WorldWideScience

Sample records for activation analysis body

  1. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  2. Analysis of Body Shapes and Physical Activity Dominant Patterns in a Coloring Books Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Martínez Bello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum materials play an important role in the construction of the concept of the body to the extent that they are transmitters of knowledge, ideas and values. The aim of the study was to analyse whether the images in a collection of coloring books entitled The Boys´ Doodles Book and The girl´s Doodles Book show sexist stereotypes about body models and dominant patterns of physical activity. An independent observational group studied the images of the body through content analysis with a coding scheme using categories (gender, age, somatotype, space and type of physical activity previously adopted by experts. The Boys´ Doodles Book shows an adult man with different body types, while women are not represented. In both books, the bodies do not maintain a preferred location. The Girls´Doodles Book represents a higher percentage of girls with a slender body, while men, who were under-represented, assume different body types. The Girls´Doodles Book tends to represent women in physical activities or sports with an artistic component. In conclusion, the images in both coloring books, promote sexist body shapes and physical activities. It is a warning to parents and mothers, as well as publishing houses, libraries and government agencies to critically analyse underlying patterns on coloring books.

  3. Bioelectrical impedance analysis as a laboratory activity: At the interface of physics and the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel laboratory activity on RC circuits aimed at introductory physics students in life-science majors. The activity teaches principles of RC circuits by connecting ac-circuit concepts to bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using a custom-designed educational BIA device. The activity shows how a BIA device works and how current, voltage, and impedance measurements relate to bioelectrical characteristics of the human body. From this, useful observations can be made including body water, fat-free mass, and body fat percentage. The laboratory is engaging to pre-health and life-science students, as well as engineering students who are given the opportunity to observe electrical components and construction of a commonly used biomedical device. Electrical concepts investigated include alternating current, electrical potential, resistance, capacitance, impedance, frequency, phase shift, device design, and the use of such topics in biomedical analysis.

  4. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  5. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  6. Whole body analysis of the knockout gene mouse model for cystic fibrosis using thermal and fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A genetically engineered 'knockout gene' mouse model for human cystic fibrosis (CF) has been utilized to study bone mineralization. In CF, the so-called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, a chloride ion channel, is either absent or defective. To produce the animal model the murine CFTR gene has been inactivated producing CF symptoms in the homozygotic progeny. CF results in abnormal intestinal absorption of minerals and nutrients which presumably results in substandard bone mineralization. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using whole-body thermal and fast neutron activation analysis to determine mineral and trace-element differences between homozygote controls (+/+) and CF (-/-), murine siblings. Gender-matched juvenile +/+ and -/- litter mates were lyophilized and placed in a BN capsule to reduce thermal-neutron activation and irradiated for 10 seconds at φfast ∼ 1 x 1013 n x cm-2 x s-1 using the MURR pneumatic-tube facility. Phosphorus was measured via the 31P15(n,α)28Al13 reaction. After several days decay, the whole-body specimens were re-irradiated in the same facility, but without thermal-neutron shielding, for 5 seconds and the gamma-ray spectrum was recorded at two different decay periods allowing measurement of 77mSe, 24Na, 27mg, 38Cl, 42k, 49Ca, 56Mn, 66Cu and 80Br from the corresponding radiative-capture reactions. (author)

  7. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  8. Metabolically active portion of fat-free mass: a cellular body composition level modeling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, ZiMian; Heshka, Stanley; Wang, Jack; Gallagher, Dympna; Deurenberg, Paul; Chen, Zhao; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of fat-free mass (FFM) as body cell mass (BCM) is highly related to whole body resting energy expenditure. However, the magnitude of BCM/FFM may have been underestimated in previous studies. This is because Moore’s equation [BCM (kg) =0.00833 × total body potassium (in mmol)], which was used to predict BCM, underestimates BCM by ~ %. The aims of the present study were to develop a theoretical BCM/FFM model at the cellular level and to explore the influences of sex, age, and adi...

  9. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  10. Physical activity, body composition and lipids changes in adolescents: analysis from the MyHeART Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Azmi, Nahar; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity and growing obesity levels among Malaysian adolescents are becoming a public health concern. Our study is to identify the trends of self-reported physical activity (PA) levels, blood lipid profiles, and body composition (BC) indices from a cohort of 820 adolescents. The self-reported PA was assessed using a validated Malay version of the PA Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Fasting blood samples were collected to investigate their lipid profiles. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences as well as body fat percentage were measured. The baseline and the first follow-up were conducted in 2012 and 2014, respectively. A downward trend in the PA level was seen in all categories with a significant reduction among all rural adolescents (P = 0.013) and more specifically, PA among girls residing in rural areas dropped significantly (P = 0.006). Either a significant reduction in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or a significant increment in BC indices (i.e., body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference, and body fat percentage [BF %]) were seen in this group. Female adolescents experienced more body fat increment with the reduction of physical activity. If not intervened early, adolescents from rural areas may increase their risk of developing cardiovascular diseases earlier. PMID:27465116

  11. Physical activity, body composition and lipids changes in adolescents: analysis from the MyHeART Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Azmi, Nahar; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity and growing obesity levels among Malaysian adolescents are becoming a public health concern. Our study is to identify the trends of self-reported physical activity (PA) levels, blood lipid profiles, and body composition (BC) indices from a cohort of 820 adolescents. The self-reported PA was assessed using a validated Malay version of the PA Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Fasting blood samples were collected to investigate their lipid profiles. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences as well as body fat percentage were measured. The baseline and the first follow-up were conducted in 2012 and 2014, respectively. A downward trend in the PA level was seen in all categories with a significant reduction among all rural adolescents (P = 0.013) and more specifically, PA among girls residing in rural areas dropped significantly (P = 0.006). Either a significant reduction in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or a significant increment in BC indices (i.e., body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference, and body fat percentage [BF %]) were seen in this group. Female adolescents experienced more body fat increment with the reduction of physical activity. If not intervened early, adolescents from rural areas may increase their risk of developing cardiovascular diseases earlier.

  12. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  13. Experiments Relating to Whole-Body Activation Analysis in Man In Vivo Using 14-MeV Incident Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromium eczema is a well-known phenomenon in dermatological practice. Different explanations may be given for it. According to one of these the specific texture of the skin of patients is assumed to allow more chromium to pass through the upper layers. As a result, the chromium accumulates faster in the dermis of patients so that a critical value is reached sooner. Another explanation might be that die sensitivity threshold for chromium in patients is lower than in normal persons and can more easily be exceeded. To distinguish between these possibilities and to obtain more information, an investigation was started in which the chromium content in the skin was compared for eczema patients and normal people. The sample weight (10 mg) and the chromium content (0.2 - 0.4 ppm) involved require a sensitive technique. Neutron activation analysis is well suited to this purpose. Under our operation conditions (irradiation time 10 days, neutron flux 1014n/cm2s) it is possible to determine quantities as low as 5 x 1011 g of chromium. Preliminary experiments show relatively large variations in chromium content of comparable samples, even in skin samples taken from the back of a single person. It is further suggested by the results of these experiments that the chromium content in the skin of eczema patients is lower than in that of normal patients. The results of the analysis may be seriously affected by chromium contamination during sample preparation. Therefore chromium-free instruments must be used. To avoid chromium migration in the skin due to degeneration processes, samples must be taken from persons alive or shortly after their death. (author)

  14. A Human Body Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondel Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  15. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse teсhnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse teсhno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  16. Total body carbon and oxygen masses: evaluation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry estimation by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZiMian; Pierson, Richard N., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon are the first and second abundant elements, respectively, in the human body by mass. Although many physiological and pathological processes are accompanied with alteration of total body oxygen (TBO) and carbon (TBC) masses, in vivo measurements of the two elements are limited. Up to now, almost all available information of TBC and TBO is based on in vivo neutron activation (IVNA) analysis which is very expensive and involves moderate radiation exposure. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate an alternative strategy for TBC and TBO estimation. Mechanistic models were derived for predicting TBC and TBO masses from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and total body water (TBW). Twenty-eight adult subjects were studied. IVNA-measured TBC and TBO masses were used as the criterion. TBC masses predicted by DXA-alone and by DXA-TBW models were 20.8 ± 7.1 kg and 20.6 ± 6.8 kg, respectively, close to the IVNA-measured value (19.5 ± 6.3 kg). There were strong correlations (both with r > 0.95, P 0.97, P < 0.001) were strong between the predicted and measured TBO masses. Bland-Altman analysis validated the applicability of DXA-based models to predict TBC and TBO masses. As both DXA and TBW dilutions are widely available, low-risk, low-cost techniques, the present study provides a safe and practical method for estimating elemental composition in vivo.

  17. Body composition determination by measurement of total body activation products in expired air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vivo neutron activation followed by whole body counting has become a routine method for measuring the major elements in the body, such as total body calcium. More recently a careful analysis of radioactive components in expired air after neutron activation has shown some of these components are directly related to the body content of major elements. The gaseous activation products are produced both by direct fast neutron reactions and by secondary proton reactions. The protons are produced by hydrogen atom recoil after neutron interaction with the large quantity of hydrogen in the body. The specific longer-lived radionuclides which are easily measured in expired air are 37Ar, 41Ar, 11C, and 13N. The 37Ar is expired as noble gas and is produced by the reaction 40Ca(n, α)37Ar. The accurate determination of total body calcium in animals has been demonstrated using 37Ar measurements and the determination in humans appears very feasible. The 11C, expired as 11CO and 11CO2, is produced by 14N(p, α)11C and it appears that total body nitrogen can be determined from the 11C measurements All activation products which form gases in the body after neutron irradiation are potentially useful in determining the body content of the parent element. Several radioactive gases have been recently identified in the expired air of animals or humans after low level neutron irradiation. These include 37Ar, 41Ar, 11CO, 11CO2, 13N2, 13NO or 13N2O. Other radioactive gases which can probably be measured at very low levels are 11CH3

  18. Active children and quiet bodies wanted!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2015-01-01

    from a child perspective (Sommer et al. 2010). The presentation will focus on the pupils lived bodily experiences with bodily activities within the school in order to produce knowledge on increased physical activity and movements’ contribution to the pupils’ wellbeing. The analyses indicates that even......Active children and quiet bodies wanted! A new school law was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system from August 2014. The main purpose of the law is to: – challenge all pupils to become as skilled as possible, – lower the consequences of social background in order to achieve...... better results and – strengthen the confidence to and the wellbeing in the school. These objectives should among other initiatives be achieved by a longer and more diversified school day. Physical activities and movements have been seen as an important tool to create more varied forms of teaching...

  19. Self-objectification, body self-consciousness during sexual activities, and sexual satisfaction in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudat, Kim; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Few studies examine the mechanisms that link body image to sexual satisfaction in women. Using the tenets of objectification theory, this study investigated the relationships between body surveillance, body shame, body self-consciousness during sexual activities, and sexual satisfaction in an ethnically diverse sample of American female college students (N=368), while controlling for relationship status and body mass index. Results based on self-report measures of these constructs suggested that body shame and body self-consciousness during sexual activity were negatively correlated with sexual satisfaction. Additionally, path analysis indicated that body surveillance predicted increased body self-consciousness during sexual activity, partially mediated by body shame. Body self-consciousness, in turn, predicted decreased sexual satisfaction. Overall, study findings highlight the negative consequences of body image concerns for women's sexual satisfaction. PMID:25173667

  20. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Klaas R Westerterp

    2015-01-01

    Aim Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. Methods An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is m...

  1. Body composition analysis: Cellular level modeling of body component ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Wang; Heymsfield, S. B.; PI-SUNYER, F.X.; Gallagher, D.; PIERSON, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growt...

  2. Body composition analysis in female ballet dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Bojan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional status and body composition in female ballet dancers and a group of non-athletic female controls. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 30 female ballet dancers, aged 17.4±2.01, whereas the control group included 30 non-athletic female examinees, aged 18.00 years on average. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated in all subjects. Body composition was estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method. Results Body composition analysis of ballet dancers revealed significantly lower values of body fat mass compared to the control group (18.85±4.50% vs. 23.41±4.34. Most examinees in both groups were of normal weight. 50% of ballet dancers and 23.33% of examinees in the control group were underweight, while overweight subjects were registered only in the control group. Most underweight ballet dancers had lower body fat mass, whereas majority of underweight examinees in the control group presented with normal body fat mass. Normal-weight obesity was established in 40.91% candidates in the control and 6.67% in the study group. Conclusion Ballet dancers had significantly lower values of body mass and BMI, compared to the study group. In order to prevent very serious complications caused by changes in size and proportion of some body compartments, it is necessary to carry out assessment of body composition more often in high-risk groups, such as the study group of ballet dancers.

  3. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Maria F. Laus; Telma M. Braga Costa; Almeida, Sebastião S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in a Brazilian sample of adolescents. Methods: A total of 275 adolescents (139 boys and 136 girls) between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Contour Drawing Scale and current physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height were also measured for subsequent calculation of body mass inde...

  4. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  5. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Laus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in a Brazilian sample of adolescents. Methods: A total of 275 adolescents (139 boys and 136 girls between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Contour Drawing Scale and current physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height were also measured for subsequent calculation of body mass index. Results: Boys and girls differed significantly regarding body image dissatisfaction, with girls reporting higher levels of dissatisfaction. Underweight and eutrophic boys preferred to be heavier, while those overweight preferred be thinner and, in contrast, girls desired to be thinner even when they are of normal weight. Conclusion: Body image dissatisfaction was strictly related to body mass index, but not to physical activity.

  6. Can physical activity maintain normal grades of body mass index and body fat percentage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran, C.; Bihari, V.; N. Mathur

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods: Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results: Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers showed ...

  7. Can physical activity maintain normal grades of body mass index and body fat percentage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran C; Bihari V; Mathur N

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims : A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 767 urban male volunteers performing physical activity and 469 age and socioeconomic status matched controls not doing any physical activity from the city limits of North India. Materials and Methods : Height and weight were recorded for each participant to determine their Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat percentage and weight was measured using a body fat monitor. Results : Fifty three percent of the physical activity performers ...

  8. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b=0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b= 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree

  9. Immunological network activation by low-dose rate irradiation. Analysis of cell populations and cell surface molecules in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate whole body irradiation on biodefense and immunological systems were investigated using female C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These B6 mice were exposed continuously to {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low-dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI for 0 - 12 weeks at a dose rate of 0.95 mGy/hr. In the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of the irradiated mice, changes in cell populations and cell surface molecules were examined. The cell surface functional molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD45R/B220, ICAM-1, Fas, NK-1.1, CXCR4, and CCR5), and activation molecules (THAM, CD28, CD40, CD44H, CD70, B7-1, B7-2, OX-40 antigen, CTLA-4, CD30 ligand, and CD40 ligand) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells and cell surface CD8 molecule expressions on the CD8{sup +} T cells increased significantly to 120-130% after 3 weeks of the irradiation, compared to non-irradiated control mice. On the other hand, the percentage of CD45R/B220{sup +} CD40{sup +} B cells, which is one of the immunological markers of inflammation, infection, tumor, and autoimmune disease, decreased significantly to 80-90% between the 3rd to 5th week of irradiation. There was no significant difference in other cell population rates and cell surface molecule expression. Furthermore, abnormal T cells bearing mutated T cell receptors induced by high-dose rate irradiation were not observed throughout this study. These results suggest that low-dose rate irradiation activates the immunological status of the whole body. (author)

  10. Characterization of abandoned rocket body families for active removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    A new ranking index was developed and applied to a wide set of rocket body families, characterized by stage dry masses greater than 500 kg and by the presence of at least 5 stages abandoned in LEO. The upper stages selected accounted for more than 80% of the unclassified rocket bodies in LEO and nearly 95% of the associated dry mass. The detailed results obtained for 657 objects clearly identified the most critical altitude-inclination bands and stage models, to be targeted first if and when a debris remediation strategy including the active removal of intact abandoned objects were deemed necessary. Apart from the evaluation of the criticality regarding the long-term evolution of the debris environment, resulting in a priority listing for optimal active removal, the application of the new ranking index is not limited to debris remediation. In fact, if applied before launch to spacecraft and rocket bodies to be disposed in orbit, at the end of mission, it would provide an additional debris mitigation analysis tool for evaluating competing disposal options. Concerning the rocket bodies abandoned in LEO, 274 resulted to have a criticality equal or larger than the average intact object abandoned in an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit. Among them, 243 belonged to the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 25 to China, 5 to Europe and 1 to Japan. In addition to being concentrated in relatively few and narrow altitude-inclinations bands, the most numerous rocket body families often present a quite uniform distribution in right ascension of the ascending node, which is especially convenient for multiple target removal missions.

  11. The Effect of Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Sighted Individuals and Those Who Are Visually Impaired: An Analysis Adjusted for Physical Activity and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Dorota; Stemplewski, Rafał; Szeklicki, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physical exercise on postural stability in sighted participants and individuals who are visually impaired, adjusted for potential modulatory effects of physical activity level and body mass index (BMI). The study included 23 participants who were severely visually impaired and 23 sighted participants. Postural stability measurements were taken with open eyes (session I) and with closed eyes (session II). During each session, the mean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) displacements was determined using a force plate both before and after physical exercise. During testing with open eyes, the 2 groups did not differ significantly in terms of their postural response to physical exercise. When examined with closed eyes, the individuals who were visually impaired showed markedly greater postexercise increase in mean velocity of the COP displacement in the mediolateral direction. This intergroup difference was likely a consequence of significantly higher preexercise values of posturographic parameters observed in the sighted participants. More pronounced postexercise changes in the postural stability of sighted participants were associated with lower levels of physical activity and higher values of BMI. Further research is needed to explain the character of the abovementioned relationships in individuals who are visually impaired.

  12. Forensic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  13. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  15. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  16. Disrupting Vestibular Activity Disrupts Body Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Adria E N; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive at detecting asynchrony between a self-generated movement and visual feedback concerning that movement when the movement is viewed from a first-person perspective. We call this the 'self-advantage' and interpret it as an objective measure of self. Here we ask if disruption of the vestibular system in healthy individuals affects the self-advantage. Participants performed finger movements while viewing their hand in a first-person ('self') or third-person ('other') perspective and indicated which of two periods (one with minimum delay and the other with an added delay of 33-264 ms) was delayed. Their sensitivity to the delay was calculated from the psychometric functions obtained. During the testing, disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was applied in five-minute blocks interleaved with five minutes of no stimulation for a total of 40 min. We confirmed the self-advantage under no stimulation (31 ms). In the presence of disruptive GVS this advantage disappeared and there was no longer a difference in performance between perspectives. The threshold delay for the 'other' perspective was not affected by the GVS. These results suggest that an intact vestibular signal is required to distinguish 'self' from 'other' and to maintain a sense of body ownership. PMID:26595957

  17. Argentina's regulatory body: its communication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regard to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. It must also advise the Executive on issues under its purview. The objective of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority is to establish, develop and enforce a regulatory system applicable to all nuclear activities carried out in Argentina. Two of the goals of this regulatory system are to provide an appropriate standard of protection for individuals against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and to maintain a reasonable degree of radiological and nuclear safety in the nuclear activities performed in Argentina. The responsibility of the radiation protection community in performing the tasks to accomplish this goals is twofold. On one hand, it must ensure a high technical quality in performing these functions. It must also provide information on its activities which has to be accurate, comprehensive and understandable. The way a society understands the concept of 'risk' needs to be kept in mind. Risk perception is the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Cultural theory refers to theories of risk perception that focus on culture, rather than individual psychology as an explanation for differences in risk judgments. It is widely agreed that trust is a key factor in influencing people's perceptions of risk. It is understood there are two main ways trust may impact in risk perceptions: an activity is perceived as more risky if the people or agencies managing it are perceived as untrustworthy; and information presented by trusted sources is given more credibility than information from untrusted sources. One of the primary purposes of ARN's Communication Program is to provide a means whereby those engaged in radiation protection activities may communicate more readily with each other and the public and

  18. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  19. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess....

  20. Body composition analysis in female ballet dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlović Bojan; Mijatov Saša; Srdić Biljana; Stokić Edita J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional status and body composition in female ballet dancers and a group of non-athletic female controls. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 30 female ballet dancers, aged 17.4±2.01, whereas the control group included 30 non-athletic female examinees, aged 18.00 years on average. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated in all subjects. Body composition was estimated using th...

  1. Lifestyle modifies the relationship between body composition and adrenergic receptor genetic polymorphisms, ADRB2, ADRB3 and ADRA2B: A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of physical activity among postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Cussler, Ellen C; Going, Scott B.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variations in the adrenergic receptor (ADR) have been associated with body composition in cross-sectional studies. Recent findings suggest that ADR variants may also modify body composition response to lifestyle. We assessed the role of ADR variants in body composition response to 12 months of resistance training versus control in previously sedentary postmenopausal women. Randomized trial completers were genotyped for A2BGlu9/12 by fragment length analysis, and B2Gln27Glu and B3Trp64...

  2. Analysis of body form using biostereometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The general objective of the research was to provide the space and life sciences directorate with an improved biostereometric measurement capability. This objective was determined from the usefulness of stereophotogrametric techniques developed during the Apollo and Skylab Missions to measure body conformation, surface area, volume and relative density of astronauts. These noninvasive anthropometric measurements provided invaluable data concerning the physiological, biochemical and nutritional effects of the space environment upon the human body. The indirect nature of the technique has many advantages over other methods, and has a potential for many other applications. The stereophotographs contain an enormous amount of data which can be later reexamined should the need arise.

  3. Active dehydration impairs upper and lower body anaerobic muscular power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leon C; Cleary, Michelle A; Lopez, Rebecca M; Zuri, Ron E; Lopez, Richard

    2008-03-01

    We examined the effects of active dehydration by exercise in a hot, humid environment on anaerobic muscular power using a test-retest (euhydrated and dehydrated) design. Seven subjects (age, 27.1 +/- 4.6 years; mass, 86.4 +/- 9.5 kg) performed upper and lower body Wingate anaerobic tests prior to and after a 1.5-hour recovery from a heat stress trial of treadmill exercise in a hot, humid environment (33.1 +/- 3.1C = 55.1 +/- 8.9% relative humidity) until a 3.1 +/- 0.3% body mass loss was achieved. Dehydration was confirmed by a significant body mass loss (P dehydrated compared to the euhydrated condition. Compared to the euhydrated condition, the dehydrated condition mean power was significantly (P = 0.014) decreased 7.17% in the upper body and 19.20% in the lower body. Compared to the euhydrated condition, the dehydrated condition peak power was significantly (P = 0.013) decreased 14.48% in the upper body and 18.36% in the lower body. No significant differences between the euhydrated and dehydrated conditions were found for decrease in power output (P = 0.219, power = 0.213). Our findings suggest that dehydration of 2.9% body mass decreases the ability to generate upper and lower body anaerobic power. Coaches and athletes must understand that sports performance requiring anaerobic strength and power can be impaired by inadequate hydration and may contribute to increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury.

  4. Active and passive stabilization of body pitch in insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristroph, Leif; Ristroph, Gunnar; Morozova, Svetlana; Bergou, Attila J; Chang, Song; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2013-08-01

    Flying insects have evolved sophisticated sensory-motor systems, and here we argue that such systems are used to keep upright against intrinsic flight instabilities. We describe a theory that predicts the instability growth rate in body pitch from flapping-wing aerodynamics and reveals two ways of achieving balanced flight: active control with sufficiently rapid reactions and passive stabilization with high body drag. By glueing magnets to fruit flies and perturbing their flight using magnetic impulses, we show that these insects employ active control that is indeed fast relative to the instability. Moreover, we find that fruit flies with their control sensors disabled can keep upright if high-drag fibres are also attached to their bodies, an observation consistent with our prediction for the passive stability condition. Finally, we extend this framework to unify the control strategies used by hovering animals and also furnish criteria for achieving pitch stability in flapping-wing robots.

  5. Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

  6. Analysis and Modelling of Muscles Motion during Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Gatta A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to characterize the local muscles motion in individuals undergoing whole body mechanical stimulation. In this study we aim also to evaluate how subject positioning modifies vibration dumping, altering local mechanical stimulus. Vibrations were delivered to subjects by the use of a vibrating platform, while stimulation frequency was increased linearly from 15 to 60 Hz. Two different subject postures were here analysed. Platform and muscles motion were monitored using tiny MEMS accelerometers; a contra lateral analysis was also presented. Muscle motion analysis revealed typical displacement trajectories: motion components were found not to be purely sinusoidal neither in phase to each other. Results also revealed a mechanical resonant-like behaviour at some muscles, similar to a second-order system response. Resonance frequencies and dumping factors depended on subject and his positioning. Proper mechanical stimulation can maximize muscle spindle solicitation, which may produce a more effective muscle activation.

  7. Body Image and Physical Activity in British Secondary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…

  8. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua;

    2011-01-01

    The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem of recogni......The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem...... of recognizing activities of multiple users using a wireless body sensor network, and propose a scalable pattern mining approach to recognize both single- and multi-user activities in a unified framework. We exploit Emerging Pattern—a discriminative knowledge pattern which describes significant changes among...... activity classes of data—for building activity models and design a scalable, noise-resistant, Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single- and multi-user activities. We develop a multi-modal, wireless body sensor network for collecting real-world traces in a smart...

  9. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  10. Dynamic recruitment of active proteasomes into polyglutamine initiated inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Jansen, Anne H; Wiemhoefer, Anne; van den Nieuwendijk, Rianne; Smith, Donna L; Hink, Mark A; Bates, Gillian P; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Reits, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease are hallmarked by neuronal intracellular inclusion body formation. Whether proteasomes are irreversibly recruited into inclusion bodies in these protein misfolding disorders is a controversial subject. In addition, it has been proposed that the proteasomes may become clogged by the aggregated protein fragments, leading to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we show by fluorescence pulse-chase experiments in living cells that proteasomes are dynamically and reversibly recruited into inclusion bodies. As these recruited proteasomes remain catalytically active and accessible to substrates, our results challenge the concept of proteasome sequestration and impairment in Huntington's disease, and support the reported absence of proteasome impairment in mouse models of Huntington's disease.

  11. Mushroom bodies enhance initial motor activity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, Christine N; Kaufman, Rebecca R; Strauss, Roland; de Belle, J Steven

    2009-01-01

    The central body (or central complex, CCX) and the mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain structures in most insect phyla that have been shown to influence aspects of locomotion. The CCX regulates motor coordination and enhances activity while MBs have, thus far, been shown to suppress motor activity levels measured over time intervals ranging from hours to weeks. In this report, we investigate MB involvement in motor behavior during the initial stages (15 minutes) of walking in Buridan's paradigm. We measured aspects of walking in flies that had MB lesions induced by mutations in six different genes and by chemical ablation. All tested flies were later examined histologically to assess MB neuroanatomy. Mutant strains with MB structural defects were generally less active in walking than wild-type flies. Most mutants in which MBs were also ablated with hydroxyurea (HU) showed additional activity decrements. Variation in measures of velocity and orientation to landmarks among wild-type and mutant flies was attributed to pleiotropy, rather than to MB lesions. We conclude that MBs upregulate activity during the initial stages of walking, but suppress activity thereafter. An MB influence on decision making has been shown in a wide range of complex behaviors. We suggest that MBs provide appropriate contextual information to motor output systems in the brain, indirectly fine tuning walking by modifying the quantity (i.e., activity) of behavior.

  12. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  13. Analysis of the body composition of Paralympic athletes: Comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Valdir De Aquino; Alves, Eduardo Da Silva; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Silva, Andressa Da; Winckler, Ciro; Vital, Roberto; De Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Tufik, Sergio; De Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-11-01

    Body composition is a physiological variable associated with physical activity and, in some cases, is related to athletic performance. Our objectives were to describe the body composition of participants in three distinct Paralympic sports and to compare the values of body density and estimated body fat obtained from the Paralympic athletes on the National Team by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and by the anthropometric method (skinfolds (SFs)). The sample consisted of 70 volunteers of both genders. The body composition of the volunteers was evaluated using the ADP in a Bod Pod(®) and seven SFs. There were no significant differences between the values obtained by ADP and SF for body fat percentage (p = .58) and body density (p = .49). Analysis by Bland-Altman plots showed mean differences of 0.56 ± 4.94 (-9.12-10.23) and -0.0017 ± 0.0113 (-0.024-0.020) for body fat percentage and body density, respectively. In conclusion, body composition analyses of Paralympic athletes by the ADP and SF methods show similar results, and ADP should be used as the first option when available. When the use of ADP is not possible, estimating body density and fat percentage by SF is a viable alternative for Paralympic athletes when future comparisons will use the same analysis method.

  14. Body Area Networks performance analysis using UWB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehy, Mohammed; Kohno, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    The successful realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) using Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology supports different medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications but stand in a need for an innovative solution to meet the different requirements of these applications. Previously, we proposed to use adaptive processing gain (PG) to fulfill the different QoS requirements of these WBAN applications. In this paper, interference occurred between two different BANs in a UWB-based system has been analyzed in terms of acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs' PG providing the required QoS for each BAN. The first BAN employed for a healthcare device (e.g. EEG, ECG, etc.) with a relatively longer spreading sequence is used and the second customized for entertainment application (e.g. wireless headset, wireless game pad, etc.) where a shorter spreading code is assigned. Considering bandwidth utilization and difference in the employed spreading sequence, the acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs should fall between 0.05 and 0.5 in order to optimize the used spreading sequence and in the meantime satisfying the required QoS for these applications. PMID:24109913

  15. Media Representation of the Human Body: Discourse Analysis of Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lončar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though advertisements represent a world of its own, they are an inevitable part of different kinds of media. The purpose of advertising is not only to promote a product but also to transfer messages, values and ideas in order to make emotional connections with brands. By building emotional attachment, advertisers increase and strengthen consumers’ responses. The promoting of the advertisements’ images becomes much more important than promoting the product itself. Nowadays, an increasing interest in representing a human body along with different kinds of products and services has become a commonplace among advertisers. Representation of the body is a socially constructed phenomenon. In other words, social processes shape perceptions of our bodies and these perceptions (recreate human experiences of the body. The authors’ approach includes qualitative discourse analysis of advertisements. The objective was to identify the relationship between the human body and textual messages as integral components of the advertised item taken in consideration, as well as the ways in which they interact with the reader’s overall experience. For this purpose, different advertisements that contain visual and textual messages representing human bodies have been analysed. They were all published in the following lifestyle magazines: Cosmopolitan, Playboy, Men’s Health, during 2012 and 2013. The authors conclude that media representations of a human body as social phenomena perceive value and treat the body in different ways depending on the relationship between the advertisement, the textual message and the human body.

  16. Classification of physical activities based on body-segments coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Numerous innovations based on connected objects and physical activity (PA) monitoring have been proposed. However, recognition of PAs requires robust algorithm and methodology. The current study presents an innovative approach for PA recognition. It is based on the heuristic definition of postures and the use of body-segments coordination obtained through external sensors. The first part of this study presents the methodology required to define the set of accelerations which is the most appropriate to represent the particular body-segments coordination involved in the chosen PAs (here walking, running, and cycling). For that purpose, subjects of different ages and heterogeneous physical conditions walked, ran, cycled, and performed daily activities at different paces. From the 3D motion capture, vertical and horizontal accelerations of 8 anatomical landmarks representative of the body were computed. Then, the 680 combinations from up to 3 accelerations were compared to identify the most appropriate set of acceleration to discriminate the PAs in terms of body segment coordinations. The discrimination was based on the maximal Hausdorff Distance obtained between the different set of accelerations. The vertical accelerations of both knees demonstrated the best PAs discrimination. The second step was the proof of concept, implementing the proposed algorithm to classify PAs of new group of subjects. The originality of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to use the subject's specific measures as reference data. With the proposed algorithm, 94% of the trials were correctly classified. In conclusion, our study proposed a flexible and extendable methodology. At the current stage, the algorithm has been shown to be valid for heterogeneous subjects, which suggests that it could be deployed in clinical or health-related applications regardless of the subjects' physical abilities or characteristics.

  17. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.

  18. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  19. Study on provenance of ancient Yaozhou porcelain bodies by fingerprint elements scatter analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    25 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies, 3 samples of the tri-color pottery bodies during the Tang Dynasty, 1 samples of Saggar material during Song Dynasty and 4 samples of clay mineral taken from the place near Yaozhou Kiln Museum was selected. The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been employed to measure the content of 29 kinds of elements in the samples. 8 elements of them were selected as fingerprint elements to make scatter analysis. The conclusion is that the ancient Yaozhou porcelain bodies produced by different kilns have long shared a stable and concentrated raw material sources. Both the tri-colored pottery bodies made in Yaozhou Kilns during the Tang Dynasty and the Yaozhou porcelain bodies are from the same provenance. (authors)

  20. Forensic Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  1. Low nuclear body formation and tax SUMOylation do not prevent NF-kappaB promoter activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet Amandine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tax protein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a powerful activator of the NF-κB pathway, a property critical for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Tax permanently stimulates this pathway at a cytoplasmic level by activating the IκB kinase (IKK complex and at a nuclear level by enhancing the binding of the NF-κB factor RelA to its cognate promoters and by forming nuclear bodies, believed to represent transcriptionally active structures. In previous studies, we reported that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation play a critical role in Tax localization and NF-κB activation. Indeed, analysis of lysine Tax mutants fused or not to ubiquitin or SUMO led us to propose a two-step model in which Tax ubiquitination first intervenes to activate IKK while Tax SUMOylation is subsequently required for promoter activation within Tax nuclear bodies. However, recent studies showing that ubiquitin or SUMO can modulate Tax activities in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm and that SUMOylated Tax can serve as substrate for ubiquitination suggested that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation may mediate redundant rather than successive functions. Results In this study, we analyzed the properties of a new Tax mutant that is properly ubiquitinated, but defective for both nuclear body formation and SUMOylation. We report that reducing Tax SUMOylation and nuclear body formation do not alter the ability of Tax to activate IKK, induce RelA nuclear translocation, and trigger gene expression from a NF-κB promoter. Importantly, potent NF-κB promoter activation by Tax despite low SUMOylation and nuclear body formation is also observed in T cells, including CD4+ primary T lymphocytes. Moreover, we show that Tax nuclear bodies are hardly observed in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the degree of NF-κB activation by Tax correlates with the level of Tax ubiquitination, but not

  2. Ring-element analysis of layered orthotropic bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, O.

    1993-01-01

    For the analysis of arbitrarily laminated circular bodies, a displacement-based ring-element is presented. The analysis is performed in a cylindrical coordinate system. The method of analysis requires the boundary conditions as well as the external forces to be pi-periodic. The element formulatio...... to that of solutions obtained by traditional 3D elements. A scheme for analytical integration of the angular dependence of the stiffness matrix is given....

