isoladas dos caules em rendimentos de 0.0083 and 0.0070 %, respectivamente. Essas últimas e a droga anti-helmíntica levamisole provocaram mortalidade semelhante in vitro (68-77 % em H. contortus em concentrações semelhantes (81-86 ppm. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vitro de infusões e extratos alcoólicos dos caules, bem como da neosergeolida e isobruceina B isoladas de P. sprucei, foi demonstrada pela primeira vez.

  20. Um estudo de impactos do roteamento dinâmico de veículos em atividades de prestação de serviço A study of impacts of dynamic vehicle routing on services production activities

    Vitória Pureza


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, é analisado o impacto da utilização de métodos de roteamento dinâmico de veículos em ambientes de prestação de serviço, onde a satisfação dos prazos de atendimento do cliente é prioritária. Com esse objetivo, é proposta uma heurística construtiva/desconstrutiva, que, quando acionada por um módulo de despacho de veículos, elabora rotas em tempo real. O impacto da aplicação da heurística é medido frente a outros métodos, utilizando- se conjuntos de instâncias geradas aleatoriamente, com base em dados fornecidos por uma empresa do setor de bebidas do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados indicam benefícios substanciais em termos de nível de serviço oferecido.In this paper we evaluate the impacts resulting from the incorporation of dynamic vehicle routing and scheduling in service production systems where due dates for service are a priority issue. We propose a constructive/deconstructive heuristic, which is activated by a dispatcher module in order to obtain routes in real time. The relative impact of the heuristic application to other methods is analyzed by means of sets of randomly generated instances, based on the data supplied by a drinks company in São Paulo State. The results indicate significant gains in terms of service level.

  1. The use of triphenyltetrazolium chloride in the study of dehydrogenase activity of Brucellae O emprêgo do cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio no estudo da atividade dehidrogenásica de brucelas

    Milton Thiago de Mello


    Full Text Available Experiments for the investigation of dehydrogenase activity of washed cells of a strains of Br. abortus and another of Br. suis in presence of different single added substrates are reported. The activity was measured as the amount of formazan produced by the reduction of 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolum chloride acting as a hydrogen ions acceptor, at pH 7.0. In a general manner the dehydrogenase activity of Br. suis was much more intense than that of Br. abortus (fig. 5. In the conditions of the experiments Br. abortus oxidized L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose, glycerol, D-xylose, DL-alanine, D-fructose, and D-sorbitol. Brucella suis oxidized D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-glucose, D-galactose, DL-alanine, sodium acetate, maltose, glycine, D-fructose, and D-sorbitol. Glycerol was oxidized by Br. abortus but its oxidation by Br. suir was very slight. Sodium acetate and maltose were intensely oxidized by Br. suir but not by Br. abortus. The sites of more intense enzymatic acitivity were seen as small red colored round granules located in one pole of the cells.Com a finalidade de observar a atividade dhidrogenásica de brucelas, em presença de diversos substratos isolados, empregamos o cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (em solução aquosa a 0,1% como receptor de hidrogênio. Os substratos (em solução aquosa M 50 foram os seguintes: Hidratos de carbono: L-arabinose, D-frutose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-lactose, matose e D-xilose; alcoóis: glicerol, L-inositol, D-manitol e D-sobitol; ácidos aminados: ácido D-glutâmico, D-arginina, DL-alanina, L-asparagina e glicina; acetato de sódio. Empregamos suspensões de culturas de 48 horas de duas amostras típicas: Brucella abortus (aeróbica, nº 1 868, amostra B-99, Weybridge e Br. suis (nº 1 568, amostra SIG do Dr. S. S. Elberg, da Universidade de Califórnia. As culturas em agar, lavadas 5 vêzes em solução de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% ("resting cells" foram suspensas nessas solução salina de maneira a

  2. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)


    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  3. Imagem organizacional: um estudo de caso sobre a PUC Minas.

    Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri


    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa propôs conhecer a imagem corporativa, considerando sua importância para a administração das organizações no cenário atual de maior competitividade e de exigências por parte de segmentos do seu público. O estudo parte da formação da cultura e da identidade de uma organização, analisando estes itens como fundamentais na definição da imagem de uma instituição. Tomando a Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais - PUC Minas - enquanto objeto de estudo, utilizou-se como estratégia metodológica a pesquisa qualitativa, com a análise de conteúdo. O trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas: entrevistas com os gestores da Universidade e pesquisa de campo com segmentos de públicos de interesse tais como: professores e alunos de escolas de segundo grau, alunos de graduação e profissionais de recursos humanos. Observou-se que novas formas de relacionamento entre a organização e seus públicos de interesse foram criadas. Foram também implantados novos meios de comunicação – mais modernos, ágeis e editorialmente trabalhados – e estruturados novos processos de comunicação e interlocução, oportunizando melhor controle para a alta administração, da imagem da sua Universidade. Palavras-chave: Estudos organizacionais; imagem organizacional; universidade Abstract This research has purpose know a little more about corporative image, considering its importance to management of organizations in current context of higher competition and greater demand. This study came from the configuration of the culture and identity of organization, foreseeing those items as fundamentals to definition of any institution’s image. Taking the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais - PUC Minas – as object of study, the content analysis was carried out through a qualitative research - the employed methodological strategy. The work was conducted in two stages: (I interviews with managers, and (II field research with

  4. Análise econômica da ovinocultura: estudo de caso na Metade Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Economic analysis of sheep production: a case study in the south region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    João Garibaldi Almeida Viana


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo verificar os custos de produção e os seus componentes e a rentabilidade da produção ovina na Metade Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. A análise econômica de sete produtores teve a duração de 12 meses, compreendendo o período de agosto de 2006 a julho de 2007. Os dados mensais levantados consistem em todas as despesas e receitas e os valores referentes aos produtos consumidos nas propriedades. Foram realizados inventários patrimoniais e do rebanho ovino para o cálculo de depreciação e evolução dos ativos físicos. Os custos foram segmentados em variáveis, fixos, operacionais e totais. Indicadores econômicos foram formulados a fim de verificar a rentabilidade da atividade. Os custos variáveis e os de oportunidade foram as categorias que mais impactaram a formação do custo total. Dentro do custo operacional destaca-se o referente à mão-de-obra, sendo o grupo de custo que mais onera a produção ovina. A ovinocultura é uma atividade rentável, que é determinada pelo saldo positivo dos indicadores de margem bruta e renda operacional agrícola. Entretanto, a margem líquida apresentou valores negativos em todas as propriedades analisadas.The goal of this study is to examine the production costs and profitability of the sheep raising sector in the south of Rio Grande do Sul. The economic analysis included seven sheep farms throughout 12 months, between August of 2006 and July of 2007. Expenses, revenue and value of products consumed in the farm were measured monthly. Depreciation and physical assets were calculated based on patrimony and breeding stock inventory. Costs were divided in variable, fixed, operational and total. Economic indicators were computed to evaluate sheep production profitability. Results showed that variable and opportunity costs had the largest impact on total costs. In terms of operational costs, labor were the largest expense for sheep raising farms. Overall, sheep production

  5. Análise de fatores críticos de sucesso de projetos: um estudo de caso no setor varejista Analysis of critical success factors for projects: a case study in the retail industry

    Sandra Morioka


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender a relação entre os fatores críticos de sucesso em gestão de projetos e o resultado dos projetos, a partir de uma perspectiva contingencial, contemplando os diferentes tipos de projetos. A pesquisa de campo desenvolvida em uma empresa do setor de varejo foi feita em duas fases: análise documental e entrevistas para diagnóstico da situação de gerenciamento de projetos na empresa e pesquisa do tipo survey com questionário fechado aplicado aos principais envolvidos. Foram obtidos 43 questionários respondidos. Um dos resultados da pesquisa indica o impacto significativo da tipologia de projetos sobre o desempenho de determinados fatores críticos de sucesso, evidenciando a importância de se definir critérios objetivos de classificação de projetos. Foi possível ainda visualizar graficamente a relação entre o desempenho de cada dimensão de sucesso e os benefícios percebidos, a partir da adaptação do diagrama de Kano de satisfação de clientes usada anteriormente na síntese da literatura.Based on the literature of critical success factors and project success, this study aimed to establish a relationship between both from a perspective that concerns different types of projects. In the context of a retail company, the empirical research was lead in two phases: a project management diagnosis through document analysis and interviews; and a survey with closed questions applied to the staff involved in the activity of projects in the company. Forty-three usable responses were obtained. One of the results indicates the significant impact of project typology on the performance of most critical success factors, highlighting the importance of defining objective criteria to classify projects. Moreover, it was possible to visualize, graphically, the relationship between each success dimension and its benefits to the firm through the modified Kano-diagram of customer satisfaction, previously used in

  6. Film analysis of activated sludge microbial discs by the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis.

    Chen, M Y; Syu, M J


    A biofilm model with substrate inhibition is proposed for the activated sludge growing discs of rotating biological contactor (RBC); this model is different from the steady-state biofilm model based on the Monod assumption. Both deep and shallow types of biofilms are examined and discussed. The biofilm models based on both Monod and substrate inhibition (Haldane) assumptions are compared. In addition, the relationships between substrate utilization rate, biofilm thickness, and liquid phase substrate concentration are discussed. The influence order of the factors that affect the biofilm thickness is studied and discussed by combining the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis. In this work, a Taguchi orthogonal table is used to construct the series that is needed for grey relational analysis to determine the influence priority of the four parameters S(B), kX(f), K(s), and K(i).

  7. Elemental analysis of some Egyptian ores and industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis


    Elemental analysis of iron ore samples and first industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples from each kind were irradiated for a 48 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 4x1012 n/(cm2.s) in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-PP-1. Also the pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) attached to the reactor in Inshass, was used to measure the elements of short-life time.The gamma-ray spectra were recorded by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. The long and short lived isotopes were considered. A comparative study and a discussion on the elemental concentration values are given.

  8. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Sroo, A; Abdel-Basset, N; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Hassan, A M


    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12) n/cm2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The gamma-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  9. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M


    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The {gamma}-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  10. Elemental analysis of some Egyptian ores and industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Srror, A; Abdel-Basset, N; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Hassan, A M


    Elemental analysis of iron ore samples and first industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples from each kind were irradiated for a 48 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12) n/(cm2.s) in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also the Pneumatic irradiation Rabbit system (PIRS) attached to the reactor in Inshass, was used to measure the elements of short-life time. The gamma-ray spectra were recorded by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. The long and short lived isotopes were considered. A comparative study and a discussion on the elemental concentration values are given.

  11. Comparative study of antibacterial and antifugal activity of callus culture and adult plants extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae Estudo comparativo da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos obtidos da cultura de calos e da planta adulta de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae

    Marcos J. Salvador


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of callus culture (two different hormonal combination culture medium and adult plants (two collect extracts from Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae investigating the maintenance of antimicrobial activity in vivo and in vitro. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against thirty strains of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes. All the organic crude extracts studied were bioactive. Extracts of aerial parts and roots of adult plants collected during the same period of years of 1995 and 1998 (Restinga de Maricá (RJ, collect 1 and 2 inhibited the growth of several microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes with inhibition halo between 6 and 20 mm. Plant cell callus culture extracts obtained from two culture conditions were also bioactive. Thus, the positive results suggest that the A. maritima extracts should be further studied to determine the bioactive chemical compounds as well as to understand the possible mechanisms of action and evaluate their toxicity looking toward a pharmaceutical employment.Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica dos extratos brutos de Alternanthera maritima (Amaranthaceae planta in natura de duas coletas distintas e obtidos por cultura de células buscando-se averiguar a manutenção da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos obtidos da planta in vivo e in vitro. A ação antibacteriana e antifúngica foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar (técnica do poço utilizando-se trinta cepas de microrganismos indicadores (bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas, leveduras e dermatófitos. Todos os extratos obtidos com solventes orgânicos avaliados apresentaram-se bioativos com halos de inibição de 6 a 20 mm. Os extratos da planta in natura das duas coletas (Restinga de Marica

  12. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Jay Prakash Gupta


    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.


    Leandro Cantorski da Rosa


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso em que se implantou a ferramenta Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA emuma empresa atuante no segmento de transporte terrestre e aéreo de passageiros e cargas. O objetivo deste estudo de caso foideterminar, com a ferramenta FMEA, ações que minimizem ou eliminem modos de falha em potencial em um dos desdobramentos deserviços prestados pela empresa. O ponto específico onde se implantou a ferramenta foi na gestão dos pneus dos veículos de transporteterrestre de passageiros, pois falhas relacionadas a este componente aumentam os custos de manutenção da empresa e tendem a gerarinsatisfações aos clientes. Também foram utilizadas, incorporadas à ferramenta FMEA, outras ferramentas da qualidade como oBrainstorming, Diagrama de Ishikawa e Gráfico de Pareto. Os resultados do trabalho foram alcançados ao se determinar ações quetrazem consigo o objetivo principal deste estudo, isto é, o aumento de confiabilidade e qualidade do serviço prestado. Deste modo, arealização do presente estudo de caso proporcionou um maior entendimento acerca da temática proposta, além de mostrar aimportância da gestão da qualidade nos dias atuais e frente as crescentes exigências dos clientes.

  14. Estudo radiográfico do índice acromial e sua relação com as lesões do manguito rotador Radiographic analysis of the acromion index and its association with rotator cuff tears

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a relação da projeção lateral do acrômio com as lesões do manguito rotador (LMR na população brasileira. MÉTODOS: A projeção lateral do acrômio foi mensurada por meio de radiografias de ombros em sua incidência anteroposterior realizadas com a cavidade glenoidal em seu perfil absoluto e a cabeça do úmero em rotação neutra ou medial. Foi aferido o índice acromial (IA pela razão entre a distância do plano da cavidade glenoidal ao extremo lateral do acrômio e a distância do plano da cavidade glenoidal ao extremo lateral da cabeça do úmero. Este índice foi mensurado em 83 indivíduos (idade média de 54 anos com LMR e comparados com um grupo de 28 indivíduos (idade média de 48 anos que não as apresentavam. A presença ou ausência de LMR foi evidenciada por meio de ressonância magnética. RESULTADOS: O IA médio foi de 0,7194 nos pacientes com LMR e de 0,6677 nos indivíduos que não a apresentavam na população brasileira. Essa diferença foi estatisticamente significativa com um p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: Pode-se estabelecer relação do IA e lesão do manguito rotador na população brasileira.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between lateral extension of the acromion and rotator cuff tears (RCT in the Brazilian population. METHODS: Lateral extension of the acromion was measured using anteroposterior radiographs of the shoulders, carried out with glenoid cavity in the absolute profile and the humeral head in neutral or internal rotation. The acromion index (AI was defined by the ratio of the distance from the glenoid cavity to the lateral border of the acromion, and the distance from the glenoid cavity to the lateral border of the humeral head. This index was measured in 83 patients with (average age 54 years with RCT and compared with a group with 28 patients (average age 48 years without RCT. The presence or absence of RCT was defined by

  15. Estudo dopplerfluxométrico das artérias uterinas antes e após inserção do DIU Color doppler flow analysis of the uterine arteries before and after DIU insertion

    Marco Aurélio Martins de Souza


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: averiguar se ocorrem alterações nos parâmetros da dopplervelocimetria em usuárias do dispositivo intra-uterino (DIU T cobre 380, por meio do estudo das artérias uterinas antes e depois da inserção do DIU em mulheres lactantes e não lactantes. MÉTODOS: ensaio clínico prospectivo, analítico, com 100 pacientes, em que avaliamos à dopplervelocimetria: índice de resistência (IR, índice de pulsatilidade (IP e relação sístole/diástole (SD. As pacientes selecionadas foram submetidas à avaliação pré-inserção do DIU e a novos exames pós-inserção, realizados com 30 dias (um ciclo e com 90 dias (três ciclos. RESULTADOS: os valores obtidos nas artérias uterinas no grupo antes da inserção do DIU foram de 0,9 para o IR, de 2,4 para o IP e de 10,0 para a relação SD. Os valores 30 dias após a inserção do DIU foram de 0,9 para o IR, de 2,5 para o IP e de 10,7 para a relação SD. Após três ciclos aferimos um valor de 0,9 para o IR, de 2,5 para o IP e de 10,7 para a relação SD. A comparação dos resultados obtidos antes e depois da inserção do DIU mostrou valor p de 0,51 para o IR, de 0,37 para o IP e de 0,51 para a relação SD, demonstrando que após a inserção, não houve modificações significativas na dopplervelocimetria. CONCLUSÕES: o uso do DIU T cobre 380 não tem efeito nos índices de dopplervelocimetria das artérias uterinas tanto em pacientes amamentando ou não.OBJECTIVE: to observe if there is any alteration in the Dopplervelocimetry of the uterine arteries of nursing and not nursing women after the insertion of the copper T 380 intrauterine device (IUD. METHODS: prospective, analytical, self-paired clinical assay, with 100 patients in whom we evaluated the color doppler flow: resistance index (RI, pulsative index (PI and systole/diastole (SD ratio. Nursing and not nursing women were assessed before IUD insertion as well as 30 days (one cycle and 90 days (three cycles after the insertion

  16. Zootecnia de precisão: análise de imagens no estudo do comportamento de frangos de corte em estresse térmico Precision animal production: image analysis to study broiler's behavior under stress conditions

    Kelly B. Sevegnani


    Full Text Available A preocupação em se atingir níveis de bem-estar para que a produção avícola seja maximizada vem, ao longo desses últimos anos, ganhando maior importância pela complexidade com que os fatores de produção estão correlacionados. Há um número grande de variáveis influenciando o microclima dentro de uma instalação, e conhecer sua interferência na produtividade final é determinante para uma compreensão melhor dos fenômenos ambientais. A manutenção do conforto térmico dentro dos aviários é um dos problemas enfrentados pelos produtores avícolas. As aves respondem de maneira diferente, dependendo da condição de temperatura e umidade relativa internas. A ingestão de ração e água são influenciadas também pelas mesmas condições razão por que se fez, neste trabalho, a avaliação do comportamento de frangos de corte submetidos a diversas combinações de temperatura e umidade em câmara climática, monitorados por câmeras de vídeo, possibilitando o monitoramento individual das aves no estudo de seu comportamento ingestivo. Os resultados mostraram que, quanto maior a temperatura e mais velha a ave, maior foi a ingestão de água e menor a ingestão de ração.The concern about comfort levels in poultry production is increased during the recent years, gaining more importance due to complexity with which the production factors are correlated. A great number of climatic factors affect the environment inside the animal housing and to know it's influence on final production is determinent for better understanding of environmental phenomena. The maintenance of thermal comfort inside the poultry houses is one of the problems faced by the broiler producers. The birds respond in different ways depending on the conditions of internal temperature and relative humidity. The ingestion of ration and water is also influenced by the same conditions, reason for which, in this study, an evalution of behavior of broilers submitted to

  17. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia-an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian N;


    . Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity....... Hum Brain Mapp 37:547-557, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  18. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.


    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  19. Proximate analysis for determination of micropores in granulated activated carbon

    Berman, Ya. G.; Nikolaev, V.B.; Shepelev, A.N.


    A method is discussed for determining the specific micropore volume of granulated activated carbon used for water treatment in Soviet coking plants. Toluene molecules with a diameter of 0.67 nm are sorbed by activated carbon with micropore diameter ranging from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Therefore, sorptive properties of activated carbon in relation to toluene supply information on micropore volume in carbon. A formula which describes this relation is derived. The method for determining micropore volume on the basis of toluene adsorption was tested using 8 types of activated carbon produced from coal and petroleum. Types of activated carbon characterized by the highest adsorption were selected. 1 ref.

  20. Estudo forense do sémen

    Vaz, Josiana A.; Chelas, S.; S Santos; Queirós, B.; Gonçalves, A.; Pereira, M.; Alves, Maria José


    O estudo dos fluidos seminais na cena do crime está directamente ligado a crimes de índole sexual, sendo este de importância vital aquando da reconstrução do acto do crime e na identificação do agressor. O sémen é segregado pelos órgãos reprodutores masculinos, sendo o suporte líquido dos espermatozóides. Segundo Pinheiro (2008), este vestígio pode ser encontrado em manchas no vestuário, lençóis, almofadas, móveis, chão, veículos, tapetes, entre outros. O sémen, antes de secar, possui um o...

  1. O estudo do comportamento verbal no Brasil

    Adriana Pineiro Fidalgo

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho realizou uma revisão histórica de dissertações de mestrado e teses de doutorado brasileiras sobre comportamento verbal, com base na proposta Skinneriana (1957/1992, produzidas entre 1968 e 2012. Foram investigados: a tipo de trabalho (dissertação ou tese, b universidades em que os trabalhos foram defendidos, c orientadores, d linha de pesquisa (básica, aplicada ou histórico-conceitual, e metodologia (descritiva ou experimental, e f temas de investigação. No total, 177 dissertações e 53 teses sobre comportamento verbal foram identificadas. Os resultados indicam que o estudo do comportamento verbal, no Brasil, estabeleceu-se como programa de pesquisa e cresceu ao longo dos anos.

  2. Estudo do teor de alicina em alho

    Mendes, Patrícia Alexandra Pinto


    A alicina (dialil-tiosulfinato) é o componente biológico mais activo no alho com inúmeras aplicações a nível da saúde, já conhecida desde décadas. Existem actualmente diversos métodos publicados para a determinação do teor de alicina no alho por HPLC e espectrofotometria. No entanto, os resultados mostram discordância no teor de alicina medido pelos vários métodos. Este estudo tem por objectivo a determinação do teor de alicina por métodos de HPLC e espectrofotometria; e com...

  3. Analysis of static safety of power systems: a study about contingencies selection criteria in the reactive subproblem; Analise de seguranca estatica de sistemas de potencia: um estudo sobre criterios de selecao de contingencias no subproblema reativo

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos


    The main objective of static safety's analysis in power systems is the determination of the level of gravity of the different contingencies that can occur in a system. Habitually, static safety's analysis is divided in two parts: selection and analysis of contingencies. In this work, they are studied several criteria of selection of applicable contingencies to the sub-problem reactive and are introduced comparisons among results provided by different criteria. They are also studied several forms of evaluation of the impact caused by contingencies on the power systems reactive profile.


    Sridhar Neralla


    Full Text Available This work puts forward a novel technique for evidence analysis that assist cyber forensics expert for analyzing cyber crime episode in an effective manner. Novelty in Evidence Activity Analysis Graph is reflection of activities involved in the cyber crime that are represented as nodes along with stylometric analysis. In this pieceof work email based cyber crime incident is considered for study and that incident is represented in Evidence Activity Analysis Graph to fix the suspect. Comparisons between various graphs that are used in cyber forensics were also discussed in this paper. This model establishes relationships between various activities that were happened in the cyber crime.

  5. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis


    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted,moderately and highly polluted soils.The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA),in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1).The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system.The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 kev was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination.Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 + 5.1 ppm.Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 + 32.6 ppm.The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 + 54.4 ppm,were observed in soil samples collected from,either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  6. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis.

    Abdel-Sabour, M F; Abdel-Basset, N


    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted, moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA), in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1). The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 keV was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination. Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 +/- 5.1 ppm. Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 +/- 32.6 ppm. The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 +/- 54.4 ppm, were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  7. Application of spectral decomposition analysis to in vivo quantification of aluminum by neutron activation analysis

    Comsa, D.C. E-mail:; Prestwich, W.V.; McNeill, F.E.; Byun, S.H


    The toxic effects of aluminum are cumulative and result in painful forms of renal osteodystrophy, most notably adynamic bone disease and osteomalacia, but also other forms of disease. The Trace Element Group at McMaster University has developed an accelerator-based in vivo procedure for detecting aluminum body burden by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Further refining of the method was necessary for increasing its sensitivity. In this context, the present study proposes an improved algorithm for data analysis, based on spectral decomposition. A new minimum detectable limit (MDL) of (0.7{+-}0.1) mg Al was reached for a local dose of (20{+-}1) mSv. The study also addresses the feasibility of a new data acquisition technique, the electronic rejection of the coincident events detected by a NaI(Tl) system. It is expected that the application of this technique, together with spectral decomposition analysis, would provide an acceptable MDL for the method to be valuable in a clinical setting.