  3. Application of standards and models in body composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Geisler, Corinna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to extend present concepts of body composition and to integrate it into physiology. In vivo body composition analysis (BCA) has a sound theoretical and methodological basis. Present methods used for BCA are reliable and valid. Individual data on body components, organs and tissues are included into different models, e.g. a 2-, 3-, 4- or multi-component model. Today the so-called 4-compartment model as well as whole body MRI (or computed tomography) scans are considered as gold standards of BCA. In practice the use of the appropriate method depends on the question of interest and the accuracy needed to address it. Body composition data are descriptive and used for normative analyses (e.g. generating normal values, centiles and cut offs). Advanced models of BCA go beyond description and normative approaches. The concept of functional body composition (FBC) takes into account the relationships between individual body components, organs and tissues and related metabolic and physical functions. FBC can be further extended to the model of healthy body composition (HBC) based on horizontal (i.e. structural) and vertical (e.g. metabolism and its neuroendocrine control) relationships between individual components as well as between component and body functions using mathematical modelling with a hierarchical multi-level multi-scale approach at the software level. HBC integrates into whole body systems of cardiovascular, respiratory, hepatic and renal functions. To conclude BCA is a prerequisite for detailed phenotyping of individuals providing a sound basis for in depth biomedical research and clinical decision making. PMID:26541411

  4. Influence of transaction costs on controlling activity of territorial taxation bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to disclose and justify transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies and their impact on tax control under the need for effective functioning and optimal decision making with a view of reducing the state expenditures on tax control. Methods general scientific synthesis deduction induction generalization testing interviewing observation forecasting scientific abstraction statistical analysis logic and methods of grouping and classification expert assessment. Results the analysis and grouping of transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies have been carried out. It was found that the most time and resource consuming are onsite tax inspections. The factors that have a significant impact on the efficiency of tax control were revealed. It is proved that the release of material and time resources contributes to the transformation of the tax bodies. Scientific novelty the main problem of implementation of the onsite tax control is its costs. The existing studies do not give a systematic list of tax control costs of the territorial tax bodies in general and transaction costs of tax control in particular. The author shows that the reduction of transaction costs as factors of influence on the tax control will free up the working time of the inspectors and will bring economic benefits and also will allow to consolidate territorial tax bodies and change the status of a tax inspector. Practical significance reducing the cost of tax control is becoming increasingly important in terms of saving financial resources of the state.

  5. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawaheer, D; Olsen, J; Lahiff, M;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner.......To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner....

  6. Analysis of Human Body Bipedal Stability for Neuromotor Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baritz, Mihaela; Cristea, Luciana; Rogozea, Liliana; Cotoros, Diana; Repanovici, Angela

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of different biomechanical aspects of balance and equilibrium is presented in the first part of the paper. We analyzed the posture, balance and stability of human body for a normal person and for a person with loco-motor or neuro-motor disabilities (in the second part). In the third part of the paper we presented the methodology and the experimental setup used to record the human body behavior in postural stability for persons with neuro-motors disabilities. The results and the conclusions are presented in the final part of the paper and also in the future work meant to establish the computer analysis for rehabilitation neuromotor disabilities.

  7. Hydrodynamic body shape analysis and their impact on swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Zeng; Zhan, Jie-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the hydrodynamic characteristics of different adult male swimmer's body shape using computational fluid dynamics method. This simulation strategy is carried out by CFD fluent code with solving the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using the RNG k-ε turbulence closure. The water free surface is captured by the volume of fluid (VOF) method. A set of full body models, which is based on the anthropometrical characteristics of the most common male swimmers, is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. The analysis of CFD results revealed that swimmer's body shape has a noticeable effect on the hydrodynamics performances. This explains why male swimmer with an inverted triangle body shape has good hydrodynamic characteristics for competitive swimming. PMID:26898107

  8. Study on activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  9. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies from bacterial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peternel Špela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells.

  10. AMAB: Automated measurement and analysis of body motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald; Zee, van der Sophie; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Taylor, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Technologies that measure human nonverbal behavior have existed for some time, and their use in the analysis of social behavior has become more popular following the development of sensor technologies that record full-body movement. However, a standardized methodology to efficiently represent and an

  11. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  12. [Ventricular activation sequence estimated by body surface isochrone map].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H; Ishikawa, T; Takami, K; Kojima, H; Yabe, S; Ohsugi, S; Miyachi, K; Sotobata, I

    1985-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the body surface isochrone map (VAT map) for identifying the ventricular activation sequence, and it was correlated with the isopotential map. Subjects consisted of 42 normal healthy adults, 18 patients with artificial ventricular pacemakers, and 100 patients with ventricular premature beats (VPB). The sites of pacemaker implantations were the right ventricular endocardial apex (nine cases), right ventricular epicardial apex (five cases), right ventricular inflow tract (one case), left ventricular epicardial apex (one case), and posterior base of the left ventricle via the coronary sinus (two cases). An isopotential map was recorded by the mapper HPM-6500 (Chunichi-Denshi Co.) on the basis of an 87 unipolar lead ECG, and a VAT isochrone map was drawn by a minicomputer. The normal VAT map was classified by type according to alignment of isochrone lines, and their frequency was 57.1% for type A, 16.7% for type B, and 26.2% for type C. In the VAT map of ventricular pacing, the body surface area of initial isochrone lines represented well the sites of pacemaker stimuli. In the VAT map of VPB, the sites of origin of VPB agreed well with those as determined by the previous study using an isopotential map. The density of the isochrone lines suggested the mode of conduction via the specialized conduction system or ventricular muscle. The VAT map is a very useful diagnostic method to predict the ventricular activation sequence more directly in a single sheet of the map. PMID:2419457

  13. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system. PMID:27526187

  14. Developmental quantitative genetic analysis of body weights and morphological traits in the turbot, Scophthalmusmaximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinan; MA Aijun; MA Deyou

    2015-01-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic mechanism of growth traits in turbot during ontogeny, developmental genetic analysis of the body weights, total lengths, standard lengths and body heights of turbots was conducted by mixed genetic models with additive-dominance effects, based on complete diallel crosses with four different strains of Scophthalmus maximus from Denmark, Norway, Britain, and France. Unconditional genetic analysis revealed that the unconditional additive effects for the four traits were more significant than unconditional dominance effects, meanwhile, the alternative expressions were also observed between the additive and dominant effects for body weights, total lengths and standard lengths. Conditional analysis showed that the developmental periods with active gene expression for body weights, total lengths, standard lengths and body heights were 15–18, 15 and 21–24, 15 and 24, and 21 and 27 months of age, respectively. The proportions of unconditional/conditional variances indicated that the narrow-sense heritabilities of body weights, total lengths and standard lengths were all increased systematically. The accumulative effects of genes controlling the four quantitative traits were mainly additive effects, suggesting that the selection is more efficient for the genetic improvement of turbots. The conditional genetic procedure is a useful tool to understand the expression of genes controlling developmental quantitative traits at a specific developmental period (t-1→t) during ontogeny. It is also important to determine the appropriate developmental period (t-1→t) for trait measurement in developmental quantitative genetic analysis in fish.

  15. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  16. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, SK; Zai, A; Pirnia, T.; Arienzo, D.; Zhan, L.; Moody, TD; Thompson, PM; Feusner, JD

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included...

  17. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  18. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, E. B.; Ulbricht, L.; Krueger, E.; Romaneli, E. F. R.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  19. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  20. Activation analysis in forensic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of neutron activation analysis in forensics are grouped into 3 categories: firearms-discharge applications, elemental analysis of other nonbiological evidence materials (paint, other), and elemental analysis of biological evidence materials (multielemental analysis of hair, analysis of hair for As and Hg). 18 refs

  1. Naive Dimensional Analysis for Three-Body Forces Without Pions

    CERN Document Server

    Griesshammer, H W

    2005-01-01

    For systems of three identical particles in which short-range forces produce shallow two-particle bound states, and in particular for the ``pion-less'' Effective Field Theory of Nuclear Physics, I extend and systematise the power-counting of three-body forces to all partial-waves and orders, including external currents. With low-energy observables independent of the details of short-distance dynamics, the typical strength of a three-body force is determined from the superficial degree of divergence of the three-body diagrams which contain only two-body forces. This na\\"ive dimensional analysis must be amended as the asymptotic solution to the leading-order Faddeev equation depends for large off-shell momenta crucially on the partial wave and spin-combination of the system. It is shown by analytic construction to be weaker in most channels with angular momentum smaller than 3 than expected. This demotes many three-nucleon forces to high orders. Observables like the quartet-S-scattering length are less sensitiv...

  2. Active Shape Discrimination with Compliant Bodies as Reservoir Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Philippides, Andrew; Husbands, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Compliant bodies with complex dynamics can be used both to simplify control problems and to lead to adaptive reflexive behavior when engaged with the environment in the sensorimotor loop. By revisiting an experiment introduced by Beer and replacing the continuous-time recurrent neural network therein with reservoir computing networks abstracted from compliant bodies, we demonstrate that adaptive behavior can be produced by an agent in which the body is the main computational locus. We show that bodies with complex dynamics are capable of integrating, storing, and processing information in meaningful and useful ways, and furthermore that with the addition of the simplest of nervous systems such bodies can generate behavior that could equally be described as reflexive or minimally cognitive.

  3. Active Shape Discrimination with Compliant Bodies as Reservoir Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Philippides, Andrew; Husbands, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Compliant bodies with complex dynamics can be used both to simplify control problems and to lead to adaptive reflexive behavior when engaged with the environment in the sensorimotor loop. By revisiting an experiment introduced by Beer and replacing the continuous-time recurrent neural network therein with reservoir computing networks abstracted from compliant bodies, we demonstrate that adaptive behavior can be produced by an agent in which the body is the main computational locus. We show that bodies with complex dynamics are capable of integrating, storing, and processing information in meaningful and useful ways, and furthermore that with the addition of the simplest of nervous systems such bodies can generate behavior that could equally be described as reflexive or minimally cognitive. PMID:26934092

  4. [Determination of body fluid based on analysis of nucleic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabečná, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recent methodological approaches of molecular genetics allow isolation of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from negligible forensic samples. Analysis of these molecules may be used not only for individual identification based on DNA profiling but also for the detection of origin of the body fluid which (alone or in mixture with other body fluids) forms the examined biological trace. Such an examination can contribute to the evaluation of procedural, technical and tactical value of the trace. Molecular genetic approaches discussed in the review offer new possibilities in comparison with traditional spectrum of chemical, immunological and spectroscopic tests especially with regard to the interpretation of mixtures of biological fluids and to the confirmatory character of the tests. Approaches based on reverse transcription of tissue specific mRNA and their subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragmentation analysis are applicable on samples containing minimal amounts of biological material. Methods for body fluid discrimination based on examination of microRNA in samples provided so far confusing results therefore further development in this field is needed. The examination of tissue specific methylation of nucleotides in selected gene sequences seems to represent a promising enrichment of the methodological spectrum. The detection of DNA sequences of tissue related bacteria has been established and it provides satisfactory results mainly in combination with above mentioned methodological approaches. PMID:26419517

  5. Enabling Large-body Active Debris Removal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research suggests that: (1) orbital debris has reached the point that, even with no future launches, collisions among large-body debris will lead to unstable growth...

  6. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abreu-Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  7. Fuzzy cluster analysis of the provenance of ancient Yaozhou porcelain body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been employed to measure the content of 29 kinds of elements in the sample of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. Then a fuzzy cluster analysis has been conducted to the NAA data and a diagram of the dynamic fuzzy cluster analysis has been achieved. The results indicate that the batch of ancient Yaozhou porcelain bodies, which were of different overglaze color and were produced by different kilns during a period of over 800 years from the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) to the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.), has shared a stable and concentrated raw material source. Provenances of porcelain bodies from different times, though having their specific independence, enjoy a close relationship and are not far from one another. Provenances of porcelain bodies made during the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) are found to be closer to one another, while those of the Song (960-1279 A.D.) and the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 A.D.) are comparatively concentrated in certain areas and are different from those of the Tang Dynasty. Both the tri-colored glazed pottery made in Yaozhou kilns during the Tang Dynasty and the Yaozhou porcelain bodies of the Tang period are from the same provenance.

  8. Improved Aerodynamic Analysis for Hybrid Wing Body Conceptual Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ongoing efforts to develop, evaluate, and validate different tools for improved aerodynamic modeling and systems analysis of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configurations. Results are being presented for the evaluation of different aerodynamic tools including panel methods, enhanced panel methods with viscous drag prediction, and computational fluid dynamics. Emphasis is placed on proper prediction of aerodynamic loads for structural sizing as well as viscous drag prediction to develop drag polars for HWB conceptual design optimization. Data from transonic wind tunnel tests at the Arnold Engineering Development Center s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel was used as a reference data set in order to evaluate the accuracy of the aerodynamic tools. Triangularized surface data and Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) models of an X-48B 2% scale wind tunnel model were used to generate input and model files for the different analysis tools. In support of ongoing HWB scaling studies within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program, an improved finite element based structural analysis and weight estimation tool for HWB center bodies is currently under development. Aerodynamic results from these analyses are used to provide additional aerodynamic validation data.

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF 3D FINITE CRACKED BODIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Weiming; Guo Yimu; Cao Zhiyuan

    2001-01-01

    The new-type traction boundary integral equations developed by Hu and with no hyper singular integral are applied to analysis of 3D finite cracked bodies. A numerical algorithm for general 3D problems and a semi-analytical one for axisymmetric problems are presented. Some examples of thick plates and cylindrical columns including penny-shaped crack(s), and rectangular plates including an elliptical crack normal to the surface are analyzed. The comparison between present results and those in literature shows the high accuracy and effectiveness of the present method.

  10. Numeric calculation of celestial bodies with spreadsheet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The motion of the planets and moons in our solar system can easily be calculated for any time by the Kepler laws of planetary motion. The Kepler laws are a special case of the gravitational law of Newton, especially if you consider more than two celestial bodies. Therefore it is more basic to calculate the motion by using the gravitational law. But the problem is, that by gravitational law it is not possible to calculate the state of motion with only one step of calculation. The motion has to be numerical calculated for many time intervalls. For this reason, spreadsheet analysis is helpful for students. Skills in programmes like Excel, Calc or Gnumeric are important in professional life and can easily be learnt by students. These programmes can help to calculate the complex motions with many intervalls. The more intervalls are used, the more exact are the calculated orbits. The sutdents will first get a quick course in Excel. After that they calculate with instructions the 2-D-coordinates of the orbits of Moon and Mars. Step by step the students are coding the formulae for calculating physical parameters like coordinates, force, acceleration and velocity. The project is limited to 4 weeks or 8 lessons. So the calcualtion will only include the calculation of one body around the central mass like Earth or Sun. The three-body problem can only be shortly discussed at the end of the project.

  11. Analysis of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter; Przekop, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid wing body center section test article is an all-composite structure made of crown, floor, keel, bulkhead, and rib panels utilizing the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) design concept. The primary goal of this test article is to prove that PRSEUS components are capable of carrying combined loads that are representative of a hybrid wing body pressure cabin design regime. This paper summarizes the analytical approach, analysis results, and failure predictions of the test article. A global finite element model of composite panels, metallic fittings, mechanical fasteners, and the Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) test fixture was used to conduct linear structural strength and stability analyses to validate the specimen under the most critical combination of bending and pressure loading conditions found in the hybrid wing body pressure cabin. Local detail analyses were also performed at locations with high stress concentrations, at Tee-cap noodle interfaces with surrounding laminates, and at fastener locations with high bearing/bypass loads. Failure predictions for different composite and metallic failure modes were made, and nonlinear analyses were also performed to study the structural response of the test article under combined bending and pressure loading. This large-scale specimen test will be conducted at the COLTS facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  12. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  13. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  14. Comparison of two software versions for assessment of body-composition analysis by DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Wang, J; Weyer, C;

    2001-01-01

    To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA.......To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA....

  15. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura; Zofia Ignasiak; Teresa Sławińska; Jerzy Piechura; Tomasz Ignasiak

    2014-01-01

    objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29) and women (87). The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body...

  16. Body shape analysis of Bosnian mountain horses using Procrustes statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Curik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Procrustes analysis was performed on 4 samples of horse populations (11 Bosniak horses from a private farm in Nevesinje, 2 Bosniak horses from a former state farm in Han Piesak, 12 Bosniak horses from the former state stud farm Borike and 18 purebred Arabian horses from Borike in order to analyse the differences in body shape between the samples. The twodimensional shapes of the horses were presented as coordinates of 11 landmarks, which were constructed from measurements taken from living animals. Relative warp analysis revealed a separation between three of the samples. The private Bosniak horses are located between the Borike Bosniaks and purebred Arabian horses. Due to the similar shape of private Bosniaks and Arabian horses, which could be proven also by thin plate splines, we can conclude that the privat breeder selected Bosniak horses which were smaller than the Borike Bosniaks but more similar to the Arabian type of horse.

  17. A numerical analysis of the unsteady flow past bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M. S. U. K.; Modi, V. J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes in detail a relatively sophisticated numerical approach, using the Boundary Element Method in conjunction with the Discrete Vortex Model, to represent the complex unsteady flow field around a bluff body with separating shear layers. Important steps in the numerical analysis of this challenging problem are discussed and a performance evaluation algorithm established. Of considerable importance is the effect of computational parameters such as number of elements representing the geometry, time-step size, location of the nascent vortices, etc., on the accuracy of results and the associated cost. As an example, the method is applied to the analysis of the flow around a stationary Savonius rotor. A detailed parametric study provides fundamental information concerning the starting torque time histories, evolution of the wake, Strouhal number, etc. A comparison with the wind tunnel test data shows remarkable correlation suggesting considerable promise for the approach.

  18. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    OpenAIRE

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  19. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  20. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  1. Physical activity and bone mineral accrual in boys with different body mass parameters during puberty: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donvina Vaitkeviciute

    Full Text Available The aim of our longitudinal study was to investigate the relationships between physical activity and bone mass in boys with different body mass status during the years surrounding pubertal growth spurt. Two hundred and six boys entering puberty took part in this study. The subjects were divided into underweight (BMI 26.02 groups at baseline according to age related categories. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline, after 12 and 24 months to assess body composition (lean body mass, fat mass, and total body (TB, lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN bone mineral density (BMD parameters. Physical activity was measured by 7-day accelerometry. For longitudinal analysis, multilevel fixed effects regression models were constructed. Biological age, height and lean body mass had an effect for explanation of TB BMD, FN BMD and LS BMD. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, vigorous physical activity (VPA and sedentary time (SED had the significant effect only on FN BMD. Being an underweight boy at the baseline indicated greater chance (p<0.01 to have lower TB BMD in the future (2 years at follow up development, compared to normal weight (estimates = -0.038, overweight (estimates = -0.061 and obese boys (estimates = -0.106.

  2. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  3. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  4. Carotid body chemoreceptors, sympathetic neural activation, and cardiometabolic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Idiaquez, Juan; Somers, Virend K.

    2016-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing...

  5. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity...... was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non...

  6. Revisiting global body politics in Nepal: A reflexive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Using the example of a human rights training in Nepal, the author looks at global body politics in a reflexive piece on her engagement in development practices that translate western feminist ideas on gender inequality and empowerment via UN human rights policies into non-western contexts. It firsts look at postcolonial and critical literature on feminist engagement in gender and development processes including a discussion on the concept of global body politics before examining briefly the framing of gender-based violence in Nepal. The core of the paper is a reflexive analysis and interrogation of the training in Nepal in order to bring out the tensions and contradictions around western developmental, feminist and human rights discourses. The discussion looks at how difficult it is for feminist, human rights and developmental discourses and practices to unmoor themselves from the notion of the 'expert' and those who do the rights/work/righting rights training and those who are perennially seen as requiring training. The conclusion reflects on possibilities of other epistemic practices found in intercultural dialogues.

  7. Revisiting global body politics in Nepal: A reflexive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Using the example of a human rights training in Nepal, the author looks at global body politics in a reflexive piece on her engagement in development practices that translate western feminist ideas on gender inequality and empowerment via UN human rights policies into non-western contexts. It firsts look at postcolonial and critical literature on feminist engagement in gender and development processes including a discussion on the concept of global body politics before examining briefly the framing of gender-based violence in Nepal. The core of the paper is a reflexive analysis and interrogation of the training in Nepal in order to bring out the tensions and contradictions around western developmental, feminist and human rights discourses. The discussion looks at how difficult it is for feminist, human rights and developmental discourses and practices to unmoor themselves from the notion of the 'expert' and those who do the rights/work/righting rights training and those who are perennially seen as requiring training. The conclusion reflects on possibilities of other epistemic practices found in intercultural dialogues. PMID:26268778

  8. Analysis of Body Composition Methods in a Community Sample of African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Ygnacio; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Ledoux, Tracey A.; Rebecca E. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the authors in this study were: (1) to determine whether published body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations agreed with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry body fat percentage measures and (2) to estimate new body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations in a sample of African American women. Linear regression was used to determine how well 10 body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations reflected dual energy x-ray absorpti...

  9. Physical activity: an important adaptative mechanism for body-weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  10. Activate Your Body (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-15

    As people age, it gets tougher to be physically active. While cutting back on certain activities is inevitable, finding ways to exercise on a regular basis is important for maintaining good health. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Watson discusses the importance of older adults maintaining an active lifestyle.  Created: 9/15/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/15/2016.

  11. 200 terms for 'embodied activity'. The body in interaction: terminology for the body in ROLSI papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this guest blog, Maurice Nevile tracks the way that articles in ROLSI have coped with the complex task of choosing what terms to use in describing …. well, what to call it? Bodily movement? Embodied activity? Gesture? Each of these (and many more) have pros and cons as descriptors. But with th...

  12. Discrimination training with multimodal stimuli changes activity in the mushroom body of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Balkenius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mushroom bodies of the insect brain play an important role in olfactory processing, associative learning and memory. The mushroom bodies show odor-specific spatial patterns of activity and are also influenced by visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Functional imaging was used to investigate changes in the in vivo responses of the mushroom body of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta during multimodal discrimination training. A visual and an odour stimulus were presented either together or individually. Initially, mushroom body activation patterns were identical to the odour stimulus and the multimodal stimulus. After training, however, the mushroom body response to the rewarded multimodal stimulus was significantly lower than the response to the unrewarded unimodal odour stimulus, indicating that the coding of the stimuli had changed as a result of training. The opposite pattern was seen when only the unimodal odour stimulus was rewarded. In this case, the mushroom body was more strongly activated by the multimodal stimuli after training. When no stimuli were rewarded, the mushroom body activity decreased for both the multimodal and unimodal odour stimuli. There was no measurable response to the unimodal visual stimulus in any of the experiments. These results can be explained using a connectionist model where the mushroom body is assumed to be excited by olfactory stimulus components, and suppressed by multimodal configurations. CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination training with multimodal stimuli consisting of visual and odour cues leads to stimulus specific changes in the in vivo responses of the mushroom body of the hawkmoth.

  13. A Subject-Specificity Analysis of Radio Channels in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of subject-specific radio channels in wireless body area networks (WBANs using a simulation tool based on the parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. This technique is well suited to model radio propagations around complex, inhomogeneous objects such as the human body. The impacts of different subjects varying in size on on-body, inter-body, and off-body radio channels are studied. The analysis demonstrates that the characteristics of on-body radio channels are subject-specific and are associated with human gender, height, and body mass index. On the other hand, when waves propagate away from the body, such as in the inter-body and off-body cases, the impacts of different subjects on the channel characteristics are found to be negligible.

  14. Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control

    OpenAIRE

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains ...

  15. Tyrosinase activity and isoform composition in separate tissues during development of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.; Wichers, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    During growth of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies the amount of active tyrosinase increased. The amount of active tyrosinase can be related to the degree of browning, as opposed to the fully activated tyrosinase level. Isoelectric focusing revealed that active and latent tyrosinase isoforms having dif

  16. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  17. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  18. Analysis of an idealized body-vortex systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    We explore the class of dynamical systems consisting of a body, N point vortices, and one or more passive particles in an ideal, unbounded, planar fluid. The body is represented by a closed curve and is free to move in response to the fluid motion. The vortices have fixed strengths and are intended...... to model vortices that have been shed by the body or elsewhere in the flow field. The flow at any given time and position is determined by the instantaneous vortex and body positions together with the instantaneous velocity of the body. The equations of motion for this kind of system are reasonably well...... in hand. They can be analyzed using techniques from the theory of dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. The simplest such system, a single point vortex and a circular body, is integrable. If we add vortices, or change other features of the system such as the body shape, the motion...

  19. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K;

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual....... In this population, low daily accumulation of vigorous activity was, already in children aged 8-11 years, associated with more body fat and lower aerobic fitness. A similar relation was not found for daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous activity....

  20. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  1. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and nutritional status in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of body image dissatisfaction with physical activity level and nutritional status in freshmen from a public Brazilian university. A total of 832 university students (485 men with a mean age of 20.1 years (standard deviation = 4.6 participated in the study. Self-reported body weight and height were used for the calculation of body mass index. The students responded to the Body Shape Questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, considering p < .05. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and physical inactivity was 10.1% and 14.5%, respectively. No significant association was observed between body image dissatisfaction and physical activity level. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with nutritional status in both genders (p < .05. University students with excess body weight should be encouraged to pursue a healthier lifestyle in order to promote an adequate nutritional status and also to improve their body image.

  2. Change in Reasoning about the Body through Psychological Distancing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James J.; Sagarin, Johanna; Bibace, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of Sigel's (1993) [Sigel, I.E. (1993). The centrality of a distancing model for the development of representational competence. In Cocking, R. & Renninger, A. (Eds.), The development and meaning of psychological distance (pp. 141-158). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.] psychological distancing activities (PDA) in the process…

  3. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND BODY EXERCISE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the influence of recreational activities and body exercise among secondary school students in Kwara State. This paper explores types of exercise, benefits of physical exercise, risk of physical exercise and well as health and recreation. Four research questions and four research hypotheses were raised and generated to guide the study.This researcher employed a descriptive research survey method. The population consists of all secondary school students in Kwara State. The sample is made up of 2400 secondary school students selected through a multistage sample technique across the three senatorial districts in Kwara State. Data were collected using a questionnaire, validity of the instrument was established and reliability was ascertained by administering it twice after an interval of three weeks to 60 secondary school students in Oyo State, who were not part of the sample. Data analysis was done using percentage, mean and chi-square for testing the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 alpha levels.Based on the findings it is revealed that all the hypotheses tested were rejected as there was a significant influencing in the expression of secondary school students based on gender, age, class level and religion. It was recommended that students and other individual should engage themselves in physical activities to explore the benefits as they reduce body fat and improve weight control of both old and young persons, ease and possibly eliminate back pain problems for both the old and young while recreational activities help in relaxing the mind. Recreational activities like reading increases knowledge among others.

  4. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  5. A Comparing of Body Composition Components in Physically Active and Inactive Male Students of Sharoud University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bahrololoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a serious health problem that reduces life expectancy by increasing one's risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis and certain types of cancer. Moreover, body composition is divided into fat and fat free mass components. Research shows that physical activity is an important factor that affects body composition. This research aimed at estimating and comparing the body composition components of physically active and inactive male student of Shahroud University of technologyMethods: Participants of this study were 70 inactive male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years and 65 physically active male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years. The participants were randomly selected through stratified sampling procedure from various faculties and different admission years. Body composition was estimated with Body composition analyzer system that measured body composition components using bioelectrical impedance method.Results: Data analysis with SPSS-15 software revealed that: average of BF% in physically active sample was (13.43±3.15 and average of inactive samples was (16.73±6.16 which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.001 ; the LBM in physically active samples was (60.27±8.05 Kg and average of inactive samples was (56.43±7.6 Kg which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.005; the average of BMI in physically active sample was (22.62±2.8 kgm and average of inactive samples was (22.25±3.84 kgm which statistically did not show significant difference (P=0.519; the WHR average of physically active samples was (0.798±.03m and average of inactive samples was (0.81±.06m and there was not a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: These results revealed that body composition of physically active students were better than that of the inactive ones, so it can be concluded that there is a

  6. Body Fat Percentage in Active and Inactive Students Using Anthropometric Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ghane; Azar Aghayari; Alireza Babai mazreno

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Complications of obesity and high fat in children are grave now and future. The aim of this research is comparing percentage of body fat in active and inactive girls using Anthropometric Parameters.Materials and Methods: This research is descriptive- correlation that 144 active(n= 70) and inactive(n= 74) girls aged 8 to 10 years old were selected by random cluster sampling method and studied the relationship between percentage of body fat and Anthropometric Parameters and Result...

  7. MBD3 localizes at promoters, gene bodies and enhancers of active genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Takashi; Du, Ying; Grimm, Sara A; Dhasarathy, Archana; Mav, Deepak; Shah, Ruchir R; Shi, Huidong; Wade, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex is a multiprotein machine proposed to regulate chromatin structure by nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation activities. Recent reports describing localization of NuRD provide new insights that question previous models on NuRD action, but are not in complete agreement. Here, we provide location analysis of endogenous MBD3, a component of NuRD complex, in two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using two independent genomic techniques: DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) and ChIP-seq. We observed concordance of the resulting genomic localization, suggesting that these studies are converging on a robust map for NuRD in the cancer cell genome. MBD3 preferentially associated with CpG rich promoters marked by H3K4me3 and showed cell-type specific localization across gene bodies, peaking around the transcription start site. A subset of sites bound by MBD3 was enriched in H3K27ac and was in physical proximity to promoters in three-dimensional space, suggesting function as enhancers. MBD3 enrichment was also noted at promoters modified by H3K27me3. Functional analysis of chromatin indicated that MBD3 regulates nucleosome occupancy near promoters and in gene bodies. These data suggest that MBD3, and by extension the NuRD complex, may have multiple roles in fine tuning expression for both active and silent genes, representing an important step in defining regulatory mechanisms by which NuRD complex controls chromatin structure and modification status.

  8. Performance Analysis of Direct N-Body Algorithms on Special-Purpose Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Harfst, S; Merritt, D; Spurzem, R; Zwart, S P; Berczik, P; Harfst, Stefan; Gualandris, Alessia; Merritt, David; Spurzem, Rainer; Zwart, Simon Portegies; Berczik, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Direct-summation N-body algorithms compute the gravitational interaction between stars in an exact way and have a computational complexity of O(N^2). Performance can be greatly enhanced via the use of special-purpose accelerator boards like the GRAPE-6A. However the memory of the GRAPE boards is limited. Here, we present a performance analysis of direct N-body codes on two parallel supercomputers that incorporate special-purpose boards, allowing as many as four million particles to be integrated. Both computers employ high-speed, Infiniband interconnects to minimize communication overhead, which can otherwise become significant due to the small number of "active" particles at each time step. We find that the computation time scales well with processor number; for 2*10^6 particles, efficiencies greater than 50% and speeds in excess of 2 TFlops are reached.

  9. Recommendations for Standardizing Validation Procedures Assessing Physical Activity of Older Persons by Monitoring Body Postures and Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lindemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an important determinant of health and well-being in older persons and contributes to their social participation and quality of life. Hence, assessment tools are needed to study this physical activity in free-living conditions. Wearable motion sensing technology is used to assess physical activity. However, there is a lack of harmonisation of validation protocols and applied statistics, which make it hard to compare available and future studies. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to formulate recommendations for assessing the validity of sensor-based activity monitoring in older persons with focus on the measurement of body postures and movements. Validation studies of body-worn devices providing parameters on body postures and movements were identified and summarized and an extensive inter-active process between authors resulted in recommendations about: information on the assessed persons, the technical system, and the analysis of relevant parameters of physical activity, based on a standardized and semi-structured protocol. The recommended protocols can be regarded as a first attempt to standardize validity studies in the area of monitoring physical activity.

  10. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire;

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We...

  11. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Felix (Janine); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); C. Monnereau; R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); E. Stergiakouli (Evie); A. Chesi (Alessandra); R. Gaillard (Romy); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Niina Pitkänen; R. Joro (Raimo); A. Cavadino (Alana); V. Huikari (Ville); S. Franks (Steve); M. Groen-Blokhuis (Maria); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); J.A. Marsh (Julie); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); J.A. Curtin (John); J. Vioque (Jesus); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R. Myhre (Ronny); T.S. Price (Thomas); Natalia Vilor-Tejedor; L. Yengo (Loic); N. Grarup (Niels); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); W.Q. Ang (Wei); M. Atalay (Mustafa); H. Bisgaard (Hans); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Flexeder (Claudia); L. Franke (Lude); F. Geller (Frank); M. Geserick (Mandy); A.L. Hartikainen; C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); M. Kähönen (Mika); W. Kiess (Wieland); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T.A. Lakka (Timo); A. Lewin (Alex); L. Liang (Liming); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); B. Ma (Baoshan); P. Magnus (Per); S.E. McCormack (Shana E.); G. Mcmahon (George); F.D. Mentch (Frank); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); C.S. Murray (Clare S.); K. Pahkala (Katja); T.H. Pers (Tune); R. Pfäffle (Roland); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); C. Power (Christine); A. Simpson (Angela); V. Sengpiel (Verena); C. Tiesler (Carla); M. Torrent (Maties); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); R. Vinding (Rebecca); J. Waage (Johannes); J. Wardle (Jane); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); B.S. Zemel (Babette S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); O. Pedersen (Oluf); P. Froguel (Philippe); J. Sunyer (Jordi); R. Plomin (Robert); B. Jacobsson (Bo); T. Hansen (Torben); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); A. Custovic; O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); C.E. Pennell (Craig); Elisabeth Widén; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); S. Sebert (Sylvain); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Hypponen (Elina); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); V. Lindi (Virpi); N. Harri (Niinikoski); A. Körner (Antje); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); J. Heinrich (Joachim); M. Melbye (Mads); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.D. Smith; T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); N. Timpson (Nicholas); S.F. Grant; V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); H.J. Kalkwarf (Heidi J.); J.M. Lappe (Joan M.); V. Gilsanz (Vicente); S.E. Oberfield (Sharon E.); J.A. Shepherd (John A.); A. Kelly (Andrea)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation sc

  12. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Cousminer, Diana L; Marsh, Julie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M A; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A; Lewin, Alexandra M; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Middeldorp, Christel M; Murray, Clare S; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S; Dedoussis, George V; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T; Pennell, Craig E; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We in

  13. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  14. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  15. Body composition analysis in older adults with dementia. Anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camina Martín, M A; de Mateo Silleras, B; Redondo del Río, M P

    2014-11-01

    In clinical practice, geriatric nutritional assessment usually includes nutritional screening, a simple anthropometric assessment, measurement of various biochemical parameters, such as serum albumin, and sometimes (not always) body composition analysis (BCA). However, there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed malnutrition in patients with dementia. Several factors contribute to this situation; probably, the most notable is the methodology used to assess body composition (BC). In this regard, for BCA, techniques are needed that are noninvasive, affordable, safe, simple and that require the minimum possible collaboration by the elderly patient. Consequently, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used as indicators of overall and central adiposity, respectively; however, there is no consensus on the cutoffs for the elderly, and changes in BC (especially muscle-mass depletion) are masked by normal values of BMI and WC. Bioimpedance analysis is a simple, cost-effective and precise method for BCA, provided that cross-validated equations are used. Its main disadvantage is that it is highly sensitive to changes in body water (overhydration or dehydration), leading to substantial errors in BC estimates. However, using Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis errors are minimized, as there is no need for the subject to be normally hydrated and it does not require the use of predictive models. PMID:25117995

  16. Spacecraft motion analysis about rapid rotating small body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史雪岩; 崔祜涛; 崔平远; 栾恩杰

    2003-01-01

    The orbital dynamics equation of a spacecraft around an irregular sphere small body is established based on the small body' s gravitational potential approximated with a tri-axial ellipsoid. According to the Jacobi integral constant, the spacecraft zero-velocity curves in the vicinity of the small body is described and feasible motion region is analyzed. The limited condition and the periapsis radius corresponding to different eccentricity against impact surface are presented. The stability of direct and retrograde equator orbits is analyzed based on the perturbation solutions of mean orbit elements.

  17. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men.