  8. Chronic electromyographic analysis of circadian locomotor activity in crayfish.

    Tomina, Yusuke; Kibayashi, Akihiro; Yoshii, Taishi; Takahata, Masakazu


    Animals generally exhibit circadian rhythms of locomotor activity. They initiate locomotor behavior not only reflexively in response to external stimuli but also spontaneously in the absence of any specific stimulus. The neuronal mechanisms underlying circadian locomotor activity can, therefore, be based on the rhythmic changes in either reflexive efficacy or endogenous activity. In crayfish Procambarus clarkii, it can be determined by analyzing electromyographic (EMG) patterns of walking legs whether the walking behavior is initiated reflexively or spontaneously. In this study, we examined quantitatively the leg muscle activity that underlies the locomotor behavior showing circadian rhythms in crayfish. We newly developed a chronic EMG recording system that allowed the animal to freely behave under a tethered condition for more than 10 days. In the LD condition in which the animals exhibited LD entrainment, the rhythmic burst activity of leg muscles for stepping behavior was preceded by non-rhythmic tonic activation that lasted for 1323±488ms when the animal initiated walking. In DD and LL free-running conditions, the pre-burst activation lasted for 1779±31 and 1517±39ms respectively. In the mechanical stimulus-evoked walking, the pre-burst activation ended within 79±6ms. These data suggest that periodic changes in the crayfish locomotor activity under the condition of LD entrainment or free-running are based on activity changes in the spontaneous initiation mechanism of walking behavior rather than those in the sensori-motor pathway connecting mechanoreceptors with leg movements.

  9. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: meta-analysis and meta-regression of 13,524 patients from randomized trials Cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica com CEC versus sem CEC: meta-análise e meta-regressão de 13.524 pacientes de estudos randomizados

    Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira Sá


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most recent published meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs showed that off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG reduces incidence of stroke by 30% compared with on-pump CABG, but showed no difference in other outcomes. New RCTs were published, indicating need of new meta-analysis to investigate pooled results adding these further studies. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for RCTs that compared outcomes (30-day mortality for all-cause, myocardial infarction or stroke between off-pump versus on-pump CABG until May 2012. The principal summary measures were relative risk (RR with 95% Confidence Interval (CI and P values (considered statistically significant when INTRODUÇÃO: A meta-análise mais recente de estudos randomizados controlados (ERC mostrou que cirurgia de revascularização (CRM sem circulação extracorpórea (CEC reduz a incidência de acidente vascular cerebral em 30% em comparação com CRM com CEC, mas não mostrou diferença em outros resultados. Novos ERCs foram publicados, indicando necessidade de nova meta-análise para investigar resultados agrupados adicionando esses estudos. MÉTODOS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL / CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar e listas de referências de artigos relevantes foram pesquisados para ERCs que compararam os resultados de 30 dias (mortalidade por todas as causas, infarto do miocárdio ou acidente vascular cerebral - AVC entre CRM com CEC versus sem CEC até maio de 2012. As medidas sumárias principais foram o risco relativo (RR com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC e os valores de P (considerado estatisticamente significativo quando <0,05. Os RR foram combinados entre os estudos usando modelo de efeito randômico de DerSimonian-Laird. Meta-análise e meta-regressão foram concluídas usando o software versão Meta-Análise Abrangente 2 (Biostat Inc., Englewood

  10. Antibacterial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Vitex mollis fruit

    Delgado-Vargas Francisco


    Full Text Available The pulp of the Vitex mollis fruit is edible and traditionally used to treat diarrhoea. The antibacterial activity of this fruit is reported here for the first time. The fruit pulp was extracted with methanol (ME and the extract was fractionated with solvents. ME and their fractions [hexanic (HF, chloroformic (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF] were assayed against human pathogenic bacteria (microdilution test and their phytochemicals determined (qualitative chemical determinations. The samples (i.e., ME, HE, CF, EAF and AqF showed antibacterial activity; EAF was the most active, showing such activity against Shigella dysenteriae [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC=2 mg/ml]. Phenolics were mainly found in ME and EAF; compounds of this chemical family are well known for their antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. The reported antibacterial activity and phenolics content of V. mollis fruit could be associated with its use in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  11. contribuições para o estudo dos trabalhos de Barbara Kruger, Richard Prince, Cindy Sherman

    Umbelino, Ana Patricia Romão Barreira, 1977-


    Tese de mestrado, Estudos curatoriais, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2012 In the late seventies and extending to the eighties of the twentieth century, critical discourse in American visual arts has linked to the post-structuralism theories and observes a disidentification of the artistic activity with the assumptions of the hegemonic modernism. Occurring within that time, the exhibition named Pictures provided guidelines to this statement by pointing out a number of ar...

  12. Active tourism as a tourist mode in expansion. Analysis of the supply of active tourism in Spain

    Noelia Araújo Vila


    Full Text Available Parallel to the social and economic situation, where the experience economy is a reality, new tourist typologies are emerging in line with this demand experiential. Tourists are looking for sensations and emotions, so tourism sector has diversified its offer adapting to this desire. Active tourism appears, mode belonging to a larger field, nature tourism, a booming tourist type today by the increase of tourists interested in its activities. Therefore, this paper takes from this concept to below detail the types that are part of it, and finally it does an analysis of the active tourism offer of the Spanish territory, territory that is appropriate for this type of activity.

  13. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Mai Mohammed Farid


    Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  14. Consumo alimentar e ecologia de populações ribeirinhas em dois ecossistemas amazônicos: um estudo comparativo Food intake and ecology of riverine populations in two Amazonian ecosystems: a comparative analysis

    Rui Sérgio Sereni Murrieta


    floodplain. METHODS: Food surveys were carried out in 11 households at the floodplain area (Ituqui Island, located in the Municipality of Santarém, and in 17 households at the terra firme area (Caxiuanã National Forest, located in the Municipalities of Melgaço and Portel. Household food consumption data were collected using the 24-hour food recall method. Data analysis was run in Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 12.0. RESULTS: The results confirm, in both ecosystems, the central roles of fish and manioc in the local diet. Nevertheless, other secondary food items, e.g. açai (in Caxiuanã and milk (in Ituqui are also important. In addition, sugar stands out as a reliable household energy source to cope with the extreme seasonality of rain forest natural resources. In addition, there seems to be a greater caloric contribution of fish in Ituqui's diet, probably due to the higher productivity of lakes and rivers in Ituqui varzea (low and flat land alongside a watercourse. Finally, Ituqui has shown greater dependency over purchased items, whereas Caxiuanã has still a strong reliance on agricultural activities and on local social and economic exchange networks. CONCLUSION: Besides confirming the importance of fish and manioc, results have also shown that industrialized products, such as sugar, play an important role in local diets, and may point towards new tendencies in food consumption related to the current nutritional transition and to the erosion of local subsistence systems.

  15. Evolution & Phylogenetic Analysis: Classroom Activities for Investigating Molecular & Morphological Concepts

    Franklin, Wilfred A.


    In a flexible multisession laboratory, students investigate concepts of phylogenetic analysis at both the molecular and the morphological level. Students finish by conducting their own analysis on a collection of skeletons representing the major phyla of vertebrates, a collection of primate skulls, or a collection of hominid skulls.

  16. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.


    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  17. Análise funcional e administrativa da biblioteca do Centro de Estudos Teológicos das Assembleias de Deus na Paraíba (CETAD/PB: proposta de reestruturaçãoAdministrative and functional analysis of Library Studies Center of the...

    Jussara Ventura Santos


    Full Text Available A organização, a gestão e o planejamento de uma unidade de informação compreende várias etapas e envolve os processos e técnicas do campo de pesquisa do profissional do Bibliotecário. Neste estudo pretendemos construir uma proposta de reestruturação da Biblioteca do Centro de Estudos Teológicos das Assembleias de Deus na Paraíba – CETAD/PB. Esta proposta possui como pontos de discussão: definir um sistema de organização para o acervo que conduza o usuário à autonomia no processo de busca e recuperação da informação; indicar um software de gerenciamento de bibliotecas que supra as necessidades da unidade de informação; conhecer o público alvo, a partir de instrumento de estudo de usuário, a fim de adequar as ferramentas tecnológicas que serão utilizadas; organizar um guia para auxiliar o processo de reestruturação e propor medidas para a regulamentação do funcionamento da biblioteca do CETAD/PB. A metodologia aplicada se fundamenta na abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa, com características do tipo descritiva e exploratória. A revisão documental e bibliográfica auxilia o pesquisador, expondo-o em contato com conhecimento produzido sobre o tema. A pesquisa de campo é adotada neste estudo para conhecer e detalhar o universo de pesquisa que é o Centro de Estudos Teológicos das Assembleias de Deus na Paraíba CETAD/PB, conhecendo as necessidades informacionais dos sujeitos da pesquisa, ou seja, os alunos da instituição. Utiliza-se o questionário como instrumento para a coleta de dados, representando-os mediante as técnicas e aos recursos estatísticos da pesquisa quantitativa. Com a análise de dados investiga-se o perfil dos seus usuários, constatando a insatisfação dos mesmos com relação à organização do acervo. Nesta perspectiva é sugerida quais os possíveis tipos de ferramentas tecnológicas que se adequariam a esse perfil para o aprimoramento nas etapas de tratamento e disseminação dos

  18. Análise crítica dos estudos do futuro: uma abordagem a partir do resgate histórico e conceitual do tema Critical analysis of future studies: an approach based on history and concepts of the topic

    Fernando José Avancini Schenatto


    desenvolvimento técnico sobre os estudos do futuro.Expanding mental models in order for future conditions to be interpreted and shaped more efficiently is a constant strategic challenge for social, economic, political, and institutional agents. Accordingly, this article discusses the concepts related to future studies and their historical trajectory by presenting the various classifications and approaches found in the literature characterizing their relations and theoretical gaps. Therefore, using the principles of the dialectical method, a descriptive theoretical study was conducted using literature review as the research method. This study presents a characterization of the concepts found in the studies investigated that are considered benchmark creating a timeline. Through a comparative analysis of the terms found, the focus was developing a conceptual framework suitable for the Brazilian scientific scenario concerning future studies. It was concluded that this is not a recent topic, and the existing concepts/classifications have received several contributions updating and expanding its specifications and operational complexities, since the 1950's. The originally generic approach has been replaced with more specific visions related to individual methods of investigation and future building achieving greater relevance, consistency, and replicability. The adoption of a certain classification (and its methods must result from a historical and cultural identity with the context of application. It is believed that this research contributes to avoiding and or clearing theoretical misunderstandings, conceptual errors, or broad and indiscriminate use of synonymous concepts, which are sometimes found in the literature, presenting opportunities for future studies technical development.

  19. Estudo do metabolismo da glicose na tuberculose pulmonar ativa utilizando a tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (18F-FDG PET Evaluation of glucose metabolism in active lung tuberculosis by positron-emission tomography (18F-FDG PET



    Full Text Available Os métodos de imagem utilizados na avaliação da tuberculose pulmonar incluem a radiografia e a tomografia computadorizada do tórax. As imagens obtidas pelos métodos de medicina nuclear permitem estudos funcionais e metabólicos dos órgãos de interesse, através do uso de radiofármacos específicos. Alterações do metabolismo da glicose podem ser detectadas pela tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET utilizando-se o 18F-fluorodesoxiglicose (18F-FDG. Essas alterações estão presentes nas doenças neoplásicas, inflamatórias e infecciosas. A tuberculose é uma doença granulomatosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, que se utiliza de glicose como fonte de energia. Objetivo: O estudo do metabolismo da glicose na tuberculose pulmonar através da PET e sua comparação com a tomografia computadorizada de tórax. Material e métodos: Foram avaliados 20 pacientes portadores de tuberculose pulmonar. Todos foram submetidos à PET e à tomografia computadorizada de tórax, em até 30 dias após o início do tratamento. Resultados: Todos os pacientes apresentaram captação positiva do 18F-FDG na PET. Na tomografia computadorizada do tórax, todos os pacientes apresentaram sinais compatíveis com atividade de tuberculose. A sensibilidade dos dois métodos foi de 100%. Houve concordância entre os achados do 18F-FDG PET e da tomografia computadorizada (K = 0,27 e p Current methods to evaluate lung tuberculosis include chest radiography and computed tomography. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques are performed after administration of specific radiopharmaceuticals that accumulate in the organs of interest. Alterations of glucose metabolism can be observed by positron-emission tomography, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET. These findings are present in the neoplasms, but also in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Tuberculosis is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis , that uses glucose as an energy source

  20. Ser professora, ser mulher: um estudo sobre concepções de gênero e sexualidade para um grupo de alunas de pedagogia Teachers or women: an analysis of the concepts of gender and sexuality among a group of pedagogy students

    Ana Paula Costa


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo investigar as concepções de relações de gênero de um grupo de alunas do curso de Pedagogia que já atuam na educação escolar como professoras. Para a realização desta pesquisa qualitativa, de tipologia analítico-descritiva, foi utilizada uma entrevista semiestruturada com as universitárias escolhidas. A construção e a análise do objeto têm como fundamentação teórica os estudos de Michel Foucault, Joan Scott e Guacira Lopes Louro. Constatamos que, em um processo de "acomodação" e "resistência", as categorias "mulher" e "professora" se fundem, o que obscurece, em certa medida, a atuação da professora como profissional da educação.This study aims to investigate the concepts of gender of a group of students from the Faculty of Education, who already work as teachers in schools. For this research, a qualitative and analytic-descriptive typology, we used a semi-structured interview with the students. The construction and analysis of the object were based on theoretical studies of Michel Foucault, Joan Scott and Guacira Lopes Louro. We found that these teachers lack a training in theories and discussions focusing on sexuality and gender issues.

  1. Analysis of Essential Elements for Plants Growth Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    R. L. Njinga


    Full Text Available In this study, a total of ten essential elements for plants growth in the Guinea savanna region of Niger State in Northern Nigeria have been identified in the soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The experimental results show good agreement with certified or literature values within the agreed percentage range of ±2.35% to ±8.69%. However, the concentration distributions of the ten identified elements in the soil samples within the studied area for plants growth revealed the following: Fe (123.4 ppm, Mn (2100.7 ppm, K (5544.3 ppm, Al (54752.4 ppm, Ti (3082.9 ppm, Ca (4635 ppm, V (54.3 ppm, Na (857.5 ppm, Mg (13924.1 ppm, and Dy (12.1 ppm. A further analysis of the two fundamental soil physical parameters for healthy growth of some common crops like egusimelon, groundnut, rice, yams, soybeans, cassava, and potato analyzed in this work revealed a pH range of 4.0 pH–8.0 pH and a temperature range of 28.0°C to 29.3°C, which are optimal for plant nutrients availability in the soils within the study area.

  2. Application of neutron activation analysis system in Xi'an pulsed reactor

    Zhang Wen Shou; Yu Qi


    Neutron Activation Analysis System in Xi'an Pulsed Reactor is consist of rabbit fast radiation system and experiment measurement system. The functions of neutron activation analysis are introduced. Based on the radiation system. A set of automatic data handling and experiment simulating system are built. The reliability of data handling and experiment simulating system had been verified by experiment

  3. An analysis of the thickness influence in performance and structural integrity of gas pipelines; Um estudo sobre a influencia de rigidez de dutos no desempenho e na integridade de gasodutos

    Pinto, Waldir T.; Pinto, Rosa Irene T. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)


    This work presents an analysis on the influence of the changes on pipe rigidity on the safety of buried gas pipelines. The work consists of the adoption of a parameter defined by the ratio between the wall thickness and the diameter of the pipe to assess the pipeline structural performance under several loading conditions, such as internal pressure, external pressure, external loading, longitudinal analysis, and corrosion. Results for a 14 inches pipe with wall thicknesses of 5.6 mm, 7.1 mm, and 7.9 mm are presented for each one of the loading conditions. These results show that for most cases a small increase in the wall thickness leads to significant increase of the pipeline safety. This suggests that in many cases the adoption of wall thicker than them minimum thickness suggested by technical codes present a better cost/benefit relation. (author)

  4. Determination of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry: study of packaging vial of sample for analysis; Determinacao de {sup 226}Ra por espectrometria gama: estudo do recipiente de acondicionamento de amostra para analise

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti


    Determination of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry in a sample is based on measurements of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, daughters of {sup 222}Rn. Because radon is a gas, it can leak from the sample vial or accumulate on the upper empty it. If the vial has any crack, there will be loss of gas, which will cause error in determining the {sup 226}Ra concentration. One possible cause of cracks in the vials, that houses standards and samples, is the radiolysis action in the vial material, usually a polymer. As the demand {sup 226}Ra analysis in different matrices (geological samples, food, plants, etc.) is increasing, it was decided to study some polymer vials available on the market, to verify the feasibility to be used when is applied the analysis method using gamma spectrometry. Four types of polymer vials have been studied. The radiation doses in walls of the vials caused by natural radionuclides present in the sample were simulated using gamma irradiation. Tests, such as compressive strength test and tightness, were applied to the irradiated and non-irradiated vials. First, to verify the effect of radiolysis on the vial material and also if there was {sup 222}Rn diffusion in their walls. These preliminary results pointed out that the acrylic vials are the best option of packaging samples for analysis. This study should be repeated in a larger number of samples for a better evaluation. (author)

  5. Information Theoretical Analysis of Identification based on Active Content Fingerprinting

    Farhadzadeh, F Farzad; Willems, FMJ Frans; Voloshynovskiy, S


    Content fingerprinting and digital watermarking are techniques that are used for content protection and distribution monitoring. Over the past few years, both techniques have been well studied and their shortcomings understood. Recently, a new content fingerprinting scheme called {\\em active content fingerprinting} was introduced to overcome these shortcomings. Active content fingerprinting aims to modify a content to extract robuster fingerprints than the conventional content fingerprinting....

  6. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant activity of Uncaria gambir

    Mohd Amir


    Full Text Available The present research work was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential and antiradical property of methanolic extract of Uncaria gambir. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity were determined by using different in vitro assays including reducing power assay, superoxide anion scavenging activity assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay and hydrogen peroxide method. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract of U. gambir possesses flavonoids, alkaloids and phenolic materials. In the present investigation, quantitative estimation of flavonoids content and phenolic content was also carried out by colorimetric methods, using aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method, respectively, to establish relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolics and flavonoid contents. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found to be 18.37±2.79 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g dry weight and 5.82±2.23 mg rutin equivalents (RE/g dry weight, respectively. The extract showed significant antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner in all the assays. The IC 50 values of all parameters were determined. Ascorbic acid was used as standard. The results obtained in the present study indicated that U. gambir extract could be a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  7. Computer programs for absolute neutron activation analysis on the nuclear data 6620 data acquisition system

    Wade, J.W.; Emery, J.F.


    Five computer programs that provide multielement neutron activation analysis are discussed. The software package was designed for use on the Nuclear Data 6620 Data Acquisition System and interacts with existing Nuclear Data Corporation software. The programs were developed to make use of the capabilities of the 6620 system to analyze large numbers of samples and assist in a large sample workload that had begun in the neutron activation analysis facility of the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Nuclear Data neutron activation software is unable to perform absolute activation analysis and therefore was inefficient and inadequate for our applications.

  8. Development of Distinction Method of Production Area of Ginsengs by Using a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Yu Na; Yoo, Sang Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Distinction of production area of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). A distribution of elements has varied according to the part of plant clue to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So correlation study between plants and soil has been an Issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis


    Teodora IVASCU


    Business analysis of agricultural units, research, information system based on the results obtained in their work, factors which have determined ways to improve them. It has an important role in ensuring the scientific management of farms, are an essential instrument in the exercise of leadership attributes on all hierarchical levels. In the analysis of business units in agriculture must take into consideration the peculiarities of agricultural production. These are reflected in the structure...

  10. Active disturbance rejection control: methodology and theoretical analysis.

    Huang, Yi; Xue, Wenchao


    The methodology of ADRC and the progress of its theoretical analysis are reviewed in the paper. Several breakthroughs for control of nonlinear uncertain systems, made possible by ADRC, are discussed. The key in employing ADRC, which is to accurately determine the "total disturbance" that affects the output of the system, is illuminated. The latest results in theoretical analysis of the ADRC-based control systems are introduced.

  11. Chemical and morphological analysis of kidney stones: a double-blind comparative study Análise química e morfológica de cálculos renais: estudo comparativo duplo-cego

    Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro da Silva


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare chemical to morphological kidney stone composition analysis based on a sample of 50 stones retrieved from patients at a nephrology service. METHODS: The chemical analysis was performed with a Bioclin® kit, while a 10-mm magnifying glass (10x; Prolabo, Paris, France was employed in the morphological analysis. Findings obtained with the two methods were compared and classified as concordant (100% agreement, partly concordant (concordant for major components, discordant for minor components or discordant (discordant for major components. RESULTS: In the chemical analysis, the most commonly observed major component was calcium (70%, followed by oxalate (66%, ammonium (56%, urate (28% and carbonate (24%. In the morphological analysis, the most commonly observed major components were calcium phosphate and magnesium (32% each, followed by calcium oxalate monohydrate (24%, uric acid and urates (20% each, calcium oxalate dihydrate (18% and cystine (6%. Infectious kidney stones were identified in 34% and 24% of cases by morphological and chemical analysis, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of the samples were classified as concordant, 52% were partly concordant and 10% were discordant. CONCLUSION: We suggest kidney stones be routinely submitted to both types of analysis for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in lithogenesis.OBJETIVO: Comparar a análise química com a análise morfológica de 50 cálculos urinários provenientes de pacientes em um serviço de nefrologia. MÉTODOS: A análise química foi realizada utilizando o kit da Bioclin®, enquanto que a morfológica foi realizada com auxílio de uma lupa de 10mm (Prolabo, Paris, France. A comparação entre as técnicas foi classificada em concordante (100% de concordância, parcialmente concordante (componentes majoritários concordantes e minoritários discordantes e discordante (discordância nos componentes majoritários. RESULTADOS: Na análise química os


    Mota, Julio


    Este trabalho visa examinar como a necessidade de Laban conhecer as leis que regem o movimento humano o levou ao desenvolvimento de um método científico de estudo a que ele chamou de Coreologia. E de como a necessidade de aplicar o método coreológico, de maneira específica à Dança, conduziu ao surgimento de uma área específica de estudos, denominada Estudos Coreológicos. Este processo é aqui analisado através de um breve resumo biográfico de Laban. Essa biografia mostra como as in...

  13. QSAR analysis on Spodoptera litura antifeedant activities for flavone derivatives

    Duchowicz, Pablo R., E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Goodarzi, Mohammad [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ocsachoque, Marco A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Romanelli, Gustavo P. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Ortiz, Erlinda del V. [Facultad de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Av. Maximio Victoria 55, (4700), Catamarca (Argentina); Autino, Juan C.; Bennardi, Daniel O.; Ruiz, Diego M. [Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Castro, Eduardo A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    We establish useful models that relate experimentally measured biological activities of compounds to their molecular structure. The pED{sub 50} feeding inhibition on Spodoptera litura species exhibited by aurones, chromones, 3-coumarones and flavones is analyzed in this work through the hypothesis encompassed in the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Theory. This constitutes a first necessary computationally based step during the design of more bio-friendly repellents that could lead to insights for improving the insecticidal activities of the investigated compounds. After optimizing the molecular structure of each furane and pyrane benzoderivative with the semiempirical molecular orbitals method PM3, more than a thousand of constitutional, topological, geometrical and electronic descriptors are calculated and multiparametric linear regression models are established on the antifeedant potencies. The feature selection method employed in this study is the Replacement Method, which has proven to be successful in previous analyzes. We establish the QSAR both for the complete molecular set of compounds and also for each chemical class, so that acceptably describing the variation of the inhibitory activities from the knowledge of their structure and thus achieving useful predictive results. The main interest of developing trustful QSAR models is that these enable the prediction of compounds having no experimentally measured activities for any reason. Therefore, the structure-activity relationships are further employed for investigating the antifeedant activity on previously synthesized 2-,7-substituted benzopyranes, which do not pose any measured values on the biological expression. One of them, 2-({alpha}-naphtyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, results in a promising structure to be experimentally analyzed as it has predicted pED{sub 50} = 1.162.

  14. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Ohkawara Kazunori


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  15. Habilidades Sociais em Alcoolistas: Um Estudo Comparativo

    Flaviane Bevilaqua Felicissimo

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente estudo objetivou comparar o repertório de habilidades sociais (HS de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool a fim de verificar se um menor repertório de HS constitui uma característica dessa população. Foram entrevistados 123 alcoolistas e 114 usuários de serviços de saúde com baixo ou nenhum consumo de álcool, utilizando questionário sociodemográfico, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview e o Inventário de Habilidades Sociais. Os dados foram analisados quantitativamente e indicaram uma diferença significativa no repertório de HS, especificamente no fator de autocontrole da agressividade, indicando um pior desempenho dessa habilidade em alcoolistas. Os resultados sugerem que a avaliação dessa característica deva ser considerada no tratamento do alcoolismo e associada ao plano terapêutico.

  16. Estudo retrospectivo de latrodectismo na Bahia, Brasil

    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva


    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta um estudo retrospectivo de setenta e sete casos de latrodectismo no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, de agosto de 1980 a julho de 1990. Os dados foram levantados nos livros de registro e arquivo de fichas do CIAVE. O agente etiológico em 28% dos acidentes aracnídeos foi a espécie L. curacaviensis e a maior incidência foi registrada no meio urbano (57%, em indivíduos do sexo masculino (70% e faixa etária de 10 a 29 anos (58%. Os principais sinais locais foram dor (56%, pápula eritematosa (21% e edema discreto (17%, e os sistêmicos foram dor em membros inferiores (29%, tremores e contraturas (29%, sudorese (28% parestesia em membros (21% e dor abdominal (17%. O tratamento foi sintomático em 67% dos casos e específico em 21%. O tempo de permanência hospitalar após o uso do soro antilatrodectus foi menor que 24 horas em 64% dos casos.

  17. Flipping the Audience Script: An Activity That Integrates Research and Audience Analysis

    Lam, Chris; Hannah, Mark A.


    This article describes a flipped classroom activity that requires students to integrate research and audience analysis. The activity uses Twitter as a data source. In the activity, students identify a sample, collect customer tweets, and analyze the language of the tweets in an effort to construct knowledge about an audience's values, needs, and…

  18. Behavioral treatment of depression: A meta-analysis of activity scheduling.

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Warmerdam, E.H.


    Activity scheduling is a behavioral treatment of depression in which patients learn to monitor their mood and daily activities, and how to increase the number of pleasant activities and to increase positive interactions with their environment. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized effect studie

  19. Genetic analysis of beta1 integrin "activation motifs" in mice

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Meyer, Hannelore; Legate, Kyle R


    tails, leading to tail separation and integrin activation. We analyzed mice in which we mutated the tyrosines of the beta1 tail and the membrane-proximal aspartic acid required for the salt bridge. Tyrosine-to-alanine substitutions abolished beta1 integrin functions and led to a beta1 integrin......-null phenotype in vivo. Surprisingly, neither the substitution of the tyrosines with phenylalanine nor the aspartic acid with alanine resulted in an obvious defect. These data suggest that the NPXY motifs of the beta1 integrin tail are essential for beta1 integrin function, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation......Akey feature of integrins is their ability to regulate the affinity for ligands, a process termed integrin activation. The final step in integrin activation is talin binding to the NPXY motif of the integrin beta cytoplasmic domains. Talin binding disrupts the salt bridge between the alpha/beta...

  20. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti


    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  1. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca;


    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being...

  2. Activation and afterheat analysis for CH HCSB TBM

    CHEN Zhi; FENG Kai-ming; ZHANG Guo-shu; YUAN Tao


    With an activation calculation code FDKR and decay chain data library AF-DCDLIB, the radioactivity,afterheat decay and Biological Hazard Potential (BHP) from activation products have been analyzed in the CH HCSB TBM. The calculation results show that the total radioactivity inventory, heat decay and BHP are 2.10×1016Bq、5.06×10-3 MW、68.6 km3·(Kw)-1,respectively, at shutdown after a continuous irradiation over 0.53 years with 500 MW fusion power.It shows that there isn't seriously environmental safety issue in the TBM.

  3. O processo de análise do ambiente e sua relação com a aprendizagem organizacional: um estudo de caso El proceso de análisis del medio ambiente y su relación con la aprendizaje en organizaciones: un caso de estudio The process of environment analysis and its relationship to organizational learning: a case study

    Adilson Caldeira


    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado a partir da questão: "Quais as contribuições do processo de análise do ambiente para a aprendizagem organizacional?" Em busca da resposta, efetuou-se, a princípio, uma revisão da literatura que aborda os conceitos e principais aplicações relativos às formas pelas quais a aprendizagem se processa nas organizações. Na seqüência procurou-se igualmente contextualizar a fundamentação teórico-conceitual que permeia os estudos atinentes à estratégia empresarial na atualidade. No plano empírico, realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa por meio de estudo de caso na empresa Petrobras, na qual os dados foram colhidos utilizando-se entrevistas. Em primeiro lugar, são apresentados os dados históricos e a descrição do processo de análise do ambiente efetuada no processo de planejamento estratégico na organização pesquisada. A seguir, apresenta-se a visão dos gestores a respeito do aprendizado decorrente desse processo. As declarações dos executivos foram classificadas por categorias e submetidas a análise de conteúdo. Os resultados revelam que os entrevistados vêem a análise do ambiente como meio de aprendizagem organizacional e demonstram acreditar que a aprendizagem resultante contribui para o desempenho da empresa por desenvolver sua capacitação para aprimorar suas ações administrativas. Assim sendo, o estudo proporciona a visão de uma associação entre os processos de planejamento estratégico e aprendizagem nas organizações.Este estudio se realizó sobre la base de la pregunta: «¿Cuáles son los aportes del proceso de analizar el entorno para el aprendizaje organizacional?" Buscando una respuesta, el estudio fue iniciado por una revisión de la literatura que trata sobre los conceptos clave y aplicaciones relacionadas con la forma en que el aprendizaje tiene lugar dentro de las organizaciones. Posteriormente se discute el teórico y conceptual en la literatura para los estudios sobre la

  4. Estudo de caso de ciclone extratropical sobre a América do Sul: sensibilidade das análises Case study of extratropical cyclone over the South America: sensibility of analysis

    David Mendes


    Full Text Available A trajetória e a energética de um ciclone extratropical são analisadas usando as reanálises do NCEP/NCAR, em comparação com as saídas do modelo CPTEC/COLA (T126L28 com análises do GPSAS. A analise da energética e da trajetória de um ciclone, formado no leste da Argentina em 23 de Agosto de 2005, mostrou diferenças significativas entre as reanálises e o modelo, principalmente na sua trajetória e magnitude. A comparação da evolução do ciclone extratropical entre as reanálises e o modelo, mostrou alguns resultados consideráveis, tais como: maior diferença na intensidade da pressão central do ciclone extratropical; maiores diferenças na Energia Cinética após a máxima intensidade do ciclone, e diferenças marcantes no posicionamento do ciclone extratropical.The trajectory and the energetic of extratropical cyclones are analyzed using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis in comparison with the model outputs CPTEC/COLA (T126L28 with GPSAS analysis. The analysis of the energetic and path of the cyclone formed over East Argentina on 23 August 2005 showed significant differences between the reanalysis and the model, especially in its track and magnitude. The comparison of the extratropical cyclone evolution, between reanalysis and the model, showed some considerable results such as: greater difference in the central pressure intensity of the extratropical cyclones; larger differences in kinetic energy after maximum cyclone intensity and a striking difference in the extratropical cyclone position.

  5. Microscopic Analysis of Plankton, Periphyton, and Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This manual is intended for professional personnel in the fields of water pollution control, limnology, water supply and waste treatment. Primary emphasis is given to practice in the identification and enumeration of microscopic organisms which may be encountered in water and activated sludge. Methods for the chemical and instrumental evaluation…

  6. Human Activity Recognition as Time-Series Analysis

    Hyesuk Kim


    Full Text Available We propose a system that can recognize daily human activities with a Kinect-style depth camera. Our system utilizes a set of view-invariant features and the hidden state conditional random field (HCRF model to recognize human activities from the 3D body pose stream provided by MS Kinect API or OpenNI. Many high-level daily activities can be regarded as having a hierarchical structure where multiple subactivities are performed sequentially or iteratively. In order to model effectively these high-level daily activities, we utilized a multiclass HCRF model, which is a kind of probabilistic graphical models. In addition, in order to get view-invariant, but more informative features, we extract joint angles from the subject’s skeleton model and then perform the feature transformation to obtain three different types of features regarding motion, structure, and hand positions. Through various experiments using two different datasets, KAD-30 and CAD-60, the high performance of our system is verified.

  7. Frequency analysis of EMG activity in patients with idiopathic torticollis

    Tijssen, MAJ; Marsden, JF; Brown, P


    The pathophysiology of idiopathic dystonic torticollis is unclear and there is no simple test that confirms the diagnosis and excludes a psychogenic or voluntary torticollis in individual patients. We recorded EMG activity in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius capitis (SPL) muscles of eight

  8. Analysis of information systems for the enterprises marketing activities management

    A.O. Natorina


    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of the computer information systems in the enterprise marketing activities strategic management, enterprises marketing management information systems. Tthe stages of the development system and launch of a new product into the market within its life cycle are analyzed, exemplified by fat and oil industry.

  9. Learning through reciprocal peer coaching; an analysis of activity sequences

    Zwart, R.C.; Wubbels, T.; Bolhuis, S.; Bergen, Th.C.M.


    Just what and how eight experienced teachers in four coaching dyads learned during a 1-year reciprocal peer coaching trajectory was examined in the present study. The learning processes were mapped by providing a detailed description of reported learning activities, reported learning outcomes, and t

  10. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh


    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  11. Analysis of Flavonoids in Rhamnus davurica and Its Antiproliferative Activities

    Guilin Chen


    Full Text Available Rhamnus davurica Pall. (R. davurica has been used as a traditional medicinal herb for many years in China and abroad. It has been well documented as a rich source of flavonoids with diversified structures, which in turn results in far-ranging biological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anticancer, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to further correlate their anticancer potentials with the phytochemical components, the fingerprint profile of R. davurica herb from Dongbei was firstly investigated using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Thirty two peaks were detected and identified, 14 of which were found in R. davurica for the first time in this work. Furthermore, a total of 23 peaks were resolved as flavonoids, which are the major components found in R. davurica. Meanwhile, the antiproliferative activities against human cancer cells of HT-29 and SGC-7901 in vitro exhibited distinct inhibitory effects with IC50 values at 24.96 ± 0.74 and 89.53 ± 4.11 μg/mL, respectively. Finally, the general toxicity against L-O2 cells displayed a much higher IC50 at 229.19 ± 8.52 μg/mL, which suggested very low or no toxicity on hepatic cell viability. The current study revealed for the first time the correlations between the flavonoids of R. davurica with their antiproliferative activities, which indicated that the fingerprint profile of flavonoids and their anticancer activities could provide valuable information on the quality control for herbal medicines and their derived natural remedies from this valuable medicinal plant.

  12. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark.

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Baba-Moussa, Lamine


    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  13. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon


    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  14. Análise de imagem aplicada ao estudo do comportamento de leitões em abrigo escamoteador Analysis of image applied to the study of the behaviour of piglets in the creep

    Héliton Pandorfi


    Full Text Available O objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi avaliar o comportamento de leitões em diferentes sistemas de aquecimento por meio da análise de imagem. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na sala da maternidade, com 80 animais entre o nascimento e o desmame. Os tratamentos adotados para a avaliação da eficiência dos diferentes sistemas de aquecimento do abrigo escamoteador foram: piso térmico, lâmpada incandescente, resistência elétrica e lâmpada de infravermelho. Os dados ambientais foram registrados no ambiente externo, na sala da maternidade e no interior de cada abrigo escamoteador avaliado, ao longo de 19 dias. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e 18 blocos, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (P The objective of this research was to evaluate the behavior of piglets in different heating systems using the image analysis and geostatistics. This research was developed in a farrowing house, with 80 piglets between birth and weaning. The treatments were different heating systems: heat mat, standard heat lamp, electric resistance and infrared lamp. The climatic data were taken inside and outside the farrowing house and inside each studied creep, during two periods of 19 days long. The statistical design of the experiment was a randomized block with four treatments and 18 blocks. A Tukey test with 1% of probability was performed to compare the results averages. The average values of dry bulb temperature showed that the environment with heat mat presented a lesser temperature in the generated microclimate, followed by the standard heat lamp, electric resistance and infrared lamp. The three first treatments were recommended for better comforting for the piglets in the farrowing house. The behavior of the piglets was evaluated using the image analysis, and indicated that the best treatment was the heat mat as in the exchanges of sensible heat for conduction (contact, promoting better condition of

  15. Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for geochemical analyses of terrestrial impact structures: Current analytical procedures at the University of Vienna Geochemistry Activation Analysis Laboratory

    Mader, Dieter [Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail:; Koeberl, Christian [Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail:


    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory at the Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, has been upgraded in the year 2006. This paper describes the sample preparation, new instrumentation and data evaluation for hundreds of rock samples of two terrestrial impact structures. The measurement and data evaluation are done by using Genie{sup TM} 2000 and a custom-made batch software for the used analysis sequences.

  16. Functional analysis of Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation

    Hein, Estrid; Honoré, Christian Le Fèvre; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole;


    The recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are mannose-binding lectin and Ficolin -1, -2 and -3. Recently deficiency of Ficolin-3 was found to be associated with life threatening infections. Thus, we aimed to develop a functional method based on the ELISA platform for evaluating...... Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation that could be applicable for research and clinical use. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was acetylated (acBSA) and chosen as a solid phase ligand for Ficolins in microtiter wells. Binding of Ficolins on acBSA was evaluated, as was functional complement activation...... assessed by C4, C3 and terminal complement complex (TCC) deposition. Serum Ficolin-3 bound to acBSA in a calcium dependent manner, while only minimal binding of Ficolin-2 and no binding of Ficolin-1 were observed. No binding to normal BSA was seen for any of the Ficolins. Serum C4, C3 and TCC deposition...

  17. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C


    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited.

  18. Active Control Analysis for Aeroelastic Instabilities in Turbomachines

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh


    Turbomachines onboard aircraft operate in a highly complex and harsh environment. The unsteady flowfield inherent to turbomachines leads to several problems associated with safety, stability, performance and noise. In-flight surge or flutter incidents could be catastrophic and impact the safety and reliability of the aircraft. High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF), on the other hand, can significantly impact safety, readiness and maintenance costs. To avoid or minimize these problems generally a more conservative design method must be initiated which results in thicker blades and a loss of performance. Actively controlled turbomachines have the potential to reduce or even eliminate the instabilities by impacting the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. By modifying the unsteady aerodynamics, active control may significantly improve the safety and performance especially at off-design conditions, reduce noise, and increase the range of operation of the turbomachine. Active control can also help improve reliability for mission critical applications such as the Mars Flyer. In recent years, HCF has become one of the major issues concerning the cost of operation for current turbomachines. HCF alone accounts for roughly 30% of maintenance cost for the United States Air-Force. Other instabilities (flutter, surge, rotating-stall, etc.) are generally identified during the design and testing phase. Usually a redesign overcomes these problems, often reducing performance and range of operation, and resulting in an increase in the development cost and time. Despite a redesign, the engines do not have the capabilities or means to cope with in-flight unforeseen vibration, stall, flutter or surge related instabilities. This could require the entire fleet worldwide to be stood down for expensive modifications. These problems can be largely overcome by incorporating active control within the turbomachine and its design. Active control can help in maintaining the integrity of the system in

  19. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

    CHEN Qian; LIN Xin; CAI YuJun; LI ZhiXiao


    @@ Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.

  20. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

    CHEN; Qian


    Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.  ……

  1. Metaproteomic analysis reveals microbial metabolic activities in the deep ocean

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Wang, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Kong, Ling-Fen; Lin, Lin


    The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth and holds many and varied microbial life forms. However, little is known about their metabolic activities in the deep ocean. Here, we characterized protein profiles of particulate (>0.22 μm) and dissolved (between 10 kDa and 0.22 μm) fractions collected from the deep South China Sea using a shotgun proteomic approach. SAR324, Alteromonadales and SAR11 were the most abundant groups, while Prasinophyte contributed most to eukaryotes and cyanophage to viruses. The dominant heterotrophic activity was evidenced by the abundant transporters (33%). Proteins participating in nitrification, methanogenesis, methyltrophy and CO2 fixation were detected. Notably, the predominance of unique cellular proteins in dissolved fraction suggested the presence of membrane structures. Moreover, the detection of translation proteins related to phytoplankton indicated that other process rather than sinking particles might be the downward export of living cells. Our study implied that novel extracellular activities and the interaction of deep water with its overlying water could be crucial to the microbial world of deep sea.

  2. Motivação à prática regular de atividades físicas e esportivas: um estudo comparativo entre estudantes com sobrepeso, obesos e eutróficos Motivation of regular physical and sporting activities practice: a comparative study between obeses, overweight, and other students

    Marcos Alencar Abaide Balbinotti


    Full Text Available O principal objetivo do presente estudo é comparar os níveis de motivação à prática regular de atividades físicas de três diferentes grupos de alunos das escolas de ensino fundamental e médio do município de Erechim/RS: Obesos, com sobrepeso, e eutróficos. Para tanto, além das avaliações antropométricas - massa corporal e altura - foi aplicado o Inventário de motivação à prática regular de atividades físicas e esportivas (IMPRAFE-54 ( BALBINOTTI; BARBOSA, 2006 . Os resultados variaram consideravelmente em valores nominais e a principais dimensões motivacionais foram as seguintes: Obesos (saúde; sobrepeso (estética; saúde; prazer; eutróficos (saúde, estética, prazer. Na comparação inter-grupo (obesos; sobrepeso; eutróficos, a dimensão Estética se destacou na diferença entre os grupos de sobrepesos e obesos. Espera-se que esses resultados possam contribuir para a prática pedagógica da educação física escolar.The main intent of the present study is compare the motivation levels of regular physical activities practice of three differents scholars groups from elementary and middle schools of Erechim/RS municipal district: Obeses, overweight, and Eutrophic. Then, besides the anthropometry evaluations - corporal mass and height - was applied the "Inventário de motivação à prática regular de atividades físicas e esportivas" (IMPRAFE-54 ( BALBINOTTI; BARBOSA, 2006 . The results varied considerably in nominal values and the main motivation dimensions were as follows: Obeses (health; overweight (esthetics; health; joy; Eutrophic (health; esthetics; joy. In comparing inter-group (obese, overweight, Eutrophic, the Aesthetic dimension stood out in the difference between the groups of overweight and obese. Hope these results might contribute for the pedagogy practice in scholar physical education.

  3. Synthetic Training Data Generation for Activity Monitoring and Behavior Analysis

    Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a data generator that produces synthetic data to simulate observations from an array of environment monitoring sensors. The overall goal of our work is to monitor the well-being of one occupant in a home. Sensors are embedded in a smart home to unobtrusively record environmental parameters. Based on the sensor observations, behavior analysis and modeling are performed. However behavior analysis and modeling require large data sets to be collected over long periods of time to achieve the level of accuracy expected. A data generator - was developed based on initial data i.e. data collected over periods lasting weeks to facilitate concurrent data collection and development of algorithms. The data generator is based on statistical inference techniques. Variation is introduced into the data using perturbation models.

  4. Activated sludge morphology characterization through an image analysis procedure

    Y. G. Perez


    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a digital image analysis procedure to characterize microbial flocs obtained in three different WWTP: a bench-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR dealing with phenol and nitrogen biological removal, a municipal treatment unit (Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and an industrial wastewater treatment plant (Ciba - Estrada do Colégio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The developed procedure permits to obtain its morphological parameters like equivalent diameter, compactness, roundness and porosity properties as well as the fractal dimension. This procedure was validated and lead to identify the major relationships between the analysed morphological parameters. A minimum of 300 flocs should be included in the image analysis and a significant influence of the sample dilution step on the mean size of the flocs was verified. The porosity parameter positively correlated with the fractal dimension of microbial aggregates indicating the that highly porous flocs are very irregular.

  5. Reticulossarcomas epidurais intraespinais: estudo de 34 casos

    Lígia M. B. Coutinho


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de 34 casos de reticulossarcomas localizados no tecido epidural intraespinal. Assinala-se sua maior freqüência entre homens com mais de 50 anos, embora pacientes mais jovens possam ser acometidos, principalmente entre 15 e 29 anos. A distribuição segmentar dos tumores permite um diagnóstico diferencial, sendo a região torácica a sede mais freqüentes de sarcomas. O principal sintoma encontrado nos pacientes com reticulossarcoma foi a dor, do tipo radicular, que serve para diferenciar os tumores intra e extra-medulares, tendo sido de aparecimento precoce em 15 dos pacientes estudados, precedendo em muitos meses e até anos os demais sintomas. Classificou-se os tumores reticulohistiocitários epidurais do canal vertebral em três grupos, de acordo com seu aspecto tecidual e celular e, principalmente, com a presença e distribuição da reticulina. Relacionou-se o tempo de evolução desses tumores com seu aspecto histopatológico, chegando-se à conclusão que os tumores classificados no grupo III apresentam um período evolutivo maior que os demais, o que nos levou a pensar que crescem mais lentamente, apresentando, portanto, melhor prognóstico que os demais tipos, muito embora todos os tipos de reticulossarcomas possam apresentar um prognóstico mais favorável quando precocemente diagnosticados e tratados adequadamente.

  6. Valor do estudo citogenetico no transexualismo

    P. H. Saldanha


    Full Text Available O transexualismo é caracterizado como uma entidade psiquiátrica, distinta do homossexualismo e travestismo, revendo-se suas manifestações sindrômicas. Discutem-se as duas principais causas etiológicas plausíveis do transexualismo, a saber: a hipótese psicoanalítica fundamentada na regressão psicossexual com estampagem da figura materna e o modelo neuro-endócrino que pressupõe alterações nos centros de identidade sexual do hipotámo. Com base nesta última explicação propõe-se, a exemplo do que parece ocorrer na síndrome de Morris, cujas células (XY não respondem ao efeito masculinizante da testosterona plasmática, que os transexuais devem possuir mosaicismo detectável ou críptico, quanto aos cromossomos sexuais, nos centros hipotalâmicos de identidade sexual que não respondem à secreção androgênica produzida pela gônada primitiva. Esta possibilidade explicaria a excessiva prevalência da síndrome entre homens, bem como a sua manifestação com feições típicas no sexo masculino e ainda a ocorrência esporádica da síndrome. O estudo citogenético revelou que a frequência (32% de mosaicismo quanto aos cromossomos sexuais em 25 transexuais é estatisticamente superior aos valores observados em 14 homossexuais e 40 controles normais, nos quais a proporção de mosaicismo é praticamente nula. Considera-se a possibilidade do critério cariotípico constituir valioso subsídio na diagnose da síndrome.

  7. Estudo retrospectivo de latrodectismo na Bahia, Brasil

    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva


    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta um estudo retrospectivo de setenta e sete casos de latrodectismo no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, de agosto de 1980 a julho de 1990. Os dados foram levantados nos livros de registro e arquivo de fichas do CIAVE. O agente etiológico em 28% dos acidentes aracnídeos foi a espécie L. curacaviensis e a maior incidência foi registrada no meio urbano (57%, em indivíduos do sexo masculino (70% e faixa etária de 10 a 29 anos (58%. Os principais sinais locais foram dor (56%, pápula eritematosa (21% e edema discreto (17%, e os sistêmicos foram dor em membros inferiores (29%, tremores e contraturas (29%, sudorese (28% parestesia em membros (21% e dor abdominal (17%. O tratamento foi sintomático em 67% dos casos e específico em 21%. O tempo de permanência hospitalar após o uso do soro antilatrodectus foi menor que 24 horas em 64% dos casos.This work is a retrospective study of latrodectism in the State of Bahia, Brazil, from August 1980 to July 1990. The data concerning the accidents were obtained from file cards at the Antivenom Information Center of Bahia (AVICB. Latrodectus curacavienis was the ethiologic agent identified in 28% of the arachnid accidents. The major incidence was registered in urban area (57% affecting men (70% more than women, with 10 to 29year-old age group (58%. Local pain (56%, erythematous papula (29% and light oedema (17% were the principal local symptoms. Pain in the limbs (29%, tremor and rigidities (29%, sweating (28%, limbs and arms paresthesia (21% and abdominal pain (17% were systemic ones. The treatment was mainly symptomatic (67% and antivenin serum was used in 21% of the cases. After serotherapy, 64% of the patients left the hospital within less than 24 hours.