  18. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. PMID:24899517

  19. Physical activity patterns, aerobic fitness and body composition in Norwegian children and adolescents : The Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for children and adolescent’s healthy growth and for their physical, social and mental health. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge is needed on levels and patterns of physical activity, as well as factors influencing physical activity participation. PURPOSE: The overall purpose was to increase the knowledge regarding 9- and 15-year-olds physical activity level, aerobic fitness and their body composition. Further, to gain increased insight w...

  20. Misperceptions of Body Mass: Analysis of NSW Health Survey 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cronin; Marion Haas; Elizabeth Savage; Minh Vu

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and obesity continue to contribute to increased risk of chronic diseases, including higher lifetime health expenditures and impacting on individuals? quality of life. Whilst international studies have compared individuals? perceptions of their body mass with more objective measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI) few Australian studies have examined this relationship in any detail. This study uses unit record data from the 2003 NSW Health Survey to identify factors associated with th...

  1. "The moving body": a sustainable project to improve children's physical activity at kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpentino, Carmela

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity promotes children's awareness of the body. Children, to experience and to learn, need to be physically active and their innate physical activity is playing. Playing together means building relationships with peers, means learning how to use tools and space, means addressing egocentric behaviour toward rules' respect; in summary, it means learning "social conviviality and respect". The aim of the project "The moving body" was to favour children's physical and cognitive development and their social relationships. Gross motor physical abilities were assessed in 270 children attending the kindergarten. The children were grouped according their level of motor abilities to promote learning through older children's imitation. Structured games and playing were alternated to free time, and words such as physical activity, movement, and so on, were never used. Every month the children were asked to draw their own body to assess their body shape perception and their ability in representing it. All the children improved their physical abilities as compared to the beginning of the project; they strengthened their creativity and fantasy, inventing new and imaginative games, became more confident in their own capacities, and they learned how to deal and overcome, with a greater autonomy, difficult tasks. The body shape perception, and its representation as drawing, showed, especially among children 3 years old, remarkable progress. The importance of physical activity and play in kindergarten activities was evidenced through the significant improvement of children's several specific motor and psychosocial competences.

  2. The role of body-related self-conscious emotions in motivating women's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Kowalski, Kent C; Wilson, Philip M; Mack, Diane E; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.

  3. Lyapunov vs. geometrical stability analysis of the Kepler and the restricted three body problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahalom, A.; Levitan, J.; Lewkowicz, M.;

    2011-01-01

    of the standard Lyapunov analysis and the strength of the geometrical analysis. Moreover, we apply this approach to the three body problem in which the third body is restricted to move on a circle of large radius which induces an adiabatic time dependent potential on the second body. This causes the second body...... to move in a very interesting and intricate but periodic trajectory; however, the standard Lyapunov analysis, as well as methods based on the parametric variation of curvature associated with the Jacobi metric, incorrectly predict chaotic behavior. The geometric approach predicts the correct stable motion...

  4. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  5. Finite Element Based Solution of Laplace's Equation Applied to Electrical Activity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab T. Baqer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer models are used in the study of electrocardiography to provide insight into physiological phenomena that are difficult to measure in the lab or in a clinical environment. The electrocardiogram is an important tool for the clinician in that it changes characteristically in a number of pathological conditions. Many illnesses can be detected by this measurement. By simulating the electrical activity of the heart one obtains a quantitative relationship between the electrocardiogram and different anomalies. Because of the inhomogeneous fibrous structure of the heart and the irregular geometries of the body, finite element method is used for studying the electrical properties of the heart. This work describes the implementation of the Conjugate Gradient iterative method for the solution of large linear equation systems resulting from the finite element method. A diagonal Jacobi preconditioner is used in order to accelerate the convergence. Gaussian elimination is also implemented and compared with the Precondition Conjugate Gradient (PCG method and with the iterative method. Different types of matrix storage schemes are implemented such as the Compressed Sparse Row (CSR to achieve better performance. In order to demonstrate the validity of the finite element analysis, the technique is adopted to solve Laplace's equation that describes the electrical activity of the human body with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. An automatic mesh generator is built using C++ programming language. Initially a complete finite element program is built to solve Laplace's equation. The same accuracy is obtained using these methods. The results show that the CSR format reduces computation time compared to the order format. The PCG method is better for the solution of large linear system (sparse matrices than the Gaussian Elimination and back substitution method, while Gaussian elimination is better than iterative method.

  6. The effects of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on body composition and hematological biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hunger and reduction in regular energy intake can lead to a number of problems based on their intensity. For instance, low energy level can cause blood cell production to decline or it may pose a higher risk of anemia. It can also weaken the immune system and platelet aggregation or negatively affect clot formation. This study aimed to have a closer look at fasting and regular physical activity and their impacts on body composition and blood hematological-biochemical parameters among professional wrestlers. Method: In this semi-experimental study, 9 subjects were selected by convenience sampling. The selected training program included participation in this exerciseprogram, 90 min per session, 6 times per week for a period of one month. Blood samples were obtained four times: before the start of Ramadan, 2 weeks after the start, during the last week and 2 weeks after the end of Ramadan. To make intra-group comparison, repeated measure analysis of variance was used. For all statistical comparisons, the level of significance was considered at PResults: Body weight and red blood cell count (RBC dropped significantly at the end of Ramadan (Respectively P= 0.001 and P=0.034. However, the number of white blood cells (WBC and circulating platelets (PLT significantly increased during fasting (Respectively P= 0.048 and P=0.042. As a matter of fact, PLT and WBC were the only factors which dramatically increased during fasting. Intra-group variations of tetracycline (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, LDL: high-density lipoprotein (HDL, triglyceride (TG: HDL and TC: HDL reduced at the end of Ramadan. However, HDL levels ​​drastically increased during fasting (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of the research, despite being a regular activity and fasting has beneficial effects on lipid profile in athletes, however, they can with tangible changes in hematological factors may lead to weaken the immune system of athletes.

  7. Body image satisfaction and the view of active old women about the influence of physical exercise in their self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinéia Gresele Coradini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the body image satisfaction with 24 active elderly women, and to understand the view of these people about the connection between physical exercise and their body image. All of them answered to the scale proposed by Stunkard, Sorenson and Schlusinger, 1983 and to a semi-structured interview. 87.50% of the women were unsatisfied about the body image. From the reading and analysis of the speeches, it was formed two major categories and four subcategories. Thus, most of the elderly women are unsatisfied about their body image, but the proportionate benefits by the exercises are recognized.

  8. Loading and reflexes : the influence of body weight and active movements on reflex responses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Catharina Maria

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes six studies on the influence of active movements and body loading on reflex responses. To measure those influences healthy subjects were asked to walk with different loadings (e.g. a backpack) or with different active movements (e.g. arm swing) while different reflex responses

  9. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  10. Establishment of fingerprint of active fraction from dried body of Catharsius molossus by capillary electrophoresis and analysis by its total quantum statistical moment%蜣螂有效部位毛细管电泳指纹图谱的建立及其总量统计矩分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马家骅; 谭承佳; 赵云生; 贺福元; 杨明

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立蜣螂有效部位的毛细管电泳(CE)指纹图谱,探讨利用总量统计矩法分析指纹图谱的可行性.方法 采用毛细管区带电泳法(CZE),以弹性石英毛细管柱(60 cm×75 μm)为分离通道,75 mmol/L硼砂溶液(pH 9.8)作缓冲液,运行电压+20 kV,检测波长200 nm,指纹图谱的评价采用药典委员会相似度分析软件与总量统计矩法.结果 建立了蜣螂有效部位的CE指纹图谱,药典委员会的相似度软件与总量统计矩法计算的相似度基本一致,显示蜣螂有效部位批间差异小.结论 建立的CE指纹图谱准确简便、重现性好,可作为蜣螂提取物的质量控制方法,而总量统计矩法可以作为指纹图谱的分析方法.%Objective To establish capillary electrophoresis (CE) fingerprint of active fraction from the dried body of Catharsius molossus and to explore the feasibility of fingerprint evaluation by total quantum statistical moment method.Methods Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was used.The electrophoretic conditions were as follows:fused silica capillary column (60 cm × 75 μm),borate solution (75 mmol/L,pH 9.8) as the running buffer,applied voltage of +20 kV,and the detection wavelength of 200 nm.Fingerprint was evaluated by similarity analysis software of Pharmacopeia Committee and total quantum statistical moment method.Results The CE fingerprint of active fraction from the dried body of C.molossus was established.The similarities in six batches of the active fractions evaluated by similarity analysis software of Pharmacopeia Committee and total quantum statistical moment method had no significant difference.Conclusion The method is accurate,simple,and reproducible.It could be used for the quality control of active fraction from the dired body of C.molossus.The total quantum statistical moment method could be used to analyze the fingerprint.

  11. Body mass indices analysis in the German Giant Ram breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of the main body mass indices in the giant German ram breed was performed between 6.06.2014 and 10.06.2014 in a rabbitry from Diniaș town, Timiș County. The biological material was represented by 16 adult rabbit females and 10 adult males, with the average body weight of 7 kg, raised in semi-intensive system. There have been performed the following body measurements: oblique and horizontal length of the trunk, the length of thorax, the length of head, the length of ears, of neck, and of tail, the height at weithers and rump, the height of thorax and stern, the width of chest, of thorax, of rump at hip and ischia, the wide width of forehead, the thoracic circumference and the circumference of shin. Giant German Ram males have registered higher values in the body size index, in the pelvic-thoracic index, and in the rump angle index compared to females from the same breed, which have registered higher values in the index of transverse body size, in the index of massiveness, in the pelvic-thoracic index, and in the cephalic index.

  12. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  13. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE BODY WITH DEFINITE MOVING ATTITUTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan-ming; ZHANG Wei; SONG Tian-xia; CHEN Chuan-yao

    2006-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic control equation of a flexible multi-body system with definite moving attitude is discussed. The motion of the aircraft in space is regarded as known and the influence of the flexible structural members in the aircraft on the motion and attitude of the aircraft is analyzed. By means of a hypothetical mode, the deformation of flexible members is regarded as composed of the line element vibration in the axial direction of rectangular coordinates in space. According to Kane's method in dynamics, a dynamic equation is established, which contains the structural stiffness matrix that represents the elastic deformation and the geometric stiffness matrix that represents the nonlinear deformation of the deformed body. Through simplification the dynamic equation of the influence of the planar flexible body with a windsurfboard structure on the spacecraft motion is obtained. The numerical solution for this kind of equation can be realized by a computer.

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some ayurvedic medicines: Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Vinchurkar, M.S. (Poona Univ., Pune (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-12-01

    Several medicines have been manufactured and prescribed to overcome mineral deficiencies in the human body. Such medicines are mixtures of several components. The present work is undertaken to analyze various Ayurvedic medicines, mainly of herbal origin and used for different purposes, for their elemental contents, by neutron activation analysis. (author).

  15. Naive Dimensional Analysis for Three-Body Forces Without Pions

    OpenAIRE

    Griesshammer, Harald W.

    2005-01-01

    For systems of three identical particles in which short-range forces produce shallow two-particle bound states, and in particular for the ``pion-less'' Effective Field Theory of Nuclear Physics, I extend and systematise the power-counting of three-body forces to all partial-waves and orders, including external currents. With low-energy observables independent of the details of short-distance dynamics, the typical strength of a three-body force is determined from the superficial degree of dive...

  16. Human female attractiveness: waveform analysis of body shape.

    OpenAIRE

    Tovee, Martin; Hancock, Peter; Mahmoodi, Sasan; Singleton, Ben; Cornelissen, Piers

    2002-01-01

    Two putative cues to female physical attractiveness are body mass index (BMI) and shape (particularly the waist-hip ratio or WHR). To determine the relative importance of these cues we asked 23 male and 23 female undergraduates to rate a set of 60 pictures of real women's bodies in front-view for attractiveness. In our set of images, the relative ranges of BMI and WHR favoured WHR. We based these ranges on a sample of 457 women. We did not limit the WHR range, although we kept the BMI range t...

  17. Sarcopenia and the Analysis of Body Composition12

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to i...

  18. Familial lipoprotein lipase-activity deficiency: study of total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, L D; Gagné, C; Julien, P; Tremblay, A; Moorjani, S; Bouchard, C; Lupien, P J

    1989-10-01

    Total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution were evaluated in 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients. Eleven were males, aged 10 to 57 years, and eight were females, aged 13 to 46 years. Familial lipoprotein-lipase-activity deficiency was diagnosed by the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in the plasma withdrawn ten and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of ten units of heparin per kilogram of body weight. The 19 patients had skin-fold measurements for evaluation of subcutaneous fat distribution. Fifteen also underwent body density measurements by underwater weighing. Percent body fat was calculated from body density. These anthropometric data were plotted against the regression curves of 1638 normal controls of both sexes (aged 10 to 54 years) for fat tissue weight, percent body fat, subcutaneous fat/total fat mass ratio and trunk/extremity skin-fold ratio. Impairments in the process of building fat tissue reserves could not be shown in the 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients, in spite of the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in their postheparin plasma. It is hypothesized that normal fat tissue mass in these patients could be due partly to de novo synthesis of fatty acids by adipocytes, hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides by hepatic lipase, and/or contribution of a specific fat-tissue lipase to the catabolism of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

  19. Two-body threshold spectral analysis, the critical case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Erik; Wang, Xue Ping

    We study in dimension $d\\geq2$ low-energy spectral and scattering asymptotics for two-body $d$-dimensional Schrödinger operators with a radially symmetric potential falling off like $-\\gamma r^{-2},\\;\\gamma>0$. We consider angular momentum sectors, labelled by $l=0,1,\\dots$, for which $\\gamma...

  20. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Maddison Ralph; Mhurchu Cliona; Jull Andrew; Prapavessis Harry; Foley Louise S; Jiang Yannan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™) intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating ef...

  1. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    OpenAIRE

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Eiberg, Stig; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ahrén, Bo

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8–11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to...

  2. Neighbourhoods for Active Kids: study protocol for a cross-sectional examination of neighbourhood features and children's physical activity, active travel, independent mobility and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; McPhee, Julia; Carroll, Penelope; Ikeda, Erika; Mavoa, Suzanne; Mackay, Lisa; Kearns, Robin A; Kyttä, Marketta; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Garrett, Nicholas; Lin, Judy; Mackett, Roger; Zinn, Caryn; Moewaka Barnes, Helen; Egli, Victoria; Prendergast, Kate; Witten, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New Zealand children's physical activity, including independent mobility and active travel, has declined markedly over recent decades. The Neighbourhoods for Active Kids (NfAK) study examines how neighbourhood built environments are associated with the independent mobility, active travel, physical activity and neighbourhood experiences of children aged 9–12 years in primary and intermediate schools across Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods and analysis Child-specific indices of walkability, destination accessibility and traffic exposure will be constructed to measure the built environment in 8 neighbourhoods in Auckland. Interactive online-mapping software will be used to measure children's independent mobility and transport mode to destinations and to derive measures of neighbourhood use and perceptions. Physical activity will be measured using 7-day accelerometry. Height, weight and waist circumference will be objectively measured. Parent telephone interviews will collect sociodemographic information and parent neighbourhood perceptions. Interviews with school representative will capture supports and barriers for healthy activity and nutrition behaviours at the school level. Multilevel modelling approaches will be used to understand how differing built environment variables are associated with activity, neighbourhood experiences and health outcomes. Discussion We anticipate that children who reside in neighbourhoods considered highly walkable will be more physically active, accumulate more independent mobility and active travel, and be more likely to have a healthy body size. This research is timely as cities throughout New Zealand develop and implement plans to improve the liveability of intensifying urban neighbourhoods. Results will be disseminated to participants, local government agencies and through conventional academic avenues. PMID:27531740

  3. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H2O and 82Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support

  4. Analysis of body water compartments after a short sauna bath using bioelectric impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, M-F; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Hereba, A T; Perrone, F; Garofano, P; Iacopino, L

    2003-10-01

    Studies have suggested that long-term sauna bathing may lower blood pressure in persons with hypertension by causing a direct loss of extracellular water and plasma minerals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term sauna bathing on body water compartments as estimated by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited 15 men [mean age (+/-SD) of 23.93+/-5.12 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.25+/-2.84 kg/m(2)] and 10 women matched for age and BMI. Total body resistance, reactance, and impedance were measured for all participants using BIA, at baseline, after a short sauna bath, and after a rest period. Total, extracellular, and intracellular water compartments were calculated using BIA formulae. There were no significant differences for any of the body water compartments when comparing the measurements taken before and after the sauna bath and after the rest period. However, it remains to be determined whether or not BIA is sensitive to rapid changes in water volume.

  5. Human female attractiveness: waveform analysis of body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovée, Martin J; Hancock, Peter J B; Mahmoodi, Sasan; Singleton, Ben R R; Cornelissen, Piers L

    2002-11-01

    Two putative cues to female physical attractiveness are body mass index (BMI) and shape (particularly the waist-hip ratio or WHR). To determine the relative importance of these cues we asked 23 male and 23 female undergraduates to rate a set of 60 pictures of real women's bodies in front-view for attractiveness. In our set of images, the relative ranges of BMI and WHR favoured WHR. We based these ranges on a sample of 457 women. We did not limit the WHR range, although we kept the BMI range to 0.5 s.d. either side of the sample means. As a result, WHR averaged 1.65 s.d. either side of its sample mean. However, even with these advantages, WHR was less important than BMI as a predictor of attractiveness ratings for bodies. BMI is far more strongly correlated with ratings of attractiveness than WHR (BMI approximately 0.5, WHR approximately 0.2). To further explore the relative importance of BMI and WHR, we deliberately chose a subset of these images that demonstrated an inverse correlation of BMI and WHR (i.e. a group in which as images get heavier they also become more curvaceous). If WHR is the most important determinant of attractiveness, then the more curvaceous (but higher BMI) images should be judged most attractive. However, if BMI is a better predictor, then the opposite should be true. We found that the more curvaceous (but higher BMI) images were judged least attractive, thereby inverting the expected rating pattern. This strongly suggests that viewers' judgements were influenced more by BMI than WHR. Finally, it is possible that body shape is an important cue to attractiveness, but that simple ratios (such as WHR) are not adequately capturing it. Therefore, we treated the outline of the torso as a waveform and carried out a set of waveform analyses on it to allow us to quantify body shape and correlate it with attractiveness. The waveform analyses address the complexity of the whole torso shape, and reveal innate properties of the torso shape and not shape

  6. RELIABLE ROBUST CONTROLLER FOR HALF-CAR ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEMS BASED ON HUMAN-BODY DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gudarzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a non-fragile robust control strategy for a half-car active suspension system considering human-body dynamics. A 4-DoF uncertain vibration model of the driver’s body is combined with the car’s model in order to make the controller design procedure more accurate. The desired controller is obtained by solving a linear matrix inequality formulation. Then the performance of the active suspension system with the designed controller is compared to the passive one in both frequency and time domain simulations. Finally, the effect of the controller gain variations on the closed-loop system performance is investigated numerically.

  7. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  8. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in

  9. Refolding Techniques for Recovering Biologically Active Recombinant Proteins from Inclusion Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yamaguchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  10. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  11. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years. PMID:23443315

  12. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™ intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI, which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322 were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493

  13. Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Arne; Baeksgaard, L; Hilsted, J

    1997-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis but is influenced by beam hardening and other error sources in the extremes of measurement. To compensate for beam hardening, the Norland XR-36 introduces a dynamically changing samarium filtration system...... filtration) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis. It has a potential for gaining status as a reference method in the future and may presently be used as a supplement to the traditional methods for body composition analysis....

  14. A scaling analysis for thermal fragmentation on small airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mir, Charles; Hazeli, Kavan; Ramesh, KT; Delbo, Marco

    2016-10-01

    The presence of regolith on airless bodies has typically been attributed to impact ejecta re-accumulation and gradual breakdown of boulders by micrometeoritic impacts. However, ejecta velocities for small kilometer-sized asteroids often exceed the gravitational escape velocity, limiting to a great extent the amount of retained debris following a high-velocity impact event. Close-surface images of small (sub-km) asteroid surfaces have shown the presence of a coarse-grained regolith layer on these bodies, suggesting that a different mechanism could be involved in the regolith generation process.Recently, the existence of regolith on sufficiently small planetary bodies has also been attributed to cyclic stresses that develop within boulders due to the large diurnal temperature variation, which eventually lead to fracture by thermal fatigue. It was demonstrated that thermal fatigue can be orders of magnitude faster than fragmentation by classical impact mechanisms, in terms of breaking down cm-sized rocks on small airless bodies. Larger (10 cm-size) rocks were shown to potentially break up faster than smaller (cm) rocks, an observation that is in contrast to the predictions of mechanical disruption models. This observation is justified by the existence of higher internal thermal stresses resulting from the larger temperature gradient in bigger rocks, but it is not clear that this conclusion can be extrapolated or scaled for meter-sized boulders.In the current study, we present a computational and analytical approach that examines thermally driven crack growth within asteroidal rocks over a large range of lengthscales. We first examine the main length and timescales involved in the thermally-driven fatigue crack growth, and identify a critical lengthscale comparable to the thermal skin depth, after which thermal fatigue becomes slower, providing bounds on the thermal fragmentation mechanism. We also develop a simple scaling method to estimate the time required for

  15. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine body composition changes in HIV-associated wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Stephan; Fischer, Harald; Rieger, Armin; Frühauf, Lukas; Staszewski, Schlomo; Althoff, Peter-Henning; Helm, Eilke Brigitte

    2005-04-01

    AIDS wasting syndrome results in loss of lean body mass and body cell mass. This 12-week, open-label study used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition changes in 24 patients with AIDS wasting syndrome receiving recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH). The primary endpoint was percentage monthly change in body weight before/after r-hGH. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), isometric strength and CD4+ count. Twenty patients completed the study: r-hGH resulted in mean weight gains (+2.7%, P = 0.146), and significant increases in mean body cell mass (+8.0%, P = 0.0211), lean body mass (+4.8%, P = 0.0373) and water (+5.5%, P r-hGH was generally well tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were fever (7.3%) and diarrhoea (6.3%). Thus, bioelectrical impedance analysis can detect improved body cell mass independent of changes in body weight resulting from r-hGH treatment in patients with AIDS wasting syndrome.

  16. Early activation of the coagulation system during lower body negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, M; Johansson, P I; Nielsen, L B;

    2009-01-01

    We considered that a moderate reduction of the central blood volume (CBV) may activate the coagulation system. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a non-invasive means of reducing CBV and, thereby, simulates haemorrhage. We tested the hypothesis that coagulation markers would increase following...

  17. Achieving Professional Competency in Developmental Physical Activity: The Need for a Consensual Body of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Earle F.

    1994-01-01

    Physical education must change its image of being "jack of all trades, master of none" and create an appropriate name and consensual taxonomy of knowledge for its work. There is an urgent need for proven professional competency in developmental physical activity based on a consensual body of knowledge. (SM)

  18. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  19. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  20. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua;

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers sig...

  1. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  2. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  3. Immunostimulating Activity by Polysaccharides Isolated from Fruiting Body of Inonotus obliquus

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-α secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-γ/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce...

  4. Association between body weight, physical activity and food choices among metropolitan transit workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hannan Peter J; Toomey Traci L; Harnack Lisa J; French Simone A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. Methods Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage employees were invited to complete behavioral surveys that assessed food choices and physical activity, and weight and height were directly mea...

  5. Bodies of Work: Organization of Everyday Life Activities in Urban New Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Wesp, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing skeletal remains from an urban, colonial hospital in Central Mexico, this dissertation strives to illustrate how an examination of the bodies from archaeological contexts can shed light on the activities of everyday life in the past. While other archaeological material can tell us about the tools used to perform activities, we do not always have accurate information about who was doing what, when, and for how long. If not careful, scholars can fall into the trap of preconceived no...

  6. Interrelationships Among Motor Coordination, Body Fat Percentage, and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas Daniel das Virgens; Batista Luiz Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze the interrelationships among motor coordination, body fat percentage, and physical activity levels in adolescent girls. Methods. Sixty-eight girls aged 12-14 years participated in the study. Skinfold thickness was measured and the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder test was administered. Participants completed a self-reporting questionnaire on physical activity. Bivariate and partial correlations were used to analyze the interrelationships among t...

  7. Dairy consumption and insulin resistance: the role of body fat, physical activity, and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Erickson, Andrea; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53) than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55) or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58) (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091). The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.

  8. Dairy Consumption and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Body Fat, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA. The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53 than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55 or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58 (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091. The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.

  9. Physical activity, body mass index, and brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina P; Raji, Cyrus A; Erickson, Kirk I; Lopez, Oscar L; Becker, James T; Gach, H Michael; Longstreth, W T; Teverovskiy, Leonid; Kuller, Lewis H; Carmichael, Owen T; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a novel imaging biomarker to assess associations between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and brain structure in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's dementia. We studied 963 participants (mean age: 74.1 ± 4.4 years) from the multisite Cardiovascular Health Study including healthy controls (n = 724), Alzheimer's dementia patients (n = 104), and people with mild cognitive impairment (n = 135). Volumetric brain images were processed using tensor-based morphometry to analyze regional brain volumes. We regressed the local brain tissue volume on reported PA and computed BMI, and performed conjunction analyses using both variables. Covariates included age, sex, and study site. PA was independently associated with greater whole brain and regional brain volumes and reduced ventricular dilation. People with higher BMI had lower whole brain and regional brain volumes. A PA-BMI conjunction analysis showed brain preservation with PA and volume loss with increased BMI in overlapping brain regions. In one of the largest voxel-based cross-sectional studies to date, PA and lower BMI may be beneficial to the brain across the spectrum of aging and neurodegeneration.

  10. Chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of melanin from Auricularia auricula fruiting bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zou; Yue Zhao; Wenzhong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Melanin extracted from Auricularia auricula fruiting bodies (AAFB) was examined by element analyzer, amino acid analyzer, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Elemental composition analysis revealed that main component of AAFB melanin was pheomelanin. Amino acid analysis showed that 16 amino acids were found in AAFB melanin and total amino acid content was 321. 63 mg/g. There were 13 detectable metal elements in AAFB melanin, which was rich in Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn. In additi...

  11. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  12. Antifreeze Activity of Xylomannan from the Mycelium and Fruit Body of Flammulina velutipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Hidehisa; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Takuya; Arai, Naoki; Koide, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    An identified class of antifreeze, a xylomannan-based thermal hysteresis (TH)-producing glycolipid, has been discovered from diverse taxa, including plants, insects, and amphibians. We isolated xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes using successive hot extraction with water, 2% and 25% aqueous KOH, and gel filtration chromatography. The xylomannan from the fruit body had a recrystallization inhibiting (RI) activity (RI=0.44) at 0.5 mg/mL. The dried weight yield of the fruit body (7.7×10(-2)%, w/w) was higher than that of the mycelium. Although the purified xylomannan from both soures were composed of mannose and xylose in a 2 : 1 molar ratio, the molecular weight of the xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body was 320,000 and 240,000, respectively. The RI activity of mycelial xylomannan was higher than that from the fruit body (RI=0.57) at 45 µg/mL. Although this RI activity was able to remain constant after exposure to various conditions, we confirmed that the decrease of RI activity was stimulated by the decrease of molecular weight that was caused by heating during the alkaline condition. The survival rate of the CHO cells at -20℃ for two days increased to 97% due to the addition of 20 µg/mL of purified xylomannan. This was the first report to indicate that xylomannan from the mycelium of Flammulina velutipes had a high level of ice recrystallization inhibiting activity like antifreeze proteins from plants and had rhe potential to become a new material for cell storage. PMID:27667520

  13. Many-body microhydrodynamics of colloidal particles with active boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh; Ghose, Somdeb; Adhikari, R.

    2015-06-01

    Colloidal particles with active boundary layers—regions surrounding the particles where non-equilibrium processes produce large velocity gradients—are common in many physical, chemical and biological contexts. The velocity or stress at the edge of the boundary layer determines the exterior fluid flow and, hence, the many-body interparticle hydrodynamic interaction. Here, we present a method to compute the many-body hydrodynamic interaction between N spherical active particles induced by their exterior microhydrodynamic flow. First, we use a boundary integral representation of the Stokes equation to eliminate bulk fluid degrees of freedom. Then, we expand the boundary velocities and tractions of the integral representation in an infinite-dimensional basis of tensorial spherical harmonics and, on enforcing boundary conditions in a weak sense on the surface of each particle, obtain a system of linear algebraic equations for the unknown expansion coefficients. The truncation of the infinite series, fixed by the degree of accuracy required, yields a finite linear system that can be solved accurately and efficiently by iterative methods. The solution linearly relates the unknown rigid body motion to the known values of the expansion coefficients, motivating the introduction of propulsion matrices. These matrices completely characterize hydrodynamic interactions in active suspensions just as mobility matrices completely characterize hydrodynamic interactions in passive suspensions. The reduction in the dimensionality of the problem, from a three-dimensional partial differential equation to a two-dimensional integral equation, allows for dynamic simulations of hundreds of thousands of active particles on multi-core computational architectures. In our simulation of 104 active colloidal particle in a harmonic trap, we find that the necessary and sufficient ingredients to obtain steady-state convective currents, the so-called ‘self-assembled pump’, are (a) one-body

  14. Is Being a Boy and Feeling Fat a Barrier for Physical Activity? The Association between Body Image, Gender and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Kopcakova; Zuzana Dankulincova Veselska; Andrea Madarasova Geckova; Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical activity leads to physical and mental health benefits. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with body image and gender. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations of body image with physical activity of adolescents and whether gender modifies this association. We obtained data on body image and physical activity as part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study in 2010 from Slovakia (n = 8042, age 11–15 years,...

  15. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  16. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  17. Analysis of Disturbing Influence of Traffic Load on Soil Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janat Musayev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress waves propagate in soil in case of earthquake and man-made effects (traffic flow, buried explosions, shield-driven pipes and tunnels, etc.. The wave point-sources are those located at the distances equal to more than two waves lengths, which significantly simplifies solving of a problem of these waves’ strength evaluation. Distribution of stress and displacement by the stress waves propagation in elastic medium is a complex pattern. The stress distribution in propagating waves depends on the type and form of source, conditions of the source contact with medium, and properties of mediums in the vicinity of the source. The point-sources and their combinations are selected in such a way to model an influence of machines and processes on soil body in case of shield-driven pipes (tunnels.

  18. Adolescent body satisfaction: the role of perceived parental encouragement for physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downs Danielle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents play an important role in the development of children's health behaviors, but less is known about the role of parental encouragement for physical activity (PA on youth PA behavior and body image satisfaction. The purposes of this study were to: (1 longitudinally assess whether adolescent PA at age 15 mediates the effect of perceived parental encouragement for PA at age 15 for predicting adolescent body satisfaction at age 16, while controlling for body mass index (BMI, and (2 examine the extent to which adolescent sex moderates this association. Methods Participants were 379 boys and girls assessed at 15 and 16 years of age, who completed surveys as part of a larger longitudinal study in their health/physical education classes in a school district in Central Pennsylvania. Participants completed measures of their perception of parental encouragement for PA, PA behavior, body satisfaction, and height and weight to calculate BMI at age 15 and 16 (i.e., 10th and 11th grades. Pearson correlations were used to examine the association among the study variables and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict body satisfaction at age 16. Results Perceived encouragement for PA from fathers, but not mothers, at age 15, was significantly associated with adolescent PA at age 15 and body satisfaction scores at age 16. Adolescents reporting higher PA behavior and perceived encouragement for PA from fathers at age 15 had higher body satisfaction scores at age 16. Moreover, adolescent PA at age 15 mediated the association between perceived fathers' encouragement for PA at age 15 and adolescent body satisfaction at age 16, when controlling for BMI. Examining the moderating effect of adolescent sex on this association revealed that adolescent PA no longer mediated the association between perceived encouragement for PA from fathers and adolescent body satisfaction, and sex moderated this association. Discussion These findings

  19. THE METHODS OF TOTAL BODY BIOIMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY IN ANALYSIS THE FUNCTIONAL CLASS OF CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, G.; Dvornicov, V.; Niculina, L.; Kotlarova, L.; Bernshtein, Ju; Pavlovich, A.

    2004-01-01

    The article presented result of studies, which determined signs an studies of total body bioimpedance spectros-copy analysis in evaluate of functional class of chronic heart failure. Key words: biompedance, congestive heart failure.

  20. The tracking of active travel and its relationship with body composition in UK adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer, Catherine L; Leary, Sam D; Page, Angie S; Cooper, Ashley R.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundTo examine the tracking of active travel through adolescence, and its association with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass at age 17 in a UK cohort.MethodsWe analysed data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The analyses include all participants with self-reported travel mode to school at ages 12, 14 and 16 years, and measured height, weight and body composition at age 17 (n=2,026). Tracking coefficients were calculated for individual travel b...

  1. Comparison of different techniques to measure body composition in moderately active adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Lorenzo, A.; Bertini, I.; Candeloro, N.; Iacopino, L; Andreoli, A; Van Loan, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences in the estimate of body fat percentage (%FM) and the amount (kg) of fat free mass (FFM) by different methods in 26 moderately active adolescents very similar in age, body fatness, and training status. METHODS: Mean (SD) age was 16.7 (0.9) years, height was 177.0 (5.1) cm, and weight 68.0 (5.2) kg. %FM was assessed using dual-energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two skinfold prediction equations: that of Slaughter et al (%FM Sla) and that of Deuren...

  2. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy......, the level of asthma control, fitness and the time spent in vigorous activity correlated positively (P frequency of obesity than their healthy peers. Uncontrolled asthma is associated with a reduced...