  8. Mathematical analysis techniques for modeling the space network activities

    Foster, Lisa M.


    The objective of the present work was to explore and identify mathematical analysis techniques, and in particular, the use of linear programming. This topic was then applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in order to understand the space network better. Finally, a small scale version of the system was modeled, variables were identified, data was gathered, and comparisons were made between actual and theoretical data.

  9. Computers in activation analysis and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Carpenter, B. S.; D' Agostino, M. D.; Yule, H. P. [eds.


    Seventy-three papers are included under the following session headings: analytical and mathematical methods for data analysis; software systems for ..gamma..-ray and x-ray spectrometry; ..gamma..-ray spectra treatment, peak evaluation; least squares; IAEA intercomparison of methods for processing spectra; computer and calculator utilization in spectrometer systems; and applications in safeguards, fuel scanning, and environmental monitoring. Separate abstracts were prepared for 72 of those papers. (DLC)


    G.Yu. Iakovetс


    Full Text Available The questions concerning the definition of current trends and prospects of venture financing new innovative enterprises as one of the most effective and alternative, but with a high degree of risk financing sources of the entity. The features of venture financing that is different from other sources of business financing, as well as income from investments of venture capital can greatly exceed the volume of investments, but at the same time such financing risks are significant, so it all makes it necessary to build an effective system of venture capital investments in the workplace. In the course of the study also revealed problems of analysis and minimization of risks in the performance of venture financing of innovative enterprises. Defining characteristics analysis and risk assessment of venture financing helps to find ways to minimize and systematization, avoidance and prevention of risks in the performance of venture capital. The study also identified the major areas of improvement analysis of venture capital for management decisions.

  11. Estudos sobre a Esquistosomose em Pernambuco, Brasil

    Aggeu Magalhães


    Full Text Available Os autores referem os resultados dos estudos sobre esquistosomose realisados, em Pernambuco, de Novembro de 1938 a Dezembro de 1939. Não se extendem em discussão, nem comentarios, tampouco, relacionam suas verificações com o que já foi relatado sobre o assunto em trabalhos nacionais e estrangeiros, pelo fato de que, não se trata de um resultado definitivo e sim de atividades que irão proseguir. Os estudos sistematicos em torno da endemia esquistosomica foram executados em duas localidades diversas pela população e pela situação geografica e ecologica. Pontezinha é uma povoação de 1200 habitantes localizada proximo a um conjunto de charcos e lagõas de agua dôce onde pululam caramujos do tipo olivaceus de Spix, e apresenta uma taxa de infestação de 21,4% para individuos do sexo masculino, e de 14,7% para os do sexo feminino. A distribuição por grupos de idade mostra que a incidencia cresce até o grupo de 16 a 20 anos de idade, quando atinge a percentagem de 37,8%, para decrescer em seguida. Em Vitoria a incidencia foi maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, atingindo a taxa de 41,4%, dando o sexo masculino a taxa de 36,9%. Por idade a percentagem maxima é atingida pelo grupo de 11 a 15 anos. Vitoria é uma cidade de 1500 habitantes, construida á margem do rio Tapacurá, onde se encontram numerosos caramujos do tipo centimetralis Lutz. A divergencia de incidencia corre por conta dos habitos da população e pela utilização que ela faz do rio, sendo maior em Vitoria porque a proximidade do rio facilita o uso de suas aguas para banho e serviços domesticos, condicionando este ultimo fato, a maior infestação das mulheres. O estudo da frequencia da infestação dos caramujos por cercarias de diversos trematodios, permite suspeitar uma relação inversa entre a taxa de infestação e o diametro maximo atingido pelos caramujos, parecendo este fato confirmar os trabalhos de Vianna Martins sobre a identidade dos hospedeiros

  12. Estudo de distribuição e morfologia dos melanócitos em pele com e sem exposição solar Melanocytes distribution and morphology analysis in skin with and without sun exposure

    Daniela Mayumi Takano


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Acredita-se que a exposição solar possa alterar número, distribuição e morfologia dos melanócitos na pele humana, muitas vezes dificultando a interpretação de biópsias de pele, principalmente para o diagnóstico de lesões melanocíticas iniciais e para a avaliação precisa de margens de ressecção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os melanócitos da pele humana em área exposta e não exposta ao sol. MÉTODOS: Realizada análise histológica de 60 fragmentos de biópsias de pele obtidas do antebraço (área fotoexposta e região glútea (área coberta de cadáveres do Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos de Recife-PE. A estatística foi realizada com o SPSS Windows versão 12.0. RESULTADOS: Observou-se um número bastante variável de melanócitos nos fragmentos de pele, com maior concentração destes na região do antebraço (área de maior fotoexposição (p INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: It is believed that sun exposure can change the number, distribution and morphology of melanocytes in human skin, which often hinders the interpretation of skin biopsies, mainly as to diagnosis of initial melanocytic lesions and accurate assessment of resection margins. Our objective was to evaluate melanocytes in sun-exposed and non-exposed skin. METHODS: It was conducted the histological analysis of 60 skin biopsy samples resected from cadaver forearm (sun-exposed skin and cadaver buttock (non-exposed skin from the Death Verification Service (Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos of Recife, state of Pernambuco. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Windows version 12.0. RESULTS: There was considerable variability in melanocyte density, with a higher concentration of these cells in sun-exposed areas (p < 0.001. There was also an irregular distribution of melanocytes along the epidermal basal layer, occasionally with cells arranged side by side. This confluence was identified with a higher frequency in sun

  13. Análise da rentabilidade da terminação de bovinos de corte em condições de confinamento: um estudo de caso Profitability analysis of finishing beef cattle in feedlot conditions: a case study

    M.A. Lopes


    Full Text Available Estudou-se a rentabilidade da terminação de bovinos de corte em confinamento, calculou-se o custo de produção e identificaram-se os componentes de maior influência sobre o custo operacional efetivo da arroba de carne. Os dados foram provenientes de um sistema de produção de bovinos de corte localizado no oeste do estado de Minas Gerais, no qual foram terminados em confinamento 3.583 animais, durante os meses de abril a novembro de 2002. A rentabilidade do sistema de produção foi estimada utilizando-se o software Cu$to Bovino Corte. Os componentes do custo operacional efetivo que exerceram maior influência sobre os custos da atividade confinamento foram, em ordem decrescente: aquisição dos animais, alimentação, despesas diversas, mão-de-obra, sanidade e impostos. O confinamento do sistema de produção mostrou que a atividade tem condições de sobreviver no longo prazo.The research analyzed the profitability of beef cattle finished in feedlot, estimated the cost production and evaluated the components with most influence on effective operational costs of about 32 pounds of meat (one arroba. Data on 3,583 animals finished from April to November in feedlot were used in the analysis. The profitability of the production system was estimated by Cu$to Bovino Corte software. The factors of the effective operational system with highest influence on feedlot costs were in decreasing order: animal purchasing price, feed, miscelaneous expenses, animal health and taxes. The positive profitability suggests that finishing feedlot production system has condition to survive during long term period.

  14. Functional analysis of Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation.

    Estrid Hein

    Full Text Available The recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are mannose-binding lectin and Ficolin -1, -2 and -3. Recently deficiency of Ficolin-3 was found to be associated with life threatening infections. Thus, we aimed to develop a functional method based on the ELISA platform for evaluating Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation that could be applicable for research and clinical use. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was acetylated (acBSA and chosen as a solid phase ligand for Ficolins in microtiter wells. Binding of Ficolins on acBSA was evaluated, as was functional complement activation assessed by C4, C3 and terminal complement complex (TCC deposition. Serum Ficolin-3 bound to acBSA in a calcium dependent manner, while only minimal binding of Ficolin-2 and no binding of Ficolin-1 were observed. No binding to normal BSA was seen for any of the Ficolins. Serum C4, C3 and TCC deposition on acBSA were dependent only on Ficolin-3 in appropriate serum dilutions. Deposition of down stream complement components correlated highly significantly with the serum concentration of Ficolin-3 but not with Ficolin-2 in healthy donors. To make the assay robust for clinical use a chemical compound was applied to the samples that inhibited interference from the classical pathway due to the presence of anti-BSA antibodies in some sera. We describe a novel functional method for measuring complement activation mediated by Ficolin-3 in human serum up to the formation of TCC. The assay provides the possibility to diagnose functional and genetic defects of Ficolin-3 and down stream components in the lectin complement pathway.

  15. Tensor analysis methods for activity characterization in spatiotemporal data

    Haass, Michael Joseph; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Ochoa, Edward M


    Tensor (multiway array) factorization and decomposition offers unique advantages for activity characterization in spatio-temporal datasets because these methods are compatible with sparse matrices and maintain multiway structure that is otherwise lost in collapsing for regular matrix factorization. This report describes our research as part of the PANTHER LDRD Grand Challenge to develop a foundational basis of mathematical techniques and visualizations that enable unsophisticated users (e.g. users who are not steeped in the mathematical details of matrix algebra and mulitway computations) to discover hidden patterns in large spatiotemporal data sets.

  16. Culture phenomenon analysis on the forest tour activity of China

    Jiang Minjin


    This paper analyzes culture and forest culture, the intension of culture and forest culture, combines the understanding of the main cultural factor with the forest tour activity of China, analyzes the compatible phenomenon of Chinese forest culture and traditional culture, and explores culture of forest tourist site containing the meaning in forest tour. The author thinks the tour of forest culture which will be the important component of forest tour in forest culture,This paper puts forward simple questions existing in exploitation and advantage of forest tour culture, and proposes some countermeasures.

  17. Charismatic leadership and entrepreneurial activity: An empirical analysis

    Stefan van Hemmen


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship literature frequently identifies entrepreneurs as possessing a charismatic personality. Charisma is broadly defined as a combination of the talent to foresee market opportunities and the ability to motivate other people in the materialization of these opportunities. Business organizations also provide the context for developing skills and knowledge, which is particularly valuable for potential entrepreneurs who identify business opportunities. Using a sample of 41 countries, we show that higher rates of charismatic leadership at the country level are positively associated with entrepreneurial activity. This outcome suggests that both business-oriented and educational organizations that promote charismatic leadership play a significant role in the development of entrepreneurial incubators.

  18. Circadian patterns of Wikipedia editorial activity: a demographic analysis.

    Taha Yasseri

    Full Text Available Wikipedia (WP as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e., editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors.

  19. Circadian patterns of Wikipedia editorial activity: A demographic analysis

    Yasseri, Taha; Kerétsz, János


    Wikipedia (WP) as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e. editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors.

  20. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae).

    Hess, S C; Brum, R L; Honda, N K; Cruz, A B; Moretto, E; Cruz, R B; Messana, I; Ferrari, F; Cechinel Filho, V; Yunes, R A


    Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) is a tree commonly found in wet soils of 'Pantanal' of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and used in folk medicine against infections and asthma. We have studied different extracts and some isolated compounds from this plant for antibacterial activity. From the extracts of the stem bark beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid and sericic acid were isolated. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus were: ethanolic extract (MIC = 1.5 mg/ml); ethyl acetate extract (MIC = 2.0 mg/ml); and sericic acid (MIC = 1.0 mg/ml). Escherichia coli was resistant until 5 mg/ml.

  1. Performance analysis of a rotary active magnetic refrigerator

    Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R.H.;


    -equivalent cooling power (ExQ), and the overall second law efficiency, η2nd. Losses mapping indicated that friction and thermal leakage to the ambient are the most important contributors to the reduction of the system performance. Based on modeling results, improvements on the flow distributor design and reduction......Performance results for a novel rotary active magnetic regenerator (AMR) and detailed numerical model of it are presented. The experimental device consists of 24 regenerators packed with gadolinium (Gd) spheres rotating inside a four-pole permanent magnet with magnetic field of 1.24T. A parametric...


    Ramya, R.


    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta Linn and Tagetes patula Linn. After performing preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography, antimicrobial efficacy of the extracts was evaluated through agar well diffusion method using the bacterial species, viz Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study has demonstrated highest anti-bacterial activity of the flower extract of T. erecta among all the four extracts tested.

  3. Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity (AMSARA) 2013 Annual Report


    and adolescence 223 67.6 192 64.9 31 91.2 Attention deficit with hyperactivity 429 80.6 305 77.8 124 88.6 Anxiety, dissociative and somatoform... headaches and recurrent headaches were both higher in 2011 than in previous years. 71 TABLE 2.37 LEADING PRIMARY EPTS DISCHARGE CONDITIONS FOR ACTIVE...13.2 Lower leg pain, deformities, or disease 585 9.3 124 9.0 Chest pain 159 2.5 68 4.9 Headaches , migraines


    Edit Hadhazi Barizsne


    The purpose of the current study was to search for a link between the characteristics of firms’ training activities and the characteristics of the organizations themselves. The validity of our hypothesis was examined on the basis of structured interviews. On the basis of the data we can state that the growth in the increase in the number of employees and the innovative nature of technology used have been accompanied by a parallel growth in the training behavior of firms. In our study we attem...

  5. An empirical analysis of the training activities of firms

    Edit Hadhazi Barizsne


    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to search for a link between the characteristics of firms’ training activities and the characteristics of the organisations themselves. The validity of our hypothesis is examined on the basis of structured interviews. On the basis of the data we can state that the growth in the increase in the number of employees and the innovative nature of technology used have been accompanied by a parallel growth in the training behaviour of firms. In our study we attempt to study in detail the influence that the stage the firm is at on its life cycle curve has on the training provided to employees.

  6. Structure analysis of active components of traditional Chinese medicines

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Jianhua


    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for healing of different health problems for thousands of years. They have been used as therapeutic, complementary and alternative medicines. TCMs usually consist of dozens to hundreds of various compounds, which are extracted from raw...... herbal sources by aqueous or alcoholic solvents. Therefore, it is difficult to correlate the pharmaceutical effect to a specific lead compound in the TCMs. A detailed analysis of various components in TCMs has been a great challenge for modern analytical techniques in recent decades. In this chapter...

  7. Analysis of natural neutron flux in a seismically active zone

    V. F. Ostapenko


    Full Text Available In a seismically active zone in the near Almaty area (Kazakhstan since 1996 observations of variations of a natural neutron flux have been conducted. Sometimes the neutron flux rises sharply within the one-hour interval in comparison with the background. It occurs on the eve of activation of seismic processes. Increase of the neutron flux level had taken place from 1 h to 10 days prior to earthquakes. It is also indicated a tendency of growth of the anomaly level in accordance with the growth of energetic class of the subsequent earthquake. A character of connection between the neutron flux and earthquakes is still not clear. It is proposed that the neutron flux anomalies caused by variations of cosmic radiation intensity under action of fluxes of solar material, which is burst into interplanetary space (solar wind during solar flares. Energy of the solar wind transferred to Earth puts into action a trigger mechanism of the process of initiation of earthquakes at those places where conditions have already been prepared for them. The neutron flux anomalies can be used as substantial additional information for classical geophysical methods of short-term earthquake prediction.


    Merlyn Simbolon


    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the grammatical errors and to provide description of errors on speaking activities using simple present and present progressive tenses made by the second year students of English Education Department, Palangka Raya University. The subject for this study was 30 students. This research applied qualitative research to describe the types, source and causes of students’ errors taken from oral essay test which consisted of questions using the tenses of simple present and present progressive. The errors were indentified and classified according to Linguistic Category Taxonomy and Richard’s classification, well as the possible sources and causes of errors. The findings showed that the errors made by students were in 6 aspects; errors in production of verb groups, errors in the distribution of verb groups, errors in the use of article, errors in the use of preposition, errors in the use of questions and miscellaneous errors. In regard to resource and causes, it was found that intra-lingual interference was the major source of errors (82.55% where overgeneralization took place as the major cause of the errors with total percentage of 44.71%. Keywords: grammatical errors, speaking skill, speaking activities

  9. Medida da função motora: versão da escala para o português e estudo de confiabilidade Motor function measure scale: portuguese version and reliability analysis

    C Iwabe


    first author performed the test and retest and another three physical therapists analyzed the same videos to assess the inter-examiner reliability. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kendall, kappa and Pearson coefficients. RESULTS: The scale is presented with its 32 items and three dimensions. The Kendall concordance coefficients for inter-examiner analysis and the kappa and Pearson coefficients for the test-retest comparison were statistically significant (p-value<0.0001 for the 32 items on the scale and for the total score. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the MFM showed high reliability and minimal variability when it was applied. It can be used as an instrument for clinical diagnosis and follow-up of neuromuscular disorders. The high reliability in applying the MFM will allow Brazilian patients to be included in international clinical trials that use this scale.

  10. Atividade física e percepção do ambiente em idosos: estudo populacional em Florianópolis Actividad física y percepción del ambiente en ancianos: estudio poblacional en Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil Physical activity and environment perception among older adults: a population study in Florianópolis, Brazil

    Maruí Weber Corseuil Giehl


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência da prática de atividade física de lazer em idosos e analisar sua associação com a percepção do ambiente. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional, transversal, conduzido com 1.656 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais residentes na zona urbana de Florianópolis, SC, de setembro de 2009 a junho de 2010. A atividade física de lazer foi mensurada utilizando-se a versão longa do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física. Variáveis de percepção do ambiente foram mensuradas por meio de uma versão modificada da Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. Análises brutas e ajustadas foram realizadas utilizando-se regressão de Poisson com nível de 5% de significância. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de atividade física no lazer foi de 29,7% (IC95% 26,0; 33,3; 35,6% (IC95% 29,7; 41,6 entre os homens e 26,3% (IC95% 23,1; 29,4 entre as mulheres. Idosos que relataram a existência de calçadas, de ciclovias, vias e trilhas para pedestre no bairro, bem como aqueles que disseram receber o apoio de amigos ou vizinhos para realizar atividades físicas foram mais ativos no lazer. Quanto à influência do clima, idosos que relataram ser este uma barreira, foram classificados como mais ativos. CONCLUSÕES: A prática de atividade física de lazer ainda é pouco prevalente na população idosa de Florianópolis. Espaços públicos para a prática de atividade física e o incentivo a atividades em grupo podem desempenhar papel significativo na promoção da atividade física de lazer em idosos.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de la práctica de actividad física en ocio en ancianos y analizar su asociación con la percepción del ambiente. MÉTODOS: Estudio de base poblacional, transversal fue conducido con 1.656 individuos con 60 años o más residentes en la zona urbana de Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil, de septiembre de 2009 a junio de 2010. La actividad física en ocio fue medida utilizándose la versión larga del

  11. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Salvia chloroleuca Aerial Extracts

    Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh


    Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study

  12. Estimates of iodine in biological materials by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    Sato, T. (Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neurosciences, Fuchu (Japan)); Kato, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education)


    Iodine abundances in NBS biological SRMs and various organs of rats were evaluated by epithermal neutron activation analysis with a boron carbide filter. The detectability of iodine in different biological materials by this method is discussed.

  13. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    Cohn, S.H.


    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  14. Surface EMG based muscle activity analysis for aerobic cyclist.

    Balasubramanian, Venkatesh; Jayaraman, Srinivasan


    In this study, we determined the muscle activity of aerobic cyclist on biceps brachii medial, trapezius medial, latissimus dorsi medial, and erector spinae muscles bilaterally during 30 min of cycling. Thirteen male volunteers were chosen and placed in two groups (with and without low back pain (LBP)). Surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded bilaterally from selected muscle groups for 30 min of cycling for each subject. Statistical tests were performed to determine the difference in fatigue, using mean power frequency difference. LBP group showed a significantly higher fatigue (p<0.05) in left biceps brachii medial when compared to the control group. High fatigue in the back muscles in the LBP group was not found; however, when linear regression was performed for these individuals, the data showed a possibility of worsening in their condition due to 30 min of cycling.

  15. Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques

    Bach, P.; Ma, J. L.; Froment, D.; Jaureguy, J. C.


    A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time.

  16. Numerical modeling and analysis of the active magnetic regenerator

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    In this thesis the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is analyzed using various numerical tools and experimental devices. A 2-dimensional transient numerical model of the AMR is developed and implemented and it is used to investigate the in uence of a range of parameters on the performance...... expressed as temperature span versus cooling power is mapped as a function of the central parameters. Since regenerators built of several magnetic materials distinguished by their respective magnetic transition temperatures are reported to perform better than single-material AMRs this concept has been...... investigated using the numerical AMR model. The results show indeed that the performance may be enhanced signicantly and it may thus be concluded that the performance of the AMR is dependent on a vast number of parameters (material composition, magnetic eld source, regenerator geometry, regenerator eciency...


    M. ROY


    Full Text Available Incoming cosmic ray shows significant intensity modulation in association with different solar geo parameters during their passage through heliosphere. Cosmic ray intensity is found anticorrelated with solar activity parameters. Using pressure corrected data of Mcmurdo neutron monitor, modulation of cosmic ray is analyzed covering solar cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 (from 1976 to 2013. Negative and high correlations are obtained with some time lag for most of the solar parameters. Difference in shapes of hysteresis curves CRI~SSN, CRI~SRF. CRI~CI and CRI~FI for odd and even cycles pointed out that different mechanisms convection and diffusion are the dominating factors to drift cosmic ray particles.

  18. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S


    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection.

  19. Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis

    Cohn, S.H.


    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.

  20. Explorative data analysis for changes in neural activity

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Meinecke, Frank C.; von Bünau, Paul; Müller, Klaus-Robert


    Neural recordings are non-stationary time series, i.e. their properties typically change over time. Identifying specific changes, e.g., those induced by a learning task, can shed light on the underlying neural processes. However, such changes of interest are often masked by strong unrelated changes, which can be of physiological origin or due to measurement artifacts. We propose a novel algorithm for disentangling such different causes of non-stationarity and in this manner enable better neurophysiological interpretation for a wider set of experimental paradigms. A key ingredient is the repeated application of Stationary Subspace Analysis (SSA) using different temporal scales. The usefulness of our explorative approach is demonstrated in simulations, theory and EEG experiments with 80 brain-computer interfacing subjects.

  1. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.


    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  2. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Bak, Sung Ryel; Park, Yong Chul; Kim, Young Ki; Chung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun


    This report is written for results of research and development as follows : improvement of neutron irradiation facilities, counting system and development of automation system and capsules for NAA in HANARO ; improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of analytical quality control and assurance system; applied research and development of environment, industry and human health and its standardization. For identification and standardization of analytical method, environmental biological samples and polymer are analyzed and uncertainity of measurement are estimated. Also data intercomparison and proficency test were performed. Using airborne particulate matter chosen as a environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site are determined and then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. International cooperation research project was carried out for utilization of nuclear techniques.

  3. Computerized Stokes analysis of optically active polymer films

    Georgiev, Georgi


    Optics labs are an integral part of the advanced curriculum for physics majors. Students majoring in other disciplines, like chemistry, biology or engineering rarely have the opportunity to learn about the most recent optical techniques and mathematical representation used in today’s science and industry optics. Stokes analysis of polarization of light is one of those methods that are increasingly necessary but are seldom taught outside advanced physics or optics classes that are limited to physics majors. On the other hand biology and chemistry majors already use matrix and polarization techniques in the labs for their specialty, which makes the transition to matrix calculations seamless. Since most of the students in those majors postpone their enrollment in physics, most of the registered in those classes are juniors and seniors, enabling them to handle those techniques. We chose to study polymer samples to aid students majoring in other disciplines, especially chemistry and engineering, with understa...

  4. Muscle networks: Connectivity analysis of EMG activity during postural control

    Boonstra, Tjeerd W.; Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Xie, Hong-Bo; Roerdink, Melvyn; Stins, John F.; Breakspear, Michael


    Understanding the mechanisms that reduce the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal system remains an outstanding challenge. Muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality and hence simplify the control problem. How this is achieved is not yet known. Here we use network theory to assess the coordination between multiple muscles and to elucidate the neural implementation of muscle synergies. We performed connectivity analysis of surface EMG from ten leg muscles to extract the muscle networks while human participants were standing upright in four different conditions. We observed widespread connectivity between muscles at multiple distinct frequency bands. The network topology differed significantly between frequencies and between conditions. These findings demonstrate how muscle networks can be used to investigate the neural circuitry of motor coordination. The presence of disparate muscle networks across frequencies suggests that the neuromuscular system is organized into a multiplex network allowing for parallel and hierarchical control structures.

  5. Estudos organizacionais, (descolonialidade e estudos da dependência: as contribuições da Cepal

    Sergio Wanderley

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é (revisitar o conceito de dependência como categoria de investigação da (e a partir da América Latina, por meio de uma perspectiva histórica crítica descolonial, a fim de ampliar o espaço de debates em estudos organizacionais e promover alternativas à ordem neoliberal. Este ensaio terá como foco os estudos da dependência realizados pela Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (Cepal durante a década de 1950 e o início dos anos 1960. A perspectiva descolonial é um constructo teórico de autores latino-americanos que se consideram herdeiros da longa tradição do pensamento social crítico da região, na qual a teoria da dependência está inserida. As propostas dos autores da dependência confrontaram as principais teorias ortodoxas do Norte produzidas à época. A partir do conceito de centro-periferia, da denúncia de assimetrias nas relações entre essas regiões, do reconhecimento da interdependência entre desenvolvimento e subdesenvolvimento, o conceito de dependência foi sendo (reelaborado nas décadas de 1950 e 1960 por diversos autores latino-americanos como uma categoria de investigação da realidade da (e a partir da região. Essas investigações tinham por objetivo não somente elaborar constructos teóricos, mas, também, transformar a realidade por meio da criação de diversas organizações e instituições que deveriam servir ao propósito de superar o subdesenvolvimento. A denúncia da historicidade da situação de subdesenvolvimento desnudou o caráter de neutralidade do economicismo das teorias produzidas no Norte e promoveu um encontro teórico entre economia e política que muito tem a contribuir com a área dos estudos organizacionais.


    Alfredo LAM-SÁNCHEZ


    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Estudos com arroz (Oryza sativa, L. foram realizados a fim de determinar a variabilidade do teor de proteína em coleções de cultivares e a possibilidade de utilizar as camadas periféricas do grão na alimentação humana. Foram analisadas 626 linhagens e cultivares de arroz que mostraram uma variação quanto ao teor de proteína de 4.00 a 14.31 g/100 g de amostra. Para se extrair as camadas periféricas do grão, foi desenvolvida uma máquina experimental, que removia as camadas superficiais dos grãos de arroz integral (inteiros somente com a casca removida. Verificou-se que a quantidade de proteína do grão diminui de fora para dentro. O resíduo, que era constituído de grande parte de restos de endosperma com um teor protéico menor mas incluía o embrião, que é a primeira estrutura a se deslocar de grão no beneficiamento e contém proteínas, vitaminas, sais minerais e lípides, tinha um bom valor nutritivo. Desenvolveu-se também uma fórmula para alimentação infantil a partir da mistura de leite de vaca com arroz, com composição semelhante à do leite materno, a ser utilizada sob a forma de bebida ou mingau. Formulações com 40%-20% arroz + 60%-80% leite de vaca proporcionaram valores de Coeficiente de Eficiência Protéica (2,39 e 2,38, respectivamente que não diferiam estatisticamente do valor de 2,43 obtido na fórmula com 100% de leite de vaca. Seus preços foram 59% e 65% do obtido para o leite de vaca integral. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Arroz; qualidade do grão; proteína; camadas periféricas; misturas arroz-leite; nutrição humana.

  7. Estudo de caso: disfonia psicogênica

    Marcela Bergamini


    Full Text Available Disfonia funcional psicogênica possui relação com aspectos psicológicos. O tipo de voz, a articulação e a fluência são sensíveis às oscilações psicológicas. Uma voz em ajuste de falsete paralítico, caracterizada como uma voz de pitch extremamente agudo pode ser encontrada em casos de disfonias psicogênicas. Em qualquer quadro psicogênico é essencial um diagnóstico diferencial, a fim de viabilizar um tratamento fonoaudiológico e médico adequados e efetivos. O prognóstico de uma alteração psicogênica geralmente é bom. O quadro de disfonia psicogênica é mais comum no sexo feminino. O objetivo desse estudo é apresentar a evolução terapêutica de um indivíduo com disfonia psicogênica. A.J.O., 45 anos, sexo masculino, compareceu ao Ambulatório de Avaliação e Terapia de Voz encaminhado por médico otorrinolaringologista. Trouxe a queixa vocal "pela manhã a voz está perfeita, conforme o dia passa, a voz fica fina". Realizou avaliação fonoaudiológica em 18 de abril de 2013, com laudo médico de "mobilidade reduzida de prega vocal esquerda". Tratamento com técnica de sons disparadores, com modificação direta nos sintomas e evolução rápida. Demonstrou-se satisfeito com sua qualidade vocal. Em casos de suspeita de disfonias psicogênicas de conversão, devem-se descartar alterações orgânicas, sendo essencial uma avaliação fonoaudiológica que auxilie no diagnóstico diferencial e provas terapêuticas que incentivem o paciente.

  8. Software for neutron activation analysis at reactor IBR-2, FLNP, JINR

    Zlokazov, V B


    A Delphi program suite, developed for processing gamma-spectra of induced activity of nuclei, obtained from the neutron activation measurements at the reactor IBR-2, FLNF, JINR, is reported. This suite contains components, intended for carrying out all the operations of the analysis cycle, starling with a data acquisition program for gamma -spectrometers Gamma (written in C++ Builder) and including Delphi programs for steps of the analysis. (6 refs).

  9. Activated region fitting: a robust high-power method for fMRI analysis using parameterized regions of activation.

    Weeda, Wouter D; Waldorp, Lourens J; Christoffels, Ingrid; Huizenga, Hilde M


    An important issue in the analysis of fMRI is how to account for the spatial smoothness of activated regions. In this article a method is proposed to accomplish this by modeling activated regions with Gaussian shapes. Hypothesis tests on the location, spatial extent, and amplitude of these regions are performed instead of hypothesis tests of individual voxels. This increases power and eases interpretation. Simulation studies show robust hypothesis tests under misspecification of the shape model, and increased power over standard techniques especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. An application to real single-subject data also indicates that the method has increased power over standard methods.

  10. Analysis of Research in Physical Activities of Slovenian Basic School Children in Recent Years

    Klavdija Strniša


    Full Text Available Nowadays, physical activity is an extremely important segment of a healthy lifestyle not only for children but also for adults. Technological advances allow us to reach our goals with much less physical effort than was required of the individual in the past. Additionally, the fast pace of life and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle also contribute to reduced physical activity among the population. Analysis of published scientific articles in the field of physical activity among basic school students includes 15 research studies. They were included regardless of the origin of the publication and citation frequency. It can be seen that the most common segment of research in children’s physical activity is the gender perspective. Researchers are further interested in the effects of age, educational success, BMI, place of residence, frequency and time spent in physical activity, education and physical activity of parents, as well as the level of organization (organized / unorganized activity. Therefore it can be concluded that children’s physical activities are influenced by external and internal factors. Analysis of published research has shown that physical activity depends upon many internal and external factors. A higher level of physical activity is often detected with boys and children in urban areas, compared to rural ones. Physically active parents have physically more active children. A higher proportion of interviewed basic school students was found to participate in organized forms of exercise in comparison to the unorganized ones.

  11. Análise de crédito por meio de modelos de previsão de insolvência: um estudo de caso na Empresa Cerâmica Alfa S.A. = Credit analysis through models for the forcasting of insolvency of the company Cerâmica Alfa S.A.

    Paula Bez Birolo


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os benefícios da utilização de modelos de previsão de insolvência para a análise de crédito em uma empresa do setor cerâmico. É descritivo, de caráter quantitativo, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso na empresa Cerâmica ALFA S.A. Para execução da pesquisa selecionou-se intencionalmente seis clientes, de acordo com os seguintes dados: a informações creditícias disponíveis no sistema gerencial de crédito/cobrança e b demonstrações contábeis divulgadas nos sites dos respectivos clientes. Os resultados apontam que os modelos de Elizabetsky e Kanitz demonstram fragilidades em identificar a situação financeira dos clientes. O modelo de previsão de insolvência desenvolvido por Matias apresenta melhor desempenho, em relação aos anteriores, para a análise de crédito. Conclui-se que é vantajoso utilizar o modelo de Matias para a análise de crédito, pois ele é adequado às necessidades da empresa e serve como um instrumento para auxílio na concessão de crédito e tomada de decisão. The objective of this article is to assess the benefits of using insolvency forecasting models for the credit analysis of a company in the ceramic sector. This study is descriptive of a quantitative nature through a case study in Cerâmica ALFA S.A. Six clients with the following data were intentionally selected for the execution of the research: a credit information available in the credit/collection management system and b account statements divulged in the sites of the respective clients. The results show that the Elizabetsky and Kanitz models demonstrated fragility in identifying the financial situation of the clients. The insolvency forecasting model developed by Matias showed better performance in relation to the previous ones for credit analysis. It was concludrd that it is advantageous to use the Matias model for credit analysis, because it is suitable for the company’s requirements and serves

  12. Elemental analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: a comparative study

    Chung, Yong Sam; Choi, Kwang Soon; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Jong Myoung; Kim, Young Jin [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Quraishi, Shamshad Begum [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)


    Elemental analyses for certified reference materials were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Five Certified Reference Materials (CRM) were selected for the study on comparative analysis of environmental samples. The CRM are Soil (NIST SRM 2709), Coal fly ash (NIST SRM 1633a), urban dust (NIST SRM 1649a) and air particulate on filter media (NIST SRM 2783 and human hair (GBW 09101)

  13. Research progress in nonlinear analysis of heart electric activities


    Nonlinear science research is a hot point in the world. It has deepened our cognition of determinism and randomicity, simplicity and complexity, noise and order and it will profoundly influence the progress of the study of natural science, including life science.Life is the most complex nonlinear system and heart is the core of lifecycle system. In the late more than 20 years, nonlinear research on heart electric activities has made much headway. The commonly used parameters are based on chaos and fractal theory, such as correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropy and multifractal singularity spectrum. This paper summarizes the commonly used methods in the nonlinear study of heart electric signal. Then, considering the shortages of the above traditional nonlinear parameters, we mainly introduce the results on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) signal (500 R-R intervals) and HFECG signal (1-2s). Finally, we point out it is worthwhile to put emphasis on the study of the sensitive nonlinearity parameters of short-term heart electric signal and their dynamic character and clinical effectivity.

  14. In situ beamline analysis and correction of active optics.

    Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon; Sawhney, Kawal


    At the Diamond Light Source, pencil-beam measurements have enabled long-wavelength slope errors on X-ray mirror surfaces to be examined under ultra-high vacuum and beamline mounting without the need to remove the mirror from the beamline. For an active mirror an automated procedure has been implemented to calculate the actuator settings that optimize its figure. More recently, this in situ pencil-beam method has been applied to additional uses for which ex situ measurements would be inconvenient or simply impossible. First, it has been used to check the stability of the slope errors of several bimorph mirrors at intervals of several weeks or months. Then, it also proved useful for the adjustment of bender and sag compensation actuators on mechanically bent mirrors. Fits to the bending of ideal beams have been performed on the slope errors of a mechanically bent mirror in order to distinguish curvatures introduced by the bending actuators from gravitational distortion. Application of the optimization procedure to another mechanically bent mirror led to an improvement of its sag compensation mechanism.

  15. Quantitative analysis of axonal fiber activation evoked by deep brain stimulation via activation density heat maps

    Christian J. Hartmann


    Full Text Available Background: Cortical modulation is likely to be involved in the various therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS. However, it is currently difficult to predict the changes of cortical modulation during clinical adjustment of DBS. Therefore, we present a novel quantitative approach to estimate anatomical regions of DBS-evoked cortical modulation. Methods: Four different models of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS were created to represent variable electrode placements (model I: dorsal border of the posterolateral STN; model II: central posterolateral STN; model III: central anteromedial STN; model IV: dorsal border of the anteromedial STN. Axonal fibers of passage near each electrode location were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography and modeled using multi-compartment cable models. Stimulation-evoked activation of local axon fibers and corresponding cortical projections were modeled and quantified. Results: Stimulation at the border of the STN (models I and IV led to a higher degree of fiber activation and associated cortical modulation than stimulation deeply inside the STN (models II and III. A posterolateral target (models I and II was highly connected to cortical areas representing motor function. Additionally, model I was also associated with strong activation of fibers projecting to the cerebellum. Finally, models III and IV showed a dorsoventral difference of preferentially targeted prefrontal areas (models III: middle frontal gyrus; model IV: inferior frontal gyrus.Discussion: The method described herein allows characterization of cortical modulation across different electrode placements and stimulation parameters. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomical distribution of stimulation-evoked activation targeting cortical regions may help predict efficacy and potential side effects, and therefore can be used to improve the therapeutic effectiveness of individual adjustments in DBS patients.

  16. Classroom management styles: an analysis from the teaching activities

    Ana Lúcia Pereira Baccon,


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and interprets the action of high school Physics teachers in the classroom. Based on the definitions given by Gauthier (1998 and Tardif (2002, we elaborated reports about action of teachers, seeking to describe how they performed class and content management in their classes. Each report was constructed from interviews and recordings of classes of three Physics teachers from public schools in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The reports were later interpreted through an analysis tool that considers the management of the subject and management of the class as a managing relation with wisdom (CHARLOT, 2000 in a didactic system (CHEVALLARD, 2005. As a result, we point out that the management styles of the three teachers, whose classes were analyzed in this paper, correspond approximately to three management styles: focused on the content of the subject (gS, focused on the teaching practiced by the teacher (gP or focused on students’ learning (gE. Thus, teachers may have three different general types of classroom management.

  17. Wellbore stability analysis in chemically active shale formations

    Shi Xiang-Chao


    Full Text Available Maintaining wellbore stability involves significant challenges when drilling in low-permeability reactive shale formations. In the present study, a non-linear thermo-chemo-poroelastic model is provided to investigate the effect of chemical, thermal, and hydraulic gradients on pore pressure and stress distributions near the wellbores. The analysis indicates that when the solute concentration of the drilling mud is higher than that of the formation fluid, the pore pressure and the effective radial and tangential stresses decrease, and v. v. Cooling of the lower salinity formation decreases the pore pressure, radial and tangential stresses. Hole enlargement is the combined effect of shear and tensile failure when drilling in high-temperature shale formations. The shear and tensile damage indexes reveal that hole enlargement occurs in the vicinity of the wellbore at an early stage of drilling. This study also demonstrates that shale wellbore stability exhibits a time-delay effect due to changes in the pore pressure and stress. The delay time computed with consideration of the strength degradation is far less than that without strength degradation.

  18. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    Smith, Howard


    The following is an interim annual report. Dr. Smith is currently on an extended TDY to the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) at the Consilio Nazionale delle Richerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, where he has been working on a related NASA grant in support of analysis of Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data on star formation in Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies and our galaxy. Work emphasizes development of metal mesh grids for use in spacecraft, and the design and fabrication of test elements by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. Work has progressed well, but slowly, on that program due to the departure of a key engineer. NASA has been advised of the delay, and granted a no-cost extension, whereby SAO has authorized a delay in the final report from NRL. Nevertheless NRL has continued to make progress. Two papers have been submitted to refereed journals related to this program, and a new design for mesh operating in the 20-40 micron region has been developed. Meetings continue through the summer on these items. A new technical scientist has been made a job offer and hopefully will be on board NRL shortly, although most of the present grant work is already completed. A more complete report, with copies of the submitted papers, designs, and other measures of progress, will be submitted to NASA in September when Dr. Smith returns from his current TDY.

  19. Analysis of Scholarly Communication Activities in Buddhism and Buddhist Studies

    Edoardo Magnone


    Full Text Available There is little knowledge regarding the exchange of academic information on religious contexts. The objective of this informational study was to perform an overall analysis of all Buddhism-related communications collected in the Web of Science (WoS from 1993 to 2011. The studied informational parameters include the growth in number of the scholarly communications, as well as the language-, document-, subject category-, source-, country-, and organization-wise distribution of the communications. A total of 5407 scholarly communications in this field of study were published in the selected time range. The most preferred WoS subject category was Asian Studies with 1773 communications (22.81%, followed by Religion with 1425 communications (18.33% and Philosophy with 680 communications (8.75%. The journal with the highest mean number of citations is Numen: International Review for the History of Religions—with 2.09 citations in average per communication. The United States was the top productive country with 2159 communications (50%, where Harvard University topped the list of organization with 85 communications (12%.

  20. Facilitating neuronal connectivity analysis of evoked responses by exposing local activity with principal component analysis preprocessing: simulation of evoked MEG.

    Gao, Lin; Zhang, Tongsheng; Wang, Jue; Stephen, Julia


    When connectivity analysis is carried out for event related EEG and MEG, the presence of strong spatial correlations from spontaneous activity in background may mask the local neuronal evoked activity and lead to spurious connections. In this paper, we hypothesized PCA decomposition could be used to diminish the background activity and further improve the performance of connectivity analysis in event related experiments. The idea was tested using simulation, where we found that for the 306-channel Elekta Neuromag system, the first 4 PCs represent the dominant background activity, and the source connectivity pattern after preprocessing is consistent with the true connectivity pattern designed in the simulation. Improving signal to noise of the evoked responses by discarding the first few PCs demonstrates increased coherences at major physiological frequency bands when removing the first few PCs. Furthermore, the evoked information was maintained after PCA preprocessing. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that the first few PCs represent background activity, and PCA decomposition can be employed to remove it to expose the evoked activity for the channels under investigation. Therefore, PCA can be applied as a preprocessing approach to improve neuronal connectivity analysis for event related data.

  1. Application of ABCD Formalism in Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Actively Modelocked Fiber Laser


    Time domain ABCD matrix formalism is a useful model for analyzing the characteristics of actively modelocked fiber laser. Based on this model and given more consideration on the influences of optical fiber dispersion and optical fiber nonlinearity, the laser characteristic of actively modelocked fiber laser is analyzed, and the comparision of the theoretical analysis results with experimental ones is given.

  2. Conversion Matrix Analysis of GaAs HEMT Active Gilbert Cell Mixers

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor


    In this paper, the nonlinear model of the GaAs HEMT active Gilbert cell mixer is investigated. Based on the model, the conversion gain expression of active Gilbert cell mixers is derived theoretically by using conversion matrix analysis method. The expression is verified by harmonic balance simul...... simulation with Angelov HEMT model in Agilent Advanced Design System (ADS) and by chip measurement results....

  3. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA)


    grouped in the category of automatic identification technologies, along with barcodes, magnetic stripes, smart cards and biometrics. RFID uses...ANALYSIS OF RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION ( RFID ) IMPLEMENTATION AT THE DEFENSE MICROELECTRONICS ACTIVITY (DMEA) by James B. Gerber December...Identification ( RFID ) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James B. Gerber 7

  4. Seeing, Believing, and Learning to Be Skeptical: Supporting Language Learning through Advertising Analysis Activities

    Hobbs, Renee; He, Haixia; Robbgrieco, Michael


    This study documents how a high school ESL teacher working with new immigrants ages 14-20 supported the development of their critical thinking and English language skills by using advertising analysis activities. The article examines the use of key critical questions for analyzing media messages and documents instructional activities designed to…

  5. Low Temperature Irradiation Applied to Neutron Activation Analysis of Mercury In Human Whole Blood

    Brune, D.


    The distribution of mercury in human whole blood has been studied by means of neutron activation analysis. During the irradiation procedure the samples were kept at low temperature by freezing them in a cooling device in order to prevent interferences caused by volatilization and contamination. The mercury activity was separated by means of distillation and ion exchange techniques.

  6. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    Wang, Lin


    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in Biological Materials by Neutron-Activation Analysis

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else


    A new method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, manganese, and selenium in biological material by thermal-neutron activation analysis. The use of 81 mSe as indicator for selenium permitted a reduction of activation time to 1 hr for a 1 g sample, and the possibility of loss...

  8. Newspaper Content Analysis in Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Project to Increase Physical Activity

    Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce


    This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…

  9. Instrumental nuclear activation analysis (INAA) characterization of environmental air filter samples.

    Alemón, Ernesto; Herrera, Luis; Ortiz, Elba; Longoria, L C Luis C


    Nuclear techniques have been used in quantitations of environmental pollutants, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has turned out to be particularly useful in the analysis of airborne suspended particles. This work describes the INAA characterization of the particulate material in the environmental samples obtained in a monitoring campaign in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area. As the types of the irradiation facilities and gamma-ray detection system impose some limitations on the possibilities of INAA analysis, the actual experimental conditions at Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory, where the analysis was performed, had been assessed. The facilities had been found suitable for the analysis of samples from this campaign, in which 22 elements were determined.

  10. Immediate effects of TENS and cryotherapy in the reflex excitability and voluntary activity in hemiparetic subjects: a randomized crossover trial Efeitos imediatos da TENS e crioterapia na excitabilidade reflexa e atividade voluntária de sujeitos hemiparéticos: um estudo controlado aleatorizado cruzado

    Fábio L. Martins


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The disorder of reflex and motor function in patients affected by stroke causes negative impact on the performance of movement patterns and affects the functional activities. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the immediate effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and cryotherapy interventions on the spinal reflex excitability and in the voluntary electromyography (EMG activity in people with chronic stroke. METHOD: Randomized crossover trial. The maximum H-reflex (Hmax, the H-reflex latency and the maximum motor response (Mmax of the soleus muscle and also the EMG of the tibialis muscle where evaluated before and after the application of TENS, cryotherapy and control conditions. RESULTS: The Hmax/Mmax ratio was statistically significant higher (p=0.0245 and the H-reflex latency was statistically significant lower (p=0.0375 in the soleus muscle of the affected limb. The EMG amplitude of the tibialis anterior was reduced in the compromised limb (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O distúrbio da função motora e reflexa em pacientes acometidos por acidente vascular encefálico (AVE causa impactos negativos na realização de padrões motores, comprometendo as atividades funcionais. OBJETIVOS: Investigar os efeitos imediatos da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (TENS e da crioterapia na excitabilidade reflexa e na atividade voluntária de sujeitos vítimas de AVE. MÉTODO: Estudo Crossover. O reflexo H máximo (Hmáx, a latência do reflexo H e a resposta motora máxima (Mmáx do músculo solear e a eletromiografia (EMG do músculo tibial anterior foram avaliados antes e após a aplicação de TENS, crioterapia e em condições de controle. RESULTADOS: A razão Hmáx/Mmáx estava significativamente aumentada (p=0,0245 e a latência do reflexo H significativamente diminuída (p=0,0375 no músculo solear do membro afetado. A amplitude do sinal EMG do músculo estava significativamente reduzida no membro comprometido (p<0


    Neide Marina Feijó Bertoncello


    Full Text Available 0bjetivando estudar a atividade administrativa do enfermeiro em saúde mental enquanto um instrumento do processo de trabalho, realizamos um estudo bibliográfico de publicações de enfermagem sobre esta temática no período de 1988 a 1997. Através da leitura e análise crítica de 8 artigos e 19 dissertações e teses selecionadas, identificamos as principais características dessa prática, quais sejam: os enfermeiros são os responsáveis pela equipe e assistência de enfermagem, obedecendo à lógica determinada pela instituição; suas ações não são planejadas, coordenadas e avaliadas; as atividades administrativas utilizam a maior parte de seu tempo de trabalho e o cuidado direto de enfermagem é realizado pela equipe auxiliar de enfermagem, sendo que nos serviços extra--hospitalares os atendimentos diretos e grupais são mais freqüentes.Buscando estudiar la actividad administrativa del enfermero en salud mental como un instrumento del proceso de trabajo, realizamos un estudio bibliográfico de las publicaciones de enfermería sobre ésta temática en la fecha de 1988 a 1997. A través de la lectura y el análisis crítico de 8 artículos y 19 disertaciones y tesis seleccionadas, identificamos las principales características de esa práctica, son estas: los enfermeros son los responsables por el equipo y asistencia de enfermería, obedeciendo a la lógica determinada por la institución; sus acciones no son planeadas, coordinadas y evaluadas; las actividades administrativas utilizan la mayor parte de su tiempo de trabajo y el cuidado directo de enfermería es realizado por el equipo auxiliar de enfermería. En los servicios extra-hospitalarios la atención directa y grupal es más frecuente.Aiming at studying the mental health nurse's management activity as an instrument in the work process, a bibliographic study on nursing publications from 1988 to 1997 which concerned that topic was carried out. By reading and critically

  12. Estudo da utilização de materiais de referência nas análises de água por laboratórios envolvidos no sistema de acreditação Case study on the usage of reference materials in water analysis by laboratories involved in the accreditation system