  3. Leptin responses to overfeeding: relationship with body fat and nonexercise activity thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J A; Eberhardt, N L; Jensen, M D

    1999-08-01

    Administration of leptin to rodents results in weight loss through decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure that occurs in part through increased spontaneous activity. In humans, low levels of spontaneous physical activity and below normal plasma leptin concentrations predict subsequent excess weight gain. We recently found that failure to increase nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) with overfeeding results in greater fat gain in humans, and subsequently evaluated whether changes in leptin are related to NEAT activation. We measured plasma leptin concentrations and adipose tissue leptin messenger ribonucleic acid together with the components of energy expenditure in 16 nonobese humans before and after overfeeding to assess the relationship between leptin responses to overfeeding and the changes in NEAT. Adipocyte leptin expression was up-regulated with overfeeding, and leptin concentrations increased. Leptin concentrations correlated with body fat before and after overfeeding. Changes in leptin with overfeeding were strongly related to changes in body fat, but not to changes in NEAT. Changes in NEAT correlated inversely with fat gain. It is, therefore, unlikely that leptin mediates activation of NEAT with overfeeding in nonobese humans; rather, leptin directly reflects body fat mass and fat mass gain. PMID:10443673

  4. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict in family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, C N

    1979-01-01

    The 24-hour variation in physiological and psychological functioning within the individual and interpersonal differences were investigated in relation to the nature of social interaction between individuals. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict were studied in a sample of 16 married couples for a period of six weekdays of routine activity. Homogeneity was a major factor in sample selection. Body temperature was measured every hour during the waking time by electronic thermometer, and level of activation was measured four times a day on alternate forms of a self-report adjective checklist. Interpersonal conflict, defined as perceived fulfillment of emotional and interaction needs, was measured in the morning and late day. The interpersonal Conflict Scale with established validity was constructed for the study and had two alternate forms of equal reliability. An index of desynchrony between partners for both temperature and activation was calculated for each day of data collection by the following method: The deviation score from the overall six-day mean was determined for each measurement time for each spouse and for each variable. Absolute values of the differences between deviation scores were added to obtain an index of desynchrony in that variable for the day. A daily mean of interpersonal conflict scores for both partners was also calculated. The hypotheses that a desynchrony between partners in body temperature rhythm and in level of activation rhythm would be positively related to conflict were tested by the Pearson product moment correlation. Obtained coefficient; were not significant at the .05 level. PMID:254897

  5. Musculoskeletal disorders in construction: A review and a novel system for activity tracking with body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Sivanathan, Aparajithan; Bosché, Frédéric; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Human body motions have been analysed for decades with a view on enhancing occupational well-being and performance of workers. On-going progresses in miniaturised wearable sensors are set to revolutionise biomechanical analysis by providing accurate and real-time quantitative motion data. The construction industry has a poor record of occupational health, in particular with regard to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). In this article, we therefore focus on the study of human body motions that could cause WMSDs in construction-related activities. We first present an in-depth review of existing assessment frameworks used in practice for the evaluation of human body motion. Subsequently different methods for measuring working postures and motions are reviewed and compared, pointing out the technological developments, limitations and gaps; Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are particularly investigated. Finally, we introduce a new system to detect and characterise unsafe postures of construction workers based on the measurement of motion data from wearable wireless IMUs integrated in a body area network. The potential of this system is demonstrated through experiments conducts in a laboratory as well as in a college with actual construction trade trainees. PMID:26851471

  6. Musculoskeletal disorders in construction: A review and a novel system for activity tracking with body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Sivanathan, Aparajithan; Bosché, Frédéric; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Human body motions have been analysed for decades with a view on enhancing occupational well-being and performance of workers. On-going progresses in miniaturised wearable sensors are set to revolutionise biomechanical analysis by providing accurate and real-time quantitative motion data. The construction industry has a poor record of occupational health, in particular with regard to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). In this article, we therefore focus on the study of human body motions that could cause WMSDs in construction-related activities. We first present an in-depth review of existing assessment frameworks used in practice for the evaluation of human body motion. Subsequently different methods for measuring working postures and motions are reviewed and compared, pointing out the technological developments, limitations and gaps; Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are particularly investigated. Finally, we introduce a new system to detect and characterise unsafe postures of construction workers based on the measurement of motion data from wearable wireless IMUs integrated in a body area network. The potential of this system is demonstrated through experiments conducts in a laboratory as well as in a college with actual construction trade trainees.

  7. The Body Action Coding System II: Muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M.J. Huis in 't Veld

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research into the expression and perception of emotions has mostly focused on facial expressions. Recently, body postures have become increasingly important in research, but knowledge on muscle activity during the perception or expression of emotion is lacking. The current study continues the development of a Body Action Coding System (BACS, which was initiated in a previous study, and described the involvement of muscles in the neck, shoulders and arms during expression of fear and anger. The current study expands the BACS by assessing the activity patterns of three additional muscles. Surface electromyography of muscles in the neck (upper trapezius descendens, forearms (extensor carpi ulnaris, lower back (erector spinae longissimus and calves (peroneus longus were measured during active expression and passive viewing of fearful and angry body expressions. The muscles in the forearm were strongly active for anger expression and to a lesser extent for fear expression. In contrast, muscles in the calves were recruited slightly more for fearful expressions. It was also found that muscles automatically responded to the perception of emotion, without any overt movement. The observer’s forearms responded to the perception of fear, while the muscles used for leaning backwards were activated when faced with an angry adversary. Lastly, the calf responded immediately when a fearful person was seen, but responded slower to anger. There is increasing interest in developing systems that are able to create or recognize emotional body language for the development of avatars, robots, and online environments. To that end, multiple coding systems have been developed that can either interpret or create bodily expressions based on static postures, motion capture data or videos. However, the BACS is the first coding system based on muscle activity.

  8. The Body Action Coding System II: muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; van Boxtel, Geert J M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Research into the expression and perception of emotions has mostly focused on facial expressions. Recently, body postures have become increasingly important in research, but knowledge on muscle activity during the perception or expression of emotion is lacking. The current study continues the development of a Body Action Coding System (BACS), which was initiated in a previous study, and described the involvement of muscles in the neck, shoulders and arms during expression of fear and anger. The current study expands the BACS by assessing the activity patterns of three additional muscles. Surface electromyography of muscles in the neck (upper trapezius descendens), forearms (extensor carpi ulnaris), lower back (erector spinae longissimus) and calves (peroneus longus) were measured during active expression and passive viewing of fearful and angry body expressions. The muscles in the forearm were strongly active for anger expression and to a lesser extent for fear expression. In contrast, muscles in the calves were recruited slightly more for fearful expressions. It was also found that muscles automatically responded to the perception of emotion, without any overt movement. The observer's forearms responded to the perception of fear, while the muscles used for leaning backwards were activated when faced with an angry adversary. Lastly, the calf responded immediately when a fearful person was seen, but responded slower to anger. There is increasing interest in developing systems that are able to create or recognize emotional body language for the development of avatars, robots, and online environments. To that end, multiple coding systems have been developed that can either interpret or create bodily expressions based on static postures, motion capture data or videos. However, the BACS is the first coding system based on muscle activity.

  9. Body image satisfaction and the view of active old women about the influence of physical exercise in their self-image

    OpenAIRE

    Josinéia Gresele Coradini; Joseane Rodrigues da Silva; Karen Andréa Comparin; Eduardo Alexandre Loth; Regina Inês Kunz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the body image satisfaction with 24 active elderly women, and to understand the view of these people about the connection between physical exercise and their body image. All of them answered to the scale proposed by Stunkard, Sorenson and Schlusinger, 1983 and to a semi-structured interview. 87.50% of the women were unsatisfied about the body image. From the reading and analysis of the speeches, it was formed two major categories and four subcategories. Th...

  10. Body side-specific control of motor activity during turning in a walking animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bockemühl, Till; Büschges, Ansgar

    2016-04-27

    Animals and humans need to move deftly and flexibly to adapt to environmental demands. Despite a large body of work on the neural control of walking in invertebrates and vertebrates alike, the mechanisms underlying the motor flexibility that is needed to adjust the motor behavior remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated optomotor-induced turning and the neuronal mechanisms underlying the differences between the leg movements of the two body sides in the stick insect Carausius morosus. We present data to show that the generation of turning kinematics in an insect are the combined result of descending unilateral commands that change the leg motor output via task-specific modifications in the processing of local sensory feedback as well as modification of the activity of local central pattern generating networks in a body-side-specific way. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the specificity of such modifications in a defined motor task.

  11. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  12. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. PMID:26185248

  13. Dalitz Analysis of Three-body Charmless B0=>K0pi+pi- Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Garmash, A; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Barberio, E; Barbero, M; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Dash, M; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D A; Gabyshev, N; Gershon, T; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Golob, B; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Hokuue, T; Hoshi, Y; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Imoto, A; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Krizan, P; Krokovnyi, P P; Kulasiri, R; Kumar, R; Kuo, C C; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Matsumoto, T; McOnie, S; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mohapatra, D; Moloney, G R; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Onuki, Y; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, H; Peak, L S; Pestotnik, R; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Satoyama, N; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Senyo, K; Shapkin, M; Shibuya, H; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Sokolov, A; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stöck, H; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S Y; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tanaka, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tian, X C; Trabelsi, K; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Ueno, K; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Villa, S; Wang, C H; Wang, M Z; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Wu, C H; Xie, Q L; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zupanc, A

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a Dalitz plot analysis of the three-body charmless B0=>K0pi+pi- decay. The analysis is performed with a data sample that contains 388 million BBbar pairs collected near the Y(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e+e- collider. Measurements of branching fractions for the quasi-two-body decays B0=>rho(770)0K0, B0=>f0(980)K0, B0=>K*(892)+pi-, B0=>K*(1430)+pi-, and upper limits on several other quasi-two-body decay modes are reported.

  14. Viewing the motion of human body parts activates different regions of premotor, temporal, and parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Kylie J; Thompson, James C; Syngeniotis, Ari; Abbott, David F; Puce, Aina

    2004-05-01

    Activation of premotor and temporoparietal cortex occurs when we observe others movements, particularly relating to objects. Viewing the motion of different body parts without the context of an object has not been systematically evaluated. During a 3T fMRI study, 12 healthy subjects viewed human face, hand, and leg motion, which was not directed at or did not involve an object. Activation was identified relative to static images of the same human face, hand, and leg in both individual subject and group average data. Four clear activation foci emerged: (1) right MT/V5 activated to all forms of viewed motion; (2) right STS activated to face and leg motion; (3) ventral premotor cortex activated to face, hand, and leg motion in the right hemisphere and to leg motion in the left hemisphere; and (4) anterior intraparietal cortex (aIP) was active bilaterally to viewing hand motion and in the right hemisphere leg motion. In addition, in the group data, a somatotopic activation pattern for viewing face, hand, and leg motion occurred in right ventral premotor cortex. Activation patterns in STS and aIP were more complex--typically activation foci to viewing two types of human motion showed some overlap. Activation in individual subjects was similar; however, activation to hand motion also occurred in the STS with a variable location across subjects--explaining the lack of a clear activation focus in the group data. The data indicate that there are selective responses to viewing motion of different body parts in the human brain that are independent of object or tool use.

  15. Body Massage Performance Investigation by Brain Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ming Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massage has been widely applied to improve health and reduce stress. However, the performance difference between hands-on treatment and treatment by mechanical devices has been little mentioned. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to investigate a subject's EEG performance under massage treatment applied by hand and treatment applied by mechanical devices. Massage was applied to four acupoints for three minutes each. The massage acupoint sequence was from left Jian-wai-yu, right Jian-wai-yu, left Zuo-fei-yu, and finally right Zuo-fei-yu. An EEG system of 32 channels was used. Twenty-four volunteers, mainly college students, were enrolled. EEG rhythm powers of each massage sessions were derived. Two-way ANOVA revealed that there were also significant interactions between the massage stage and the massage type on delta (P<0.01, theta (P<0.05, and beta rhythms (P<0.01, and there were significant differences at different stages for the mechanical massage group (F=5.557, P<0.01. The mechanical massage group had more significant differences than the hands-on group for stage coherence of around coherence on alpha rhythm. Further rhythm power scalp topography between two massage methods is also investigated.

  16. Three-Body Model Analysis of Subbarrier alpha Transfer Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, Tokuro; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2011-01-01

    Subbarrier alpha transfer reaction 13C(6Li,d)17O(6.356 MeV, 1/2+) at 3.6 MeV is analyzed with a alpha + d + 13C three-body model, and the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for alpha + 13C --> 17O(6.356 MeV, 1/2+), which essentially determines the reaction rate of 13C(alpha,n)16O, is extracted. Breakup effects of 6Li in the initial channel and those of 17O in the final channel are investigated with the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC). The former is found to have a large back-coupling to the elastic channel, while the latter turns out significantly small. The transfer cross section calculated with Born approximation to the transition operator, including breakup states of 6Li, gives (C_{alpha 13C}{17O*})^2 =1.03 \\pm 0.29 fm^{-1}. This result is consistent with the value obtained by the previous DWBA calculation.

  17. Positional FEM formulation for flexible multi-body dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M.; Coda, H. B.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a simple formulation to deal with flexible multi-body dynamic systems by the finite element method. The proposed methodology is based on the minimum potential energy theorem written regarding nodal positions. Velocity, acceleration and strain are achieved directly from positions, not displacements. A non-dimensional space is created and the relative curvature and fibers length are calculated for both reference and deformed configurations and used to calculate the strain energy at general points. The classical Newmark equations are used to integrate time. Damping is introduced into the mechanical system by a rheonomic energy functional. The final formulation has the advantage of being simple and easy to teach, when compared to classical counterparts. The behavior of a bench-mark problem (spin-up maneuver) is studied regarding the influence of mass representation on its overall transient and steady-state behavior. Three other examples are presented to show the applicability of the technique, namely, a flexible slider-crank mechanism, a flexible beam flight and a Peaucellier-type mechanism. The results are compared with other authors' numerical solutions.

  18. Health perceptions, self and body image, physical activity and nutrition among undergraduate students in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Korn

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. METHODS: A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. RESULTS: High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships between these variables differed between the subpopulation in the sample and the different genders. Engagement in physical exercise contributed to positive body image and positive health perceptions more than engagement in healthy nutrition. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, positive self and body image and higher engagement in physical exercise in comparison to all other students in the sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests, as have many before, that successful health promotion policy should reflect a collectivist rather than an individualist ethos by providing health prerequisites through a public policy of health-promotion, where the academic settings support a healthy lifestyle policy, by increasing availability of a healthy, nutritious and varied menu in the cafeterias, and offering students various activities that enhance healthy eating and exercise. IMPLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTION: This study examined health perceptions, self-image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students and found high correlations between these topics. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, and positive self and body image and engaged more in physical exercise when compared with all other students in the sample.

  19. Redesigning Human Body Systems: Effective Pedagogical Strategy for Promoting Active Learning and STEM Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abour H. Cherif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a remarkable biological machine maintained by interdependent body systems and organized biochemical reactions. Evolution has worked on humans for hundreds of thousands of years, yet the current pace of technological and social change have radically affected our life style and have exposed possible human frailties. This raises the question of whether or not nature’s work could be improved upon. We provide two-sided perspectives as a rationale for the need for the redesign of the human body. Then, we describe pedagogical strategy through which students study morphological and anatomical structures and the physiological functions of the human body systems and their respective organs and parts. The students select their own favorite system or organ to redesign in order to optimize the efficiency of the anatomical structural, physiological function, and/or the aesthetic and functional morphology; a redesign that might lead to, for example, lowering risk of diabetes, heart attack, and/or stroke. Through group work and interaction (student groups compete for a prestigious “in-house” patent award, students actively engage in the learning process in order to understand the role of design in the efficiency and functionality and vulnerability to disease of the human body system.

  20. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts.

  1. Assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioimpedance analysis and anthropometrics in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lakka, Timo A; Hakulinen, Mikko;

    2015-01-01

    We compared InBody720 segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (SMF-BIA) with Lunar Prodigy Advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessment of body composition among 178 predominantly prepubertal children. Segmental agreement analysis of body compartments was carried out......, and inter-relationships of anthropometric and other measures of body composition were defined. Moreover, the relations of different reference criteria for excess body fat were evaluated....

  2. SLAC three-body partial wave analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Lasinski, T.A.; Sinervo, P.K.

    1985-10-01

    We present a heuristic description of the SLAC-LBL three-meson partial wave model, and describe how we have implemented it at SLAC. The discussion details the assumptions of the model and the analysis, and emphasizes the methods we have used to prepare and fit the data. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Time-Resolved Records of Magnetic Activity on the Pallasite Parent Body and Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Herrero-Albillos, J.; Kronast, F.; Kasama, T.; Alimadadi, H.; van der Laan, G.; Nimmo, F.; Harrison, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although many small bodies apparently generated dynamo fields in the early solar system, the nature and temporal evolution of these fields has remained enigmatic. Time-resolved records of the Earth's planetary field have been essential in understanding the dynamic history of our planet, and equivalent information from asteroids could provide a unique insight into the development of the solar system. Here we present time-resolved records of magnetic activity on the main-group pallasite parent body and (16) Psyche, obtained using newly-developed nanomagnetic imaging techniques. For the pallasite parent body, the inferred field direction remained relatively constant and the intensity was initially stable at ~100 μT before it decreased in two discrete steps down to 0 μT. We interpret this behaviour as due to vigorous dynamo activity driven by compositional convection in the core, ultimately transitioning from a dipolar to multipolar field as the inner core grew from the bottom-up. For Psyche (measured from IVA iron meteorites), the inferred field direction reversed, while the intensity remained stable at >50 μT. Psyche cooled rapidly as an unmantled core, although the resulting thermal convection alone cannot explain these observations. Instead, this behaviour required top-down core solidification, and is attributed either to compositional convection (if the core also solidified from the bottom-up) or convection generated directly by top-down solidification (e.g. Fe-snow). The mechanism governing convection in small body cores is an open question (due partly to uncertainties in the direction of core solidification), and these observations suggest that unconventional (i.e. not thermal) mechanisms acted in the early solar system. These mechanisms are very efficient at generating convection, implying a long-lasting and widespread epoch of dynamo activity among small bodies in the early solar system.

  4. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    OpenAIRE

    Morinaka Tomoko; Limtrakul Porn-ngarm; Makonkawkeyoon Luksana; Sone Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young univers...

  5. The neural basis of body form and body action agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo; Pernigo, Simone; Lanteri, Paola; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2008-10-23

    Visual analysis of faces and nonfacial body stimuli brings about neural activity in different cortical areas. Moreover, processing body form and body action relies on distinct neural substrates. Although brain lesion studies show specific face processing deficits, neuropsychological evidence for defective recognition of nonfacial body parts is lacking. By combining psychophysics studies with lesion-mapping techniques, we found that lesions of ventromedial, occipitotemporal areas induce face and body recognition deficits while lesions involving extrastriate body area seem causatively associated with impaired recognition of body but not of face and object stimuli. We also found that body form and body action recognition deficits can be double dissociated and are causatively associated with lesions to extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex, respectively. Our study reports two category-specific visual deficits, called body form and body action agnosia, and highlights their neural underpinnings.

  6. Is Being a Boy and Feeling Fat a Barrier for Physical Activity? The Association between Body Image, Gender and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical activity leads to physical and mental health benefits. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with body image and gender. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations of body image with physical activity of adolescents and whether gen

  7. Learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of body joints for real-time human activity understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qi

    Full Text Available Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications.

  8. Modification effects of physical activity and protein intake on heritability of body size and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Lallukka, Tea;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of obesity is still a poorly understood process that is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how physical activity and the proportion of energy as protein in the diet modify the genetic variation of body mass index...... (BMI), waist circumference, and percentage body fat. DESIGN: Twins from Denmark (756 complete pairs) and Finland (278 complete pairs) aged 18-67 and 21-24 y, respectively, participated. The proportion of energy as protein in the diet was estimated by using food-frequency questionnaires...... with the Mx statistical package (Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA). RESULTS: High physical activity was associated with lower mean values, and a high proportion of protein in the diet was associated with higher mean BMI, waist...

  9. An Active Cooperation-Aware Spectrum Allocation Mechanism for Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  10. An active cooperation-aware spectrum allocation mechanism for body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fu; Guo, Ying; Peng, Jun; Hu, Jiankun

    2015-01-28

    A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  11. In vivo microglia activation in very early dementia with Lewy bodies, comparison with Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Iannaccone, S.; Cerami, C.; Alessio, M; Garibotto, V.; Panzacchi, A; S. Olivieri; Gelsomino, G; R.M. Moresco; Perani, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reactive microgliosis, hallmark of neuroinflammation, may contribute to neuronal degeneration, as shown in several neurodegenerative diseases. We in vivo evaluated microglia activation in early dementia with Lewy bodies, still not reported, and compared with early Parkinson’s disease, to assess possible differential pathological patterns. Methods: We measured the [11C]-PK11195 binding potentials with Positron Emission Tomography, using a simplified re...

  12. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  13. Regression analysis between body and head measurements of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis in the captive population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu, X. B.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Four body-size and fourteen head-size measurements were taken from each Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis according to the measurements adapted from Verdade. Regression equations between body-size and head-size variables were presented to predict body size from head dimension. The coefficients of determination of captive animals concerning body- and head-size variables can be considered extremely high, which means most of the head-size variables studied can be useful for predicting body length. The result of multivariate allometric analysis indicated that the head elongates as in most other species of crocodilians. The allometric coefficients of snout length (SL and lower ramus (LM were greater than those of other variables of head, which was considered to be possibly correlated to fights and prey. On the contrary, allometric coefficients for the variables of obita (OW, OL and postorbital cranial roof (LCR, were lower than those of other variables.

  14. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  15. Situated meaning-making of the human body: a study of elementary school children's reasons in two different activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Mattias; Jakobson, Britt

    2014-03-01

    In this text we compare children's expressions in drawings to their statements during interviews, for the purpose of understanding how different situations afford children to make meaning. In specific we study how two different activities interact and afford children to make meaning differently about the human body. The analytic attention is drawn to the meaning-making the children made as they in pairs were asked to explain the body drawings that they did prior to the interviews. Meaning-making was studied by using a practical epistemology analysis, an analysis facilitating understanding of how relations are established in a developing conversation, and more generally providing understanding from a child perspective. The results indicate that several reasons are at hand for children in the two different situations; namely, social, artistic, practical, empirical and memory reasons are identified. Social reasons refer to statements belonging to the social context and items that were described as inappropriate to express. Artistic reasons were interpreted from aesthetic judgements, referring to the artistic quality of the drawing. Practical reasons were given in situations where children expressed, for example, that the space limited their opportunities to draw. Empirical reasons are built on children's statements referring to picture items that are identified by pointing or touching their own body. Memory reasons are involved in all the situations where children explained items were previously omitted, because the body part had been temporarily forgotten. Furthermore, we suggest that children interpret situational aspects and make judgements concerning the relevance of their different reasons. By these means we hope to facilitate children's understanding of interview questions and also to improve researchers' understanding of children's ability to grasp relevant details prior to their response (or participation).

  16. To use or not to use torpor? Activity and body temperature as predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Nereda; Geiser, Fritz

    2007-06-01

    When food is limited and/or environmental conditions are unfavourable, many mammals reduce activity and use torpor to save energy. Nevertheless, reliable predictors for torpor occurrence, especially in the wild, are currently not available. Interrelations between torpor use and other energy conserving strategies are also poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in normothermic body temperature ( T b) and the period of activity before torpor events could be used as predictors for torpor occurrence in sugar gliders, Petaurus breviceps (body mass, ˜125 g), known to display daily torpor in the wild. Occurrence of torpor was preceded by significant (˜10-25%) reductions of the duration of the activity phase. Moreover, the normothermic resting T b fell by an average of 1.2°C over 3 days before a torpor event, relative to individuals that did not display torpor. Our new findings suggest that before entering torpor, sugar gliders, which appear to use torpor as an emergency measure rather than a routine energy saving strategy, systematically reduce activity times and normothermic resting T bs to lower energy expenditure and perhaps to avoid employing torpor. Thus, reduced activity and normothermic T b may provide a predictive tool for the occurrence of daily torpor in the wild.

  17. Body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The research examined the relationship between body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore. Method : 137 youths (82 boys and 55 girls; age 12-13 enrolled in school sport completed two self-report questionnaires- SCOFF for disordered eating and body weight satisfaction- on two separate occasions that were six months apart (T1 vs. T2. Results : Body mass index for age classifications revealed that 5.1% were severely underweight; 1.5% underweight; 88.3% acceptable weight; 4.4% overweight and 0.7% were severely overweight. Conclusions : (i the prevalence of disordered eating was 46% at baseline measurement and this remained stable at 45.3% six months later; (ii there was no sex difference for disordered eating on the two measurement occasions (T1 vs. T2, p>0.05; (iii the prevalence of youths unsure of their bodyweight satisfaction was 26.6-21.2% which compared to 88.3% adjudged to be of healthy weight; across T1 and T2, more male subjects wanted to gain bodyweight while more female subjects wanted to lose bodyweight; and (iv subjects who were dissatisfied with their bodyweight had significantly greater odds of being at risk for developing DE. Holistic education programmes based upon body image and nutrition, are recommended.

  18. Balance Maintenance in the Upright Body Position: Analysis of Autocorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stodolka¹ Jacek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to analyze values of the autocorrelation function measured for different time values of ground reaction forces during stable upright standing. It was hypothesized that if recording of force in time depended on the quality and way of regulating force by the central nervous system (as a regulator, then the application of autocorrelation for time series in the analysis of force changes in time function would allow to determine regulator properties and its functioning. The study was performed on 82 subjects (students, athletes, senior and junior soccer players and subjects who suffered from lower limb injuries. The research was conducted with the use of two Kistler force plates and was based on measurements of ground reaction forces taken during a 15 s period of standing upright while relaxed. The results of the autocorrelation function were statistically analyzed. The research revealed a significant correlation between a derivative extreme and velocity of reaching the extreme by the autocorrelation function, described as gradient strength. Low correlation values (all statistically significant were observed between time of the autocorrelation curve passing through 0 axis and time of reaching the first peak by the said function. Parameters computed on the basis of the autocorrelation function are a reliable means to evaluate the process of flow of stimuli in the nervous system. Significant correlations observed between the parameters of the autocorrelation function indicate that individual parameters provide similar properties of the central nervous system.

  19. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali Sikirzhytski; Kelly Virkler; Lednev, Igor K.

    2010-01-01

    Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wave...

  20. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li-zhi; Xiao Bo-xur; Zhu Guo-qiang; Yang Zi-jie

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method of time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  1. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng; Li-Zhi; Xiao; Bo-xun; 等

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method in time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  2. Total body irradiation for installment of arylsulfatase B activity in a cat by bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is an inherited, metabolic defect in which a deficiency of arylsulfatase B, results in accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in lysosomes. Arylsulfatase B activity was installed in an affected 2 year old siamese cat with no arylsulfatase B activity, excess urinary GAG, Alder-Reilly bodies in neutrophils, facial dysmorphia, corneal clouding, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, and hind limb paresis. Following grafting of bone marrow from an immunologically nonreactive, female sibling with normal arylsulfatase B activity, increased arylsulfatase B activity and urinary excretion of hexuronic acid decreased by 19 days post transplantation. There were no metachromatic inclusions in circulating neutrophils, which were phenotypically female. The cat now has competent trilineage hematopoiesis, resolution of the facial dysmorphia, no corneal clouding, and improved movement of the head, neck, and mandible. The technique, sequence of hematologic recovery, and evidence of engraftment, are discussed. This may be a model for correction of mucopolysaccharidosis VI in man

  3. Studies on the Antifatigue Activities of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body Extract in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Teng, Meiyu; Cai, Guangsheng; Xu, Hongkai; Guo, Hanxiao; Liu, Yang; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM) on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue. PMID:26351509

  4. Three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geologic bodies and its parallel implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiancheng; Zhang, Bin; Deng, Hao; Zou, Yanhong; Chen, Jin

    2016-11-01

    It has been found that the spatial locations and distributions of orebodies, especially for certain hydrothermal mineral deposits, are closely related to the shape of intrusive geologic bodies. For complex and large-scale geologic bodies, however, it is challenging to achieve rigorous and quantitative morphological analysis by standard geological surface reconstruction and trend-surface analysis methods. This paper presents a novel, quantitative morphological analysis method for general geologic bodies of closed 2-manifold surface based on mathematical morphology. Through the processes of morphological filtering, set operations and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform (3D-EDT), the global trend shape, local convex and concave zones as well as degree of surface undulation of a geologic body are extracted respectively. All of the three analysis phases are speeded up via parallel algorithms implemented by using the message passing interface (MPI) standard. The proposed method is tested with a case study of the Xinwuli intrusion with complex shape in Fenghuangshan deposit of the Tongling district, China. The results demonstrate that the method is an effective and efficient way to achieve quantitative morphological analysis, thereby decreasing the time necessary to find the association between morphological parameters of geologic bodies and mineralization.

  5. Skeletal analysis and comparison of bog bodies from Northern European peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Jan M.; Barvencik, Florian; Beil, Frank T.; Marshall, Robert P.; Jopp, Eilin; Schilling, Arndt F.; Bauerochse, Andreas; Fansa, Mamoun; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Although numerous bodies were deposited in Western European bogs in the past centuries, few were found and underwent archeological analysis. No studies comparing skeletal structure and mineralization of bog bodies from different ages have been performed to this day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare skeletal features and specifics of the human remains of three bog bodies from the Iron and Middle Ages found in Northern European peat bogs. Demineralization due to the acidic environment in peat bogs was comparably pronounced in all three bodies. Still, the macroscopic state of skeletal preservation was excellent. In addition to contact radiography, we used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure cortical bone mineral density. The conservation of skeletal three-dimensional microstructural elements was assessed by high-resolution microcomputed tomography analysis. These techniques revealed severe differences in bone mineral density and enabled us to determine handedness in all three bodies. Additionally, unique skeletal features like intravital bone lesions, immobilization osteoporosis, and Harris lines were found. A deformity of the left femoral head was observed which had the typical appearance of an advanced stage of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. This study gives detailed insight into the skeletal microstructure and microarchitecture of 800- to 2,700-year-old bog bodies. Skeletal analysis enables us to draw conclusions not only concerning changes in the acidic environment of the bog, but also serves as a diagnostic tool to unravel life circumstances and diseases suffered by humans in the Iron and Middle Ages.

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  7. Medical application of in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) was clearly established at an IAEA panel meeting in Vienna in 1972. It is best demonstrated by the studies involving the measurement of total-body calcium. This measurement provides data useful for the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disorders. It should be emphasized, however, that while most of the applications to date have involved calcium and phosphorus, the measurement of sodium, chlorine and nitrogen also appear to be useful clinically. Total-body calcium measurements utilizing TBNAA have been used in studies of osteoporosis to establish absolute and relative deficits of calcium in patients with this disease in comparison to a normal contrast population. Changes in total-body calcium (skeletal mass) have also been useful for quantitating the efficacy of various therapies in osteoporosis. Serial measurements over periods of years provide long-term balance data by direct measurement with a higher precision (+- 2%) than is possible by the use of any other technique. In the renal osteodystrophy observed in patients with renal failure, disorders of both calcium and phosphorus, as well as electrolyte disturbances, have been studied. The measure of total-body levels of these elements gives the clinician useful data upon which to design dialysis therapy. The measurement of bone changes in endocrine dysfunction has been studied, particularly in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In parathyroidectomy, the measurement of total-body calcium, post-operatively, can indicate the degree of bone resorption. Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly and Cushing's disease have also been investigated by TBNAA. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidney have also been measured in-vivo by prompt-gamma neutron activation and associated with hypertension, emphysema and cigarette smoking.

  8. Medical application of in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical usefulness of total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) was clearly established at an IAEA panel meeting in Vienna in 1972. It is best demonstrated by the studies involving the measurement of total-body calcium. This measurement provides data useful for the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disorders. It should be emphasized, however, that while most of the applications to date have involved calcium and phosphorus, the measurement of sodium, chlorine and nitrogen also appear to be useful clinically. Total-body calcium measurements utilizing TBNAA have been used in studies of osteoporosis to establish absolute and relative deficits of calcium in patients with this disease in comparison to a normal contrast population. Changes in total-body calcium (skeletal mass) have also been useful for quantitating the efficacy of various therapies in osteoporosis. Serial measurements over periods of years provide long-term balance data by direct measurement with a higher precision (+- 2%) than is possible by the use of any other technique. In the renal osteodystrophy observed in patients with renal failure, disorders of both calcium and phosphorus, as well as electrolyte disturbances, have been studied. The measure of total-body levels of these elements gives the clinician useful data upon which to design dialysis therapy. The measurement of bone changes in endocrine dysfunction has been studied, particularly in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In parathyroidectomy, the measurement of total-body calcium, post-operatively, can indicate the degree of bone resorption. Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly and Cushing's disease have also been investigated by TBNAA. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidney have also been measured in-vivo by prompt-gamma neutron activation and associated with hypertension, emphysema and cigarette smoking

  9. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  10. Body dimensions, exercise capacity and physical activity level of adolescent Nandi boys in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Bøgh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Nolan, T;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize untrained Nandi boys (mean age 16.6 years) from a town (n = 11) and from a rural area (n = 19) in western Kenya (altitude approximately 2000 m.a.s.l.) in regard to their body dimensions, oxygen uptake and physical activity level. The town boys had a mean...... that the body dimensions of adolescent Nandi town and village boys corresponds well with findings in Kenyan elite runners. They are very slender with relatively long legs. In addition, the VO(2 max) of the village boys was higher than that of the town boys, which is probably due to a higher physical activity......)) for town as well as for village boys. The body mass index (BMI) was very low for town as well as for village boys (18.6 vs 18.4 kg m(-2)). The daily mean time spent working in the field during secondary school and doing sports were significantly higher in village boys compared to town boys (working...

  11. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patricia M; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J; Hutcheon, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric (53)Mn-(53)Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as Myr after calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ∼1.8-2.5 Myr after CAIs. PMID:26100451

  12. A New Approach and Analysis of Modeling the Human Body in RFID-Enabled Body-Centric Wireless Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karoliina Koski; Toni Björninen; Lauri Sydänheimo; Leena Ukkonen; Yahya Rahmat-Samii

    2014-01-01

    Body-centric wireless systems demand wearable sensor and tag antennas that have robust impedance matching and provide enough gain for a reliable wireless communication link. In this paper, we discuss a novel and practical technique for the modeling of the human body in UHF RFID body-centric wireless systems. What makes this technique different is that we base the human model on measured far-field response from a reference tag attached to the human body. Hereby, the human body model accounts f...

  13. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross......-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first...... examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77)), current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3)), increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14)), physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17)), but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10). At the second examination...

  14. Assessment of physical activity of the human body considering the thermodynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Rauschenberger, Philipp; Weigand, Bernhard; Siebert, Tobias; Schmitt, Syn; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2016-07-01

    Correctly dosed physical activity is the basis of a vital and healthy life, but the measurement of physical activity is certainly rather empirical resulting in limited individual and custom activity recommendations. Certainly, very accurate three-dimensional models of the cardiovascular system exist, however, requiring the numeric solution of the Navier-Stokes equations of the flow in blood vessels. These models are suitable for the research of cardiac diseases, but computationally very expensive. Direct measurements are expensive and often not applicable outside laboratories. This paper offers a new approach to assess physical activity using thermodynamical systems and its leading quantity of entropy production which is a compromise between computation time and precise prediction of pressure, volume, and flow variables in blood vessels. Based on a simplified (one-dimensional) model of the cardiovascular system of the human body, we develop and evaluate a setup calculating entropy production of the heart to determine the intensity of human physical activity in a more precise way than previous parameters, e.g. frequently used energy considerations. The knowledge resulting from the precise real-time physical activity provides the basis for an intelligent human-technology interaction allowing to steadily adjust the degree of physical activity according to the actual individual performance level and thus to improve training and activity recommendations. PMID:26296149

  15. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis. PMID:27072508

  16. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  17. Analysis of measured data of human body based on error correcting frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Aiyan; Peipei, Gao; Shang, Xiaomei

    2014-04-01

    Anthropometry is to measure all parts of human body surface, and the measured data is the basis of analysis and study of the human body, establishment and modification of garment size and formulation and implementation of online clothing store. In this paper, several groups of the measured data are gained, and analysis of data error is gotten by analyzing the error frequency and using analysis of variance method in mathematical statistics method. Determination of the measured data accuracy and the difficulty of measured parts of human body, further studies of the causes of data errors, and summarization of the key points to minimize errors possibly are also mentioned in the paper. This paper analyses the measured data based on error frequency, and in a way , it provides certain reference elements to promote the garment industry development.

  18. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, Luke S.C.; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We fo...

  19. A quantitative analysis of the mechanism that controls body size in Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidowitz G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body size is controlled by mechanisms that terminate growth when the individual reaches a species-specific size. In insects, it is a pulse of ecdysone at the end of larval life that causes the larva to stop feeding and growing and initiate metamorphosis. Body size is a quantitative trait, so it is important that the problem of control of body size be analyzed quantitatively. The processes that control the timing of ecdysone secretion in larvae of the moth Manduca sexta are sufficiently well understood that they can be described in a rigorous manner. Results We develop a quantitative description of the empirical data on body size determination that accurately predicts body size for diverse genetic strains. We show that body size is fully determined by three fundamental parameters: the growth rate, the critical weight (which signals the initiation of juvenile hormone breakdown, and the interval between the critical weight and the secretion of ecdysone. All three parameters are easily measured and differ between genetic strains and environmental conditions. The mathematical description we develop can be used to explain how variables such as growth rate, nutrition, and temperature affect body size. Conclusion Our analysis shows that there is no single locus of control of body size, but that body size is a system property that depends on interactions among the underlying determinants of the three fundamental parameters. A deeper mechanistic understanding of body size will be obtained by research aimed at uncovering the molecular mechanisms that give these three parameters their particular quantitative values.