    Suzana Saboia de Moura


    Full Text Available O presente estudo propõe-se discutir o uso de materiais de referência (MR pelos laboratórios de ensaios de águas, sob o ponto de vista da aquisição dos materiais conforme o item "Aquisição de serviços e suprimentos" (4.6 da norma ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025. O papel dos MR nas análises químicas é fornecer referências metrológicas visando assegurar a rastreabilidade das medições. A rastreabilidade é um aspecto essencial da garantia da qualidade para se obter aceitação de dados analíticos nos mercados nacional e internacional. Neste estudo de caso, de caráter exploratório e qualitativo, uma pesquisa foi realizada junto a todos os laboratórios de ensaios prestadores de serviços analíticos para a Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA e envolvidos no sistema de acreditação pela Coordenação Geral de Acreditação do Inmetro (Cgcre/Inmetro, utilizando-se questionário estruturado e com 50% de retorno. Os resultados mostraram que são muito poucos os certificados de MR com reconhecimento de terceira parte, ou seja, por organismos de acreditação, segundo normas consagradas que tratam efetivamente da rastreabilidade metrológica. Propõe-se, finalmente, uma política para garantir, sempre que possível, a rastreabilidade dos resultados de ensaios dos laboratórios, na ausência de MR certificados.This paper aims at discussing the use of reference materials (RM by water testing laboratories, on the context of RM purchase, based on the requirements of the standard ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025, section "Purchasing services and supplies" (4.6. The role of RM in chemical analysis is to provide metrological reference to assure measurement traceability. This is an essential aspect of quality assurance in order to have analytical results accepted in the international market. In this case study, based on the methodological exploratory and qualitative approach, a questionnaire was sent to testing laboratories which provide analytical services to the

  13. Analysis of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis infection: a casecontrol study starting from abated animalsAnálise de fatores de risco para a infecção de cisticercose bovina: estudo de caso controle a partir de animais abatidos

    Paulo Sérgio Arruda Pinto


    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of Taenia Saginata, with origins in poor handling conditions and, above all, the environmental contamination caused by man, host of the adult form of the parasite. Knowing the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis is important for the implementation of control programs, however it is important to determine the source of the infection of the animals. In this paper, a study was conducted based on the records of three refrigerators located in the town of Colatina-ES, the addresses of properties, that sent animals to slaughtering, were obtained through the Animal Transit Guide (GTA. The properties were georeferenced for the mapping of the studied region and analysis of the distribution of cases and controls. Risk factors were studied using the information obtained in an epidemiological survey based on questionnaires application at the properties visited, being the size of the properties, the origin of animals, age of animals acquired and sewer destination, the main factors associated to the infection. The diagnosis of cysticercosis in the slaughterhouse, plus the information of the animal source, allowed defining the areas of disease occurrence and its quantification. Proving to be an important indicator for the establishment of effective programs to combat the parasite. A cisticercose bovina é uma infecção zoonótica causada pelo estágio larval da Taenia saginata. A infecção é favorecida pela contaminação ambiental provocada pelo próprio homem, hospedeiro da forma adulta do parasito e por condições inadequadas de manejo. O conhecimento da prevalência da cisticercose bovina é importante para a implantação de programas de controle, para isto é fundamental determinar a fonte de infecção dos animais. Neste trabalho, foi realizado estudo a partir dos registros da cisticercose de três frigoríficos localizados no município de Colatina-ES. Por meio da guia de tr

  14. Estudo da ocorrência de fluxos no perfil vertical do vento na baixa atmosfera com análise das componentes principais (ACP e a sua relação com a precipitação no Rio Grande do Sul Vertical wind profile uses a principal component analysis, and of their relation to precipitation in Rio Grande do Sul

    Cleber Souza Corrêa


    Full Text Available Neste estudo busca-se entender as relações dos Jatos de Nível Baixo (JNB e dos fluxos no perfil vertical do vento na geração de convecção em escala sinótica e a sua associação com a precipitação, observa-se o perfil vertical do vento através de radiossondagens realizadas no Aeroporto Internacional Salgado Filho em Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Estimam-se características predominantes da dinâmica dos fluxos dentro da baixa atmosfera, descrevendo a interação dos JNB e fluxos na geração da precipitação. Os JNB associados neste intenso transporte apresentam uma tendência de estarem ligados a eventos convectivos noturnos e na geração de Sistemas Convectivos de Mesoescala (SCM, que geram elevados índices pluviométricos que podem causar importante influência econômica. Utiliza-se a técnica da Análise das Componentes Principais para realização deste estudo, comparando suas componentes com a precipitação de sessenta e quatro estações pluviométricas sobre Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O emprego desta metodologia facilita o entendimento da complexidade das interações das diferentes escalas meteorológicas envolvidas nos processos sinóticos de macro e mesoescala, mostrando neste método uma melhor representação das características dinâmicas dos processos baroclínicos na convecção. Em tal complexidade, o trabalho realizado pelos JNB e os fluxos nesta interação são o de serem uma escala efetiva de transporte de vapor de água na baixa atmosfera ao nível de mesoescala e de escala continental.This study analyses the relation between Low-Level Jets (LLJ and Flows in the vertical wind profiles generating convection at the synoptic scale, and associated events of rainfall, using vertical wind profiles obtained by radiosonde at the Salgado Filho International Airport in Porto Alegre, the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The LLJs involved in this large-scale transport tend to be associated with

  15. Abordagem holística do termo pessoa em um estudo empírico: uma análise crítica Abordaje holístico del término persona en un estudio empírico: un análisis crítico Holistic approach of the term "person" in an empirical study: a critical analysis

    David Lopes Neto


    Full Text Available O estudo analisa a semântica e a estrutura do termo pessoa (mulheres com HIV, mediante abordagem holística fundamentada no Modelo de Adaptação de Roy (Veritivity e na fenomenologia de Heidegger (Dasein. Pesquisa extraída da literatura das Ciências Enfermagem e Filosofia, através da técnica de documentação indireta, com utilização do modelo de análise de teoria de Chinn & Kramer, através do qual foram analisados os seguintes aspectos: objetividade, simplicidade, generalidade, acessibilidade e importância dos conceitos de pessoa e holismo no estudo empírico "Nutritional adaptation of women living with HIV: a pilot study", publicado na revista Holistic Nursing Practice, em 1997. Criticamente, a interpretação do termo pessoa se deu pela compreensão do ser enquanto um ser ôntico-ontológico, como forma de percepção verdadeira do sentido do ser (pessoa, como uma estrutura universal vivente em um mundo antropológico e social, ao qual mulheres com HIV podem se adaptar ao novo estilo de vida e receber atenção integral da enfermagem, principalmente no que concerne ao aspecto nutricional.El estudio analiza la semántica y la estructura del término: persona (mujeres con HIV, mediante el abordaje holitico basado en el Modelo de Adaptación de Roy (Veritivity y en la fenomenología de Heidegger (Dasein. Investigación extraída de la literatura de las Ciencias de enfermería y filosofía, a través de la técnica de documentacion indirecta, con la utilización del modelo de análisis de teoria de Chinn & Kramer a través del cual se analizaron los siguientes aspectos: la objetividad, simplicidad, generalidad, accesibilidad y importancia de los conceptos de persona y holismo en el estudio empírico Nutritional adaptation of women living with HIV: a pilot study, publicado en la revista Holistic Nursing Practice, en 1997. Críticamente, la interpretación del término persona se dio por la comprensión de ser como ontico

  16. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production via neutron activation (PNA) and fission product gas-jet (GJA)

    Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Three different non-diffractive applications of neutrons are outlined, neutron activation analysis, production of radionuclides, mostly for medical applications, and production of short-lived fission nuclides with a so-called gas-jet. It is shown that all three devices may be incorporated into one single insert at SINQ due to their different requests with respect to thermal neutron flux. Some applications of these three facilities are summarized. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  17. Media Portrayals of Hashtag Activism: a Framing Analysis of Canada's #Idlenomore Movement

    Derek Moscato


    The confluence of activism and social media - legitimized by efforts such as the Arab Spring and Occupy Movements - represents a growing area of mainstream media focus. Using Canada’s #IdleNoMore movement as a case, this study uses framing theory to better understand how traditional media are representing activism borne of social media such as Twitter, and how such activism can ultimately have an impact in political and public policy debates. A qualitative framing analysis is used to ident...

  18. Uma ferramenta para planejamento de estudos para concursos

    Leonardo Pimentel


    Full Text Available De acordo com a constituição brasileira, a única forma de se tornar um empregado do governo é passar em um concurso público. O exame de conhecimento do cargo é um dos componentes mais importantes de um concurso. Estudar para esse exame é uma tarefa que requer planejamento. Um meio de obter um bom planejamento é construir uma grade de horários que relacione as matérias a serem estudadas com os respectivos horários disponíveis para o estudo. Esse tipo de problema se assemelha bastante à gerência de projetos, em que se procura estabelecer a distribuição das atividades ao longo do tempo disponível. Assim, torna-se interessante explorar a dinâmica de estudos para concursos como um projeto. O presente trabalho apresenta a ferramenta de apoio ao estudos - Passe-me, baseada no ciclo PDCA (do inglês, Plan-Do-Check-Act. Por se tratar de uma ferramenta web, o tempo de resposta para produzir uma grade de estudos é fundamental. A ferramenta faz uso de algoritmo genético para calcular a grade de horários priorizando a velocidade de resposta. A ferramenta foi avaliada em diferentes cenários de uso e obteve desempenho satisfatório durante a produção da grade de estudos.

  19. Independent component feature-based human activity recognition via Linear Discriminant Analysis and Hidden Markov Model.

    Uddin, Md; Lee, J J; Kim, T S


    In proactive computing, human activity recognition from image sequences is an active research area. This paper presents a novel approach of human activity recognition based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of Independent Component (IC) features from shape information. With extracted features, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is applied for training and recognition. The recognition performance using LDA of IC features has been compared to other approaches including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), LDA of PC, and ICA. The preliminary results show much improved performance in the recognition rate with our proposed method.

  20. Insecticidal crystal proteins from native Bacillus thuringiensis: numerical analysis and biological activity against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Alvarez, Analía; Pera, Licia M; Loto, Flavia; Virla, Eduardo G; Baigori, Mario D


    Fourteen strains of Bacillus thuringiensis collected from both larvae showing disease symptoms and soil samples in northwest Argentina were characterized by insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda. First instar larvae and protein profile SDS-PAGE analysis of whole cell proteins not only allowed the differentiation of native Bacillus thuringiensis but also revealed the possibility of applying protein profile analysis in classification of toxicity patterns. Cluster analysis showed that there were two main groups. Interestingly, one of them only contained the most pathogenic native strains. The biomass-bound protease activity of native pathogenic isolates and the reference strain Bt 4D1 is also reported.

  1. Large sample neutron activation analysis: a challenge in cultural heritage studies.

    Stamatelatos, Ion E; Tzika, Faidra


    Large sample neutron activation analysis compliments and significantly extends the analytical tools available for cultural heritage and authentication studies providing unique applications of non-destructive, multi-element analysis of materials that are too precious to damage for sampling purposes, representative sampling of heterogeneous materials or even analysis of whole objects. In this work, correction factors for neutron self-shielding, gamma-ray attenuation and volume distribution of the activity in large volume samples composed of iron and ceramic material were derived. Moreover, the effect of inhomogeneity on the accuracy of the technique was examined.

  2. The technical analysis of the stock exchange and physics: Japanese candlesticks for solar activity

    Dineva, C.; Atanasov, V.


    In this article, we use the Japanese candlesticks, a method popular in the technical analysis of the Stock/Forex markets and apply it to a variable in physics-the solar activity. This method is invented and used exclusively for economic analysis and its application to a physical problem produced unexpected results. We found that the Japanese candlesticks are convenient tool in the analysis of the variables in the physics of the Sun. Based on our observations, we differentiated a new cycle in the solar activity.

  3. Comparison of Activation Analysis Codes between CINDER'90 and ORIGEN-S

    Kim, Jeong Dong; Choi, Hong Yeop; Lee, Yong Deok; Kim, Hodong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A Slowing Down Time Spectrometer (SDTS) system is the most feasible technology among the non-destructive techniques to directly analyze the content of isotopic fissile material. SDTS is necessary to a source neutron for inducing isotopic fissile fission. The source neutron is produced between the electron beam and a metal target by an (e,γ)(γ,n) reaction in the target. The target is required to have a high intensity neutron source through a proper target design. The status of activation on the designed target is analyzed through the activation code. Also, an activation evaluation of the material of the shielding facilities for SDTS system is required. The radioactivity intensity and kind of nuclides are measured through an activation analysis. ORIGEN-S and CINDER'90 codes are an activation code and are used in combination with the MCNPX code. ORIGEN-S code interprets a problem as one point about target. It cannot describe the geometry. CINDER'90 code can describe a 3D-geometry, and the result of CINDER'90 has high reliability when using a multi-group library. In this research, CINDER'90 was introduced as an activation analysis code and compared with the ORIGEN-S code. An activation analysis was conducted on the materials of the designed target. The ORIGEN-S and CINDER'90 code simulation results are provided for a selection of the activation analysis code. A Slowing Down Time Spectrometer (SDTS) system is a highly efficient technique in a nuclear material analysis. An activation analysis on the shielding and target material was required for the SDTS system. The activation results of CINDER'90 and ORIGEN-S codes were similar or different according to the nuclides because the cross section library of the codes is different. In utilizing the code, CINDER'90 code is more convenient than ORIGEN-S. It can describe the 3D-geometry, and therefore the activation information can be obtained by one simulation. The results of the activation

  4. Health-care district management information system plan: Review of operations analysis activities during calendar year 1975 and plan for continued research and analysis activities

    Nielson, G. J.; Stevenson, W. G.


    Operations research activities developed to identify the information required to manage both the efficiency and effectiveness of the Veterans Administration (VA) health services as these services relate to individual patient care are reported. The clinical concerns and management functions that determine this information requirement are discussed conceptually. Investigations of existing VA data for useful management information are recorded, and a diagnostic index is provided. The age-specific characteristics of diseases and lengths of stay are explored, and recommendations for future analysis activities are articulated. The effect of the introduction of new technology to health care is also discussed.

  5. Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario


    the temporality of interrelations between interlinked variables and, as such, can be applied to a range of datasets. By providing a statistical analysis of the networks’ growth the proposed method allows for the modelling of complex patterns of activity. Throughout, the method is demonstrated with respect......The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises...... to a fully realised example of information seeking activity. The core contribution of the proposed method is in supporting the analysis of activity with respect to both macro and micro level temporal interactions between variables....

  6. MELAS: clinical features, muscle biopsy and molecular genetics MELAS: manifestações clínicas, biópsia muscular e estudo molecular

    Paulo José Lorenzoni


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze a series of Brazilian patients suffering from MELAS. METHOD: Ten patients with MELAS were studied with correlation between clinical findings, laboratorial data, electrophysiology, histochemical and molecular features. RESULTS: Blood lactate was increased in eight patients. Brain image studies revealed a stroke-like pattern in all patients. Muscle biopsy showed ralled-red fibers (RRF in 90% of patients on modified Gomori-trichrome and in 100% on succinate dehydrogenase stains. Cytochrome c oxidase stain analysis indicated deficient activity in one patient and subsarcolemmal accumulation in seven patients. Strongly succinate dehydrogenase-reactive blood vessels (SSV occurred in six patients. The molecular analysis of tRNA Leu(UUR gene by PCR/RLFP and direct sequencing showed the A3243G mutation on mtDNA in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: The muscle biopsy often confirmed the MELAS diagnosis by presence of RRF and SSV. Molecular analysis of tRNA Leu(UUR gene should not be the only diagnostic criteria for MELAS.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar uma série de pacientes brasileiros portadores de MELAS. MÉTODO: Dez pacientes com MELAS foram estudados com correlação entre manifestações clínicas, alterações laboratoriais, estudo eletrofisiológico, histoquímico e molecular. RESULTADOS: O nível de lactato sérico estava aumentado em 8 pacientes. O estudo das imagens do crânio revelou padrão semelhante ao de AVC isquêmico em todos os pacientes. A biópsia muscular mostrou fibras rajadas vermelhas (RRF em 90% dos pacientes na coloração pelo tricrômio de Gomori modificado e em 100% na reação histoquímica pela desidrogenase succicínica (SDH. A análise da coloração pela citocromo c oxidase indicou atividade deficiente em um paciente e acúmulo subsarcolemal em sete pacientes. Vasos com forte reação para SDH (SSV ocorreram em seis pacientes. O estudo molecular do gene tRNA Leu(UUR por

  7. Análise de atividades para a inclusão de pessoas com deficiência no trabalho: uma proposta de modelo Activity analysis for inclusion of disability people at work: a proposition model

    Angela Paula Simonelli


    Full Text Available A legislação brasileira (BRASIL, 1991a torna obrigatória a contratação de pessoas com deficiência por meio de cotas estabelecidas a partir do número de funcionários das empresas públicas e privadas. Com a utilização de um conjunto de métodos e técnicas, fundamentados nos conhecimentos da Análise Ergonômica da Atividade e da Terapia Ocupacional, construiu-se um modelo para indicar as habilidades necessárias para a realização das atividades de trabalho industrial a partir de estudo realizado em São Carlos no período de março a dezembro de 2007 em uma empresa do setor têxtil. O artigo descreve o modelo, sua aplicação e as barreiras e facilitadores desta experiência. Apresenta uma proposta de modelo de inclusão de pessoas com deficiência no trabalho baseado na análise da atividade, desenvolvido em tese de doutorado financiada pelo CNPq, por meio de estudo de caso. Trata da aplicação de um modelo de análise de atividades industriais desenvolvido para identificar postos de trabalho que potencialmente poderiam ser ocupados por pessoas com deficiência (PCD como subsídio para ações de empresas na política de contratação desta população.According to the Brazilian legislation, hiring people with disabilities is mandatory. Law 8213/91 establishes admission quotas based on the number of employees of public and private companies. Making use of methods and techniques based on the Ergonomic Analysis of Activity and Occupational Therapy, this research aimed at building a model to determine the skills necessary to undertake work related activities based on a study carried out in an textile industry in the city of São Carlos, SP, from March to December 2007. The model is proposed and its implementation, obstacles, and openings are discussed. This study proposes a model for the inclusion of people with disability in the labor market based on the analysis of activity. It reports a case study carried out for a doctoral degree

  8. Desenvolvimento da Tanatologia: estudos sobre a morte e o morrer

    Maria Julia Kovács


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute os principais temas e pesquisas na área da Tanatologia, estudos sobre a morte e o morrer. São apresentados os autores pioneiros que escreveram as primeiras obras de sistematização da Tanatologia entre os quais: Herman Feifel, Robert Kastenbaum e Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, e os principais temas de estudo: luto, violência e guerra, a morte e a TV, cuidados a pacientes gravemente enfermos, além da formação de profissionais da área de saúde e educação para lidar com pessoas vivendo situações de perdas e morte. São feitas propostas de estudos para o futuro desenvolvimento da Tanatologia em nosso país.

  9. Transcriptome-based network analysis reveals a spectrum model of human macrophage activation.

    Xue, Jia; Schmidt, Susanne V; Sander, Jil; Draffehn, Astrid; Krebs, Wolfgang; Quester, Inga; De Nardo, Dominic; Gohel, Trupti D; Emde, Martina; Schmidleithner, Lisa; Ganesan, Hariharasudan; Nino-Castro, Andrea; Mallmann, Michael R; Labzin, Larisa; Theis, Heidi; Kraut, Michael; Beyer, Marc; Latz, Eicke; Freeman, Tom C; Ulas, Thomas; Schultze, Joachim L


    Macrophage activation is associated with profound transcriptional reprogramming. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of macrophage activation, polarization, and function, the transcriptional programs regulating these processes remain poorly characterized. We stimulated human macrophages with diverse activation signals, acquiring a data set of 299 macrophage transcriptomes. Analysis of this data set revealed a spectrum of macrophage activation states extending the current M1 versus M2-polarization model. Network analyses identified central transcriptional regulators associated with all macrophage activation complemented by regulators related to stimulus-specific programs. Applying these transcriptional programs to human alveolar macrophages from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) revealed an unexpected loss of inflammatory signatures in COPD patients. Finally, by integrating murine data from the ImmGen project we propose a refined, activation-independent core signature for human and murine macrophages. This resource serves as a framework for future research into regulation of macrophage activation in health and disease.

  10. Phytochemical investigation GC-MS analysis and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Coleus forskohlii

    Krishnamoorthy Rajkumar


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity of Coleus forskohlii. The different solvents such as ethanol, chloroform, acetone and aqueous extracts were identified pharmacologically as important bioactive compounds and their antimicrobial properties were studied. In the phytochemical investigation almost all the ethanol extract of leaf, stem and root having secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and steroids. The active constituents of the ethanol extract of C. forskohlii root was studied by GC-MS analysis. According to the antimicrobial results ethanol extract of C. froshkolii root showed highest antibacterial activity compared with stem and leaf. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed against Klebsiella pneumonia (19 mm and Candida albicans (16 mm in ethanol extract of root. Among the above extracts of leaf, stem and root, ethanol extract of root having antimicrobial activities due to the presence of phytoconstituents.

  11. Enzymatic activity analysis of MMP-2 and 9 collected by swab from lower limb venous ulcers

    Flávio Santos da Silva


    Full Text Available Metalloproteinases play a role in repair of venous ulcers of the lower limbs. The great majority of studies of metalloproteinase enzyme activity conducted to date have employed material from biopsies of ulcers. We evaluated the viability of using zymography to measure the enzyme activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in samples of venous ulcer exudate collected on swabs. The method chosen for processing the samples proved viable in terms of its ability to provide adequate protein concentrations for analysis. Using zymography, we observed that the parameters that provided the best results for analysis of gelatinolytic activity were 0.125 to 0.5 μg of total protein content in the gels and enzymatic activation time of 19 hours (at 37 °C. Collection of venous ulcer fluid using swabs proved to be a simple, rapid and effective method for obtaining samples for measurement of gelatinolytic activity with a minimum degree of invasivity.

  12. Structure-Activity Analysis of Gram-positive Bacterium-producing Lasso Peptides with Anti-mycobacterial Activity

    Inokoshi, Junji; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Miyake, Midori; Shimizu, Yuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi


    Lariatin A, an 18-residue lasso peptide encoded by the five-gene cluster larABCDE, displays potent and selective anti-mycobacterial activity. The structural feature is an N-terminal macrolactam ring, through which the C-terminal passed to form the rigid lariat-protoknot structure. In the present study, we established a convergent expression system by the strategy in which larA mutant gene-carrying plasmids were transformed into larA-deficient Rhodococcus jostii, and generated 36 lariatin variants of the precursor protein LarA to investigate the biosynthesis and the structure-activity relationships. The mutational analysis revealed that four amino acid residues (Gly1, Arg7, Glu8, and Trp9) in lariatin A are essential for the maturation and production in the biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, the study on structure-activity relationships demonstrated that Tyr6, Gly11, and Asn14 are responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity, and the residues at positions 15, 16 and 18 in lariatin A are critical for enhancing the activity. This study will not only provide a useful platform for genetically engineering Gram-positive bacterium-producing lasso peptides, but also an important foundation to rationally design more promising drug candidates for combatting tuberculosis.

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de quinupristina/dalfopristina para cocos gram-positivos isolados de cinco centros brasileiros: resultado do estudo de vigilância L-SMART Antimicrobial in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin against gram-positive cocci isolated from 5 Brazilian centers: results from the local smart (L-SMART surveillance study

    Caio Mendes


    Full Text Available Há alguns anos tem-se verificado um aumento progressivo da resistência de alguns cocos gram-positivos a determinados antimicrobianos. Este aumento da resistência tem sido observado principalmente no ambiente hospitalar, e as bactérias mais comumente envolvidas são os Staphylococcus spp. e os Enterococcus spp. Devido a este fato, novos antimicrobianos são avaliados para o tratamento de infecções causadas por estas cepas multirresistentes. A associação quinupristina/dalfopristina (Q/D, também conhecida como Synercid®, é um antibacteriano da classe das estreptograminas, de uso endovenoso, composto por dois derivados semi-sintéticos da pristinamicina. A combinação das estreptograminas B e A na razão de 30:70 tem atividade antimicrobiana voltada para cocos gram--positivos, como Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., incluindo S. pneumoniae e Enterococcus faecium, sendo o E. faecalis habitualmente resistente. Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade in vitro de Q/D e outros oito antimicrobianos frente a 631 amostras de cocos gram-positivos isoladas de cinco centros brasileiros, complementadas com outras 20 cepas de E. faecium resistentes à vancomicina, provenientes dos Estados Unidos. Para a avaliação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC pelo método do Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia e as cepas testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (n = 267, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (n = 131, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 130, Streptococcus beta-hemolíticos (n = 28, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 44 e E. faecium (n = 51. A Q/D demonstrou excelente atividade contra Staphylococcus spp., independente de serem sensíveis ou resistentes à oxacilina. Para S. pneumoniae, a Q/D apresentou igualmente uma ótima atividade, inclusive para as cepas com resistência intermediária ou total para penicilina. Entre as cepas de E. faecium sensíveis à vancomicina, o MIC90 de Q/D obtido foi de 3µg

  14. Chromatographic finger print analysis and lysosomal membrane stabilisation activity of active fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract in arthritic rats

    Swapnil Goyal


    Full Text Available Object: The present study was aimed to assess the anti-arthritic activity of chloroform fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract against Freund′s complete adjuvant (FCA-induced arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of various fractions of ethanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris at concentration of 100 mg/kg was studied using the carrageenan-induced inflammatory models. The chloroform fraction shows significant anti-inflammatory activity. The chloroform fraction was further studied for anti-arthritic activity and HPTLC fingerprint analysis. For anti-arthritic activity, the active chloroform fraction was administered at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The effect of chloroform fraction on liver ALP, ACP and LDH levels of lysosomal enzymes of FCA arthritic animals were studied. Indomethacin and prednisolone (10 mg/kg was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner; Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. Results: The chloroform fraction at 100 mg/kg, showed maximum inhibition (34.16% of inflammation induced by carrageenan. In FCA-induced arthritis, the chloroform fraction showed a highly significant reduction in paw volume (50 mg/kg-72.71%; 100 mg/kg-74.35%. The levels of lysosomal enzymes were significantly decreased in the chloroform fraction-treated groups. Conclusion: The possible mechanism of action of the chloroform fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract may be through its stabilising action on lysosomal membranes. Future studies will provide new insights into the anti-arthritic activity of Alstonia scholaris and isolation of compound from it may eventually lead to development of a new class of anti-arthritic agent.

  15. Estudo patográfico de Fernando Pessoa


    Fernando Pessoa, incontestavelmente um dos maiores gênios da literatura universal, é objeto deste estudo patográfico. Através da análise de sua biografia e obra, os autores buscam delinear seus perfis psicológico e psicopatológico e caracterizar uma associação entre sua evidente bipolaridade e seu padrão criativo. Os dados do estudo revelam claramente um componente bipolar e sugerem haver influência de seu humor de base sobre a atividade literária, quanto ao conteúdo, número de po...

  16. Desenvolvimento da Tanatologia: estudos sobre a morte e o morrer

    Maria Julia Kovács


    Este artigo discute os principais temas e pesquisas na área da Tanatologia, estudos sobre a morte e o morrer. São apresentados os autores pioneiros que escreveram as primeiras obras de sistematização da Tanatologia entre os quais: Herman Feifel, Robert Kastenbaum e Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, e os principais temas de estudo: luto, violência e guerra, a morte e a TV, cuidados a pacientes gravemente enfermos, além da formação de profissionais da área de saúde e educação para lidar com pessoas vivend...

  17. [Activity and cost analysis in surgical pathology. Experience of a French university laboratory using the activity-based costing method].

    Bellocq, J P; Biron, N; Kessler, S; Penaud, M; Faujour, V; Ospel, J; Supper, E; Barthel, A; Roussel, J F; Méchine-Neuville, A; Marcellin, L; Lang-Avérous, G; Chenard, M P


    Good self-knowledge enables us to have a well- reasoned adaptation to our environment. Starting from this precept based on simple common sense, activity and cost analysis, when applied to medical departments in a university hospital setting, represents a necessary phase in their scientific progression and in the continuation of their university vocation. This is all the more true given the present climate of economic and organizational restructuring of medical facilities. This paper relates the experience of a French surgical pathology department which was assessed for cost effectiveness using the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method in 1999. This method, which originated in the business world and of which the general concepts are presented here, has given us a keener understanding of the diverse processes involved, their costs and how these costs are arrived at. Moreover, this method has identified the proportion of costs imputable to diagnostic work and of those linked to work specific to a university hospital, in particular teaching and research and development. The results can then be used for a clearer analysis of the figures required by prescribers and health care funding agencies, and, within the department, to enhance perception of work carried out by the entire staff in order to initiate a new type of management centered on activity (Activity-Based Management). Adaptable to any medical department, whatever its organizational structure, independent of the significance of any given code letter and regardless of the rating method used to grade activities, the ABC method also allows for comparisons between structures of a similar nature. The thoughts it inspires on economic performance must take into account the rules of good medical practice, the imperatives of quality assurance, the need for "breathing space" which are indispensable to research and a humanist conception of working relations.

  18. Especialidades médicas: estudo psicossocial Medical specialisations: a psychosocial study

    Maria Luiza de Mattos Fiore


    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório sobre fatores psicológicos e sociais envolvidos na escolha e prática das diversas especialidades médicas, com base na formulação sociológica de Bourdieu e nas considerações de Dejours a respeito do encontro do homem com seu trabalho. O estudo é baseado na análise de conteúdo de entrevistas livres, seguidas de questionário de levantamento social aplicados em 40 médicos atuantes, de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e várias especialidades na cidade de São Paulo. O exame, em profundidade, das entrevistas revela que: a os conflitos psicológicos inerentes à formação da identidade médica e a sua prática são influenciados por aspectos sócio-econômicos interiorizados e decorrentes do estrato social de origem do médico; b as experiências vividas e influenciadas pelo estrato sócio-econômico de origem de cada indivíduo determinaram a organização e a complexidade do espaço subjetivo e, portanto, de suas percepções e de seu comportamento prático; e, c a hierarquia de valores na Medicina pode ser considerada como defesa coletiva contra ansiedades resultantes da tarefa médica e do constante lidar com situações de impotência.This paper presents an exploratory study of the psychological and social factors related to the choice and practice of the various medical specialities, based on the sociological formulation of Bourdieu and the considerations of Dejours concerning man's encounter with his work. The study was based on the analysis of an open interview and social survey questionnaire applied on 40 active medical doctors of both sexes, different ages, and several specialities, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results of a thorough analysis of the interviews reveals that: a the psychological conflicts inherent in the formation of a medical identity and the practice of medicine are influenced by acquired socio-economic elements that lead to differing practical solutions and results

  19. Physical activity during pregnancy and fetal outcomes: a case-control study Actividad física durante la gestación y resultados fetales: estudio de casos y controles Atividade física durante a gestação e desfechos fetais: um estudo de casos e controles

    Monica Yuri Takito


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between physical activity during the second trimester pregnancy and low birth weight, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Case-control study including 273 low birth weight newborns and 546 controls carried out in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2005. Low birth weight cases were grouped into two subsamples: preterm birth (n=117 and intrauterine growth restriction (n=134, with their related controls. Information was collected by means of interviews with mothers shortly after birth and transcription of medical records. Data were analyzed using conditional multiple and hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS: Light physical activity for over 7 hours per day was shown to be protective against low birth weight (adjusted OR=0.61; 95% CI 0.39-0.94 with a dose-response relationship (p-value for trend=0.026. A similar trend was found for intrauterine growth restriction (adjusted OR=0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.97. Homemaking activities were associated as a protective factor for both low birth weight and preterm birth (p-value for trend=0.013 and 0.035, respectively. Leisure-time walking was found to be protective against preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: Mild physical activity during the second trimester of pregnancy such as walking has an independent protective effect on low birth weight, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction.OBJETIVO: Analizar la relación entre actividad física durante el segundo trimestre de gestación y bajo peso al nacer, prematurez y restricción de crecimiento intra-uterino. MÉTODOS: Estudio de caso-control realizado en el municipio de Sao Paulo Sureste de Brasil, en 2005. Fueron estudiados 273 recién nacidos de bajo peso y 546 controles. Entre los casos fueron seleccionadas dos sub-muestras: 117 nacimientos pre-término y 132 con restricción de crecimiento intra-uterino (n= 132 y sus respectivos controles. Las informaciones fueron obtenidas

  20. Análise do processo de recuperação de serviços a partir das reclamações dos clientes: estudo de caso em três organizações Analysis of the process of service recovery from customer complaints: case study in three organizations

    Daniel Battaglia


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma análise do processo de recuperação de serviços realizado a partir das reclamações dos clientes e de como as melhorias dos processos são efetuadas nas empresas. O trabalho apresenta conceitos relativos a expectativas e percepções, falhas e reclamações, recuperação de serviços e melhoria da qualidade em serviços. O método de pesquisa utilizado é o estudo de caso, que foi empregado em três organizações: uma empresa com alto grau de contato com cliente e serviço personalizado; uma empresa atuante no varejo com médio grau de contato, e uma empresa com baixo grau de contato com o cliente por se tratar de um serviço de massa. Ao final, discutem-se os resultados e encaminha-se a continuidade da pesquisa. Os achados da pesquisa sugerem a necessidade de uma estratégia de recuperação de serviços atrelada à melhoria dos processos, de modo a fornecer o serviço certo já na primeira vez.This paper presents an analysis of the process of service recovery based on customer complaints and also how improvement processes are handled within the companies. The paper presents concepts related to expectations and perceptions, flaws and complaints, service recovery and improvement in the quality of services. The method used in the research was the case study. The case studies were taken from three companies: a company with a high degree of contact with customers and customized service, a company operating within retail with a medium degree of contact, and a mass service company with very limited customer contact. At the end of the research, results are discussed and areas for continued research continuity are defined. The findings of this research suggest the need for a service recovery strategy linked to an improvement in processes in order to provide the correct initial service.

  1. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    Gierlik, M.; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.


    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project "Accelerators & Detectors" (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  2. Phytochemical Analysis and Invitro Antiarthritic Activities of Whole Plant of Hybanthus enneaspermus

    S. Umamaheswari


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to phytochemical analysis and invitro antiarthritic activities of whole plant of Hybanthus enneaspermus. The ethanolic extract of the plant was subjected to qualitative analysis for the presence of phytochemical substances. The invitro anti arthritic activity was determined by measuring the percentage of inhibition of protein denaturation. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, steroids and reducing sugars. The antiarthritic activity was determined by protein inhibition assay. The percentage protection was found to be 64.6 % for extract and 91.2% (Diclofenac sodium. The IC50 value for the extract was found to 512.6 µg/ml and for the standard it was found to be 172.82 µg/ml.

  3. Mediation analysis of the relationship between institutional research activity and patient survival

    Rochon, Justine; du Bois, Andreas; Lange, Theis


    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that patients treated in research-active institutions have better outcomes than patients treated in research-inactive institutions. However, little attention has been paid to explaining such effects, probably because techniques for mediation analysis...... existing so far have not been applicable to survival data. METHODS: We investigated the underlying mechanisms using a recently developed method for mediation analysis of survival data. Our analysis of the effect of research activity on patient survival was based on 352 patients who had been diagnosed...... as potential mediators of the effect of hospital research activity on patient survival. RESULTS: The 219 patients treated in hospitals participating in clinical trials had more complete surgical debulking, were more likely to receive the recommended platinum-taxane combination, and had better survival than...

  4. Frequency domain stability analysis of nonlinear active disturbance rejection control system.

    Li, Jie; Qi, Xiaohui; Xia, Yuanqing; Pu, Fan; Chang, Kai


    This paper applies three methods (i.e., root locus analysis, describing function method and extended circle criterion) to approach the frequency domain stability analysis of the fast tool servo system using nonlinear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) algorithm. Root locus qualitative analysis shows that limit cycle is generated because the gain of the nonlinear function used in ADRC varies with its input. The parameters in the nonlinear function are adjustable to suppress limit cycle. In the process of root locus analysis, the nonlinear function is transformed based on the concept of equivalent gain. Then, frequency domain description of the nonlinear function via describing function is presented and limit cycle quantitative analysis including estimating prediction error is presented, which virtually and theoretically demonstrates that the describing function method cannot guarantee enough precision in this case. Furthermore, absolute stability analysis based on extended circle criterion is investigated as a complement.

  5. Neutron Activation Analysis of Soil Samples from Different Parts of Edirne in Turkey*

    Zaim, N.; Dogan, C.; Camtakan, Z.


    The concentrations of constituent elements were determined in soil samples collected from different parts of the Maritza Basin, Edirne, Turkey. Neutron activation analysis, an extremely accurate technique, and the comparator method (using a standard) were applied for the first time in this region. After preparing the soil samples for neutron activation analysis, they were activated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor, TRIGA-MARK II, at Istanbul Technical University. The activated samples were analyzed using a high-efficiency high-purity germanium detector, and gamma spectrometry was employed to determine the elemental concentration in the samples. Eight elements (chromium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, and barium) were qualitatively and quantitatively identified in 36 samples. The concentrations of some elements in the soil samples were high compared with values reported in the literature.

  6. Individual analysis the competitive activity indicators of elite swimmer in a distance of 200 m. breaststroke

    Skyriene V.V.


    Full Text Available The analysis of features of competition activity is presented one of the best sportsmen. Basic dignities of competition activity of sportsman there is ability to develop high-rate of swimming of the starting cutting-off, distance and finish cutting-off. The low rate of motions is thus marked at a very long stroke. To failings it is possible to take the enough long stay of sportsman on a starting stand, considerable falling of speed of implementation of turns on motion distance. It is well-proven that a systematic and permanent analysis of competition activity is the important mean of training process control. Information about activity of sportsman on competitions at certain terms can be foundation for raising of purpose and tasks of preparation, choice of facilities and methods of their realization.

  7. Análise da cicatrização na Linha Alba com uso de extrato aquoso de Orbignya phalerata (babaçu: estudo controlado em ratos Analysis of healing in the Alba Linea with the use of Orbignya phalerata (babassu water extract: controlled study in rats

    Sebastião Barreto de Brito Filho


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O mesocarpo do babaçu (Orbignya phalerata tem sido utilizado em estudos experimentais para verificar a sua ação antiinflamatória. No Maranhão, é muito utilizado como alimento e como remédio popular para cicatrização de ferimentos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar macroscópica, histológica e tensiometricamente, a ação do extrato de Orbygnia phalerata no processo de cicatrização de laparotomias medianas em ratos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos da linhagem Wistar, adultos, machos, foram utilizados em procedimento experimental que consistiu em uma incisão na linha alba e síntese em plano único com pontos separados de fio de polipropileno 5-0. Após esse procedimento comum, os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos de 20. Ao grupo chamado controle, foi utilizado injeção intraperitoneal, em dose única de 1mL de soro fisiológico para cada quilo de peso. Ao grupo experimento, utilizou-se solução aquosa de babaçu na dose de 50 mg por quilo de peso. Os animais foram acompanhados e mortos após três e sete dias, procedendo-se, a seguir, à análise tensiométrica e histológica. RESULTADOS: O exame macroscópico não mostrou presença de aderências importantes entre a linha alba e os órgãos intra-abdominais nos grupos de estudo. A avaliação histológica mostrou efeito marginalmente significativo (p=0,086 para inflamação aguda nos grupos controle e experimento de três dias e efeito significativo (p=0,003 para a reação gigantocelular (p=0,003. Diferença significativa (p-=0,023 foi observada para inflamação aguda no grupos controle experimento de sete dias. Na análise intra-grupo (controle três e sete, foi observado efeito marginalmente significativo (p=0,094 e p=0,05 respectivamente para as variáveis inflamação aguda e crônica. Na análise somente entre os grupos experimentos, as variáveis reação gigantocelular (0,002 e colagenização (0,016 apresentaram resultado significativo. A avaliação tensiom

  8. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Maria José de Carvalho


    Full Text Available O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como “maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA, etanólico (EE e hexânico (EH de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa. O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP e adrenalina (ADR como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as “maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of

  9. Estudos quantitativos em educação Quantitative studies in education

    Bernardete A. Gatti


    Realidade (UFRS, Educação e Sociedade (Cedes/Unicamp, Revista Brasileira de Educação (ANPEd, Estudos em Avaliação Educacional (Fundação Carlos Chagas, and Ensaio (Fundação Cesgranrio. Some bibliographical sources were consulted in the search for other studies. The text highlights the importance of theoretical perspectives for the outlining and development of the studies, which should be put in the context of a reflection on education and of problematization. It also points to the need for adjusting the choices of types of analyses used. The work discusses the weak Brazilian tradition of carrying out quantitative studies in education, and the possible role of quantification in educational research. It shows some contributions from quantitative studies to the reflection in the field of education, and also for the basis of some critical perspectives. Those contributions were treated according to some themes, namely: illiteracy, schooling path and school failure; school flux/cutoff analysis; literacy; policies and basic education; financing of education/municipalization; social factors and education; youth and education; educational evaluation; assorted themes.


    Kovaleva K. A.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phase analysis as a tool preprocessor analysis of a multi-purpose center. Consider the time series of the daily number of requests received on the basis of the phase portraits of these time series. These time series have strong properties of cycles and periodicity. Practice has shown that in modern conditions, for example, for the Russian economy with its instability and financial crises, classical economic theory and statistics, built on linear models, turned out to be unproductive. Overview of approaches and economic-mathematical methods preprocessor analysis of evolutionary economic processes and the corresponding time series allows concluding the following: one versatile, satisfying all the requirements, do not possess the shortcomings of the method of analysis and forecasting does not exist. Each approach and each method has its advantages, disadvantages, limits of use. Most of the known methods of forecasting operate detected in the considered time series properties of cycles and periodicity. Thus, the mere presence of a pronounced cyclicity at different levels of the considered hierarchical model of the time series of the number of requests in a multi-purpose center are important indicators of the possibility of constructing an adequate predictive model number of requests in the multi-purpose centre

  11. Timing Analysis of Light Curves in the Tartarus Active Galactic Nuclei Database

    O'Neill, P M; Papadakis, I E; Turner, T J; Neill, Paul M. O'; Nandra, Kirpal; Papadakis, Iossif E.


    The Tartarus database contains products for 529 ASCA observations of active galactic nuclei. We have been updating Tartarus to include observing sequences conducted after 1999 January. The revised database will contain products for 375 objects, with a total of 614 observing sequences. We have begun a systematic timing analysis of the Tartarus light curves. We present here some preliminary results of an investigation into the relation between excess variance and black-hole mass. Having optimised our analysis to minimize the scatter in the variance measurements, we find that the narrow-line active galactic nuclei follow roughly the same relation as the broad-line objects.


    M. Yu. Katayev


    Full Text Available This article describes an approach to the assessment of motion activity of man in after-stroke period, allowing the doctor to get new information to give a more informed recommendations on rehabilitation treatment than in traditional approaches. Consider description of the hardware-software complex for determination and analysis of motion activity after-stroke patient for the video stream. The article provides a description of the complex, its algorithmic filling and the results of the work on the example of processing of the actual data. The algorithms and technology to significantly accelerate the gait analysis and improve the quality of diagnostics post-stroke patients.

  13. Finite element analysis and validation of dielectric elastomer actuators used for active origami

    McGough, Kevin; Ahmed, Saad; Frecker, Mary; Ounaies, Zoubeida


    The field of active origami explores the incorporation of active materials into origami-inspired structures in order to serve as a means of actuation. Active origami-inspired structures capable of folding into complex three-dimensional (3D) shapes have the potential to be lightweight and versatile compared to traditional methods of actuation. This paper details the finite element analysis and experimental validation of unimorph actuators. Actuators are fabricated by adhering layers of electroded dielectric elastomer (3M VHB F9473PC) onto a passive substrate layer (3M Magic Scotch Tape). Finite element analysis of the actuators simulates the electromechanical coupling of the dielectric elastomer under an applied voltage by applying pressures to the surfaces of the dielectric elastomer where the compliant electrode (conductive carbon grease) is present. 3D finite element analysis of the bending actuators shows that applying contact boundary conditions to the electroded region of the active and passive layers provides better agreement to experimental data compared to modeling the entire actuator as continuous. To improve the applicability of dielectric elastomer-based actuators for active origami-inspired structures, folding actuators are developed by taking advantage of localized deformation caused by a passive layer with non-uniform thickness. Two-dimensional analysis of the folding actuators shows that agreement to experimental data diminishes as localized deformation increases. Limitations of using pressures to approximate the electromechanical coupling of the dielectric elastomer under an applied electric field and additional modeling considerations are also discussed.


    Felipe Antunes


    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a qualidade e acreditação hospitalar através do Manual das Organizações Prestadoras de Serviços Hospitalares, desenvolvido pela Organização Nacional de Acreditação (ONA. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é avaliar o processo de acreditação, identificando dificuldades e benefícios advindos da implantação deste  Manual. Após a realização de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre qualidade em hospitais e normas da qualidade aplicáveis a hospitais, é feita uma análise crítica teórica do Manual das Organizações Prestadoras de Serviços Hospitalares. Tal análise crítica inclui um estudo comparativo entre os requisitos do Manual e da norma NBR ISO 9001/2000. A seguir, a análise teórica é complementada através de um estudo de caso contemplando a implantação do Manual junto a um hospital de grande porte. Finalmente, são apresentadas as conclusões, baseadas tanto no estudo teórico como no estudo prático.

  15. Pragmatismo e os pragmáticos nos estudos organizacionais

    Francis Kanashiro Meneghetti

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste ensaio teórico é avaliar as contribuições do pragmatismo nos Estudos Organizacionais e, os específicos, avaliar se as contribuições teóricas de Charles Peirce e John Dewey possibilitam afirmar o pragmatismo como senso comum, ciência ou teoria do conhecimento; analisar as contribuições - possibilidadese limites - do pragmatismo como conhecimento científico; compreender os percursos do pragmatismo nos Estudos Organizacionais. Chaga-se a conclusão de que ser pragmático é diferente de conceber estudos articulados no campo epistemológico do pragmatismo. O sujeito pragmático vê na sua utilidade e na necessidade deação, o ponto de tensão que coloca em dúvida a veracidade dos pressupostos do pragmatismo como ciência. O que ocorre nos Estudos Organizacionais éa conversão do pragmatismo como conhecimento científico emsubordinação irracional à utilidade e à ação prática, sobretudo, no campo da economia, da política, da ciência, da cultura, da educação, e assim por diante.

  16. Propostas para o estudo dos protestantismos ibéricos

    Afonso, José António


    A propósito da edição da obra “Las minorias religiosas en España y Portugal: passado y presente”, número monográfico da revista “Anales de Historia Contemporanea” (Universidade de Múrcia), o Autor elenca algumas propostas para o estudo dos protestantismos ibéricos.

  17. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum: Product and Activity Analysis

    Ryer, Holly; Eisenhamer, B.; Knisely, L.; McCallister, D.; Smith, D. A.


    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOFs) have been working together to conduct a detailed analysis of SMD E/PO products and activities. The goal of this effort is to characterize individual SMD E/PO products and the collection as a whole, while identifying gaps in the SMD E/PO portfolio. The Astrophysics Forum has undertaken the task of analyzing the astrophysics portfolio of formal, informal, and outreach products and programs. The astrophysics analysis team has been characterizing products based upon AAAS Project 2061 benchmarks addressed, target audience, instructional strategies used, and types of assessments included. All formal education activities that have been analyzed to date have been compiled into a populated database that includes analyzed activities from all four SEPOFs. The database will be used to inform the development of a product and resources catalog. It also will be used to begin a gap analysis for SMD products and activities. Ultimately, we hope to help end users easily find resources, we hope to identify progressions and connections between SMD E/PO resources and programming, and we hope to provide guidance to the E/PO community in developing materials that will help bridge gaps for both NASA SMD and target audiences. This poster highlights the astrophysics product analysis process, and the preliminary findings and results of product analysis to date.

  18. Assessment of Non-Traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities


    Assessment of Non-traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities Distribution Statement A. Approved for pubic...12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Fahrenheit ( o F) [T( o F) + 459.67]/1.8 kelvin (K) Radiation curie (Ci) [ activity of radionuclides] 3.7 × 10 10 per second (s –1 ) [becquerel (Bq

  19. Imaging and Analysis of OT1 T Cell Activation on Lipid Bilayers



    Authors: Peter Beemiller, Jordan Jacobelli & Matthew Krummel ### Abstract Supported lipid bilayers are frequently used to study cell membrane protein dynamics during immune synapse formation by T cells. Here we describe methods for the imaging and analysis of OT1+ T cell activation and T-cell receptor (TCR) dynamics on lipid bilayers. ### Introduction T cells are activated at immune synapses when TCRs bind agonist ligands on antigen presenting cells (APCs). Glass cover...