  20. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Luana Giatti; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women w...

  1. ASYMMETRIC VORTICES FLOW OVER SLENDER BODY AND ITS ACTIVE CONTROL AT HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xueying; WANG Yankui

    2004-01-01

    The studies of asymmetric vortices flow over slender body and its active control at high angles of attack have significant importance for both academic field and engineering area. This paper attempts to provide an update state of art to the investigations on the fields of forebody asymmetric vortices. This review emphasizes the correlation between micro-perturbation on the model nose and its response and evolution behaviors of the asymmetric vortices. The critical issues are discussed,which include the formation and evolution mechanism of asymmetric multi-vortices; main behaviors of asymmetric vortices flow including its deterministic feature and vortices flow structure; the evolution and development of asymmetric vortices under the perturbation on the model nose; forebody vortex active control especially discussed micro-perturbation active control concept and technique in more detail. However present understanding in this area is still very limited and this paper tries to identify the key unknown problems in the concluding remarks.

  2. Multi-flexible-body Dynamic Analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Hodges, Dewey H.; Patil, Mayuresh J.

    2002-10-01

    This article presents a structural dynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) using a new methodology. The methodology is based on representing a HAWT as a multi-flexible-body system with both rigid- and flexible-body subsystems. The rigid-body subsystems (nacelle, hub) are modelled as interconnected sets of rigid bodies using Kane's method. Kane's method leads to compact equations of motion for rigid-body mechanisms. The flexible-body subsystems (blades, tower) are modelled using geometrically exact, non-linear beam finite elements derived from a mixed variational formulation for the dynamics of moving beams. The use of the mixed formulation allows for the direct determination of constraint forces and moments within the beam finite element and at the boundaries, thus allowing simple connectivity between the finite elements and rigid bodies. The equations for the rigid and flexible subsystems are coupled to obtain a unified framework that models the dynamic behaviour of the complete system. Linearization of the dynamic equations about the steady state solution yields system equations with periodic coefficients that must be solved by Floquet theory to extract the dynamic characteristics. Numerical studies are presented to investigate the natural frequencies and mode shapes for a HAWT with flexible blades and tower.

  3. Association between body weight, physical activity and food choices among metropolitan transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. Methods Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage employees were invited to complete behavioral surveys that assessed food choices and physical activity, and weight and height were directly measured. Seventy-eight percent (N = 1092 of all employees participated. Results The prevalence of obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m2 was 56%. Over half of the transit workers reported consuming fruit (55% and vegetables (59% ≥ 3/week. Reported fast food restaurant frequency was low (13% visited ≥ 3/week. Drivers reported high levels of physical activity (eg. walking 93 minutes/day. However, an objective measure of physical activity measured only 16 minutes moderate/vigorous per day. Compared to other drivers, obese drivers reported significantly less vigorous physical activity, more time sitting, and more time watching television. Healthy eating, physical activity and weight management were perceived to be difficult at the worksite, particularly among obese transit workers, and perceived social support for these behaviors was modest. However, most workers perceived weight management and increased physical activity to be personally important for their health. Conclusion Although transit workers' self-report of fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity was high, perceived access to physical activity and healthful eating opportunities at the worksite was low. Obese workers were significantly less physically active and were more likely to report work environmental barriers to physical activity.

  4. Is Being a Boy and Feeling Fat a Barrier for Physical Activity? The Association between Body Image, Gender and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kopcakova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity leads to physical and mental health benefits. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with body image and gender. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations of body image with physical activity of adolescents and whether gender modifies this association. We obtained data on body image and physical activity as part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study in 2010 from Slovakia (n = 8042, age 11–15 years, 49% boys, response rate: 79.5%. Adolescents answered questions about their body image and the frequency of their physical activity. Sufficient physical activity was more likely in adolescents perceiving themselves as fat (OR = 0.63, 95%CI 0.54–0.73 and in boys (OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.92–2.42. A poor body image among girls was not associated with physical activity, whereas among boys it was associated with less physical activity. Gender seems to moderate the relationship between body image and physical activity in youths. Health promotion should be targeted in particular at boys with a negative body image, as they are at higher risk of physical inactivity.

  5. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  6. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  7. Hilar activity on the F-18 FDG whole-body PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kubo, Atsushi [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Yasuda, Seiei; Ide, Michiru; Takahashi, Wakoh; Shohtsu, Akira

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical characteristics of hilar activity that would be false positive findings for cancer screening on whole-body FDG PET. The cases with increased hilar activity were selected from 1,126 cases who received whole-body FDG PET between September 1996 and August 1997, and their age, sex, complication of inflammatory process in lungs, numbers of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes, frequency of smoking, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were studied. FDG accumulation in the hilar regions was found in 63 cases (5.6%). The cases with increased hilar activity were older, a higher incidence of complication of pulmonary inflammation, a larger number of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes and were more frequent smokers than the control cases with normal FDG distribution. Their male-to-female ratio, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were not significantly different from those of the control cases. These results suggested that an inflammatory process around the hilar region might induce this confusing FDG accumulation. (author)

  8. Hilar activity on the F-18 FDG whole-body PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the clinical characteristics of hilar activity that would be false positive findings for cancer screening on whole-body FDG PET. The cases with increased hilar activity were selected from 1,126 cases who received whole-body FDG PET between September 1996 and August 1997, and their age, sex, complication of inflammatory process in lungs, numbers of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes, frequency of smoking, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were studied. FDG accumulation in the hilar regions was found in 63 cases (5.6%). The cases with increased hilar activity were older, a higher incidence of complication of pulmonary inflammation, a larger number of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes and were more frequent smokers than the control cases with normal FDG distribution. Their male-to-female ratio, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were not significantly different from those of the control cases. These results suggested that an inflammatory process around the hilar region might induce this confusing FDG accumulation. (author)

  9. Bench Press Upper-Body Muscle Activation Between Stable and Unstable Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Lynn, Scott K; Barillas, Saldiam R

    2015-12-01

    The bench press is one of the most commonly used upper-body exercises in training and is performed with many different variations, including unstable loads (ULs). Although there is much research on use of an unstable surface, there is little to none on the use of an UL. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation during the bench press while using a stable load (SL) vs. UL. Twenty resistance-trained men (age = 24.1 ± 2 years; ht = 177.5 ± 5.8 cm; mass = 88.7 ± 13.7 kg) completed 2 experimental conditions (SL and UL) at 2 different intensities (60 and 80% one repetition maximum). Unstable load was achieved by hanging 16 kg kettlebells by elastic bands from the end of the bar. All trial lifts were set to a 2-second cadence with a slight pause at the bottom. Subjects had electrodes attached to 5 muscles (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, triceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi) and performed 3 isometric bench press trials to normalize electromyographic data. All 5 muscles demonstrated significantly greater activation at 80% compared with 60% load and during concentric compared with eccentric actions. These results suggest that upper body muscle activation is not different in the bench press between UL and SL. Therefore, coaches should use their preference when designing training programs. PMID:26540024

  10. Body size and activity times mediate mammalian responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Christy M; King, Sarah R B

    2014-06-01

    Model predictions of extinction risks from anthropogenic climate change are dire, but still overly simplistic. To reliably predict at-risk species we need to know which species are currently responding, which are not, and what traits are mediating the responses. For mammals, we have yet to identify overarching physiological, behavioral, or biogeographic traits determining species' responses to climate change, but they must exist. To date, 73 mammal species in North America and eight additional species worldwide have been assessed for responses to climate change, including local extirpations, range contractions and shifts, decreased abundance, phenological shifts, morphological or genetic changes. Only 52% of those species have responded as expected, 7% responded opposite to expectations, and the remaining 41% have not responded. Which mammals are and are not responding to climate change is mediated predominantly by body size and activity times (phylogenetic multivariate logistic regressions, P climate change than a shrew. Obligate diurnal and nocturnal mammals are more than twice as likely to respond as mammals with flexible activity times (P climate change in some analyses, whereas hibernation, heterothermy, burrowing, nesting, and study location did not influence responses. These results indicate that some mammal species can behaviorally escape climate change whereas others cannot, analogous to paleontology's climate sheltering hypothesis. Including body size and activity flexibility traits into future extinction risk forecasts should substantially improve their predictive utility for conservation and management. PMID:24449019

  11. Familial correlates of adolescent girls' physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical activity (PA, television use (TV, soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV intake, body mass index (BMI, and body composition among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls. Methods Subjects included girls (mean age = 15.7, 71% of whom identified as a racial/ethnic minority, and one of their parents (dyad n = 253. Parents completed surveys assessing factors in the family environment including familial support for adolescents' PA, healthful dietary intake, and limiting TV use; parental modeling of behavior; and resources in the home such as availability of healthful food. Girls' PA and TV use were measured by 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR and dietary intake by survey measures. BMI was measured by study staff, and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Hierarchical linear regression models tested individual and mutually-adjusted relationships between family environment factors and girls' outcomes. Results In the individual models, positive associations were observed between family support for PA and girls' total PA (p = .011 and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p=.016, home food availability and girls' soft drink (p Conclusions Helping parents improve their physical activity and dietary intake, as well as reduce time watching television, may be an effective way to promote healthful behaviors and weight among adolescent girls.

  12. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G. Coelho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286. The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  13. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  14. Finite element crash simulations of the human body: Passive and active muscle modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mukherjee; A Chawla; B Karthikeyan; A Soni

    2007-08-01

    Conventional dummy based testing procedures suffer from known limitations. This report addresses issues in finite element human body models in evaluating pedestrian and occupant crash safety measures. A review of material properties of soft tissues and characterization methods show a scarcity of material properties for characterizing soft tissues in dynamic loading. Experiments imparting impacts to tissues and subsequent inverse finite element mapping to extract material properties are described. The effect of muscle activation due to voluntary and non-voluntary reflexes on injuries has been investigated through finite element modelling.

  15. Effects of stochastic food deprivation on energy budget, body mass and activity in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun ZHAO, Jing CAO, Ye TIAN, Rui-Rui WANG, Gui-Ying WANG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available When small animals are faced with an unpredictable food supply, they can adapt by altering different components of their energy budget such as energy intake, metabolic rate, rate of non-shivering thermogenesis (NST or behaviour. The present study examined the effect of stochastic food deprivation (FD on body mass, food intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR, NST and behaviour in male Swiss mice. During a period of 4 weeks’ FD, animals were fed ad libitum for a randomly assigned 4 days each week, but were deprived of food for the other 3 days. The results showed that body mass significantly dropped on FD days compared to controls. Food intake of FD mice increased significantly on ad libitum days, ensuring cumulative food intake, final body mass, fat mass, RMR and NST did not differ significantly from controls. Moreover, gastrointestinal tract mass increased in FD mice, but digestibility decreased. In general, activity was higher on deprived days, and feeding behaviour was higher on ad libitum days suggesting that Swiss mice are able to compensate for stochastic FD primarily by increasing food intake on ad libitum days, and not by reducing energy expenditure related to RMR or NST [Current Zoology 55(4: 249–257, 2009].

  16. Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ. PMID:27055817

  17. Facebook photo activity associated with body image disturbance in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Evelyn P; Gray, James

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between body image and adolescent girls' activity on the social networking site (SNS) Facebook (FB). Research has shown that elevated Internet "appearance exposure" is positively correlated with increased body image disturbance among adolescent girls, and there is a particularly strong association with FB use. The present study sought to replicate and extend upon these findings by identifying the specific FB features that correlate with body image disturbance in adolescent girls. A total of 103 middle and high school females completed questionnaire measures of total FB use, specific FB feature use, weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and self-objectification. An appearance exposure score was calculated based on subjects' use of FB photo applications relative to total FB use. Elevated appearance exposure, but not overall FB usage, was significantly correlated with weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, and self-objectification. Implications for eating disorder prevention programs and best practices in researching SNSs are discussed. PMID:24237288

  18. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pederse, agnes N; Ovesen, Lars; Schroll, M;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure body composition and analyse the relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability in healthy, old subjects, and to relate the results to an optimal BMI level for the elderly. SETTING: Subjects aged 80 years living at home from the 1914-population...... proposed guidelines for the elderly of an optimal BMI interval of 24-29 kg/m2. We found relations between body composition, muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability....... in Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self...

  19. Drag and lift reduction of a 3D bluff-body using active vortex generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aider, Jean-Luc; Beaudoin, Jean-Francois [PSA Peugeot-Citroen, Research and Innovation Department, Velizy-Villacoublay (France); University Paris 6, University Paris 7-10, Laboratoire PMMH, UMR, CNRS, ESPCI, Paris cedex 05 (France); Wesfreid, Jose Eduardo [University Paris 6, University Paris 7-10, Laboratoire PMMH, UMR, CNRS, ESPCI, Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, a passive flow control experiment on a 3D bluff-body using vortex generators (VGs) is presented. The bluff-body is a modified Ahmed body (Ahmed in J Fluids Eng 105:429-434 1983) with a curved rear part, instead of a slanted one, so that the location of the flow separation is no longer forced by the geometry. The influence of a line of non-conventional trapezoidal VGs on the aerodynamic forces (drag and lift) induced on the bluff-body is investigated. The high sensitivity to many geometric (angle between the trapezoidal element and the wall, spanwise spacing between the VGs, longitudinal location on the curved surface) and physical (freestream velocity) parameters is clearly demonstrated. The maximum drag reduction is -12%, while the maximum global lift reduction can reach more than -60%, with a strong dependency on the freestream velocity. For some configurations, the lift on the rear axle of the model can be inverted (-104%). It is also shown that the VGs are still efficient even downstream of the natural separation line. Finally, a dynamic parameter is chosen and a new set-up with motorized vortex generators is proposed. Thanks to this active device. The optimal configurations depending on two parameters are found more easily, and a significant drag and lift reduction (up to -14% drag reduction) can be reached for different freestream velocities. These results are then analyzed through wall pressure and velocity measurements in the near-wake of the bluff-body with and without control. It appears that the largest drag and lift reduction is clearly associated to a strong increase of the size of the recirculation bubble over the rear slant. Investigation of the velocity field in a cross-section downstream the model reveals that, in the same time, the intensity of the longitudinal trailing vortices is strongly reduced, suggesting that the drag reduction is due to the breakdown of the balance between the separation bubble and the longitudinal vortices

  20. Physical activity practice, body image and visual impairment: a comparison between Brazilian and Italian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical activity and body image of children and adolescents with visual impairment (VI) in Brazil and Italy. For this, 41 children and adolescents with VI (19 Brazilian and 22 Italian) aged 10.22 ± 2.19 years old (18 girls and 23 boys) answered the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C), the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and an instrument with information about the disability, body weight and height. We analyzed the relationship between data from PAQ-C and OSIQ, as well as the gender, level of disability (blindness or low vision) and country using independent Mann-Whitney test. Body mass index (BMI) values were higher for Brazilian youths, with more than half of them classified as overweight and obese. Italian youths exhibited values of body image that were more positive and only 27% presented overweight or obesity. Blind children and adolescents were less active than those with low vision, but no differences were found between countries or genders. In Brazil, we detected significant correlations (p>0.05) between physical activity, body image and BMI, which more active youths presenting lower values of BMI and a better perception of body image. Physical activity seems to have a positive influence on body image and BMI for children and adolescents with VI, thus it should be encouraged especially for those with higher disability degrees.

  1. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  2. Analysis of HR activities in selected company

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on theoretical knowledge and analysis of the basic HR activities in the selected company to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the policies implemented personnel work. Then propose an effective ways of improving HR activities and employee satisfaction. Basic personal activities analyzed in this thesis are the adaptation, acquisition and selection of employees, performance management and staff appraisal, remuneration and training of staff. Analysis of pers...

  3. Active flow control for reduction of fluctuating aerodynamic forces of a blunt trailing edge profiled body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghib-Lahouti, Arash, E-mail: anaghibl@uwo.c [Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Hangan, Horia [Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Vortex shedding in the wake of two-dimensional bluff bodies is usually accompanied by three dimensional instabilities. These instabilities result in streamwise and vertical vorticity components which occur at a certain spanwise wavelength. The spanwise wavelength of the instabilities ({lambda}{sub Z}) depends on several parameters, including profile geometry and Reynolds number. The objective of the present work is to study the three dimensional wake instabilities for a blunt trailing edge profiled body, comprised of an elliptical leading edge and a rectangular trailing edge, and to manipulate these instabilities to control the aerodynamic forces. Results of numerical simulations of flow around the body at Re(d) = 400, 600, and 1000, as well as planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) flow visualizations at Re(d) = 600 and 1000 are analyzed to determine the wake vorticity structure and {lambda}{sub Z}. Based on the findings of these analyses, an active flow control mechanism for attenuation of the fluctuating aerodynamic forces on the body is proposed. The flow control mechanism is comprised of a series of trailing edge injection ports distributed across the span, with a spacing equal to {lambda}{sub Z}. Injection of a secondary flow leads to amplification of the three dimensional instabilities and disorganization of the von Karman vortex street. Numerical simulations indicate that the flow control mechanism can attenuate the fluctuating aerodynamic forces at lower Reynolds numbers (Re(d) = 400 and 600) where {lambda}{sub Z} is constant in time. However, the control mechanism loses its effectiveness at Re(d) = 1000, due to the temporal variations of {lambda}{sub Z}.

  4. Statistical and Multidimensional Body Composition Parameter Analysis in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of assessing selected body compo- sition parameters after completion of antitumor therapy and comparing them with the same parameters of healthy children. A high percentage of overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal fat distribution in convalescents with cancer shows a significant adverse effect of therapy on body composition and suggests the need for early intervention in terms of diet and exercise, which would help patients to quickly achieve the proper parameters of body composition. Two main problems will be mentioned during the presented data analysis. Firstly, in each group there was a small number of observations. Because of this, the real differences between examined subgroups may have been omitted. Secondarily, many variables are correlated and are not normally distributed. Therefore, be- side the standard statistical tests to compare two groups, principal component analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions of the attribute space and to attempt to classify two groups of patients.

  5. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  6. Noise-based body-wave seismic tomography in an active underground mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, G.; Brenguier, F.; Campillo, M.; Lynch, R.; Roux, P.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, ambient noise tomography has become increasingly popular to image the earth's upper crust. The seismic noise recorded in the earth's crust is dominated by surface waves emanating from the interaction of the ocean with the solid earth. These surface waves are low frequency in nature ( noise recorded at higher frequencies are typically from anthropogenic sources, which are short lived, spatially unstable and not well suited for constructing seismic Green's functions between sensors with conventional cross-correlation methods. To examine the use of ambient noise tomography for smaller scale applications, continuous data were recorded for 5 months in an active underground mine in Sweden located more than 1km below surface with 18 high frequency seismic sensors. A wide variety of broadband (10 - 3000 Hz) seismic noise sources are present in an active underground mine ranging from drilling, scraping, trucks, ore crushers and ventilation fans. Some of these sources generate favorable seismic noise, while others are peaked in frequency and not usable. In this presentation, I will show that the noise generated by mining activity can be useful if periods of seismic noise are carefully selected. Although noise sources are not temporally stable and not evenly distributed around the sensor array, good estimates of the seismic Green's functions between sensors can be retrieved for a broad frequency range (20 - 400 Hz) when a selective stacking scheme is used. For frequencies below 100 Hz, the reconstructed Green's functions show clear body-wave arrivals for almost all of the 153 sensor pairs. The arrival times of these body-waves are picked and used to image the local velocity structure. The resulting 3-dimensional image shows a high velocity structure that overlaps with a known ore-body. The material properties of the ore-body differ from the host rock and is likely the cause of the observed high velocity structure. For frequencies above 200 Hz, the

  7. STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gachuiri Njau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

  8. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Ferdy, Jean Baptiste; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Claude, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g., pictures) or manipulated stimuli (e.g., drawings). These two classes of stimuli have important drawbacks that limit result interpretations. Realistic stimuli vary in terms of traits that are correlated, which makes it impossible to assess the effect of a single trait independently. In addition, manipulated stimuli usually do not represent realistic morphologies. We describe and examine a method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to automatically predict and represent body outlines for a given set of predicted variables (e.g., sex, height, and body mass). We first estimate whether these predictive variables are significantly related to human outlines. We find that height and body mass significantly influence body shape. Unlike height, the effect of body mass on shape differs between sexes. Then, we show that we can easily build a regression model that creates hypothetical outlines for an arbitrary set of covariates. These statistically computed outlines are quite realistic and may be used as stimuli in future studies.

  9. Active electric imaging: body-object interplay and object's "electric texture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Angel A; Aguilera, Pedro A; Pereira, Ana Carolina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the role of fish's body and object's geometry on determining the image spatial shape in pulse Gymnotiforms. This problem was explored by measuring local electric fields along a line on the skin in the presence and absence of objects. We depicted object's electric images at different regions of the electrosensory mosaic, paying particular attention to the perioral region where a fovea has been described. When sensory surface curvature increases relative to the object's curvature, the image details depending on object's shape are blurred and finally disappear. The remaining effect of the object on the stimulus profile depends on the strength of its global polarization. This depends on the length of the object's axis aligned with the field, in turn depending on fish body geometry. Thus, fish's body and self-generated electric field geometries are embodied in this "global effect" of the object. The presence of edges or local changes in impedance at the nearest surface of closely located objects adds peaks to the image profiles ("local effect" or "object's electric texture"). It is concluded that two cues for object recognition may be used by active electroreceptive animals: global effects (informing on object's dimension along the field lines, conductance, and position) and local effects (informing on object's surface). Since the field has fish's centered coordinates, and electrosensory fovea is used for exploration of surfaces, fish fine movements are essential to perform electric perception. We conclude that fish may explore adjacent objects combining active movements and electrogenesis to represent them using electrosensory information. PMID:21876730

  10. Active electric imaging: body-object interplay and object's "electric texture".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A Caputi

    Full Text Available This article deals with the role of fish's body and object's geometry on determining the image spatial shape in pulse Gymnotiforms. This problem was explored by measuring local electric fields along a line on the skin in the presence and absence of objects. We depicted object's electric images at different regions of the electrosensory mosaic, paying particular attention to the perioral region where a fovea has been described. When sensory surface curvature increases relative to the object's curvature, the image details depending on object's shape are blurred and finally disappear. The remaining effect of the object on the stimulus profile depends on the strength of its global polarization. This depends on the length of the object's axis aligned with the field, in turn depending on fish body geometry. Thus, fish's body and self-generated electric field geometries are embodied in this "global effect" of the object. The presence of edges or local changes in impedance at the nearest surface of closely located objects adds peaks to the image profiles ("local effect" or "object's electric texture". It is concluded that two cues for object recognition may be used by active electroreceptive animals: global effects (informing on object's dimension along the field lines, conductance, and position and local effects (informing on object's surface. Since the field has fish's centered coordinates, and electrosensory fovea is used for exploration of surfaces, fish fine movements are essential to perform electric perception. We conclude that fish may explore adjacent objects combining active movements and electrogenesis to represent them using electrosensory information.

  11. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Soares; Ivan Silveira de Avelar; Sara Rosa de Sousa Andrade; Marcus Fraga Vieira; Maria Sebastiana Silva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p

  12. A body-fixed-sensor-based analysis of power during sit-to-stand movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wiebren; Bisseling, Robertus Wilhelmus; Schlumbohm, Stephan; Baldus, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of power exertion for lifting the body's centre of mass (CoM) during rising from a chair. Five healthy young (21-44 years) and 12 healthy older (70-79 years) subjects performed sit-to-stand (STS) movements while data were measured with force-plates underneath chair an

  13. Breakdown of the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy for a quantum body

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Andrei G

    2016-01-01

    We determine active gravitational mass operator of the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom - within the semiclassical approach to the Einstein equation for a gravitational field. We show that the expectation value of the mass is equivalent to energy for stationary quantum states. On the other hand, it occurs that, for quantum superpositions of stationary states with constant expectation values of energy, the expectation values of the gravitational mass exhibit time-dependent oscillations. This breaks the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy and can be observed as a macroscopic effect for a macroscopic ensemble of coherent quantum states of the atoms. The corresponding experiment could be the first direct observation of quantum effects in General Relativity.

  14. Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Activities of Various Extracts from the Fruiting Bodies of Lentinus lepideus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Soo Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus lepideus is an edible mushroom currently available in Korea. The acetone, methanol and hot water extracts were prepared and assayed for their antioxidant and antityrosinase inhibitory activities. The hot water extract showed the strongest β-carotene-linoleic acid inhibition compared to the other extracts. At 8 mg/mL, the methanolic extract showed a high reducing power of 1.21. The acetone and methanol extracts were more effective in scavenging DPPH radicals than the hot water extract. The strongest chelating effect was obtained from the methanolic extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the acetonic, methanol and hot water extracts increased with increasing concentration. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillin, naringin, naringenin, formononetin, and biochanin-A were detected in the acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5:1 solvent extract. This study suggests that fruiting bodies of L. lepideus can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants.

  15. Reciprocal effects among changes in weight, body image, and other psychological factors during behavioral obesity treatment: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in body image and subjective well-being variables (e.g. self-esteem are often reported as outcomes of obesity treatment. However, they may, in turn, also influence behavioral adherence and success in weight loss. The present study examined associations among obesity treatment-related variables, i.e., change in weight, quality of life, body image, and subjective well-being, exploring their role as both mediators and outcomes, during a behavioral obesity treatment. Methods Participants (BMI = 31.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2; age = 38.4 ± 6.7 y were 144 women who attended a 12-month obesity treatment program and a comparison group (n = 49, who received a general health education program. The intervention included regular group meetings promoting lasting behavior changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Body image, quality of life, subjective well-being, and body weight were measured at baseline and treatment's end. Mediation was tested by multiple regression and a resampling approach to measure indirect effects. Treatment group assignment was the independent variable while changes in weight and in psychosocial variables were analyzed alternatively as mediators and as dependent variables. Results At 12 months, the intervention group had greater weight loss (-5.6 ± 6.8% vs. -1.2 ± 4.6%, p Conclusion Changes in weight and body image may reciprocally affect each other during the course of behavioral obesity treatment. No evidence of reciprocal relationships was found for the other models under analysis; however, weight changes partially explained the effects of treatment on quality of life and self-esteem. Weight and psychosocial changes co-occur during treatment and will probably influence each other dynamically, in ways not yet adequately understood. Results from this study support the inclusion of intervention contents aimed at improving body image in weight management programs.

  16. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Laura; Bundó, Mireia; Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  17. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Montesinos

    Full Text Available Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation.

  18. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five pri...

  19. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance is pointed out of neutron activation analysis in the preparation of reference materials, and studies are reported conducted recently by UJV. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used in testing homogeneity and in determining 28 elements in newly prepared reference standards of coal fly ash designated ENO, EOP and ECH. For accuracy testing, the same method was used in the analysis of NBS SRM-1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash and IAEA CRM Soil-5 and RM Soil-7. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used in determining Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn in biological materials NBS SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and in IAEA RM Milk Powder A-11 and Animal Muscle H-4. In all instances very good precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis results were shown. (author)

  20. Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2011-03-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

  1. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  2. Impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of the body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrino Edilson Serpeloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the studies of body composition, it has been observed that several factors can interfere with the estimates of relative body fat using the skinfold thicknesses method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of body composition by skinfold thicknesses measurements. Two hundred and fifty nine male subjects (23.3 ± 2.9 years took part of the study. Nine skinfold thicknesses were measured (abdominal, subscapular, suprailiac, triceps, biceps, midaxillary, chest, medial calf, and thigh using the Lange (USA and the Cescorf (Brazil calipers with accuracy of 1.0 and 0.1 mm, respectively. Significant differences were found in the comparison between the two calipers on all the investigated skinfold thicknesses (1.8 to 31.0% with highest values obtained by the Lange caliper (p < 0.01. When these values were applied to four different predictive equations, developed by different researchers, the body fat estimate was significantly modified (p < 0.01, resulting in differences of 5.2 to 6.9%. Results indicate that the use of different skinfold calipers may maximize the errors of estimation produced by different predictive equations used for the analysis of body composition.

  3. Small-Body Extensions for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2008-01-01

    An extension to the SOAP software allows users to work with tri-axial ellipsoid-based representations of planetary bodies, primarily for working with small, natural satellites, asteroids, and comets. SOAP is a widely used tool for the visualization and analysis of space missions. The small body extension provides the same visualization and analysis constructs for use with small bodies. These constructs allow the user to characterize satellite path and instrument cover information for small bodies in both 3D display and numerical output formats. Tri-axial ellipsoids are geometric shapes the diameters of which are different in each of three principal x, y, and z dimensions. This construct provides a better approximation than using spheres or oblate spheroids (ellipsoids comprising two common equatorial diameters as a distinct polar diameter). However, the tri-axial ellipsoid is considerably more difficult to work with from a modeling perspective. In addition, the SOAP small-body extensions allow the user to actually employ a plate model for highly irregular surfaces. Both tri-axial ellipsoids and plate models can be assigned to coordinate frames, thus allowing for the modeling of arbitrary changes to body orientation. A variety of features have been extended to support tri-axial ellipsoids, including the computation and display of the spacecraft sub-orbital point, ground trace, instrument footprints, and swathes. Displays of 3D instrument volumes can be shown interacting with the ellipsoids. Longitude/latitude grids, contour plots, and texture maps can be displayed on the ellipsoids using a variety of projections. The distance along an arbitrary line of sight can be computed between the spacecraft and the ellipsoid, and the coordinates of that intersection can be plotted as a function of time. The small-body extension supports the same visual and analytical constructs that are supported for spheres and oblate spheroids in SOAP making the implementation of the more

  4. Small Bodies, Big Concepts: Engaging Teachers and Their Students in Visual Analysis of Comets and Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, W. H.; Buxner, S.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Ristvey, J.; Weeks, S.; Zolensky, M.

    2011-12-01

    Small Bodies, Big Concepts is a multi-disciplinary, professional development project that engages 5th - 8th grade teachers in high end planetary science using a research-based pedagogical framework, Designing Effective Science Instruction (DESI). In addition to developing sound background knowledge with a focus on visual analysis, teachers' awareness of the process of learning new content is heightened, and they use that experience to deepen their science teaching practice. Culling from NASA E/PO educational materials, activities are sequenced to enhance conceptual understanding of big ideas in space science: what do we know, how do we know it, why do we care? Helping teachers develop a picture of the history and evolution of our understanding of the solar system, and honing in on the place of comets and asteroids in helping us answer old questions and discover new ones, teachers see the power and excitement underlying planetary science as human endeavor. Research indicates that science inquiry is powerful in the classroom and mission scientists are real-life models of science inquiry in action. Using guest scientist facilitators from the Planetary Science Institute, NASA Johnson Space Center, Lockheed Martin, and NASA E/PO professionals from McREL and NASA AESP, teachers practice framing scientific questions, using current visual data, and adapting NASA E/PO activities related to current exploration of asteroids and comets in our Solar System. Cross-curricular elements included examining research-based strategies for enhancing English language learners' ability to engage in higher order questions and a professional astronomy artist's insight into how visual analysis requires not just our eyes engaged, but our brains: comparing, synthesizing, questioning, evaluating, and wondering. This summer we pilot tested the SBBC curriculum with thirteen 5th- 10th grade teachers modeling a variety of instructional approaches over eight days. Each teacher developed lesson plans

  5. The Role of the Media in Body Image Concerns among Women: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental and Correlational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Shelly; Ward, L. Monique; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to mass media depicting the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image disturbance in women. This meta-analysis examined experimental and correlational studies testing the links between media exposure to women's body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, and eating behaviors and beliefs with a sample…

  6. Associations between active commuting, body fat, and body mass index: population based, cross sectional study in the United Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, E; Cummins, S.; Sacker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if promotion of active modes of travel is an effective strategy for obesity prevention by assessing whether active commuting (walking or cycling for all or part of the journey to work) is independently associated with objectively assessed biological markers of obesity. Design Cross sectional study of data from the wave 2 Health Assessment subsample of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). The exposure of interest, commuting mode, was self r...

  7. Adaptation and vision change the relationship between muscle activity of the lower limbs and body movement during human balance perturbations.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Mitesh; Gomez, S.; Lush, D; Fransson, Per-Anders

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship between changes in lower limb EMG root mean square (RMS) activity and changes in body movement during perturbed standing. Specifically, linear movement variance, torque variance and body posture were correlated against tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius RMS EMG activity during perturbed standing by vibration of the calf muscles. METHODS: Eighteen healthy participants (mean age 29.1 years) stood quietly for 30s before vibration pulses were randomly appl...

  8. Features of muscular activity at carrying out body drop by female judo-wrestlers of highly qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elipkhanov S.B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluating muscles activity at carrying out body drop, lengths of muscles and velocity of changing their lengths. Was used 2D and 3D video analysis. Three participant of Russia female national judo team (age before 23 years took part in experiment. Has been established at carrying out reception to the right side greatest changes of length are observed at left and right muscle rectus abdominis and right muscle obliquus externus abdominis, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus, back parts of left and right muscle deltoideus. The highest velocity of contraction are noticed at muscle obliquus externus abdominis (especially at the right, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus and middle part of left muscle deltoideus.

  9. Moderate-vigorous physical activity across body mass index in females: moderating effect of endocannabinoids and temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Aranda

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1 examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2 explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI.Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA.Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = -0.13, p = .039 and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA levels (b = 0.16, p = .049 and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA levels (b = 0.22, p = .004, as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, p<.001 and low Harm avoidance (b = -0.16, p<.001.Obese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity.

  10. Daily scheduled high fat meals moderately entrain behavioral anticipatory activity, body temperature, and hypothalamic c-Fos activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA, is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, daily timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet daily meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903. In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body temperature revealed a moderate preprandial increase in temperature in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a daily fatty palatable meal.

  11. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Sikirzhytski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.

  12. Prospective study of body mass index, height, physical activity and incidence of bladder cancer in US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Crystal N; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Michaud, Dominique S

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated prospectively the association between body mass index (BMI), height, recreational physical activity and the risk of bladder cancer among US adults. Data were used from 2 ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study, with 3,542,012 years of follow-up and 866 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 507; women = 359) for the anthropometric analysis and 1,890,476 years of follow-up and 706 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 502; women = 204) for the physical activity analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI, height, physical activity and bladder cancer risk adjusting for age, pack-years of cigarette smoking and current smoking. Estimates from each cohort were pooled using a random-effects model. We observed no association between baseline BMI and bladder cancer risk, even when we compared a BMI of > or =30 kg/m(2) to a BMI of 18-22.9 kg/m(2) [pooled multivariate (MV) RR, 1.16; 95% CI: 0.89-1.52]. A weak, but statistically significant, association was observed for the same comparison after excluding bladder cancer cases diagnosed within the first 4 years of follow-up (pooled MV RR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01-1.76). Height was not related to bladder cancer risk (pooled MV RR, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.65-1.03, top vs. bottom quintile). Total recreational physical activity also was not associated with the risk of bladder cancer (pooled MV RR, 0.97; 95% CI: 0.77-1.24, top vs. bottom quintile). Our findings do not support a role for BMI, height or physical activity in bladder carcinogenesis.

  13. Immunostimulating activity by polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-α secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-γ/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-α secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-α secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

  14. Studies on the Antifatigue Activities of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body Extract in Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract (CM on antifatigue in mouse model. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzymes activity and reduced the levels of lactic acid, lactic dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and reactive oxygen species. Further data suggests that CM-induced fatigue recovery is mainly through activating 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein kinase B (AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways and regulating serum hormone level. Moreover, CM-enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to its antioxidant effect. Our data provides experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of CM as an effective agent against fatigue.

  15. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a resultant force, the quantity, shape, and spatial distribution of water body affect the forming of temperature. We found that the quantity and spatial pattern of city water body could be allocated reasonably to maximize its cooling effect.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  17. Correlation between percentage of body fat measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis technique in Mexican schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Orta Duarte; Yunue Flores Ruelas; Fátima López-Alcaraz; Mario del Toro-Equihua; Carmen Alicia Sánchez-Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century in children and adolescents. The percentile or Z-score of the body mass index is widely used in children and adolescents to define and assess overweight and obesity, but it does not determine the percentage of total body fat. Other anthropometric measurements that determine total body fat are skinfold thickness and methods of body composition assessment such as bio impedance analysis, both o...

  18. Aero-thermal analysis of lifting body configurations in hypersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-09-01

    The aero-thermal analysis of a hypersonic vehicle is of fundamental interest for designing its thermal protection system. The aero-thermal environment predictions over several critical regions of the hypothesized lifting body vehicle, including the stagnation region of the nose-cap, cylindrically swept leading edges, fuselage-upper, and fuselage-lower surfaces, are discussed. The drag (Λ=70°) and temperature (Λ=80°) minimized sweepback angles are considered in the configuration design of the two hypothesized lifting body shape hypersonic vehicles. The main aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the aero-thermal characteristics of these two lifting body configurations at same heat capacity. Accordingly, a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation has been carried out at Mach number (M∞=7), H=35 km altitude with zero Angle of Attack. Finally, the material selection for thermal protection system based on these predictions and current methodology is described.

  19. Expression and purification of biologically active recombinant human paraoxonase 1 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Pande, Abhay H

    2015-11-01

    Human PON1 (h-PON1) is a Ca(2+)-dependent serum enzyme and can hydrolyze (and inactivate) a wide range of substrates. It is a multifaceted enzyme and exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, and organophosphate (OP)-detoxifying properties. Thus, h-PON1 is a strong candidate for the development of therapeutic intervention against these conditions in humans. Insufficient hydrolyzing activity of native h-PON1 against desirable substrate affirms the urgent need to develop improved variant(s) of h-PON1 having enhanced activity. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop such variant(s). However, generation of rh-PON1 using E. coli expression system has been elusive until now because of the aggregation of over-expressed rh-PON1 protein in inactive form as inclusion bodies (IBs) in the bacterial cells. In this study, we have over-expressed rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) proteins as IBs in E. coli, and refolded the inactive enzymes present in the IBs to their active form using in vitro refolding. The active enzymes were isolated from the refolding mixture by ion-exchange chromatography. The catalytic properties of the refolded enzymes were similar to their soluble counterparts. Our results show that the pure and the active variant of rh-PON1 enzyme having enhanced hydrolyzing activity can be produced in large quantities using E. coli expression system. This method can be used for the industrial scale production of rh-PON1 enzymes and will aid in developing h-PON1 as a therapeutic candidate.

  20. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  1. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-01-01

    regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings.......4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6...... that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions...

  2. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the “dose rate – effects” relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d−1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d−1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d−1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale “dose rate – effects” and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of dose rates to biota in different water bodies was performed. ► A numerical scale on the dose rates – effects relationships for fish was formulated. ► Results of assessment of exposure to biota were compared with the dose rates – effects scale. ► In the most contaminated water bodies the doses were high enough to cause radiobiological effects in fish. ► Current dose rates to biota in all considered water bodies are below the safety level of 1 mGy/day.

  3. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  4. Pain in long-term breast cancer survivors: the role of body mass index, physical activity, and sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Laura P; Alfano, Catherine M; George, Stephanie M; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Bernstein, Leslie; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Although pain is common among post-treatment breast cancer survivors, studies that are longitudinal, identify a case definition of clinically meaningful pain, or examine factors contributing to pain in survivors are limited. This study describes longitudinal patterns of pain in long-term breast cancer survivors, evaluating associations of body mass index (BMI), physical activity, sedentary behavior with mean pain severity and above-average pain. Women newly diagnosed with stages 0-IIIA breast cancer (N = 1183) were assessed, on average, 6 months (demographic/clinical characteristics), 30 months (demographics), 40 months (demographics, pain), 5 years (BMI, physical activity, and sedentary behavior), and 10 years (demographics, pain, BMI, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) post-diagnosis. This analysis includes survivors who completed pain assessments 40 months post-diagnosis (N = 801), 10 years post-diagnosis (N = 563), or both (N = 522). Above-average pain was defined by SF-36 bodily pain scores ≥1/2 standard deviation worse than age-specific population norms. We used multiple regression models to test unique associations of BMI, physical activity, and sedentary behavior with pain adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. The proportion of survivors reporting above-average pain was higher at 10 years than at 40 months (32.3 vs. 27.8 %, p 5 %) was positively associated, while meeting physical activity guidelines was inversely associated, with above-average pain (OR, 95 % CI = 1.76, 1.03-3.01 and 0.40, 0.20-0.84, respectively) (p < 0.05). Weight gain and lack of physical activity place breast cancer survivors at risk for pain long after treatment ends. Weight control and exercise interventions should be tested for effects on long-term pain in these women.

  5. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  6. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three recently completed studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are reported: a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author) 12 refs

  7. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are being extended in This Laboratory. Three of these new studies are reported here: 1) a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, 2) a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and 3) a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author)

  8. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents dev...... population globally sensitive to specific world issues. The models discuss the dynamics of population in response to such issues. All the models presented in the thesis can be combined for a systematic analysis of illicit activities.......Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis...

  9. WISE/NEOWISE observations of Active Bodies in the Main Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, James M; Grav, Tommy; Walker, Russell G; Masiero, Joseph R; Blauvelt, Erin K; McMillan, Robert S; Fernández, Yan R; Meech, Karen J; Lisse, Carey M; Cutri, Roc M; Dailey, John W; Tholen, David J; Riesen, Timm; Urban, Laurie; Khayat, Alain; Pearman, George; Scotti, James V; Kramer, Emily; Cherry, De'Andre; Gautier, Thomas; Gomillion, Stephanie; Watkins, Jessica; Wright, Edward L

    2011-01-01

    We report results based on mid-infrared photometry of 5 active main belt objects (AMBOs) detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft. Four of these bodies, P/2010 R2 (La Sagra), 133P/Elst-Pizarro, (596) Scheila, and 176P/LINEAR, showed no signs of activity at the time of the observations, allowing the WISE detections to place firm constraints on their diameters and albedos. Geometric albedos were in the range of a few percent, and on the order of other measured comet nuclei. P/2010 A2 was observed on April 2-3, 2010, three months after its peak activity. Photometry of the coma at 12 and 22 {\\mu}m combined with ground-based visible-wavelength measurements provides constraints on the dust particle mass distribution (PMD), dlogn/dlogm, yielding power-law slope values of {\\alpha} = -0.5 +/- 0.1. This PMD is considerably more shallow than that found for other comets, in particular inbound particle fluence during the Stardust encounter of comet 81P/Wild 2. It is similar to the PMD seen for...

  10. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE BODIES IN THE MAIN BELT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, James M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Masiero, Joseph R.; Blauvelt, Erin K.; Cherry, De' Andre [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-401, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, Tommy [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); Walker, Russell G. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, 200 Eighth Street, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); McMillan, Robert S.; Scotti, James V. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Kuiper Space Science Building 92, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Fernandez, Yan R.; Kramer, Emily [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, P.S. Building, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Meech, Karen J.; Tholen, David J.; Riesen, Timm; Urban, Laurie; Khayat, Alain [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Manoa, HI 96822 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States); Cutri, Roc M.; Dailey, John W.; Pearman, George, E-mail: bauer@scn.jpl.nasa.gov [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Collaboration: WISE Team; and others

    2012-03-01

    We report results based on mid-infrared photometry of five active main belt objects (AMBOs) detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft. Four of these bodies, P/2010 R2 (La Sagra), 133P/Elst-Pizarro, (596) Scheila, and 176P/LINEAR, showed no signs of activity at the time of the observations, allowing the WISE detections to place firm constraints on their diameters and albedos. Geometric albedos were in the range of a few percent, and on the order of other measured comet nuclei. P/2010 A2 was observed on 2010 April 2-3, three months after its peak activity. Photometry of the coma at 12 and 22 {mu}m combined with ground-based visible-wavelength measurements provides constraints on the dust particle mass distribution (PMD), dlog n/dlog m, yielding power-law slope values of {alpha} = -0.5 {+-} 0.1. This PMD is considerably more shallow than that found for other comets, in particular inbound particle fluence during the Stardust encounter of comet 81P/Wild 2. It is similar to the PMD seen for 9P/Tempel 1 in the immediate aftermath of the Deep Impact experiment. Upper limits for CO{sub 2} and CO production are also provided for each AMBO and compared with revised production numbers for WISE observations of 103P/Hartley 2.

  11. Effect of whole body neutron irradiation on certain enzyme activities in different brain areas in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male swiss albino mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation by fast neutrons of 14 MeV average energy. Two single doses of 0.08 sievert and 0.16 sievert were used, corresponding to fluences of 1.27 X 108 and 2.54 X 108 n/cm2 respectively. Two enzymes were assessed in different layers of the cerebrum and cerebellum of mouse brain. Changes in the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) were taken to measure alterations in lysosomal and mitochondrial functions respectively. The degrees of lysosomal affection in different layers of the cerebrum were not uniform, while changes in A activity were very prominent in certain layers (e.g. external pyramidal layer, polymorphous cells layer and white matter), they were practically absent in others (e.g. internal pyramidal layer). Stronger effect was noted in the tissue layers of the cerebellum. The activity of SDH decreased as result of fast neutron irradiation. The response was more apparent for this enzyme than for ACP. This indicates more liability for a decrease in energy metabolism with consequent effect on behavioural and physiological functions under central nervous system control. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Antimutagenic and redox regulatory activities of curcumin in whole body γ - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the aim of the current study is understanding the redox regulatory activity ( pro- and anti-oxidant properties) and mutagenic burden following whole body -irradiation with special reference to its control by curcumin in mice. the antimutagenic effects of curcumin; diferuloylmethane ( C21 H20 O6) were evaluated in vitro using chromosomal aberration assay in male mice,induced after-exposure to 3 Gy γ-rays that is a known mutagenic and carcinogenic agent, when curcumin was given at a dose of 400 mmol/kg body wt through gastric intubation for 5 following days either before-, after-or both before and after-exposure, the incidence of aberrant cells and aberration types (mostly chromatids, breaks and fragments) reduced with curcumin dosage as compared to irradiated group. the cellular biochemical changes were estimated using liver tissue damage marker enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ -glutamyl transferase (GGT), pro-oxidant: xanthine oxidase (XO), lipid per oxidative indices: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxide (HP. the non-enzymatic antioxidant : glutathione (GSH) and the enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). TBARS ,HP,XO and liver marker enzymes were increased significantly , whereas the levels of GSH and the enzymatic antioxidants were significantly depleted in -irradiated groups. curcumin-treatment either before-, after-or both before and after -irradiation has attenuated the liver toxic effects of radiation obvious by reducing the levels of tbars and HP and diminished the increases of the activity of XO and liver marker enzymes. it has also re sued the depletion of the non enzymatic -and the enzymatic-antioxidant status.conclusion:curcumin has anti-oxidant potential against -rays-induced chromosomal mutations and redox imbalance regulatory status

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis in application for study of human brain tissue and body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin slices of human brain tissue and body fluids were investigated using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Distribution of elements in brain tissue samples was studied using Microbeam X-Ray Fluorescence (MXRF) method. Total Reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis was applied for determination of elemental contens in cerebrospinal fluid, serum and whole blood. The main goal of the study was to optimize analytical procedures for investigation of biomedical specimens using EDXRF method. MXRF method is useful for investigation of P, S, Cl, K, Ca and Fe. Moreover, it can be also applied for distinguishing between white and gray matter of the human brain. Two sample preparation methods were applied in TXRF spectrometry with respect to detection limit. In the first method the body fluids were analysed without any sample preparation. The other measurements were performed for the body fluids digested with nitric acid. For both methods gallium was used as an internal standard. Accuracy of the TXRF method was assessed using Certified Reference Material, A-13 (freeze-dried animal blood). High sensitivity of TXRF and proper sample preparation allowed to detect wide spectrum of elements between Cl and Sr. Faster and easier first sample preparation method allowed to detect elements including volatile ones like Cl or Br whereas digestion of fluids with nitric acid improved the detection limits significantly. Elemental analysis of thin brain tissue samples and body fluids will be applied for study of role of trace elements in selected neurological diseases. (author)

  14. Probabilistic Social Behavior Analysis by Exploring Body Motion-Based Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudposhti, Kamrad Khoshhal; Nunes, Urbano; Dias, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Understanding human behavior through nonverbal-based features, is interesting in several applications such as surveillance, ambient assisted living and human-robot interaction. In this article in order to analyze human behaviors in social context, we propose a new approach which explores interrelations between body part motions in scenarios with people doing a conversation. The novelty of this method is that we analyze body motion-based features in frequency domain to estimate different human social patterns: Interpersonal Behaviors (IBs) and a Social Role (SR). To analyze the dynamics and interrelations of people's body motions, a human movement descriptor is used to extract discriminative features, and a multi-layer Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) technique is proposed to model the existent dependencies. Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is a well-known human movement descriptor, which provides efficient mid-level information of human body motions. The mid-level information is useful to extract the complex interdependencies. The DBN technique is tested in different scenarios to model the mentioned complex dependencies. The study is applied for obtaining four IBs (Interest, Indicator, Empathy and Emphasis) to estimate one SR (Leading).The obtained results give a good indication of the capabilities of the proposed approach for people interaction analysis with potential applications in human-robot interaction. PMID:26540675

  15. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate-lipid Ratio on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Peanut Worm,Sipunculus nudus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Qin; Xu; Mingzhu; Tong; Tong; Tong; Wanping; Dong; Lanfang; Cheng; Guangping; Zou; Jie; Jiang; Yan

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate-lipid( C / L) ratios on growth performance,body composition and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile peanut worm. [Methods]Juvenile peanut worm with average body weight of( 16. 77 ± 0. 40) mg were fed with five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets formulated to contain different carbohydrate / lipid( C / L) ratios( 0. 68,1. 02,1. 62,2. 61 or 4. 35) for 8 weeks. [Results] The dietary C / L ratios had no significant effects on survival of juvenile peanut worm( P > 0. 05). With the increasing of dietary C / L ratios,weight growth rate( WGR)and specific growth rate( SGR) increased when dietary C / L ratios were between 0. 68 and 2. 61,and then decreased significantly with dietary C / L ratio further increased. When the dietary C / L ratio was 2. 61( carbohydrate level was 20. 64%,lipid level was 7. 92%) both WGR and SGR produced the maximum value,they were 451. 78 ± 16. 85% and 3. 41 ± 0. 06 % / d,respectively. The dietary C / L ratios had significant effects on body moisture,body protein content and body lipid content( P < 0. 05),but no significant effects on body ash content of juvenile peanut worm( P > 0. 05). Different C / L ratios had significant effects on amylase activity and lipases activity of juvenile peanut worm( P < 0. 05),but no significant effects on protease activity( P > 0. 05). [Conclusion]The regression model analysis showed that the most suitable dietary C / L ratio which can make juvenile peanut worm acquire the best weight growth rate is 2. 42.

  16. Orientation-dependent changes in single motor neuron activity during adaptive soft-bodied locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallo, Cinzia; Trimmer, Barry A

    2015-01-01

    Recent major advances in understanding the organizational principles underlying motor control have focused on a small number of animal species with stiff articulated skeletons. These model systems have the advantage of easily quantifiable mechanics, but the neural codes underlying different movements are difficult to characterize because they typically involve a large population of neurons controlling each muscle. As a result, studying how neural codes drive adaptive changes in behavior is extremely challenging. This problem is highly simplified in the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, which, in its larval stage (caterpillar), is predominantly soft-bodied. Since each M. sexta muscle is innervated by one, occasionally two, excitatory motor neurons, the electrical activity generated by each muscle can be mapped to individual motor neurons. In the present study, muscle activation patterns were converted into motor neuron frequency patterns by identifying single excitatory junction potentials within recorded electromyographic traces. This conversion was carried out with single motor neuron resolution thanks to the high signal selectivity of newly developed flexible microelectrode arrays, which were specifically designed to record from M. sexta muscles. It was discovered that the timing of motor neuron activity and gait kinematics depend on the orientation of the plane of motion during locomotion. We report that, during climbing, the motor neurons monitored in the present study shift their activity to correlate with movements in the animal's more anterior segments. This orientation-dependent shift in motor activity is in agreement with the expected shift in the propulsive forces required for climbing. Our results suggest that, contrary to what has been previously hypothesized, M.sexta uses central command timing for adaptive load compensation. PMID:25765841

  17. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  18. Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Faculty of Economics and Management Department of Trade and Accounting Abstract of Diploma Thesis Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis Martina Kučerová © 2012 CULS in Prague Summary: The aim of this thesis is to apply methods of financial analysis on chosen business for its first three accounting periods 2009, 2010 and 2011. The thesis is further analysis of my bachelor thesis on to...

  19. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J;

    2011-01-01

    activity and sedentary time. This study uses combined analysis of three European cohorts and one from South America (n = 4,170). Birth weight was measured or parentally reported. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). PA was objectively measured using accelerometry...

  20. Correlation between percentage of body fat measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis technique in Mexican schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Orta Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century in children and adolescents. The percentile or Z-score of the body mass index is widely used in children and adolescents to define and assess overweight and obesity, but it does not determine the percentage of total body fat. Other anthropometric measurements that determine total body fat are skinfold thickness and methods of body composition assessment such as bio impedance analysis, both of which are rapid and inexpensive. Objetive: The aim of the study was to correlate the percentage of body fat determined by the Slaughter equation with the percentage of body fat determined by the bio impedance analysis technique, and the body mass index in schoolchildren. Methods: The design of the study is cross-sectional and it was performed on a random selection of 74 children (9.47 ± 1.55 years old attending a primary school in Colima, Mexico during 2011. The percentage of body fat was measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis technique. Body mass index was calculated. Inferential statistics were performed with the non-paired Student's t test, Pearson's correlation for quantitative variables (percentage of body fat by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis and the Fisher exact test for qualitative variables. Results: A significant correlation (r = 0.74; p < 0.001 was identified between the percentage of fat measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis. We also identified a significant correlation between the percentage of fat measured by the Slaughter equation and body mass index (r = 0. 85; p < 0.001 and the percentage of fat measured by bio impedance analysis and body mass index (r = 0.78; p < 0.001. Conclusion: Given that we identified a significant positive correlation between BIA and STE, we conclude that both are adequate alternatives for measuring the percentage of body fat among schoolchildren in

  1. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory. PMID:27029108

  2. Elevation Contour Analysis and Water body Extraction for Finding Water Scarcity Locations using DEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kodge, B. G.; P.S Hiremath

    2014-01-01

    The presents study was aimed to create new methods for extraction and analysis of land elevation contour lines, automatic extraction of water bodies (river basins and lakes), from the digital elevation models (DEM) of a test area. And extraction of villages which are fell under critical water scarcity regions for agriculture and drinking water with respect to their elevation data and available natural water resources.

  3. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  4. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  5. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…

  6. CHANGING TRENDS IN LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY MASS INDEX AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Early sleep, early waking up, regular breakfast and light-to-moderate exercise all constitute healthy habits. Balanced diet, regular sleep and adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health in human life. Regrettably these habits are not very frequent among medical students, because of exceptionally tiring schedule, protracted studies and burden of performing well in medical colleges. The study aims to correlate the trends in breakfast habits, mid-day snacking, sleeping habits and physical activity in relation to body mass index among medical students. METHOD This was a single centre cross-sectional questionnaire based study conducted at Jubilee Mission Medical College & Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala. The target population was 1 st year MBBS students. We collected data from 234 students. The study duration was from August 2014 till September 2015. Convenient sampling was implied for the collection of data. RESULTS Mean age of participants was 20.85 ± 0.9 years, while mean BMI of participants was 24.7 ± 6.31 kg/m2. Average sleep duration was 7.1 hours ± 3.9 hours while average physical activity was 208 min/week ± 92 min/week. We observed that females (63.4% tend to skip breakfast twice more than males (27.9%. Students who had regular breakfast were found to have a lower BMI than those who did not. Moreover, those who took breakfast were found to be more physically active than those who skipped breakfast. CONCLUSION Since it was found that a regular consumption of breakfast, adequate sleep and exercise not only lowers BMI but also makes a person more physically fit. Therefore, it is recommended to start the day with a healthy breakfast having all the essential nutrients.

  7. PPAR-γ activation by Tityus serrulatus venom regulates lipid body formation and lipid mediator production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2015-01-01

    Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV) consists of numerous peptides with different physiological and pharmacological activities. Studies have shown that scorpion venom increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production, contributing to immunological imbalance, multiple organ dysfunction, and patient death. We have previously demonstrated that TsV is a venom-associated molecular pattern (VAMP) recognized by TLRs inducing intense inflammatory reaction through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators prostaglandin (PG)E2 and leukotriene (LT)B4. Lipid bodies (LBs) are potential sites for eicosanoid production by inflammatory cells. Moreover, recent studies have shown that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is implicated in LB formation and acts as an important modulator of lipid metabolism during inflammation. In this study, we used murine macrophages to evaluate whether the LB formation induced by TsV after TLR recognition correlates with lipid mediator generation by macrophages and if it occurs through PPAR-γ activation. We demonstrate that TsV acts through TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation and PPAR-γ activation to induce LB formation and generation of PGE2 and LTB4. Our data also show that PPAR-γ negatively regulates the pro-inflammatory NF-κB transcription factor. Based on these results, we suggest that during envenomation, LBs constitute functional organelles for lipid mediator production through signaling pathways that depend on cell surface and nuclear receptors. These findings point to the inflammatory mechanisms that might also be triggered during human envenomation by TsV. PMID:25450800

  8. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James W

    2015-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that eating small, frequent meals enhances fat loss and helps to achieve better weight maintenance. Several observational studies lend support to this hypothesis, with an inverse relationship noted between the frequency of eating and adiposity. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and discuss a meta-analysis with regression that evaluated experimental research on meal frequency with respect to changes in fat mass and lean mass. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated meal frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined. Feeding frequency was positively associated with reductions in fat mass and body fat percentage as well as an increase in fat-free mass. However, sensitivity analysis of the data showed that the positive findings were the product of a single study, casting doubt as to whether more frequent meals confer beneficial effects on body composition. In conclusion, although the initial results of this meta-analysis suggest a potential benefit of increased feeding frequencies for enhancing body composition, these findings need to be interpreted with circumspection.

  9. The impact of adolescent girls' life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being.

  10. The impact of adolescent girls' life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being. PMID:11432599

  11. EQPlanar: a maximum-likelihood method for accurate organ activity estimation from whole body planar projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimizing targeted radionuclide therapy requires patient-specific estimation of organ doses. The organ doses are estimated from quantitative nuclear medicine imaging studies, many of which involve planar whole body scans. We have previously developed the quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method and demonstrated its ability to provide more accurate activity estimates than conventional geometric-mean-based planar (CPlanar) processing methods using physical phantom and simulation studies. The QPlanar method uses the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm, 3D organ volume of interests (VOIs), and rigorous models of physical image degrading factors to estimate organ activities. However, the QPlanar method requires alignment between the 3D organ VOIs and the 2D planar projections and assumes uniform activity distribution in each VOI. This makes application to patients challenging. As a result, in this paper we propose an extended QPlanar (EQPlanar) method that provides independent-organ rigid registration and includes multiple background regions. We have validated this method using both Monte Carlo simulation and patient data. In the simulation study, we evaluated the precision and accuracy of the method in comparison to the original QPlanar method. For the patient studies, we compared organ activity estimates at 24 h after injection with those from conventional geometric mean-based planar quantification using a 24 h post-injection quantitative SPECT reconstruction as the gold standard. We also compared the goodness of fit of the measured and estimated projections obtained from the EQPlanar method to those from the original method at four other time points where gold standard data were not available. In the simulation study, more accurate activity estimates were provided by the EQPlanar method for all the organs at all the time points compared with the QPlanar method. Based on the patient data, we concluded that the EQPlanar method provided a

  12. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients

  13. The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Shelly; Ward, L Monique; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2008-05-01

    Research suggests that exposure to mass media depicting the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image disturbance in women. This meta-analysis examined experimental and correlational studies testing the links between media exposure to women's body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, and eating behaviors and beliefs with a sample of 77 studies that yielded 141 effect sizes. The mean effect sizes were small to moderate (ds = -.28, -.39, and -.30, respectively). Effects for some outcome variables were moderated by publication year and study design. The findings support the notion that exposure to media images depicting the thin-ideal body is related to body image concerns for women.

  14. Whole body muscle activity during the FIFA 11+ program evaluated by positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsuke Nakase

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+. The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. RESULTS: FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The hip abductor muscles and abdominal rectus were active during part 2 of the FIFA 11+ program.

  15. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eIturriaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation.

  16. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (pexercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573

  17. Growth activity of epidermal cells from different parts of human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jia-ke; SHENG Zhi-yong; MA Zhong-feng; YANG Hong-ming; LIU Qiang; Liang Li-ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Most epidermal cells used in skin tissue engineering are obtained from the skins of fetuses or prepuces,which can not be widely used in culturing and transplanting autologous epidermis for patients with extensive burn wounds. To solve the problem, in this study, we cultured epidermal cells from different parts of human body in vitro, and detected their growth activity.Methods Normal epidermal cells obtained from the prepuce, scalp, and axilla of male patients, were cultured and passaged. Their growth characteristics including adherent rate and growth activity were compared. Data were analyzed by homogeneity test of variance.Results In primary culture, the growth of epidermal cells from the prepuce was significantly faster than that of the epidermal cells from the scalp and axilla. In the cells obtained from the prepuce, 80% confluence was achieved on day 12, while on day 16 and day 20 in the cells from the scalp and axilla, respectively. However, no significant difference was detected in their growth and proliferation in the second passage.Conclusions Although the growth of epidermal cells obtained from the scalp and axilla is slower than that from the prepuce in primary culture, stable cell line can be established and used in preparation of auto-epidermal grafts for patients with extensive burn wounds. Therefore, the scalp and axillary skin should be considered as important sources of epidermal cells other than the prepuce.

  18. Process and device for showing the distribution of high levels of activity of radioactive substances using whole body scintillography devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the faults in imaging of whole body gamma cameras and scanners caused by 'pile-ups' and dead band effects, particularly at high levels of activity, the radiation impinging on the crystal is reduced by additional shielding material, where the camera field of view and if necessary, the whole body measuring field, is effectively limited by a mechanical window. The imaging faults at the beginning and end of the track produced are corrected or avoided. (orig.)

  19. The Pro12Ala Polymorphism of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene Modifies the Association of Physical Activity and Body Mass Changes in Polish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zarebska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is a key regulator of adipogenesis, responsible for fatty acid storage and maintaining energy balance in the human body. Studies on the functional importance of the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphic variants indicated that the observed alleles may influence body mass measurements; however, obtained results were inconsistent. We have decided to check if body mass changes observed in physically active participants will be modulated by the PPARG Pro12Ala genotype. The genotype distribution of the PPARG Pro12Ala allele was examined in a group of 201 Polish women measured for selected body mass variables before and after the completion of a 12-week training program. The results of our experiment suggest that PPARG genotype can modulate training-induced body mass measurements changes: after completion of the training program, Pro12/Pro12 homozygotes were characterised by a greater decrease of body fat mass measurements in comparison with 12Ala allele carriers. These results indicate that the PPARG 12Ala variant may impair the training-induced positive effects on body mass measurements; however, the detailed mechanism of such interaction remained unclear and observed correlation between PPARG genotype and body mass differential effects should be interpreted with caution.

  20. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  1. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20-30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20-30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development.

  2. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Brock

    Full Text Available Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on

  3. Psychoneuroendocrine immunology: perception of stress can alter body temperature and natural killer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, R N; Solvason, H B; Hsueh, C M; Rogers, C F; Demissie, S; Hiramoto, N S; Gauthier, D K; Lorden, J F; Ghanta, V K

    1999-01-01

    Psychoimmunology has been credited with using the mind as a way to alter immunity. The problem with this concept is that many of the current psychoimmunology techniques in use are aimed at alleviating stress effects on the immune system rather than at direct augmentation of immunity by the brain. Studies in animals provide a model that permits us to approach the difficulties associated with gaining an understanding of the CNS-immune system connection. A particular advantage of using animals over humans is that psychological and social contributions play a less prominent role for animals than for human subjects, since the animals are all inbred and reared under identical controlled conditions. If the insightful information provided by animal studies is correct, then psychotherapy for the treatment of diseases might be made more effective if some aspect of this knowledge is included in the design of the treatment. We emphasize conditioning as a regimen and an acceptable way to train the brain to remember an output pathway to raise immunity. We propose that a specific drug or perception (mild stress, represented by rotation, total body heating or handling) could substitute and kindle the same output pathway without the need for conditioning. If this view is correct, then instead of using conditioning, it may be possible to use an antigen to activate desired immune cells, and substitute a drug or an external environmental sensory stimulus (perception) to energize the output pathway to these cells. Alternatively, monitoring alterations of body temperature in response to a drug or perception might allow us to follow how effectively the brain is performing in altering immunity. Studies with animals suggest that there are alternative ways to use the mind to raise natural or acquired immunity in man.

  4. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antitumor Activities of Cultured Mycelia and Fruiting Bodies of the Elm Oyster Mushroom, Hypsizygus ulmarius (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeshma, Panavalappil; Ravikumar, Korattuvalappil S; Neethu, Mangalathmelathil N; Pandey, Meera; Zuhara, Karattuthodi Fathimathu; Janardhanan, Kainoor K

    2016-01-01

    Ethanoic extracts from the fruiting bodies and mycelia of the elm oyster mushroom, Hypsizygus ulmarius, were evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. Ethnolic extracts of fruiting body and mycelia showed 88%, 85%, 71%, and 85%, 65%, 70% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethyl benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities, respectively, at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan- and formalin- induced paw edema models. Diclofenac was used as the standard drug. In both models, the mycelia extract showed higher activity than the fruiting body extract. The antitumor effect of the extracts against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites cell-line-induced tumors showed significant antitumor activity. Mycochemical analysis confirmed the presence of many pharmacologically active compounds such as phenol, alkaloids, proteins, tannins, and polysaccharides. Among these, polysaccharides and phenolic compounds were present at a higher concentration in both extracts. These compounds might be largely responsible for the mushroom's medicinal properties. The results of this study indicate that H. ulmarius possesses significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. PMID:27481157

  5. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  6. Feasibility of MR-Based Body Composition Analysis in Large Scale Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Janne; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Romu, Thobias; Collins, Rory; Garratt, Steve; Bell, Jimmy D.; Borga, Magnus; Thomas, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Quantitative and accurate measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important for prevention and diagnosis of diseases related to obesity and muscle degeneration. Manually segmenting muscle and fat compartments in MR body-images is laborious and time-consuming, hindering implementation in large cohorts. In the present study, the feasibility and success-rate of a Dixon-based MR scan followed by an intensity-normalised, non-rigid, multi-atlas based segmentation was investigated in a cohort of 3,000 subjects. Materials and Methods 3,000 participants in the in-depth phenotyping arm of the UK Biobank imaging study underwent a comprehensive MR examination. All subjects were scanned using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with the dual-echo Dixon Vibe protocol, covering neck to knees. Subjects were scanned with six slabs in supine position, without localizer. Automated body composition analysis was performed using the AMRA Profiler™ system, to segment and quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and thigh muscles. Technical quality assurance was performed and a standard set of acceptance/rejection criteria was established. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all volume measurements and quality assurance metrics. Results Of the 3,000 subjects, 2,995 (99.83%) were analysable for body fat, 2,828 (94.27%) were analysable when body fat and one thigh was included, and 2,775 (92.50%) were fully analysable for body fat and both thigh muscles. Reasons for not being able to analyse datasets were mainly due to missing slabs in the acquisition, or patient positioned so that large parts of the volume was outside of the field-of-view. Discussion and Conclusions In conclusion, this study showed that the rapid UK Biobank MR-protocol was well tolerated by most subjects and sufficiently robust to achieve very high success-rate for body composition analysis. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource. PMID:27662190

  7. Analysis of body composition and nutritional status in Brazilian phenylketonuria patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Nalin, Tatiele; Castro, Kamila; van Rijn, Margreet; Derks, Terry G.J.; Perry, Ingrid D.S.; Mainieri, Alberto Scofano; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by phenylalanine (Phe) accumulation to toxic levels due to the low activity of phenylalanine-hydroxylase. PKU patients must follow a Phe-restricted diet, which may put them in risk of nutritional disturbances. Therefore, we aimed to characterize body composition parameters and nutritional status in Brazilian PKU patients also considering their metabolic control. Methods Twenty-seven treated PKU patients older than 5 years, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls, were analyzed for anthropometric features and body composition by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Patients' metabolic control was assessed by historical Phe levels. Results There was no effect of PKU type, time of diagnosis, or metabolic control for any analyzed parameter. About 75% of patients and controls were eutrophic, according to their BMI values. There were no difference between groups regarding body composition and other BIA-derived parameters. Conclusions Brazilian PKU patients do not show differences in body composition and nutritional status in comparison with controls, regardless metabolic control. Although similar to controls, PKU patients may be in risk of disturbed nutritional and metabolic markers as seen for the general population. PMID:27014574

  8. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55–64 yrs), young-old (65–74 yrs), and old (75–84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (Pathletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (Pmental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by ensuring the maintenance, also at older age, of a satisfactory body image. PMID:27611689

  9. Static and dynamic stability analysis using 3D-DDA with incision body scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianquan; Lin Gao; Liu Jun

    2006-01-01

    Discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) provides a powerful numerical tool for the analysis of discontinuous media. This method has been widely applied to the 2D analysis of discontinuous deformation. However, it is hindered from analyzing 3D rock engineering problems mainly due to the lack of reliable 3D contact detection algorithms for polyhedra.Contact detection is a key in 3-D DDA analysis. The limitations and advantages of existing contact detection schemes are discussed in this paper, and a new approach, called the incision body (IB), is proposed, taking into account the advantages of the existing methods. A computer code 3DIB, which uses the IB scheme as a 3D contact detection algorithm, was programmed with Visual C++. Static and dynamic stability analysis for three realistic engineering problems has been carried out. Furthermore, the focus is on studying the stability of a gravity dam on jointed rock foundation and dynamic stability of a fractured gravity dam subject to earthquake shaking. The simulation results show that the program 3DIB and incision body scheme are capable of detecting 3D block contacts correctly and hence simulating the open-close and slide process of jointed block masses. In addition, the code 3DIB could provide an effective tool for evaluating the safety of 3D dam structures, which is quite important for engineering problems.

  10. Antler and Body Size in Black-Tailed Deer: An Analysis of Cohort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Thalmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For long-lived species, environmental factors experienced early in life can have lasting effects persisting into adulthood. Large herbivores can be susceptible to cohort-wide declines in fitness as a result of decreases in forage availability, because of extrinsic factors, including extreme climate or high population densities. To examine effects of cohort-specific extrinsic factors on size of adults, we performed a retrospective analysis on harvest data of 450 male black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus over 19 years in central California, USA. We determined that population density of females had a more dominant effect than did precipitation on body size of males. Harvest of female deer resulted in increases in the overall size of males, even though a 6-year drought occurred during that treatment period. Body size was most influenced by female population density early in life, while antler size was highly affected by both weather early in life and the year directly before harvest. This study provides insights that improve our understanding of the role of cohort effects in body and antler size by cervids; and, in particular, that reduction in female population density can have a profound effect on the body and antler size of male deer.

  11. Dynamic Stability Analysis of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles Using Time-Lagged Aftbody Pitching Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemba, Cole D.; Braun, Robert D.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Clark, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis defines an analytic model for the pitching motion of blunt bodies during atmospheric entry. The proposed model is independent of the pitch damping sum coefficient present in the standard formulation of the equations of motion describing pitch oscillations of a decelerating blunt body, instead using the principle of a time-lagged aftbody moment as the forcing function for oscillation divergence. Four parameters, all with intuitive physical relevance, are introduced to fully define the aftbody moment and the associated time delay. It is shown that the dynamic oscillation responses typical to blunt bodies can be produced using hysteresis of the aftbody moment in place of the pitch damping coefficient. The approach used in this investigation is shown to be useful in understanding the governing physical mechanisms for blunt body dynamic stability and in guiding vehicle and mission design requirements. A validation case study using simulated ballistic range test data is conducted. From this, parameter identification is carried out through the use of a least squares optimizing routine. Results show good agreement with the limited existing literature for the parameters identified, suggesting that the model proposed could be validated by an experimental ballistic range test series. The trajectories produced by the identified parameters were found to match closely those from the MER ballistic range tests for a wide array of initial conditions and can be identified with a reasonable number of ballistic range shots and computational effort.

  12. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  13. Dynamic analysis on generalized linear elastic body subjected to large scale rigid rotations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘占芳; 颜世军; 符志

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of a generalized linear elastic body undergoing large rigid rotations is investigated. The generalized linear elastic body is described in kine-matics through translational and rotational deformations, and a modified constitutive relation for the rotational deformation is proposed between the couple stress and the curvature tensor. Thus, the balance equations of momentum and moment are used for the motion equations of the body. The floating frame of reference formulation is applied to the elastic body that conducts rotations about a fixed axis. The motion-deformation coupled model is developed in which three types of inertia forces along with their incre-ments are elucidated. The finite element governing equations for the dynamic analysis of the elastic body under large rotations are subsequently formulated with the aid of the constrained variational principle. A penalty parameter is introduced, and the rotational angles at element nodes are treated as independent variables to meet the requirement of C1 continuity. The elastic body is discretized through the isoparametric element with 8 nodes and 48 degrees-of-freedom. As an example with an application of the motion-deformation coupled model, the dynamic analysis on a rotating cantilever with two spatial layouts relative to the rotational axis is numerically implemented. Dynamic frequencies of the rotating cantilever are presented at prescribed constant spin velocities. The maximal rigid rotational velocity is extended for ensuring the applicability of the linear model. A complete set of dynamical response of the rotating cantilever in the case of spin-up maneuver is examined, it is shown that, under the ultimate rigid rotational velocities less than the maximal rigid rotational velocity, the stress strength may exceed the material strength tolerance even though the displacement and rotational angle responses are both convergent. The influence of the cantilever layouts on their responses and

  14. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH)

  15. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  16. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  17. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children's body mass index.

    OpenAIRE

    Alkon, A; Crowley, AA; Neelon, SE; Hill, S.; Pan, Y.; Nguyen, V.; Rose, R.; Savage, E; Forestieri, N; Shipman, L; Kotch, JB

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A seven-month randomized control tr...

  18. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness among School Children in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Lin Hsieh; Min-Li Chen; Chiu-Mieh Huang; Wen-Chyuan Chen; Chun-Huei Li; Li-Chun Chang

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed...

  19. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  20. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  1. Activity of Ligninolytic Enzymes during Growth and Fruiting Body Development of White Rot Fungi Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPPY WIDIASTUTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus was observed during somatic and fruiting body development in solid substrate fermentation using empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFB. The enzyme activity was dominated by laccase both of Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus. The laccase activity on somatic phase (mycelium growth was higher compared to that of fruiting body formation phase. The laccase activity of Omphalina sp. was slightly higher compared to that of P. ostreatus. The peak activity of manganese peroxidase (MnP for Omphalina sp. was observed two weeks after inoculation, while P. ostreatus had two peaks i.e. two and four weeks after inoculation period. The MnP activity of P. ostreatus was higher compared to that of Omphalina sp. Omphalina sp. growth in EFB did not secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP in contrast to P. ostreatus. The peak of LiP activity of P. ostreatus was reached two and four weeks after inoculation. The MnP and LiP activities declined during the development of fruiting bodies while laccase increased both in Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus. It seems that the activities of ligninolytic enzyme profile were regulated in line with developmental phase of growth both in Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus.

  2. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  3. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  4. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p<0.001. The bioimpedance variables also presented significant higher values in this group. Significant difference was found in the confidence interval of the vector analysis performed for both the patients and healthy individuals (p<0.0001. The tolerance intervals showed that 55.20% of the patients were dehydrated, 10.30% presented visible edema, and 34.50% were within normal levels of hydration. Bioimpedance and vector analysis revealed that 52% of the patients presented decreased cell mass while 14.00% presented increased cell mass. CONCLUSIONS: the differences in the body composition of patients and healthy individuals were revealed through bioimpedance and vector analysis but not through their measures of arm circumference and arm muscle area.

  5. Acoustic analysis of lightweight auto-body based on finite element method and boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xinhua; ZHU Ping; LIN Zhongqin; ZHANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    A lightweight automotive prototype using alter- native materials and gauge thickness is studied by a numeri- cal method. The noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance is the main target of this study. In the range of 1-150 Hz, the frequency response function (FRF) of the body structure is calculated by a finite element method (FEM) to get the dynamic behavior of the auto-body structure. The pressure response of the interior acoustic domain is solved by a boundary element method (BEM). To find the most contrib- uting panel to the inner sound pressure, the panel acoustic contribution analysis (PACA) is performed. Finally, the most contributing panel is located and the resulting structural optimization is found to be more efficient.

  6. Renormalization group analysis of ultracold Fermi gases with two-body attractive interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyong; Chi, Zimeng; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zaijun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new functional renormalization group (RG) strategy to investigate the many-body physics of interacting ultracold Fermi gases. By mapping the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) action of Fermi gases onto a complex φ4-model, we can obtain the closed flow equation in the one-loop approximation. An analysis of the emerging RG flow gives the ground state behavior. The Hamiltonian of a Fermi gas with a two-body attractive interaction is used as a demonstration to clarify our treatment. The fixed point structure reveals not only the condensation phase transition, but also the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover. The effect of the imaginary time renormalization is also discussed. It is shown that for the dynamical field configuration our RG procedure can reproduce the well known theoretical results of BCS-BEC crossover, while under a static approximation the phase transition takes place at a higher critical temperature.

  7. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (Pbody mass index (BMI) and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (Pbody image (dis)satisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by ensuring the maintenance, also at older age, of a satisfactory body image. PMID:27611689

  8. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors Among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    OpenAIRE

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62±12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences pre- to post-program. Strength training was associated with significant improvements in several dimensions of body image, health-related qual...

  9. A Comparing of Body Composition Components in Physically Active and Inactive Male Students of Sharoud University of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Broghani; mohamadreza hamedinea; mohamadreza asad; mehdi zarae

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the body mass indexes and physical activities of 11-14 year -old adolescent boys in Khooshab.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 300 male students aging 11-14 years old in Khooshab (2009). Subjects were selected via random sampling. Underweight, overweight and obesity were defined based on the 5th, 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (BMI) for age and sex, respectively, as proposed by CDC, 2000. Physical activity ...

  10. Rigid Body Modes Influence On Microvibration Analysis-Application To Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laduree, G.; Fransen, S.; Baldesi, G.; Pflieger, I.

    2012-07-01

    affecting steady state responses due to numerical roundoffs coming from the coupled mode shape extraction method and from the associated non numerical zeros frequencies. Geometric rigid body modes are usually the preferred solution for dynamic transient analysis but are not retained by NASTRAN when the chosen eigensolver is Lanczos, even using a SUPORT card. The SWARM microvibration problem described above has been considered as a benchmark case for various codes (NASTRAN, PERMAS, DCAP - multi-body software) and methods (direct or modal transients). A specific DMAP in NASTRAN has been written to overcome the limitation imposed by the Lanczos method and considerations on the conditioning of the FEM are discussed. An assessment on the accuracy of the different rigid body modes calculation methods is finally proposed.

  11. Interrelationships between morphometric variables and rounded fish body yields evaluated by path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify which morphometric measures and ratios are more directly associated with the weight and body yields of rounded fish. A total of 225 specimens of rounded fish (59 pacus, 61 tambaquis, 52 tambacus and 53 paquis with average weight of 972.43 g (±115.52 g were sampled, stunned, slaughtered, weighed, measured, and processed for morphometric and processing yield analysis. The morphometric measures taken were: standard length (CP; head length (CC; head height (AC; body height (A1; and body width (L1. For completeness, the following morphometric ratios were calculated: CC/CP, AC/CP, A1/CP, L1/CP, CC/A1, AC/A1, L1/A1, CC/AC and L1/CC. The yields of carcass, filet, rib and filet with rib were estimated after processing. Initially, a "stepwise" procedure was performed in order to eliminate multicollinearity problems among the morphometric variables, and the phenotypic correlations were then calculated for the dependent variables (weight and body yields and independent variables (morphometric measurements and ratios. These correlations were later deployed in direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable were measured in percentage terms. The CC and A1 measures were important for determining the weight of rounded fish. The CC/A1 ratio was the variable most directly associated with carcass yield. For filet, filet with rib and rib yields, the L1/CC ratio was found to be more appropriate and can be used directly.

  12. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  13. A feasibility study of altered spatial distribution of losses induced by eddy currents in body composition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sepponen Raimo E; Blomqvist Kim H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tomographic imaging has revealed that the body mass index does not give a reliable state of overall fitness. However, high measurement costs make the tomographic imaging unsuitable for large scale studies or repeated individual use. This paper reports an experimental investigation of a new electromagnetic method and its feasibility for assessing body composition. The method is called body electrical loss analysis (BELA). Methods The BELA method uses a high-Q parallel reson...

  14. The efficacy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) in monitoring body composition changes during treatment of restrictive eating disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saladino, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    Reviews Treating restrictive eating disorder patients is metabolically and psychologically complex. Determining body composition is an important diagnostic and treatment option for these patients, because it ascertains whether the acquisition of body mass during refeeding is metabolically appropriate - ideally an approximate 20/80% - 25/75% fat/lean body mass ratio. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) during the treatment period of p...

  15. Controlled localization of functionally active proteins to inclusion bodies using leucine zippers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Lim Choi

    Full Text Available Inclusion bodies (IBs are typically non-functional particles of aggregated proteins. However, some proteins in fusion with amyloid-like peptides, viral coat proteins, and cellulose binding domains (CBDs generate IB particles retaining the original functions in cells. Here, we attempted to generate CBD IBs displaying functional leucine zipper proteins (LZs as bait for localizing cytosolic proteins in E. coli. When a red fluorescent protein was tested as a target protein, microscopic observations showed that the IBs red-fluoresced strongly. When different LZ pairs with KDs of 8-1,000 µM were tested as the bait and prey, the localization of the red fluorescence appeared to change following the affinities between the LZs, as observed by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. This result proposed that LZ-tagged CBD IBs can be applied as an in vivo matrix to entrap cytosolic proteins in E. coli while maintaining their original activities. In addition, easy detection of localization to IBs provides a unique platform for the engineering and analyses of protein-protein interactions in E. coli.

  16. A Review of the Role of Anticholinergic Activity in Lewy Body Disease and Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Yuka; Hori, Koji; Konishi, Kimiko; Tani, Masayuki; Tomioka, Hiroi; Akashi, Norihisa; Hosoi, Misa; Inamoto, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Sayaka; Kikuchi, Nodoka; Takahashi, Akari; Hachisu, Mitsugu

    2015-01-01

    We have previously proposed a hypothesis in which we argue that anticholinergic activity (AA) appears endogenously in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Acetylcholine (ACh) controls both cognitive function and inflammation. Consequently, when the downregulation of ACh reaches critical levels, the inflammatory system is upregulated and proinflammatory cytokines with AA appear. However, factors other than downregulation of ACh can produce AA; even if ACh downregulation does not reach critical levels, AA can still appear if one of these other AA-producing factors is added. These factors can include neurocognitive disorders other than AD, such as delirium and Lewy body disease (LBD). In delirium, ACh downregulation fails to reach critical levels, but AA appears due to the use of medicines, physical illnesses or mental stress (termed 'AA inserts'). In LBD, we speculate that AA appears endogenously, even in the absence of severe cognitive dysfunction, for 2 reasons. One reason is that patterns of ACh deterioration are different in LBD from those in AD, with synergistic actions between amyloid and α-synuclein thought to cause additional or severe symptoms that accelerate the disease course. The second reason is that AA occurs through disinhibition by reduced cortisol levels that result from severe autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction in LBD.

  17. Systematic approach to training. Experiences from the training activities of regulatory body personnel in STUK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the experiences obtained of a training programme for nuclear power plant inspectors arranged in the 90's by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK). In the implementation of the programme, a systematic method was used to analyse the training needs, to plan, develop and implement the training programme as well as to assess the programme's implementation and results. The method used, 'SAT Ae Systematic Approach to Training', is presented in 'Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, A Guidebook', IAEA Technical Report Series No. 380, which is a publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is recommended that this method be applied in the planning and implementation of nuclear power plant personnel training. The application of the method as a tool for developing the qualifications of nuclear power plant inspectors shows that the method is well suited for use in Finland. Until the 90's, STUK had no systematic approach to training activities. Some training was arranged internally, but training in most respects meant participation in external training events and international seminars. A more systematic approach was adopted in the early 90's. The main goal was to define basic competence profiles for inspectors working in different fields and to provide an internal basic training programme not available externally. The development of the training activities called for a profound renewal of the training function to ensure a systematic approach and high quality. The experiences gained in STUK are useful in co-operation with Eastern and Central European regulatory bodies; they can be utilized when the qualifications of personnel who carry out inspections are developed. This will extensively contribute to the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  18. Systematic approach to training. Experiences from the training activities of regulatory body personnel in STUK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, I.

    1998-04-01

    The report describes the experiences obtained of a training programme for nuclear power plant inspectors arranged in the 90`s by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK). In the implementation of the programme, a systematic method was used to analyse the training needs, to plan, develop and implement the training programme as well as to assess the programme`s implementation and results. The method used, `SAT Ae Systematic Approach to Training`, is presented in `Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, A Guidebook`, IAEA Technical Report Series No. 380, which is a publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is recommended that this method be applied in the planning and implementation of nuclear power plant personnel training. The application of the method as a tool for developing the qualifications of nuclear power plant inspectors shows that the method is well suited for use in Finland. Until the 90`s, STUK had no systematic approach to training activities. Some training was arranged internally, but training in most respects meant participation in external training events and international seminars. A more systematic approach was adopted in the early 90`s. The main goal was to define basic competence profiles for inspectors working in different fields and to provide an internal basic training programme not available externally. The development of the training activities called for a profound renewal of the training function to ensure a systematic approach and high quality. The experiences gained in STUK are useful in co-operation with Eastern and Central European regulatory bodies; they can be utilized when the qualifications of personnel who carry out inspections are developed. This will extensively contribute to the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.). 2 refs.

  19. Development of an advanced pitch active control system for a wide body jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Wiley A.; Rising, Jerry J.; Davis, Walt J.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced PACS control law was developed for a commercial wide-body transport (Lockheed L-1011) by using modern control theory. Validity of the control law was demonstrated by piloted flight simulation tests on the NASA Langley visual motion simulator. The PACS design objective was to develop a PACS that would provide good flying qualities to negative 10 percent static stability margins that were equivalent to those of the baseline aircraft at a 15 percent static stability margin which is normal for the L-1011. Also, the PACS was to compensate for high-Mach/high-g instabilities that degrade flying qualities during upset recoveries and maneuvers. The piloted flight simulation tests showed that the PACS met the design objectives. The simulation demonstrated good flying qualities to negative 20 percent static stability margins for hold, cruise and high-speed flight conditions. Analysis and wind tunnel tests performed on other Lockheed programs indicate that the PACS could be used on an advanced transport configuration to provide a 4 percent fuel savings which results from reduced trim drag by flying at negative static stability margins.

  20. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  1. The Atomic Fingerprint: Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, Bernard [Carnegie-Mellon University

    1972-01-01

    The nuclei of atoms are stable only when they contain certain numbers of neutrons and protons. Since nuclei can absorb additional neutrons, which in many cases results in the conversion of a stable nucleus to a radioactive one, neutron activation analysis is possible.

  2. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  3. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  4. Design Development and Analysis of Manifold and Coupler Body of Air Inflator Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant.V.H, Ramesh BabuK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Injection molding is a most common and important of all plastic processing process. This process is extremely versatile, and can produce very complex shaped parts, with the use of multi-sided molds. This paper deals with the design development and mold flow analysis of injection mold tool for two components of same assembly and are of different materials (i.e., manifold and coupler body. The part was analyzed with high end analysis software and accordingly the design has been carried out. The tool has been manufactured after some trials and corrections. The mould flow analysis software is being used to predict the parameters like runner location, fill time and weld lines etc before production of the tool. Any product to be manufactured invariably requires machine and tool. Tool design and development is specialized and critical area, the tool design should match the machine specification and should be accurate and economical for good product.

  5. "Mortui vivos docent" or who gives his body to science? The analysis of the personal questionnaires of Polish donors in the Conscious Body Donation Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bajor

    Full Text Available The Conscious Body Donation Program conducted since 2003 by the Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice was the first innovative project aimed at obtaining informed donors' bodies for the purpose of teaching anatomy in Poland. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the declared donors' characteristics and to establish the possible motivation for body donation. A total of 244 application files were reviewed and the following information was analyzed: donor's age, age at which the decision to donate the body was made, donor's place of residence and declared nationality, family background, education and profession, family structure and religion. Our results showed that mainly elderly people decided to donate their bodies (68.5 ± 11.84 years, living mostly in large and medium-sized cities. Men--donors often lived in small towns. Most of the donors were of blue-collar parentage, completed secondary education and at the time of taking decision to donate where married and retired. Widows were more likely to make the decision to donate than widowers. Most of our donors were Catholic. Our analysis of the profile of Polish donors may be useful to understand better for which groups of people death is not to be perceived as the end, and may become a value, which can be beneficial to living people.

  6. Quantitative analysis of dietary iron utilization for erythropoiesis in response to body iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo-Tezuka, Yukari; Noguchi-Sasaki, Mariko; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yorozu, Keigo; Shimonaka, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoiesis requires large amounts of iron for hemoglobin synthesis. There are two sources of iron for erythropoiesis, dietary and stored iron; however, their relative contributions to erythropoiesis remain unknown. In this study, we used the stable iron isotope (57)Fe to quantify synthesis of hemoglobin derived from dietary iron. Using this method, we investigated the activities of dietary iron absorption and the utilization of dietary iron for erythropoiesis in responses to stimulated erythropoiesis and to interventions to alter body iron status. Under iron-loaded conditions, the activity of dietary iron absorption was clearly lowered in response to up-regulation of hepcidin, although the estimated activity of iron release from stored iron was not compared with that under control conditions. This result was supported by the observation that two duodenal iron transporters, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin, were downregulated by iron loading, although the levels of expression of ferroportin in iron storage tissues were not changed by iron loading under erythropoietic stimulation by epoetin-β pegol (C.E.R.A., a long-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agent). These results indicate that the dietary iron absorption system is more sensitive to body iron status than are reticuloendothelial iron- release mechanisms. Our data indicated that there could be a regulatory mechanism favoring use of stored iron over dietary iron under iron-loaded conditions. PMID:26911670

  7. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  8. Infants' Emerging Sensitivity to Emotional Body Expressions: Insights from Asymmetrical Frontal Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive responding to others' emotional body expressions is an essential social skill in humans. Using event-related brain potentials, it has recently been shown that the ability to discriminate between emotional body expressions develops between 4 and 8 months of age. However, it is not clear whether the perception of emotional body…

  9. Fusion-activated Ca(2+ entry: an "active zone" of elevated Ca(2+ during the postfusion stage of lamellar body exocytosis in rat type II pneumocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pika Miklavc

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ is essential for vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in virtually all types of regulated exocytoses. However, in contrast to the well-known effects of a high cytoplasmic Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](c in the prefusion phase, the occurrence and significance of Ca(2+ signals in the postfusion phase have not been described before.We studied isolated rat alveolar type II cells using previously developed imaging techniques. These cells release pulmonary surfactant, a complex of lipids and proteins, from secretory vesicles (lamellar bodies in an exceptionally slow, Ca(2+- and actin-dependent process. Measurements of fusion pore formation by darkfield scattered light intensity decrease or FM 1-43 fluorescence intensity increase were combined with analysis of [Ca(2+](c by ratiometric Fura-2 or Fluo-4 fluorescence measurements. We found that the majority of single lamellar body fusion events were followed by a transient (t(1/2 of decay = 3.2 s rise of localized [Ca(2+](c originating at the site of lamellar body fusion. [Ca(2+](c increase followed with a delay of approximately 0.2-0.5 s (method-dependent and in the majority of cases this signal propagated throughout the cell (at approximately 10 microm/s. Removal of Ca(2+ from, or addition of Ni(2+ to the extracellular solution, strongly inhibited these [Ca(2+](c transients, whereas Ca(2+ store depletion with thapsigargin had no effect. Actin-GFP fluorescence around fused LBs increased several seconds after the rise of [Ca(2+](c. Both effects were reduced by the non-specific Ca(2+ channel blocker SKF96365.Fusion-activated Ca(2+entry (FACE is a new mechanism that leads to [Ca(2+](c transients at the site of vesicle fusion. Substantial evidence from this and previous studies indicates that fusion-activated Ca(2+ entry enhances localized surfactant release from type II cells, but it may also play a role for compensatory endocytosis and other cellular functions.

  10. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  11. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary l

  12. Different body mass index grade on the risk of developing glioma: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zifeng Dai; Qilin Huang; Haipeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported conflicting results about the risk of developing glioma and different body mass index.So we decided to execute a meta-analysis to solve the dispute.Methods: Comprehensive literature retrieval was carried in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE up to September 15, 2014.Hand literature information retrieval was not carried.Six studies were fit for this meta-analysis.Pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of different body mass index grade were performed by fixed/random-effects models, except for normal weight which was referent.Results: Data of 3726 cases were included.Compared with normal weight (20 kg.m-2 < body mass index (BMI) ≤ 24.9 kg.m-2), the underweight (BMI ≤ 20 kg.m-2) might have lower incidence on the risk of developing glioma (HR =1.08, 95 % CI ranged 0.74 to 1.58, P =0.678).While the overweight (25 kg.m-2 < BMI ≤ 29.9 kg.m-2)and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg.m-2) were performed as a risk factor of developing glioma.The pooled HR of overweight group was 1.12 (95 % CI ranged 1.02 to 1.22, P=0.013);the pooled HR of obesity was 1.14 (95 % CI ranged 1.02 to 1.27, P =0.017).Sensitivity analysis approved that our results were stable.There was no publication bias of these studies.Conclusions: Underweight could decrease the risk of developing glioma.Excess BMI was considered as a risk factor to develop glioma.

  13. The neighborhood social environment and body mass index among youth: a mediation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Veitch Jenny; van Stralen Maartje M; Chinapaw Mai JM; te Velde Saskia J; Crawford David; Salmon Jo; Timperio Anna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to examine associations between aspects of the neighborhood social environment and body mass index (BMI) in youth both cross-sectionally and prospectively; and whether this association was mediated by physical activity, screen-time and sedentary time. Methods Data were collected in 2004 and 2006 in high and low socio-economic areas of Melbourne, Australia. In 2004, 185 children aged 8-9 years (47% boys) and 359 children aged 13-15 years (45% boys) particip...

  14. Physical Activity Advertisements That Feature Daily Well-Being Improve Autonomy and Body Image in Overweight Women but Not Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Segar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40–60 yr, n=1690 read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1 better health, (2 weight loss, or (3 daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants’ perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  15. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  16. Analysis of application of various materials for manufacturing parts of motor car bodies in automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Вікторія Григорівна; Помазков, Михайло Валерійович; Караваєва, Наталія Євгенівна

    2016-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of applying various steels for manufacturing motor-car bodies. There is a brief description of cold-rolled sheet steels RRST 1405 produced according to the standards DIN 1623 and DIN 1541; UST 1203, UST 1303 according to DIN 1624 and DIN 1606; ST 4, 08MnSiAlTi, 07MnNbAl and also a classification and a brief description of steels made according to USLAB: IF-steel with increased formability, thermo-strengthened BH-steel, dual phase (DP) steels, transformation induc...

  17. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist Kim H; Lundbom Jesper; Lundbom Nina; Sepponen Raimo E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm) were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 c...

  18. Scaling analysis of paces of fetal breathing, gross-body and extremity movements

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J D; Murphy, P; Russel, W.A.; Lowery, C L

    2007-01-01

    Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we studied the scaling properties of the time instances (occurrence) of the fetal breathing, gross-body, and extremity movements scored on a second by second basis from the recorded ultrasound measurements of 49 fetuses. The DFA exponent α of all the three movements of the fetuses varied between 0.63 and 1.1. We found an increase in α obtained for the movement due to breathing as a function of the gestational age while this trend was not observed fo...

  19. Noise Analysis of an Lightweight Auto-body Using FEM/BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zai-wei; ZHU Ping; LIANG Xin-hua

    2007-01-01

    Since numeric simulation can save much costs, it is widely used in automobile design. Besides, noise, vibration and harshness(NVH) performance is one major target for enginer to design a competitive product. In this paper, NVH performance of a lightweight auto-body prototype using alternative materials and gauge thickness were studied by finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM). In order to find the most contributing panel to the peak value of response, the panel acoustic contribution analysis (PACA) was performed and the most effective modification area was located. Finally, the sound pressure was reduced by putting damping material on these parts.

  20. Nuclear Pairing from Two-body Microscopic Forces: Analysis of the Cooper Pair Wavefunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Finelli, P; Holt, J W

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we studied the behavior of the pairing gaps $\\Delta_F$ as a function of the Fermi momentum $k_F$ for neutron and nuclear matter in all relevant angular momentum channels where superfluidity is believed to naturally emerge. The calculations employed realistic chiral nucleon-nucleon potentials with the inclusion of three-body forces and self-energy effects. In this contribution, after a detailed description of the numerical method we employed in the solution of the BCS equations, we will show a preliminary analysis of the Cooper pair wavefunctions.

  1. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    OpenAIRE

    Itziar Churruca; Jonatan Miranda; Arrate Lasa; María Bustamante; Idoia Larretxi; Edurne Simon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 +/- 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrie...

  2. Fruit-body production and 137Cs-activity of Cantharellus cibarius after nitrogen and potassium fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the possible effect of fertilization with nitrogen and potassium on fruit-body production and 137Cs-activity concentration of Cantharellus cibarius was carried out in a pine forest in the eastern part of central Sweden. Nitrogen, in the form of ammonium nitrate, was added twice, in 1984 and 1990, at a dose of 150 kg N ha-1. Fruit-body production was measured during 1985-1991, and the 137Cs-activity concentration during 1988-1991. Fruit-body production showed a pronounced variation between years. The ratio between the highest annual production and the lowest was about 20. No statistically significant effects of either the fertilization treatments on production were observed. However, nitrogen fertilization showed a tendency towards a decrease in production by about 30%. The field site is situated in an area substantially affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The fruit-bodies on the site had a clearly elevated activity concentration of 137Cs, which averaged 15 Bq q-1 d.m. for all plots and years. On the 4.5 ha study site, the 137Cs-activity concentration varied by a factor of 10 between individual plots. The year with the highest fruit-body production had the lowest 137Cs-activity concentration. The fertilizations lacked statistically significant effect in 137Cs-activity concentration, but a 50% reduction was indicated for potassium fertilization causing the concentration to fall below the Swedish health limit for human food. 31 refs, 3 figs

  3. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Larsen, Torben;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior...... to the expected feeding time both in the cases of restrictive and ad libitum feeding indicating a changed RFI-High feeding motivation and a higher risk of developing stereotypic activity. The body weight gain and the feed consumption were higher for RFI-High than for RFI-Low when feeding ad libitum indicating...... on the present results, mink characterised as RFI-Low would be preferable as breeders because they involve lower feed costs and seem to be less susceptible to immunosuppression. They also seem to have less risk of developing stereotypic activity, which is beneficial for the welfare....

  4. Multi-element analysis of the obese subject by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Leeds facility for in vivo neutron activation analysis has been modified and calibrated for the simultaneous measurement of nitrogen, potassium, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus and calcium in obese patients weighing up to 210 kg. The effects of body size and shape were incorporated into the calibration by measuring 14 anthropomorphic phantoms of known composition representing individual patients being treated for obesity. The phantoms were constructed from tissue substitutes representing lean skeletal and adipose tissues, arranged to simulate the distributions of the corresponding tissues within the patients, as visualised by CT scanning. The precision of the method, determined by measuring a single phantom ten times over a period of ten weeks, is between two and three per cent for all elements except calcium, for which it is 11.3%. Accuracy is estimated to be similar to precision. The procedure has been used to study changes in body composition of patients undergoing therapeutic starvation. (author)

  5. Body mass index, physical activity and quality of life of ovarian cancer survivors: Time to get moving?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.; Smits, E.; Lopes, A.; Das, N.; Hughes, G.; Talaat, A.; Pollard, A.; Bouwman, F.; Massuger, L.F.; Bekkers, R.; Galaal, K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA) and the quality of life (QoL) of ovarian cancer survivors. METHODS: We performed a two-centre cross-sectional study of women who had been treated for ovarian cancer between January 2007 and December 2014 at

  6. Physical activity, diet and gene-environment interactions in relation to body mass index and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnehed, Nina; Tynelius, Per; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between genetic susceptibility to obesity, physical activity (PA), dietary fibre, sugar and fat intakes and 4-year changes in body mass index (BMI) and attained waist circumference (WC) in a cohort of 287 monozygotic and 189...

  7. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…

  8. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...

  9. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Jellesma; J. Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study: Child

  10. Janice VanCleave's the Human Body for Every Kid: Easy Activities That Make Learning Science Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    This book provides fun experiments that teach known concepts about the human body. It is designed to teach facts, concepts, and problem-solving strategies. The scientific concepts presented can be applied to many similar situations, and the exercises and activities were selected for their ability to be explained in basic terms with little…

  11. Body size, physical activity and risk of colorectal cancer with or without the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Simons, C.C.J.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F. de; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We investigated how body size and physical activity influence the risk of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: In the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852), risk factors were self-reported at baseline in 1986. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 603

  12. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  13. Analysis by neutron activation analysis a some ancient Dacian ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, A

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Dacian ceramics, from three different establishments from Romanian territory have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. A series of elements has been determined: Ba, Eu, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm. Ba is the element that could be considered to differentiate relatively the three groups of ceramics.

  14. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  15. Leptin Analog Antagonizes Leptin Effects on Food Intake and Body Weight but Mimics Leptin-Induced Vagal Afferent Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, J H; Simasko, S. M.; Ritter, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    A recombinantly produced murine leptin analog (MLA) antagonizes leptin-induced signaling in cell lines that express the long form of the leptin receptor. However, the effects of MLA on the activity of leptin-sensitive neurons and on central neural controls of food intake have not been reported. Here we report effects of MLA on food intake and body weight in adult rats and on the activity of cultured rat vagal afferent neurons. Daily intracerebroventricular coinjection of MLA with exogenous le...

  16. Analysis of the Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Female Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sirus Alipoor; Ali M. Goodarzi; Maryam Z. Nezhad; Lale Zaheri

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Body image is a psychological construct which refers to self-concept including self image and feelings an individual perceives about his or her body. Body image can significantly affect the way an individual perceives about his or her body. Studies on relationship between physical self-concept and body image in some countries showed that the women's body dissatisfaction has led to increase in eating disorders. The question was raised whether such a relationship may exist in...

  17. The significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a five-year period, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) to investigate the quantitative relationship between internal body burdens of a number of elements of environmental health significance and their respective concentrations in hair. The use of nuclear-related analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence, particle-induced X-ray emission and radiotracers, was emphasized. One aspect of the CRP focused on studies in man, using autopsy cases, of mineral distribution in five tissues, i.e. liver, kidney, lung, brain and bone in addition to hair, and the elements of primary importance were As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn. Emphasis was placed on analytical quality assurance. Hair and internal tissue samples were obtained from subjects from Bulgaria, China, the former German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Japan, Norway and Sweden. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Multiscale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamborino, Diana; Martinell, Julio J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps which are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions we show that the multiscale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also be extracted from the analysis.

  19. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  20. Fractal analysis of the structural complexity of the connective tissue in human carotid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, Diego; Porzionato, Andrea; Tortorella, Cinzia; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) may undergo different structural changes during perinatal development, aging, or in response to environmental stimuli. In the previous literature, morphometric approaches to evaluate these changes have considered quantitative first order parameters, such as volumes or densities, while changes in spatial disposition and/or complexity of structural components have not yet been considered. In the present study, different strategies for addressing morphological complexity of CB, apart from the overall amount of each tissue component, were evaluated and compared. In particular, we considered the spatial distribution of connective tissue in the carotid bodies of young control subjects, young opiate-related deaths and aged subjects, through analysis of dispersion (Morisita's index), gray level co-occurrence matrix (entropy, angular second moment, variance, correlation), and fractal analysis (fractal dimension, lacunarity). Opiate-related deaths and aged subjects showed a comparable increase in connective tissue with respect to young controls. However, the Morisita's index (p < 0.05), angular second moment (p < 0.05), fractal dimension (p < 0.01), and lacunarity (p < 0.01) permitted to identify significant differences in the disposition of the connective tissue between these two series. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also calculated to evaluate the efficiency of each parameter. The fractal dimension and lacunarity, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.9651 (excellent accuracy) and 0.8835 (good accuracy), respectively, showed the highest discriminatory power. They evidenced higher level of structural complexity in the carotid bodies of opiate-related deaths than old controls, due to more complex branching of intralobular connective tissue. Further analyses will have to consider the suitability of these approaches to address other morphological features of the CB, such as different cell populations, vascularization, and innervation

  1. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...... with an analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  2. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  3. Improvement in the accuracy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for whole body and regional analysis of body composition: validation using piglets and methodologic considerations in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, J A; Weiler, H A; Atkinson, S A

    1997-04-01

    Previously, we conducted dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-1000/W) scans and carcass analysis of piglets to evaluate the Pediatric Whole Body software (PedWB) (V5.35) for use in infants. A software upgrade designed for infant whole body (InfWB) (V5.56) led to a reassessment of DXA by: 1) reanalysis of the original scans using InfWB software and 2) comparison of InfWB-estimates of bone mineral content (BMC) and lean and fat mass with chemical analysis. Other assessments included 1) methods of regional analysis and 2) artifacts and the Infant Table Pad in the scan field. The mean coefficients of variation for InfWB whole body measures in small piglets (n = 10, weight 1575 +/- 73 g) and large piglets (n = 10, weight 5894 +/- 208 g) were less than 2.6% except for fat mass which was higher (8.0% versus 6.3% and 6.6% versus 3.5%, respectively) compared with PedWB. In large piglets InfWB produced good estimates of BMC, lean and fat masses. In small piglets, fat mass by InfWB was correlated with chemical analysis, but not by PedWB. There was improvement in the estimation of BMC with InfWB, from 27 +/- 2.2 g to 32 +/- 2.3 g (carcass ash = 38 +/- 3.3 g). Femur BMC analysis by InfWB was precise and was accurate when compared with chemical analysis. Artifacts in the DXA scan field (diapers and blankets) resulted in an increase of the DXA-estimated fat and lean masses. The Infant Table Pad increased the estimate of fat mass in a small piglet by 50%, thus further study is required before it is used routinely. Improvements of the DXA technology have resulted in a more accurate tool, if scanning procedures are carefully implemented. PMID:9098865

  4. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  5. A novel method for the measurement of linear body segment parameters during clinical gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geil, Mark D

    2013-09-01

    Clinical gait analysis is a valuable tool for the understanding of motion disorders and treatment outcomes. Most standard models used in gait analysis rely on predefined sets of body segment parameters that must be measured on each individual. Traditionally, these parameters are measured using calipers and tape measures. The process can be time consuming and is prone to several sources of error. This investigation explored a novel method for rapid recording of linear body segment parameters using magnetic-field based digital calipers commonly used for a different purpose in prosthetics and orthotics. The digital method was found to be comparable to traditional in all linear measures and data capture was significantly faster with the digital method, with mean time savings for 10 measurements of 2.5 min. Digital calipers only record linear distances, and were less accurate when diameters were used to approximate limb circumferences. Experience in measuring BSPs is important, as an experienced measurer was significantly faster than a graduate student and showed less difference between methods. Comparing measurement of adults vs. children showed greater differences with adults, and some method-dependence. If the hardware is available, digital caliper measurement of linear BSPs is accurate and rapid.

  6. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution.

  7. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie B. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution.

  8. Conceptual Design and Structural Analysis of an Open Rotor Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Through a recent NASA contract, Boeing Research and Technology in Huntington Beach, CA developed and optimized a conceptual design of an open rotor hybrid wing body aircraft (HWB). Open rotor engines offer a significant potential for fuel burn savings over turbofan engines, while the HWB configuration potentially allows to offset noise penalties through possible engine shielding. Researchers at NASA Langley converted the Boeing design to a FLOPS model which will be used to develop take-off and landing trajectories for community noise analyses. The FLOPS model was calibrated using Boeing data and shows good agreement with the original Boeing design. To complement Boeing s detailed aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration work, a newly developed and validated conceptual structural analysis and optimization tool was used for a conceptual loads analysis and structural weights estimate. Structural optimization and weight calculation are based on a Nastran finite element model of the primary HWB structure, featuring centerbody, mid section, outboard wing, and aft body. Results for flight loads, deformations, wing weight, and centerbody weight are presented and compared to Boeing and FLOPS analyses.

  9. Health Perceptions, Self and Body Image, Physical Activity and Nutrition among Undergraduate Students in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Liat Korn; Ester Gonen; Yael Shaked; Moria Golan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. METHODS: A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. RESULTS: High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships betwee...

  10. Redesigning Human Body Systems: Effective Pedagogical Strategy for Promoting Active Learning and STEM Education

    OpenAIRE

    Cherif, Abour H.; Jedlicka, Dianne M.; Colyer, Tracey E.; Farahnaz Movahedzadeh; Phillips, William B.

    2012-01-01

    The human body is a remarkable biological machine maintained by interdependent body systems and organized biochemical reactions. Evolution has worked on humans for hundreds of thousands of years, yet the current pace of technological and social change have radically affected our life style and have exposed possible human frailties. This raises the question of whether or not nature’s work could be improved upon. We provide two-sided perspectives as a rationale for the need for the redesign of ...

  11. Nondestructive gamma activation analysis of mineral materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic problems are described related to the use of gamma activation analysis. The applicability was studied of instrumental gamma activation analysis (IGAA) in geology. A number of minerals, rocks, marine sediments and reference materials were studied. For irradiation a betatron and a microtron were used. The results show that IGAA allows the simultaneous determination of a number of trace elements at concentrations of tenths of ppm. The results are given of comparisons made of the analytical possibilities of microtron IGAA and reactor INAA in geology. Tables show the results of the application of IGAA, the main products and parameters of photoexcitation reactions and graphically represented are the gamma spectra of measured materials. (J.B.)

  12. KFUPM fast neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly established Fast Neutron Activation Analysis facility at the Energy Research Laboratory is described. The facility mainly consists of a fast neutron irradiation station and a gamma ray counting station. Both stations are connected by a fast pneumatic sample transfer system which transports the sample from the irradiation station to the counting station in a short time of 3 s. The fast neutron activation analysis facility has been tested by measuring the 27A(n, α)24Na and 115In(n, n')115mIn cross sections at 14.8 and 2.5 MeV neutron energies, respectively. Within the experimental uncertainties, the measured cross sections for these elements agree with the published values. (orig.)

  13. Mediating relationship between body mass index and the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour on physical activity intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, Kerry; Steele, Rebekah; Schofield, Grant

    2008-03-01

    This research examines (a) the interrelationships between body mass index (BMI), the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and physical activity intention and (b) the potential mediation effects of the direct measures of the TPB in the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention in a sample of Australian adults. A total sample of 1,062 respondents participated in a computer-assisted telephone-interview (CATI) survey comprised of a standardised introduction; questions regarding TPB and physical activity; and standard demographic questions. BMI for each participant was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Separate regression analyses were performed to examine the mediating effects of each of the direct measures of the TPB on the predictive relationship between the BMI and physical activity intention, as proposed by Baron and Kenny (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173 - 1182, 1986). Findings indicated that the direct measure of attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention. However, the direct measure of subjective norm failed to act as a mediating mechanism. To date there has been no research that has examined the mechanism by which body mass may affect physical activity behaviour. Given the current focus for health promotion specialists on promoting physical activity as a strategy for reducing overweight and obesity, a theoretical understanding of weight-related barriers to physical activity may aid in the development of future interventions and community physical activity programs, particularly those targeting overweight and obese populations.

  14. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  15. Pulmonary asbestos body counts and electron probe analysis of asbestos body cores in patients with mesothelioma: a study of 25 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura and peritoneum are well-recognized risks of asbestos exposure. We determined the asbestos body content of the lungs from 24 cases of malignant mesothelioma (19 pleural, five peritoneal) and compared such to the content of lungs from 50 consecutive adult autopsies and four cases of overt asbestosis using a Clorox-digestion concentration technique. The cores of 90 asbestos bodies were examined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis and compared with similar data from 120 standard asbestos fibers and 20 fiberglass fibers. The malignant mesothelioma patients had asbestos body counts intermediate between those of the general population and those of patients with asbestosis, although some of the mesothelioma cases overlapped with the general population. These latter cases often lacked an identifiable occupational exposure to asbestos. EDXA studies demonstrated an amphibole core in 88 of the 90 asbestos bodies (amosite or crocidolite in 80 of 88, anthophyllite or tremolite in eight of 88), and chrysotile in two instances

  16. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  17. A statistical analysis of the body condition of cows from two veterinary stations in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    potential of becoming pregnant because of low bodyscore. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from the other interactions because of inadequate data. The identified factors and metabolic parameters influencing body condition in this analysis, provide useful information for the improvement of livestock production in such areas. (author)

  18. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  19. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  20. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  1. Multielemental analysis of soils by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an instrumental neutron activation analysis of some elemental concentrations in different soil samples near the industrial areas at Tirupati, India, are reported. Altogether 14 elements, Sm, La, Cr, Co, Zn, Cs, Ce, Th, Rb, Na, K, Sr, Fe and Eu were determined. The samples were irradiated with neutrons at the 100 kW Triga - Mainz research reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector in connection with a multichannel analyzer. The results are discussed. (author)

  2. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women%中年妇女年龄、月经状态、体重指数及体力活动对机体组成及脂肪分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏代敏; 郁琦; 张颖; 陈凤领

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age, menopause status, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women. Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally. The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionare-Short in Chinese Version. The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age, menopause status, BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition & body fat distribution. The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient; b = 0. 70), menopause status (b = 0. 19, grading variable 1, 2, 3) were assigned to represent for reproductive group, menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group, respectively, and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0. 17) with model determination coefficient 0. 55. Total body fat-free mass was positively associated with BMI (b = 0. 61) , negatively associated with menopause status (b=-0. 14) with model determination coefficient 0. 39. The ratio of trunk fat tissue/total body fat tissue was positively related with BMI (b = 0. 32) and menopause status (b = 0. 30) with model determination coefficient 0. 20. After adjusted the effects of BMI, menopause status and physical activity, age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage, body fat-free mass, nor ratio of trunk fat tissue/total body fat tissue. Conclusions: Menopause impact body composition and body fat distribution independently. During the process of female reproductive aging, body fat tissue mass increases and becomes more susceptible to

  3. Muscle activation and estimated relative joint force during running with weight support on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine Louise

    2016-01-01

    Running on a lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg......, while activity of biceps femoris muscle remained unchanged. Unweighting with LBPP reduced estimated joint force significantly although less than proportional to the degree of weight support (ankle). It was concluded that leg muscle activation adapted to the new biomechanical environment, and the effect...

  4. Body size limits dim-light foraging activity in stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streinzer, Martin; Huber, Werner; Spaethe, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Stingless bees constitute a species-rich tribe of tropical and subtropical eusocial Apidae that act as important pollinators for flowering plants. Many foraging tasks rely on vision, e.g. spatial orientation and detection of food sources and nest entrances. Meliponini workers are usually small, which sets limits on eye morphology and thus quality of vision. Limitations are expected both on acuity, and thus on the ability to detect objects from a distance, as well as on sensitivity, and thus on the foraging time window at dusk and dawn. In this study, we determined light intensity thresholds for flight under dim light conditions in eight stingless bee species in relation to body size in a Neotropical lowland rainforest. Species varied in body size (0.8-1.7 mm thorax-width), and we found a strong negative correlation with light intensity thresholds (0.1-79 lx). Further, we measured eye size, ocelli diameter, ommatidia number, and facet diameter. All parameters significantly correlated with body size. A disproportionately low light intensity threshold in the minute Trigonisca pipioli, together with a large eye parameter P eye suggests specific adaptations to circumvent the optical constraints imposed by the small body size. We discuss the implications of body size in bees on foraging behavior. PMID:27495990

  5. Dietary fibre consumption and insulin resistance - the role of body fat and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, Charity B; Tucker, Larry

    2013-07-28

    The present study was conducted to determine the association between fibre intake and insulin resistance in 264 women using a cross-sectional design. Insulin resistance was indexed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (US formula: fasting insulin (μU/ml) × fasting glucose (mg/dl)/405 international formula: fasting glucose (mmol/l) × fasting insulin (μU/l)/22.5). Fibre and energy consumption were assessed using 7 d weighed food records. Fibre was expressed as g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using the BOD POD, and physical activity (PA) was ascertained using Actigraph accelerometers (Health One Technology) worn for seven consecutive days. Women with high total fibre intakes (F= 4·58, P= 0·0332) or high soluble fibre intakes (F= 7·97, P= 0·0051) had significantly less insulin resistance than their counterparts. Participants with high insoluble fibre intakes did not differ from their counterparts (F= 0·7, P= 0·6875). Adjusting for either PA or BF% weakened the relationships significantly. Controlling for BF% nullified the total fibre–HOMA-IR link (F= 1·96, P= 0·1631) and attenuated the association between soluble fibre and HOMA-IR by 32 % (F= 6·86, P= 0·0094). To create dichotomous variables, fibre intake and HOMA-IR were each divided into two categories using the median (low and high). In women who had high soluble fibre intake (upper 50 %), the OR of having an elevated HOMA-IR level was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·94) times that of women with low soluble fibre intake (lower 50 %). After controlling for all of the potential confounding factors simultaneously, the OR was 0·52 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·93). High fibre intake, particularly soluble fibre, is significantly related to lower levels of insulin resistance in women. Part of this association is a function of differences in PA and BF%.

  6. GabaB receptors activation in the NTS blocks the glycemic responses induced by carotid body receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Mónica; Montero, Sergio; Cadenas, José Luis; Lara, José Jesús; Tejeda-Chávez, Héctor Rafael; Alvarez-Buylla, Ramón; de Alvarez-Buylla, Elena Roces

    2008-08-18

    The carotid body receptors participate in glucose regulation sensing glucose levels in blood entering the cephalic circulation. The carotid body receptors information, is initially processed within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and elicits changes in circulating glucose and brain glucose uptake. Previous work has shown that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in NTS modulates respiratory reflexes, but the role of GABA within NTS in glucose regulation remains unknown. Here we show that GABA(B) receptor agonist (baclofen) or antagonists (phaclofen and CGP55845A) locally injected into NTS modified arterial glucose levels and brain glucose retention. Control injections outside NTS did not elicit these responses. In contrast, GABA(A) agonist and antagonist (muscimol or bicuculline) produced no significant changes in blood glucose levels. When these GABAergic drugs were applied before carotid body receptors stimulation, again, only GABA(B) agonist or antagonist significantly affected glycemic responses; baclofen microinjection significantly reduced the hyperglycemic response and brain glucose retention observed after carotid body receptors stimulation, while phaclofen produced the opposite effect, increasing significantly hyperglycemia and brain glucose retention. These results indicate that activation of GABA(B), but not GABA(A), receptors in the NTS modulates the glycemic responses after anoxic stimulation of the carotid body receptors, and suggest the presence of a tonic inhibitory mechanism in the NTS to avoid hyperglycemia.

  7. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  8. Analysis of the Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirus Alipoor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Body image is a psychological construct which refers to self-concept including self image and feelings an individual perceives about his or her body. Body image can significantly affect the way an individual perceives about his or her body. Studies on relationship between physical self-concept and body image in some countries showed that the women's body dissatisfaction has led to increase in eating disorders. The question was raised whether such a relationship may exist in Iran. Approach: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical self-concept and body Image dissatisfaction in female. The importance of body image in Iranian culture has, recently, became more significant to the extent that tremendous expenditure of time, effort and money has been paid by people, particularly by women, seeking to alert their appearances to resemble an idea image. A survey of 140 female students selected through random sampling was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Demographic Information form the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP and Nine Figure Silhouette Scale was used. The physical self-perception profile have five subscales, which were sport competence (SPORT, body attractiveness (BODY, physical condition (CONDITION and physical strength (STRENGTH and one subscale that assesses a global perception of overall Physical Self-Worth (PSW. Results: The finding of the research indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between the physical self-concept and body image dissatisfaction. The correlations magnitude ranged between 0.49-0.79 for body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction correlated strongest with physical self-worth and with body physical self-concept in female students in Iran. Thinness had the most influential impact on body image dissatisfaction. The findings also showed discrepancy between the

  9. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives. PMID:26281958

  10. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives.

  11. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent models for accretion of terrestrial bodies involve metal-silicate equilibrium as the metallic core formed during growth. Most elements considered are either refractory or well studied elements for which effects of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metallic liquid composition are well known. There are a large number of elements that are both siderophile and volatile, whose fate in such models is unknown, largely due to a lack of data at comparable conditions and com-positions (FeNi core with light elements such as S, C, Si, and O). We have focused on Ge, In, As, Sb and determined the effect of Si and C on metal-silicate partitioning, and developed a thermo-dynamic model that allows application of these new data to a wide range of planetary bodies. New experiments: We have previously carried out experiments with FeSi metallic liquid at C-saturated conditions at 1600 and 1800 C [4]. In a new series of experiments we investigate the effect of Si in carbon-free systems at 1600 C for comparison. Experiments were carried out at 1 GPa in MgO capsules using the same basaltic starting composition as in previous studies. The MgO capsule reacts with the silicate melt to form more MgO-rich liquids that have 22-26 wt% MgO. Experimental met-als and silicates were analyzed using a combination of electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS. Results: The new results can be interpreted by considering Ge as an example, in the simple exchange equilibrium Fe + GeO = FeO + Ge, where the equilibrium constant Kd can be examined as a function of Si content of the metal. The slope of lnKd vs. (1-XSi) for this new series allows derivation of the epsilon interaction parameter for each of these four elements and Si (both C-saturated and C-free).All four elements have positive epsilon values, indicating that Si causes a decrease in the partition coefficients; values are 6.6, 6.5, 27.8 and 25.2 for In, Ge, As, and Sb, respectively, at 1 GPa and 1600 C. As an example of

  12. Relationship between the percentage of body fat and surrogate indices of fatness in male and female Polish active and sedentary students

    OpenAIRE

    Lutoslawska, Grażyna; Malara, Marzena; Tomaszewski, Paweł; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Czajkowska, Anna; Kęska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data have indicated that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) of athletes and young adults provide misleading results concerning body fat content. This study was aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between different surrogate indices of fatness (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and body adiposity index (BAI)) with the percentage of body fat in Polish students with respect to their sex and physical activity. Met...

  13. Processing of food, body and emotional stimuli in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yikang; Hu, Xiaochen; Wang, Jijun; Chen, Jue; Guo, Qian; Li, Chunbo; Enck, Paul

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of the cognitive processing of food, body and emotional information in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are debatable. We reviewed functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to assess whether there were consistent neural basis and networks in the studies to date. Searching PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar between January 1980 and May 2012, we identified 17 relevant studies. Activation likelihood estimation was used to perform a quantitative meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. For both food stimuli and body stimuli, AN patients showed increased hemodynamic response in the emotion-related regions (frontal, caudate, uncus, insula and temporal) and decreased activation in the parietal region. Although no robust brain activation has been found in response to emotional stimuli, emotion-related neural networks are involved in the processing of food and body stimuli among AN. It suggests that negative emotional arousal is related to cognitive processing bias of food and body stimuli in AN.

  14. The articulated body. Physical activity, fitness and neew technologies of health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2010-01-01

    learns to be sensitive to differences, shape individuals’ bodily experiences. I will discuss how the Foucauldian concept of ‘technologies of the self’ and Latour’s idea bodies are ´learning to be affected’ can be helpful to understand this process. Latour suggests that the concept of ‘articulation’ – how...... the body become more articulated through knowledge and practices - can help direct our focus to “take on board the artificial and material components allowing one to progressively have a body” (1), and according to Foucault, technologies of the self “permit individuals to effect by their own means...

  15. Physical activity, fitness and body composition of Finnish police officers: a 15-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, L; Smolander, J; Louhevaara, V; Korhonen, O; Oja, P

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in the physical activity, fitness and body composition of 103 police officers during a 15-year follow-up. The absolute aerobic capacity was similar in 1981 and 1996, muscular performance had declined, and body weight had increased approximately 0.5 kg/year. More than half the subjects (53%) had increased their leisure-time physical activity in 1996. The correlation was significant between physical activity in 1981 and physical fitness in 1996, but weak between physical activity in 1996 and fitness in 1996. It was also significant between waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in 1996 and physical activity during the previous 5 and 15 years. No significant correlations were found between physical activity and work ability or perceived physical or mental job stress. The physical fitness of middle-aged police officers seems to be predicted strongly by physical activity in early adulthood. Therefore health and fitness promotion measures should start at that time. This, together with regular systematic training, should help to sustain work ability of middle-aged police officers.

  16. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account. PMID:26184289

  17. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Churruca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Current Status, Own Body Perception and Positive Experience From Diagnosed Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitza Ganeva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the current status, own body perception and positive experience within a period of up to 1 year from diagnosing ofwomen with breast cancer (N = 41; mean age 35.25 in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stages of the disease progress, of Bulgarian origin, was made.Reliability and validity of the scales were described. They were analysed with respect to: 1 medical characteristics (partial or total surgery,surgical removal of lymph nodes, presence or absence of metastases in them, 2 classical therapies (chemotherapy, radiation therapy andhormonal therapy administered or not and 3 application or not of alternative therapies (herbal medicine, physical load, administration ofmassage, lymph drainage, use of nutritional supplements, observance of diet. The results showed that the more therapies the personssurveyed were undergone the more unsatisfactory they assessed their current general status. The bigger the size of the surgery performedto remove the tumour the more positive idea of their own bodies they had. The more time after the surgical treatment passed the more thepositive experience accumulated from the oncologic diagnosis grew.

  19. Rotational kinematics of a rigid body about a fixed axis: development and analysis of an inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.

    2015-07-01

    We present the development, administration, and analysis of a focused inventory on the rotational kinematics of a rigid body around a fixed axis. The inventory, which is made up of 13 multiple-choice questions, was developed on the basis of interactions with students and teachers. The systematic and iterative aspects of the construction of the inventory are illustrated. The questions, which were validated, were administered to a set of teachers (N = 25) and two groups of preuniversity students (N = 74 and 905) in India. Students, as well as teachers, exhibited difficulties in applying the operational definition of angular velocity to a rigid body. Many erroneously assumed that an angular acceleration cannot exist without a net torque. Patterns of reasoning resulting in errors were identified and categorized under four broad themes. These include inappropriate extensions of familiar procedural practices, reasoning cued by primitive elements in thought, lack of differentiation between related but distinct concepts, and indiscriminate use of equations. The inventory was also administered to introductory-level students (N = 384) at the University of Washington. Popular distractors to most items were similar to the Indian students.

  20. Granules Harboring Translationally Active mRNAs Provide a Platform for P-Body Formation following Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The localization of mRNA to defined cytoplasmic sites in eukaryotic cells not only allows localized protein production but also determines the fate of mRNAs. For instance, translationally repressed mRNAs localize to P-bodies and stress granules where their decay and storage, respectively, are directed. Here, we find that several mRNAs are localized to granules in unstressed, actively growing cells. These granules play a key role in the stress-dependent formation of P-bodies. Specific glycolytic mRNAs are colocalized in multiple granules per cell, which aggregate during P-body formation. Such aggregation is still observed under conditions or in mutants where P-bodies do not form. In unstressed cells, the mRNA granules appear associated with active translation; this might enable a coregulation of protein expression from the same pathways or complexes. Parallels can be drawn between this coregulation and the advantage of operons in prokaryotic systems.

  1. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  2. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  3. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blasio, Francesca; de Blasio, Francesco; Miracco Berlingieri, Giulia; Bianco, Andrea; La Greca, Marta; Franssen, Frits M E; Scalfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. Objectives To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients. Methods MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer) in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz) impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients. Results After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001) and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively). Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001), 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005), respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P<0.05) and vital capacity (P<0.005). Finally, the 5/250 impedance ratio was reduced (P<0.05) in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) III and IV (compared to those with GOLD I and II) or a BODE index between 6 and 10 points (compared to those with BODE index between 1 and 5 points). Conclusion MF-BIA may be a useful tool for assessing body composition and nutritional status in COPD patients. In particular, the impedance ratio could give valuable information on cellular integrity and muscle quality.

  4. Experimental and theoretical analysis of vortex breakdown in the wake of the 25∘ Ahmed body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermann, Cyril; Meliga, Philippe; Pujals, Gregory; Gallaire, Francois; Serre, Eric

    2014-11-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the wake of the 25circ; Ahmed body, considered a suitable test-case to reproduce the two counter-rotating longitudinal vortices widely encountered in automotive aerodynamics. The three-dimensional experimental mean flow is reconstructed at high Reynolds number (Re = 2 . 8 ×106) from a series of cross-flow time-averaged planes acquired with a moving automated Stereo-PIV system. We observe a sharp decay of the axial velocity and vorticity in the near-wake, 0 . 5 times the projected length of the slanted surface downstream the square back, where the streamwise vortices is subjected to a strong adverse pressure gradient and the turbulent kinetic energy exhibits a peak in the vortex core. A stability analysis of the experimental velocity shows that the flow undergoes vortex breakdown roughly at the same position, through a transition from supercritical (x 0 . 5) conditions and the accumulation of upstream propagating axisymmetric waves.

  5. Pediatric body composition analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric applications of body composition analysis (BCA) have become of increased interest to pediatricians and other specialists. With the increasing prevalence of morbid obesity and with an increased awareness of anorexia nervosa, pediatric specialists are utilizing BCA data to help identify, treat, and prevent these conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to determine the fat mass (FM) and lean tissue mass (LTM), as well as bone mineral content (BMC). Among the readily available BCA techniques, DXA is the most widely used and it has the additional benefit of precisely quantifying regional FM and LTM. This review evaluates the strengths and limitations of DXA as a pediatric BCA method and considers the utilization of DXA to identify trends and variations in FM and LTM measurements in obese and anorexic children. (orig.)

  6. Bones, body parts, and sex appeal: An analysis of #thinspiration images on popular social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaznavi, Jannath; Taylor, Laramie D

    2015-06-01

    The present study extends research on thinspiration images, visual and/or textual images intended to inspire weight loss, from pro-eating disorder websites to popular photo-sharing social media websites. The article reports on a systematic content analysis of thinspiration images (N=300) on Twitter and Pinterest. Images tended to be sexually suggestive and objectifying with a focus on ultra-thin, bony, scantily-clad women. Results indicated that particular social media channels and labels (i.e., tags) were characterized by more segmented, bony content and greater social endorsement compared to others. In light of theories of media influence, results offer insight into the potentially harmful effects of exposure to sexually suggestive and objectifying content in large online communities on body image, quality of life, and mental health.

  7. High-Speed Linear Raman Spectroscopy for Instability Analysis of a Bluff Body Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed laser diagnostics technique based on point-wise linear Raman spectroscopy for measuring the frequency content of a CH4-air premixed flame stabilized behind a circular bluff body. The technique, which primarily employs a Nd:YLF pulsed laser and a fast image-intensified CCD camera, successfully measures the time evolution of scalar parameters (N2, O2, CH4, and H2O) in the vortex-induced flame instability at a data rate of 1 kHz. Oscillation of the V-shaped flame front is quantified through frequency analysis of the combustion species data and their correlations. This technique promises to be a useful diagnostics tool for combustion instability studies.

  8. Analysis of Charmless Two-body B decays in Factorization Assisted Topological Amplitude Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Si-Hong; Lyu, Wei-Ran; Lü, Cai-Dian

    2016-01-01

    We analyze charmless two-body non-leptonic B decays $B \\to PP, PV$ under the framework of factorization assisted topological amplitude approach, where $P(V)$ denotes a light pseudoscalar (vector) meson. Compared with the conventional flavor diagram approach, we consider flavor $SU(3)$ breaking effect assisted by factorization hypothesis for topological diagram amplitudes of different decay modes, factorizing out the corresponding decay constants and form factors. The non-perturbative parameters of topology diagram magnitudes $\\chi$ and strong phase $\\phi$ are universal that can be extracted by $\\chi^2$ fit from current abundant experimental data of charmless B decays. The number of free parameters and the $\\chi^2$ per degree of freedom are both reduced comparing with previous analysis. With these best fitted parameters, we predict branching fractions and $CP$ asymmetry parameters of nearly 100 $B_{u,d}$ and $B_s$ decay modes. The long-standing $\\pi \\pi$ and $\\pi K$-$CP$ puzzles are resolved simultaneoulsy.

  9. Using frequency analysis to improve the precision of human body posture algorithms based on Kalman filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alberto; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Olivares, G

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of miniaturized inertial sensors many systems have been developed within the last decade to study and analyze human motion and posture, specially in the medical field. Data measured by the sensors are usually processed by algorithms based on Kalman Filters in order to estimate the orientation of the body parts under study. These filters traditionally include fixed parameters, such as the process and observation noise variances, whose value has large influence in the overall performance. It has been demonstrated that the optimal value of these parameters differs considerably for different motion intensities. Therefore, in this work, we show that, by applying frequency analysis to determine motion intensity, and varying the formerly fixed parameters accordingly, the overall precision of orientation estimation algorithms can be improved, therefore providing physicians with reliable objective data they can use in their daily practice.

  10. Pediatric body composition analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helba, Maura; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Pediatric applications of body composition analysis (BCA) have become of increased interest to pediatricians and other specialists. With the increasing prevalence of morbid obesity and with an increased awareness of anorexia nervosa, pediatric specialists are utilizing BCA data to help identify, treat, and prevent these conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to determine the fat mass (FM) and lean tissue mass (LTM), as well as bone mineral content (BMC). Among the readily available BCA techniques, DXA is the most widely used and it has the additional benefit of precisely quantifying regional FM and LTM. This review evaluates the strengths and limitations of DXA as a pediatric BCA method and considers the utilization of DXA to identify trends and variations in FM and LTM measurements in obese and anorexic children. (orig.)

  11. Using frequency analysis to improve the precision of human body posture algorithms based on Kalman filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alberto; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Olivares, G

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of miniaturized inertial sensors many systems have been developed within the last decade to study and analyze human motion and posture, specially in the medical field. Data measured by the sensors are usually processed by algorithms based on Kalman Filters in order to estimate the orientation of the body parts under study. These filters traditionally include fixed parameters, such as the process and observation noise variances, whose value has large influence in the overall performance. It has been demonstrated that the optimal value of these parameters differs considerably for different motion intensities. Therefore, in this work, we show that, by applying frequency analysis to determine motion intensity, and varying the formerly fixed parameters accordingly, the overall precision of orientation estimation algorithms can be improved, therefore providing physicians with reliable objective data they can use in their daily practice. PMID:26337122

  12. Performance analysis of direct N-body algorithms on highly distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gualandris, A; Tirado-Ramos, A; Gualandris, Alessia; Zwart, Simon Portegies; Tirado-Ramos, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We present a performance analysis of different parallelization schemes for direct codes used in the simulation of astrophysical stellar systems. These codes compute the gravitational interaction among stars in an exact way and have a computational complexity of O(N^2). Significant improvement in the performance of direct N-body codes can be obtained by means of general purpose massively parallel supercomputers and of special purpose computers like GRAPE hardware. We compare the performance of parallel algorithms on different architectures including a cluster, a supercomputer and two computational grids. The best performance is obtained in combination with GRAPE-6 hardware but highly distributed computational Grids also appear very promising. The simulation of a globular cluster containing about one million stars, currently one of the most challenging numerical problems in astrophysics, is feasible only in combination with GRAPE hardware or on massively parallel architectures.

  13. Estimation of body resonances from a time-frequency analysis of violin vibrato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellody, Maureen; Wakefield, Gregory H.

    1999-11-01

    We present a signal-based technique for evaluating a pole-zero representation of the resonant response of a violin instrument. This technique combines time-frequency signal analysis with system identification techniques to determine the pole-zero function that would account for amplitude modulation observed on the partials of violin notes performed with vibrato. Violin vibrato signals are analyzed with the modal distribution to obtain values of instantaneous amplitude and frequency for each partial. From these, input and output functions are synthesized and used to estimate the violin body's impulse response using an infinite impulse response (IIR) system identification procedure. In each case, the input and output functions share the same instantaneous frequency of the measured partial. However, the rapid amplitude variations are present only on the output function. We report on the location and spacing of these estimated resonances and discuss their relationship to those obtained from theoretical predictions and other measurement procedures.

  14. Bones, body parts, and sex appeal: An analysis of #thinspiration images on popular social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaznavi, Jannath; Taylor, Laramie D

    2015-06-01

    The present study extends research on thinspiration images, visual and/or textual images intended to inspire weight loss, from pro-eating disorder websites to popular photo-sharing social media websites. The article reports on a systematic content analysis of thinspiration images (N=300) on Twitter and Pinterest. Images tended to be sexually suggestive and objectifying with a focus on ultra-thin, bony, scantily-clad women. Results indicated that particular social media channels and labels (i.e., tags) were characterized by more segmented, bony content and greater social endorsement compared to others. In light of theories of media influence, results offer insight into the potentially harmful effects of exposure to sexually suggestive and objectifying content in large online communities on body image, quality of life, and mental health. PMID:25880783

  15. Dynamical analysis of machining tool body with reinforced inner core of circular shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naď M.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The vibration analysis of a clamped beam structure representing vibrating machining body tool is solved in this paper. The required modal properties of beam are obtained by application the reinforcing core with circular cross section. The perfect adhesion between core material and basic beam material is considered. The different material properties of beam and core are considered. The fundamental mathematical formulations describing the bending vibrations of this composite beam structure are presented. The effect of material properties and geometrical parameters of reinforcing core on natural frequencies of cantilever composite beam structure with circular and rectangular cross section is presented. This form of composite beam structure provides effective tool to modification of its dynamical properties.

  16. Folding model analysis of Λ binding energies and three-body ΛNN force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working within the framework of the folding model, we analyze the Λ binding energy data of light hypernuclei with effective two-body ΛN plus three-body ΛNN interaction. The two-body density for the core nucleus required for evaluating the three-body force contribution is obtained in terms of the centre of mass pair correlation. It is found that except for Λ5He the data are fairly well explained. The three-body force seems to account for the density dependence of the effective two-body ΛN interaction proposed earlier. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da

  18. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ∼4-6 h prior to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral parameters, especially when animals have altered circadian phenotype.

  19. Avoidance of crack inducement when laser welding hot-formed car body components - a variable analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Johnny K.

    The Volvo XC60 car body contains numerous parts in Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) in order to guarantee the structural integrity of the car in the event of a crash situation. Most of the parts are manufactured in a hot-forming process, so called presshardening, resulting in component tensile strength in the range of 1,500 MPa. As this type of material also presents fairly high carbon content (˜0.22%) it brings a challenge when it comes to welding. The Volvo XC60 car body is at the same time to a large extent assembled by laser welding technology. In early development stages of the project (Y413), it was observed that laser welding of hot-formed components presented a number of challenges due to the unique conditions offered by this welding method. The presentation will thoroughly describe the modes of procedure how to avoid crack inducement during the welding operation. A variable analysis approach was used based on the present circumstances at the production facility in the Gent plant. Crucial variables at laser welding such as gap between sheets, focal point position, welding speed and laser weld position relative to the flange edge were included in a test matrix and welding trials were carried out accordingly in the Pilot Plant in Gothenburg. The paper will discuss those welding results, the subsequent analysis and plausible theoretic explanations. From the lessons learnt in this research, the optimum laser welding parameters were then transferred to the laser welding stations in the Gent plant. There it has been proven, that also at high volume automotive manufacturing, it is possible to provide an outstanding weld quality also at such difficult pre-conditions. The presentation ends with some facts and figures and experiences from high volume series production, which also includes aspects on quality assurance.

  20. Future body mass index modelling based on macronutrient profiles and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cundiff David K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical activity, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT, and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC. To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical activity (independent variables to BMI change/year (dependent variable. Similar formulas without physical activity related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving/(2,613+kilocalories per serving+19.73 (84.44+total fat g*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P 2=0.03, P P = 0.0004. Formula predictions did not correlate with food group profiling findings for potatoes and dairy products (n=10, r= −0.33 P=0.36. A formula based diet and exercise analysis tool is available to researchers and individuals: http://thehealtheconomy.com/healthTool/. Conclusions Two multiple regression derived formulas from dissimilar databases produced markedly similar estimates of future BMI for 1,055 individuals with type 1 diabetes and female and male cohorts from 167 countries. These formulas predicted the long-term weight impacts of