  20. Analysis and Sliding Mode Control of Four-Wire Three-Leg Shunt Active Power Filter

    Farid Hamoudi; Hocine Amimeur


    In this paper, the analysis and the sliding mode control application for a shunt active filter is presented. The active filter is based on a three-leg split-capacitor voltage source inverter which is used to compensate harmonics and unbalance in the phase currents, and therefore to cancel neutral current. The proposed sliding mode control is formulated from the multivariable state model established in dq0 frames. The selection of the sliding mode functions takes in account simultaneously, the...

  1. Comparative analysis of competitive activities of skilled players of different functions in women's and men's football

    Zhurid S.


    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of results of the pedagogical looking is conducted after individual and command competition activity of footballers of professional clubs. The most characteristic are exposed technical tactical receptions. Quantitative and high-quality competition performance of sportsmen indicators are certain. In descriptions of competition activity it is necessary to take into account quantitative and high-quality indexes. Also are terms: speed, limitations, is in time and space, presence of hammerings together factors and competitor.

  2. Share price trend based on analysis of investor’s online activity

    Mihail Dumitru SACALĂ


    Full Text Available The desire of modeling the influence coming from behavioral economics, representing mostly qualitative variables, requires new approaches to quantify this influence. In this paper we present an analytical method for determining the direction of the share future return using an aggregate indicator calculated based exclusively on the trend of registered variables from investor’s online activity. This online activity refers to the number and content of messages posted by investors on shares analysis dedicated web blogs.

  3. Event based neutron activation spectroscopy and analysis algorithm using MLE and metaheuristics

    Wallace Barton


    Techniques used in neutron activation analysis are often dependent on the experimental setup. In the context of developing a portable and high efficiency detection array, good energy resolution and half-life discrimination are difficult to obtain with traditional methods [1] given the logistic and financial constraints. An approach different from that of spectrum addition and standard spectroscopy analysis [2] was needed. The use of multiple detectors prompts the need for a flexible storage o...

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil and sediment samples from Siwa Oasis, Egypt

    Badawy, Wael M.; Ali, Khaled; El-Samman, Hussein M.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.; Gundorina, Svetlana F.; Duliu, Octavian G.


    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study geochemical peculiarities of the Siwa Oasis in the Western Egyptian Desert. A total of 34 elements were determined in soil and sediment samples (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U). For data interpretation Cluster analysis was applied. Comparison with the available literature data was carried out.

  5. Low-volume multiplexed proteolytic activity assay and inhibitor analysis through a pico-injector array.

    Ng, Ee Xien; Miller, Miles A; Jing, Tengyang; Lauffenburger, Doug A; Chen, Chia-Hung


    Secreted active proteases, from families of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), participate in diverse pathological processes. To simultaneously measure multiple specific protease activities, a series of parallel enzyme reactions combined with a series of inhibitor analyses for proteolytic activity matrix analysis (PrAMA) are essential but limited due to the sample quantity requirements and the complexity of performing multiple reactions. To address these issues, we developed a pico-injector array to generate 72 different reactions in picoliter-volume droplets by controlling the sequence of combinational injections, which allowed simultaneous recording of a wide range of multiple enzyme reactions and measurement of inhibitor effects using small sample volumes (~10 μL). Multiple MMP activities were simultaneously determined by 9 different substrates and 2 inhibitors using injections from a pico-injector array. Due to the advantages of inhibitor analysis, the MMP/ADAM activities of MDA-MB-231, a breast cancer cell line, were characterized with high MMP-2, MMP-3 and ADAM-10 activity. This platform could be customized for a wide range of applications that also require multiple reactions with inhibitor analysis to enhance the sensitivity by encapsulating different chemical sensors.

  6. High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - A meta-analysis

    Valachis, Antonis [Dept. of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala,, (Sweden)], e-mail:,; Nearchou, Andreas [Dept, of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala., Uppsala (Sweden)


    Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity.

  7. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo


    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was ‘Traffic’ which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the ‘personal’ and ‘economical’. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea. PMID:27656637

  8. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis.

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo


    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was 'Traffic' which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the 'personal' and 'economical'. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea.

  9. Analysis of surface error correction capability of 1.2m active support system

    Han, Yu; Fan, Bin; Li, Chaoqiang; Liu, Haitao


    The surface error correction ability is one of the important indicators to measure the performance of the active support system. In this paper, the correction force algorithm for the active support system of 1.2m thin meniscus mirror is introduced. Based on this algorithm, a simulation analysis is made. The simulation results show that the 1.2m active support system has excellent correction ability for Zernike polynomials term 4, 5, 6, 10 and 11, and has a good effect on the Zernike polynomials term 7 and 8.

  10. Analysis and synthesis of distributed-lumped-active networks by digital computer


    The use of digital computational techniques in the analysis and synthesis of DLA (distributed lumped active) networks is considered. This class of networks consists of three distinct types of elements, namely, distributed elements (modeled by partial differential equations), lumped elements (modeled by algebraic relations and ordinary differential equations), and active elements (modeled by algebraic relations). Such a characterization is applicable to a broad class of circuits, especially including those usually referred to as linear integrated circuits, since the fabrication techniques for such circuits readily produce elements which may be modeled as distributed, as well as the more conventional lumped and active ones.

  11. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A


    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards.


    Shchekoturova S. D.


    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of an innovative activity of four Russian metallurgical enterprises: "Ruspolimet", JSC "Ural Smithy", JSC "Stupino Metallurgical Company", JSC "VSMPO" via mathematical modeling using Monte Carlo method. The results of the assessment of innovative activity of Russian metallurgical companies were identified in five years dynamics. An assessment of the current innovative activity was made by the calculation of an integral index of the innovative activity. The calculation was based on such six indicators as the proportion of staff employed in R & D; the level of development of new technology; the degree of development of new products; share of material resources for R & D; degree of security of enterprise intellectual property; the share of investment in innovative projects and it was analyzed from 2007 to 2011. On the basis of this data the integral indicator of the innovative activity of metallurgical companies was calculated by well-known method of weighting coefficients. The comparative analysis of integral indicators of the innovative activity of considered companies made it possible to range their level of the innovative activity and to characterize the current state of their business. Based on Monte Carlo method a variation interval of the integral indicator was obtained and detailed instructions to choose the strategy of the innovative development of metallurgical enterprises were given as well


    A. A. Novikov


    Full Text Available The key component in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA is regular control of RA activity. The quantitative assessment of a patient’s status allows the development of standardized indications for anti-rheumatic therapy.Objective: to identify the laboratory biomarkers able to reflect RA activity.Subjects and methods. Fifty-eight patients with RA and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy donors were examined. The patients were divided into high/moderate and mild disease activity groups according to DAS28. The serum concentrations of 30 biomarkers were measured using immunonephelometric assay, enzyme immunoassay, and xMAP technology.Results and discussion. Multivariate analysis could identify the factors mostly related to high/moderate RA activity according to DAS28, such as fibroblast growth factor-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukins (IL 1α, 6, and 15, and tumor necrosis factor-α and could create a prognostic model for RA activity assessment. ROC analysis has shown that this model has excellent diagnostic efficiency in differentiating high/moderate versus low RA activity.Conclusion. To create a subjective assessment-independent immunological multiparameter index of greater diagnostic accuracy than the laboratory parameters routinely used in clinical practice may be a qualitatively new step in assessing and monitoring RA activity.

  14. Analysis Of Phytochemical Constituents And Antimicrobial Activities Of Alpinia calcarata Against Clinical Pathogens

    Jency George


    Full Text Available To study the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of Alpinia calcarata against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Fresh rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata were subjected to hydro distillation process to obtain essential oil and characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against ten pathogenic bacteria and seven fungi by the disc diffusion method. GC – MS analysis of the essential oil extracted from the rhizome of Alpinia calcarata contained the derivatives of 2-octanone, camphene, 1,8-cineole, α fenchyl acetate, 2 hexanone, 4 methyl- 2- hexanone and other minor compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic bacteria, no activity was observed against the fungi Aspergillus aculeatus and Fusarium oxysporum. The findings of the present study indicate that the rhizome extract of Alpinia calcarata possess secondary metabolites and potential to develop antimicrobial drugs.




    Full Text Available Study of organizational activity and highlighting problem situations that require specific solutions, require a detailed analysis of the models defined for the real system of the economic companies, regarded not as a sum of assets, but as organizations in which there are activities related into processes. In addition to the usual approach of using modeling languages in the development of information systems, in this paper we intend to present some examples that demonstrate the usefulness of a standard modeling language (UML to analyze organizational activities and to report problem situations that may occur in data management registered on primary documents or in processes that bring together activities. Examples that have been focused on a travel agency can be extrapolated to any other organization, and the diagrams can be used in different contexts, depending on the complexity of the activities identified.

  16. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activities of successive extracts of Crossandra infundibuliformis

    MadhumithaG; SaralAM


    Objective:To investigate the phytochemical, antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activity of successive extracts of Crossandra infundibuliformis (Acanthaceae) leaves. Methods:Preliminary screening on the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, tannins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, oils and fats were carried out by phytochemical analysis. The antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activities were done by agar well diffusion technique. Results:The successive extracts have an array of chemical constituents and the MIC values of antibacterial activity ranges from 0.007 8 to 0.015 0μg/mL. In case of antifungal and anticandidal activities the MIC values were between 0.125 and 0.250μg/mL. Conclusions:These findings demonstrate that the leaf extracts of C. infundibuliformis presents excellent antimicrobial activities and thus have great potential as a source for natural health care products.

  17. Development of Neutron Activation Analysis for Scientific Interpretation on Cultural Properties

    Kim, Gyu Ho; Kim, Na Young; Ko, Min Chung; Kim, Min Ji; Cho, Su Mi; Kang, Ji Eun [Kongju National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)


    This research is tried to set up the application of neutron activation analysis and to evaluate the historical information about ceramics materials at production kilns for the standardized technology of NAA. This project is measured the 112 samples from Jijong-dong, Daejeon and 4 production kiln sites in Kyongsangdo by using NAA and XRF and classified as types and production site by PCA and applied of factor analysis, discruminant analysis and cluster analysis. As the results, we know that it is classified as pottery and roof tile as measured 11 elements and that it is not classified major and trace elements as the production kiln sites because raw materials is 2nd clay. At last, it is investigated the comparative evaluation of raw material as production kiln sites by cluster analysis as the basis of the data of NA

  18. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Fischer, U., E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)


    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  19. [Use of the recurrence plot method in stochastic analysis of neuronal activity].

    Novák, V; Schmidt, J


    The recurrence plot method is described together with its application to the analysis of inner time relations in the sequences of interspike intervals. The depicted method was employed to analyze results from the computer model of the neuronal stochastic activity. It can be also used to analyze sequences of interspike intervals in the records from life neurons.

  20. Neutron-Activation Analysis of Biological Material with High Radiation Levels

    Samsahl, K.


    A method has been developed for the chemical separation and subsequent gamma-spectrometric analysis of the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the rare earths, chromium, hafnium, lanthanum, manganese, phosphorus, scandium and silver in neutron-activated biological material. The separation steps, being fully automatic, are based on a combination of ion-exchange and partition chromatography and require 40 min.

  1. Safety- and risk analysis activities in other areas than the nuclear industry

    Kozine, I.; Duijm, N.J.; Lauridsen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)


    The report gives an overview of the legislation within the European Union in the field of major industrial hazards and gives examples of decision criteria applied in a number of European countries when judging the acceptability of an activity. Furthermore, the report mentions a few methods used in the analysis of the safety of chemical installations. (au)

  2. Towards a methodology for large-sample prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis

    Degenaar, I.H.


    Large-sample prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis, or shortly LS PGNAA, is a method by which mass fractions of elements can be determined in large samples with a mass over 1 kg. In this method the large sample is irradiated with neutrons. Directly (prompt) after absorption of the neutrons photon

  3. High Frequency AC Inductor Analysis and Design for Dual Active Bridge (DAB) Converters

    Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    The dual active bridge (DAB) converter is an isolated bidirectional dc-dc topology which is the most critical part for the power conversion systems such as solid-state transformers (SST). This paper focuses on analysis and design of high frequency ac inductors which are the power interfacing...

  4. Active Fault Diagnosis for Hybrid Systems Based on Sensitivity Analysis and EKF

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Bak, Thomas


    An active fault diagnosis approach for different kinds of faults is proposed. The input of the approach is designed off-line based on sensitivity analysis such that the maximum sensitivity for each individual system parameter is obtained. Using maximum sensitivity, results in a better precision i...

  5. The determination of platinum in tissue of different human organs by means of neutron activation analysis

    Rietz, Bernd; Heydorn, Kaj; Krarup-Hansen, Anders


    . It was demonstrated that radiochemical neutron activation analysis can be used for these studies because of its sensitivity and precision and a low detection limit for platinum (similar to1 ng). Tissues of the following organs were analyzed for platinum: liver, kidney, testis, lung, pancreas and muscle. This study...

  6. Magnetoencephalographic Analysis of Cortical Activity in Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    Virji-Babul, N.; Cheung, T.; Weeks, D.; Herdman, A. T.; Cheyne, D.


    Background: This preliminary study served as a pilot for an ongoing analysis of spectral power in adults with Down syndrome (DS) using a 151 channel whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG). The present study is the first step for examining and comparing cortical responses during spontaneous and task related activity in DS. Method: Cortical…

  7. In vitro cell based assay for activity analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in food

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a leading cause of food poisoning. They function both as toxins that cause gastroenteritis after ingestion and as superantigens that non-specifically activate large numbers of T cells. Monkey or kitten bioassays were historically developed for analysis of SE act...

  8. Fast neutron activation analysis by means of low voltage neutron generator

    Medhat, M. E.

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This machine can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. Procedure of neutron flux determination and efficiency calculation is described. Examples of testing some Egyptian natural cosmetics are given.

  9. The effect of activated charcoal on drug exposure in healthy volunteers: a meta-analysis

    Jürgens, G; Hoegberg, L C Groth; Graudal, N A


    The objective of the study was to estimate the effect of activated charcoal (AC) administered during the first 6 h after drug intake and the effect of drug properties on drug exposure. Sixty-four controlled studies were integrated in a meta-analysis. AC administered 0-5 min after administration...

  10. Matrix problems in the certification analysis of botanical materials by neutron activation analysis

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.


    residue should not contain the determinand. In BCR certification analysis for As and Se by RNAA the irradiated sample was decomposed with sulphuric and nitric acids, and CRM 279 Sea Lettuce and CRM 402 White Clover left an insoluble residue. Unirradiated material was then digested without carrier addition......, and the insoluble residue separated by filtration. No significant content of Se was found by INAA, but about 5% of the total amount of As was found in CRM 402. The ramifications of making a correction are discussed, and it is concluded that a correction for an insoluble fraction may lead to a positive bias....

  11. Efeitos cerebrais da maconha: resultados dos estudos de neuroimagem Brain effects of cannabis: neuroimaging findings

    José Alexandre Crippa


    Full Text Available A maconha é a droga ilícita mais utilizada. Apesar disto, apenas um pequeno número de estudos investigaram as conseqüências neurotóxicas de longo prazo do uso de cannabis. As técnicas de neuroimagem se constituem em poderosos instrumentos para investigar alterações neuroanatômicas e neurofuncionais e suas correlações clínicas e neuropsicológicas. Uma revisão computadorizada da literatura foi conduzida nos indexadores MEDLINE e PsycLIT entre 1966 e novembro de 2004 com os termos 'cannabis', 'marijuana', 'neuroimaging', 'magnetic resonance', 'computed tomography', 'positron emission tomography', 'single photon emission computed tomography", 'SPET', 'MRI' e 'CT'. Estudos de neuroimagem estrutural apresentam resultados conflitantes, com a maioria dos estudos não relatando atrofia cerebral ou alterações volumétricas regionais. Contudo, há uma pequena evidência de que usuários de longo prazo que iniciaram um uso regular no início da adolescência apresentam atrofia cerebral assim como redução na substância cinzenta. Estudos de neuroimagem funcional relatam aumento na atividade neural em regiões que podem estar relacionadas com intoxicação por cannabis e alteração do humor (lobos frontais mesial e orbital e redução na atividade de regiões relacionadas com funções cognitivas prejudicadas durante a intoxicação aguda. A questão crucial se efeitos neurotóxicos residuais ocorrem após o uso prolongado e regular de maconha permanece obscura, não existindo até então estudo endereçando esta questão diretamente. Estudos de neuroimagem com melhores desenhos, combinados com avaliação cognitiva, podem ser elucidativos neste aspecto.Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Despite this, only a small number of studies have investigated the long-term neurotoxic consequences of cannabis use. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are powerful research tools to investigate possible cannabis

  12. Application of activation analysis to the solution of problems in archaeology and art

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.


    The importance of the application of scientific analysis to the compositional and structural study of artistic and archaeological objects is discussed. Activation analysis is presented as one of the most adequate methods for this kind of study, due to the fact that the available specimens are generally very small and the activation method is highly sensitive. Some compositional studies of several objects of archaeological interest, made of materials such as ceramic, glass, metal (mainly coins), bones, and teeth are also presented, together with the conclusions drawn. A few papers about the study of pigments from paintings by activation analysis are described. In these studies, the concentration of trace elements in white lead, which is the principal component of all the pigments, is determined. Two papers about the structural study of paintings by neutron activation radiography are described. In these papers, some very interesting conclusions about the techniques employed by the painters are drawn. In the case of a painting of the American artist Ralph A. Blakelock, the authors present irrefutable evidence of forgery. Finally, a study of the regeneration of faded photographs by neutron activation radiography is related. (auth)

  13. Bayesian Inference for Neural Electromagnetic Source Localization: Analysis of MEG Visual Evoked Activity

    George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Wood, C.C.


    We have developed a Bayesian approach to the analysis of neural electromagnetic (MEG/EEG) data that can incorporate or fuse information from other imaging modalities and addresses the ill-posed inverse problem by sarnpliig the many different solutions which could have produced the given data. From these samples one can draw probabilistic inferences about regions of activation. Our source model assumes a variable number of variable size cortical regions of stimulus-correlated activity. An active region consists of locations on the cortical surf ace, within a sphere centered on some location in cortex. The number and radi of active regions can vary to defined maximum values. The goal of the analysis is to determine the posterior probability distribution for the set of parameters that govern the number, location, and extent of active regions. Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to generate a large sample of sets of parameters distributed according to the posterior distribution. This sample is representative of the many different source distributions that could account for given data, and allows identification of probable (i.e. consistent) features across solutions. Examples of the use of this analysis technique with both simulated and empirical MEG data are presented.

  14. Progress report on neutron activation analysis at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)


    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of most powerful techniques for the simultaneous multi-elements analysis. This technique has been studied and applied to analyze major, minor and trace elements in Geological, Biological and Environmental samples at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. At the sixth Workshop, February 8-11, 1999, Yojakarta, Indonesia we had a report on Current Status of Neutron Activation Analysis using Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. Another report on Neutron Activation Analysis at the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor also was presented at the seventh Workshop in Taejon, Korea from November 20-24, 2000. So in this report, we would like to present the results obtained of the application of NAA at NRI for one year as follows: (1) Determination of the concentrations of noble, rare earth, uranium, thorium and other elements in Geological samples according to requirement of clients particularly the geologists, who want to find out the mineral resources. (2) The analysis of concentration of radionuclides and nutrient elements in foodstuffs to attend the program on Asian Reference Man. (3) The evaluation of the contents of trace elements in crude oil and basement rock samples to determine original source of the oil. (4) Determination of the elemental composition of airborne particle in the Ho Chi Minh City for studying air pollution. The analytical data of standard reference material, toxic elements and natural radionuclides in seawater are also presented. (author)

  15. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    Mesquita, Daniela P. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Amaral, A. Luís [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Eugénio C., E-mail: [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed.

  16. Tabebuia avellanedae naphthoquinones: activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains, cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritability analysis

    Giambiagi-deMarval Marcia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and coagulase-negative staphylococcus infections are a worldwide concern. Currently, these isolates have also shown resistance to vancomycin, the last therapy used in these cases. It has been observed that quinones and other related compounds exhibit antibacterial activity. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity, toxicity and in vivo dermal irritability of lapachol extracted from Tabebuia avellanedae and derivatives against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates. In addition, its mechanism of action was also analyzed. Methods The compounds β-lapachone, 3-hydroxy β N lapachone and α-lapachone were tested to determine the MIC values against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus strains, being the two last ones hetero-resistant to vancomycin. Experiments of protein synthesis analysis to investigate the naphthoquinones action were assessed. In vitro toxicity to eukaryotic BSC-40 African Green Monkey Kidney cell cultures and in vivo primary dermal irritability in healthy rabbits were also performed. Results The compounds tested showed antibacterial activity (MICs of 8, 4/8 and 64/128 μg/mL to β-lapachone, 3-hydroxy β N lapachone and α-lapachone, respectively, but no bactericidal activity was observed (MBC > 512 μg/mL for all compounds. Although it has been observed toxic effect in eukaryotic cells, the compounds were shown to be atoxic when applied as topic preparations in healthy rabbits. No inhibition of proteins synthesis was observed. Conclusion Our results suggest that quinones could be used in topic preparations against wound infections caused by staphylococci, after major investigation of the pharmacological properties of the compounds. Studies about the use of these compounds on tumoral cells could be carried on, due to their effect in eukaryotic cells metabolism.

  17. Inter-rater reliability and factor analysis of the Brazilian version of the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight: Expanded Version (SAI-E Estudo de confiabilidade entre avaliadores e análise fatorial da versão brasileira do Schedule for the Assessment of Insight: Expanded Version (SAI-E

    Clarissa de Rosalmeida Dantas


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version consists of 11 items that encompass: awareness of having a mental illness, ability to rename psychotic phenomena as abnormal, and compliance with treatment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the inter-rater reliability and to study the factorial structure of the Brazilian version of the instrument. METHOD: The Brazilian version of the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version was used for the assessment of insight of 109 psychotic inpatients, 60 of whom had the interview tape-recorded in order to be scored by an independent evaluator. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was adopted as the inter-rater reliability coefficient. In the factor analysis, principal components analysis and Varimax rotation were adopted. RESULTS: Inter-rater reliability coefficients from good to excellent were found for the individual items of the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version with ICC values ranging from 0.54 to 0.82. Regarding the total score, inter-rater reliability was excellent, with ICC = 0.90. A factorial structure similar to the one obtained by the original version of the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version was found, with 3 factors accounting for 71.72% of variance. CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian context, the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version presented good inter-rater reliability and factorial structure compatible to the insight dimensions that are intended to be evaluated.OBJETIVOS: O Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version é constituído por 11 itens que abordam: reconhecimento de se ter um transtorno mental, capacidade de renomear fenômenos psicóticos como anormais e adesão ao tratamento. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade entre avaliadores e estudar a estrutura fatorial da versão brasileira do Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded

  18. Precise determination of silicon in ceramic reference materials by prompt gamma activation analysis at JRR-3

    Miura, Tsutomu [National Metrology Institute of Japan-AIST, Ibaraki (Japan); Matsue, Hideaki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Prompt gamma activation analysis using a thermal neutron-guided beam at Japan Atomic Energy Agency JRR-3M was applied for the precise determination of Si in silicon nitride ceramic reference materials [Japan Ceramic Reference Material (JCRM) R 003]. In this study, the standard addition method coupled with internal standard was used for the nondestructive determination of Si in the sample. Cadmium was used as internal standard to obtain the linear calibration curves and to compensate for the neutron beam variability. The analytical result of determining Si in JCRM R 003 silicon nitride fine powder ceramic reference materials using prompt gamma activation analysis was in good agreement with that obtained by classical gravimetric analysis. The relative expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) associated with the determined value was 2.4%.

  19. Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S.; Cowley, Paula J.


    Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.

  20. Principal component analysis of Birkeland currents determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    Milan, S E; Korth, H; Anderson, B J


    Principal component analysis is performed on Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The regions 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns.