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Sample records for activation analysis analise

  1. Analysis of mercury and selenium in biological samples by neutron activation analysis; Analise de mercurio e selenio em materiais biologicos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

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    Catharino, Marilia Gabriela Miranda

    2002-07-01

    In the present work, hair samples from populations suspected of contamination by mercury, in the localities of Serra do Navio, Vila Nova and Tartarugalzinho, in the State of Amapa, were analyzed. Hair samples of children under odontopediatric treatment were also analyzed for mercury, in order to study the possibility of transfer of mercury from the dental amalgam and also to obtain data of hair mercury in a control population of children. Another step of the work was the development of a method for the determination of selenium, by using the short-lived radioisotope {sup 77}mSe. After the certification of the method it was applied to the analysis of hair, nails and a vitamin supplement. A comparison was made with the results obtain ed by using the long-lived radioisotope of selenium, {sup 75}Se. The results obtained for mercury in the hair samples of populations living in the State of Amapa have shown that the mercury concentrations in these populations are much higher than in the controls. As for the hair samples of children under treatment with mercury amalgam, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of mercury after the treatment. On the other hand, these data were important to obtain data for a control population of children. The results obtained by using the radioisotope {sup 77}mSe showed that the method developed was suitable for the analyzed matrixes and the results were similar to the ones obtained by employing the usual AANI method, with the radioisotope {sup 75}Se. (author)

  2. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1; Diagnostico da mucoviscidose utilizando analise por ativacao com neutrons. Parte 1

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    Bellido, Luis F.; Bellido, Alfredo V

    1997-02-01

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author) 33 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrates formation in drilling activities; Analise termodinamica da formacao de hidratos em atividades de perfuracao

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    Baptista, Joao Marcelo Mussi; Rossi, Luciano Fernando dos Santos; Morales, Rigoberto E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: joaommussi@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: lfrossi@cefetpr.br, e-mail: rmorales@cefetpr.br

    2006-07-01

    The present work has for objective to present an analysis of hydrates formation in drilling activities. This analysis presents a study of the state conditions for gas hydrates formation in inhibitors containing systems (salts and alcohols, separately). To describe the nonidealities of liquid phase in electrolytic solutions, the activity coefficient model of Debye-Hueckel is used, as [4], and to describe the influence of alcohols in the activity of water, the UNQUAC model is used, as Parrish and Prausnitz. The hydrate phase is described by thermodynamic statistic model of van der Waals and Platteeuw, and the gaseous phase fugacities are modeled by the Peng-Robinson Equation of State. Some results are presented for saline inhibitors, and for methanol and ethyleneglycol. (author)

  4. Neutron activation analysis of phytotherapic obtained from medicinal plants; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de fitoterapicos obtidos de plantas medicinais

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    Moreira, Henrique S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: hs_moreira@hotmail.com; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mitiko@ipen.br; mbvascon@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper determines the inorganic constituents in phytotherapic samples for posterior study of the relationship existent among the concentrations of the found elements and the their possible therapeutical effects. The samples of phytotherapic pills (Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba and Ginseng) were analysed by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn samples were determined in the phytotherapics, The Centella asiatica presented the higher concentrations of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. In the sample of Ginko biloba, higher levels of As and Ca were found, while in the sample ol Ginseng the element As were not detected. The found results have shown the the NAA method is appropriated for analysing this type of materials due to his simplicity, multielemental capacity and quality of the results obtained. (author)

  5. Legal and technical analysis of the activities involving radiation applications. Analise tecnico-juridica das atividades envolvendo aplicacoes de radiacoes

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    Borges, J C [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1991-01-01

    Activities related to radiation applications have been worldwide target of studies concerning biology, medicine, sociology, psychology and law, since prediction of the possible risks and harms associated with the use of radiation, depends on probabilities not easy to quantify, mainly in the most common low-dose situations. In Brazil, legislation generated in the last forty years did not match evolution of the scientific domains related above. This way, more recent rules not rarely conflict with older regulations, without revoking them. (author).

  6. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis; Analise de esmalte e dentina de humanos pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

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    Soares, Marco A.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: vankfire@gmail.com; Adachi, Eduardo M.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  7. Application of activation analysis for determination of some elements in cassiterite samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao para a determinacao de alguns elementos em amostras de cassiterita

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    Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre

    1978-07-01

    This work consists in the development of an analytical method using activation by thermal neutrons for the determination of some minor elements and traces present in cassiterite (tin ore). This method was then applied to determine these elements in samples of cassiterite from different regions of Brazil. An analysis was made of the mineralogy characteristic of cassiterite as well as of the minerals most commonly associated with it. Four main types of interference were found to occur in the analysis by activation of trace elements in samples of cassiterite. The method involves the analysis without chemical separation for the determination of some elements and the analysis with chemical separation for the determination of other elements. The steps involved in both types of analysis are described. In the analysis with chemical separation the matrix element (tin) is separated by distillation in an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HBr medium, after fusion of the ore with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Arsine and antimony are determined in the distilled, whereas some lanthanide elements and uranium are determined in the distillation residue by separating them as a group by precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. A discussion on the precision, accuracy and sensibility of the method is also included. (author)

  8. Trace element determination in human bones using the neutron activation analysis method; Determinacao de elementos traco em ossos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

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    Kramarski, Sila; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Borelli, Aurelio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Lab. de Nutricao Humana; Batalha, Joao R.F. [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1997-10-01

    This work presents the results obtained in the analysis of rib bone samples from normal human individuals by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. In these analyses, the elements Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sr and Zn were found at the ppm level and the elements Ca and P at the level of percentage. The precision and the of the results were evaluated by using biological reference materials NIST SRM 1577a Bovine Liver, IAEA A-11 Milk powder, NIES CRM 9 Sargasso e NIES CRM 10A Rice Flour Unpolished. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method; Analise de extratos de plantas medicinais pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

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    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1996-12-31

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed 70 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs

  10. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method; Analise de extratos de plantas medicinais pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

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    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed 70 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs

  11. Appreciation of environmental risks analysis methodologies in the offshore well drilling activities; Analise de metodologias na avaliacao de riscos ambientais relacionados as atividades de perfuracao de pocos maritimos

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    Zampolli, Daniella M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the projects of products and processes are supposed to integrate environmental risks criteria, in addition to their inherent operation impacts. Industrial activities, in general, generate risks to the environment, and, in case of incidents occurrence, many of the possible consequences can be translated into serious impacts. The Risk Analysis is destined to act as a decision tool in the environmental area, and therefore, the use of one of these during the project phase of an enterprise becomes important, aiming the guarantee of the system reliability. The present article has the purpose of analyzing methodologies that are being employed for the environmental risk analysis, as well as usual procedures applied in the oil industry, specially for the offshore wells drilling, evaluating and discussing their peculiarities and possible improvement. It was intended to obtain a general overview of risk analysis methodologies, with the objective of verifying the existence of some characteristics that would positively contribute for the knowledge of the inherent risks in the activities of petroleum installations, where this kind of learning is something extremely technically necessary and legally mandatory. (author)

  12. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

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    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  13. Determination of uranium fission products interference factors in neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de fatores de interferencia de produtos de fissao de uranio na analise por ativacao neutronica

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    Ribeiro Junior, Ibere Souza

    2014-09-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a method used in the determination of several elements in different kinds of matrices. However, when the sample contains high U levels the problem of {sup 235}U fission interference occurs. A way to solve this problem is to perform the correction using the interference factor due to U fission for the radionuclides used on elemental analysis. In this study was determined the interference factor due to U fission for the radioisotopes {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, {sup 140}La, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 147}Nd, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 95}Zr in the research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 on IPEN-CNEN/SP. These interference factors were determined experimentally, by irradiation of synthetic standards for 8 hours in a selected position in the reactor, and theoretically, determining the epithermal to neutron fluxes ratio in the same position where synthetic standards were irradiated and using reported nuclear parameters on the literature. The obtained interference factors were compared with values reported by other works. To evaluate the reliability of these factors they were applied in the analysis of studied elements in the certified reference materials NIST 8704 Buffalo River Sediment, IRMM BCR- 667 Estuarine Sediment e IAEA-SL-1 Lake Sediment. (author)

  14. Elementary composition of the siderurgy slag by instrumental neutron activation analysis; Composicao elementar em escoria de siderurgia por analise por ativacao neutronica instrumental

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    Oliveira, Helder de; Piau, Wilson Caixeta; Mortatti, Jefferson [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sarries, Gabriel Adrian [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    2000-07-01

    The slag has been applied to the ground to neutralize its acidity, in similar way to the calcareous rock, contributing in the agriculture as corrective of the acidity alone it and source of nutrients for the plants. However, the alternative for the agricultural slag exploitation is related to metal texts heavy gifts in the slag. The objective of the present work was to survey of the chemical composition of trashes generated in blast high-oven, steel, oven of pan and fertilizers that had used in its manufacture slag of siderurgy for the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results had evidenced the existence of high variations in the elements Ce, Cr, In, K, Sb and Zn in the distinct analyzed samples. (author)

  15. Determination of essential elements in dietetic sample by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em alimentos dieteticos pela tecnica de analise por ativacao com neutrons

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    Siquelli, Murilo V.; Maihara, Vera A. Maihara [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: murilo_siquelli@hotmail.com; vmaihara@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In the last years there has been an increase of the dietetic product consumption by people who suffer from diabetes, heart disease and by people concerned about having a healthy life as well. Despite the increase of dietetic product presents in the diet of the Brazilian population, the use of these products is still controversial. The analysis of the nutritional composition of these products is becoming important because a great number of people is changing their traditional food by dietetic products. In the literature, there is no information about the inorganic composition, mainly related to the essential elements, in the dietetic products: diet and light . In this study are presented preliminary results of the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na and Zn determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in aspartame, saccharin and cyclamate sodium , and stevia based sweetener samples. Gelatin samples, diet and light, were also analyzed. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). (author)

  16. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em cogumelos comestiveis por analise por ativacao com neutrons

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    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-07-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  17. Determination os essential elements in diet and light foods using neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em alimentos diet e light por analise por ativacao com neutrons

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    Ito, Gerson Hideo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: gehideo@gmail.com; Maihara, Vera Akiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The object of this study was to determine essential elements on the diet and light foods and their normal similar through the neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare their results. Samples of sweetning, cappuccino, gelatine and chocolate collected at the Sao Paulo commerce were irradiated by a period of 8 hours, under a 10{sup 12} n cm{sub -2} s{sub -1} thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 research reactor - IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil, together with reference materials and elementary standards, for the determination the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Co, K, Na, Fe, Se and Zn. The obtained results shown that the diet gelatine samples presented concentrations higher for determined elements related to the light and normal gelatines samples. Compared with cappucino samples there was not differences among the concentrations of the determined elements, excepted the element Cr for the cappuccino light. For the chocolate light they presents higher values related to the normal type. The sweetening did not present differences among the samples. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition; Analise por ativacao neutronica por fontes alternativas de fosforo para a nutricao animal

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    Canella, Artur A.; Ferreira, Walter M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria]. E-mail: avelara@ufmg.br; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  19. Determination of essential elements in edible seaweed by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em algas marinhas comestiveis por analise por ativacao neutronica

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    Alves, Cassio Bessa Lima; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: cassio_man@hotmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Comestible marine algae are gaining wider global trade, not only because of the taste but also the nutritional quality they present. They are rich in protein, fiber, vitamins and are excellent sources of essential elements due to their ability to absorb substances storing them in their bodies. its chemical composition varies according to the species, habitat, maturity and environmental conditions which are submitted. The method of Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine the essential elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na present in marine algae from different countries, which are sold in the city of Sao Paulo. A total of 6 samples of marine algae were analyzed, 4 species of Nori (Porphyra umbilicates) from China, Korea, Japan and USA; 1 of Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme) species from Japan; and 1 species of Kombu (Laminaria sp.) of South Korea. To validate the methodology used was the reference material NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver. The concentrations range from 5265-1175 μg/g to CL; from 14413-90261 μg/g to K; from 3007-7091 μg/g to Mg; from 2,3-33,8 μg/g to Mn and from 5161-24973 μg/g to Na.

  20. Studies of trace element determinations in nails by neutron activation analysis method; Estudo de elementos traco em unhas pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

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    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop the neutron activation analysis for trace element determinations in nails in order to apply this method to the study of the cystic fibrosis disease. It was verified that the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn can be determined by using short and long irradiations with thermal neutron flux from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The washing solutions of triton-X100, NH{sub 4} OH and acetone were tested in order to eliminate external contaminants from the nail samples. The nail analyses of the individual fingers from both of hands showed that the samples must be collected from all the fingers from both of hands to have a representative sample. The precision and the accuracy of the results were also examined by analyzing NIES 10C Rice Flour, IUPAC Bowen's Kale and NIST 1572 Citrus Leaves reference materials. (author)

  1. Determination of essential trace elements in wine by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em vinhos por analise por ativacao com neutrons

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    Daniele, Anna Paula

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have been carried out for determining essential elements in foodstuffs, including wine, due to its important nutritional role in human body functions. It was shown that daily consumption of wine in moderation contributes significantly to the needs of essential elements in human body such as Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, V, among others, and has health benefits in the prevention of numerous diseases and longer life expectancy, related in particular to the intake of antioxidants such as polyphenolic compounds. Trace elements are good indicators of origin of wines and their concentrations can be used as criteria to ensure authenticity, quality and show that the tolerance limits established by law were respected throughout the production process. However, although Brazilian wine industry is among the 15 largest in the world, analytical studies for organic and inorganic compounds of wine content are still small when compared to other major producers. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate some procedures of wine sample preparation to determine essential elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and compare the results with those determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES). Three sample preparation procedures were studied: freeze-drying, evaporation and dry ashing. The parameters studied were precision, accuracy and detection limit. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were applied to verify the statistical differences between the mean values obtained by the three wine preparation procedures for INAA with those means obtained by ICP OES. It was noticed that about 60% of results obtained by freeze-drying agreed with those obtained by ICP OES. (author)

  2. Analysis of Bone Meal (NIST 1486) and Bone Ash (NIST 1400) reference materials by neutron activation method; Analise de materiais de referencia Bone Meal (NIST 1486) e Bone Ash (NIST 1400) pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

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    Takata, Marcelo K.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Borelli, Aurelio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1999-11-01

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine Ba, ca, Cl, Cr, fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sb, Sc, Sr and Zn in two biological reference materials NIST 1486 Bone Meal and NIST 1400 Bone Ash. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the precision and the accuracy of the results as well as to give a contribution to certificate these materials. Interferences found in the determination of some elements were also discussed. (author) 8 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. k{sub 0}-INAA application at IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory by using the k{sub 0}-IAEA program: biological sample analysis; Aplicacao do metodo k{sub 0}-INAA no Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons do IPEN utilizando o programa k{sub 0}-IAEA: analise de amostras biologicas

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    Puerta, Daniel Correa

    2013-07-01

    The results obtained in the application of the k{sub 0}-standardization method at LAN-IPEN for biological matrices analysis, by using the k{sub 0}-IAEA software, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are presented. The flux parameters f and a of the IEA-R1 reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and for one selected irradiation position, 24B/shelf2, for short and long irradiations, respectively. In order to obtain these parameters, the bare triple-monitor method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr was used. In order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the methodology, the biological reference materials Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547), Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) e Tomato Leaves (NIST SRM 1573a) were analyzed. The statistical criteria Relative Errors (bias, %), Coefficient of Variation (CV) and U-score were applied to the obtained results (mean of six replicates). The relative errors (bias, %) in relation to certified values, were, for most elements, in the range of 0 e 30. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The U-score test showed that all results, except Na in Peach Leaves and in Tomato Leaves, were within 95% confidence interval. These results point out to a promising use of the k{sub 0}-INAA method at LAN-IPEN for biological sample analysis. (author)

  4. Contents evaluation of some essential and toxic elements in children and elders diet by neutron activation analysis; Avaliacao do conteudo de alguns elementos essenciais e toxicos em dietas de criancas e idosos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera Akiko

    1996-12-31

    Essential and toxic elements in the 19 diet samples from pre-school children and 23 diet samples from elderly people, have been determined by neutron activation analysis. The diet samples were collected by duplicate portion method. A radiochemical separation procedure was developed and applied for determining Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Sb, U, Th, W and Zn, based on retention of these elements in a Chelex-100 resin. In the case of As and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TDO (tin dioxide). The contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates were also analysed. The results have been presented and discussed 135 refs., 29 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. Contents evaluation of some essential and toxic elements in children and elders diet by neutron activation analysis; Avaliacao do conteudo de alguns elementos essenciais e toxicos em dietas de criancas e idosos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera Akiko

    1997-12-31

    Essential and toxic elements in the 19 diet samples from pre-school children and 23 diet samples from elderly people, have been determined by neutron activation analysis. The diet samples were collected by duplicate portion method. A radiochemical separation procedure was developed and applied for determining Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Sb, U, Th, W and Zn, based on retention of these elements in a Chelex-100 resin. In the case of As and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TDO (tin dioxide). The contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates were also analysed. The results have been presented and discussed 135 refs., 29 figs., 36 tabs.

  6. Determination of selenium in biological material by instrumental neutron activation analysis using {sup 77m} Se radioisotope; Determinacao de selenio em materiais biologicos por analise por ativacao com neutrons instrumental usando o radioisotopo {sup 77m} Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Maria B.A.; Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Tokura, Alexandra M.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    1999-11-01

    Selenium is an essential element in human diet due to its relation to the protection against carcinogenic substances, heart disease, hypertension, sexual performance enhancement, and others. In this work Se concentration in samples of the biological certificate reference materials Human Hair BCR-CRM 397, Spiked Human Hair IAEA-085, Unspiked Human Hair IAEA-086; Dogfish Liver DOLT-1 and Dogfish Muscle DORM-1 were determined in order to improve the instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, method using {sup 77m} Se radioisotope. The application of this method allows the analysis of a large number of samples of samples with reduced time of experimental and cost. the best results were obtained with the reactor operating at 5 MW and time of irradiation between 10 and 20 s. In these experimental conditions the relative standard deviation and error were generally lower than 10%. (author) 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  8. Manganese determination om minerals by activation analysis, using the californium-252 as a neutron source; Determinacao de manganes em minerios, por analise por ativacao, usando californio-252 como fonte de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Antonio

    1976-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, using a Californium-252 neutron source, has been applied for the determination of manganese in ores such as pyrolusite, rodonite (manganese silicate)' and blending used in dry-batteries The favorable nuclear properties of manganese, such as high thermal neutron cross-section for the reaction {sup 55}Mn (n.gamma){sup 56} Mn, high concentration of manganese in the matrix and short half - life of {sup 56}Mn, are an ideal combination for non-destructive analysis of manganese in ores. Samples and standards of manganese dioxide were irradiated for about 20 minutes, followed by a 4 to 15 minutes decay and counted in a single channel pulse-height discrimination using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Counting time was equal to 10 minutes. The interference of nuclear reactions {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn and {sup 59} Co (n, {alpha}){sup 56} were studied, as well as problems in connection with neutron shadowing during irradiation, gamma-rays attenuation during counting and influence of granulometry of samples. One sample,was also analysed by wet-chemical method (sodium bismuthate) in order to compare results. As a whole, i t was shown that the analytical method of neutron activation for manganese in ores and blending, is a method simple, rapid and with good precision and accuracy. (author)

  9. Determination of rare earth and uranium in reference biological materials certified by the method of neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de terras raras e de uranio em materiais biologicos de referencia certificados pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Lais H.P.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: laispaciulli@gmail.com, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the determinations of Sc, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu and U in certified reference materials (CRMs). To solve the problem of interference from fission products of U in the determination of lanthanides were obtained correction factors for this interference for {sup 140}La, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 147}Nd. The experimental procedure of Neutron Activation Analysis consisted of irradiating aliquots of each of the CRMs with synthetic standards of elements under thermal neutron flux of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, followed by gamma-ray spectrometry using a high-resolution hyperpurity GE detector. The analyzes of CRMs indicate good accuracy and precision of results, demonstrating the feasibility of applying of established procedure in NAA of elements studied in organic vegetable matrices.

  10. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of essential elements in egg samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para a determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de ovos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Bruna G.; Maihara, Vera A.; Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail: brunagabrielegomes@gmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: pagliaro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The eggs are among the twenty foods consumed by the population of the five major regions of Brazil. Among the types of eggs, there are differences in nutritional value, which can vary according to the food of the bird. This study evaluating the elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na considered essential micronutrients in food, because they are fundamental in several metabolic processes necessary for the maintenance and training of the human body. We analyzed three types of eggs: egg whites, of the quail, and the colonial in cooked and raw form, using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method (INAA). The egg samples were lyophilized and pulverized before analysis. To validate the methodology, reference materials NIST RM 8415 Whole Egg Powder and NIST SRM 1567 Wheat Flour were analyzed. The samples, reference materials and standards of the elements were irradiated for 20 seconds under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6x10{sup 12} cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN / SP. The results were consistent with the values of the Brazilian Table of Food Composition (TACO)

  11. Neutron activation analysis applied to the determination of trace elements in human nails; Aplicacao do metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons a determinacao de elementos traco em unhas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo

    2001-07-01

    There is a considerable interest in the determination of trace elements in human nails in order to use this tissue as a monitor of nutritional and healthy status of individuals, of occupational exposure diseases and of the environmental contamination. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine trace elements in finger nail clippings to make comparisons between the elemental concentrations obtained in nails from healthy individuals of a control group and those from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Firstly, a protocol for sample collection and preparation for analysis was established. Finger and toe nail samples from CF patients were collected at the Instituto da Crianca of Medicine School, University of Sao Paulo, SP. The nail samples from control group were collected from healthy adults and from children living in Sao Paulo city, SP. These samples were cleaned by stirring them witha a diluted Triton X100 solution and then by washing with distilled water and acetone. The analytical procedure consisted of irradiation nail samples and elemental standards in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under thermal neutro flux of about 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, for short and long period irradiations. The activities of the radionuclides were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer comprising an hyperpure Ge detector and associated electronic system. The biological reference materials Bovine Liver 1577b and Oyster Tissue 1566a, both from National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA were analysed in order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the results. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test at the significance level of 5% were used to make a comparison between the sets of results obtained in this work. In the comparison of the results obtained for finger and toe nails from CF patients, the Br concentrations were higher in finger nails that those obtained for toe nails. For the control group of children, the finger nails

  12. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis; Estudo sobre determinacao de elementos quimicos em unhas humanas pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro

    2012-07-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO{sub 3} solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in

  13. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercial baby foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry; Determinacao dos elementos essenciais e toxicos em alimentos comerciais infantis por analise por ativacao com neutrons e espectrometria de absorcao atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila

    2013-08-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be breast fed exclusively for at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to start introducing complementary foods, in order to meet the child's nutritional, mineral and energy needs. Commercial food products for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies. Thus, it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of infant malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn and toxic elements: As, Cd, Hg levels were determined in twenty seven different commercial infant food product samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). In order to validate both methodologies the reference material: INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST - SRM 1577b Bovine Liver by INAA and NIST - SRM 1548th Typical Diet and NIST - SRM 1547 Peach Leaves by AAS were analyzed. The twenty seven baby food samples were acquired from Sao Paulo city supermarkets and stores. Essential and toxic elements were determined. Most of the essential element concentrations obtained were lower than the World Health Organization requirements, while concentrations of toxic elements were below the tolerable upper limit. These low essential element concentrations in these samples indicate that infants should not be fed only with commercial complementary foods. (author)

  14. Analysis of institutional evolution of regulatory activity in the Brazilian electric sector: 1920-1997; Analise da evolucao institucional da atividade de regulacao no setor eletrico brasileiro: 1920-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Mauricio Lopes; Ferreira, Elnatan Chagas; Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEMIC/FEEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], Email: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    An analysis of the institutional evolution of the governmental organizations which were responsible for the regulation of the electrical energy sector in Brazil (before the establishment of the ANEEL) is presented . Taking into account the various levels of subordination and independence in their actuation, the different missions and powers given to these agencies regarding the inspection, controlling, planning and regulating the industry, are compared and discussed. The conducted analysis is essentially formal, based on the legal instruments which defined and established the creation of those agencies. (author)

  15. CO{sub 2} emissions generated by the economic activity in Brazil: a decomposition analysis; Emissoes de CO{sub 2} gerados pela atividade economica no Brasil: uma analise de decomposicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Hercules Souza de; Dezidera, Daniela Arduino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; br, danidezidera@igmail com

    2006-07-01

    The present article intends to estimate the direct and indirect emissions of carbon dioxide through of the Brazilian economy official data (IBGE) and data from the National Energy Balance (BEN), trying to correlate the results. For this, the decomposition methodology was used by indexes (IDA). In that sense, evaluations were made in the temporary variations of indicators as: pollution coefficient, energy intensity, effect structures and economical activity. Besides the evaluation of the results consolidated for the period 1970 - 2004, it was compared such results with the one of other countries, whose savings have relative similarity with the Brazilian economy. The results demonstrated that in Brazil and in the countries where the methodology was applied was obtained, as main indicator in the alterations of the emissions of CO{sub 2}, the level of economical growth, which is also reality to Brazil. However, it should be emphasized that each case is considered by other factors. Another contribution of the present study refers the comparison of the intensity of present carbon in the two analysed savings. It identified, still, that the Brazilian energy outlook, for being 'cleaner', propitiates positive impact on carbon emissions results. It was also demonstrated that the increase of the participation of the natural gas in the energy matrix could minimize the carbon intensity effect, mainly as alternative for the power generation and transportation. (author)

  16. CO{sub 2} emissions generated by the economic activity in Brazil: a decomposition analysis; Emissoes de CO{sub 2} gerados pela atividade economica no Brasil: uma analise de decomposicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Hercules Souza de; Dezidera, Daniela Arduino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mails: hercules.medeiros@bg-group.com; danidezidera@igmail.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The present article intends to estimate the direct and indirect emissions of carbon dioxide through of the Brazilian economy official data (IBGE) and data from the National Energy Balance (BEN), trying to correlate the results. For this, the decomposition methodology was used by indexes (IDA). In that sense, evaluations were made in the temporary variations of indicators as: pollution coefficient, energy intensity, effect structures and economical activity. Besides the evaluation of the results consolidated for the period 1970 - 2004, it was compared such results with the one of other countries, whose savings have relative similarity with the Brazilian economy. The results demonstrated that in Brazil and in the countries where the methodology was applied was obtained, as main indicator in the alterations of the emissions of CO{sub 2}, the level of economical growth, which is also reality to Brazil. However, it should be emphasized that each case is considered by other factors. Another contribution of the present study refers the comparison of the intensity of present carbon in the two analysed savings. It identified, still, that the Brazilian energy outlook, for being 'cleaner', propitiates positive impact on carbon emissions results. It was also demonstrated that the increase of the participation of the natural gas in the energy matrix could minimize the carbon intensity effect, mainly as alternative for the power generation and transportation. (author)

  17. Analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines; Analise de integridade e risco para dutos onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Aurelio [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The increasing expansion of the oil and gas industry in Brazil, the current legal requirements relating to security, health and environment in the industrial installations, is necessary that the companies, responsible by the operation of pipelines for oil and gas transport, adopt efficient techniques to assure the operational continuity of these of trustworthy form and insurance. To fulfill this important function it is important that the companies implement a management program to control and register the integrity of the pipelines during the all operational life cycle. Inside of this context of management of the integrity of pipelines, the DNV developed the software ORBIT Pipeline with the intention to serve as an important tool to monitor the technique and security condition of the pipeline, to define the frequency and content technician of the inspection program and to recommend the work of intervention or repair in pipeline when necessary. Additionally to these activities that are carried through directly in the ORBIT Pipeline, also an evaluation of the activity of third part and the land/soil movement is made inside of the systematic for analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines performed by DNV. (author)

  18. Sustainability analysis in petroleum production facilities; Analise de sustentabilidade em instalacoes de producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Jose Marcos Leite [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Adriano [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The global sustainability aspects are discussed and a method for sustainability analysis in oil and gas production surface facilities is presented. The proposed method requires a multidisciplinary viewpoint and considers social, economic and environmental sustainability aspects during the early design programming and planning phases. Traditionally, Feasibility (Technical and Economical), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and risk (Hazop) analysis are performed separately. On the other hand, the proposed methodology merges economical, environmental and social sustainability analysis; which allows deciding the most globally sustainable scenario. A checklist containing global sustainability aspects (Economical, Social, Environmental, Health, Safety, etc.) and a qualitative analysis of these aspects is suggested. The first step for applying the proposed method consists in checking the aspects and the corresponding suggestions for improving the global sustainability. Secondly, the impact of each aspect on sustainability is verified. Finally, the most important aspects are selected and different scenarios are simulated allowing choosing the most sustainable scenario. The results and conclusions are then presented in a Global Sustainability Report. The proposed analysis was applied to study the sustainability of a small offshore platform design. In this case study, several aspects that could potentially improve sustainability were identified. The simulated scenarios showed that some critical aspects contributed decisively to the global sustainability. These critical aspects are not easily identified if only the traditional economical, environmental and risk analysis are applied. (author)

  19. Automated analysis of pumping tests; Analise automatizada de testes de bombeamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, Luiz Alberto Nozaki

    1996-01-01

    An automated procedure for analysis of pumping test data performed in groundwater wells is described. A computer software was developed to be used under the Windows operational system. The software allows the choice of 3 mathematical models for representing the aquifer behavior, which are: Confined aquifer (Theis model); Leaky aquifer (Hantush model); unconfined aquifer (Boulton model). The analysis of pumping test data using the proper aquifer model, allows for the determination of the model parameters such as transmissivity, storage coefficient, leakage coefficient and delay index. The computer program can be used for the analysis of data obtained from both pumping tests, with one or more pumping rates, and recovery tests. In the multiple rate case, a de superposition procedure has been implemented in order to obtain the equivalent aquifer response for the first flow rate, which is used in obtaining an initial estimate of the model parameters. Such initial estimate is required in the non-linear regression analysis method. The solutions to the partial differential equations describing the aquifer behavior were obtained in Laplace space, followed by numerical inversion of the transformed solution using the Stehfest algorithm. The data analysis procedure is based on a non-linear regression method by matching the field data to the theoretical response of a selected aquifer model, for a given type of test. A least squared regression analysis method was implemented using either Gauss-Newton or Levenberg-Marquardt procedures for minimization of a objective function. The computer software can also be applied to multiple rate test data in order to determine the non-linear well coefficient, allowing for the computation of the well inflow performance curve. (author)

  20. Business analysis of generation considering environmental opportunities; Analise de negocios de geracao considerando oportunidades ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrillo, Ivo Ordonha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia; Pelegrini, Marcelo A.; Gemignani, Matheus M.F.

    2008-07-01

    The project 'Business's Power Generation Evaluation Considering Environmental Opportunities' is about developing a methodology to analyze feasibility of new power generation factory from the point of view of the investor, examining the technical, economic-financial, risk, regulatory, social and environmental aspects. The opportunities arising from Kyoto Protocol were added in feasibility's analysis. (author)

  1. Methodology for reactor core physics analysis - part 2; Metodologia de analise fisica do nucleo - etapa 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponzoni Filho, P; Fernandes, V B; Lima Bezerra, J de; Santos, T I.C.

    1992-12-01

    The computer codes used for reactor core physics analysis are described. The modifications introduced in the public codes and the technical basis for the codes developed by the FURNAS utility are justified. An evaluation of the impact of these modifications on the parameter involved in qualifying the methodology is included. (F.E.). 5 ref, 7 figs, 5 tabs.

  2. Conformational analysis of lignin models; Analise conformacional de modelos de lignina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio F. dos [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: helius@quimica.ufjf.br

    2001-08-01

    The conformational equilibrium for two 5,5' biphenyl lignin models have been analyzed using a quantum mechanical semiempirical method. The gas phase and solution structures are discussed based on the NMR and X-ray experimental data. The results obtained showed that the observed conformations are solvent-dependent, being the geometries and the thermodynamic properties correlated with the experimental information. This study shows how a systematic theoretical conformational analysis can help to understand chemical processes at a molecular level. (author)

  3. Thermoeconomic analysis incorporating the concept of ecological efficiency; Analise termoeconomica incorporando o conceito de eficiencia ecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, I.A.C. [University of Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Environment Science ], Email: iraides@debas.eel.usp.br; Silveira, J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Energy], Email: joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the pollution resulting from the natural gas combustion for a thermoelectric power plant (230 MW) by utilizing the combined cycle (CC) and recovering kettle, with no burning and with fuel complementary burning. Initially the CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and Particulate Matter emission levels are determined. Later, the thermoelectric power plant environmental impact is evaluated through the utilization of a methodology based on the ecological efficiency ({epsilon}), parameter that integrates in a single coefficient the aspects that define the environmental impact intensity, with basis on the fuel utilized, combustion technology, pollution index and power plant thermodynamic efficiency. The objective is to apply the concept of ecological efficiency in a thermoeconomic analysis method which utilizes function diagram and allows the estimation of the electricity production cost. It is concluded that the use of a system with no complementary burning is better than the one with complementary burning, both from the ecological and the economical points of view. (author)

  4. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis; Vermiculitas da regiao do nordeste brasileiro: analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P S; Hanken, R B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C M.O., [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  5. Measurement analysis using the Fricke dosemeter; Analise de medicoes com o dosimetro Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, G A.C. , [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dantas, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: ccd@ufpe.br; Campos, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: auster@elogica.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The Fricke dosemeter has been used for absolute determination of the radiation dose between 40 and 350 Gy for X-rays, Gamma rays and fast electrons energies. The great inconvenient of that dosimetric system is the impossibility of using for measurements of exposure or low dose rates. A Fricke dosimetry system was implanted at the Nuclear Sciences Regional Center (CRCN), in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil, for the determination of radiation doses for spectrometry and mass dosimetry with plasma source. The statistical analysis of the obtained results have shown that using the spectrometric method that system cna be used for maintenance of factors of CRCN standard calibrations and the dose assessment thru mail system of radiotherapy centers of the country.

  6. Winston-Lutz Test: A quantitative analysis; Teste de Winston-Lutz: uma analise quantitativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Nandi, Dorival Menegaz; Saraiva, Crystian Wilian Chagas, E-mail: dnandi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Describe a method of quantitative analysis for the Winston-Lutz test. Materials and methods The research is a qualitative exploratory study. The materials used were: portal film; Winston- Lutz test tools and Omni Pro software. Sixteen portal films were used as samples and were analyzed by five different technicians to measure the deviation between the radiation isocenters and mechanic. Results: Among the results were identified two combinations with offset values greater than 1 mm. In addition, when compared the method developed with the previously studied, it was observed that the data obtained are very close, with the maximum percentage deviation of 32.5%, which demonstrates its efficacy in reducing dependence on the performer. Conclusion: The results show that the method is reproducible and practical, which constitutes one of the fundamental factors for its implementation. (author)

  7. Thermal hydrodynamic analysis of a countercurrent gas centrifuge; Analise termo hidrodinamica de uma centrifuga a contracorrente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    1999-07-01

    The influence of the thermal countercurrent on the separative performance of countercurrent centrifuges is treated in this work. The methodology used consists in modeling the gas flow inside the rotor under thermal boundary conditions supplied by the structural thermal model. The gas flow model, also called hydrodynamical model, is based on the Finite Volume Method for cylindrical geometry with azimuthal symmetry. The structural thermal model is based on the Nodal Method and take into account simultaneously, the conduction convection and radiation phenomena. The procedure adopted for this study consisted in the definition of the operational and geometric conditions of a centrifuge which was used as a pattern to the accomplished analysis. This configuration, called 'Standard Centrifuge', was used for the accomplishment of several simulations where the importance of the realistic boundary thermal conditions for the numerical evaluation of the centrifuge separative capacity was evidenced. A selective alteration for the optical properties based on simple engineering procedures was proposed. An improvement of 5% was obtained with this alteration. (author)

  8. Thermal hydrodynamic analysis of a countercurrent gas centrifuge; Analise termo hidrodinamica de uma centrifuga a contracorrente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    1999-07-01

    The influence of the thermal countercurrent on the separative performance of countercurrent centrifuges is treated in this work. The methodology used consists in modeling the gas flow inside the rotor under thermal boundary conditions supplied by the structural thermal model. The gas flow model, also called hydrodynamical model, is based on the Finite Volume Method for cylindrical geometry with azimuthal symmetry. The structural thermal model is based on the Nodal Method and take into account simultaneously, the conduction convection and radiation phenomena. The procedure adopted for this study consisted in the definition of the operational and geometric conditions of a centrifuge which was used as a pattern to the accomplished analysis. This configuration, called 'Standard Centrifuge', was used for the accomplishment of several simulations where the importance of the realistic boundary thermal conditions for the numerical evaluation of the centrifuge separative capacity was evidenced. A selective alteration for the optical properties based on simple engineering procedures was proposed. An improvement of 5% was obtained with this alteration. (author)

  9. Analysis of the computed tomography in the acute abdomen; Analise da tomografia computadorizada no abdome agudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Moraes, Everton [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil); Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Antunes, Paulo Sergio Pase [Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Gazzoni, Fernando [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Porto Alegre (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas; Andrade, Rubens Gabriel Feijo [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Cardiologia; Bueno, Leticia Rossi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lopes, Luis Felipe Dias [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica]. E-mail: brunorgs@pop.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Introduction: This study tends to test the capacity of the computed tomography in assist in the diagnosis and the approach of the acute abdomen. Material and method: This is a longitudinal and prospective study, in which were analyzed the patients with the diagnosis of acute abdomen. There were obtained 105 cases of acute abdomen and after the application of the exclusions criteria were included 28 patients in the study. Results: Computed tomography changed the diagnostic hypothesis of the physicians in 50% of the cases (p < 0.05), and the confidence index in 85.71% of the cases (p 0.014). Computed tomography also altered the management in 46.43% of the cases (p > 0.05), where 78.57% of the patients had surgical indication before computed tomography and 67.86% after computed tomography (p = 0.0546). The index of accurate diagnosis of computed tomography, when compared to the anatomopathologic examination and the final diagnosis, was observed in 82.14% of the cases (p = 0.013). When the analysis was done dividing the patients in surgical and nonsurgical group, were obtained an accuracy of 89.28% (p 0.0001). The difference of 7.2 days of hospitalization (p = 0.003) was obtained compared with the mean of the acute abdomen without use the computed tomography. Conclusion: The computed tomography is correlative with the anatomopathology and has great accuracy in the surgical indication, associated with the capacity of increase the confident index of the physicians, reduces the hospitalization time, reduces the number of surgeries and is cost-effective. (author)

  10. n Analise van die gemeente as deel van hierdie proses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phase of this subject is the analysis of the situation in the local church. The purpose of the analysis is to syste matically ... planned carefully. This study gives attention to a plan ned situation-analysis of the local church. 1. ...... 6.1.2.5 Die dinkskrum en 'swot'-analise. 'n Dinkskrum is 'n tegniek waar 'n groep soveel as moontlik ...

  11. Loading and stress analysis of gas pipeline structures; Analise de esforcos e tensoes em estruturas de gasodutos durante despressurizacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Savi, Marcelo Amorim [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Pacheco, Pedro Manuel Calas Lopes [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Repairing and maintenance activities on Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline often need blow down lines. During the blow down process, the high speed of discharging gases imposes great efforts to the structures. A detailed analysis of this situation is essential for a safe operation. This paper describes two phases of a project, developed under TBG coordination. It consists in analyzing the stress and forces involved in this operation, in order to design facilities to blow down pipes and develop a safe blow down procedure for the gas pipeline. The first phase consists of a supersonic flowing simulation in the blow down gas pipeline device. The pressure behavior, mass flow and the speed at the device's ending point are calculated for different operational conditions. In the second phase, the equivalent loading caused by blow down operations is used as input in a stress analysis program to determine stress, critical sessions evaluation and material recommendations for blow down devices. (author)

  12. A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis; Estudo sobre os efeitos do cobre e zinco no crescimento da plantula de Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith cultivada in vitro. Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieri, Maria Cristina Tessari

    2010-07-01

    Metals are components of the biosphere, occurring naturally in soil and plants, but as a result of human actions, their levels have been greatly increased, depending on the region. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the growth and development of plants, however if in excess become toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plants to absorb Cu and Zn and what effects they cause in seedlings cultivated in vitro. The results of this study may contribute primarily in agricultural and environmental research. The plant investigated was the Aechmea blanchetiana species of the Bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial or epiphytic species used as an ornamental plant. The cultivation of seedlings for this study and their exposure to different concentrations of Cu and Zn were performed at the Institute of Botany (IBt) of Sao Paulo. After seed germination, the seedlings were transferred for growth in a culture media containing different concentrations of Cu or Zn. After this period of in vitro cultivation, the seedlings were analyzed for morphometry, anatomy and by neutron activation analysis. Quality control of the results from neutron activation analysis was carried out by the analysis of certified reference materials. The data obtained showed good precision and accuracy for several elements determined. The highest concentrations of Cu used in the exposure were those that caused major structural changes in morphometric and anatomical parameters, however for the Zn no significant differences were verified for most parameters. The A. blanchetiana proved to be a bioaccumulator species of Zn, absorbing high levels of this element in the aerial parts and roots. (author)

  13. Application of neutron activation techniques and x-ray energy dispersion spectrometry, in analysis of metallic traces adsorbed by chelex-100 resin; Ativacao das tecnicas de ativacao neutronica e espectrometria por dispersao de onda e de energia de raios X, na analise de tracos metalicos adsorvidos pela resina chelex-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jair C.; Amaral, Angela M.; Magalhaes, Jesus C.; Pereira, Jose S.J.; Silva, Juliana B. da; Auler, Lucia M.L.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: jcf@urano.cdtn.br

    2000-07-01

    In this work, the authors have investigated optimal conditions of adsorption for several ion metallic groups (cations of heavy metals and transition metals, oxyanions metallics and metalloids and cations of rare earths), as traces (ppb), withdrawn and in mixture of groups, by chelex-100 resin. The experiments have been developed by bath techniques in ammonium acetate tamponade solution 40 mM pH 5,52 content 0,5 g of chelex-100 resin. After magnetic agitation for two hours, resins were dried and submitted to X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The results have demonstrated that chelex-100 resin adsorb quantitatively transition element groups and rare earth groups in two cases (withdrawn and simultaneously adsorption)

  14. Analysis of lichens for use in biomonitoring of environmental pollution; Analise de liquens para uso na biomonitoracao da poluicao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horimoto, Lidia K.; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Marcelli, Marcello P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se, Th, V and Zn obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the analyses of epiphytic lichen samples collected in different sites of the States of Sao Paulo and Parana. These lichens were collected in the following sites: Cidade Universitaria, Campo Limpo Paulista, Sao Bernardo do Campo and Itanhaen situated in the State of Sao Paulo and one sample was from Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa of Parana State. The purpose of these analyses were to obtain preliminary information of air quality of these regions and also select a region of interest for biomonitoring studies. (author)

  15. Evaluation of essential trace elements in preterm and full term milk and childhood formulas by neutron activation analysis; Avaliacao dos teores de elementos essenciais no leite materno de maes de recem-nascidos prematuros e a termo e em formulas infantis por meio da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paola de Souza

    2009-07-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need of trace elements during infancy and their adequate availability in human milk. Deficiency of minor and trace elements can lead to various disorders in infants. During early childhood trace element requirements, are more critical due to faster growth rates. In this study, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in human colostrum samples from mothers of preterm and full-term newborns. Samples were collected by manual expression from the first to the fifth day after birth. After collection, human colostrum samples were frozen and freeze-dried for analyses. Few of the most commonly commercialized were also analyzed. The essential element concentrations were determined in 30 colostrum samples and 17 milk formula brands by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Multivariate analyses were applied and the results were separated in two clusters. However the separation was not related to the corresponding gestational age. Results of this study showed that the concentration levels of the essential element Ca, K and Na in the milk formula samples analyzed were in agreement with the printed information on the labels. All concentration levels were also within ANVISA and Codex Allimentarius recommended values and thus adequate for infant nutritional needs. (author)

  16. Study on water-sediment interaction in samples from Rio das Velhas - Minas Gerais State - Brazil using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and argon plasma coupled mass spectroscopy; Estudo da interacao agua-sedimento em amostras do Rio das Velhas - MG utilizando os metodos: analise por ativacao neutronica instrumental (INAA) e espectrometria de massa acoplada a um plasma de argonio (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno H. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Revel, G.; Pinte, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. d`Analyse par Activation Pierre Sue; Toulhoat, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Unite Mixte de Recherche Analyse et Environnement

    1999-11-01

    Sorption of the metallic elements in aqueous solutions in surface of the hydroxides affects the transport of heavy elements in the freshwaters. Sorption and the chemistry of the hydroxides are important studies for knowledge in geology, waters and waste treatment, and environment studies. In the industrial mining region areas, the river surface waters are subject to modifications in its physical and chemistries properties: pH, DBO, conductivity and alkalinity. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), have ben used for the determination of toxic heavy metals and others pollutants in the Das Velhas river in State of Minas Gerais, in south-east Brazil. Water samples were collected with acidification on site, which provoked a change of its natural pH. Consequently, metallic elements associated to hydroxides and to particles in suspension were liberated. The objective of this paper is to show the different behavior of any elements, in water of Das Velhas river, with relation of its chemical forms (cations or anions), the solubility degree, the pH and the presence of rare earth elements. (author) 11 refs., 10 figs.; e-mail: adelaide at nuclear.ufmg.br; heeren at nuclear.ufmg.br; grevel at drecam.cea.fr; pierre.toulhoat at cea.fr

  17. Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

  18. Load curves analysis under operational and economics focus; Analise de curvas de carga sob enfoques operativos e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, R S; Cardoso, A F; Fleury, M E.V. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work aims to present the analysis of load curves performed by the short term planning sectors of several subsidiaries, independently of the methodologies used. In order to do so some peculiar occurrences were selected which show the influence of factors that are external to the electric power system. In such way, the analysis of past situations proves to be an important tool in the forecasting work so that a better planning may be achieved. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Implementation of statistical analysis methods for medical physics data; Implementacao de metodos de analise estatistica para dados de fisica medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Marilia S.; Pinto, Nivia G.P.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F., E-mail: mariliasilvat@gmail.co, E-mail: lfolive@oi.com.b, E-mail: cely_barroso@hotmail.co, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    The objective of biomedical research with different radiation natures is to contribute for the understanding of the basic physics and biochemistry of the biological systems, the disease diagnostic and the development of the therapeutic techniques. The main benefits are: the cure of tumors through the therapy, the anticipated detection of diseases through the diagnostic, the using as prophylactic mean for blood transfusion, etc. Therefore, for the better understanding of the biological interactions occurring after exposure to radiation, it is necessary for the optimization of therapeutic procedures and strategies for reduction of radioinduced effects. The group pf applied physics of the Physics Institute of UERJ have been working in the characterization of biological samples (human tissues, teeth, saliva, soil, plants, sediments, air, water, organic matrixes, ceramics, fossil material, among others) using X-rays diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The application of these techniques for measurement, analysis and interpretation of the biological tissues characteristics are experimenting considerable interest in the Medical and Environmental Physics. All quantitative data analysis must be initiated with descriptive statistic calculation (means and standard deviations) in order to obtain a previous notion on what the analysis will reveal. It is well known que o high values of standard deviation found in experimental measurements of biologicals samples can be attributed to biological factors, due to the specific characteristics of each individual (age, gender, environment, alimentary habits, etc). This work has the main objective the development of a program for the use of specific statistic methods for the optimization of experimental data an analysis. The specialized programs for this analysis are proprietary, another objective of this work is the implementation of a code which is free and can be shared by the other research groups. As the program developed since the

  20. Analysis of normative requirements for the development and implementation of a quality management system in Brazilian nuclear installations and activities; Analise de requisitos normativos para o desenvolvimento e a implementacao de um sistema de gestao da qualidade em instalacoes e atividades nucleares brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibrit, Eduardo

    2008-07-01

    The present work identifies, characterizes and analyses the normative requirements for the development and implementation of quality management systems in Brazilian nuclear installations and activities. The requirements established in standards IAEA GS-R-3, IAEA GS-G-3.1, IAEA DS 349, NBR ISO 9001:2000 e CNEN-NN-1.16 are critically analyzed. A correlation matrix of the applicable standards is presented and the related topics among them are identified. The standards IAEA GS-R-3, IAEA GS-G-3.1 and IAEA DS 349 define general requirements for establishing, implementing, assessing and continually improving an integrated management system in nuclear installations and activities, in IAEA member countries. The standard NBR ISO 9001:2000 establishes general requirements for the implementation of a quality management system in all kinds of organizations. The standard CNEN NN-1.16 establishes the regulating requirements for the quality assurance systems and programs of nuclear installations, for licensing and authorization for operation of these installations in Brazil. The standard IAEA GS-R-3 that replaces the code IAEA 50-C-Q introduces the concept of 'Integrated Management System' for the nuclear area, in preference to the concepts of 'Quality Assurance' and 'Quality Management'. This new approach is aligned with the current tendency incorporating requirements of quality, safety, health, environment, security, economics and other in a unique management system. Examples of quality management systems implemented by Brazilian nuclear organizations and by nuclear organizations outside Brazil are analyzed and considered in the discussion of results. (author)

  1. Analysis of normative requirements for the development and implementation of a quality management system in Brazilian nuclear installations and activities; Analise de requisitos normativos para o desenvolvimento e a implementacao de um sistema de gestao da qualidade em instalacoes e atividades nucleares brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibrit, Eduardo

    2008-07-01

    The present work identifies, characterizes and analyses the normative requirements for the development and implementation of quality management systems in Brazilian nuclear installations and activities. The requirements established in standards IAEA GS-R-3, IAEA GS-G-3.1, IAEA DS 349, NBR ISO 9001:2000 e CNEN-NN-1.16 are critically analyzed. A correlation matrix of the applicable standards is presented and the related topics among them are identified. The standards IAEA GS-R-3, IAEA GS-G-3.1 and IAEA DS 349 define general requirements for establishing, implementing, assessing and continually improving an integrated management system in nuclear installations and activities, in IAEA member countries. The standard NBR ISO 9001:2000 establishes general requirements for the implementation of a quality management system in all kinds of organizations. The standard CNEN NN-1.16 establishes the regulating requirements for the quality assurance systems and programs of nuclear installations, for licensing and authorization for operation of these installations in Brazil. The standard IAEA GS-R-3 that replaces the code IAEA 50-C-Q introduces the concept of 'Integrated Management System' for the nuclear area, in preference to the concepts of 'Quality Assurance' and 'Quality Management'. This new approach is aligned with the current tendency incorporating requirements of quality, safety, health, environment, security, economics and other in a unique management system. Examples of quality management systems implemented by Brazilian nuclear organizations and by nuclear organizations outside Brazil are analyzed and considered in the discussion of results. (author)

  2. Economic analysis of a 20 kW gasifier; Analise economica de um gaseificador de 20 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Rocha, Brigida Ramati Pereira da [Universidade Federal do Para (NEDS/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia para o Desenvolvimento Sustentavel], e-mail: neds@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    The gasification of biomass residues has been pointed as an alternative in electricity supplying for small communities of the Amazon region, because it promotes a significant substitution of the diesel oil in the electric power generation. This paper presents an economic analysis of an electricity generation system (gasifier and generator set) of 20 kw that is installed in the community of Jenipauba, in the State of Para. That analysis confirms the economic attractiveness of that energy alternative on the generator sets that operate exclusively with diesel oil. It also shows the impact of the labor law on electricity generation cost, as well as the need of subsidizing the electric power generation, because the community of Jenipauba is very poor. (author)

  3. Risk analysis applied to the development of petroleum fields; Analise de risco aplicada ao desenvolvimento de campos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Paula A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Decision analysis applied to the development phase of petroleum fields must take into account the risk associated to several types of uncertainties. In the transition of the appraisal to the development phase, the importance of risk associated to the recovery factor may increase significantly. The process is complex due to high investments, large number of uncertain variables, strong dependence of the results with the production strategy definition. This complexity may, in several cases, cause difficulties to establish reliable techniques to assess risk correctly or it demands great computational effort. Therefore, methodologies to quantify the impact of uncertainties are still not well established because simplifications are necessary and the impact of such simplifications is not well known. The propose work bring the main aspects related to the validation of the simplifications necessary to the quantification of the impact of uncertainties in the risk analysis process. The adopted techniques are divided in three groups: adoption of the automated process and use of parallel computing; simplifications techniques in the treatment of attributes; and integration techniques of geological uncertainties with the different types of uncertainties (economical, technological and related with the production strategy). The integration of the geological uncertainties with the others uncertainties is made through the concept of representative models. The results show that the criteria adopted are good indicators of the viability of the methodology, improving the performance and reliability of the risk analysis process. (author)

  4. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil; Analise do custo da energia eletrica proveniente de um reformador de etanol e celula a combustivel no desenvolvimento de atividades produtivas na comunidade Pico do Amor/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Departamento de Energia; Instituto Aqua Genesis, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Hytron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  5. Of the clean development mechanism to the program of activities: an analysis of the bio diesel and wind energy uses in Brazil; Do mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo ao programa de atividades: uma analise do uso do biodiesel e da energia eolica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Mayra Jupyara Braga

    2009-05-15

    The current actions of economic and industrial activities have resulted in increase of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere since 1750. According to IPCC (2007) this alteration can increase the average temperature in the planet between 1,8 and 4,0 deg C up to 2100. The climate changes and the global warming are the most complicated environmental questions of our time and the actions took now will have effect on the future generations. In this context, a series of world-wide conferences and diverse scientific quarrels had occurred throughout the last decade, which culminated in the most important multilateral agreement firmed on climate changes, the Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997. The Protocol is a landmark in the attempts of mitigation of the climate changes, since it established the commitment of the industrialized countries with emissions reduction targets of 5,2% to the level of 1990 emissions. To achieve such targets these countries count on three flexibilization mechanisms provided by the Kyoto Protocol: Joint implementation, Emission Trading and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that it will be object of this study. The objective of this thesis is to carry through an evaluation of the CDM since its conception until the current days, searching to identify its dynamics and the main inherent gaps of this instrument and finally present two case studies of the bio diesel and wind energy uses in Brazil. (author)

  6. Analysis of public policies for new renewable energy in Brazil; Analise de politicas publicas para novas energias renovaveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, M.C.; Fadigas, E.A.F.A.; Baitelo, R.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy have a prominent place among the solutions to combat global warming, but its potential is still untapped in Brazil. Without long-term policies with clear rules, you can not attract entrepreneurs and ensure stability of operation of this market. The main tools of government to promote renewable energy generation have not been efficient - the Incentive Program for Alternative Sources of Energy (Proinfa) was implemented in 2002 but put into operation just over two thirds of the energy proposal. The low success rate in repeated auctions focused on renewable energy. The objective of this paper is to discuss the prospects of the expansion of electricity generation by renewable energies in Brazil and some fundamental requirements for effective structuring of this market in the country. This argument is supported by the analysis of the proposed mechanisms used internationally and in the country, under a new law for renewable energies. As a practical demonstration of the analysis, we present a simulation of conditions of formation of the final price of renewable resources in different conditions as varied market rate of return, cost of transmission, and sale of carbon credits.

  7. Exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of a model cogeneration system; Analise exergoeconomica e otimizacao de um modelo de sistema de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Leonardo S.R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Conhecimento de Materiais e Mecanica]. E-mail: lsrv@cepel.br; Donatelli, Joao L.M. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: donatelli@lttc.com.ufrj.br; Cruz, Manuel E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: manuel@serv.com.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we perform exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses, a mathematical optimization and an exergoeconomic optimization of a gas turbine-heat recovery boiler cogeneration system with fixed electricity and steam production rates. The exergy balance is calculated with the IPSE pro thermal system simulation program. In the exergetic analysis, exergy destruction rates, exergetic efficiencies and structural bond coefficients for each component are evaluated as functions of the decision variables of the optimization problem. In the exergoeconomic analysis the cost for each exergetic flow is determined through cost balance equations and additional auxiliary equations from cost partition criteria. Mathematical optimization is performed by the metric variable method (software EES - Engineering Equation Solver) and by the successive quadratic programming (IMSL library - Fortran Power Station). The exergoeconomic optimization is performed on the basis of the exergoeconomic variables. System optimization is also performed by evaluating the derivative of the objective function through finite differences. This paper concludes with a comparison between the four optimization techniques employed. (author)

  8. Analysis of the opening model of the Brazilian upstream business; Analise da adequacao do modelo de E e P brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the institutional model adopted for the reform of the oil industry in Brazil, beginning with the approval of Law n. 9.478 by the Brazilian Parliament in 1997. The reform of the Brazilian oil industry took place in the context of the reforms of the world's national economies throughout the 1980's and 1990's. From this worldwide process of reform stemmed a huge increase in the international capital flow directed to long-run investment opportunities in the economic infrastructure sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse both the regulatory model for the oil and gas upstream activities in Brazil and the bidding model adopted at Brazil's National Petroleum Agency's auctions for the acquisition of exploration areas. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal (in memoriam), whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  9. Bioenergy in Brazil and Europe: a comparative analysis; Bioenergia no Brasil e na Europa: uma analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Nivalde Jose de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia], e-mail: nivalde@ie.ufrj.br; Dantas, Guilherme de Azevedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (GESEL/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos do Setor Eletrico], e-mail: guilhermecrvg@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    A higher application of bioenergy is one of the existing ways to adequate the necessity of an expansion in the energy supply with the mitigation of global warming. The consumption of biofuel in the transport sector is the most usual and important use of biomass, however, bioenergy may also have a relevant contribution to the world electrical matrix. A comparative analysis shows that Brazil has consolidate the usage of biofuel while Europe is having problems to accomplish the biofuels levels established in the European Union guidelines. However, some european countries are developing their bioelectrical generation potential in a much more efficient way than Brazil. Therefore , brazilian policies to support bioelectricity should observe the successful instruments applied in Europe. (author)

  10. Numerical analysis of hydrodynamic forces acting on vertical lift gates; Analise dos esforcos hidrodinamicas em comportas hidraulicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jell Lima de [Mecanica Pesada S.A., Taubate, SP (Brazil); Amorim, Jose Carlos Cesar [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: jcamorim@ime.eb.br

    1997-07-01

    A numerical analysis has been developed for calculating viscous flows controlled by a vertical lift gate and hydrodynamic forces acting on it. The numerical solution is obtained from the incompressible Navier-Stoles equations. The numerical techniques is based on a finite element method. A Poisson equation is derived from the pressure-weighted substitution of the full momentum equations into the continuity equation. Turbulence effects are simulated by a K-{epsilon} turbulence model. The procedure developed here is applied for a vertical lift gate operating in a CESP installation, and the results are compared with available experimental data at various opening positions. Good agreement is obtained for the velocity and pressure distributions. (author)

  11. Data integration for performance analysis of petroleum wells; Integracao de dados para analise de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arturo, Naisa Carrillo; Mendes, Jose Ricardo; Morooka, Celso [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Miura, Kazuo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this work a new parameter called the System Performance Index is proposed, which allows a more profound study of the performance of petroleum wells. An outstanding characteristic of this parameter is that it uses a large amount of field data measured periodically. This index allows the assessing of the performance and technologies used in the wells. This study presents a comparison of the performance of vertical, directional and horizontal wells. The sand control technologies used in the wells are also evaluated. Finally, the proposed parameter enables a practical analysis that can be implemented as a strategic tool for oil field performance and optimization studies. Data used in this work were kindly supplied by PETROBRAS. (author)

  12. An analysis on the costs of Belo Monte hydroelectric power plant; Uma analise sobre os custos da hidreletrica Belo Monte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: energiapara@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The Belo Monte hydropower plant's low generation cost is among the arguments used by Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brazil (ELETRONORTE), a Brazilian state electric utility, to make possible its construction. This paper shows that the generation cost presented by ELETROBRAS is very low in relation to the world pattern of cost and probably unrealistic. It also shows that the generation cost cannot be used separately to determine the Belo Monte dam's economic feasibility. There is the need to include other costs, such as: socio environmental degradation and control, financial compensation for using the hydraulic resources, transmission and thermal backup stations, beyond, evidently, generation cost for assuring the credibility of the Belo Monte hydropower plant's economic analysis. (author)

  13. Analysis of the opening model of the Brazilian upstream business; Analise da adequacao do modelo de E e P brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the institutional model adopted for the reform of the oil industry in Brazil, beginning with the approval of Law n. 9.478 by the Brazilian Parliament in 1997. The reform of the Brazilian oil industry took place in the context of the reforms of the world's national economies throughout the 1980's and 1990's. From this worldwide process of reform stemmed a huge increase in the international capital flow directed to long-run investment opportunities in the economic infrastructure sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse both the regulatory model for the oil and gas upstream activities in Brazil and the bidding model adopted at Brazil's National Petroleum Agency's auctions for the acquisition of exploration areas. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal (in memoriam), whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  14. Analysis of the of bones through 3D computerized tomography; Analise de estrutura ossea atraves de microtomografia computadorizada 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I.; Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Oliveira, L.F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica; Alves, J.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2009-03-15

    This work shows the analysis of the internal structure of the bones samples through 3D micro tomography technique (3D-{mu}TC). The comprehension of the bone structure is particularly important when related to osteoporosis diagnosis because this implies in a deterioration of the trabecular bone architecture, which increases the fragility and the possibility to have bone fractures. Two bone samples (human calcaneous and Wistar rat femur) were used, and the method was a radiographic system in real time with an X Ray microfocus tube. The quantifications parameters are based on stereological principles and they are five: a bone volume fraction, trabecular number, the ratio between surface and bone volume, the trabecular thickness and the trabecular separation. The quantifications were done with a program developed especially for this purpose in Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory - COPPE/UFRJ. This program uses as input the 3D reconstructions images and generates a table with the quantifications. The results of the human calcaneous quantifications are presented in tables 1 and 2, and the 3D reconstructions are illustrated in Figure 5. The Figure 6 illustrate the 2D reconstructed image and the Figure 7 the 3D visualization respectively of the Wistar femur sample. The obtained results show that the 3D-{mu}TC is a powerful technique that can be used to analyze bone microstructures. (author)

  15. Analysis of battery behavior in small photovoltaic systems; Analise do comportamento da bateria utilizada em sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Jose Renato Castro Pompeia; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica - FEB/UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jrfraga@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the electric energy storage system generated from a photovoltaic system with lead-acid batteries. The increasing claim for energy in the world in addition to the need of using renewable energy sources in order to preserve the environment makes necessary the development of efficient techniques of power supply and control. Two photovoltaic systems were used in this work, a conventional one with stationary solar panel and another with automatic solar position system. The comparative analysis has allowed assessing the advantages of both systems. The following characteristics were obtained during the development of this work: charge, discharge, battery capacity, operating time rate, auto-discharge reaction (through fluctuation state), among other important information that allows an extended life to the stationary battery studied. The obtained results indicate that the battery connected to the mobile system provides 36% of additional energy compared to the fixed system. When the battery was unable to provide energy to the load, the battery connected to the mobile system consumed about 33% less energy than that one connected to the fixed system (author)

  16. Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers hay production; Analise energetica na producao de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro T. [UNIOESTE, Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose R.C.; Bueno, Osmar C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Facudade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio T. [EMBRAPA - Gado de leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipment, followed by the irrigation system. The energetic efficiency presented by the whole system was 4.2, being considered positive and demonstrating that the agriculture ecosystem is sustainable. Most of the direct energy employed in this system was oil derived on fuel form. There was, however, a great consume of another oil derived energy such as fertilizer, but mainly on the nitrogen form (28.89% of the total employed energy). (author)

  17. Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method; Analise quimica de material superconductor atraves do metodo de Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Junior, E.S.; Gomes Junior, G.G.; Ogasawara, T., E-mail: georges@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Eng. Metalurgica e Materiais; Bispo, E.R.; Polasek, A. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Amorim, H.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

  18. The ethanol industry from the analysis technology road maps; A industria do etanol a partir da analise de roadmaps tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calil Neto, Antonio; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira Cavalacanti; Freire, Estevao [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the ethanol industry in the coming years should be buoyed by several factors, among which gain prominence: feedstock, conversion technologies and products. This article aims, from the analysis of technological road maps, is dealing with Brazil in the face of the global market, is primarily addressing the international context, to assess which technologies tend to predominate, with emphasis on the ethanol industry, addressing convergent and complementary the technology road maps, especially regarding the barriers and challenges, costs and logistics, and other broader issues that govern the production of sustainable feedstock, conversion technologies and biofuels industry, with emphasis on ethanol. Conventional biofuels today are generally not competitive with fossil fuels at market prices, except for the cane ethanol already has a good performance in economic terms. Moreover, strategies for first generation ethanol differ from those for the second generation, which is at an earlier stage of technology development and still subject to comparatively high production costs. The non-economic fundamental barrier to the development of biofuels, particularly ethanol, is the uncertainty as to its sustainability. The debate sometimes on competition with food production and the potential destruction of valuable ecosystems put biofuels in the center of the discussion about sustainability. The challenges facing the ethanol industry range from the need to implement on a large scale to reduce costs along the production chain, through the need for second-generation technologies to reach the level of market, with the behavior of these factors and others will depend on each setting route. (author)

  19. Energy analysis of tubular digesters using swine residues; Analise energetica de biodigestores tubulares usando dejetos de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Grupo Pesquisador em Educacao Ambiental; Santos, Elenara Pinto dos; Casimiro, Evandro Luiz Nogarolli; Nagae, Ricardo Yuiti; Weiss Filho, Waldemiro [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciecias Agraras

    2004-07-01

    Overcoming another financial crisis, the swine production has the great challenge, in this and next decades, of also reaching the sustainability in the ecosystem ambit. The Parana State/Brazil west area is known because of it's residues high production, with high pollution level, it possesses the added difficulty of presenting high concentration of animals, inserted in production centers in reduced areas. However, this situation reversion, changing the 'trouble called residue' in a 'energy source solution', by means of digesters, became a reality, with the initiative of some producers and researchers. Present work objective was to evaluate the energy production, by means of the digesters use, as alternative energy co-generation. The work was developed at a commercial farm located at the Parana State west area, with 1,700 sows, in an piglet unit producing, with production of 3,400 piglet per mouth. The studied system is constituted by two parallel digesters, with continuous flow and total capacity of 1,275 m3 per digester, with 30 days of hydraulic retention time. The generated biogas feeds a 4.1 cc engine, with six cylinders, 80 cv, 3,600 rpm, coupled to an generator, that constitutes an 50 kW electric engine. The system promoted a 58% reduction of chemical demand of oxygen. The daily gas production estimated was 208 m3, with production of electric energy of 35.2 kWh per day. For most of the year, the system has the potential of provisioning the farm of electricity for all its needs, promoting economy that is transformed into income for the activity. (author)

  20. Energy analysis of tubular digesters using swine residues; Analise energetica de biodigestores tubulares usando dejetos de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Grupo Pesquisador em Educacao Ambiental; Santos, Elenara Pinto dos; Casimiro, Evandro Luiz Nogarolli; Nagae, Ricardo Yuiti; Weiss Filho, Waldemiro [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciecias Agraras

    2004-07-01

    Overcoming another financial crisis, the swine production has the great challenge, in this and next decades, of also reaching the sustainability in the ecosystem ambit. The Parana State/Brazil west area is known because of it's residues high production, with high pollution level, it possesses the added difficulty of presenting high concentration of animals, inserted in production centers in reduced areas. However, this situation reversion, changing the 'trouble called residue' in a 'energy source solution', by means of digesters, became a reality, with the initiative of some producers and researchers. Present work objective was to evaluate the energy production, by means of the digesters use, as alternative energy co-generation. The work was developed at a commercial farm located at the Parana State west area, with 1,700 sows, in an piglet unit producing, with production of 3,400 piglet per mouth. The studied system is constituted by two parallel digesters, with continuous flow and total capacity of 1,275 m3 per digester, with 30 days of hydraulic retention time. The generated biogas feeds a 4.1 cc engine, with six cylinders, 80 cv, 3,600 rpm, coupled to an generator, that constitutes an 50 kW electric engine. The system promoted a 58% reduction of chemical demand of oxygen. The daily gas production estimated was 208 m3, with production of electric energy of 35.2 kWh per day. For most of the year, the system has the potential of provisioning the farm of electricity for all its needs, promoting economy that is transformed into income for the activity. (author)

  1. Analysis of the radiometric survey during the Argonauta reactor operation; Analise do levantamento radiometrico durante operacao do reator Argonauta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Eara de S.L.; Cardozo, Katia K.M.; Silva, Joao Carlos P.; Santos, Joao Regis dos, E-mail: esluz@ien.gov.br, E-mail: cardozo@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcarlos@ien.gov.br, E-mail: regis@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN-IEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering-IEN/CNEN, operates normally, the powers between 1.7 and 340 W on neutrongraphy procedures, production of radionuclides and experimental reactor physics lessons to postgraduate courses. The doses from neutrons and gamma radiation are measured when the reactor is critical, inside the reactor hall and surrounding regions. A study of the data obtained was performed to evaluate the daily need of this survey in the reactor hall. Taking into account the principle ALARA, which aims to optimize and minimize the dose received by the individual, we propose, in this work, through an analysis of the acquired data in occupational radiometric surveys, a reformulation of the area monitoring routine practiced by the team of radiological protection of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering - IEN/CNEN-RJ, whereas other monitoring routines regarding the radiological protection are also applied in the routine of the reactor. The operations under review occurred with the reactor operating 340 W power at intervals of 60, 120 and 180 minutes, in monitoring points in controlled areas, supervised and free. The results showed significant dose values in the output of the J-Channel 9 when the operation occurs with this open. With 180 minutes of operation, the measured values of dose rate were lower than the values at 60 min and 120 operations min. At the point in the supervised area, offsite to the reactor hall, situated in the direction of the J-Channel 9, the value reduces more than 14% in any operating time in relation to the dose rate measured at the point opposite the canal. There is a 50% reduction in the dose rates for operations with and J-9 closed. The results suggest a new frequency of radiometric survey whose mode of operation is maintained in similar conditions, since combined with other relevant practices of radiation protection.

  2. Analysis of energetic efficiency in stenters of textile industry; Analise de eficiencia energetica em ramas de industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Antonio Rogerio; Ferraz, Andre; Rocha, Ivan; Azevedo, Jorge; Oshiro, Hugo K.; Konishi, Ricardo; Piazza, Walter; Lehmkuhl, Willian [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    This paper presents the research on the use of alternative energy within the textile industry: a strategy aimed at reducing costs and securing market share. The use of natural gas allows for the direct heating and drying of textiles through convection, instead of the conventional indirect heating method of thermal fluids. This measure alone reduces significantly the energy costs and grants the process superior efficiency and sustainability. This case examines the improvements to the process of drying textiles through thermal equipment called stenters, whose purpose is to remove humidity from the cloth during its fabrication. As such, SCGAS, in association with FURB, has performed an operational and technological evaluation of the drying process used by a customer enterprise. The data collected enabled the researchers to map all sources (inputs and outputs) of mass and energy for each different stenter. This composed the basis for the analysis done and the subsequent proposal of improvements, which varied from the conversion of stenter from indirect to direct heating and the development of even more energy efficient solutions for the direct heating system. The data obtained shows that, for the indirect heating system, 28% of the thermal energy produced could be recovered, given the temperature of the exhaust gases reached 360 deg C. The indirect heating stenters presented energy efficiency between 24% and 27%, whiles the direct heating ones presented between 27,4% and 34,8%. Additionally, if an automated control system for the natural gas and oxidizing air flows was to be installed, it would guarantee greater quality combustion with a significant increase in energy efficiency, as well as a decrease in carbon monoxide emissions by a factor of eight. (author)

  3. Incidents in nuclear research reactor examined by deterministic probability and probabilistic safety analysis; Incidentes em reatores nucleares de pesquisa examinados por analise de probabilidade deterministica e analise probabilistica de seguranca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential risks submitted by the incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, were used, the Incident Report System for Research Reactor and Research Reactor Data Base. For this type of assessment was used the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA), within a confidence level of 90% and the Deterministic Probability Analysis (DPA). To obtain the results of calculations of probabilities for PSA, were used the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC - 636. The development of the calculations of probabilities for PSA was used the program Scilab version 5.1.1, free access, executable on Windows and Linux platforms. A specific program to get the results of probability was developed within the main program Scilab 5.1.1., for two distributions Fischer and Chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90%. Using the Sordi equations and Origin 6.0 program, were obtained the maximum admissible doses related to satisfy the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, and were also obtained these maximum doses graphically (figure 1) resulting from the calculations of probabilities x maximum admissible doses. It was found that the reliability of the results of probability is related to the operational experience (reactor x year and fractions) and that the larger it is, greater the confidence in the outcome. Finally, a suggested list of future work to complement this paper was gathered. (author)

  4. BESKRYWING VAI'l TEGNIEKE EN CHEMIESE ANALISES VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    afwykings en koefftsiente van variasie tussen monsters en tussen analises binne monsters verstrek. Tussen monsters verteenwoordig die verskille tussen diere en tussen ana- lises binne monsters verteenwoordig die verskille tussen herhalings binne dieselfde monstefS en dui dus die akku- raatheid van die analises aan.

  5. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the strengthening of the conditions of voltage security using sensitivity analysis; Avaliacao do reforco das condicoes da seguranca de tensao utilizando a analise de sensibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, A.L.S.; Costa, V.M. da; Peres, W. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia], Emails: arleilucas@gmail.com, vander@lacee.ufjf.br, wesley.peres@yahoo.com.br; Prada, R.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Email: prada@ele.puc-rio.br

    2009-07-01

    Voltage stability or voltage security analysis has motivated an expressive attention of power systems researchers. In this work, a simple and fast method evaluates voltage security and proposes conditions to improve the loading margin. System analysis is carried out in terms of active power transmission path. Sensitivity analysis provides the most adequate buses to active and reactive power redispatch. A sequential iterative methodology to reinforce system conditions is presented. (author)

  7. Infiltration analysis for Abadia de Goias repository: numerical solution; Analise de infiltracao para o repositorio de Abadia de Goias: solucao numerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Alves, Antonio S. de [NUCLEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Passos, Aline M.M. dos [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The safety analysis of a structure known as repository for medium activity wastes leads to investigating the physical phenomena connected to the water infiltration. This work shows succinctly an engineering approach to obtain numerical results for the model differential equations. One of these equations, related to the two-phase flow within the structure, is a nonlinear Riccati type, whose solution is only known for certain cases. For safety analysis and design purposes, the solution for the case of variable parameters is also advantageous when one aims some accident scenarios analysis. The utilization of numerical techniques allowed excellent results applied for the design of the Abadia de Goias repository. The case treated in this paper was one of those applied to the safety assessment of this repository. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Decomposition analysis of the variations in household electricity consumption in Brazil; Analise de decomposicao das variacoes no consumo de energia eletrica no setor residencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla da Costa Lopes

    2009-09-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this thesis, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The results obtained in a preliminary analysis point out, in a general way, that the observed variables in electricity consumption in the Brazilian residential sector are, mainly, the product of the increase in the number of consumers and the changes in the specific consumption of electricity in households. In a further analysis, carried out when the structure is given through consumers participation in consumption categories (Low Income and Conventional) taken from an overall point of view, although the intensity and activity effects may be considered the main explaining factors in consumption variation, the structure effect stands out in the period immediately after the 2001 rationing, as a reflect of the changes in the inclusion criteria in the Low Income category, specifically in the Northeast. (author)

  9. An analysis of Science and Technology indicator by stages in the petroleum production chain; Analise de indicador de C e T nos elos da cadeia produtiva petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Ana Amelia M.G.; Antunes, Adelaide M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos

    2004-07-01

    Taking into account the global importance of the petroleum industry, the present work aims to present a study of this industry through the lens of its production chain, using bibliometric indicators of technological innovation in order to determine critical competitiveness factors. The concept of the production chain includes the set of activities undertaken progressively from raw material to the final product, including distribution and sales, with each segment being a link in the chain. The petroleum industry is composed of a production chain which may be divided into the following segments: exploration and production, transportation of crude oil and natural gas, refining, transportation of derivatives and distribution. The development of the present work involved the analysis of information about the petroleum production chain in Brazil and elsewhere, gathered through research in specialized database. The analysis of bibliometric indicators of technological innovation in each link of the production chain maps the technological trends existing in this chain. (author)

  10. Pre-salt new regulatory mark and the economic order: constitutionality analysis; Novo marco regulatorio do pre-sal e a ordem economica: analise de constitucionalidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Marcela Brasil Pedrosa; Araujo, Mayara de Carvalho; Xavier, Yanko Marcius; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The discovery of vast reserves of hydrocarbons in the pre-salt layer that extends from Espirito Santo to Santa Catarina, added with the economic and strategic value of oil and natural gas, has brought discussion about the reasonableness of the regulatory model adopted so far. Would be prudent to explore these resources through the concession model? From detailed analysis of the doctrinal and bills that aim to inaugurate the new regulatory bills, we sought to answer this question, based majorly on the principles of economic activity applied in our constitutional system. Motivated by the analysis of these constitutional principles proposed, the State is seen as a regulating agent of the economic activities, fulfilling its role to supervise, encourage and plan the direction of national economic system. The sharing model gives greater state involvement and is able to convert the wealth of pre-salt in citizenship, but only if well implemented. Thus, based on constitutional principles and the notion of development as freedom, the conclusion of this paperwork is for the constitutionality of the new regulatory bills. (author)

  11. An integrated framework for risk analysis and management applied to E and P; Modelo integrado de analise e gestao de riscos em E and P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repsold Junior, Hugo; Giamattey, Ricardo H.D.; Miranda, Thales R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current challenges associated with the Oil an Gas industry demand a great capacity in planning, executing and managing activities from the major players. Accordingly, this paper proposes an integrated framework for risk analysis and management in the E and P sector whose main objective is to ensure that the expected benefits from an efficient resource allocation will be achieved. Firstly, the methodology presents a framework designed to help implementing a risk management process. Besides that, it also addresses the organizational structure needed to enforce the process. Finally, it highlights the sub processes which should be inherently linked to the company's business process. To conclude, the paper discusses how to take advantage from this process to create corporate knowledge. (author)

  12. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques; Caracterizacao, analise e datacao de ceramicas arqueologicas da Bacia Amazonica atraves de tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Rose Mary

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  13. Comparative QRA (Quantitative Risk Analysis) of natural gas distribution pipelines in urban areas; Analise comparativa dos riscos da operacao de linhas de gas natural em areas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz Fernando S. de [Energy Solutions South America (Brazil); Cardoso, Cassia de O.; Storch, Rafael [Det Norske Veritas (DNV) (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline network grows around the world, but its operation inherently imposes a risk to the people living next to pipelines. Due to this, it is necessary to conduct a risk analysis during the environmental licensing in Brazil. Despite the risk analysis methodology is well established, some points of its application for the distribution pipelines are still under discussion. This paper presents a methodology that examines the influences of major projects and operating parameters on the risk calculation of a distribution pipeline accident in urban areas as well as the possible accident scenarios assessment complexity. The impact of some scenarios has been evaluated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool. The results indicate that, under certain conditions, the risks from the pipeline operation under operating pressures of 20 bar may be acceptable in location class 3 or even in class 4. These results play a very important role if management decisions on the growth of the distribution of natural gas network in densely populated areas as well as in the improvement of laws to control the activity of distribution of natural gas. (author)

  14. Critical analysis of the positioning of monitoring system of the cyclotron accelerator; Analise critica do posicionamento de um sistema de monitoramento de acelerador Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Julia A.; Passaro, Bruno M.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Ever since the first concerns arose about the possibility that the ionizing radiation induced detriment to human health, were created the methods of production, characterization and measurement of radiation, as well as definition of quantities that realistically express its interaction with human tissue. From this point, the monitoring program of the installation of a cyclotron must be continuously performed and contain the critical points of contamination according to the CNEN standard N.E. 3.02 - Radioprotection Service to avoid contamination and maintain radioactive exposure rates as low as reasonably achievable. The results obtained during the analysis showed that the positioning of monitors is suitable, except for the physico-chemical control laboratory monitors, which were installed next to the chapel of manipulation and below the dose calibrator. The answer obtained from the monitoring system in the position that the ionization chamber is in the door of the bunker should be taken into account, because the intensity of radiation emitted by the activation of the targets is slightly attenuated by the cyclotron. (author)

  15. Resonance analysis of the transformers winding owing of system transients; Analise de ressonancia de parte de enrolamentos de transformadores devido a transitorio no sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M F; Ribeiro, E E [MF Consultoria Ltda (Brazil); Aguiar Campos, W de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    An analysis of the damage on power transformer winding during occurrence of electrical transients in substations, its causes and an analysis of its occurrence situations are presented. Results of studies in the substation Ouro Preto 2, made by CEMIG (Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais) aiming an analysis of the possibility to occur damage in transformers winding are also reported 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Economic and financial feasibility analysis of natural gas urban distribution; Analise da viabilidade economica e financeira para o desenvolvimento da rede urbana de distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Guilherme G.; Cunha, Eduardo N.; Teixeira, Clovis C. [Companhia de Gas do Estado do RS (SULGAS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    SULGAS has developed more judicious systematics investments analysis in the natural gas distribution plants in urban areas . A survey has been made of the variables that influence this type of investment, identifying the most relevant ones. Spread sheet in platform Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic was elaborated that makes possible the deterministic analysis, sensibility, and risk analysis of the projects, through consolidated indicators usable in economic engineering. The great differentiation of this proposal is the possibility/flexibility of the economic impact analysis that each future customer has in the branch where he is linked. The spread sheet presents graphical platforms in which the schematical drawings of the projects are inserted on satellite photos of the region, making possible the projects architectures visualization in parallel with the economic analysis. This graphical platform is tied with the alternatives selected in the economic analysis, being brought up to date the images in accordance with the projects selected in the spread sheet. The risk analysis are carried out through the Monte Carlo simulation, generating investment return probability from each branch, cell, or customer, depending on the criteria defined in the spread sheet. This makes possible the insertion and economic analysis of the factors that can influence the investments in NG distribution system, becoming an important tool in the decision making. (author)

  17. An energetic analysis of a Chinese type bio digester in Brazil; Uma analise energetica de um biodigestor tipo chines no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, Antonio; Moreira, Marco A.R.G.; Rebello, Renata B.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    The energetic analysis has proved to be an important instrument for the evaluation of energetic alternatives concerning strategies objectives through the analysis of a Chinese type bio digester in the Brazilian use situation this work demonstrates that the technology is viable for Brazilian countryside areas 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Transient stability analysis in electric power systems with frequency dependent loads; Analise de estabilidade transitoria em sistemas eletricos de potencia com cargas dependentes da frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, Luis F. Costa; Borelli, Jose Renato; Bretas, Newton G. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1997-12-31

    The power system models normally used to transient stability analysis are very simplified. Damping effects such as frequency dependent loads are neglected. In order to incorporate these effects in the analysis, a frequency dependent load model is proposed, and it is shown the important influence that it causes in the critical clearing times for stability analysis beyond the first swing. this load model require the network structure preservation and the knowledge of frequency of non-generator buses. In this work, an efficient method to estimate the frequencies of non-generator buses was developed. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: ngbretas at sel.eesc.sc.usp.br

  19. Validation of virtual instrument for data analysis in metrology of time and frequency; Validacao do instrumento virtual para analise de dados em metrologia de tempo e frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel; Rocha, Pedro; Carvalho, Ricardo, E-mail: bjordan@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio Primario de Tempo e Frequencia; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    2016-07-01

    Commercial Software (CS) for collection, analysis and plot time and frequency data plots are being increasingly used in reference laboratories worldwide. With this, it has greatly improved the results of calculations of uncertainty for these values. We propose the creation of a collection of software and data analysis using Virtual Instruments (VI) developed the Primary Laboratory Time and frequency of the National Observatory - ON and validation of this instrument. To validate the instrument developed, it made a comparative analysis between the results obtained (VI) with the results obtained by (CS) widely used in many metrology laboratories. From these results we can conclude that there was equivalence between the analyzed data. (author)

  20. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Modelo padrao para relatorio de analise de seguranca de usinas de reprocessamento de combustiveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-15

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization.

  1. Exergetic analysis of the operation of a petrochemical pole cogeneration system; Analise exergetica da operacao de uma planta de cogeracao de um polo petroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: ednildo@ufba.br; Gallo, Waldyr L. R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gallo@unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an exergy analysis for a petrochemical cogeneration system (the greater operating in Brazil). The system is described, the method employed to simulate the system is presented, and the exergy efficiencies are defined. The analysis presents the exergy efficiencies and irreversibility for each sub-system. The results obtained from real data were used to compare operation strategies which are not clear from energy balances. (author)

  2. Time dependent analysis of Xenon spatial oscillations in small power reactors; Analise temporal das oscilacoes espaciais de Xenonio em reatores de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decco, Claudia Cristina Ghirardello

    1997-07-01

    This work presents time dependent analysis of xenon spatial oscillations studying the influence of the power density distribution, type of reactivity perturbation, power level and core size, using the one-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis with the MID2 and citation codes, respectively. It is concluded that small pressurized water reactors with height smaller than 1.5 m are stable and do not have xenon spatial oscillations. (author)

  3. Critical analysis of the PETROBRAS monopoly end - particularities of the Bahia state, Brazil; Uma analise critica do fim do monopolio da PETROBRAS - particularidades para o Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Alexandre B.; Ribeiro, Bradson F. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural; Rocha, Georges S. [Centro Federal de Tecnologia da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Agencia Nacional de Petroleo - ANP - created in 1997 by the petroleum law has the role of regulating oil and natural gas industry activities in Brazil inciting the power self-sufficiency. The petroleum law states the end of petroleum exploration monopoly in Brazil performed by PETROBRAS. Between 1998 and 2004 ANP carried out six bid rounds in brazilian sedimentary basins offered to national and foreign companies. The exploratory activities in Bahia are resulting in commercial discoveries and positive impact to local economy. The petrochemical industry expects the startup of Manati field operation to supply repressed demand of natural gas as fuel and raw material. This article analyzes the legal and institutional processes and economics performances of these activities in Bahia's state. (author)

  4. Regulation of mature oil fields: a constitutional analysis; Regulacao de campos maduros de petroleo: uma analise a luz da Constituicao Federal de 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Mariana de; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil activities in Brazil had been started in an intensive way by the years 30 and 40. During approximately 40 years only one agent had been executed the oil activities in this country: the PETROBRAS. Many of the fields explored in the past are nowadays in decline. These fields, not interesting for the majors, would be interesting for the small and medium enterprises. The present research analyses the mature oil fields and its regulation in Brazil, looking to the 'Constituicao Federal de 1988' and to the idea of social and economic development. (author)

  5. Models of neural networks for image analysis of cintillography from the urinary system; Modelos de redes neurais para analise de imagens cintilograficas do sistema urinario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Paulo Sergio de Souza; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: wagner@lmp.ufrj.br; schirru@lmp.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    From the several available diagnostic techniques, the non-invasive ones are the less aggressive to the human body. The use of radionuclides for renal function evaluation seems to be more secure than the other diagnostic procedures. However, the use of radioactive materials, makes it necessary to maximize the beneficial effects of this technique, conducing inevitably to the development of support tools for the analysis of their results. The objective of this work is to improve a system model for image analysis of scintillation. The detection and identification of renal anomalies is done by means of analysis of parts of the image, taking in account the spatial distribution of those anomalies. Geometric operations in conjunction with the segmentation technique enable the improvement of image analysis information processing. In this work, we look for the best artificial neural network architectures to introduce the knowledge of the medical expert into the diagnostic system. The search of the best neural network architectures, the geometric techniques and the image segmentation technique permitted a significant improvement of diagnostic analysis model by using scintillation. (author)

  6. Inspection of the brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the area of radiotherapy. A critical analysis; Inspecao do orgao regulador nuclear brasileiro na area de radioterapia. Uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Ricardo Roberto de Azevedo

    2005-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible in Brazil for the activities of licensing and control of radioactive installations in the radiotherapy medical area. The majority of these activities are developed by CNEN Co-ordination of Radioactive Installations (CORAD). One of the necessary stages for the development of licensing and control activities is the inspection of radiotherapy services (clinics and hospitals). Almost all of these inspections are carried out by CNEN Inst. of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), through its Service of Medical Physics in Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (SEFME). This work makes a survey of the main nonconformities found during ten years of inspections in radiotherapy services (1995 - 2004) and analyses the efficiency of these inspections in making the radiotherapy services develop their activities according to the norms in vigour in the country and adopt corrective actions against, at least, the nonconformities evidenced by CNEN inspectors. Additionally, it analyses the possibility of improvement and / or the optimisation of the process, through a procedure able to be unified and controlled, aiming a prompt communication to those involved in the licensing process (SEFME and CORAD) about the attendance by the radiotherapy services to the non-conformity items observed during the inspection. (author)

  7. A new computer system for security analysis in power systems; Um novo sistema computacional para analise de seguranca em sistemas de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos; Gerhardt, Raul A.; Costa, Iverson F. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (PIPCA/UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Computacao Aplicada], E-mail: jvcanto@unisinos.br

    2009-07-01

    In the electrical energy systems area, the problem of security analysis have been intensively studied in the last years. The main objective of this work has been the developing of a new computational system for static security analysis. Moreover, the considered system incorporates elements that they look to increase its adequacy to the real use in electrical utilities. The ample literature review achieved by the authors has showed that no analogous proposal was found. To validate the proposed system, the results of tests made on several power systems were described, including a real life Brazilian system of large dimensions. (author)

  8. Simulation, optimization and analysis of cost of biodiesel plant pot route enzymatic; Simulacao, otimizacao e analise de custo de planta de biodiesel via rota enzimatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Jocelia S.; Ferreira, Andrea L.O. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Silva, Giovanilton F. [Tecnologia Bioenergetica - Tecbio, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work ware simulation, optimization and to find the biodiesel production cost produced by enzymatic route. Consequently, it was carried out a methodology of economic calculations and sensitivity analyses for this process. It was used a computational software from balance equations for obtaining the biodiesel cost. The economical analysis was obtained by capital cost of biofuel. The whole process was developed according analysis of fixed capital cost, total manufacturing cost, raw material cost, and chemical cost. The results of economic calculations to biodiesel production showed efficient. The model was meant for use in assessing the effects on estimated biodiesel production cost of changes in different types of oils. (author)

  9. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor; Analise termo-hidraulica do reator TRIGA IPR-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fortini, Maria Auxiliadora [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The subchannel approach, normally employed for the analysis of power reactor cores that work under forced convection, have been used for the thermal hydraulic evaluation of a TRIGA Mark I reactor, named IPR-R1, at 250 kW power level. This was accomplished by using the PANTERA-1P subchannel code, which has been conveniently adapted to the characteristics of natural convection of TRIGA reactors. The analysis of results indicates that the steady state operation of IPR-R1 at 250 kW do not imply risks to installations, workers and public. (author)

  10. Application of artificial intelligence to electrofacies identification: neural networks versus discriminant analysis; Aplicacao de inteligencia artificial na identificacao de eletrofacies redes neuroniais versus analise discriminante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Rodrigues, F da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Queiroz Neto, I.A. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1992-07-01

    Electro-facies are identified by neural network trained with well log and core data. Differences between neural network and expert system are discussed. According the author, the combination of neural network computing and traditional computing methods, like discriminant analysis, can help in the solution of many problems in electro-facies identification. 5 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  11. Two-dimensional {chi}{sup 2} analysis in kaon interferometry; Analise bi-dimensional de {chi}{sup 2} em interferometria de kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldao, C.G.; Padula, S.S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica , IFT, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results obtained from the {chi}{sup 2} analysis performed on the E 859 Joint Work data. The work objective is to quantify the resolution power of the kaon two-dimension interferometry 11 refs., 1 fig.; e-mail: roldao at axp.ift.unesp.br; padula at axp.ift.unesp.br

  12. Flow cytometric analysis of p21 protein expression on irradiated human lymphocytes; Analise por citometria de fluxo da expressao da proteina p21 em linfocitos humanos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, N.F.G.; Amaral, A., E-mail: neyliane@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Laboratorio de Modelagem e Biodosimetria Aplicada; Freitas-Silva, R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Garanhuns, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas; Pereira, V.R.A. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes. Departamento de Imunologia. Lab. de Imunoparasitologia; Tasat, D.R. [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Laboratorio de Biologia Celular del Pulmon

    2013-08-15

    Cell cycle blockage in G1 is a mechanism p21 protein-regulated and coupled to DNA damage response to permit genetic content analysis, damage repair and cell death. Analysis of proteins that participates of this response has progressed with new analytic tools, and data contributes to comprehension of radioinduced molecular events as well as to new approaches on practices that employ ionizing radiation. On this perspective, the aim of this research was to evaluate, by flow cytometry, p21 expression on irradiated human lymphocytes, maintained under different experimental conditions. Peripheral blood samples from 10 healthy subjects were irradiated with doses of 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2 and 4 Gy. Lymphocytes were processed to analysis on ex vivo (no cultured) condition and after 24; 48 and 72 hours culture, with and without phytohemagglutinin stimulation. p21 protein expression levels were measured by flow cytometry, as percentage values. Results indicate that flow cytometric assay allows detection of changes on p21 expression, since it was detected significant increase on phytohemagglutinin-stimulated samples, for all times, against basal expression (ex vivo). However, it was not observed significant alterations on p21 protein radioinduced levels, for all doses, times and culture conditions analyzed. These results not indicate so p21 protein as bioindicator of ionizing radiation exposure. Nevertheless, data confirmation may to require analysis of a more numerous population. (author)

  13. Model for analysis and definition of the governor constants in hydroelectric power; Modelo para analise e definicao das constantes do regulador em usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jose Geraldo Pena de; Koelle, Edmundo; Luvizotto Junior, Edevar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents a complete mathematical and computer model which allows simulating a generic hydroelectric power plant under steady state and transitory regimes, in the extensive time, and also the analysis of the oscillating flows resulting from excitation sources present in the installation, such as vortices in the suction pipe during partial load operation.

  14. The RAM +L analysis methodology: the refinery plants case study; Analise RAM +L: um estudo integrado de varias unidades de producao de uma refinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Bretas, Rogerio [PETROBRAS S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Refinaria Gabriel Passos (REGAP)

    2008-07-01

    The RAM (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) main objective is assess the system and equipment performance in order to identify the critical issues to implement system's improvements. The first step is define equipment failure modes and it's PDF as well as repair time for each failure mode. The second step is modeling system regarding diagram block logic dependency among equipment and its failures which cause system production losses. The third step is simulating model in defined period of time in order to identify critical equipment to propose system improvement. Despite being having been used constantly to assess system performances, those methodology do not consider the logistic complex assumptions in so many cases to huge systems and it RDB logic do not represent the real effect in production losses. Even if that good enough to perform system analysis it's not quite enough to complex system with logistic resources regarding system's products efficiency. By the other way round, in logistic complex system analysis methodologies, equipment failures details are not regarded in so many times, showing that there's a necessary improvement in those analysis. Therefore, the RAM + L analysis is a methodology which regards all equipment failures issues as well as logistic assumptions being a more realistic analysis. The refinery case study Will be propose to demonstrate a new vision of two recognized methodologies regarding a complex system with over than 200 equipment comprising two tanks, two pumps and five Unit Plants as Vacuum Distillation, Atmospheric Distillation, Hydrogen Generation, Diesel Hydrotreating Unit and DEA. (author)

  15. Analysis of the structural stability of the smectite submitted to high pressures and temperatures; Analise da estabilidade estrutural da esmectita sob altas pressoes e altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabarse, Frederico Gil

    2009-10-15

    The thermal stability of bentonite is of particular interest for containment barrier in nuclear waste disposal facilities. However, very little is known about the stability of smectite (principal component of bentonite) under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions (HPHT). The objective of this work was to investigate the stability of the smectite structure under HP-HT conditions. The HP-HT experiments were performed on toroidal chambers (TC) with pressure up 7.7 GPa and temperatures of 1000 deg C. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction after the HP-HT processing. Furthermore, one sample from the original material was analyzed using Fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR) in situ measurements on a diamond anvil cell (DAC) in experiments up to 12 GPa. The original sample of bentonite, calcium dioctahedral montmorillonite with small fraction of quartz, was characterized by FTIR, XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). In the experiment performed using the DAC up to 12 GPa, the FTIR in situ measurements analysis showed that the smectite structure is stable with a reversible deformation in the Si-O bond and that the smectite did not loose water. Experiments performed in TC at 7.7 GPa of pressure and 250 deg C of temperature, during 3.5 h showed, after analysis by XRD and FTIR, that the smectite structure is stable and did not loose water. Experiments performed in TC at 7.7 GPa of pressure and 1000 deg C of temperature, during 3.5 h showed, after analysis by XRD and SEM, the transformation of bentonite to the mineral assemblage: Coesite, Quartz, Kyanite and Pyrope. (author)

  16. Energy conservation analysis using Fuzzy logic considering technical and environmental aspects; Analise da conservacao de energia utilizando logica fuzzy considerando aspectos tecnicos e o meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Jamil; Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Guardia, Eduardo Crestana [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica; Reis, Alexandre de Souza Rodrigues dos; Pinto, Luiz Fernando do Monte [Furnas Centrais Eletricas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the results obtained in the Project of Research and Development of Furnas Centrais Eletricas, which was accomplished with the partnership of the Fundacao de Pesquisa e Assessoramento a Industria - FUPAI. This project analyzed technically and economically the pollution caused in the electric net by the use, in growing scale, of nonlinear loads, such as: compact fluorescent lamps, microwave ovens, VHS systems, DVD, sound systems, etc. It was also analyzed the environmental impact caused by these lamps due to the presence of the mercury; and as complement to the traditional theory of economical analysis, a tool of economical analysis was developed using the theory of fuzzy sets for the uncertainty variables or of difficult quantification. (author)

  17. Availability analysis of high voltage substations considering its main equipment; Analise de disponibilidade de subestacoes de alta tensao considerando seus principais equipamentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: ricardo.santos@ufabc.edu.br; Basseto, B.A.; Cugnasca, P.S.; Almeida Junior, J.R.; Camargo Junior, J.B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Emails: ricardo.santos@ufabc.edu.br, joao.camargo@poli.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluates the availability of electric power substations, based on Monte Carlo simulation and Fault Tree Analysis, which can be used in a larger way, considering various scenarios, usually founded. The main fallouts modes considered in the availability analysis of power systems, as well as the main methods applied to reach this goal are discussed. The availability indexes of the Monte Carlos simulation are sufficient to indicate the critical points of the power system, and to make comparisons between different substations, related to the performance levels. Through these indexes it is possible to evaluate the impact of a switching action in a determined substation. For this, the substation studied indexes are compared before and after the switching action be considered to the substation in reference.

  18. A neural networks based ``trip`` analysis system for PWR-type reactors; Um sistema de analise de ``trip`` em reatores PWR usando redes neuronais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    1993-12-31

    The analysis short after automatic shutdown (trip) of a PWR-type nuclear reactor takes a considerable amount of time, not only because of the great number of variables involved in transients, but also the various equipment that compose a reactor of this kind. On the other hand, the transients`inter-relationship, intended to the detection of the type of the accident is an arduous task, since some of these accidents (like loss of FEEDWATER and station BLACKOUT, for example), generate transients similar in behavior (as cold leg temperature and steam generators mixture levels, for example). Also, the sequence-of-events analysis is not always sufficient for correctly pin point the causes of the trip. (author) 11 refs., 39 figs.

  19. Tensometry technique for X-ray diffraction in applied analysis of welding; Tensometria por tecnica de difracao de raios X aplicada na analise de soldagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turibus, S.N.; Caldas, F.C.M.; Miranda, D.M.; Monine, V.I.; Assis, J.T., E-mail: snturibus@iprj.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis of residual stress introduced in welding process. As the stress in a material can induce damages, it is necessary to have a method to identify this residual stress state. For this it was used the non-destructive X-ray diffraction technique to analyze two plates from A36 steel jointed by metal inert gas (MIG) welding. The stress measurements were made by the sin{sup 2{psi}} method in weld region of steel plates including analysis of longitudinal and transverse residual stresses in fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal. To determine the stress distribution along the depth of the welded material it was used removing of superficial layers made by electropolishing. (author)

  20. Rational analysis and index of plasticity of clays for extrusion evaluation; Analise racional e indices de plasticidade para avaliacao de extrusao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.R.; Guimaraes Filho, M.A.S.; Santos, C.V.P.; Fagury Neto, E.; Rabelo, A.A., E-mail: adilton25rs@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (FEMAT/UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos

    2011-07-01

    In the microregion Maraba, in the southeast paraense, there's a important industrial park in the area of red ceramic due to the quality of the extracted clays in the proximities of their rivers. With the intention of collaborating for the production of tiles and structural blocks of quality, in this work the rational analysis of clays was accomplished, through the relationship of the qualitative X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence results. Was possible to quantify the present phases in the collected clays and these results were correlated to the Atterberg's limits - plasticity and liquidity limitsand the respective plasticity indexes - making possible to classify the clays in areas of great and acceptable extrusion. The results of the rational analysis demonstrated that the analyzed clays are plastic kaolinites and don't present quantitative differences very accentuated among the present phases detected besides they possess an area of acceptable extrusion naturally. (author)

  1. A neural networks based ``trip`` analysis system for PWR-type reactors; Um sistema de analise de ``trip`` em reatores PWR usando redes neuronais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    1994-12-31

    The analysis short after automatic shutdown (trip) of a PWR-type nuclear reactor takes a considerable amount of time, not only because of the great number of variables involved in transients, but also the various equipment that compose a reactor of this kind. On the other hand, the transients`inter-relationship, intended to the detection of the type of the accident is an arduous task, since some of these accidents (like loss of FEEDWATER and station BLACKOUT, for example), generate transients similar in behavior (as cold leg temperature and steam generators mixture levels, for example). Also, the sequence-of-events analysis is not always sufficient for correctly pin point the causes of the trip. (author) 11 refs., 39 figs.

  2. Gas turbines: performance curves influence in the analysis of the technical viability of thermal power plants; Analise de viabilidade tecnica de plantas termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Augusto Milan da; Borba, Ricardo Alexandre Pereira; Bazzo, Edson [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos (LABCET)]. E-mail: milan@cet.ufsc.br

    2003-07-01

    The performance of gas turbines is analyzed taking into account the oscillations of electrical load and environmental conditions for thermal power generating application. Two scenarios are considered for analysis, taking into account one year collected data, obtained at every hour from a ceramic company in the south region of Santa Catarina. The first scenario consists of a current used simplified model, considering the oscillation of electrical load but having the gas turbine running at ISO operation (15 deg C, 0 m, 60% u.r.). The second scenario corresponds to the proposed model, considering also the oscillations in the environmental temperature and moisture air. Three gas turbines were selected for analysis. The found results suggest the application of the proposed model as the basis in the evaluation of future projects. (author)

  3. Thermal economical analysis of plants configuration proposed for expansion of a thermoelectric power plant; Analise termoeconomica de configuracoes de plantas propostas para a expansao de uma usina termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Fabiano P.; Romao Junior, Ricardo A.; Mashiba, Marcos H.S.; Dib, Fernando H.; Maia, Cassio R.M.; Ramos, Ricardo A.V. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira (FEIS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: pagliosa@dem.feis.unesp.br; fhdib@aluno.feis.unesp.br; rarjunior@aluno.feis.unesp.br; mashiba@dem.feis.unesp.br; cassio@dem.feis.unesp.br; ramos@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper performs thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses applied to a thermoelectric natural gas primarily open cycle power plant and posteriorly operating at combined cycle, with heat recovery steam generator with 1, 2 and 3 pressure level respectively. For the system thermodynamic, mass conservation, entropy and exergy balance equations are applied, considering a control volume for each equipment composing the plant. Using thermoeconomic analysis it is possible to evaluate the reflexes of the capital and fuel costs on the composition of the electricity generated, through the exergy fluxes, the exergy unitary costs and the exergoeconomic costs (US$/MWh), besides the costs for the produced powers. The plant is still submitted to known techniques of investment analysis for economical viability verification taking into account the investment and natural gas costs and the energy sales.

  4. Instrumental analysis of low level of Cs-137 in marine samples by gamma spectrometry; Analise instrumental de baixos niveis de Cs-137 em amostras marinhas por espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Silva, Luiz R.N.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Cunha, Ieda I.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    1997-12-31

    An instrumental method for low level Cs-137 analysis in marine samples is presented. The method consists in the detector calibration, as well as, determination of detector counting efficiency, accumulative counting of both background and sample and smoothing of 661.6 keV photopeak. The methodology was applied in reference samples and in sediments samples of south Brazilian coast 11 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.; e-mail: figueira at net.ipen.br

  5. Analysis of the energy consumed in the oil pumping and its products; Analise da energia consumida no bombeamento de petroleo e seus derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Fabio Arbex [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santiago, Adilson da Silva [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work describes a computer application for monitoring the operation of a set of motor-pumps of a pipeline. It provides information for the analysis of the electrical and hydraulic variables of these equipment allowing a better control of the transference of fluids through the pipeline. It also makes possible knowing the consumption of energy and the power level used. It helps establishing optimal operation conditions and to generate efficiency indices for the control of the equipment. (author)

  6. Availability analysis of the nuclear instrumentation of a research reactor; Analise da disponibilidade da instrumentacao nuclear de um reator de pesquisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques

    2016-07-01

    The maintenance of systems and equipment is a central question related to Production Engineering. Although systems are not fully reliable, it is often necessary to minimize the failure occurrence likelihood. The failures occurrences can have disastrous consequences during a plane flight or operation of a nuclear power plant. The elaboration of a maintenance plan has as objective the prevention and recovery from system failures, increasing reliability and reducing the cost of unplanned shutdowns. It is also important to consider the issues related to organizations safety, especially those dealing with dangerous technologies. The objective of this thesis is to propose a method for maintenance analysis of a nuclear research reactor, using a socio-technical approach, and focused on existing conditions in Brazil. The research reactor studied belongs to the federal government and it is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The specific objective of this thesis is to develop the availability analysis of one of the principal systems of the research reactor, the nuclear instrumentation system. In this analysis, were taken into account not only the technical aspects of the modules related to nuclear instrumentation system, but also the human and organizational factors that could affect the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. The results showed the influence of these factors on the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. (author)

  7. Analysis of mechanical damage by drawing on spheroid ABNT 1080 steel wire; Analise do dano mecanico na trefilacao de arame de aco ABNT 1080 esferoidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Ferreira, Sergio A. de; Cetlin, Paulo R.; Coutinho, Carlos A.B. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica

    1990-12-31

    Patented Brazilian 1080 carbon steel wires were isothermal annealed at 720 deg C for different times to produce spheroid carbides of varying average diameters. The heat treated wires were then drawn to rupture. Longitudinal sections of the drawn wires were prepared after each drawing pass for analysis of the mechanical damage caused by the process. It was found that the damage observed in the drawn wires showed a similar development to the damage caused by uniaxial tensile stresses in the same material. 8 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  8. Thermoeconomic and exegetic analysis of a cogeneration proposal by using natural gas in breweries; Analise termoeconomica e exergetica de uma proposta de cogeracao usando gas natural em cervejarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Martins, Gilberto [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara do Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica e de Producao]. E-mail: agallego@unimep.br; gmartins@unimep.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this work the thermo economic method is used for analysis of the cost distribution in a cogeneration power plant proposed for a brewery in the Campinas - state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The thermal process energy demands were considered for beer production in 1997. The proposed cogeneration system consists of two gas turbines with recovering boiler and ammonium compression cooling system. The present power generation configuration and the cogeneration proposed performance were simulated in a monthly basis, considering the month steam and refrigeration requests. The gas turbines were simulated considering the nominal load and the energy surplus sold to the concessionaire.

  9. Development of a methodology for radionuclide impurity analysis in radiopharmaceuticals using gamma spectrometry; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para analise de impurezas radionuclidicas em radiofarmacos por espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Eduardo Bonfim de; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Poledna, Roberto; Lins, Ronaldo; Leiras, Anderson; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: bonfim@bolsista.ird.gov.br, E-mail: miriamtaina@hotmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The LNMRI has sought to develop a methodology for the identification and accurate detection of gamma radiation impurities stations in metrological level, aiming to meet the recommendations not only of international pharmacopoeia, as well as the CNEN and ANVISA regarding the quality control can ensure patients the doses received by the practices are as low as feasible. As an initial target, it was possible to obtain an efficiency curve with uncertainty around 1% necessary to initiate future measurements of interest applied to nuclear medicine and to start the development of impurities analysis technique. (author)

  10. Biodiesel and employment and income generation: an analysis of input-output; Biodiesel e geracao de emprego e renda: uma analise de insumo-produto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Thomas Krisp de; Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Economia], e-mail: thomaskl@ig.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This article analysis the National Program of Biodiesel Production, and presents a methodology to estimate the direct and indirect effects of employment and wages generation using the Input-Output Model developed by Leontief. Four different simulations are carried out, but even in the most optimistic case, the results presented by the Government exceed considerably the estimates obtained using data from the Brazilian national accounts. The main recommendation is that these estimates need to be redone, in order to present more realistic expectations for the job and income generation from the expansion of the bio diesel. (author)

  11. Energetic intensity and exportation: an analysis of the period 1997-2004; Intensidade energetica e exportacao: uma analise do periodo 1997-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Munir Younes; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)]. E-mails: munir@iee.usp.br; muniryounes@yahoo.com.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br; Cavaliero, Karla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: cavaliero@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze the course of industrial energy intensity from 1997 to 2004. A historical retrospective was done in order to explain how the Brazilian industrial option has been influencing the profile of this index, demonstrating that Brazil is following a different trajectory in comparison to the developed countries. To achieve this, an analysis was conducted of the whole metallurgical industry, along with the paper, cellulose and mineral industries and the total Brazilian Industry. The energy intensity, the elasticity energy consume product and the export quantum indicators were calculated for the industry and for each sub sector. To conclude, the results will be discussed and commented. (author)

  12. Risk analysis applied to development of a gas field in Santos Basin; Analise de risco aplicada ao desenvolvimento de um campo de gas na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Alexandre M.; Filoco, Paulo R.; Yamada, Debora T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Decision analysis applied to the development phase of petroleum fields must take into account the risk associated to many kinds of uncertainties. In the transition of the appraisal to the development phases, the importance of risk associated to the production and the recovery factor may increase significantly. The process is complex due to high investments, large number of uncertain variables and strong dependence of the results with the production strategy definition. In E and P, several decisions must be taken considering the risks involved through the appraisal of the uncertainties impact in production of petroleum fields, increase the possibility of success, measuring possible lost and sub-optimized developments identifying new opportunities. In a specific scenario, like gas production, the risk associated to the project becomes larger due to the gas prices compared to oil, the demand, the distribution's structure and the deadlines defined in contracts. The objective of this paper is to show the results of a methodology developed in a detailed study of a risk analysis process in appraisal and development phases (execution and implementation) to one of the biggest gas fields in Brazil (Mexilhao Field) and support reliable future decisions. (author)

  13. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  14. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  15. Investment analysis in hydraulic energy generation by using the real options theory; Analise de investimentos em geracao hidraulica utilizando a teoria de opcoes reais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, J.C. Caminha; Lima, J.W. Marangon [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: juliaccn@unifei.edu.br; marangon@unifei.edu.br; Ferreira, T.G. Leite [Associacao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproducao de Energia Eletrica (ABIAPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: tiago@abiape.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology of investment analysis in power plants using the Real Option Theory. Particularly, the investment opportunity of a hydro plant is valued based on the energy that will be traded at the new energy auction using the Brazilian Development Bank - BNDES financing program for the Generation of electric energy (new energy). Since this kind of project involves a multistage investment consisting of design, construction and operation phases, it can be treated as a sequential compound option. A binomial approach was elaborated to model this investment opportunity analysis. This approach models the uncertainties in setting up the cash flow for the investments and incorporates some possible managerial flexibility associated with the decision taken along the investment forecast. The proposed methodology will be described in parallel with an example of a real hydro-plant in which we incorporated the flexibilities regarding the decision to invest in each step of the project and an build phase abandon option, representing the transfer of concession rights after the auction. (author)

  16. Numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney; Analise numerica da conveccao natural turbulenta em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasil, Cristiana S.; Valle, Ramon M.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Ferreira, Andre G. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: tite@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ferreira@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney operating in steady flow, with prescribed conditions of temperature in the ground. The solar radiation heats the air under the cover, which flows to the tower without artificial pumping. The hot air produced may be used to dry several agricultural products. The numerical analysis of the natural convection in this kind of dryer has fundamental importance on the design and building of this device. The mathematical model includes the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model variables (k and e ). The k- e model of turbulence with wall functions was used. A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve the system of equations that describes thermal and hydro dynamically the flow. The velocity and temperature fields are shown to the flow in the solar chimney. With geometrical alterations on the device, one can obtain a detailed description of the flow, which allow the guideline for a suitable configuration to build an experimental prototype. (author)

  17. Identification of energy gain potential in industrial processes, through exergetic analysis; Identificacao de potenciais de ganho energetico em processos industriais via analise exergetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira; Bernardes, Lucas Lanza; Filgueiras, Pedro Freire [V e M do Brasil S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    V and M Brazil is an integrated steel mill for the production of steel tubes. The manufacturing process includes various processes and thermal equipment, such as industrial furnaces, boilers, and others. Due to its importance, it is essential that these devices operate with the best possible efficiency. Thus, it becomes necessary to use tools and methods for performance analysis of energy processes that occurs on these devices. One tool that has been widely used in industrial environment is the exergy analysis. It is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and therefore takes into account the entropy generation, indicating the maximum amount of useful energy (work) that can be drawn from a stream, with reference to environmental parameters. This paper aims to apply the exergetic methodology in industrial thermal processes that occurs at V and M Brazil, as a tool for identification of losses and potential performance improvement of energy systems to save on fuel and the reduction of environmental impacts and emissions of greenhouse gases. (author)

  18. Comparative analysis of monetizing technologies for the use of offshore natural gas; Analise comparativa das tecnologias embarcadas de aproveitamento de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biruel Junior, Jose

    2008-09-15

    The growing world need for natural gas, the issue of offshore oil and associated gas exploration in regions constantly farther from the consumer market, and the law restrictions due to greenhouses gases emissions have stimulated the development of technologies intended to monetizing stranded gas reserves. In order to compare these technologies, a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis Methodology, based on fuzzy parameters, has been developed. The Methodology enables specialists to define analysis dimensions and criteria as well as to assign weight and ratings by means of linguistic variables, resulting in a general performance index for each technology. The Methodology has been applied in a case study to compare the floating technologies FCNG (Floating Compressed Natural Gas), FLNG (Floating Liquefied Natural Gas), FGTL (Floating Gas-to-Liquid) and FGTW (Floating Gas-to- Wire). The efficacy of the Methodology depends on the comprehensiveness and quality of the information provided. Therefore, this dissertation presents a study of these technologies, placing strong emphasis on the Technological Dimension. The Methodology allows for the identification of the drawbacks of each technology so as to especially conduct R and D efforts to improve their competitiveness. (author)

  19. Optical coherence tomography signal analysis: LIDAR like equation and inverse methods; Analise de sinais de tomografia por coerencia optica: equacao LIDAR e metodos de inversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Marcello Magri

    2012-07-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is based on the media backscattering properties in order to obtain tomographic images. In a similar way, LIDAR (Light Detection and Range) technique uses these properties to determine atmospheric characteristics, specially the signal extinction coefficient. Exploring this similarity allowed the application of signal inversion methods to the OCT images, allowing to construct images based in the extinction coefficient, original result until now. The goal of this work was to study, propose, develop and implement algorithms based on OCT signal inversion methodologies with the aim of determine the extinction coefficient as a function of depth. Three inversion methods were used and implemented in LABView{sup R}: slope, boundary point and optical depth. Associated errors were studied and real samples (homogeneous and stratified) were used for two and three dimension analysis. The extinction coefficient images obtained from the optical depth method were capable to differentiate air from the sample. The images were studied applying PCA and cluster analysis that established the methodology strength in determining the sample's extinction coefficient value. Moreover, the optical depth methodology was applied to study the hypothesis that there is some correlation between signal extinction coefficient and the enamel teeth demineralization during a cariogenic process. By applying this methodology, it was possible to observe the variation of the extinction coefficient as depth function and its correlation with microhardness variation, showing that in deeper layers its values tends to a healthy tooth values, behaving as the same way that the microhardness. (author)

  20. CT interpretation of craniofacial anomalies: a comparative analysis by undergraduate dental students; Interpretacao de anomalias craniofaciais em TC. Analise comparativa por alunos de graduacao em Odontologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Perella, Andreia; Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) image interpretation made in axial slices (2D-CT) and 3D reconstructed images (3D-CT) of patients with craniofacial anomalies. The analyses were made by undergraduate dental students, and compared with the diagnoses considered upon surgical intervention. Computed tomography of 43 patients were analyzed independently by three calibrated examiners (undergraduate students) with, respectively, one, two, and three semesters of experience in craniofacial CT training and interpretation. The analysis of 2D-CT and 3D-CT images were performed at distinct times using an independent workstation associated with a specific computer graphics software for volumetric images. The analysis of inter-examiner agreement and of the agreement between observers and the gold standard was performed using the Kappa test. The accuracy evaluation presented a progressively higher value for examiners with progressively broader experience in 2D-CT and 3D-CT image interpretation. 3D-CT analyses allowed a higher inter-examiner agreement (1 - 0.896) than 2D-CT analyses (1 - 0.614). 3D-CT was considered more precise and accurate than 2D-CT for all students' evaluations. The reproducibility and accuracy varied according to the experience in CT interpretation, and the most experienced student achieved results closer to the gold standard. (author)

  1. Gamma ray irradiated goat milk: comparative sensorial analysis with pasteurized goat milk; Leite de cabra irradiado com raios gama: analise sensorial comparativa com o leite de cabra pasteurizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Marta H.F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2002-07-01

    Goat milk consumption has increased in the last years, due to its better digestibility and for constituting a good alternative to cow milk for intolerant people. Brazil has over 10 millions goats, mainly in the Northeast area. Considering that it is very important to increase the shelf-life for this product, this work was done to test the gamma-radiation as a preservation method, evaluating acceptability by sensorial analysis compared with pasteurized milk. The goat milk was bought in the Animal Production Department/ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, and irradiated with 3,5 kGy in the Food Irradiation Laboratory/CENA/USP, using a cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammabeam-650, from Nordion, Canada. After irradiation, the samples were maintained under refrigeration at 5 deg C and submitted to sensorial analysis at 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 15{sup th} days by 30 untrained tasters. The results indicated, by Tukey test, a significant preference for the pasteurized milk in comparison to the irradiated one, because a hard caprine flavor was developed by the irradiation. (author)

  2. Viability of GTL (Gas to Liquids) plants: a sensitivity analysis of determinant variables; Viabilidade das plantas GTL: uma analise de sensibilidade das variaveis determinantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de; Bicalho, Ronaldo Goulard [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia; Bomtempo, Jose Vitor [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The article presents the results of a model for economic evaluation applied to GTL projects. The key variables for the GTL projects used in this model were: investment costs, operational costs, efficiency of conversion, possible lines of products (diesel, naphtha and specialty) and prices. From the analysis of the economic viability of projects for hypothetical GTL plants, there were simulations of the cash flow of these plants, using the technique of Monte Carlo. From these simulations were unable to calculate the probability of viability of the projects. For a plant of 10,000 barrels, using a triangular distribution, (cost of investment, price and composition of products, price and quantity of natural gas consumed), the probability of getting a positive net value was 59%. Scales of 20,000 barrels to 40,000 barrels the probability of viability was 80% and 93%, respectively. It was found that the economic viability of GTL plants is very sensitive to the scale of production. This analysis of sensitivity was extended to others variables, allowing an assessment of critical variables for GTL plants. (author)

  3. Retoriek, retoriese analise en prediking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. du Toit

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In characterising rhetoric, its persuasive intent should be highlighted because the persuasive element is true of all three rhetorical genera. Graeco-Roman pupils were well-trained in the rhetorical arts and it can be accepted that Paul also had a working knowledge of rhetoric. Rhetorical analysis of the New Testament attempts to study the texts of the New Testament in the light of rhetorical features, as developed by the classical theorists and refined by a modern scholar like Perelman. Since the 1970's rhetorical analysis of the New Testament has flourished, although approaches have varied considerably and not all efforts were convincing. Nevertheless, it has become clear that the rhetorical approach can enrich our understanding of the New Testament, and especially of its letters, considerably. Examples from Romans and Galatians are presented to underscore this point. Since preaching, like rhetoric, aims at convincing and persuading an audience, rhetoric can provide us with important stimuli for the praxis of preaching, as can be demonstrated from the five prescribed phases of preparing a public speech, as well as from the three modes of persuasion: logos, ethos and pathos.

  4. Analysis of cogeneration system using fuel cell: cases study; Analise de sistema de cogeracao utilizando celula de combustivel: estudo de casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Jose Luz; Leal, Elisangela Martins [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: joseluz@feg.unesp.br; elisange@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the study of a molten carbonate fuel cell cogeneration system associated to an absorption refrigeration system, for the electricity and cold water production, and applied to two establishments, is presented. This system permits the recovery of waste heat, available between 600 deg C e 700 deg C. Initially, some technical information about the most diffusing types of the fuel cell demonstration in the world are presented. In the next step, an energetic, exergetic and economic analysis are carry out, seeking the use of fuel cells, in conditions of prices and interest of Brazil. In conclusion, the fuel cell cogeneration system may have an excellent opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in the Brazilian energy scene. (author)

  5. Analysis of life cycle technology of BTL (Biomass to Liquid): state of art and recommendations; Analise do ciclo de vida das tecnologias BTL: estado da arte e recomendacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Maria Luiza G.; Lora, Electo E.S. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida; Ugaya, Cassia M.L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    In the last decades, the intensive and no rational use of energy resources from fossil fuels has been causing climatic changes, due to the increase in air pollutants, mainly Co2. The production of liquid fuels from biomass stands out as one of the principal energy alternatives with low environmental impact that could substitute the fuels derived from petroleum in the transportation section. The present work shows a revision from the main Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) studies performed for biofuel production by BTL (Biomass to Liquid) route. In this revision, it is possible to identify some of the main environmental impacts associated with this type of fuel production, as a function of the energy and material required to its production. Likewise, it is possible to elaborate recommendations in fuel production that allow the increase of benefits to the environment. (author)

  6. Oil field decision analysis based on technical-economic indicators; Analise de decisao baseada em indicadores tecnico-economicos para um campo petrolifero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravagnani, Ana Teresa Gaspar; Munoz Mazo, Eduin; Schiozer, Denis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo. Lab. de Simulacao de Fluxo em Meios Porosos (UNISIM)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a case study consisting of a synthetic offshore field in deep water and 28 deg API oil representing a gas solution model with water injection without gas cap. Several alternatives of strategies are proposed, regarding different configurations and number of wells, besides different limits of injection and production rates, as well as, completion layers. The objective is to show that different strategies can be obtained according to the indicator chosen by the decision maker. Even when the Net Present Value (NPV) is a very used indicator in the investment analysis, with the utilization of other technical-economical indicators, other investment alternatives different from those proposed when just VPL is utilized, can become feasible. Additionally, other aspects are analyzed, such as the possibility of changes in the production capacity with other oil prices levels. It is also proposed the production strategy optimization in this work, changing the time of production and the injection/production rate limits. (author)

  7. Analysis of the fuel influence in obtaining HAp by combustion reaction; Analise da influencia do combustivel na obtencao de HAp via reacao de combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.L.; Leite, A.M.D.; Viana, K.M.S., E-mail: kalineviana@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2016-07-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications has led to investigation of the calcium phosphate bioceramics, and in particular hydroxyapatite (HAp), being a material similar to bone tissue, with excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconduction, enabling bone regeneration which allows the use at implants and prostheses. The synthesis of the nanometric HAp by combustion reaction enables obtaining the nanometric HAp with a more similar structure biological apatite as possible. This work aims to synthesize HAp by combustion reaction using two different routes of synthesis, first, using urea as fuel and the second using glycine, after this, evaluate the influence of fuels used in the microstructure of the hydroxyapatite obtained. The HAp obtained was characterized by: XRD, FTIR and SEM. Through analysis of the results, there is the synthesis conditions used that glycine has performed more favorable to obtaining HAp. (author)

  8. Probabilistic risk analysis of casing drilling operation for an onshore Brazilian well; Analise probabilistica de risco de uma operacao de casing drilling para um poco terrestre no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacinto, Carlos M.C.; Petersen, Flavia C.; Placido, Joao C.R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Pauli A.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, one presents an approach to hazard identification and risks quantification concerning the use of retrievable BHA, of a casing drilling system, in 12 1/4 phase of an onshore well. The adopted approach can be subdivided as: execution of a hazard and operability study; prioritization of critical deviance; modeling of critical deviance by mean of event sequence diagram, fault tree and Bayesian network; modeling and simulation of a dynamic decision tree and experts' opinion analysis. As results, one has obtained: the time distribution to achieve the different ends modeled in the decision tree, i.e., sidetrack, or operation canceling, or success; the probabilities to achieve each modeled end and all recommendation to improve the success probability. The approach proved to be efficient in order that it presents significant results to support the decisions involving the casing drilling operations. (author)

  9. Analysis of the electrical bills of residential consumers: tax and economic aspects; Analise da fatura de energia eletrica de consumidores residenciais: aspectos economicos e tributarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindemberg Nunes; Pinto, Danilo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], e-mail: lnunesreis@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: danilo.pinto@ufjf.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Residential consumers represent a significant part of the market of electric energy and are increasing by deriving tributes of the tariff of energy. These consumers are uninformed about the abuses that happen to them. This work has as objective to analyze and to argue the behavior of the tariffs of energy in the period of 2002 the 2006, demonstrating the occurred increases and pointing a relation enters the rise of the price of this energy and the increase of the number of clandestine linkings and difficulty to hold the basics statements of actually electrical regiments. ANEEL's data show that in 1995 the tariff for class residential was R$ 76.26 and industrial was R$ 43.59; in 2003 passed respectively to R$ 236.34 and R$ 110.48. This analysis is directly related to the difficulty of obtaining a national energy management totally sustainable. (author)

  10. Analysis of thermal stability of ceramic engobes developed with marble reject; Analise da estabilidade termica de engobes ceramicos desenvolvidos com rejeito de marmore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, E.M.; Assis, R.B.; Sousa, R.F.; Galvao, A.C.P.; Mendes, J.U.L., E-mail: elionemoura@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Considering the technological growth and technical production in the ceramic industry, ceramic mass formulations were evaluated with addition of marble residue to substitute the quartz for obtaining of engobes. Five formulations were prepared varying the proportions of raw material, sieved at 200 mesh, ball mill homogenised, characterized by fluorescence (FRX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples were separated from the formulations for thermal analysis (TG / DSC) and dilatometry. The specimens were prepared in uniaxial press (25 Mpa). The FIII and FIV formulations presented satisfactory results, evidencing the potential of replacing quartz by the marble residue in ceramic formulation for engobes, minimizing the environmental impact by the undue discard of waste, reducing costs and increasing the range of raw materials for the coatings industry.

  11. Numerical analysis of the actual airflow in a solar chimney; Analise numerica do escoamento real de ar em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andre G.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Valle, Ramon M.; Brasil, Cristiana S. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ferreira@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; tite@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection of the airflow in a solar chimney, under actual solar radiation conditions. The solar chimneys are devices that consist of a transparent radial cover and of a tubular tower positioned in its center. The ground absorbs part of the incident solar radiation on the cover, heating the air in the greenhouse and inducing an upward airflow on the tower. It was developed a model that allows the evaluation of the ground temperature as a function of an energetic balance involving the incident solar radiation. The flow is described by the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model (k and e ). A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve these equations. Outlet dimensionless parameters are presented as functions of the radiation time and conditions, besides the unsteady behavior of the ground surface temperature. (author)

  12. Multicriteria analysis of the hybrid systems with biogas: fuzzy set and rules; Analise multicriterio de sistemas hibridos com biogas: conjuntos e regras fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barin, A.; Canha, L.; Abaide, A.; Magnago, K. [Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)], E-mail: chbarin@gmail.com; Machado, R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], E-mail: rquadros@sel.eesc.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    A multicriteria analysis to manage de renewable sources of energy is presented, identifying the most appropriate hybrid system to be used as distributed generation of electric energy using biogas. In this methodology, fuzzy sets and rules are defined simulated in the software MATLAB, where the main characteristics of the operation and application of hybrid systems of electric power generation are considered. The main generation system, that can use the biogas, as micro turbines and fuel cells, are evaluated. Afterwards, the systems of energy storage are analyzed: flywheel, H{sub 2} storage and conventional and redox batteries. For the development of the proposed methodology, it was considered the following criteria: efficiency, costs, technological maturity, environmental impacts, the amplitude of the system action (power range), useful life, co-generation possibility and operation temperature. A classification, by priority order, for the use of the sources and storages associated to the environment and cost scenarios is also presented.

  13. Photovoltaic energy: environmental and economic analysis of axis solar trackers for photovoltaic installations; Energia fotovoltaica: analise economica ambiental de seguidores solares para instalacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Andrea Galvao; Bertolon, Expedito; Pacca, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EACH/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades. Curso de Gestao Ambiental

    2008-07-01

    In this work we present an economic assessment photovoltaic systems using single axis and dual axis solar trackers. The analysis was carried out for the city of Sao Paulo and the results show that in comparison with fixed installations, the single axis system and the dual axis system produce respectively 19.6% and 24.7% more power. The power output of the dual axis system is 4.3% greater than the power output of the single axis system. Considering an annual discount rate of 12% and the equipment cost, the cost of the surplus energy due to the use of the single axis and the dual axis trackers was R$0.25/kWh and R$0.18/kWh. Because the average cost of electricity produced by photovoltaic modules is R$3/kWh, we recommend the installation of solar trackers. (author)

  14. Ceramic filters analysis for aluminium melting through microtomography technique; Analise de filtros ceramicos para fundicao de aluminio atraves da tecnica de microtomografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Henrique de Souza; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira de; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Duhm, Rainer; Feiste, Karsten L.; Reichert, Christian; Reimche, Wilfried; Stegemann, Dieter [Universidade de Hannover (Germany). IKPH

    2000-07-01

    In this work a ceramic filters analysis is done through the microtomography for improvement of the aluminium melting process through the filter porosity control. Microtomography were obtained of ceramic filters with pore dimensions of 10, 20 and 30 ppi. The data were calculated by using an reconstruction algorithm for divergent beam implemented in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory of COPPE/UFRJ and analysed through cells and windows separation according to the defined by Ray. For the analyses the Image Pro program were used where the cells have been detached by sphere inserted, adjusting by nine points, in the filter cavities. So, the size of the answer sphere were considered as the cell size. The windows were measured by straight lines secant to the window intersections.

  15. Sensitivity analysis for heat diffusion in a fin on a nuclear fuel element; Analise de sensitividade na difusao de calor em uma aleta de um elemento combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tito, Max Werner de Carvalho

    2001-11-15

    The modern thermal systems generally present a growing complexity, as is in the case of nuclear power plants. It seems that is necessary the use of complex computation and mathematical tools in order to increase the efficiency of the operations, reduce costs and maximize profits while maintaining the integrity of its components. The use of sensitivity calculations plays an important role in this process providing relevant information regarding the resultant influence of variation or perturbation of its parameters as the system works. This technique is better known as sensitivity analysis and through its use makes possible the understanding of the effects of the parameters, which are fundamental for the project preparation, and for the development of preventive and corrective handling measurements of many pieces of equipment of modern engineering. The sensitivity calculation methodology is based generally on the response surface technique (graphic description of the functions of interest based in the results obtained from the system parameter variation). This method presents a lot of disadvantages and sometimes is even impracticable since many parameters can cause alterations or perturbations to the system and the model to analyse it can be very complex as well. The utilization of perturbative methods result appropriate as a practical solution to this problem especially in the presence of complex equations. Also it reduces the resultant computational calculus time considerably. The use of these methods becomes an essential tool to simplify the sensitivity analysis. In this dissertation, the differential perturbative method is applied in a heat conduction problem within a thermal system, made up of a one-dimensional circumferential fin on a nuclear fuel element. The fins are used to extend the thermal surfaces where convection occurs; thus increasing the heat transfer to many thermal pieces of equipment in order to obtain better results. The finned claddings are

  16. Thermal analysis of a solar collector consisting of V cavities for water heating; Analise termica de um coletor solar composto de cavidades V para aquecimento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Michel Fabio de Souza

    2009-03-15

    The solar water heating is carried through, in Brazil, by means of solar heaters compound for collectors flat plate of the type plate-and-pipes, devices that operate in stationary position and they do not require tracking of the sun. A compound collector for some formed V-trough concentrators can be an alternative to the conventional solar collectors flat plate. This compound collector for V-trough is considered, each one, for side-walls which are specularly reflecting surfaces associates in V (equivalent to a triangular gutter). Next to the vertex to each V-trough concentrators an absorber tube is fixed, for flow of the fluid to be heated. Interconnection of the absorbers tubes forms a similar tubular network existing in solar collectors of the type the plate and pipe. V-trough concentrators with the absorbers tubes are made use in series in the interior a prismatic box, which have one of its faces consisting by a glass covering and directed toward incidence of the solar radiation. An analysis of thermal performance of these devices operating stationary and without tracking of the sun is researched. A mathematical model for the computational simulation of the optical and thermal performance of these concentrative devices is elaborated, whose implementation was carried through software EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The efficiency optics of V-trough concentrators with cylindrical absorbers is calculated from the adaptation of the methodology used for Fraidenraich (1994), proposal for Hollands (1971) for V-trough cavities with plain absorbers. The thermal analysis of the considered collector was based on the applied methodology the CPC for Hsieh (1981) and Leao (1989). Relative results to the thermal performance of V-trough concentrators suggest that these configurations are not competitive, technique and economically, with the conventional plain collectors. Although some geometric configurations presented next thermal efficiencies to the conventional plain

  17. Critical analysis in the inventories of methane in oil and gas industry; Analise critica de inventarios de metano na industria do oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmall, Vicente; Montez, Edson [PETROBRAS, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Rosa, Ana Regina [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The methane contribution arising from anthropogenic activities plays a role of great significance when elevating the concentration of gases of greenhouse effect found in the atmosphere. The methane presents a global warming potential twenty one times higher than the carbon dioxide and its atmospheric lifespan is lower than the other gases of greenhouse effect. Its control is regarded as being one of the most efficient ways to mitigate the global climate changes in the short term, which requires previous quantification of its emissions. PETROBRAS, aiming at achieving its environmental excellence, is implementing a system of management and inventory of gases emission into the atmosphere. The emissions inventory of 2003, published in its Social Sustainability Report appears as a result of this effort. This paper presents a comparison between the results generated by the PETROBRAS' Management and Inventory of Emissions System and those deriving from the application of the methodology suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The impact of the chosen methodology, the aggregation level and the data availability of the emission sources on the results obtained are highlighted. (author)

  18. CO{sub 2} emissions on the brazilian economy: a decomposition analysis; Emissoes de CO{sub 2} na economia brasileira: uma analise de decomposicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Hercules Souza de; Dezidera, Daniela Arduino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2006-07-01

    The article intends to estimate the direct and indirect emissions of carbon gas through of the Brazilian economy official data and data from the National Energy Balance (BEN), trying to correlate the results. For this, the decomposition methodology will be used by indexes (IDA), accomplishing evaluations in the temporary variations of indicators as: pollution coefficient, energy intensity, effect structures and economical activity. Besides the temporary evaluation of the results considering the available data between 1970 and 2004, the results were compared with other similar studies, whose savings of the studied countries possess relative similarity with the Brazilian economy. The results demonstrated that so in Brazil as in other countries where the methodology was applied was obtained the level of economical growth as main indicator of the CO{sub 2} emissions alterations for each economy. For Brazil, it is also reality, but it is considered in each period by other factors. Another important comparison is in the carbon intensity of each one of the two compared savings. The Brazilian energetic matrix, for their characteristics, propitiates positive impact on carbon emissions results. It also demonstrated that the increase of the participation of the natural gas in the matrix can mitigate the carbon intensity effect, mainly as alternative for the power generation and transport. The use of cleaner fuels and the application of distributed generation and the co-generation energy technologies can be good alternatives for the future and the study of the indexes can help to end which viable and responsible alternatives. (author)

  19. Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil; Analise de perigos e pontos criticos de controle para alimentos irradiados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra

    2004-07-01

    Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions

  20. Analysis and simulation of water supply systems with photovoltaic pumping; Analise e simulacao de sistemas de abastecimento de agua com tecnologia fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Olga de Castro

    1996-09-01

    During the last two decades, a remarkable progress on the technology of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVP) has been observed. The decrease in the costs of the photovoltaic module and the increase in the efficiency of photovoltaic pumping systems (generator and motor-pump) make PVP systems a good option for rural communities. Most analysis and simulations of PVP systems, utility function, assume the existence of a linear relationship between the hydraulic power and the solar collected radiation. Usually, more general relations exist between those variables. This work presents a new procedure for the analysis and simulation of PVP systems, which uses the utility function to consider the fluctuations in solar radiation, and leads to analytical solutions for PVP systems whose behavior can be represented by general functions, including linear relations as a particular case. The system analyzed considers the energy source (solar radiation) and the components of the water supply system like water source, photovoltaic array, subsystem for conversion of electric into hydraulic energy and, finally, hydraulic network. An analytical procedure to calculate absorbed solar radiation in the optical layers of the photovoltaic module was developed, substituting the conventional ray tracing method. The volume of pumped water was obtained integrating the water flow rate through time, considering the fluctuations related to the behavior of solar radiation and the minimum level of radiation necessary to produce useful energy. The mathematical properties of the utility function allow to derive analytical solutions for the integrals of water flow and hydraulic power. At the same time, we developed a spreadsheet which allows tho visualize the behavior of all variables involved in the process and offers the possibility of simulating different situations in order to maximize the amount of pumped water for any given system. The results obtained through the new procedure were compared with

  1. Analysis of natural radionuclides and lead in foods and diets; Analise de radionuclideos naturais e chumbo em produtos alimenticios e dietas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Luciana

    1999-07-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to determine the lead-210, polonium-210 and lead concentrations in foods and diets. Consumption of food is generally the main route by which radionuclides can enter the human organism. Precision and accuracy of the methods developed were verifies by the analysis of reference materials from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The method for polonium-210 analysis consisted of sample dissolution by using a microwave digester (open system) employing concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, evaporation almost dryness, addition of hydrochloric acid, polonium deposition onto silver disc for six hours and counting by alpha spectrometry. Lead was analysed by atomic absorption technique. After sample dissolution in a microwave digester (using concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) and dilution to 50 ml, 20{mu}l of the sample was injected in a pyrolytic graphite furnace - atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with Zeeman background correction. The assessment of the contaminants in foods and diets allowed to estimate the intake of these elements and for the radionuclides were also evaluated the radiation doses that the individuals selected were exposed by the food consumption. The effective dose for lead-210 by diets intake ranged from 1.3 to 4.3 {mu}Sv/year, corresponding to 25% of the resulting from polonium-210 intake. The dose due to the both natural radionuclides varied from 6.8 to 23.0 {mu}Sv/year. These values are in good agreement with the literature data. The value estimated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 1993) that is 60 {mu}Sv and lower than the dose of 0.02 Sv, limit established by ICRP, 1980. The lead levels found in the majority of the Brazilian foods are in good agreement with the values published by CONAT and FAO/WHO. However, some foods such as bean, potato, papaya, apple and rice present levels above of the recommended values by the

  2. Geologic and petrophysic analysis of a travertine block as hydrocarbon reservoir analogue; Analise geologica e petrofisica de um bloco de travertino como analogo de reservatorio de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Mateus; Kuroda, Michelle Chaves; Vidal, Alexandre Campane, E-mail: mbstraik@gmail.com, E-mail: ckuroda@ige.unicamp.br, E-mail: vidal@ige.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos do Petroleo

    2017-04-15

    Microbialitic limestones are gaining space in petroleum geology due to the existence of many reservoirs composed of these lithologies in the pre-salt producing fields. Travertine, calcareous tufa and stromatolites figure among the rocks proposed as analogous for the microbialitic rocks. This work conduces the study of geological, petrophysical and geophysical parameters of a travertine block measuring 1,60 x 1,60 x 2,70 m, weighing 21,2 tons and available in the Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO) at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The Italian block, named T-block, corresponds to the representative elementary volume of its original formation and allows the study in an intermediate scale between the hand sample and the outcrop scale. Permeability tests and gamma ray spectrometry measurements were conducted and the porosity was calculated by image analysis. Models were generated from the obtained data and then associated with descriptive geology of the block. A reduction in permeability, porosity and concentration of elements potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) was recorded, following a gradient towards the top of the T-block accompanying the reduction in the degree of development of the rock fabric. (author)

  3. Compartmental analysis and dosimetric aspects applied to cholesterol with {sup 3}H labeled; Analise compartimental e aspectos dosimetricos aplicados ao colesterol marcado com {sup 3}H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major reasons of death around the world according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It is well known that changes in levels of plasma lipoproteins, which are responsible for the transport of cholesterol into the bloodstream, are associated with cardiovascular diseases. For this reason to know the biokinetic parameters of plasma lipoproteins and quantifies them is important to correct and deep understanding about the diseases associated with these disorders. The main aim of this study is to provide a biokinetic model and estimate the radiometric doses for {sup 3}H-Cholesterol, a radioactive tracer widely used in physiological and metabolic studies. The model was based on [Schwartz et al. 2004] about the distribution of cholesterol by the lipoprotein and gastrointestinal model [ICRP 30, 1979]. The doses distribution in compartments of the model and other organs and tissues of a standard adult described in [ICRP 106, 2008] was calculated using MIRD method (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) and compartmental analysis using the computer program Matlab®. The dose coefficients were estimated for a standard phantom man (73 kg) described in [ICRP 60, 1991]. The estimated doses for both model and for other organs were low and did not exceed the highest dose obtained that was in the upper large intestine, as 44,8 μGy these parameters will assist in ethics committee's opinions on the use of works that use the {sup 3}H-cholesterol which radioactive tracer. (author)

  4. Parametric analysis of applicability of sand production control in oil wells; Analise parametrica da aplicabilidade do controle de producao de areia em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Filipe S.B. da; Couto, Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia do Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    The present work discusses about the selection of the best sand control method to be adopted for offshore operations according to a specific technologic limitation and by demands imposed by the environment in which it is used. First of all, the paper mentions the phenomena of solids carrying. Then the source environments of the study are analyzed. This approach is considered important because it is the basis for understanding the final part of the research, composed of the method/environment correlation. Three fictitious offshore fields based on real data are presented. In each of them, two wells are studied, one cased, and one open holed. Parameters like permeability and UCS have the same conceptual relevance as the sand control methods presented. The analysis of methods follows those used for the environments. The following methods are presented: by restriction of solids flow, by drag strength reduction and by increase of cohesion strength. Emphasis is given on mechanic methods. Finally, this study concludes its initial purpose, which is selecting the best sand control method for each well, substantiating in each one, the reason for the choice. (author)

  5. Analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. Part 1: integral transformations; Analise da contaminacao de solos por rejeitos radioativos. Parte 1: solucoes por transformacao integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, Z.V.; Cotta, R.M.; Perez-Guerreo, J.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Transmissao e Tecnologia do Calor; Heilbron Filho, P.F.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Rejeitos Radioativos

    1997-12-31

    The migration of radioactive waste in soils and other porous media is studied through the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of the mass convection-diffusion equations for this phenomenon. Initially, a radionuclide leak function is derived to model the phenomenon that occurs after the failure of the engineering barriers of the repository. This function is obtained from a first order ordinary differential equation which is solved numerically. Subsequently, the migration of this radioactive waste through the soil and the aquifer below the repository is studied; the soil and the aquifer are modeled as two saturated and coupled porous media. The convection-diffusion equations obtained for the concentration field in each medium studied are solved through the use of the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (G.I.T.T.), which provides automatic error control and relatively low computational cost for a user-prescribed accuracy. This work is part of the joint project COPPE/CNEN on the analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. (author) 7 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Daily quality controls analysis of a CT scanner simulator; Analise dos testes diarios de controle de qualidade de um tomografo simulador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maira Milanelo; Santos, Gabriela R.; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: maira.vasques@hc.fmusp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing technological developments, radiotherapy practices, which allow for better involvement of the tumor with the required therapeutic dose and minimize the complications of normal tissues, have become reality in several Radiotherapy services. The use of these resources in turn, was only possible due to the progress made in planning based on digital volumetric images of good quality, such as computed tomography (CT), which allow the correct delimitation of the tumor volume and critical structures. Specific tests for quality control in a CT scanner used in radiotherapy, named CT simulator, should be applied as part of the institutional Quality Assurance Program. This study presents the methodology used in the Instituto de Radiologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMUSP) for daily testing of the CT scanner simulator and the results obtained throughout more than two years. The experience gained in the period conducted showed that the tests are easy to perform and can be done in a few minutes by a trained professional. Data analysis showed good reproducibility, which allowed the tests could be performed less frequently, after 16 months of data collection. (author)

  7. Daily quality controls analysis of a CT scanner simulator; Analise dos testes diarios de controle de qualidade de um tomografo simulador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maira Milanelo, E-mail: maira.vasques@hc.fmusp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Santos, Gabriela R.; Furnari, Laura [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Radiologia. Setor de Radioterapia

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing technological developments radiotherapy practices which minimize the complications of normal tissues and allow better involvement of the tumor with the therapeutic dose have become reality in several Radiotherapy services. The use of these resources in turn, was only possible due to the progress made in planning based on digital volumetric images of good quality, such as computed tomography (CT) which allow the correct delimitation of the tumor volume and critical structures. Specific tests for quality control in a CT scanner used in radiotherapy, named CT simulator should be applied as part of the institutional Quality Assurance Program. This study presents the methodology used in the Instituto de Radiologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMUSP) for daily testing of the CT scanner simulator and the results obtained throughout more than two years. The experience gained in the period conducted showed that the tests are easy to perform and can be done in a few minutes by a trained professional. Data analysis showed good reproducibility, which allowed the tests could be performed less frequently, after 16 months of data collection. (author)

  8. An object-oriented computational model for combined cycle cogeneration analysis; Um modelo computacional para analise de ciclos combinados para projetos de sistemas de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre M. da; Balestieri, Jose A.P.; Magalhaes Filho, Paulo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: amarcial@uol.com.br; perella@feg.unesp.br; pfilho@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the use of computational resources in a simulation procedure to predict the performance of combined cycle cogeneration systems in which energetic analysis is used in the modeling. Thermal demand of a consuming process are used as the main entrance data and, associated to the performance characteristics of each component of the system, it is evaluated the influence of some parameters of the system such as thermal efficiency and global efficiency. The computational language is Visual Basic for Applications associated to an electronic sheet. Two combined cycle cogeneration schemes are pre-defined: one is composed of a gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine with one extraction, in which both are connected to the different pressure level process plant; the other scheme has a difference a two extraction-condensing steam turbine instead of the back pressure one. Some illustrative graphics are generated for allowing comparison of the appraised systems. The strategy of the system simulation is obtained by carefully linking the information of various components according to the flow diagrams. (author)

  9. Optical fiber smart sensor for conformity analysis of Brazilian gasoline; Sensor inteligente a fibra otica para analise da conformidade da gosolina brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Possetti, Gustavo R.C.; Camilotti, Emmanuelle; Arruda, Lucia V.R. de; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, Jose L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cocco, Lilian C.; Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Falate, Rosane [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The conventional techniques employed to monitor the gasoline quality are expensive, time-consuming and demands on specialized workers to its execution. A study about the applicability of a long period grating, a fiber optic device, as an auxiliary tool for the analysis of Brazilian gasoline conformity is presented in this work. The long period grating spectral response was measured with the device immersed in samples of gasoline A with different proportions of hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel. A resolution of 0.23 % was obtained for the concentrations range of commercial interest, between 20 % and 40 %. The device performance was also tested with a set of conform and non-conform gasoline C samples. The device spectral response for these samples, as well as the samples densities and the conformity status were employed to train and to validate an artificial neural network with radial base function. The obtained results show that fiber optic sensors supervised by artificial neural networks can constitute systems for smart measurement with high applicability in the analyses of gasoline conformity, reducing costs and time related to conventional tests. (author)

  10. Analysis of economic feasibility of sale of surplus electricity in cogeneration: case study; Analise de viabilidade economica de venda de energia eletrica excedente em cogeracao: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodra, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Universidade Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil)], email: marcelo.fodra@fca.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], email: maura@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The production of energy in large quantity and at competitive prices is crucial for economic development, which allied to the environmental question, has incentivated the use of renewable sources of energy. One of the most promising sources of renewable energy is the cogeneration from the residues of cane. Currently, the scenario for this kind of energy production is not consolidated, as production prices are not stable, inducing a risky situation for the environment. This work was aimed to study the economic viability of installing a main site for cogeneration of electricity, in a regional sugarcane factory located in the central region of Sao Paulo state that currently uses residues of sugar cane as fuel. The risk factor that was taken into consideration was the price paid for the MWh sold to the Chamber of Commerce of Electricity. The Monte Carlo Method was used to assess the risk factors for the analysis, by using of New Present Value (NPV), in a scenario that uses 20% of the initial investment made by the energy dealer. After the simulations were finished, considering the conditions used in this work, the project tends to be not feasible, as the behavior of the prices of cogenerated MWh are not sufficient for paying the initial investment and the operational costs. (author)

  11. Thermo-fluid analysis of water cooled research reactors in natural convection; Analise termofluidodinamica de reatores nucleares de pesquisa refrigerados a agua em regime de conveccao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora Fortini

    2004-07-01

    The STHIRP-1 computer program, which fundamentals are described in this work, uses the principles of the subchannels analysis and has the capacity to simulate, under steady state and transient conditions, the thermal and hydraulic phenomena which occur inside the core of a water-refrigerated research reactor under a natural convection regime. The models and empirical correlations necessary to describe the flow phenomena which can not be described by theoretical relations were selected according to the characteristics of the reactor operation. Although the primary objective is the calculation of research reactors, the formulation used to describe the fluid flow and the thermal conduction in the heater elements is sufficiently generalized to extend the use of the program for applications in power reactors and other thermal systems with the same features represented by the program formulations. To demonstrate the analytical capacity of STHIRP-l, there were made comparisons between the results calculated and measured in the research reactor TRIGA IPR-R1 of CDTN/CNEN. The comparisons indicate that the program reproduces the experimental data with good precision. Nevertheless, in the future there must be used more consistent experimental data to corroborate the validation of the program. (author)

  12. Analysis of implementation of energy efficiency labeling of buildings in hotel developments; Analise da aplicacao da etiquetagem de eficiencia energetica de edificacoes em empreendimentos hoteleiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Myrthes Marcele Farias dos; Faria, Ricardo Wargas de; Hamada, Luciana; Nascimento, Paulo Roberto Lopes do [Servico Brasileiro de Apoio as Micro e Pequenas Empresas (SEBRAE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia e Eficiencia Energetica

    2010-07-01

    Most Brazilian constructions have low performance in terms of energy, since they received little attention (or none) concerning the energy efficiency. One of the main aspects observed is the intense use of electric energy for climatization and lighting in order to provide comfortable conditions for the dwellers. In 2009, new perspectives to change this situation emerged, due to an initiative by the Federal Government, that established the necessary regulations for energy efficiency labelling in buildings, and broadened the Brazilian Labelling Program (PBE), which, up until then, encompassed only machinery and equipment. The purpose of this article is to analyze the compliance with the new regulations for energy efficiency of constructions in the hotel sector, where small businesses are predominant, aiming at highlighting the barriers and opportunities connected to the possibilities of labeling. Hotels have been targeted for large investments, since they have become the pillars of Brazil's project to welcome tourists during the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. Taking into consideration the need to develop specific methodologies for lodging possibilities, in addition to the scarce information on the use of energy in small businesses, this article is part of a series of researches carried out within the framework of the Sebrae/RJ - Procel Agreement. The outcome is a global analysis, from a business point of view, on the use of labels of energy efficiency in hotel buildings, organized upon two perspectives: the external environment (opportunities and threats) and the internal environment (strong and weak points). (author)

  13. Analysis of martensitic transformation and residual tension in an 304L stainless steel; Analise da transformacao martensitica e tensao residual em um aco inoxidavel 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juciane Maria

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between plastic deformation and the strain induced phase transformation, that provides a practical route to the development of new engineering materials with excellent mechanical properties, characterize the TRIP effect 'Transformation Induced Plasticity'. Among the stainless steels, the metastable 304 L austenitic steel is susceptible to transformation of austenite-martensite phase from tensile tests at room temperature by increments of plastic deformation. It is of great technological and scientific interest the knowledge of the evolution of phase transformation and residual stress from different levels and rates of plastic deformation imposed to the material. It is also important to evaluate the interference of metallographic preparation in quantitative analyzes of this steel. The main techniques used in this study consisted of X-rays diffraction and Ferritoscopy for the quantitation phase, and XRD to residual stress analysis also. As observed, the phase transformation quantification has not suffered significant influence of the metallographic preparation and evolved from increments of plastic deformation due to different stop charges and strain rates, leading to a further strengthening of the austenite matrix. The evaluation of residual stress resulting from the martensitic transformation was susceptible to the metallographic preparation and increased its value on comparison to sample without metallographic preparation. It was also observed that the residual stress decreased with the increase of the fraction of transformed martensite. (author)

  14. Quantitative analysis of properties of petroleum mixtures by near infrared spectroscopy; Analise quantitativa de propriedades de misturas de petroleos via espectrofotometria no infravermelho proximo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leila M.; Silva, Elisangela B.; Fortuny, Montserrat; Dariva, Claudio; Santos, Alexandre F. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP); Araujo, Augusto M. [Siemens Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, Raquel C.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental study is carried out aiming to develop a method of quantitative analysis of properties of petroleum mixtures, such as water and asphaltene contents, heavy oil concentration and viscosity based on the use of a NIR spectrophotometer. A strategy of generation of crude oil mixtures with known properties was developed to help calibrating the NIR spectrophotometer. Petroleum mixtures involving 2 or 3 oils under known ratios were prepared based on a set of different light and heavy Brazilian crude oil samples. Moreover, experimental data of 5 binary mixtures were also assembled into a data set named multi-compound. Results indicated that excellent calibration models can be obtained for binary mixtures with correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) greater than 99% for water and asphaltene contents, viscosity and heavy oil concentration. For ternary systems, excellent correlations (R{sup 2}>99%) can be attained for asphaltene and heavy oil contents. Finally for the multi-compound data set, the asphaltene content was the only property that resulted in R{sup 2}>99%, which demonstrates the adequacy of the NIR technique for assessing this property. (author)

  15. Stress and thermal expansion numerical analysis of subsea buried pipelines; Analise numerica de tensoes e expansao termica de dutos submarinos enterrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Marcio de S.; Vaz, Murilo A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Solano, Rafael F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The design of Capixaba North Terminal pipelines (TNC) became very complex, once the pipelines are exposed to elevated temperature variations. As the pipelines are buried, the interaction with the seabed can become critical with the thermal expansion development, since an axial compressive force arise, reaching critical values and then leading the pipeline to the thermo mechanical instability phenomenon. To minimize these effects, the pipeline will cross the shore approach through a horizontal directional drilling, and expansion loops and intermediate tie-ins took place on his route in order to permit pipeline displacements, working thermally. The objective of this present work is to develop a numerical model, able to analyze the entire pipeline stress, strain and displacements, considering different kinds of soil along of his route. The influence of expansion loops is evaluated and a comparative analysis in order to discover the minimum curvature radius at the directional drilling region is carried out. This study defines a methodology based on the developed numerical model which will be extended to future applications in subsea buried pipeline design. (author)

  16. Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

    2009-04-15

    The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

  17. Analysis of implementation of energy efficiency labeling of buildings in hotel developments; Analise da aplicacao da etiquetagem de eficiencia energetica de edificacoes em empreendimentos hoteleiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Myrthes Marcele Farias dos; Faria, Ricardo Wargas de; Hamada, Luciana; Nascimento, Paulo Roberto Lopes do [Servico Brasileiro de Apoio as Micro e Pequenas Empresas (SEBRAE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia e Eficiencia Energetica

    2010-07-01

    Most Brazilian constructions have low performance in terms of energy, since they received little attention (or none) concerning the energy efficiency. One of the main aspects observed is the intense use of electric energy for climatization and lighting in order to provide comfortable conditions for the dwellers. In 2009, new perspectives to change this situation emerged, due to an initiative by the Federal Government, that established the necessary regulations for energy efficiency labelling in buildings, and broadened the Brazilian Labelling Program (PBE), which, up until then, encompassed only machinery and equipment. The purpose of this article is to analyze the compliance with the new regulations for energy efficiency of constructions in the hotel sector, where small businesses are predominant, aiming at highlighting the barriers and opportunities connected to the possibilities of labeling. Hotels have been targeted for large investments, since they have become the pillars of Brazil's project to welcome tourists during the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. Taking into consideration the need to develop specific methodologies for lodging possibilities, in addition to the scarce information on the use of energy in small businesses, this article is part of a series of researches carried out within the framework of the Sebrae/RJ - Procel Agreement. The outcome is a global analysis, from a business point of view, on the use of labels of energy efficiency in hotel buildings, organized upon two perspectives: the external environment (opportunities and threats) and the internal environment (strong and weak points). (author)

  18. Morphologic characterization and quantitative analysis on in vitro bacteria by nuclear techniques of measurement; Caracterizacao morfologica e analise quantitativa de bacterias in vitro por tecnicas nucleares de medidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joana D' Arc Ramos

    2001-10-01

    The great difficulty to identify microorganisms (bacteria) from infectious processes is related to the necessary time to obtain a reliable result, about 72 hours. The purpose of this work is to establish a faster method to characterize bacterial morphologies through the use of neutron radiography, which can take about 5 hours. The samples containing the microorganisms, bacteria with different morphologies, after the appropriate microbiologic procedures were incubated with B{sup 10} for 30 minutes and soon after deposited in a plate of a solid detector of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), denominated CR-39. To obtain the images relative to bacteria, the detector was submitted to the flow of thermal neutrons of the order of 2.2 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.s from the J-9 channel of the Reactor Argonauta (IEN/CNEN). To observe the images from bacteria in each sample under an optical microscope, the sheets were chemically developed. The analysis of the images revealed morphologic differences among the genera (Gram positive from Gram-negative and coccus from bacillus), in samples containing either isolated or mixed bacteria. We thus verified the viability of the technique to achieve morphological characterization of different microorganisms. A quantitative approach seemed also to be feasible with the technique. The whole process took about 2 hours. (author)

  19. Activation analysis. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The principle, sample and calibration standard preparation, activation by neutrons, charged particles and gamma radiation, sample transport after activation, activity measurement, and chemical sample processing are described for activation analysis. Possible applications are shown of nondestructive activation analysis. (J.P.)

  20. Geostatistical and stratigraphic analysis of deltaic reservoirs from the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Analise estratigrafica e geoestatistica de reservatorios deltaicos da Bacia do Reconcavo (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carlos Moreira

    1997-07-01

    This study presents the characterization of the external geometry of deltaic oil reservoirs, including the description of their areal distribution using geo statistic tools, such as variography and kriging. A high-resolution stratigraphic study was developed over a 25 km{sup 2} area, by using data from 276 closely-spaced wells of an oil-producer field from the Reconcavo Basin, northeastern Brazil. The studied succession records the progressive lacustrine transgression of a deltaic environment. Core data and stratigraphic cross sections suggest that the oil reservoirs are mostly amalgamated, delta-front lobes, and subordinately, crevasse deposits. Some important geometrical elements were recognized by the detailed variographic analysis developed for each stratigraphic unit (zone). The average width for the groups of deltaic lobes of one zone was measured from the variographic feature informally named as hole effect. This procedure was not possible for the other zones due to the intense lateral amalgamation of sandstones, indicated by many variographic nested structures. Net sand krigged maps for the main zones suggest a NNW-SSE orientation for the deltaic lobes, as also their common amalgamation and compensation arrangements. High-resolution stratigraphic analyses should include a more regional characterization of the depositional system that comprises the studied succession. On the other hand, geostatistical studies should be developed only after the recognition of the depositional processes acting in the study area and the geological meaning of the variable to be treated, including its spatial variability scales as a function of sand body thickness, orientation and amalgamation. (author)

  1. Analysis of agricultural soils by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence; Analise de solos agricolas por fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos

    2000-03-01

    In this work, we describe an Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence System with a x-ray tube excitation for trace analysis of environmental samples (soil). The system was used to analyze the contamination of metals in treated soils with doses of 10, 20 and 30 ton/ha of compound organic of urban garbage of the type Fertilurb and 10 ton/ha of aviary bed (manure of birds). Samples of roots and foliages of plant radishes cultivated in these soils were also analyzed. The soil samples were collected in five different depths of 0,5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. The experimental set-up is composed by an OXFORD X-ray (30 kV, 50 {mu}A and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray spectrum tube is quasi-monochromatic by using of Ti filter. Samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm{sup 2}. The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. It was possible to determine the concentrations of thirteen elements: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb in the treated soils with compounds organic. The results indicate that the values found for K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb are significantly above the upper confidence limits for the control soil ({alpha} = 0.05). There is a real different between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, ({alpha}=0,05). There is a real difference between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, confirming the influence of the organic compounds in the soil. (author)

  2. Eco-efficiency analysis of techniques for disposal of urban solid waste; Analise de ecoeficiencia de tecnicas para tratamento e disposicao de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrijevas, Cibele

    2010-07-01

    Municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of modern society. In this sense it is necessary to discuss solutions to the fate of waste generated daily, increasingly in larger amounts, being imperative to advance the search for alternatives, not only in search of new technologies and solutions, as well as the improvement of methodologies currently employed to solve this relevant issue, especially in large urban centers. This paper presents the results of a comparative economic-environmental assessment performed by a method developed by BASF, two potential technologies: landfill and incineration with energy recovery. To facilitate the work, the information used were both real data - landfill and incinerator - Essencis Solucoes Ambientais S.A., (assuming some assumptions) and the use of secondary data, using the study of Arena et al., 2003. This ecoefficiency analysis tool covers the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which is a technique to evaluate the inputs and outputs of matter and energy and the potential environmental impacts associated with all stages of resource extraction and their transformations , and the use and final disposal of the product. The data in the environmental assessment are presented according to major categories, using a weighting method developed by BASF and understand the consumption of natural resources, consumption of energy resources, air emissions, water and soil, potential for human toxicity, accidents work, occupational diseases and land use. Economic evaluation in this work took into account the costs involved in operation and maintenance of disposal techniques or treatment of waste. The comparative study found the treatment or disposal of 7.324109 billion kilograms of waste. As a result, the array of eco-efficiency indicates that the incinerator is the alternative that stands out, considering the environmental and economic profile, within the assumptions made in this study and taking into account which is a

  3. Identification and analysis of the environmental management documentation related to the activities of environmental and chemical analysis laboratories; Identificacao e analise da documentacao pertinente a gestao ambiental relacionada as atividades de laboratorios de analises quimicas e ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otomo, Juliana Ikebe; Brandalise, Michele; Romano, Renato Lahos; Marques, Roberto; Szarota, Rosa Maria; Raduan, Rosane Napolitano; Salvetti, Tereza Cristina; Egute, Nayara dos Santos; Almeida, Josimar Ribeiro de; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: araquino@ipen.br

    2009-08-15

    In the last years, many documents were elaborated by several countries and entities, concerning the environmental question. The implantation of and Environmental Management System requires specific documentation so that a company or laboratory can adjust themselves to the environmental quality. For laboratories of chemical, environmental analyses and also nuclear materials, the needs of attendance to the requirements of the following municipal, state and federal institutions were identified: Corpo de Bombeiros, CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, IBAMA - Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Renovaveis, ANVISA - Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria, PMSP - Prefeitura Municipal de Sao Paulo e a CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo. (author)

  4. Automation of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Ivanets, V.N.; Filippov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The basic data on the methods and equipment of activation analysis are presented. Recommendations on the selection of activation analysis techniques, and especially the technique envisaging the use of short-lived isotopes, are given. The equipment possibilities to increase dataway carrying capacity, using modern computers for the automation of the analysis and data processing procedure, are shown

  5. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  6. Fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1981 numerous 14 MeV neutron activation analyses were performed at Korona. On the basis of that work the advantages of this analysis technique and therewith obtained results are compared with other analytical methods. The procedure of activation analysis, the characteristics of Korona, some analytical investigations in environmental research and material physics, as well as sources of systematic errors in trace analysis are described. (orig.) [de

  7. Challenges for environmental risk assessment application in offshore E and P activities in Brazil; Desafios para a aplicacao de analise de risco ecologico nas atividades de E e P offshore no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Cassia de Oliveira; Chame, Luciana Moreira [DNV Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves [BP Brasil, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Although the Brazilian Legislation does not clearly specify the requirements and the need to elaborate and apply the Environmental Risk Analysis, the Term of Reference to submit studies to Environmental Entities for E and P offshore activities has required the presentation of an {sup E}nvironment Risk Analysis{sup .} Nevertheless, the interactions or possible effects of these accidents as well as possible chronic discharges are not focused. The Environment Risk Analysis programs used world wide for offshore petroleum activities are very sophisticated and need intense research, specially by universities to be adequate and applicable in Brazil. The studies briefly described in this work, when developed may give the characteristics of Brazilian offshore, important information on the potential of the environment impact of the E and P activities, reducing significantly today's subjectivity on evaluation of impacts and environmental risks. (author)

  8. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  9. Use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and analysis of demand: an analysis for predictions in the energy segment; O emprego do SIG (Sistema de Informacoes Geograficas) e a analise de demanda: um ensaio para previsoes no segmento de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Jorge Henrique de [Petroleo Brasileiro SA. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Gas e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The energy assumed a preponderant paper to the current societies because it became the number spine of both economic and social activities developed. Technological advances and the economic and social development of the nations, was based on the transformation and use of natural resources in products and services. Such transformation if gave more of accented form from the Industrial Revolution where the substitution of activities until then carried through by the man, for the job of machines, transformed the way of life and the behavior of the society. Particularly the projection of demand of energy send to the following duality: the problem should be evaluated in a wide way, in other words, considering the whole range of component variables of the decision process for generation and allocation of the energy supply; however, in a local way regarding with the search of models that optimize of the energy potentials and the consequent search of value added market. Historically the forecast of the energy demand uses the GDP mainly. It is presupposed that the association of such variables to the areas that these act, or polygons that delimit them, it happens in a homogeneous way and that the limits of such areas constitute an identified change of behavior. However, this premise is false, because such polygons are defined for operational and / or politician criteria not having warranty that such distributions are really homogeneous. As solution, the development and use of decision support systems based on GIS (Geographic Information System) technology has been along the last years a powerful modeling and simulation tool. The objective of this paper is to introduce the application of techniques of spatial analysis in the activity of projection, activity that is inherent to the forecast energy demand, to mitigate the future developments of scientific models and applications associates. (author)

  10. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  11. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  12. Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taure, I.; Riekstina, D.; Veveris, O.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in Latvia began to develop after 1961 when nuclear reactor in Salaspils started to work. It provided a powerful neuron source, which is necessary for this analytical method. In 1963 at Institute of Physics of the Latvian Academy of Sciences the Laboratory of Neutron Activation Analysis was formed. At the first stage of development the main tasks were of theoretical and technical aspects of NAA. Later the NAA was used to solve problems in technology, biology, and medicine. In the beginning of the 80-ties more attention was focussed to the use of NAA in the environmental research. Environmental problems stayed the main task till the closing the nuclear reactor in Salaspils in 1998 that ceased the main the existence of the laboratory and of NAA, this significant and powerful analytical method in Latvia and Baltic in general. (authors)

  13. Thermographic and spectrophotometric analysis of the extrinsic tooth bleaching using a diode laser and a LED system. In vitro; Analise termografica e espectrofotometrica do clareamento dental extrinsico utilizando laser de diodo e sistema de LED. Estudio In vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheli, Paola Racy de

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-pulpal temperature change, as well as to compare the bleaching power of a 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Xtra Boost- Ultradent. Inc), when activated with a diode laser, with a LED system and without activation, in the extrinsic tooth bleaching in vitro. Ten mandibular human incisors, a thermocouple, 45 bovine incisors and a spectrophotometer (Shade Eye- Shofu) for the color analysis. The samples were divided into 3 groups: 38% hydrogen peroxide activated by a diode laser (ZAP lasers, wavelength 808 nm {+-} 5, power of 1,4 W); 38% hydrogen peroxide activated by LED (Bright LEC-Mmoptics, wavelength 470 nm {+-} 25, power of 380 mW); 38% hydrogen peroxide without activation. After the artificial pigmentation, the bleaching agent acted for the same time in the 3 groups, differing only by the type of activation. The results of temperature showed that the LED activation was safer than the diode laser, which, in some measures exceeded the limit of 5.6 deg C. The luminosity of the samples did not show significantly statistics differences in none of the groups and moments of this study. The diode laser and LED activation did not influenced at the bleaching power of the peroxide, which showed effective for removing stains, with great capacity of bleaching bovine tooth artificially darkened. (author)

  14. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  15. A new power supply regulated PWM-ZCS supplied in current: analysis, project and experiments; Uma nova fonte chaveada PWM-ZCS alimentada em corrente: analise, projeto e experimentacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Peter Mantovanelli

    1993-10-01

    This work introduces a new power supply by PWM, operating at constant frequency, with soft communication. The new topology uses only two active switches and absorbs the transformer leakage inductance. Besides, the soft communication takes place with no conduction loss penalty, in comparison with conventional hard switch PWM converters. Principle of operation, analysis, design and experimentation results taken from laboratory prototype rated at 400 W/48 v, 40 Khz, using IGBT are presented. (author) 10 refs., 71 figs.

  16. Effects of 960 nm diode laser irradiation on dental enamel in vitro: temperature and morphological analysis and evaluation of enamel demineralization; Estudo in vitro dos efeitos promovidos pelo laser de diodo em 960 nm no esmalte dental humano: analise de temperatura, analise morfologica e avaliacao da resistencia a desmineralizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Ilka Tiemy

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of diode laser irradiation on enamel demineralization. To achieve this goal appropriate photon absorbing substances for the laser radiation, safe laser parameters and adequate temperature measuring apparatus had to be determined. Next, the effects of diode laser and acidulated phosphate fluoride on enamel demineralization by calcium content analysis were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In the first part of the study, five dyes consisting of vegetable coal diluted in five different liquids were analyzed and vegetable coal diluted in physiological solution was chosen for use as absorber. Methodologies to measure pulp chamber temperature were evaluated and modeling clay was chosen as fixture for the enamel samples held at body temperature. In the second part of the study, different energy density parameters (1.8 J/cm{sup 2}, 3.7 J/cm{sup 2}, 5.6 J/cm{sup 2}, 7.4 J/cm{sup 2} and 9.3 J/cm{sup 2}) exposure times (10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 seconds) and time intervals between dye application and laser irradiation (5, 30, 60, 90 e 120 seconds) were evaluated with respect to temperature changes in the pulp chamber. The enamel morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Acid resistance was measured using seventy five enamel specimens, divided in five groups (control, fluoride, laser, laser + fluoride and fluoride + laser). The amount of calcium lost during demineralization in lactic acid was measured by ICP-AES. The results obtained in this experiment permit the conclusion that diode laser irradiation did not increase acid resistance. When associated with fluoride, the acid resistance did not differ from the results obtained with fluoride alone. (author)

  17. Application of operational contingency analysis as a tool to reduce loss in the energy and utility area; Aplicacao da analise de contingencia operacional como ferramenta de minimizacao de perdas na area de energia e utilidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano Francisco dos; Alvarenga, Zenilton Galhano; Grijo, Fabio Becalli [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Producao de Gusa e Energia

    2009-11-01

    All new implementation of activities and equipment needs special attention regarding programming, preparation and operations performance, service and necessary interventions in order to achieve success considering operation, safety and environment. The real challenge in order to realize this change is to guarantee for the costumers the minimum interference, once it is performed on an operational routine basis. The energy distribution area from ArcelorMittal Tubarao (IGC-D) has a very important operational tool to succeed on this task: the operational contingency analysis. The objective of this paper is showing how the operational contingency analysis has been used as a tool to help IGC-D operation on preventing interruptions on supplying the internal costumers as well as keeping the maximum efficiency at the plant. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yukiko

    2005-01-01

    Trends and progress in neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the period starting in 1999 to 2003 are presented. Numbers of published reports on NAA are decreasing year by year as investigated from the database JST and NUCLEN. Summary reports on the international conferences held on NAA are followed by classifying according to the fields: various measurement techniques and application fields. Specially focused topics are newly developed techniques for measuring trace elements with high sensitivity and high accuracy such as (1) by diminishing the Compton-background gamma-rays using anti-coincidence technique, (2) by using prompt-gamma rays measurement method (PGAA) and (3) by using a gamma-ray detector array (GEMINI), which has succeeded in a simultaneous quantification of 27 elements from a standard rock sample having a weight of only 10 milligrams, and others. These techniques will be applied in the space and earth sciences and medical fields. (S. Ohno)

  19. Comparative analysis between horizontal and vertical heater treaters: identification and analysis of efficiency variables for oil treatment; Analise comparativa entre tratadores termicos horizontais e verticais: levantamento de variaveis criticas a eficiencia do processamento primario do oleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, Fabricio de Queiroz; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Brazilian onshore oil and gas production scenario has undergone changes with the maturity of fields and the prioritization of investments towards offshore projects. Added to the issue of lack of investment issue, the increasing production of formation water, which has already exceeded the production of the oil itself. With that comes the need to study the efficiency of process stages. It is common to find oil treatment plants (ETOS) limiting production operations due to lack of capacity to deal with increasing volumes of produced water. The critical moment of an ETO in onshore operations is the 'breaking' of emulsion (water in oil) usually performed by heater treaters. This article offers a comparative analysis between horizontal (TTH) and vertical (TTV) heater treaters, indicating the main variables and demonstrating opportunities for internalization of traditional and innovative technologies in horizontal systems that result in energy efficiency, optimization of the specification of oil (for marketing) and reduced operating costs. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the fuel rod integrity in PWR reactors from the spectrometric analysis of the primary coolant; Avaliacao da integridade de varetas combustiveis em reatores PWR a partir da analise espectrometrica da agua do primario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Iara Arraes

    1999-02-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the transport of fission products, from the fuel rod to the coolant of a PWR reactor. To achieve this purpose, several steps were followed. Firstly, it was presented a description of the fuel elements and the main mechanisms of fuel rod failure, indicating the most important nuclides and their transport mechanisms. Secondly, taking both the kinetic and diffusion models for the transport of fission products as a basis, a simple analytical and semi-empirical model was developed. This model was also based on theoretical considerations and measurements of coolant's activity, according to internationally adopted methodologies. Several factors are considered in the modelling procedures: intrinsic factors to the reactor itself, factors which depend on the reactor's operational mode, isotope characteristic factors, and factors which depend on the type of rod failure. The model was applied for different reactor's operational parameters in the presence of failed rods. The main conclusions drawn from the analysis of the model's output are relative to the variation on the coolant's water activity with the fuel burnup, the linear operation power and the primary purification rate and to the different behaviour of iodine and noble gases. The model was saturated from a certain failure size and showed to be unable to distinguish between a single big fail and many small ones. (author)

  1. Calculation and analysis of environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from brazilian oil refinery; Calculo e analise dos custos ambientais da poluicao atmosferica emitida por uma refinaria de petroleo brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The present study presents a calculation of the environmental costs associated with the atmospheric pollution from a brazilian oil refinery and its analysis (the name of this oil refinery is confidential, for this reason it will not be mentioned). The calculation of the costs was based on a study of north-american researchers, about the environmental costs of five main atmospheric pollutants: particulate matter, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and carbon monoxide. The original American study offers an statistical analysis of several other American studies about environmental costs of atmospheric pollution, that present maximum, medium and minimum costs. Based on these values, the total environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from the brazilian oil refinery were calculated, considering a fifty year operational time for the facility. The internalization of the atmospheric pollution environmental costs by the refiners is aligned with the world tendency of enforcement of the environmental limitations faced by the oil refining sector, and therefore, the adoption of a pro-active attitude is recommended by the present study. (author)

  2. An environment integrated for identification, modeling, analysis, and control associated systems project to the power electric systems; Um ambiente integrado para identificacao, modelagem, analise e projeto de sistemas de controle associados a sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Lucas Thadeu Orihuela da

    1990-12-01

    An integrated environment which was developed to give support to the activities of identification, modeling, analysis and simulation of control systems of Electric Power Systems - EPS is presented. It is a computer program to be used in compatible IBM P C microcomputers. The program has two algorithms for systems identification: one for identification in the frequency domain and other to be used in the time domain. For the analysis, were implemented the algorithms of the frequency response and the root locus. One can simulate multivariable and nonlinear models. A set of auxiliary transformations is available to obtain the dynamic equation of the model declared for the simulation and to transform it in a transfer matrix. The hierarchical menus used for the selection of the program functions are presented and the dialogues and the others communication mechanisms with the user are described. The program in EPS's is demonstrated through the design of a Power System Stabilizer. The results obtained with the program are compared with the ones that were obtained in field tests. (author)

  3. Elementary analysis of Alternanthera Maritima and Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) by X-ray fluorescence; Analise elementar de Alternanthera Maritima e Blutaparon Portulacoides (Gomphreneae, Amaranthacear) por fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, M J; Dias, D A; Zucchi, O L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica; br, mjsalva@fcfrp usp; Nascimento Filho, V F [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The phytochemical study and the evaluation of biological activities of plants species have been intensified in the last years. The modernization of analytical equipment allowed significant progress in the natural products chemistry. Most of the plants researches emphasize the isolation of secondary metabolites and the metal analysis is neglected. In this study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts and the intact plant of Alternanthera maritima (aerial parts and roots) and Blutaparon portulacoides (aerial parts and roots), species commonly found on the beaches of eastern coast of Brazil (Restinga de Marica, RJ), were selected for analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). With the standard sample aid, the correlation between the elementary sensitivity and the atomic numbers of the elements was determined. The elements P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, As, Zn, Br, Sr, Sn and Sb, supported in membranes, were detected in the two analyzed plants, but only the elements in the interval 26 (Fe) {<=} Z {<=} 30 (Zn) were quantified with elementary concentration between 8,7 and 895,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1}. (author)

  4. An environment integrated for identification, modeling, analysis, and control associated systems project to the power electric systems; Um ambiente integrado para identificacao, modelagem, analise e projeto de sistemas de controle associados a sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Lucas Thadeu Orihuela da

    1990-12-01

    An integrated environment which was developed to give support to the activities of identification, modeling, analysis and simulation of control systems of Electric Power Systems - EPS is presented. It is a computer program to be used in compatible IBM P C microcomputers. The program has two algorithms for systems identification: one for identification in the frequency domain and other to be used in the time domain. For the analysis, were implemented the algorithms of the frequency response and the root locus. One can simulate multivariable and nonlinear models. A set of auxiliary transformations is available to obtain the dynamic equation of the model declared for the simulation and to transform it in a transfer matrix. The hierarchical menus used for the selection of the program functions are presented and the dialogues and the others communication mechanisms with the user are described. The program in EPS's is demonstrated through the design of a Power System Stabilizer. The results obtained with the program are compared with the ones that were obtained in field tests. (author)

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone cancer metastasis; Analise citogenetica do {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP em linfocitos perifericos de pacientes com cancer osseo matastatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.A. da; Suzuki, M.F.; Rogero, J.R.; Okazaki, K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, M.I.C.C.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine with promising results for the relief of metastatic pain. Therefore, there are few knowledge about the effects of {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP at cellular level. The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the cytogenetic effects of {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone metastasis (with and without previous radio and/or chemotherapy) by the chromosome aberration technique. For that, the blood samples were collected before and one hour after the endovenous administrations of {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP (mean activity of 42.53 {+-} 5.31 MBq/kg body weight), taking into account the rapid blood clearance. The principal types of structural chromosome aberrations found gaps and breaks, acentric fragments centric rings, double minutes and dicentrics. The statistical analysis showed that the group submitted to previous radio and chemotherapy before{sup 153} Sm-EDTMP administration showed significant difference in chromosome aberrations frequency one hour after the treatment. The analysis of the chromosome modal number and the kinetics of cellular cycle showed no statistical difference among the groups, suggesting that the treatment with {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP, did not influence these parameters. The obtained data showed that the therapy with {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP induced a few quantity of cytogenetic damages in peripheral lymphocytes one hour after its administration in patients, although, theoretically, a long term stochastic effect cannot be disregarded. (author)

  6. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  7. Analysis of the physico-chemical quality Enalapril and Simvastatin drugs manipulated in magistral pharmacies from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; Analise da qualidade fisico-quimica dos medicamentos Enalapril e Sinvastatina manipulados em farmacias magistrais de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tatiana Cristina Bomfim

    2013-07-01

    The increasing expansion of compounding pharmacy associated with several reports on variances in the quality of compounded drugs demonstrates the need for verification of quality, safety and efficacy of these products. In this work, physical and chemical analyzes were performed to evaluate the quality of some capsules manipulated enalapril and simvastatin, acquired in five pharmacies in Belo Horizonte /Brazil. Among the analyzes are pharmacopoeial tests for appearance, identification, determination of weight, content, related compounds and uniformity of dosage units, and was also performed neutron activation analysis for the determination of inorganic impurities in drugs sampled. The results showed that 60% of the samples were unsatisfactory for pharmacopoeial tests. The contents of the capsules sampled for individual testing unit dose uniformity between 0% and 136.2%. This test is important in evaluating the quality, which influences the safety and efficacy of drug treatment, since it allows you to check if the product contains the proper dosage and necessary for successful pharmacotherapy. On the other hand, underdosing can lead to reduced or absent desired therapeutic response, and overdoses can provide an undesirable effects and even toxic. The concentration of inorganic impurities was considered to be relatively small. However, no specific limits for some chemical elements in medicine hamper a better thread. In addition, further studies must be performed to assess chronic exposure to low concentrations of inorganic impurities, since drugs can be continuously used, and other sources of exposure must also be considered in order to evaluate the risk. The problems related to the quality and safety of compounded drugs are still reality in the country and reveal a serious public health problem, especially regarding the lack of uniformity between the unit doses of medications. It is suggested that the competent authorities to sanitary products, propose changes in

  8. Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

  9. Experimental energetic analysis of gas natural-powered fuel cell cogeneration plant; Analise energetica experimental de uma planta de co-geracao com celulas a combustivel e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose G.M.; Lopes, Francisco C.; Silva Junior, Fernando R.; Soares, Guilherme F.W.; Serra, Eduardo T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economy of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  10. Energetic-economical analysis of a stationary for energy generation with fuel cells and natural gas reforming; Analise energetico-economica de um sistema estacionario de geracao de energia com celulas a combustivel e reforma de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo; Silva Junior, Fernando Rodrigues; Silva, Cristiane Abrantes da; Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Lopes, Francisco da Costa; Serra, Eduardo Torres [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: furtado@cepel.br; Codeceira Neto, Alcides [Companhia HidroEletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economicity of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  11. Application of safety checklist to the analysis of the IEA-R1 reactor water retreatment system; Utilizacao do checklist de seguranca na analise do sistema de retratamento de agua do reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Maria Eugenia Lago Jacques; Sara Neto, Antonio Jorge; Lima, Toni Carlos Caboclo de; Ribeiro, Maria Alice Morato [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: melsauer@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In 1999, the management of the IEA-R1 Research Reactor (pool type - 5 MWth), located at IPEN/CNEN-SP, started the evaluation of the Reactor Pool Water Retreatment System to identify operational aspects, which could compromise the operators safety. The purpose was to identify and propose enhancements to the system which would be installed to substitute for the existing one. This process was conducted through a qualitative study of the system in operation. This study was carried out by a team composed of specialists in reactor operation, systems maintenance and radiological protection, and one safety analyst. The study consisted, basically, in local inspections to verify the physical and operational conditions of each equipment / component as well as aspects related to maintenance activities of the system. The process control and the operator procedures associated with the retreatment of the reactor pool water were also reviewed. The methodology adopted to develop the study was based in process hazard analysis technique named Safety Checklist. This paper presents a summary of this study and the main results obtained. Some operational and safety problems identified, the prevention and/or correction means to avoid them, and the recommendations and suggestions that have been implemented to the new design of the IEA-R1 Reactor Water Retreatment System, whose installation was concluded in 2003, are also presented. (author)

  12. Model of spatial analysis of electric power market using the Fuzzy C-Means technical classification; Modelo de analise espacial de mercado de energia eletrica utilizando a tecnica de classificacao Fuzzy C-Means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, J.C. [Companhia Energetica de Goias (CELG-D), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: joao.cn@celg.com.br; Lima, W.S. [Votorantim Siderurgia, Resende, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia Geral de Tecnologia], E-mail: wagner.lima@vmetais.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The power distribution companies live with an antagonistic reality: an increasing energy demand, due to steady economic and population growth, and a limitation on their financial resources to expand its network. Therefore, it is essential an improvement in activity of planning of the power distribution system trying to improve the application of available resources. In this context fits the application of Geographic Information System combined with clustering techniques and classification in order to enhance the planning process, giving the planner a more complete picture of the consumer market by the distributor. This paper presents a system that makes use of Geographic Information System combined with the technique of clustering and classification Fuzzy C-Means, with the aim of analyzing the distribution of network load and the performance of the technique. Each group performed leads to a spatial representation (scenario). This, together with an index measuring the performance of the group (intra-group and inter-group) implemented in this work, provides a favorable environment for spatial analysis of the electric power market.

  13. Social-environmental fragility analysis for diagnosis of watershed in study of hydroelectric projects; Analise de fragilidade socioambiental para o diagnostico de bacias hidrograficas no estudo de empreendimentos hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Jonas Fernandes; Dzedzej, Maira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Samuel Torres de; Flauzino, Barbara [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba, (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the social-environmental fragility of a watershed where there is potential for installation of hydropower projects. The method includes dividing the watershed into sub areas (by analysis of similar characteristics) and, subsequently, the use of 23 indicators grouped into six social-environmental components (Water Resources and Aquatic Ecosystems, Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Physical Environment, Territorial Organization, Way of Life, Economic Base and Indigenous Communities and Traditional Populations), which together seek to portray all aspects involved in the fragility of the area. The technique was applied in the basin of the Coxim river in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, assuming that there is interest or the possibility of installing hydropower plants within its boundaries. The basin was divided into three sub areas, considering physical parameters (such as topography, rainfall and hydrology), which were ranked by calculating the fragility of each one of the social-environmental indicators. As a result, a map was created to indicate the sub areas more susceptible to damage and those which should be more resistant to the installation of impacting activities, such as hydropower plants. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the work of a multidisciplinary team can reduce the degree of subjectivity of the methodology and allow, (by modifying some considerations inherent in the partial calculations,) its application in other situations where the possibility of installing hydropower projects is not considered. (author)

  14. Statistical analysis of natural radiation levels inside the UNICAMP campus through the use of Geiger-Muller counter; Analise estatistica dos niveis de radiacao natural dentro da UNICAMP atraves do uso de contador Geiger-Muller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontolan, Juliana A.; Biral, Antonio Renato P., E-mail: fontolanjuliana@gmail.com.br, E-mail: biral@ceb.unicamp.br [Hospital das Clinicas (CEB/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Biomedica

    2013-07-01

    It is known that the distribution at time intervals of random and unrelated events leads to the Poisson distribution . This work aims to study the distribution in time intervals of events resulting from radioactive decay of atoms present in the UNICAMP where activities involving the use of ionizing radiation are performed environments . The proposal is that the distribution surveys at intervals of these events in different locations of the university are carried out through the use of a Geiger-Mueller tube . In a next step , the evaluation of distributions obtained by using non- parametric statistics (Chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff) will be taken . For analyzes involving correlations we intend to use the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical tool . Measured in six different places within the Campinas , with the use of Geiger- Muller its count mode and a time window of 20 seconds was performed . Through statistical tools chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff tests, using the EXCEL program , it was observed that the distributions actually refer to a Poisson distribution. Finally, the next step is to perform analyzes involving correlations using the statistical tool ANOVA.

  15. Thermoluminescent analysis of CaSO{sub 4} composites activated with rare earths; Analise termoluminescente de compositos de CaSO{sub 4} ativado com terras raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junot, D.O.; Chagas, M.A.P.; Souza, D.N., E-mail: danilo.junot@hotmail.com, E-mail: mchagasfisica@gmail.com, E-mail: divanizi@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Since the thermoluminescence started to be applied to the dosimetry of ionizing radiation in 1940 different materials detectors have been proposed, and one of the most common is CaSO{sub 4}. The motivation of this work was to produce crystals of CaSO{sub 4} doped with rare earth elements such as europium (Eu), neodymium (Nd) and thulium (Tm). It was also produced crystals of CaSO{sub 4}:Ag. The interest in the production of these materials was to investigate other methods of production of thermoluminescent materials. The results show that the CaSO{sub 4}:Tm is more suitable for use in the thermoluminescent dosimetry. Although not the most intense peak, the peak at 170 °C could be a dosimetric peak. Analyses showed that all samples have a TL response proportional to the dose absorbed. (author)

  16. Construction of scientific production indicators based on scientometrics analysis of IPEN dissertations and theses; Elaboracao de indicadores de producao cientifica com base na analise cientometrica das dissertacoes e teses do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igami, Mery Piedad Zamudio

    2011-07-01

    Construction of Indicators plays an important role in the contemporaneous society. It could be observed their ordinary use by all the activities segments. In scientific area it is not different; such practice has already been consolidated; this statement could be corroborated by the innumerous papers published about this matter in the main databases; however, there is a prevalence of quantitative studies, which obtain data from the international databases, analyzing journal articles. Concerning this finding, the main objective of this study was to elaborate scientific indicators from a local institutional data base, using as a corpus of the study the dissertations and theses, produced by a graduate program in the period of 1977 to 2009.Three types of two-dimensional indicators were obtained by using bibliometric techniques: numerical, thematic and productivity. For dissertations and theses thematic characterization it was used the Subject categories and scope descriptions and the International Nuclear Information System Thesaurus (INIS). Through the statistical technique of clustering analysis, it was possible to classify them in five main groups, showing former performance and growth future trends of each group; for data extraction about theses productivity, regarding articles published; the Curriculo Lattes, and the local institutional database were used. Co-word analysis technique was used to establish a more precise correlation, between articles and theses, and for this purpose it was used the keywords from a controlled vocabulary. In order to validate the results, it was performed a survey, with the theses authors. Results obtained indicated that 55.9% of the articles published, between 5 years, before and after the thesis presentation, are strongly correlated to it. It was also observed that, correlated articles have been published, in an average of, 1, 63 year before the thesis presentation. Concerning databases, it was shown that they are valuable tools and

  17. Activation analysis in water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Toth, A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential applications of activation analysis in water chemistry are discussed. The principle, unit operations, the radiation sources and measuring instruments of activation analysis are described. The sensitivity of activation analysis is given in tabulated form for some elements of major importance in water chemistry and the elements readily accessible to determination by measurement of the spontaneous gamma radiation are listed. A few papers selected from the recent international professional literature are finally reviewed, in which the authors report on the results obtained by activation analysis applied to water chemistry. (author)

  18. Evaluation of internal occupational exposure of workers from nuclear medicine services by aerosol analysis containing {sup 131}I; Avaliacao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em servicos de medicina nuclear atraves da analise de aerossois contendo {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao, E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Paula, Gustavo Affonso de [Escola SESC de Ensino Medio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the risk of internal occupational exposure associated with the incorporation of {sup 131}I via inhalation, in Nuclear Medicine Services, using aerosol analysis techniques. Occupationally Exposed Individuals (IOE) involved in handling this radionuclide are subject to chronic exposure, which can lead to an increase in the committed effective dose. Results obtained in preliminary studies indicate the occurrence of incorporation of {sup 131}I by workers involved in handling solutions for radioiodine therapy procedures. The evaluation was carried out in radiopharmacy lab (nuclear medicine service) of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After confirmed the presence of the radioisotope, by a qualitative assessment, it was determined an experimental arrangement for sample collection and were detected and quantitated the presence of steam {sup 131}I during routine work. The average concentration of activity obtained in this study was 3 Bq / m{sup 3}. This value is below of Derived Concentration in Air (DCA) of 8.4 x 10{sup 3} Bq of {sup 131}I / m{sup 3} corresponding to a committed effective dose of 1.76 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These results demonstrate that the studied area is safe in terms of internal exposure of workers. However, the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically reevaluated, since this type of exposure contributes to the increase of the individual effective doses. Based on the data obtained improvements were suggested in the exhaust system and the use of good work practices in order to optimize the exposures.

  19. Blood concentrations of ions and metals in amateur and elite runners using neutron activation analyses; Concentracoes de ions e metais em sangue de atletas amadores e de elite usando analise por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Luciana Kovacs dos

    2012-07-01

    In this study Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, I, K, Mg, Na, S and Zn concentration were investigated in blood of Brazilian athletes (endurance) using Neutron Activation Analyses technique (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male amateur athletes (AR) and male and female elite athletes (ER), ranging from 18 to 36 year old. The blood samples were collected at the LABEX/UNICAMP and they were irradiated in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The range (at rest) established for AR and ER were compared with the control group (CG), subjects of same gender and age but not involved with physical activities, and showed significant differences for Ca (51 - 439 mgL{sup -1} for CG, 162 - 410 mgL{sup -1} for AR and 64 - 152 mgL{sup -1} for ER) and Br (7.4 - 30.6 mgL{sup -1} for CG, 4.0 - 9.6 mgL{sup -1} for AR and 1.9 - 3.5 mgL{sup -1} for ER), suggesting that a strong dependency of these limits in function of adopted physical training exists. We also performed a systematic investigation for the AR before, during and after the exercise program. These data can be considered for the preparation of a balanced diet, for evaluating the performance of the athletes during the period of competition preparation as well as contributing for proposing new protocols of clinical evaluation not reported in the literature yet. (author)

  20. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment; Analise ambiental da celula a combustivel de membrana trocadora de protons sob o enfoque da avaliacao do ciclo de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi

    2006-07-01

    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and

  1. APLICAÇÃO DO METODO DE ANÁLISE HIERARQUICA (MAH NA ANALISE E AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS DOS SISTEMAS DE TRANSPORTES URBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Mouette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo de impacto ambiental envolve uma grande quantidade de critérios e parâmetros, sendo necessário o trabalho conjunto de uma equipe multidisciplinar. A complexidade dos impactos decorrentes dos sistemas de transporte urbanos que possuem características e magnitudes muito diferentes, somada a não obrigatoriedade do estudo, fizeram com que poucos estudos fossem efetuados e tornou evidente a necessidade de metodologias de avaliação dos mesmos. Este estudo aborda a utilização do Método de Analise Hierárquica, um procedimento multicriterial na analise e avaliação dos impactos ambientais dos sistemas de transportes urbanos.

    ABSTRACT

    The study of environmental impacts involves a large amount of criteria and parameters being necessary to work with a multisciplinary team. The impacts due to urban transportation are very complex having different characteristics and magnitude, besides that, in Brazil, these studies are not obliged by law. These facts leads to few studies of the environmental impacts and evidences the necessity of developing methodologies which makes possible the impact's evaluation. This study refers to the utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process, a multicriteria procedure in the evaluation and analysis of environmental impacts in urban transportation.

  2. Validation of quantitative {sup 1}H NMR method for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations; Validacao de metodo quantitativo por RMN de {sup 1}H para analises de formulacoes farmaceuticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maiara da S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Colnago, Luiz Alberto, E-mail: luiz.colnago@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    The need for effective and reliable quality control in products from pharmaceutical industries renders the analyses of their active ingredients and constituents of great importance. This study presents the theoretical basis of Superscript-One H NMR for quantitative analyses and an example of the method validation according to Resolution RE N. 899 by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), in which the compound paracetamol was the active ingredient. All evaluated parameters (selectivity, linearity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness) showed satisfactory results. It was concluded that a single NMR measurement provides structural and quantitative information of active components and excipients in the sample. (author)

  3. ANALISIS METODOLÓGICO PARA LA MODELACIÓN DE LA SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA A NIVEL NACIONAL ANALISE METODOLÓGICO PARA A MODELAÇÃO DE A SEGURIDADE ALIMENTAR A NÍVEL NACIONAL METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS TO MODELING FOOD SECURITY FROM A NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA P GIRALDO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La comunidad científica y política ha incrementado el interés por entender e intervenir el problema de seguridad alimentaria, especialmente desde la crisis alimentaria en la década de los 70's. Diferentes estrategias metodológicas han sido utilizadas con el ánimo de proyectar, predecir y evaluar políticas como soporte para la toma de decisiones en el sector público. Este artículo explora un conjunto de metodologías usadas para el estudio de la seguridad alimentaria a nivel nacional, herramientas estratégicas para una apropiada formulación, evaluación y aplicación de políticas. Se discute el potencial uso de metodologías complementarias al análisis tradicional, especialmente la Dinámica de Sistemas, como una herramienta de simulación que permite el análisis de relaciones causales, el establecimiento de variables críticas y la evaluación de escenarios a favor de una efectiva toma de decisionesA comunidade científica e política hão acrescentado o interesse por entender e intervir o problema de seguridade alimentar, especialmente, desde a crise alimentar na década dos 70's. Diferentes estratégias metodológicas hão sido utilizadas com o interesse de projetar, predizer e avaliar políticas como suportes para a toma de decisões no setor público. Este artigo explora um conjunto de metodologias empregadas no estudo da seguridade alimentar a nível nacional, ferramentas estratégicas para uma apropriada formulação, avaliação e aplicação de políticas. Discutese o potencial uso de metodologias complementárias à análise tradicional, especialmente a Dinâmica de Sistemas, como ferramentas de simulação que permite a analise de relações causais, o estabelecimento de variáveis críticas e a avaliação de cenários a favor de uma toma de decisõesThe scientific and politic community has had increasing concerns for strategic understanding and intervention of the food security problem, especially since the 70's food

  4. Métodos de analise dos danos da lagarta da espiga¹, em médias de gerações envolvendo IAC Maya e Zapalote Chico Method for analysis of damage of the corn earworm heliothis zea in generation means from IAC Maya and Zapalote Chico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    1982-01-01

    utilizing the revised scale described by WIDSTROM (27. The data obtained was analised by two different ways. The grades were distributed at first in two different classes: grades 0 and 1 and grades > 2. The grades were afterwards distributed in the following two classes: grades 0 and grades > 1. The chi-square test was applied to verify which of the two types of classes adjusts better with their respective expected ratios. The results showed that when the grades were divided in the classes 0+1 and > 2 the data were more uniform within each treatment. The analysis of variance for each damage class separately, presented F values highly significant for the classes zero and zero plus one, whereas for the classes > 1 and > 2 the damage averages were very similar and the F values were not significant. The class zero plus one had F value higher and the coefficient of variation smaller than the class zero. The ZC 2451 corn compared to the variety IAC Maya XII, exibited good resistance to the corn earworm, under the field conditions of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This resistance is of the type non preference and or antibiosis, because there was a higher percentage of ears of ZC 2451 free of earworm damage.

  5. Analysis of static safety of power systems: a study about contingencies selection criteria in the reactive subproblem; Analise de seguranca estatica de sistemas de potencia: um estudo sobre criterios de selecao de contingencias no subproblema reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos

    1993-12-01

    The main objective of static safety's analysis in power systems is the determination of the level of gravity of the different contingencies that can occur in a system. Habitually, static safety's analysis is divided in two parts: selection and analysis of contingencies. In this work, they are studied several criteria of selection of applicable contingencies to the sub-problem reactive and are introduced comparisons among results provided by different criteria. They are also studied several forms of evaluation of the impact caused by contingencies on the power systems reactive profile.

  6. Analysis of static safety of power systems: a study about contingencies selection criteria in the reactive subproblem; Analise de seguranca estatica de sistemas de potencia: um estudo sobre criterios de selecao de contingencias no subproblema reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos

    1993-12-01

    The main objective of static safety's analysis in power systems is the determination of the level of gravity of the different contingencies that can occur in a system. Habitually, static safety's analysis is divided in two parts: selection and analysis of contingencies. In this work, they are studied several criteria of selection of applicable contingencies to the sub-problem reactive and are introduced comparisons among results provided by different criteria. They are also studied several forms of evaluation of the impact caused by contingencies on the power systems reactive profile.

  7. NEPHRUS: model of intelligent multilayers expert system for evaluation of the renal system based on scintigraphic images analysis; NEPRUS: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose W.E. da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Boasquevisque, Edson M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1997-10-01

    This work develops a prototype for the system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to scintigraphic image analysis of the urinary system. Criteria used by medical experts for analysis images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and/or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a multi resolution diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given to the programs user interface design. Human Factor Engineering techniques were considered so as to ally friendliness and robustness. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for the qualitative image analysis and the knowledge model constructed shows the feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that use `inherent` abilities of each technique in the resolution of diagnosis image analysis problems. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Impact of inclusion of synchrophasor measuring in estimation of states and generalized observability analysis; Impacto da inclusao de medicao sincrofasorial na estimacao de estados e na analise de observabilidade generalizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krefta, Gilmar Francisco [Compania Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Protecao de Sistemas Eletricos], E-mail: gilmar.krefta@copel.com; Lourenco, Elizete Maria [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: elizete@eletrica.ufpr.br

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to establish elements, data and criteria for defining a grid for assessing the inclusion of the measurement synchrophasor in state estimation of electric power systems and the analysis of topological observability.

  9. Volume totalizers analysis of pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO National Operational Control Center; Analise de totalizadores de volume em oleodutos operados pelo Centro Nacional de Controle e Operacao da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Thiago Lessa; Montalvao, Antonio Filipe Falcao [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Thais Carrijo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to present the results and methodology in the analysis of differences in volume totals used in systems such as batch tracking and leak detection of pipelines operated by the National Center for Operational Control (CNCO) at TRANSPETRO. In order to optimize this type of analysis, software was developed to acquisition and processing of historical data using the methodology developed. The methodology developed takes into account the particularities encountered in systems operated by TRANSPETRO, more specifically, by CNCO. (author)

  10. Small disturbances stability analysis applied in a radial distribution system with distributed generation units; Analise de estabilidade a pequenos disturbios aplicada em um sistema de distribuicao radial com unidades de geracao distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca, Daniel Azevedo; Camacho, Jose Roberto [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Eletrica

    2008-07-01

    This work investigates the small-disturbance stability of a 30 bus radial distribution system with distributed generation units. This work is realized through the time domain simulations and through the eigenvalue analysis and participation factors. The eigenvalue analysis show that is possible to predict a possible system instability face to a disturbance. The development of this work was stimulated by the increasing of the distributed generation units in the distribution networks. (author)

  11. Application of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.

    2001-01-01

    The physical basis and analytical possibilities of neutron activation analysis have been performed. The number of applications in material engineering, geology, cosmology, oncology, criminology, biology, agriculture, environment protection, archaeology, history of art and especially in chemical analysis have been presented. The place of the method among other methods of inorganic quantitative chemical analysis for trace elements determination has been discussed

  12. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  13. Nephrus: expert system model in intelligent multilayers for evaluation of urinary system based on scintigraphic image analysis; Nephrus: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes [Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Renal function can be measured noninvasively with radionuclides in a extremely safe way compared to other diagnosis techniques. Nevertheless, due to the fact that radioactive materials are used in this procedure, it is necessary to maximize its benefits, therefore all efforts are justifiable in the development of data analysis support tools for this diagnosis modality. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype for a system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to cintilographic image analysis of the urinary system. Rules used by medical experts in the analysis of images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and /or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a Neural Network diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given for designing programs user-interface. Human Factor Engineering techniques were taking in account allowing friendliness and robustness. The image segmentation adopts a model based on Ideal ROIs, which represent the normal anatomic concept for urinary system organs. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show the feasibility of Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that uses inherent abilities of each technique in the medical diagnosis image analysis. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of Portland cement from X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis; Avaliacao de cimento Portland a partir da difracao de raios X associada a analise por agrupamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobbo, Luciano de Andrade, E-mail: luciano.gobbo@panalytical.com [Panalytical Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Tarcisio Jose, E-mail: tarcisio.montanheiro@gmail.com [Instituto Geologico, Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Filipe, E-mail: flpmontanheiro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LEBAC/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia Aplicada. Lab. de Estudos de Bacias; Sant' Agostino, Lilia Mascarenhas, E-mail: agostino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2013-12-15

    The Brazilian cement industry produced 64 million tons of cement in 2012, with noteworthy contribution of CP-II (slag), CP-III (blast furnace) and CP-IV (pozzolanic) cements. The industrial pole comprises about 80 factories that utilize raw materials of different origins and chemical compositions that require enhanced analytical technologies to optimize production in order to gain space in the growing consumer market in Brazil. This paper assesses the sensitivity of mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis to distinguish different kinds of cements with different additions. This technique can be applied, for example, in the prospection of different types of limestone (calcitic, dolomitic and siliceous) as well as in the qualification of different clinkers. The cluster analysis does not require any specific knowledge of the mineralogical composition of the diffractograms to be clustered; rather, it is based on their similarity. The materials tested for addition have different origins: fly ashes from different power stations from South Brazil and slag from different steel plants in the Southeast. Cement with different additions of limestone and white Portland cement were also used. The Rietveld method of qualitative and quantitative analysis was used for measuring the results generated by the cluster analysis technique. (author)

  15. Activation analysis in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The collected papers are based on the materials of the III All-Union Activation Analysis Meeting. The papers selected deal with the theoretical questions of the activation analysis, its hardware, latest developments in the field of automatic analysis and computer methods employment in the treatment of analytical information. Described are the new techniques for determination of a large number of elements in samples of biological and geological origin. Some results of the use of the activation analysis in various fields of science and technology are provided. The volume reflects the present status of activation analysis techniques in the USSR and might be of interest both for specialists, and for those involved in obtaining and using information on the composition of substances. (auth.)

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of mechanical behaviour in the elastic region of blends of recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) and recycled polyolefins; Analise termodinamica do comportamento mecanico na regiao elastica de blendas de poli (tereftalato de etileno) reciclado e poliolefinas recicladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, Jose M. [Universidade Federal do Parana Univ. (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento; Ruvolo Filho, Adhemar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: adhemar@power.ufscar.br

    2006-10-15

    This work describes the study using mechanical tests with the blend of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and recycled polyolefin with and without the addition of polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride and poly(ethylene-co-octene-1). A thermodynamic approach based on the Helmholtz work function was applied in the analysis of mechanical tests, correlating the effects of energy storage and from the compatibilizer on the elastic region of the materials. For the system studied, the polyolefin-rich region shows higher storage of elastic energy corroborating the morphology images obtained from SEM analysis. The thermodynamic analysis seems a useful tool to evaluate the compatibilizer effect in polymeric immiscible blends. In this work, more specifically, this method was used to analyze the mechanical behavior of different compositions of recycled polymeric commodity materials. (author)

  17. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis; Analise da confiabilidade do sistema de suprimento de energia eletrica de emergencia de um reator nuclear de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  18. Analysis of the offshore installations regulations 2005 (SCR05r12) within Brazilian reality; Analise da regulacao das instalacoes offshore 2005 (SCR05r12) dentro da realidade brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalvarte, Gladys; Storch, Rafael; Araujo, Pedro; Oliveira, Luiz Fernando [Det Norske Veritas (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The main motivation for the present study is the modifications presented in the guidance Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (SCR05 r12), released by HSE, in relation to the Offshore Installation Regulation 1992, SCR92. A critical analysis of the new regulation issued by HSE is developed and conclusions are obtained. A cost-benefit approach applied to the Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA), using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques, is suggested. Thereby, a method to identify the mitigation measures that most reduces the risks with the minimum cost is obtained. On the other hand, this new QRA approach combined with a cost benefit analysis is intended to have a total cost diminished. In this case, the cost of the new QRA study is dependant on the number of reevaluations needed to determine the mitigation measures to be applied. (author)

  19. Risk analysis and management of pipeline systems - the TRANSPETRO's experience in Sao Paulo and Brazil's Mid-West; Analise e gerenciamento de riscos de sistemas de dutos - a experiencia da TRANSPETRO em Sao Paulo e no Centro Oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risk Analysis is an important instrument on risk management and emergency control. TRANSPETRO has a long pipeline network to transport oil and by-products in Sao Paulo State and Brazil Midwest. The beginning of the elaboration of Risk Analysis in TRANSPETRO was in 1987 and extended continually until 2000. Since 2001, with the Excellence Program on Environmental and Operational Safety Management, a review of Risk Analysis has been done on all pipeline's system. This work presents the experience acquired, the main difficulties, the solutions adopted, the results about individual and social risks, the main risk management actions and the evolution of the studies during the last fifteen years pointing out the technical development of the TRANSPETRO, the environment agency and the consultant companies. (author)

  20. The use of risk analysis as a tool for land use policies in near pipe lanes areas; Utilizacao da analise de riscos para definicao de politicas de uso de ocupacao do solo em areas proximas a faixa de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Anna Leticia; Simplicio, Dayse Maria [EIDOS do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    It is estimated that among the several failure causes in pipelines, only 23 % of them are associated to excavation (tertiary activity) for both gas and oil pipelines. It is probable that factors like growth of the population, urbanization and development of activities next to the transmission ducts, increase the probability of damages due to human being activities, and consequently in parallel they also increases the risks for the population. Thus, it is necessary to incorporate some procedures of soil use (planning, zoning and delimitation) in the risk management activity of these installations. In the United States and Europe for instance some governmental guidelines have being developed and applied to establish suitable procedures for the soil use in the context of risks associated with great accidents. In Brazil this subject won highlight starting from the publication of the law 10.932/04 of 04/08/2004 which has altered the article 4 of the law 6766, of 19/11/1979 which regulates the urban soil division. It also assigns to the organisms of environmental licensing the responsibility of defining the zones along of which no constructions are permitted, such as electrical transmission lines, ducts and railroads domain zones. This publication aims to revise the methodologies and practices existing in the world and to compare the efforts and benefits of their implementations.

  1. Methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel in the resale market of fuels; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e BiocombustIveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at the constitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  2. Methodology of analysis of economic indicia of cartel in the resale retail of the fuel sector; Metodologia de analise de indicios economicos de cartel no segmento de revenda varejista de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cleber Ribeiro da Silva [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ramos, Maria Olivia [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The existence of anti competitive conduct such as cartels would lead to a situation of high prices and profits harming competition and society in general. The methodology of economic analysis of evidence of cartel by the ANP in the resale market of fuels involves analysis of the behavior of the average prices of resale and distribution, the nominal average gross margin on resale, the coefficient of variation of prices of resale and distribution of fuel for a given period by the municipality. Combining the analysis of these elements, the ANP has suggested the investigation into possible cartels. This text aims to bring contributions for a better definition of the relevant market in the analysis of economic evidence in cartel in the market for resale of fuel and add elements currently not considered in the analysis of ANP and regulation of the sector. To this end, this article is organized into three sections besides the introduction and final consideration. The first section takes place at deconstitution some myths about cartels thread reseller retailer of automotive fuel by analyzing the main causes leading to complaints by consumers. Then presents a conceptual analysis of relevant market, since this definition is essential to characterize anti-competitive practices of operations performed by companies holding market power, notably the formation of cartels. Finally, it is a discussion on how the action of the main bodies involved in dismantling of anti competitive practices in the industry. Expected to find results that work with greater integration between agencies to safeguard competition and better defining the relevant market segment for the resale of fuel. (author)

  3. Cogeneration with gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system: a computer program for exergy economics analysis; Cogeracao com turbina a gas associada ao sistema de refrigeracao por absorcao: um programa computacional para analise exergoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Julio Santana [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Matematica] E-mail: santana@feg.unesp.br; Silveira, Jose Luz; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer program for exergy and economic analysis of cogeneration systems applying gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system. The computer program selects gas turbine systems viewing the operation under thermal parity through a data base composed by gas turbines commercially available in the market, under the ISO (International Standard Organization). The computer program corrects the system performance parameters selected for the installation local conditions. The exergy and economic analysis are made based on the lowest exergy manufacturing cost where the best system is considered. A case study of the computer program application is presented.

  4. Feasibility analysis of installing a natural gas cogeneration system in a slaughterhouse; Analise da viabilidade da implantacao de um sistema de cogeracao de energia a gas natural em um frigorifico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Alessandro Tomio; Dib, Fernando Henrique; Campitelli, Flavio Moreti; Romao Junior, Ricardo Agudo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], Email: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work the analysis of the viability of implantation of a natural gas cogeneration system in a bovine slaughterhouse is carried out. Among the studied configurations there are the current plant and the modified plant that allow the use of natural gas. For evaluation of the performance, energetic and exegetic analyses for each one of the configurations are carried out. It's also accomplished a thermo economic analysis that makes possible to evaluate the reflexes of the investment and combustible on the composition of the cost of products. (author)

  5. Use of X-ray fluorescence with energy dispersion, and the total reflexions in the analysis of environmental samples; Uso da fluorescencia de raios X com dispersao de energia e da reflexao total na analise de amostras ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simabuco, Silvana Moreira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This communication reports the present status of the research on the use of wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence and radioisotopic excitation for quantitative analysis of environmental samples. Simultaneous instrumental determination of various element concentration have been performed, particularly Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Zr and Nb existent in soils with different textures. Also, quantitative analysis has been performed on sediment samples, based on the fundamental parameters for quantification of Z >= 13 elements, and the coherent and incoherent scattered excitation radiation for quantification of the matrix (Z < 13) light fraction 16 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Specification of a system for planning and analysis of independent generator connection impact on the electric distribution system; Especificacao de um sistema de planeamento e analise do impacto da conexao de geradores independentes no sistema electrico da distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proenca, Luis Miguel; Matos, Manuel Antonio [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal); Campos, Manuel Luis Borges [Centro para a Excelencia na Distribuicao (CED), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a system for planning and analysis of the independent generator connection impact on the electric distribution system. This system is being developed under a contract signed between the Center for Excellency in the Distribution (CED), state of Sao Paulo - Brazil and the INESC, Porto - Portugal - energy unit.

  7. Real time stagger of electric network advanced analysis functions of a modern control center; Escalonamento em tempo real das funcoes avancadas de analise de rede eletrica de um moderno centro de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagari, Eduardo Nicola Ferraz

    1996-02-01

    This work presents two models for implementation of staggers for network analysis functions in real time for a control center. The methodology is described. Tests were performed in a electric power system of Campinas region, Sao Paulo sate - Southeast Brazil. Results are presented.

  8. Study on the relationship between water exergy and enthalpy applicable to the energetic analysis of steam thermodynamic cycles; Estudo da relacao entre exergia e entalpia da agua, aplicavel a analise energetica e exergetica de ciclos termodinamicos a vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llagostera, Jorge [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: llagost@fem.unicamp.br

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a thermodynamic relation, defined to improve methodologies in Second Law Analysis of thermal systems. This relation is defined dividing the specific thermomechanical exergy by the specific enthalpy of a substance, adopting as reference a selected thermodynamic state. This relation is determined and analyzed for liquid water and steam in a range of temperatures (30 deg C - 700 deg C) and pressures (0.101325 MPa - 18.1 Mpa). The behavior of the proposed relation is compared against the exergy behavior as function of temperature and pressure. The proposed relation can be used to compare and evaluate thermodynamic states that have similar exergy content. It makes possible to identify the states presenting higher exergetic level per enthalpy unit. This concept can be useful in thermodynamic analysis and optimization of steam cycles and thermal processes. (author)

  9. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars; Analise da viabilidade de utilizacao da cinza do bagaco de cana-de-acucar como adicao mineral em argamassas cimenticias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A., E-mail: jvfazzan@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Departamento de Fisica e Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  10. A pre-analysis for the optimal operational scheduling of a pipeline network; Uma pre-analise do problema de otimizacao da programacao das operacoes de uma malha dutoviaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Daniel I.; Brondani, William M.; Arantes, Lucas G.; Boschetto, Suelen N.; Lueders, Ricardo; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work suggests a Pre-analysis in the input parameters of an optimization system (Bonacin et al., 2007; Boschetto et al., 2008). The proposed method is based on programming techniques that use lists of objects threaded, where objects are elements belonging to the same class, according to the concept of the object-oriented programming. The Preanalysis makes a previous evaluation of a batch sequencing, getting information to be entered into an optimization block. The continuous time Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model gets such information and determines the scheduling. The models are applied on a pipeline network that connects different areas including refineries, terminals, and final clients. Many oil derivatives (e.g. gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha) can be sent or received in this network. The Pre-analysis objective is to reduce the computational time of an MILP model, and the proposed approach can aid the decision-making process to obtain a more detailed scheduling. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the mineralogical characterization of several smectite clay deposits of the state of Paraiba, Brazil using statistical analysis of variance; Avaliacao da caracterizacao mineralogica de diversos depositos de argilas esmectiticas do estado da Paraiba utilizando analise estatistica de variancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, A.J.A.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Brito, A.L.F. de, E-mail: agama@reitoria.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Currently over 80% of industrialized bentonite clay produced in Brazil in sodium form for use in various industrial applications come from the deposits in Boa Vista - PB. Recently they were discovered new bentonite deposits situated in the municipalities of Cubati - PB, Drawn Stone - PB, Sossego - PB, and last in olive groves - PB, requiring systematic studies to develop all its industrial potential. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate chemical characterization several deposits of smectite clays from various regions of the state of Paraíba through the analysis of statistical variance. Chemical analysis form determined by fluorescence x-ray (EDX). Then analyzes were carried out of variance statistics and Tukey test using the statistical soft MINITAB® 17.0. The results showed that the chemical composition of bentonite clay of new deposits showed different amounts of silica, aluminum, magnesium and calcium in relation clays in Boa Vista, and clays imported. (author)

  12. Thermoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of a sugarcane plant that produces surplus bagasse for commercialization; Analise termodinamica e termoeconomica de uma usina sucroalcooleira que produz excedente de bagaco para comercializacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchoa, Thales Brandao; Beneduzzi, Anderson Henrique; Mashiba, Marcos Hideo da Silva; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of a cogeneration plant of a sugarcane industry of Sao Paulo State (Iracema) that privileges the commercialization of the bagasse surplus because it is located in a region where the consume of bagasse by the local industries is intense. Th e plant is composed by five boilers that produce 470 ton/h of steam at pressure of 2,2 MPa and temperature of 300 deg C and back-pressure turbines of simple stage for energy generation and for driving the millings, cutters, shredders, pumps and exhaust fans. Part of the steam generated is also utilized to supply consume of an associated company (OMTEK) that it produces acid ribonucleic and the bagasse excess is commercialized. For this, a thermodynamic study is made, as well as a detailed analysis of the technical and economical viability, determining some performance indexes, the global efficiencies, as well as the costs of production of electric and thermal energy. (author)

  13. Analysis methodology of power generation/cogeneration designs in VNG (Vehicular Natural Gas) stations; Metodologia de analise de projetos de geracao/cogeracao em postos GNV (Gas Natural Veicular)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Rafael Reami [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the methodology for analysis of generation/cogeneration projects in NGV filling stations, determining the influence of critical parameters in its technical-economic viability. To achieve this methodology, it was necessary to define parameters that influence directly or indirectly the size of a generating system, as the total electric demand of the filling station, ratio (power of the compressor) / (total installed power), load factor, factor of simultaneity, technical data of major equipment, among others. The methodology has been validated by comparing with data measured in a NGV filling station and allows screening and identifying customers with technical feasibility to evolve in a generation or cogeneration project. The cogeneration with NG generators was highlighted during the analysis of the NGV filling stations and was feasible for establishments which have large thermal demand, as filling stations along the road with large amounts of electric showers in changing rooms. (author)

  14. Implementation of the robustness analysis methodology for decenal planning in the expansion of electric sector; Aplicacao da metodologia de analise de robustez ao planejamento decenal de expansao do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata de Azevedo Moreira da

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this dissertation is to develop an application from one of the techniques of 'soft' operational research, the Robustness Analysis, to the problem of decision making under uncertainty, as part of the planning of the electricity expansion planning process in Brazil. Initially are shown desirable characteristics of a methodology that will complement the traditional methods used in determining the expansion of the sector. Departing from the Decenal Plan for Power Expansion (2007/2016), an analysis of the different trends that can occur during the planning process is presented, so as to facilitate the visualization of the consequences of uncertainties that may change the schedule of the planned expansion and also help the interaction between actors working in the expansion planning of electricity generation. (author)

  15. A human reliability analysis of the Three Mile power plant accident considering the THERP and ATHEANA methodologies; Uma analise da confiabilidade humana do acidente na Usina de Three Mile Island II considerando as metodologias Therp e Atheana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2004-03-15

    The main purpose of this work is the study of human reliability using the THERP (Technique for Human Error Prediction) and ATHEANA methods (A Technique for Human Error Analysis), and some tables and also, from case studies presented on the THERP Handbook to develop a qualitative and quantitative study of nuclear power plant accident. This accident occurred in the TMI (Three Mile Island Unit 2) power plant, PWR type plant, on March 28th, 1979. The accident analysis has revealed a series of incorrect actions, which resulted in the Unit 2 shut down and permanent loss of the reactor. This study also aims at enhancing the understanding of the THERP method and ATHEANA, and of its practical applications. In addition, it is possible to understand the influence of plant operational status on human failures and of these on equipment of a system, in this case, a nuclear power plant. (author)

  16. Structural characterization and photocatalytic analysis of BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtained at low temperatures; Caracterizacao estrutural e analise fotocatalitica de BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtido via sintese por combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Dalt, S.; Sousa, B.B.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: silvana.da.dalt@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos

    2010-07-01

    Barium monoferrite BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} classified as permanent magnet stands out among other ceramic magnets due to its high chemical stability, corrosion resistance and low production cost. In addition, experiments conducted on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and UV transmittance by spectrophotometry showed that this material has photocatalytic properties. The spinel ferrite has importance in many technological areas as computing, communication and security. Many techniques for synthesis were studied to optimize the properties of this material. The synthesis of BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by conventional processes often occurs at temperatures above 1000 deg C. In this work we obtained the phase BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} at low temperatures (600 deg C) from the combustion reaction using nitrates and maleic anhydride as metal complexing agent. Techniques of X-ray diffraction, specific surface area, thermogravimetry analysis and analysis photocatalytic were employed to characterize the products obtained. (author)

  17. Assimilation of the QuikScat satellite data into models of oil spill path analysis; Assimilacao dos dados do satelite QuikScat em modelos de analise de trajetoria de derrames de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Marlos Carneiro; Cabral, Alexandre Pereira; Silva Junior, Carlos Leandro [OCEANSAT - Tecnologia Espacial para Monitoramento Ambiental S/C Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: oceansat@inc.coppe.ufrj.br; Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia]. E-mail: landau@lamce.ufrj.br

    2001-07-01

    This work analyses the performance and reliability of the wind data measured by the QuikScat satellite. The Scatterometer data was compared with previously published results, based on data from ERS-1/2 Wind Scatterometer, meteo-ocean buoys and from re-analysis of NCEP model. To validate and applied the QuikScat data a case study was performed, on which those data was used to improve the performance of an oil trajectory analysis model, simulating and oil spill in the Campos Basin region. It was observed that the results of the modelling reached better results when wind data collected by the QuikScat satellite was used as a forcing mechanism. Together with other applications, the assimilation of these data into models can be seen as an essential tool in environmental monitoring. (author)

  18. Implementation of the robustness analysis methodology for decenal planning in the expansion of electric sector; Aplicacao da metodologia de analise de robustez ao planejamento decenal de expansao do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata de Azevedo Moreira da

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this dissertation is to develop an application from one of the techniques of 'soft' operational research, the Robustness Analysis, to the problem of decision making under uncertainty, as part of the planning of the electricity expansion planning process in Brazil. Initially are shown desirable characteristics of a methodology that will complement the traditional methods used in determining the expansion of the sector. Departing from the Decenal Plan for Power Expansion (2007/2016), an analysis of the different trends that can occur during the planning process is presented, so as to facilitate the visualization of the consequences of uncertainties that may change the schedule of the planned expansion and also help the interaction between actors working in the expansion planning of electricity generation. (author)

  19. The new courses of ethanol production in Brazil: an analysis from learning curves; Os novos rumos da producao de alcool combustivel no Brasil: uma analise a partir de curvas de aprendizagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Junior, Amaro Olimpio [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pereira, Andre Santos [Centre de Recherche sur Environement et Developement (CIRED), Paris (France); Mendonca, Marco Aurelio [Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    PROALCOOL is known internationally as the most successful biofuel promotion program. Prior analysis of the effectiveness of such a program is fundamental to formulation of public policy, not only in the area of energy, but in all sectors of the economy. The article applies learning curve methodology to evaluate the ethanol market in Brazil in order to give an idea about the effort, in terms of investments, required for its advancement. (author)

  20. Analysis process and the dimensioning direction of the Powertrain project for the best vehicle fuel consumption; Processo de analise e direcionamento de projeto de powertrain para o melhor consumo de combustivel veicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupcic, Jorge Radosevic [Fiat GM Powertrain Ltda. (Brazil); Massarani, Marcelo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the viability analysis methodology of powertrain project aiming the improvement the vehicle fuel consumption. The object of this work is the definition which powertrains architecture results in the best vehicle fuel consumption and to know the impact on the enterprise, considering to offer flexibility for allowing the successive increment when new technologies are required without high resources and yet offering performance gains that maintain the vehicle on competitive level and well accepted by the customers.

  1. Brazilian program for production and use of biodiesel: an analysis of the regulatory aspects under the viewpoint of social inclusion; Programa nacional de producao e uso do biodiesel: uma analise dos aspectos regulatorios sob a otica da inclusao social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longa, Dulce Conceicao Pinheiro; Guimaraes, Paulo Roberto Britto; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Arquitetura

    2006-07-01

    The current article makes an analysis of the Brazilian Program of Biodiesel Use, having focus on the present social inclusion policy. In this sense, it is presented an update of the regulatory boundaries, emphasizing social issues, the employment and wealth generation, through substantial familiar agriculture whose purpose is the regional development and maintenance of the environment. Finalizing, it presents a review of the legal marks, concluding and recommendations. (author)

  2. Determination of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry: study of packaging vial of sample for analysis; Determinacao de {sup 226}Ra por espectrometria gama: estudo do recipiente de acondicionamento de amostra para analise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti

    2015-07-01

    Determination of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry in a sample is based on measurements of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, daughters of {sup 222}Rn. Because radon is a gas, it can leak from the sample vial or accumulate on the upper empty it. If the vial has any crack, there will be loss of gas, which will cause error in determining the {sup 226}Ra concentration. One possible cause of cracks in the vials, that houses standards and samples, is the radiolysis action in the vial material, usually a polymer. As the demand {sup 226}Ra analysis in different matrices (geological samples, food, plants, etc.) is increasing, it was decided to study some polymer vials available on the market, to verify the feasibility to be used when is applied the analysis method using gamma spectrometry. Four types of polymer vials have been studied. The radiation doses in walls of the vials caused by natural radionuclides present in the sample were simulated using gamma irradiation. Tests, such as compressive strength test and tightness, were applied to the irradiated and non-irradiated vials. First, to verify the effect of radiolysis on the vial material and also if there was {sup 222}Rn diffusion in their walls. These preliminary results pointed out that the acrylic vials are the best option of packaging samples for analysis. This study should be repeated in a larger number of samples for a better evaluation. (author)

  3. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences; Analise estrutural, petrologica e geocronologica dos litotipos da Regiao de Pien (PR) e adjacencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed

    1996-12-31

    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle 201 refs., 130 figs., 6 tabs., 2 maps

  4. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences; Analise estrutural, petrologica e geocronologica dos litotipos da Regiao de Pien (PR) e adjacencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed

    1997-12-31

    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle 201 refs., 130 figs., 6 tabs., 2 maps

  5. Critical analysis for physical adaptation and implementation of new procedures in the IPEN'S laboratory animal division; Analise critica para adequacao fisica e implantacao de novos procedimentos na divisao de animais de laboratorio do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainetti, Elizabeth Brigadao de Faria

    2009-07-01

    The production and the supply of high quality laboratory animals have fundamental importance for the accomplishment of vanguard scientific research, with reproducibility and universality. The quality of those animals depends, largely, of the available facilities for their production and lodging, to assure the demanded sanitary control and animals' welfare, in agreement with the ethical principles that control the activity. The facilities also have to fill out other requirements, such as: the functionality of the environments to make possible the suitable and efficient handling of the animals, facilitating the execution of the routine activities; the respect to ergonomic principles to provide a safe environment and the operators' well being. The facilities design is of vital importance so that the mentioned requirements can be reached. The project of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) Animal House Facilities was accomplished in the year of 1964. However, by that time there were not the current recommendations with respect to the sanitary, genetic and environmental controls. The facility was planned with the objective of being a production unit and a local for keeping of defined animals from sanitary, genetic and environmental point of view. Nevertheless, the original unit drawing presents an unsuitable distribution of the area where animals are stocked and also different activities are performed. The Animal House Facilities occupy an area of 840 m2, with one pavement, where the production areas and the stock of original animal models of the own Institution are distributed, as well as the maintenance of animals from other national or foreigner institutions. It supplies rats and mice for biological tests of radiopharmaceutical lots, produced in IPEN, before they be sent to hospitals and clinics spread out in Brazil, for use in Nuclear Medicine. It also supplies rats and mice for tests of dental materials, for tests with growth hormones and for

  6. Risk analysis and liabilities related to CO{sup 2} capture and sequestration in oil reservoirs; Analise de riscos e responsabilidades relacionadas a captura e sequestro de CO2 em reservatorios petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Andre Ribeiro [Shell Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Although until the present moment there are no initiatives known to the public regarding carbon capture and sequestration projects to be performed in Brazil, this technique has gained great projection internationally as an initiative that makes it possible to meet the growing energetic and industrial needs of the world while mitigating the release of harmful emissions to the atmosphere. Considering its relevance and the interest of companies and countries in this activity, this paper intends to briefly analyze, from the Brazilian law perspective, the liabilities that would bind companies if they already performed carbon capture and storage in Brazil today. (author)

  7. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em tecido osseo bovino por espectroscoia ATR-FTIR e analise dinamica-mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/{sub v1,v3}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  8. Thermodynamics analysis of an autonomous distillery operating with high steam parameters and two different distillation technologies; Analise termodinamica de uma destilaria autonoma operando com altos parametros de vapor e duas tecnologias diferentes de destilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio, Jose Carlos Escobar; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Santos, Jose Joaquim [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida; Moura, Adler [DEDINI Industrias de Base S.A., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to carry-out an integrated thermodynamic analysis for an ethanol distillery and the mill cogeneration plant. In previous works the cogeneration system has been analyzed separately using thermoeconomic tools to calculate the products cost and to define the best scheme and parametric alternative. Similar researches were carried-out aiming to reduce the energy consumption in the distillation process. This paper proposes a simultaneous evaluation of both systems using an exergoeconomic tools to improve the energy integration of process. (author)

  9. Lows income residential tariff - An analysis of the application under the cross subsidies viewpoint; A tarifa residencial de baixa renda: uma analise de sua aplicacao perante a questao de subsidios cruzados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral de Almeida [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The paper evaluates the impacts of a new policy in electricity pricing applied to residential customers with low income, specially in the view point of crossed subsides. This paper shows some inconsistencies in the new policy and relate the experience of CESP - Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - in it`s propose of adapting the low income to its franchise area. Also made an analysis of the policy`s homogeneity among different utilities. (author) 6 refs., 7 figs.; e-mail: fprado at sp.gov.br

  10. Analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. Part III: estimation of apparent diffusion coefficient; Analise de contaminacao de residuo radioativo em solos. Parte 3: calculo do coeficiente de difusao aparente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, R.; Pereira, L.M.; Orlande, H.R.B.; Cotta, R.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1997-12-31

    This paper deals with the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient of KBr in sand saturated with water. The present inverse parameter estimation problem is solved with Levenberg-Marquardt method. Simulated experimental data is used in order to assess the accuracy of this method as applied to the estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient. The experimental apparatus is described and the value estimated for the parameter obtained with actual experimental data is presented in the paper. A statistical analysis is performed in order to obtain an estimate for the standard deviation for the parameter. (author) 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.; helcio at serv.com.ufrj.br

  11. Analysis of the technical impact of decentralized independent production based on cogeneration, in public distribution systems; Analise do impacto tecnico da producao independente descentralizada baseada em cogeracao em redes de distribuicao de servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose L. Pereira da; Lopes, J.A. Pecas [Universidade do Porto (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia; Pascoal, Jose A.F. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology adopted and the results obtained in the evaluation of the impact of decentralized independent production plants based on cogeneration in the distribution system of Portugal Public Service. The analysis concerns with impact on a medium voltage network where the significant integration of these units occurs. The methodology involved the definition of various exploration scenarios, specifically the recent regulations related to the reactive energy to be supplied to the network, during peak and full hours, by the independent production. This work also presents the global results of impact no the system, considering voltage profiles, branching congestion and network losses.

  12. Quantitative chemical analysis for the standardization of copaiba oil by high resolution gas chromatography; Analise quimica quantitativa para a padronizacao do oleo de copaiba por cromatografia em fase gasosa de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappin, Marcelo R.R.; Pereira, Jislaine F.G.; Lima, Lucilene A.; Siani, Antonio C. [Farmanguinhos - Inst. de Tecnologia em Farmacos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: siani@far.fiocruz.br; Mazzei, Jose L. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Ramos, Monica F.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Medicamentos

    2004-04-01

    Quantitative GC-FID was evaluated for analysis of methylated copaiba oils, using trans-(-)-caryophyllene or methyl copalate as external standards. Analytical curves showed good linearity and reproducibility in terms of correlation coefficients (0.9992 and 0.996, respectively) and relative standard deviation (< 3%). Quantification of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic acids were performed with each standard, separately. When compared with the integrator response normalization, the standardization was statistically similar for the case of methyl copalate, but the response of trans-(-)-caryophyllene was statistically (P < 0.05) different. This method showed to be suitable for classification and quality control of commercial samples of the oils. (author)

  13. Microstructural analysis of geopolymer developed from wood fly ash, post-mortem doloma refractory and metakaolin; Analise microestrutural de geopolimero desenvolvido a partir de cinza de olaria, tijolo refratario dolomitico post-mortem e metacaulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jailes de Santana; Mafra, Marcio Paulo de Araujo; Rabelo, Adriano Alves; Fagury, Renata Lilian Ribeiro Portugal; Fagury Neto, Elias, E-mail: jailesmoura@hotmail.com, E-mail: fagury@unifesspa.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (UNIFESSPA), PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    Geopolymers are one of the widely discussed topics of materials science in recent times due to its vast potential as an alternative binder material to cement. This work aimed to evaluate the microstructure of geopolymers developed from wood fly ash, post-mortem doloma refractory and metakaolin. A preliminary study has been completed and achieved significant results compressive strength: the best formulation of geopolymer paste obtained approximately 25 MPa. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy, the geopolymer paste, allowed to verify the homogeneity, distribution of components, and providing evidence of raw materials that do not respond if there was crystalline phase, porosity and density of the structure. (author)

  14. Effects of holmium laser on dental structure in vivo: thermal evaluation and histological analysis on pulpal tissue; Efeitos in vivo do laser de holmio em estrutura dental: monitoracao termica e analise histologica do tecido pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strefezza, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Ho:YLF laser is capable of inducing physical and chemical changes on dental surfaces treated for caries prevention. The temperature in the pulp chamber was in vitro evaluated to as a function of the power and frequency of the laser irradiation. The purpose of this work is to verify the occurrence of pulp inflammation after Ho:YLF laser irradiation using different parameters in rabbits' teeth. The premolars and molars of ten rabbits (NZB) were divided in two groups according to the irradiation energy values of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at 2.065{mu}m wave length, frequency of O,5Hz and pulse length of 250{mu}s. An group A teeth were irradiated with using ten pulses of 334mJ/pulse of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at O.5Hz, and group B, with 512mJ/pulse. Animals were killed by transcardiac perfusion and the samples were prepared for histopathological analysis. The in vitro temperature monitoring revealed an increase of 1 deg C for the 334mJ/pulse energy and 4.5 deg C for the 512mJ/pulse energy. SEM observations showed the occurrence of melting and resolidification in dental surface. From the in vivo analysis it can be concluded that both employed laser parameters did not induce to any inflammatory response from the pulp. (author)

  15. Quantitative analysis of results of quality control tests in linear accelerators used in radiotherapy; Analise quantitativa dos resultados de testes de controle de qualidade em aceleradores lineares usados em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passaro, Bruno M.; Rodrigues, Laura N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: bruno.passaro@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this study is to assess and analyze the stability of the calibration factor of three linear accelerators, as well as the other dosimetric parameters normally included in a program of quality control in radiotherapy. The average calibration factors of the accelerators for the period of approximately four years for the Clinac 600C and Clinac 6EX were (0.998±0.012) and (0.996±0.014), respectively. For the Clinac 2100CD 6 MV and 15 MV was (1.008±0.009) and (1.006±0.010), respectively, in a period of approximately four years. The data of the calibration factors were divided into four subgroups for a more detailed analysis of behavior over the years. Through statistical analysis of calibration factors, we found that for the 600C and Clinacs 2100CD, is an expected probability that more than 90% of cases the values are within acceptable ranges according to TG-142, while for the Clinac 6EX is expected around 85% since this had several exchanges of accelerator components. The values of TPR20,10 of three accelerators are practically constant and within acceptable limits according to the TG-142. It can be concluded that a detailed study of data from the calibration factor of the accelerators and TPR{sub 20},{sub 10} from a quantitative point of view, is extremely useful in a quality assurance program. (author)

  16. Analysis and development of an ethanol compact reformer for hydrogen production for fuel cell; Analise e modelagem de reformador compacto de etanol para obtencao de hidrodenio para celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, P.R.F.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: renzo@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production in a compact and modular reforming unit designed for the generation of 1 kw of electrical power. For this, initially the thermodynamic limits for the steam reforming of ethanol are calculated in order to assess the limits in the production of hydrogen and other by-products and to select the best values of process stoichiometry, temperature and pressure for maximum hydrogen selectivity and minimum coke formation. In the following, a First and second Laws analysis is performed to analyze the equilibrium conditions of the main chemical reactions and to estimate the magnitude of the heat transfer required by the heating, evaporation, superheating and reforming of ethanol. Then, the catalytic reformer reactor is analyzed and sized, basing the analysis into the application of the equation for the conservation of mass of the chemical species and a model for the chemical kinetics. A basic reactor design is then proposed accompanied by the corresponding sizes and operating conditions. (author)

  17. Quality in the chemical analysis of biological matrices by fluorescence X-ray by energy dispersive; Qualidade nas analises quimicas de matrizes biologicas pela fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Evely E. de; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Almeida, Macio E.S.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: evelysousa_182@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain multielement analytical curves of high analytical rigor to the analysis of biological matrices by the technique of fluorescence x-ray energy dispersive - EDXRF. Calibration curves were constructed from the reference materials IAEA 140, IAEA 155, IAEA V8, V10 to the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, and SRM1515, SRM 1547, SRM 1570a, SRM 1573a, SEM 1567a, to the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST. After energy calibration, all samples were subjected to vacuum to the analyzes by 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltages used were respectively 15 keV for chemical elements with less than atomic number 22 and 50 keV for the others. After the construction of the curves, the analytical quality was assessed by the analysis of a portion-test of the reference material SRM 2976, also produced by NIST. Based on the number of certified reference materials used for construction of calibration curves in this work, quality analytical protocol was originated with considerable reliability for quantification of chemical elements in biological samples by EDXR.

  18. Characterization of polymer-type ionic conductors using nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal analysis. Humidity sensor; Caracterizacao de condutores ionicos de tipo polimerico por ressonancia magnetica nuclear (RMN) e analises termicas. Sensor de umidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Maria Goretti

    1992-04-01

    We report a study using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Thermogravimetry Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy in polymeric complexes formed poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), and lithium salts. These complexes have have shown a large potential for technological applications in batteries, sensors, etc. We developed and characterized humidity sensors and discussed how the humidity affects the conformation of the complexes, the mobility of ionic species, and the polymeric chains. The results indicate that the hydration affects the conformation of polymeric complexes by plasticizing the water, which induces a volumetric expansion in the PEO chain. The processes was completely reversible for the level of hydration studied. NMR was used to distinguish the movement of polymeric chains from the movement of the ionic species. From the analysis of the second moment of resonance lines from the study of the nuclear relaxation we were able to estimate the average distance between the ionic species and the proton in the complexes chains. The behaviour of spin -lattice relaxation of hydrogen and fluorine in the P(EO) - Li B F, as a function of temperature and frequency reflects the nature of the disorder and the complexity of the ionic conduction process in these materials. (author). 91 refs., 69 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Application of the Rietveld method in structural analysis of catalysts based on CuO/CeO{sub 2}; Aplicacao do metodo de Rietveld na analise estrutural de catalisadores a base de CuO/CeO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiva, L.S.; Ribeiro, M.A.; Bispo, A.; Simoes, A.N.; Gama, L., E-mail: lsoutoneiva@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    This work has as aim to synthesize catalysts composed by CuO/CeO{sub 2} by means two distinct methods of synthesis, they are: combustion synthesis and Pechini. The catalysts composed by CuO/CeO{sub 2} were synthesized with CuO in condition of dopant element. The value of the CuO concentration ranged between 0 and 0.5 mol. Has been done a structural analysis related to how the kind of synthesis method used influences over physical characteristic of the catalytic material. The obtained catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction with refinement by Rietveld method. According to results, the synthesized catalysts showed crystalline structures formed mostly by CeO{sub 2} phase, as expected, since this is the host matrix for the dopant element. The catalysts obtained by the Pechini method presented structures with a smaller amount of segregated phases formed by CuO, according to the results of the structural analysis. (author)

  20. Analysis of fluid dynamics to the riser of a FCC cold pilot plant aided with response surface methodology; Analise da fluidodinamica em um riser de FCC de uma unidade piloto a frio com auxilio da metodologia de superficie de resposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Kamylla A.L. dos; Luna-Finkler, Christine L.; Lima Filho, Hilario J.B. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Benachour, Mohand; Dantas, Carlos Costa; Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    It was planned and executed the implementation of a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) to the riser of a FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) cold pilot plant, to identify the basic fluid dynamic characteristics of this type of reactor. The Fluid Catalytic Cracking is the major process in oil refineries in the world. It is realized in a vertical cylindrical reactor called riser, with a short contact time between the cracking catalyst and vacuum gas oil vapors. The constant evolution of the FCC process has required the analysis of fluid dynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. However, analysis of images produced by the application of CFD to study of risers requires preliminary concepts of the relationship between response variables and independent variables. With the CCRD implementation was performed a total of 12 experiments, being 4 full factorial, 4 axial points and 4 central points. The dependent variables were the velocities of the components (cracking catalyst and compressed air) and the pressure drop in the riser. There was a great contribution of solids flow rate for the solid phase velocity and for the pressure drop. The effects of interaction between the flow rate phases are considerably senses in pressure drop through the riser, however, for the velocities of both phases this interaction becomes negligible. (author)

  1. Application of perturbation methods for sensitivity analysis for nuclear power plant steam generators; Aplicacao da teoria de perturbacao a analise de sensibilidade em geradores de vapor de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurjao, Emir Candeia

    1996-02-01

    The differential and GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) formalisms of the Perturbation Theory were applied in this work to a simplified U-tubes steam generator model to perform sensitivity analysis. The adjoint and importance equations, with the corresponding expressions for the sensitivity coefficients, were derived for this steam generator model. The system was numerically was numerically solved in a Fortran program, called GEVADJ, in order to calculate the sensitivity coefficients. A transient loss of forced primary coolant in the nuclear power plant Angra-1 was used as example case. The average and final values of functionals: secondary pressure and enthalpy were studied in relation to changes in the secondary feedwater flow, enthalpy and total volume in secondary circuit. Absolute variations in the above functionals were calculated using the perturbative methods, considering the variations in the feedwater flow and total secondary volume. Comparison with the same variations obtained via direct model showed in general good agreement, demonstrating the potentiality of perturbative methods for sensitivity analysis of nuclear systems. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Synthesis by the Pechini method and reaction combustion for the preparation of TiO{sub 2}: a comparative analysis; Sintese pelo metodo Pechini e reacao de combustao para preparacao de TiO{sub 2}: uma analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E.P.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Freitas, N.L.; Lira, H.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare TiO{sub 2} powder by Pechini and combustion reaction methods. A comparative analysis between the structural and morphological results obtained by the two methods was investigated. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffractions (XRD), infrared analysis, nitrogen adsorption (BET) and particle size distribution. The results from XRD show that the powders prepared by Pechini method and by combustion reaction using aniline as fuel, present anatase as major phase and traces of rutile phase. The values of crystallite size and surface area from BET were: 30 e 44 nm; 6.2 e 4.4 m{sup 2}/g, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The values of particle size were: 21.9 e 5.3 {mu}m, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The Pechini method was more suitable to obtain powders with irregular agglomerates, in the block shape with particles bonded softly and small crystallite size. (author)

  3. Peru and Brazil: a comparative analysis of E and P licensing models adopted by these countries; Peru e Brasil: um analise comparativa dos modelos de licitacao de E and P adotados por esses paises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Luciana P; Ferreira, Sabrina S [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a comparative analysis of the concession process of Oil and Gas Exploratory Blocks adopted in two countries of Latin America: Peru and Brazil, according to the rules of the Bidding Rounds occurred in 2007 (Peru's Bidding Round and 9th Bidding Round, respectively). In order to analyze the two models chosen, we considered, among others, the rules and proceedings adopted, the legal framework, the criteria used to qualify the companies, the number of blocks offered, the number of participating companies, the infra-structure of the event and the offer selection system. Through this analysis it was possible to verify the points which could be improved in each concession process model and it showed significant differences between them, despite the fact of each one is suitable to the reality of each country. It is important to highlight that the exchange of experience between agents of oil and gas sector, in this specific case Perupetro and ANP, contributes a lot to the continued improvement of bidding processes and other practices adopted. (author)

  4. Peru and Brazil: a comparative analysis of E and P licensing models adopted by these countries; Peru e Brasil: um analise comparativa dos modelos de licitacao de E and P adotados por esses paises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Luciana P.; Ferreira, Sabrina S. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a comparative analysis of the concession process of Oil and Gas Exploratory Blocks adopted in two countries of Latin America: Peru and Brazil, according to the rules of the Bidding Rounds occurred in 2007 (Peru's Bidding Round and 9th Bidding Round, respectively). In order to analyze the two models chosen, we considered, among others, the rules and proceedings adopted, the legal framework, the criteria used to qualify the companies, the number of blocks offered, the number of participating companies, the infra-structure of the event and the offer selection system. Through this analysis it was possible to verify the points which could be improved in each concession process model and it showed significant differences between them, despite the fact of each one is suitable to the reality of each country. It is important to highlight that the exchange of experience between agents of oil and gas sector, in this specific case Perupetro and ANP, contributes a lot to the continued improvement of bidding processes and other practices adopted. (author)

  5. Effects of holmium laser on dental structure in vivo: thermal evaluation and histological analysis on pulpal tissue; Efeitos in vivo do laser de holmio em estrutura dental: monitoracao termica e analise histologica do tecido pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strefezza, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Ho:YLF laser is capable of inducing physical and chemical changes on dental surfaces treated for caries prevention. The temperature in the pulp chamber was in vitro evaluated to as a function of the power and frequency of the laser irradiation. The purpose of this work is to verify the occurrence of pulp inflammation after Ho:YLF laser irradiation using different parameters in rabbits' teeth. The premolars and molars of ten rabbits (NZB) were divided in two groups according to the irradiation energy values of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at 2.065{mu}m wave length, frequency of O,5Hz and pulse length of 250{mu}s. An group A teeth were irradiated with using ten pulses of 334mJ/pulse of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at O.5Hz, and group B, with 512mJ/pulse. Animals were killed by transcardiac perfusion and the samples were prepared for histopathological analysis. The in vitro temperature monitoring revealed an increase of 1 deg C for the 334mJ/pulse energy and 4.5 deg C for the 512mJ/pulse energy. SEM observations showed the occurrence of melting and resolidification in dental surface. From the in vivo analysis it can be concluded that both employed laser parameters did not induce to any inflammatory response from the pulp. (author)

  6. Comparative analysis of quality control tests on computed tomography in accordance with national and international laws; Analise comparativa dos testes de controle de qualidade em tomografia computadorizada de acordo com as legislacoes nacional e internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Fernando S.; Vasconcelos, Rebeca S.; Goncalves, Marcel S.; Oliveira, Marcus V.L. de, E-mail: fernando_siramos@hotmail.com, E-mail: marcusradiology@gmail.com [Instituto Federal da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis between the Brazilian legislation and internationals protocols, with respect to the quality control tests for computerized tomography. We used 07 references, published from 1998-2012: the Protocolo Brasileiro - Portaria 453/98 SVS/MS and the Guia de Radiodiagnostico Medico da ANVISA; Quality Assurance Programme for Computed Tomography: Diagnostic and Therapy Applications of the IAEA; European Protocol - European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography of the EUR No. 16262 EN; Radiation Protection No. 162 - Criteria for Acceptability of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of the European Commission; the Protocols of Control de Calidad en Radiodiagnostico IAEA / ARCAL XLIX; and the Protocolo Espanol de Control de Calidad en Radiodignostico. The comparative analysis of these legislations was based on aspects of tolerance / limit, frequency and objectives of the recommended tests. Were found 18 tests in the Brazilian legislation. The tests were grouped according to their nature (dosimetric tests / exposure and geometric tests and image quality tests). Among the evaluated protocols was identified divergence between tests contained in the documents and the criteria of assessment set out in this work. It is clear, moreover, that for certain documents are not observed tolerances, well-defined methodologies and even frequency of testing. We conclude that the current legislation in Brazil differs in certain respects from international protocols analyzed, although this has a great numbers of quality control tests. However, it is necessary that the Brazilian legislation takes into account technological advances presented to time.

  7. Activation analysis in food analysis. Pt. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented on the application of activation analysis (AA) techniques for food analysis, as reflected at a recent international conference titled Activation Analysis and its Applications. The most popular analytical techniques include instrumental neutron AA, (INAA or NAA), radiochemical NAA (RNAA), X-ray fluorescence analysis and mass spectrometry. Data are presented for the multielemental NAA of instant soups, for elemental composition of drinking water in Iraq, for Na, K, Mn contents of various Indian rices, for As, Hg, Sb and Se determination in various seafoods, for daily microelement takeup in China, for the elemental composition of Chinese teas. Expected development trends in AA are outlined. (R.P.) 24 refs.; 8 tabs

  8. No fluorinated compounds in the uranium conversion process: risk analysis and proposition of pictograms; Os compostos nao fluorados nos processos da conversao do uranio: analise de riscos e proposicao de pictogramas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronimo, Adroaldo Clovis; Oliveira, Wagner dos Santos, E-mail: acejota18@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: oliveira@feq.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de, E-mail: araquino@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    The plants comprising the chemical conversion of uranium, which are part of the nuclear fuel cycle, present some risks, among others, because are associated with the non-fluorinated compounds handled in these processes. This study is the analysis of the risks associated with these compounds, i e, the non-fluorinated reactants and products, handled in different chemical processing plants, which include the production of uranium hexafluoride, while emphasizing the responsibilities and actions that fit to the chemical engineer with regard to minimizing risks during the various stages. The work is based on the experience gained during the development and mastery of the technology of production of uranium hexafluoride, the IPEN/ CNEN-SP, during the '80s, with the support of COPESP -Navy of Brazil. (author)

  9. Comparative analysis of three atmospheric dispersion coefficient systems at the Angra dos Reis, RJ, region; Analise comparativa de tres sistemas de coeficientes de dispersao atmosferica na regiao de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagio, Rosa Maria de Souza

    1982-07-01

    A comparative analysis was made in this work among Pasquill-Gifford (PG) atmospheric dispersion coefficients and those determined at the Juelich and Karlsruhe sites with the purpose of suggesting which one would be the most applicable to the Angra site. Each one of the three systems was determined by different experiments, carried out over sites with diversified features. The systems of Juelich and Karlsruhe were obtained over sites with high surface roughness and from stacks (elevated releases), while the PG system was obtained over sites with a small surface roughness and from ground level releases. The results of the application of these systems at a complex site like Angra,which has a highly diversified structure encompassing sea, vegetation, predominance of light winds and stable stability classes, show that the PG system, the most used in the world, is still the best choice. (author)

  10. Relevant aspects in the analysis and accompaniment of projects with focus in maintenance of great machines; Aspectos relevantes na analise e acompanhamento de projetos com foco em manutencao de grandes maquinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rogerio Alexandre Francisco da; Santos, Daniel Borges dos; Caleiras, Robson Santos; Souza, Derlan Santos de; Freitas, Fernando de; Silva, Alisson Cardoso Gomes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work approaches the excellent aspects for analysis and monitoring of the execution of projects of great machines, in function of the characteristics of these equipment and portrays the actions taken in this process in the scope of the UNBS for the team of Engineering of Production (ENGP). Of this form, the analyses of the dimensional aspects, of leaves of verification and inspection, of Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) and of the preparations for commissioning and departure are distinguished, in order to guarantee the availability and efficiency of the equipment. In its conclusion, the work evaluates the benefits waited with the adjusted accompaniment of the project and suggests action to improve the process of accompaniment of future projects, assuring the good detailing of the project and the success in its implementation. (author)

  11. Thermoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of a sugarcane plant that produces energy surplus for commercialization; Analise termodinamica e termoeconomica de uma usina sucroalcooleira que produz excedente de energia para comercializacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiomari, Marcelo Caldato; Mashiba, Marcos Hideo da Silva; Lima, Rodrigo dos Santos; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work, thermodynamic and thermo economic analyses of a plant resulted from an expansion of the Pioneiros Distillery's cogeneration system are carried out, which is constituted basically by a boiler that produces 140 ton/h of steam at high pressure and temperature (6,6 MPa and 530 deg C, respectively), by a condensation-extraction turbine that drives a electrical generator producing 32 MW, being the mechanical drivers realized by electrical engines. By means of thermodynamic analyses it's possible to define some plant's performance indexes as well as evaluate the global use of energy in each component. The thermo economic analysis allows evaluating the costs of capital and fuel reflexes in the composition of the products (steam and electricity) costs. (author)

  12. Petroleum reservoir fault reactivation problem analysis through finite element viscodamage model; Analise de problema de reativacao de falha em reservatorio de petroleo por modelo de viscodano via metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Julliana de P.V.; Guimaraes, Leonardo J. do N.; Gomes, Igor F.; Pontes Filho, Ivaldo Dario da S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, many new constitutive models for geomechanical materials were developed taking into account its complex behavior. The continuum damage mechanics, formulated according to irreversible thermodynamics principles, can be used to model materials subjected to degradation of its mechanical properties. Reservoir depletion may result in compaction and subsidence that induces fault reactivation, among others consequences. The fault reactivation problem in petroleum reservoirs has been widely studied as its changes completely the flow regime in subsurface. Isotropic damage model can be used to model the fault reactivation process, where its hydro-mechanical properties (stiffness and permeability) are affected during the reservoir production. In this paper, a fault reactivation case in a synthetic reservoir is presented and a sensibility analysis is carried out to identify the main variables that influence this process. (author)

  13. Preliminary analysis in a clayey mass aimed at ceramic blocks production: physical and mineralogical characteristics; Analise preliminar em uma massa argilosa visando a producao de blocos ceramicos: caracteristicas fisicas e mineralogicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.J.M.D. da; Apolonio, T.G.; Salviano, A.F.; Taveira, S.K.A.; Garcia, T.G.C.; Silva, J; Luna, P.A.; Macedo, R.S., E-mail: reginaldo.severo@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of the clayey mass are important in determining its properties, allowing a better knowledge of the raw material used in the manufacture of ceramic products. This work aims to characterize the raw material used in the manufacture of ceramic sealing blocks in a ceramic industry. Thus, it was evaluated by laboratory tests the raw material used in the production of ceramic blocks in a ceramics industry in the region of Carnauba dos Dantas, RN. The methodology used in the tests is the same as the IPT, which consists in carrying out the plasticity testing, particle size, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the sample studied by the physical and mineralogical characteristics, has the potential to be applied in the manufacture of red ceramic products for use in construction. (author)

  14. Analysis of crystallite size and microdeformation crystal lattice the tungsten carbide milling in mill high energy; Analise do tamanho do cristalito e microdeformacao da rede cristalina do carbeto de tugstenio moidos em moinho de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.T. da; Nunes, M.A.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Oliveira, R.M.V. de; Silva, G.G. da [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Natal (Brazil); Souza, C.P. de; Gomes, U.U. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The tungsten carbide (WC) has wide application due to its properties like high melting point, high hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and good electrical conductivity. The microstructural characteristics of the starting powders influences the final properties of the carbide. In this context, the use of nanoparticle powders is an efficient way to improve the final properties of the WC. The high energy milling stands out from other processes to obtain nanometric powders due to constant microstructural changes caused by this process. Therefore, the objective is to undertake an analysis of microstructural characteristics on the crystallite size and microdeformations of the crystal lattice using the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement. The results show an efficiency of the milling process to reduce the crystallite size, leading to a significant deformation in the crystal lattice of WC from 5h milling. (author)

  15. Investment decisions in environment of uncertainties integrated to the viability analysis of the distribution and transmission projects; Decisao de investimentos em ambiente de incertezas integrada a analise de viabilidade de projetos de transmissao e distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzi, L.M.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica; Ramos, D.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work intends to support the necessary investment decisions to the expansion of the network of 138/88 kV, belonging to the electric energy distribution companies. In the economic and financial analysis, are considered the needs of the Regulator for the tariff recognition of an investment, using economic engineering techniques to evaluate the feedback of the invested capital but considering an uncertainty environment, where the best decision depends on exogenous variables to the traditional planning process. In order to make viable the inclusion of the main variables of random behavior that condition the economic and financial performances of the analyzed alternatives for decision making, it was chosen the utilization of the methodology based on 'Real Options', which is an used technique in the financial market for some time.

  16. Failure analysis of a heat exchanger used of a wood pulp bleaching process; Analise de falha de um trocador de calor utilizado no processo de branqueamento da polpa de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, D.B.V.; Moreto, J.A.; Rossino, L.S.; Spinelli, D.; Tarpani, J.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (SMM/EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materais, Aeronautica e Automobilistica

    2010-07-01

    This study involved an investigation of the failure of a heat exchanger used in the ozone destruction stage of a wood pulp bleaching process at a pulp plant. The following procedures were carried out to determine the causes of the failure: a chemical analysis of the component, atomic absorption spectroscopy, measurements of hardness and of corrosion-related mass loss, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, and chemical microanalysis by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The corrosion damage of the heat exchanger was caused by chloric and sulfuric acid, which led to pitting, grooving and cracking, as well as generalized corrosion of the component (AISI 316L steel). Nitric acid caused minimal damage to the heat exchanger, with minor generalized corrosion and occasional pitting. White crystals rich in sulfur and chlorine were identified as the corrosive agents acting inside the heat exchanger. (author)

  17. Synergism between ultraviolet radiation and reductone in Escherichia coli UVR: quantitative analysis of produced injuries; Sinergismo entre radiacao ultravioleta e redutona em Escherichia coli UVR: analise quantitativa das lesoes produzidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, H C

    1981-12-31

    The relationship between cell viability and DNA-single and double-strand breaks induced by UV-reductone treatment of E.coli AB1157 and AB1886 cells was studied. A molecular and quantitative analysis was done by sedimentation in sucrose gradients. Bacteriophage T4-DNA was submitted to similar conditions. The two bacterial strains showed the same kinetics of single strand-breaks induction by reductone, in agreement with the hypothesis that the repair of these lesion is independent of uvr A uvr B genes product. This paper suggests that the `UV-sensibilization` to reductone action is linked to a synergistic process between reductone induced single breaks and the enzymatic incisions accumulated by modification in the excision repair, during the treatment. (author).

  18. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology;Analise preliminar das doses para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em exames radiograficos na radiologia veterinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  19. Performance analysis of progressive cavity pumps in oil wells with high BSW (Basic Sediment Water); Analise do desempenho de elastometros do bombeio de cavidades progressivas em pocos de petroleo com elavado BSW (Basic Sediment Water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cindi Alves; Santos, Joao Paulo Lobo dos; Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Santos, Luiz Carlos Lobato dos [Universidade Federal da Bahia, BA (Brazil); Duarte, Lindemberg de Jesus Nogueira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the most important equipment in the progressing cavity pump (PCP) is the subsurface pump, which comprises a rotor and a stator covered internally by an elastomer. This is responsible for sealing the pump and, consequently, for elevating the fluids. In fact, this polymer is used because of the ability to generate pressure in the pump by the seals formed between the cavities. In order to guarantee that the elastomer will have a good performance in the PCP system certain requirements need to be checked, such as: stress, elongation, hardness, resilience, permeability and adhesion. The fluids and solids handled by the PCP system, allied to high temperatures can cause premature wear in the elastomers. The most common reactions which are also observed in most of the wells are swelling, shrinkage, softening, hardening and explosive decompression. In this sense, the aim of this work is to study some elastomers which were chosen based on compatibility tests conducted by a major oil company. The problems that occurred in the wells will be analyzed in order to verify whether the choice of the elastomer had some influence on system failure. For this purpose, the intervention reports, efficiency tests and failure analysis reports will be used. At the end of this work, it was possible to diagnose the causes, consequences and solutions to inherent problems at various oil wells in a field that is in an advanced stage of recovery. Finally, it was concluded that simple changes in the process of compatibility analysis would help to increase the reliability level of the tests, especially the problems observed during the PCP operation in hostile environments. (author)

  20. Analysis of risk perception of teletherapy in radiotherapy services of Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil; Analise da percepcao de risco da teleterapia dos servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Adam F.; Paiva, Eduardo de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Roberto S. de, E-mail: adam@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Qualidade em Radioterapia

    2015-12-15

    Currently there are few applications on the risk analysis procedures related to radiation therapy, especially in the practice of radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the perception of risk levels present in the practice of teletherapy (only the use of linear accelerators), through a form based on the risk matrix concept and a database (SEVRRA) containing information about the processes related to routine teletherapy. Was delivered to a medical physicist for each service, a form containing information relating to teletherapy procedure and an annex indicating how to fill it properly. The results show that, according to the opinion of 16 medical physicists participants, six of these analyzes showed a prioritized risk percentage above 50%, other five had a risk of prioritized percentage between 0 and 50%, and the remainder had a risk percentage prioritized null. Two steps groups had the highest incidence of cases classified with high and very high risk: records and treatment planning group and equipment group. It was then possible to find the most risk processes these steps groups. Finally, we performed an analysis of the effectiveness of the controls present in the proposed form. The four most incidents controls, three of them had a percentage efficiency above 80%, and viable its continuous use in the analyzed services, as well as serving as a recommendation for use in other services not analyzed. This study showed that, although there are considerable histories of accidents for teletherapy procedure, you can not only identify the risks of higher expression but also mitigate them, based on actions and appropriate recommendations for each case analyzed properly. (author)

  1. Analysis of the procedures and criteria for implantation of X-ray beams for ISO 4037 reference at low energies; Analise dos procedimentos e criterios de implantacao de feixes de raios X de referencia ISO 4037 em baixas energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Marcus Tadeu Tanuri de

    2012-07-01

    According to the radiological protection principles, practices involving ionizing radiation must be planned and carried out under the guarantee that the values of individual doses, the number of people exposed to radiation and the probability of accidental exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Therefore, radiation dosimetry is required to be done with reliable instruments designed for measuring dosimetric quantities. The reliability of the dosimetry depends on both the calibration of the dosimeter and its proper performance under certain test conditions. The International Standardization Organization (ISO), in order to promote international standardization and metrological coherency, established sets of reference X-ray beams for dosimeter calibration and typing-test; they are expected to be implemented in metrology laboratories in compliance with specific technical requirements. At low energies there are specific requirements that need to be considered in both the implementation of the reference beams and their use in calibration and testing. The present study is an analysis of the procedures and criteria for ISO 4037 reference radiation implementation, at low energies. In the Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center of Nuclear Technology (LCD / CDTN), experiments were performed for determining the X-ray reference radiation parameters. Alternatives to the usual methods for half-value layer determination were studied. Spectra of reference beams were simulated with software and compared with experimental measurements. Different climatic conditions were reproduced in the Laboratory for analysis of its influence on the determination of the beam parameters. Uncertainties in the measurements of studied parameters were evaluated. According to the ISO 4037 criteria, the low energy X-ray beams were considered to be implemented; they allowed the determination of the conversion coefficients from air kerma to the operational radiation protection

  2. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Segebade, C.; Green, J.

    2011-06-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  3. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Green, J.; Segebade, C.

    2011-01-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  4. Analysis of conditions to safety and radiological protection of Brazilian research particle accelerators facilities; Analise das condicoes de protecao e seguranca radiologicas das instalacoes com aceleradores de particulas na area de pesquisa no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Manuel Jacinto Martins

    2010-07-01

    Eleven institutions of education and research in Brazil use particle accelerators, which fulfill different functions and activities. Currently, these institutions employ a total of fifteen accelerators. In this paper, the object of study is the radiological protection of occupationally exposed individuals, the general public and the radiation safety of particle accelerators. Research facilities with accelerators are classified in categories I and II according to the International Atomic Energy Agency or groups IX and X in accordance with the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy. Of the 15 accelerators in use for research in Brazil, four belong to category I or group X and eleven belong to category II or group IX. The methodology presented and developed in this work was made through the inspection and assessment of safety and radiological protection of thirteen particle accelerators facilities, and its main purpose was to promote safer use of this practice by following established guidelines for safety and radiological protection. The results presented in this work showed the need to create a program, in our country, for the control of safety and radiological protection of this ionizing radiation practice. (author)

  5. Qualitative analysis of the maintenance politics of the systems of a typical PWR by artificial neural networks; Analise qualitativa da politica de manutencoes dos sistemas de um PWR tipico por redes neurais artificiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Victor Hugo Moreno

    2010-02-15

    Proceedings and techniques in order to maximize the reliability and the availability of industrial plants have been used along the last decades by specialists and professionals of maintenance. However, the modem industrial systems' sizing, and the increasing complexity and interdependence among its components have become this activity's planning a more and more difficult task. Considering this scenario, the objective of the present work is to provide a computational tool which is able to help about the taking decision's task, and about planning policies of maintenance practiced in thermonuclear plants. The tool developed is based on the artificial neural networks (ANN) for the recognition of standards and establishment of correlations among events occurred in the components of pressurized water reactor (PWR) typical systems. The ANN work as miners of database of failure events, and are able to identify connections and to establish imperceptible inferences even for the most experienced specialists in maintenance of nuclear systems. The results were attained from realistic data and are confronted against the maintenance's classic policies which are practiced nowadays on PWR thermonuclear plants. These results show the solidity of the technique in valuing and predicting failures in a real power plant, and is able to be used as a tool for supporting decisions about planning maintenance policies on a typical PWR. (author)

  6. Cogeneration in breweries analysis and simulation of systems for simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration using natural gas; Sistemas de refrigeracao a partir da cogeracao: analise e simulacao de propostas para o caso de cervejarias utilizando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido

    1998-07-01

    The present work analyses some proposals of cogeneration systems for the simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration in a brewery. The requirements of steam, refrigeration and electricity, as well as the production of beer in a plant of the Antarctica Company, located in Jaguariuna - SP were collected monthly for the year of 1997. Three conceptions of systems using two gas turbines with heat recovery steam generator were then proposed to meet the surveyed demand. The proposals differ in the refrigeration system: the first one uses a traditional ammonia compression system while the second uses an ammonia absorption system, the third proposal is a combination of the compression and absorption systems. These proposals are compared to the present configuration which purchases electricity from the Public Utility for power and refrigeration (using an ammonia compression)system, and fuel oil to generate steam for process heat. The technical, economical and environmental feasibility of the proposals, as well as of the present configuration are discussed on the basis of mass balances, energy balances (first law of Thermodynamics), exergy fluxes (second law analysis), operational and capital cost, based on simulation of the performance of each configuration proposed to meet the monthly electricity, steam and refrigeration requirements for the referred plant. The turbines were chosen so as to meet the peek energy demand of the plant and two cases were simulated for each proposal: turbine operational meets only the demand of the plant and turbine operates at full load, selling electricity for the Public utility. Results obtained show that the current operational costs are higher than any of the proposals presented. The high capital costs of the proposals, though,make them less interesting financially. The simulation of the case of excess electricity to the Public Utility is very attractive, considering the cost of natural gas 3,38 U$/M btu and the fare of 40 U

  7. Simulation of a gas thermal plant in the new environment of the Brazilian electricity sector: a risk versus return analysis; Simulacao de uma usina termica a gas no novo contexto do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise risco versus retorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinhel, Antonio Carlos da Costa

    2000-12-15

    This work has as its main objective the evaluation of the financial impact in respect to the investment in a thermal gas plant, taking into consideration the complementary role of thermal electricity generation within the interconnected system. A risk x return analysis is performed, by means of computer simulations based on different assumptions, among which the following: costs involved; electric system expansion scenarios; flexible plant operation; long and short term contracting of generation capacity. The combination between flexibility in operation (the level of take/ship or pay in gas contracts) - which in favorable hydraulic periods allows for the use of water which would otherwise overflow through spillways or stored at low value - and a trading strategy - which reduces the risk exposure to electricity spot prices - makes it possible to have a significant increase in the cost effectiveness of the project. Among the main conclusions of the study, the following should be highlighted: the electricity price gap occurring between the prices practiced in present contracts between suppliers and distributors and those of the 'new energy', resulting from the system expansion; the relevance the flexibility in fuel purchase, in order to allow for the cost reduction of the energy generated, through the elimination of unnecessary gas consumption; the high risk associated to strategies in which investors come up with no signed long term power purchase agreements; and the risks for the system expansion, considering the consumer point of view. (author)

  8. Three-dimensional radiotherapy planning system for esophageal tumors: comparison of treatment techniques and analysis of probability of complications; Planejamento tridimensional para radioterapia de tumores de esofago: comparacao de tecnicas de tratamento e analise de probabilidade de complicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justino, Pitagoras Baskara; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Ferauche, Debora; Ros, Renato [Sao Paulo Uni., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto de Radioterapia (InRad)]. E-mail: pitagorasb@hotmail.com

    2003-06-01

    Radiotherapy techniques for esophageal cancer were compared using a three-dimensional planning system. We studied the following treatment techniques used for a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the middle third of the esophagus: two antero-posterior and two latero-lateral parallel opposed fields, three fields ('Y' and 'T'), and four fields ('X'). Dose-volume histograms were obtained considering spinal cord and lungs as organs at risk. Analysis was performed comparing doses in these organs as recommended by the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) and Tumor Control Probability (TCP). When only the lungs were considered the best technique was two antero-posterior parallel opposed fields. The spinal cord was best protected using latero-lateral fields. We suggest the combination of at least two treatment techniques: antero-posterior fields with 'Y' or 'T' techniques, or latero-lateral fields in order to balance the doses in the lungs and the spinal cord. Another option may be the use of any of the three-field techniques during the whole treatment. (author)

  9. Identification and analysis of local and regional impacts from the introduction of biodiesel production in the state of Piaui, Brazil; Identificacao e analise dos impactos locais e regionais da introducao da producao de biodiesel no estado do Piaui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Omar Inacio Benedetti; Rathmann, Regis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Padula, Antonio Domingos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent moves towards the insertion of biofuels in the energy matrix of a number of countries are opening new prospects for agricultural production and for agroindustrial chains. This study aims at understanding the mechanisms taking place within a production system geared towards biodiesel production. The emergence of this new productive base raises new research issues: in what circumstances are the structuring, organization and implementation of these biodiesel productive chains taking place in Brazil? What are the effects of biodiesel production on local economies? Hence, the central objective of this study is the development and validation of an analytical structure capable of characterizing the biodiesel productive arrangements and identifying their economic and social impacts at the regions where they are installed. A preliminary analysis identified that a biodiesel productive arrangement is emerging in the State of Piaui, Northeastern Brazil, Our theoretical basis comprises elements from the regional economy, biorefineries, local production arrangements and innovation. For the analyses, we employed the methods of input-output, local quotient and shift-share. It can be said that a new social-economic dynamics is taking place in Piaui; however, the company needs to assess its interaction with local institutions as well as its castor bean production strategies. (author)

  10. Analysis of the possibility of use of a pump powered by solar energy supply of water in micro sprinklers; Analise da possibilidade de utilizacao de uma motobomba acionada por energia solar na alimentacao de agua em micro aspersores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Paulo Takashi; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Jousseph, Carlos Alberto C.; Grosbelli, Andressa; Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh, Edward [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Paran (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: paulooyama@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Due to the high cost of connecting electricity in distant places of conventional networks, solar photovoltaic energy is widely used in street lighting, water pumping, health clinics, etc.. To contribute to a better use of such energy, the project aimed to analyze the water-flow, power and electric current of a motor powered by two Solarex solar module manufacturer, model MSX 56, standard voltage of 12V, the current standard of 3.35A and 56W of potency using a pump, Shurflo Ltd manufacturer, model 2088-732, a pressure transducer model HUBA-510, a flow transducer for pumping water. The analysis for the height of 18.2 mca, corresponding height to 178.554 kPa, showed a flow rate of 365.308 L/h. Based on the results obtained in the laboratory, it was concluded that: the emitter Rain Bird QN-14, showed FVC nearly of 0.7%, ranking it as good, the emitter flow rates were in line with those presented in the catalog manufacturer, in the pressure range from 100 to 200 kPa, its effective radius was limited between 1.00 and 3.00 m away from the emitter, the profile of three-dimensional distribution of precipitation and isohyetal were quite irregular, which makes it possible the use of irrigation equipment in small areas. (author)

  11. Environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants: analysis and optimization proposals for Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Licenciamento ambiental para implantacao de pequenas centrais hidreletricas: analise e propostas de otimizacao para Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia da Energia], e-mail: adriana@unifei.edu.br; Dupas, Francisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: dupas@unifei.edu.brT

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the legal and institutional aspects of the environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants (SHPP). Laws and doctrine related to the topic were researched and concluded for Minas Gerais State with the help of a survey with the enterprises and institutions involved in the process to find out the difficulties that influence the delay of the analysis of the SHPP. It also highlights the importance of environmental zoning as a tool of environmental management for the procedure to obtain these licenses. The results show that 80% of the cases, the institutions do not respect the deadlines, 40% of the studies presented by the enterprises are insufficient, 60% there is lack of human resource and technical capacities of the environment institutions, and 80% non-fulfilment of the laws and non-integration of the institutions. Finally, the study concludes that the difficulties to obtain these licenses are based on the facts mentioned which are, the non-integration of the institutions and also, being recent, on the inexperience of the actors involved. Therefore, it is suggested that deadlines should be imposed for the institutions and the enterprises. There should be training, fund raising for the hiring of technicians, fulfillment of the law and above all, transparency in order to supply the electrical energy demand and guarantee the sustainable development. (author)

  12. Selection of production strategy in heterogeneous reservoirs under uncertainty with emphasis on analysis of wells; Selecao de estrategia de producao em campos com fortes heterogeneidades sob incertezas com enfase na analise de pocos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botechia, Vinicius E.; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The selection of a good production strategy for an oil field is a very important task, because it should enable the field to produce a quantity of hydrocarbons efficiently, in order to maximize the performance of the reservoir. This task, however, is extremely complex due to the large number of variables involved and possible alternatives. In scenarios under uncertainty, this complexity is even greater, since risks increase. The studies that focus on methodologies to select production strategies take into account, in most cases, only field indicators in the process. However, in heterogeneous fields and in scenarios under uncertainty, the behavior of the wells may have a very large range between the scenarios, due mainly to differences in simulation models in these cases. Thus, this paper proposes an approach to analyze the behavior of wells in the selection of production strategy in order to make the optimization process more efficient, increasing the average economic return on the considered scenarios or decreasing the risk involved in the process. The results showed that this type of analysis can provide new alternatives of strategies or can give greater robustness to the chosen strategy. (author)

  13. Radioprotection in dentistry: Analysis of the Dentistry Faculties of the Rio de Janeiro State not referring at personnel and installations; Radioprotecao em Odontologia: analise das faculdades de Odontologia do Estado do Rio de Janeiro no tocante a pessoal e instalacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha F, L.G. [PEN-COPPE/UFRJ Fund. Tecnica Educacional Souza Marques. Av. Mirandela 786 c/15 26520-460, Nilopolis, RJ, (Brazil); Borges, J.C.; Raymundo Junior, R.; Koch, H.A

    1998-12-31

    The objective was to show the necessity and the importance of the training and formation of the dentist in radioprotection according to the recent proposal for technical regulations `Radiological protection directrixes in Medical and Dentistry radiodiagnostic` of the Secretaria do Vigilancia Sanitaria of Ministerio da Saude (SVSMS). This regulation establishes basic standards to radioprotection in the medical and dentistry areas, including principles, limits, obligations and basic controls for the man and environment protection, versus possible improper effects caused by the use of ionizing radiation sources. An analysis of the discipline programs of the Dentistry Schools of Rio de Janeiro state indicates that they show a little or none preoccupation by the radiological protection, which was confirmed through a survey applied toward responsible professors by department or radiology service to the dentistry Schools. This work suggests the creation or adaptation of the existing disciplines introducing radioprotection and images quality in radiodiagnostic, to improve, complement and to make uniform the formation of future dentists optimizing the solution of the identified problems. (Author)

  14. Production of muscovite-feldspathic glass composite: scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis; Producao de composito moscovita-vidro feldspatico: microscopia eletronica de varredura e analise de difracao de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.P.F.; Ogasawara, T.; Santos, S.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Franca, S.C.A.; Barbato, C.N [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral(CETEM/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to find the sintering conditions for the feldspathic glass + muscovite mixture to produce a dense composite block for manufacturing dental prosthesis by using CAD-CAM. Each 20g of the glass-frit had : 15.55g of Armil-feldspar; 0.53g of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 1.56g of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}; 0.5g of borax; 1.74g of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}; 0.13g of CeO{sub 2}. Frit's powder finer than 350 Tyler mesh was mixed with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt% and 100 wt% of muscovite pressed cylinders (5600 pounds force) 16mm in diameter and sintered under vacuum Vacumat (VITA) furnace at 850 deg C, 900 deg C, 950 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1050 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1150 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy were carried out. The necessary temperature for high densification depended on the composition of the mixture: 850 deg C (for pure frit); 1050 deg C (for 10 wt% mica) and 1150 deg C (for 20 wt% mica); pure mica degraded during sintering. (author)

  15. Simulation of a gas thermal plant in the new environment of the Brazilian electricity sector: a risk versus return analysis; Simulacao de uma usina termica a gas no novo contexto do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise risco versus retorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinhel, Antonio Carlos da Costa

    2000-12-15

    This work has as its main objective the evaluation of the financial impact in respect to the investment in a thermal gas plant, taking into consideration the complementary role of thermal electricity generation within the interconnected system. A risk x return analysis is performed, by means of computer simulations based on different assumptions, among which the following: costs involved; electric system expansion scenarios; flexible plant operation; long and short term contracting of generation capacity. The combination between flexibility in operation (the level of take/ship or pay in gas contracts) - which in favorable hydraulic periods allows for the use of water which would otherwise overflow through spillways or stored at low value - and a trading strategy - which reduces the risk exposure to electricity spot prices - makes it possible to have a significant increase in the cost effectiveness of the project. Among the main conclusions of the study, the following should be highlighted: the electricity price gap occurring between the prices practiced in present contracts between suppliers and distributors and those of the 'new energy', resulting from the system expansion; the relevance the flexibility in fuel purchase, in order to allow for the cost reduction of the energy generated, through the elimination of unnecessary gas consumption; the high risk associated to strategies in which investors come up with no signed long term power purchase agreements; and the risks for the system expansion, considering the consumer point of view. (author)

  16. Emergetic analysis of the electrolytic hydrogen production using the secondary energy from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant; Analise emergetica da producao de hidrogenio eletrolitico aproveitando a energia vertida nao turbinada da Usina Hidroeletrica de Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarussi, Maria Alessandra Silva Nunes; Espinola, Michel Osvaldo Galeano [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2006-07-01

    Due to the possibility of increase in the energy market in a few years and awareness of the necessity of using the secondary energy in hydroelectric power plants and also concerned about the environmental problems related to energy enterprises, the present paper develops the emergy analyses of electrolytic hydrogen production in the Itaipu Power Plant located in the countries of Brazil and Paraguay. The emergy analyses despite being unknown by the major people and technicians responsible for the development of Environmental Impacts Studies, named EIA/RIMAS in Brazil, represents a way to fulfill all requirements imposed by law and government and also an important manner to internalize externalities in the evaluation of all variables involved in the execution and maintenance of natural and artificial processes. Afterwards, this database can be used to be compared with other actual processes of producing and supplying energy, guiding stake holders when deciding where and how to implement and take advantage of available energy sources. This work aims to evaluate with emergetic criteria the research done by Antonio Carlos Fonseca Santos Jr.: Analysis of the Economic Feasibility of Hydrogen Production in Hydroelectric Power Plants: A Case Study at Itaipu. (author)

  17. Microstructural analysis of sinterized aluminum powder obtained by the high energy milling of beverage cans; Analise microestrutural de po de aluminio sinterizado obtido pela moagem de alta energia de latas de bebidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Raelson Pereira de; Peres, Mauricio Mhirdaui, E-mail: mauricioperes@ct.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The objective is the study of the effect of high energy milling on the sintering of aluminum from beverage cans. The selected aluminum cans were cut and subjected to high energy milling under a common atmosphere (in the air). In milling, three grams of aluminum was used to maintain the ratio of 10/1 between the mass of the beads and the material. The milling time was varied in 1h, 1.5h and 2h, keeping the other variables constant. The particle size distribution was measured by laser granulometry, for further compaction and sintering at a temperature of 600 ° C for 2 h. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The granulometric analysis of the powders found that higher milling times produced finer particles. Powders with granulometry of less than 45 μm were obtained at 1 h, 1.5 h and 2 h times. The times of 1.5h and 2h promoted finer particles with better distribution of size. The SEM analyzes showed little variation in the shape of the particles as a function of the variation of the grinding times, presenting irregularities in the platelet geometry. The sintering time and temperature were effective in the densification of the powder particles, which were influenced by the average particle size.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis; Sintese e caracterizacao de pastas de cimento aditivadas com resinas epoxi - analises cineticas, termodinamicas e calorimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S., E-mail: macleybiane@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  19. Microstructural analysis of the potential of sugarcane bagasse ash as a pozzolan material in cement composites; Analise microestrutural do potencial das cinzas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar como material pozolanico em compositos cimenticios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.M.; Assuncao, C.C.; Guimaraes, L. de M.; Malmonge, J.A.; Tashima, M.M; Akasaki, J.L., E-mail: jorge.akasaki@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2016-07-01

    For civil construction, the ash obtained by burning sugarcane bagasse (SCBA) in sugar-cane industry is being treated as a pozzolan material because, in addition to containing high amounts of silicon and aluminium oxides, can promote reduction of the environmental impact caused by cement production, since this alternative material may partially replace the Portland cement.The present study evaluated the pozzolanic potential of the SCBA, from different states of Brazil (Sao Paulo (SP), Goias (GO) and Mato Grosso (MT)). The reactivity of the material was analyzed by microstructural characterization, besides the pastes production (lime / SCBA and cement / SCBA) for the analysis of the hydration products formed, which are evaluated by TG and SEM. There was a decrease in the formation of ettringite in the matrixes, inversely proportional to the amount of ash, which favored the reduction of the cracking in cementitious matrices. It has also observed that the pastes produced with the ashes from State of SP showed greater fixation of lime and, consequently, a high reactivity. (author)

  20. Metrological control of the gas flow and analysis of mass conservation in Bolivia-Brasil gas pipeline; Controle metrologico da vazao de gas e analise da conservacao de massa no gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Julio Cesar [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir de Faro; Frota, Mauricio Nogueira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade Industrial

    2005-07-01

    International gas pipelines reflect a integrated commerce and impose a metrological challenge for the custody transferences that indistinctly imply in significant economic impact. This work argues the complex analysis of the mass balance and expression of uncertainties of the Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (3.150 Km of length, 557 Km in Bolivian territory and 2.593 Km that cross Brazil of West for East), today carrying approximately 60% from its maximum capacity (30 million of cubic meters daily), operating for the Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., a enterprise controlled by PETROBRAS Gas S/A (GASPETRO). The TBG measuring methods always taking care of the necessities of the customers as well as being lined up with the changes of the natural gas market. In six years of existence, the TBG came along with the legislation created for regulating agency in formation and adjusted to the establishment of the contract inspector, important landmarks of the evolution of the market. This work presents the definitions that guide the metrological subjects of the TBG, making use of efficient tools in answers for each demand and searching to satisfy its proper necessities, the necessities of its customers and the new demands of the regulating agency. (author)

  1. Methodology to characterize an unsampled oil interval, integrating PVT (Pressure/Volumen/Temperature) analysis and production log; Metodologia para caracterizacao de oleo de intervalo nao-amostrado, integrando analise PVT e perfil de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Diogo Reato; Souza, Ana Paula Martins de; Vieira, Alexandre J.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a new methodology for characterizing an unsampled oil interval, using basically production log data and PVT analyses available in the well. The methodology was applied to a real case, where the live oil samples were collected during a well test run in three different depths, revealing some evidence of a compositional grading due to gravity. Each individual sample was a mixture of the fluid produced from the reservoir bottom to the sampling point, since the whole interval was perforated and the isolation had to be made with a packer. The first sample was corresponding to the mixture of lower and all upper oils. The other two samples are only the heavier and that oil with part of the one from the upper interval. In order to identify the fluid properties from the upper interval, needed for production development studies, the following procedure was devised: equation-of-state tuning, reproducing the sampled fluid properties; conversion of volumetric flowrates from production log into mass and molar flowrates; flowrate ratio calculation, between the upper and lower intervals; upper interval fluid composition estimative; upper interval fluid properties simulation, using the previously tuned equation-of-state, thus generating what was considered a representative, synthetic PVT analysis. (author)

  2. Analysis of electrical and microstructural characteristics of a ZnO-based varistor doped with rare earth oxide; Analise das caracteristicas microestruturais e eletricas de um varistor a base de ZnO dopado com oxidos de terras raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.M. de; Dias, R.; Furtado, J.G. de M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assuncao, F.C.R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Varistor is a semiconductor device, used in the protection of electrical systems, characterized to have a high no-linear electric resistance. Its properties are directly dependents of its chemical composition and microstructural characteristics. In this work were analyzed microstructural and electrical characteristics of a ZnO-based varistor doped with rare earth oxide, with chemical composition (mol%) 98,5.ZnO - 0,3.Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} - 0,2.Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 0,9.Co{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 0,1.Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. X-ray diffraction for phase characterization, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for microstructural analysis. Measurement of average grain size and electrical and dielectric characteristics complete the characterization. The results show the formation of biphasic microstructure and with high densification, presenting relevant varistors characteristics but that would need improvements.(author)

  3. Experimental analysis of ultrasonic signals in air-water vertical upward for void fraction measurement using neural networks; Analise experimental dos sinais ultra-sonicos em escoamentos verticais bifasicos para medicao da fracao de vazios atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Milton Y.; Massignan, Joao P.D.; Daciuk, Rafael J.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rheology of emulsion mixtures and void fraction measurements of multiphase flows requires proper instrumentation. Sometimes it is not possible to install this instrumentation inside the pipe or view the flow. Ultrasound technology has characteristics compatible with the requirements of the oil industry. It can assist the production of heavy oil. This study provides important information for an analysis of the feasibility of developing non-intrusive equipment. These probes can be used for measurement of multiphase void fraction and detect the flow pattern using ultrasound. Experiments using simulated upward air-water vertical two-phase flow show that there is a correlation between the acoustic attenuation and the concentration of the gas phase. Experimental data were obtained through the prototype developed for ultrasonic data acquisition. This information was processed and used as input parameters for a neural network classifier. Void fractions ({proportional_to}) were analyzed between 0% - 16%, in increments of 1%. The maximum error of the neural network for the classification of the flow pattern was 6%. (author)

  4. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  5. Analysis of the potential use of palm oil biodiesel for power generation in Amazonian remote systems; Analise do potencial do biodiesel de dende para geracao eletrica em sistemas isolados da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential of palm-oil biodiesel production and consumption in remote Amazonian systems (not connected to the national grid), taking into account economic, social and environmental impacts of this biofuel alternative. Through a detailed analysis of remote systems and in particular the examination of the national subside called 'Combustible Consumption Account', the study presents potential scenarios of biodiesel demand for electricity generation in the region, considering also the generation and grid connections projects in forthcoming years. Definition of current and future quantities of biodiesel needed to maintain thermal production in this system defines the Biodiesel investment necessities in remote Amazonian states (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima). Possibility of using biodiesel made progress with the launch of the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) in 2004. Although African Palm-oil trees adapt very well Amazonian soil, wide adoption of this specie as raw material for biodiesel production shows some barriers, like raise of palm oil price in global market, palm tree long maturation time and attractive price for conventional diesel in the region. Even if using palmoil biodiesel result in obvious significant social and environmental benefits, these benefits tend not to compensate the inefficiency of the market and, thus, expand the biofuel production in the Northern Region. (author)

  6. Analysis of the technical potential for carbon capture and geological sequestration in the oil sector of Brazil; Analise do potencial tecnico do sequestro geologico de CO{sub 2} no setor petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Isabella Vaz Leal da

    2009-02-15

    This thesis focuses on the technologies related to CO{sub 2} capture and geological storage. The main objective of this study is to perform an analysis of the technical potential of geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the oil and gas sector in Brazil. Climate changes are directly related to emissions of greenhouse gases. Mainly, are related to increased carbon dioxide emissions due to the use of fossil fuels. To mitigate climate changes there are technologies that have the purpose of promoting the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases such as the Geological Sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Thus, the study presents a description of the stages of the geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} and the state of the art of the technology in Brazil and worldwide. In addition, is presented the capacity for storage of the Brazilian sedimentary basins. Finally, this thesis analyzes the application of the described technologies in two stationary sources of great importance: refineries and oil and gas production fields. (author)

  7. Analysis of the potential use of palm oil biodiesel for power generation in Amazonian remote systems; Analise do potencial do biodiesel de dende para geracao eletrica em sistemas isolados da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential of palm-oil biodiesel production and consumption in remote Amazonian systems (not connected to the national grid), taking into account economic, social and environmental impacts of this biofuel alternative. Through a detailed analysis of remote systems and in particular the examination of the national subside called 'Combustible Consumption Account', the study presents potential scenarios of biodiesel demand for electricity generation in the region, considering also the generation and grid connections projects in forthcoming years. Definition of current and future quantities of biodiesel needed to maintain thermal production in this system defines the Biodiesel investment necessities in remote Amazonian states (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima). Possibility of using biodiesel made progress with the launch of the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) in 2004. Although African Palm-oil trees adapt very well Amazonian soil, wide adoption of this specie as raw material for biodiesel production shows some barriers, like raise of palm oil price in global market, palm tree long maturation time and attractive price for conventional diesel in the region. Even if using palmoil biodiesel result in obvious significant social and environmental benefits, these benefits tend not to compensate the inefficiency of the market and, thus, expand the biofuel production in the Northern Region. (author)

  8. Increasing the complexity of a refinery: a analysis of the economic impacts of the introduction of new process in refineries; O aumento da complexidade de uma refinaria: uma analise dos impactos economicos da introducao de novos processos em refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Cristiane M; Seidl, Peter R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The importance of the refining segment in the oil productive chain turns decision making on production and investment to be made at refineries dependent upon general context of the oil industry. Several technical and economic factors limit the possibilities to be foreseen by the managers. The ultimate goal of a refinery is to meet market demand in a region. Moreover, the type of processed oil and refining techniques will shape the profile of the production of derivatives. In a segment dynamic and full of uncertainties, such as refining, where the type of oil supplied to processing, specifications of products, and their demands, changes in the course of time, how to keep refining margins acceptable? This paper presents the relationship between the characteristics and the use of different kinds of oil, the characteristics of the national market of derivatives, and some characteristics of the refining processes considered in the study. The possible economic impacts that the introduction of different processes can bring to a refinery are analysed and alternatives for expansion are evaluated. To achieve these goals, a methodology for analysis considering the yield of Marlin oil refining for different schemes has been developed. (author)

  9. Shapley value applied to the economic analysis of upstream projects for an integrated energy company; Valor de Sharpley aplicado a analise economica de projetos de E e P em uma empresa integrada de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinciara Junior, Ewerton Ribeiro Walter; Vieira, Roberta Chasse; Soares, Fabio Maia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    For integrated energy companies, the determination of opportunity costs is of major importance for the appraisal of project revenues. The key feature to be taken into account is not the actual price forecast for the oil, but which value that oil production aggregates to the Company - the cumulative gains of both upstream and downstream segments. When a project portfolio is analyzed, special care must be taken to the synergies among projects, whether those are positive or negative. An inadequate approach could simply disregard such relationships or oversize their impact, what would lead to incorrect determination of project revenues. Shapley values is a concept withdrawn from games' theory which can be used as a normalization technique, aiming to distribute the income of a portfolio among its players in an unbiased way, through the analysis of the several marginal contributions of each project for each possible subset of the portfolio. In this contribution the utilization of such technique for the valuation of oil production projects is discussed and illustrated. Topics such as advantages and drawbacks of the proposed approach are addressed, as well as computational effort issues. (author)

  10. Analysis of the chemical elements behavior in leaves infected with fumagina employing X-ray fluorescence technique; Analise do comportamento de elementos quimicos em folhas infectadas com fumagina atraves da tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2002-02-01

    Fumagina is produced by the Capnodium fungi, a mushroom from Dothideales order, that lives associated with the yellow aphid (Monelliopsis pecanis), excreting a heavy load of a sugared substance that provides the sooty fungus development, covering, in some cases the totality, of leaves, fruits and branches surfaces. One of the big problems caused by this disease is the physic photosynthesis stuckness, reducing in 98% the active photosynthesis radiation and in 70% the net photosynthesis. This photosynthesis reduction affects the plants carbohydrate reservoirs, resulting in reduced and bad qualified crops. It was employed the Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF) to study the fumagina disease. The measurements were realized with infected and healthy leaves of citric plants (orange and lemon trees), collected at the Farm School of the State University of Londrina, and also leaves of icsora plant from Piracicaba-SP. Through this technique it was observed a metabolic disorder related to Fe and Ca elements. By comparing the EDXRF spectra of the healthy plant leaves with the infected ones, it was verified that the concentration of Ca is higher than the concentration Fe in leaves of healthy plants, while for the leaves of plants infected with fumagina, it was observed a higher concentration of Fe. Employing EDXRF and the emission/transmission method for the matrix effect correction, samples of the citric plants were also analysed in pellet. The elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn , Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. It was verified a higher Fe concentration in fumagina samples compared to the samples without fumagina. For all the elements of interest the minimum level of detection found was at the order of {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Use of the sensitivity analysis for multi-attributes decision models for oil exploration and production systems; Uso da analise de sensibilidade em modelos de decisao multiatributos para sistemas de exploracao e producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Ricardo

    2000-07-01

    Today, oil companies must be able to survive in a hostile and competitive environment. Such environment involves volatility of oil prices, the narrow margins of profitability, and ever increasing environmental restrictions. In order to survive, firms must have the appropriate tools to consider the tradeoffs involving the financial, environmental, technological and of market parameters which are the key elements within the investment decision-making process. The aim of the present work is to analyze the behavior of the weights (relative importance) of the attributes int the multi-criteria decision model through a high dimension sensitivity analysis. Among the benefits of such method are: provide the analyst (decision-maker) with a better characterization and control of the weights of the attributes, providing the user with a clear view of the entire decision process. The methodology suggested in this dissertation was applied in two oil exploration and production case studies. The first case involved the selection of an exploratory target among three options. In this case, there is interaction of the objectives of the company, where financial, technological and of market parameters interact. In the second case, a hypothetical production project is suggested. For this second study, the decision-maker has the option of using one of the following production systems: a FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading); a TLP (Tension Leg Platform); or a SS (Semi Submersible). The attributes for each one of the production systems are financial, technological and environmental. In this second case, the model makes it possible to simulate several options, providing the manager with the choice of the most appropriate production system to this objectives and preferences. (author)

  12. Analysis of fracturing in the basalts of the Serra Geral Aquifer and the potential regional recharge of the Guarani Aquifer System; Analise de fraturas dos basaltos do Aquifero Serra Geral e o potencial de recarga regional do Sistema Aquifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A. J.; Assis Negri, F. de; Azevedo Sobrino, J. M.; Varnier, C.

    2012-11-01

    The Geological Institute, belonging to the Ministry for the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo, is currently undertaking regional research into vertical groundwater flow through the basalts in the Serra Geral Aquifer (ASG), which influences recharge of the sandstones in the underlying Guarani Aquifer System (SAG) and therefore the quantity of groundwater available and its susceptibility to pollution. The study area corresponds to the outcropping region of the ASG, an area of the state of Sao Paulo that contains important urban centres. The methods used included: (1) field work, focused on characterizing the vertical tectonic structures and the stresses responsible for their origin; and (2) an analysis of the structural data collected, aimed at identifying brittle tectonic events and their influence on groundwater flow. Distinguishing between cooling and tectonic fractures is a relevant aspect of the field work as only the tectonic events are capable of cutting across the vesicular beds, which otherwise form a barrier against vertical flow and block any connection between the aquifers. Three tectonic strike-slip events have been identified, each having generated hybrid tectonic fractures, which, because they involve extension as well as shearing, potentially favour flow. Diagnostic features suggest the occurrence in the south-western zone of the study area of preferential flow along fractures in the direction N70-80W and N60-80E, and secondary ones trending N20W and N20E; in the northeastern zone there is flow along secondary fractures in the direction N15W and N5-10E and in the central zone N40-65W. (Author)

  13. Analysis of the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes irradiated with {sup 60}Co; Analise da frequencia de alteracoes cromossomicas instaveis em linfocitos humanos irradiados com {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: july_cgm@hotmail.com, E-mail: mendes_sb@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Neide, E-mail: santos_neide@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations induced by gamma radiation from a {sup 60}Co source at two different doses. Samples were obtained from a healthy donor and exposed to {sup 60}Co source (Gammacel 220 ) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy of Pernambuco Federal University (DEN/UFPe/Brazil) with a rate of air Kerma to 3,277 Gy/h. Exposures resulted in absorbed dose 0.51 Gy and 0.77 Gy. Mitotic metaphases were obtained by culturing lymphocytes for chromosome analysis and the slides were stained with 5% Giemsa. Among the unstable chromosomal aberrations the dicentric chromosomes, ring chromosomes and acentric fragments were analyzed. To calculate the significance level the chi - square test was used, considering relevant differences between the frequencies when the value of p < 0.05. To calculate the significance level of the chi - square test was used, considering relevant differences between the frequencies when the value of p < 0.05. The results showed that there was significant difference of the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes (from 0.18 to 0.51 to 0.37 Gy to 0.77 Gy), however there was no statistically significant difference between the frequencies of acentric fragments ( 0.054 to 0, 51 Gy to 0.063 to 0.77 Gy) and ring chromosomes (0.001 to 0.51 Gy to 0.003 to 0.77 Gy). The low number of rings is found justified, considering that in irradiated human lymphocytes, its appearance is rare relative to dicentrics. The results confirm that dicentrics are the most reliable biomarkers in estimating dose after exposure to gamma radiation. These two points will make the calibration curve dose-response being built for Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of CRCN-NE/CNEN.

  14. Investigation of the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis; Investigacao da resistencia a corrosao da liga Ti-13Nb-13Zr por meio de tecnicas eletroquimicas e de analise de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Sergio Luiz de

    2006-07-01

    In this work, the in vitro corrosion resistance of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy, manufactured at a national laboratory, and used for orthopedic applications, has been investigated in solutions that simulate the body fluids. The electrolytes used were 0.9 % (mass) NaCl, Hanks' solution, a culture medium (MEM), and the two last electrolytes, without and with addition of hydrogen peroxide. The aim of peroxide addition was to simulate the conditions found when inflammatory reactions occur due to surgical procedures. The corrosion resistance of alloys commercially in use as biomaterials, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V, as well as of the pure titanium (Ti-cp), was also studied for comparison with the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. The corrosion resistance characterization was carried out by electrochemical and surface analysis techniques. The electrochemical tests used were: open circuit potential measurements as a function of tim; potentiodynamic polarization; and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE). The impedance experimental diagrams were interpreted using equivalent electric circuits that simulate an oxide film with a duplex structure composed of an internal and compact, barrier type layer, and an external porous layer. The results showed that the corrosion resistance is due mainly to the barrier type layer. The titanium alloys and the Ti-cp showed high corrosion resistance in all electrolytes used. The oxides formed on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr, either naturally or during immersion in MEM ar Hank's solution was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (MEV). The results showed that the presence of hydrogen peroxide in MEM promotes the growth of the porous layer and incorporation of mineral ions, besides favouring hydroxyapatite formation. The cytotoxicity of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was also evaluated and it was shown to be non-toxic. (author)

  15. Investigation of the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis; Investigacao da resistencia a corrosao da liga Ti-13Nb-13Zr por meio de tecnicas eletroquimicas e de analise de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Sergio Luiz de

    2006-07-01

    In this work, the in vitro corrosion resistance of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy, manufactured at a national laboratory, and used for orthopedic applications, has been investigated in solutions that simulate the body fluids. The electrolytes used were 0.9 % (mass) NaCl, Hanks' solution, a culture medium (MEM), and the two last electrolytes, without and with addition of hydrogen peroxide. The aim of peroxide addition was to simulate the conditions found when inflammatory reactions occur due to surgical procedures. The corrosion resistance of alloys commercially in use as biomaterials, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V, as well as of the pure titanium (Ti-cp), was also studied for comparison with the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. The corrosion resistance characterization was carried out by electrochemical and surface analysis techniques. The electrochemical tests used were: open circuit potential measurements as a function of tim; potentiodynamic polarization; and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE). The impedance experimental diagrams were interpreted using equivalent electric circuits that simulate an oxide film with a duplex structure composed of an internal and compact, barrier type layer, and an external porous layer. The results showed that the corrosion resistance is due mainly to the barrier type layer. The titanium alloys and the Ti-cp showed high corrosion resistance in all electrolytes used. The oxides formed on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr, either naturally or during immersion in MEM ar Hank's solution was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (MEV). The results showed that the presence of hydrogen peroxide in MEM promotes the growth of the porous layer and incorporation of mineral ions, besides favouring hydroxyapatite formation. The cytotoxicity of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was also evaluated and it was shown to be non-toxic. (author)

  16. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident; Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-15

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  17. The process of candidates choose graduate programs: an analysis from the advisor perspective; O processo de escolha de candidatos a programas de Pos-Graduacao: uma analise a partir da perspectiva do orientador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ridnal Joao do

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to identify the criteria used by advisors in the decision-making on whether to accept a candidate for mentoring in a postgraduate strictu sensu program and examines possible relationships between this decision and their scientific production and mentees evasion. In order to meet these goals one seeks to identify and analyze the selection criteria of candidates for the master's and doctorate programs at an institution; in this case, the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN. More specifically, one seeks to study similarities and differences between those criteria among the advisors; find out whether there is a correlation between the selection criteria and the advisors characteristics (Profile); identify the selection process used by advisors and point out which are the motivations that lead to evasion according to their point of view. To meet these challenges, as the starting point of the research, a conceptual model was designed in order to form the basis for the preparation of the script for the interviews with open-ended questions as to identify the selection criteria used by a small group of advisors with a predefined profile. From that point, based on the responses obtained in interviews, the survey was expanded to all advisors working in the IPEN Postgraduate program by implementing an online survey using Google Docs app for data collection. These data were then analyzed and reorganized according to an operational model of research that would guide the analysis by structural equation modeling (SEM) by means of the SmartPLS software, in order to identify the presence or absence of correlation between the criteria adopted by the advisors and their academic production and the evasion of their mentees, for that one relied on studies in: Bazerman and Moore (2010); Cohen (1988); Hair Jr. et al (2009); Hansmann and Ringle (2004); Martins (1997); Ringle, C.; Silva and Bido (2014); Sousa (2007); Sousa and Yu (2014); Torres (2014); Yu (2011

  18. Inclusão do aluno com dismotria cerebral ontogenética: analise das práticas pedagógicas Inclusion of students with cerebral palsy: analysis of pedagogical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Marques de Castro Leão

    2006-08-01

    environment as a means to collect data. So as to ensure a typical reading of the school setting, the observation times and dates varied. Interviews and documental analysis of student work (essays, tests, classroom worksheets and school documents were also carried out. The participants in the study included a student with cerebral palsy, his mother, as well as the teachers who taught him during the years of 2000 and 2001. The data that was collected enabled us to define the category that became the focus for the present research: scholastic chievement and student performance and the student's perception of his own learning process. In conclusion, this study showed to a certain degree that the inclusion process for this student is having positive results as to social and physical presence. However, when looking at actual learning, educational inclusion did not occur, because the educational practices observed did not answer to the specific needs of this student.

  19. Neutron activation analysis in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolescu, St.

    1985-01-01

    The following basic nuclear facilities are used for neutron activation analysis: a 2000 KW VVR-S Nuclear Reactor, a U-200 Cyclotron, a 30 MeV Betatron, several 14 MeV neutron generators and a king size High Voltage tandem Van de'Graaff accelerator. The main domains of application of the thermal neutron activation analysis are: geology and mining, processing of materials, environment and biology, achaeology. Epithermal neutron activation analysis has been used for determination of uranium and thorium in ores with high Th/U ratios or high rare earth contents. One low energy accelerator, used as 14.1 Mev neutron source, is provided with special equipmen for oxigen and low mass elements determination. An useful alternating way to support fast neutron activation analysis is an accurate theoretical description of the fast neutron induced reactions based on the statistical model (Hauser-Feubach STAPRE code) and the preequilibrium decay geometry dependent model. A gravitational sample changer has been installed at the end of a beam line of the Cyclotron, which enables to perform charged particles activation analysis for protein determination in grains

  20. Study in vitro of dental enamel irradiated with a high power diode laser operating at 960 nm: morphological analysis of post-irradiation dental surface and thermal effect analysis in pulp chamber due to laser application; Estudo in vitro do esmalte dental irradiado com laser de diodo de alta potencia em 960 nm: analise morfologica da superficie dental pos-irradiada e analise do comportamento termico na camara pulpar devido a aplicacao laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto Junior, Jose

    2001-07-01

    Objectives: This study examines the structural and thermal modifications induced in dental enamel under dye assisted diode laser irradiation. The aim of this study is to verify if this laser-assisted treatment is capable to modify the enamel surface by causing fusion of the enamel surface layer. At the same time, the pulpal temperature rise must be kept low enough in order not to cause pulpar necrosis. To achieve this target, it is necessary to determine suitable laser parameters. As is known, fusion of the enamel surface followed by re-solidification produce a more acid resistant layer. This surface treatment is being researched as a new method for caries prevention. Method and Materials: A series of fourteen identically prepared enamel samples of human teeth were irradiated with a high power diode laser operating at 960 nm and using fiber delivery. Prior to irradiation, a fine layer of cromophorous ink was applied to the enamel surface. In the first part of the experiment the best parameter for pulse duration was determined. In the second part of the experimental phase the same energy density was used but with different repetition rates. During irradiation we monitored the temperature rise in the pulpal cavity. The morphology of the treated samples was analysed under SEM. Results: The morphology of the treated samples showed a homogeneously re-solidified enamel layer. The results of the temperature analysis showed a decrease of the pulpal temperature rise with decreasing repetition rate. Conclusion: With the diode laser it is possible to cause morphological alterations of the enamel surface, which is known to increase the enamel resistance against acid attack, and still maintain the temperature rise in the pulpar chamber below damage threshold. (author)

  1. Gamma activation analysis with microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiderkiewicz, A.; Kierzek, J.; Parus, J.; Swiderska-Kowalczyk, M.; Wolski, W.; Zoltowski, T.

    1989-01-01

    The physical principles of gamma activation analysis, its capabilities as well as its application to analyse polymetallic ores with use of mean power microtron are presented. Limits of detection and determination for above twenty elements occurring in those ores with use of short- and longlived radioisotopes are specified. The work contains conception of construction of race-track microtron with electrons energy adjusted in 10-30 MeV range and with current not less than 20 μA. Besides the development of microtrons, the reason for choosing the race-track construction for gamma activation analysis is given. 69 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  2. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.

    2003-01-01

    Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a technique for the analysis of elements present in solid, liquid and gaseous samples by measuring the capture gamma rays emitted from the sample during neutron irradiation. The technique is complementary to conventional neutron activation analysis (NAA) as it can be used in number of cases where NAA fails. Though the technique was first used in sixties, the advantage of the technique was first highlighted by Lindstrom and Anderson. PGNAA is increasingly being used as a rapid, instrumental, nondestructive and multielement analysis technique. A monograph and several excellent reviews on this topic have appeared recently. In this review, an attempt has been made to bring out the essential aspects of the technique, experimental arrangement and instrumentation involved, and areas of application. Some of the results will also be presented

  3. Neutron activation analysis of artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abd Rahman

    2004-01-01

    The paper discussed the utilization of neutron activation analysis in this field. NAA, an analytical technique which analyzing the elements in the sample without any chemical treatment. It is sensitive and accurate. Archaeological objects i.e. ceramics, historical building materials, metals, etc can be analyze with this technique. The analysis results were presented in form of characterization of the artefacts in chemical profiles, which can present the information of the origin of the artefacts as well as it originality. (Author)

  4. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweikert, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (1 9 via 16 O( 3 He,p) 18 F, 12 C( 3 He,α) 11 C and 14 N(p,α) 11 C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3 He activation for the determination of oxygen [ 16 O( 3 H,n) 18 F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms 1 H( 7 Li,n) 7 Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (26 9 ) and accuracy using proton activation. 204 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  5. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Hensley, W.K.; Denton, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  6. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.; Denton, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day

  7. Instrumental activation analysis of molybdenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisler, M.; Schelhorn, H.

    1981-01-01

    Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Se, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Yb, Hf, W, Re, and Th have been determined in 6 molybdenite samples by instrumental activation analysis. The samples were of different origin and showed K, Sc, W, and Re values with differences of more than two orders of magnitude, whereas Sc values were within one order of magnitude

  8. Study on neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Cho, Seung Yeon

    1993-01-01

    Environmental samples were analyzed quantitatively by neutron activation analysis using high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of the method were checked by the analysis of reference materials, Urban Particulate Matter (NBS SRM 1648) and Coalfly ash (NBS SRM 1633a). Airborne particulates collected for 6 months with low volume air sampler at the outer area of Seoul were analyzed as the start of full scale airborne particulates research. We analyzed 19 trace elements from the samples and the NAA method was confirmed to be utilized for environmental pollution research. (Author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis using TRIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1972-01-01

    Activation analysis with TRIGA MARK II is the main part of the work of the nuclear Chemistry Section at the Institute. A major part of the effort in this field is concerned with the determination of trace elements at the micro and nanogram level in a wide variety of materials, and with the development of new methods, (or the adaptation of known methods,) applicable to these determinations. In particular, specific and group radiochemical separations are studied

  10. Activation analysis of biological materials at the Activation Analysis Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukula, F.; Obrusnik, I.; Simkova, M.; Kucera, J.; Krivanek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the work of the Activation Analysis Centre of the Nuclear Research Institute for different fields of the Czechoslovak economy, aimed primarily at analyzing biological materials with the purpose of determining the contents of the so-called vital trace elements and of elements which already have a toxic effect on the organism in trace concentrations. Another important field of research is the path of trace elements from the environment to the human organism. A destructive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trace elements in 11 kinds of human tissue has been studied. (Z.M.)

  11. US--ITER activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.; Gohar, Y.; Smith, D.

    1990-09-01

    Activation analysis has been made for the US ITER design. The radioactivity and the decay heat have been calculated, during operation and after shutdown for the two ITER phases, the Physics Phase and the Technology Phase. The Physics Phase operates about 24 full power days (FPDs) at fusion power level of 1100 MW and the Technology Phase has 860 MW fusion power and operates for about 1360 FPDs. The point-wise gamma sources have been calculated everywhere in the reactor at several times after shutdown of the two phases and are then used to calculate the biological dose everywhere in the reactor. Activation calculations have been made also for ITER divertor. The results are presented for different continuous operation times and for only one pulse. The effect of the pulsed operation on the radioactivity is analyzed. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  12. Application of nuclear activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamonov, E.I.; Khlystova, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    Consideration is given to the applications of nuclear-activation analysis (NAA) as discussed at the International Conference of 1977. One of the new results in the present-day NAA practices is the growing number of elements detected in samples without using a destructive radiochemical separation. An essential feature in this context is the development of the system automation of control and information NAA operations through the use computers. In biological medicine a multicomponent NAA is employed to determine the concentration of elements in various human organs and objects, in metabolic studies and for diagnostic purposes. In agriculture NAA finds applications in the evaluation of grain protein, analysis of element feed composition, soil and fertilizers. The application of this method to the environmental monitoring is considered with particular reference to the element analysis of water (especially drinking water), air, plant residues. Data are presented for the use of NAA in metallurgy, geology, archaeology and criminal law. Tables are provided to illustrate the uses of NAA in various fields

  13. Prehistory analysis using photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausova, I.; Chvatil, D.; Tajer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) is a suitable radio-analytical method for non-destructive determination of total nitrogen in various matrices. IPAA determination of nitrogen is based on 14 N (γ, n) 13 N nuclear reaction after high-energy photon irradiation. The analytically usable product of this photo-nuclear reaction is a positron emitter emitting only non-specific annihilation of 511 keV, which can be emitted by other radionuclides present in the sample. Some of them, besides the non-specific 511 keV line, also emit specific lines that allow their contribution to analytical radionuclide 13 N to be subtracted. An efficient source of high-energy photon radiation is the secondary bremsstrahlung generated by the conversion of the electron beam accelerated by a high-frequency circular accelerator - a microtron. The non-destructive IPAA contributed to the clarification of the origins of a precious bracelet originating from a fortified settlement in the area of Karlovy Vary - Drahovice from the late Bronze Age. (authors)

  14. Activation analysis in gold industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear techniques and methods were, are, and will be very important for many fields of science, agriculture, industry, etc. Among other examples one can remember role of the nuclear medicine (radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic methods) or semiconductors (communication, computing, information, etc.) which industrial production has been on initial stage based on activation analysis. One of very illustrative examples is application of nuclear methods in gold industry. This is given by favorable nuclear properties of gold. Uzbekistan is one of the main producers of gold. Open-cast mining and hydro metallurgic extraction (using leaching by cyanide and sorption by ion-exchange resin) is the mostly used technology. The typical gold ores are sulfide and contain elevated concentration of As and Sb. That needs special technology of gold extraction. Importance of gold for Uzbekistan economy is a reason why for many years there are carried out studies concerning to gold production. These studies include also nuclear methods and their results are successfully used in gold industry. The present paper gives a brief overview for period of 25 years. For many reasons most of these studies were not published before completely. Despite some results are obtained decades ago we decided to present the overview as an example how nuclear methods can cover requirements of the whole process. We are trying to sort these studies according to methods and applications

  15. Neutron activation analysis in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolov, D.

    1985-01-01

    The development of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a routine method started in 1960 with bringing into use of the experimental nuclear reactor 2 MW -IRT-2000. For the purposes of INAA the vertical channels were used. The neutron flux vary from 1 to 6x10 12 n/cm 2 s, with Cd ratio for gold of about 4,4. In one of the channels the neutron flux is additionally thermalised with grafite, in others - a pneumatic double-tube rabbit system is installed. One of the irradiation positions is equiped with 1 mm Cd shield constantly. With the pressure of the working gas (air) of 2 bar the transport time in one direction is 2,5 sec. Because of lack of special system for uniform irradiation an accuracy of 3% can be reached by use of iron monitors for long irradiations and copper monitors for use in the rabbit system. Two neutron generators are also working but the application of 14 MeV neutrons for INAA is still quite limited. The most developed are the applications of INAA in the fields of geology and paedology, medicine and biology, environment and pollution, archaeology, metallurgy, metrology and hydrology, criminology

  16. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frana, J.; Obrusnik, I.

    1992-05-01

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  17. Proceedings of national seminar neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Muhayatun Santoso; Budi Haryanto; Khatarina Oginawati

    2010-11-01

    Proceedings of national seminar neutron activation analysis in 2010 with the theme of the Role of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Field of Environment, Health and Industry. The seminar was organized by Indonesians Neutron Activation Analysis and BATAN Forum. These proceedings contain the result of environmental research in BATAN, universities and institutions associated with the application on neutron activation analysis technique. The purpose of these proceedings was as a useful source of information to spur research and development of activation analysis applications in various fields for the Indonesian welfare. There are 40 articles. (PPIKSN).

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  19. Activation analysis with reactor neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, S.

    1983-01-01

    The potentialities of neutron as an analytical probe are indicated, pointing out the need for development of other approaches, besides the conventional activation method. Development of instrumental approach to activation and applications, carried out at Analytical Chemistry Division are outlined. The role of, and the need for, the development and application of mathematical methods in enhancing the information content, and in turn the interpretation of the analytical results, is demonstrated. (author)

  20. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0-standardisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k 0 -standardisation concentrates on the improvement of the standardisation method and the characterisation of the neutron field as well as on the improvement of the statistical control on neutron activation analysis. Main achievements in 2000 are reported

  1. Utilization of chemical derivatives in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Derivative activation analysis (DAA) is a method to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear activation analysis for the more elusive elements. It may also allow a degree of chemical speciation for the element of interest. DAA uses a preirradiation chemical reaction on the sample to initiate the formation of, or an exchange with, a chemical complex which contains a surrogate element, M. As a result, the amount of the element or the chemical species to be determined, X, is now represented by measurement of the amount of the surrogate element, M, that is made part of, or released by the complex species. The surrogate element is selected for its superior properties for nuclear activation analysis and the absence of interference reaction in its final determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) after some preconcentration or separation chemistry. Published DAA studies have been limited to neutron activation analysis. DAA can offer the analyst some important advantages. It can determine elements, functional groups, or chemical species which cannot be determined directly by INAA, fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA), prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), or charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) procedures. When compared with conventional RNAA, there are fewer precautions with respect to handling of intensely radioactive samples, since the chemistry is done before the irradiation. The preirradiation chemistry may also eliminate many interferences that might occur in INAA and, through use of an appropriate surrogate element, can place the analytical gamma-ray line in an interference-free region of the gamma-ray spectrum

  2. Neutron activation analysis of biological substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordogh, M.

    1978-08-01

    A Bowen cabbage sample was used as a reference material for the neutron activation studies, and the method was checked by the analysis of other biological substances (blood or serum etc.). For nondestructive measurements also some non-trace elements were determined in order to decide whether the activation analysis is a useful means for such measurements. The new activation analysis procedure was used for biomedical studies as, e.g., for trace element determination in body fluids, and for the analysis of inorganic components in air samples. (R.P.)

  3. Analysis by neutronic activation of the active principles of MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.T.; Moreno Bermudez, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Molina Insfran, J.; Perez Zayas, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the present job the obtained results are shown through the application of an analysis by neutronic activation, in their instrumental variant, for the determination of the elementary composition of three Cuban radiopharmaceuticals. (author) [es

  4. Quality assurance techniques for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and techniques of quality assurance are applied to the measurement method of activation analysis. Quality assurance is defined to include quality control and quality assessment. Plans for quality assurance include consideration of: personnel; facilities; analytical design; sampling and sample preparation; the measurement process; standards; and documentation. Activation analysis concerns include: irradiation; chemical separation; counting/detection; data collection, and analysis; and calibration. Types of standards discussed include calibration materials and quality assessment materials

  5. Development of a YouTube videos feelings analiser = Desarrollo de un analizador de sentimientos de videos de Youtube

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Salas, José Miguel del

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, Youtube is one of the most successful social networks, therefore it has more and more impact in our society. Due to this it's quite useful to know the sentiments that this platform videos produces. This project has been focused in the development of a tool able to analise this sentiments, which could be used for di�erent purposes like Market studies or emotional learning for people who has some functional diversity. The technologies used during the project development has b...

  6. Conference on instrumental activation analysis - IAA 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especialy on neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods. (J.P.)

  7. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.; Zilliacus, R.; Kaistila, M.

    1983-06-01

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  8. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Combretum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Combretum molle and Pericopsis laxiflora. Kossi-Kuma Agbalevon Koevi, Vinsoun Millogo, Jean Baptiste Hzounda Fokou, Abdou Sarr, Georges Anicet Ouedraogo, Emmanuel Bassene ...

  9. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The conference heard 23 papers dealing with the application of activation analysis in environmental control, the preparation of calibration standards, gamma spectroscopy, data processing and with the control of the purity of radiopharmaceuticals. (J.P.)

  10. Program for energetic efficiency in electrical motors: impact in the electric sector and an international comparative analysis of market and efficiency; Programa de eficiencia energetica em motores eletricos: seu impacto no setor eletrico e uma analise comparativa internacional de mercado e eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, George A.; Kristoschek Filho, Omar A. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tabosa, Ronaldo de Paula [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa Nacional de Conservacao de Energia Eletrica

    1999-07-01

    During the last thirteen years, the Brazilian National Program for Combat to the Electric Power Wasting - PROCEL has been developing various activities in the area of electrical motors and electronic actuation. In the initial stage, the program proceeded an evaluation of the national program for electric motors. In the second stage, the recommendations generated in the first stage were implemented, consisting of activities with a more technological characterization due to the necessity of more reliable databases and consideration of questions related to the improvement of the energetic performance. This work performs some analysis concerning to the questions on marketing and performance levels of Canada, USA and european countries. The differences between sales volumes, prices and strategies for establishment of minimum indexes are emphasized. Also, some activities of PROCEL related with the encouragement to the using of more efficient motors are presented.

  11. Photon activation analysis on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Heller, W.; Kupsch, H.

    1988-01-01

    With regard to the planned construction of a new microtron, first investigations on raw materials for the aerated concrete production have been done to clear up the possibilities of photon activation analysis (PAA). Irradiations have been partly carried out on linear accelerators with a self-developed moveable activation equipment. PAA results of qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis are described. The detection of chlorine is important for studying the oversalting processes in buildings. (author)

  12. Forensic neutron activation analysis - the Japanese scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tohru.

    1986-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis/FNAA/ in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences /e.g.,paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks/ and drug sample differenciation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis-comparative (NAAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A software system for the reduction of comparative neutron activation analysis data is presented. Libraries are constructed to contain the elemental composition and isotopic nuclear data of an unlimited number of standards. Ratios to unknown sample data are performed by standard calibrations. Interfering peak corrections, second-order activation-product corrections, and deconvolution of multiplets are applied automatically. Passive gamma-energy analysis can be performed with the same software. 3 figures

  14. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  15. A program for activation analysis data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Loska, L.; Taczanowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    An ALGOL program for activation analysis data handling is presented. The program may be used either for single channel spectrometry data or for multichannel spectrometry. The calculation of instrumental error and of analysis standard deviation is carried out. The outliers are tested, and the regression line diagram with the related observations are plotted by the program. (author)

  16. Building an applied activation analysis centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosek, J.; Kasparec, I.; Masek, J.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements are defined and all available background material is reported and discussed for the building up of a centre of applied activation analysis in Czechoslovakia. A detailed analysis of potential users and the centre's envisaged availability is also presented as part of the submitted study. A brief economic analysis is annexed. The study covers the situation up to the end of 1972. (J.K.)

  17. Activation analysis with small mobile reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.

    1990-01-01

    A small nuclear reactor (a low-power reactor without heat removal devices) usually has thermal power output under 100 W and an average in-core thermal neutron flux below 10 9 n/cm 2 s. Conventional activation analysis is restricted to determination of specific elements with large neutron capture cross sections in sizable samples. In-vivo prompt gamma activation analysis (IVPGAA) can be used for diagnosis of elemental composition of the human body, particularly the essential elements Ca, Cl, N, and P in the whole body, and toxic Cd and Hg in contaminated organs. In this chapter, activation analysis using an external neutron beam from the Tsing Hua Mobile Educational Reactor (THMER) for in vivo activation is described. Characteristics of the mobile reactor, in-vivo medical diagnosis, and radiation safety are emphasized. 17 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Use of activation analysis method for determining trace elements in human nail clippings; Aplicacao do metodo de analise por ativacao a determinacao de elementos tracos em aparas de unhas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    This work presents results obtained in nail clipping samples analyses. These nail samples were collected from healthy group of individuals and from patients with cystic fibrosis disease. Irradiation of nail clippings was carried out with a thermal neutron flux from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1m nuclear research reactor and the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined. The results obtained for healthy group were within the range of concentrations published, for normal population. However for several elements, the group of patients presented higher concentrations than those presented for healthy individuals. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials NIST 1577b Bovine Liver and 1566a Oyster Tissue. (author) 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulski, P.; Moeller, P.

    1975-07-01

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH) [de

  20. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other trace elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  1. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.; Bowman, W.W.; Zeh, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  2. Radioactivity analysis in niobium activation foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, G.E.

    1995-06-01

    The motivation for this study was to measure and analyze the activity of six (6) niobium (Nb) foils (the x-rays from an internal transition in Nb-93m) and apply this information with previously obtained activation foil data. The niobium data was used to determine the epithermal to MeV range for the neutron spectrum and fluence. The foil activation data was re-evaluated in a spectrum analysis code (STAY`SL) to provide new estimates of the exposure at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effect Facility (LASREF). The activity of the niobium foils was measured and analyzed at the University of Missouri-Columbia (UMC) under the direction of Professor William Miller. The spectrum analysis was performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) by Professor Gary Mueller.

  3. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Sansoni, B.

    1988-11-01

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  4. Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang; Mao Xueying; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Qian Qingfang; Hou Xiaolin; Zhang Peiqun; Chen Chunying; Feng Weiyu; Ding Wenjun; Li Xiaolin; Li Chunsheng; Dai Xiongxin

    2001-01-01

    The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis in minerals prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, H.; Duque O, J.

    1988-01-01

    One method multielemental analysis in geological samples has been developed by neutron activation analysis without using standards and by eliminating many of the error sources of the absolute method. It uses the ratio of the activities induced by mass unit, between the element in the sample and one cobalt monitor. The detection limits are good for more than thirty elements in many prospecting programs, with a standard deviation less than 7%. The neutron flux used is 2x10 11 nxcm -2 .S -1 and the HPGE detector has a relative efficiency of 20% and an energy resolution of 1.9 KeV in 1332 KeV photopeak

  6. Analysis of active piezoelectric energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang CUI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing piezoelectric traps are designed for a narrow frequency range of vibration, but the surrounding environment has a very wide frequency range, and the frequency may also be subject to change, causing the problem of difficult to achieve energy capture or capture inefficiency. In order to solve problem, a new T-type piezoelectric cantilever is proposed as a capture energy structure in the paper. To begin with the aspects of structural design and circuit design, the static analysis, modal analysis and resonance analysis of the structure are carried out and the natural frequency and excitation frequency of the device are analyzed. The design and calculation of the power consumption and the loss of the components of the circuit are analyzed by the simulation and verification of the active capture energy circuit, and the active and passive techniques are compared and analyzed, the simulation of the active capture circuit is verified by analyzing the power consumption of the circuit and the maximum power obtained by the active technology is 5 times of that of the passive technology. And then the voltage-controlled active boundary control method can be used for interface circuit design, taking the initiative to use each piezoelectric transduction cycle triggered by the electrical boundary conditions to effectively increase the input piezoelectric pump energy, and then increase output power. The way of utilizing the active trapping of piezoelectric materials is innovated, which has a positive effect on the development of piezoelectric traps.

  7. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandergraaf, T. T.; Wikjord, A. G.

    1973-10-15

    Instrumentel neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace constituents in silicon carbide. Four commercial powders of different origin, an NBS reference material, and a single crystal were characterized. A total of 36 activation species were identified nondestructively by high resolution gamma spectrometry; quantitative results are given for 12 of the more predominant elements. The limitations of the method for certain elements are discussed. Consideration is given to the depression of the neutron flux by impurities with large neutron absorption cross sections. Radiation fields from the various specimens were estimated assuming all radionuclides have reached their saturation activities. (auth)

  8. Betatron activation analysis of cupriferous flotation pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, R.; Matenko, J.; Mencel, J.; Janiczek, J.; Kielsznia, J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of copper determination in cupriferous flotation pulp by photo-activation analysis using betatron and another equipments of existent ''analytical line'' intended for copper determination in dry samples has been described. An activation has been achieved with 14.9 MeV γ-photons. The excitation activity was investigated by using two scintillation detectors and a fast coincidence circuit with resolution time 80 ns. The precision of method was determined as +- 4.25% in 0.95 confidence level for pulp with concentration 5% Cu and +- 24% for 0.06% Cu. (author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis of atmospheric aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a modern analytical method well suited for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols. Particular steps of the NAA procedure and especially different types of aerosol sampling and sample preparation for analysis are discussed in detail. Several possible NAA techniques are described and the advantages of a purely instrumental technique with short and long irradiation are pointed out. Important performance characteristics of the NAA method such as precision, accuracy, sensitivity and detection limits are also discussed. Different applications of NAA in environmental studies are reviewed. (author)

  10. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  11. Development of neutron activation analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liyu

    1987-10-01

    The software for quantitative neutron activation analysis was developed to run under the MS/DOS operating system. The programmes of the IBM/SPAN include: spectra file transfer from and to a Canberra Series 35 multichannel analyzer, spectrum evaluation routines, calibration subprogrammes, and quantitative analysis. The programmes for spectrum analysis include fitting routine for separation of multiple lines by reproducing the peak shape with a combination of Gaussian and exponential terms. The programmes were tested on an IBM/AT-compatible computer. The programmes and the sources are available costfree for the IAEA projects of Technical Cooperation. 7 refs, 3 figs

  12. Analysis of coal by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtner, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a thermal-neutron activation analysis procedure for determining elemental concentrations in whole coal samples, and the goal of combining this technique with other nuclear methods for determining a total mass balance in these and similar complex materials, is described. Problems of applying a fast-neutron activation analysis method for nitrogen are discussed, as well as an efficient procedure for drying and packaging coal samples. A thermal-neutron activation analysis (TNAA) procedure was developed for determining up to 27 elements in coal samples from the US, China, Nigeria, and Brazil. The comparator form of TNAA was applied, using a unique multielement standard, which contained 48 elements. The difference in net photopeak counts between sample and standard, due to γ-ray attenuation, was reduced by preparing this standard in an organic matrix, which simulates the composition and physical structure of the coal material. The simultaneous irradiation of several aliquots of this standard enabled high precision and accuracy to be attained. An accurate value for oxygen, determined by fast-neutron activation analysis, is used to correct for this effect in the nitrogen determination method

  13. General principles of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostal, J.; Elson, C.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the principles of atomic and nuclear structure and the processes of radioactivity, nuclear transformation, and the interaction of radiations with matter which are of direct relevance to neutron activation analysis and its application to geologic materials are discussed. (L.L.)

  14. Practical considerations in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2001-01-01

    Activation analysis is a technique of elemental analysis based on the measurement of characteristics radiation from radionuclides formed directly or indirectly by activation. The activation can be induced by bombarding the material with neutrons or charged particles or gamma rays. This is a well-accepted analytical technique for the determination of composition of complex materials. This technique is also sensitive at trace levels and is almost free from analytical interferences of matrix. It is used for multi-elemental determination in rocks, minerals, alloys, biological materials, geological samples, non-destructive analysis of materials and environmental samples such as water, air particulate matter, plants, soil, sediments and diets. This method is also used for production and measurements of radioisotopes in materials of known composition, for example, when radioactivation is used for nuclear reaction studies, for flux and beam intensity measurements for trace experiments and process quality control. In this article the parameters affecting the sensitivity of instrumental neutron activation analysis are briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Fast neutron activation analysis in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterlinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    Article discusses the usage of a 14 MeV neutron generator for producing fast neutrons of different energies and intensities. A complete instrumental set-up for the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is given. In metallurgy the device is mainly used in the determination of oxygen and silicon in steel and non-ferrous metal, including different alloys

  16. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Acquisition Activities Karen Holness, Assistant Professor, NPS Update on the Department of the Navy Systems Engineering Career Competency Model Clifford...systems engineering toolkit . Having a common analysis tool that is easy to use would support the feedback of observed system performance trends from the

  17. Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile. Components of Two Salvia spp. F Forouzin*, R Jamei and R Heidari. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, West Azerbaijan, Iran. *For correspondence: Email: f_forouzin@yahoo.com, rjamei274@gmail.com, r.heidari@mail.urmia.ac.ir; Tel: ...

  18. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  19. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k 0 -standardisation aims to: (1) develop and implement k 0 -standardisation method for NAA; (2) to exploit the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element capability; (3) to acquire technical spin-off for nuclear measurements services. Main achievements in 1997 are reported

  20. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  1. Activation analysis of some seaweeds of Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Myint, Aye Myint [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-11-01

    Activation analysis of some seaweed samples occurring off the coastline areas of Myanmar is described. Na, K and I were determined using Am(Be) radionuclide neutron source and low level [beta]-counting. (author) 3 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs.

  2. Computer-automated neutron activation analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. 5 references

  3. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoste, J.

    1988-06-01

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  4. Analysis of the legal aspects in public tender electronic made by PETROBRAS through the system Petronect under Decree no. 2.745/98; Analise da juridicidade das licitacoes eletronicas feitas pela PETROBRAS atraves do sistema Petronect nos termos do decreto 2.745/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestes, Madelon Rocha Ribeiro [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A. (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work examines the question of possible of use an electronic tool through internet, the Petronect, to facilitate the completion of procedures to carry through licitations for the PETROBRAS Group that is being debated in diverse instances in the Brazilian present time. This analysis should take into account the existing law on licitations, the constitutionality of Decree 2.745/98, as well as economic facts. Due to the understanding of TCU - expressed on several occasions - in the sense that PETROBRAS would be required to use the Law 8.666/93 in its bids, is being challenged the constitutionality of Decree 2.745/98 and their use for licitations procedures. They will be examined the conceptual and legal aspects of the decree, and the relationship and the importance of the function for the Group Purchases damage. Thus, the analysis will cover the new issues raised by EC 19/98, the constitutionality of the decree, the position of the Court of Auditors of the Union and the Federal Supreme Court (STF) and the legislation published on this subject. The existing conclusion in this work shows how right - under the optical legal and constitutional - the use of the portal Petronect to carry out the licitations of PETROBRAS under Decree 2.745/98 and non-use of Law 8.666/93, for this is not appropriate to the specific activity of company. (author)

  5. Balance, analysis of emission and CO{sub 2} sequestration in the generation of electricity surplus in sugar and ethanol sector; Balanco, analise de emissao e sequestro de CO{sub 2} na geracao de eletricidade excedente no setor sucro-alcooleiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chohfi, Felipe Moreton [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Dupas, Franscisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Ambiental. Inst. de Recursos Naturais; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, research activities regarding the global environmental impacts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have been intensified. The carbon market aims to minimize the emissions of this dangerous gas as it allows incentives for developed and developing countries to be stimulated not to adjust to a high carbon dioxide energy matrix. This work studies the carbon dioxide emissions and capture mass balance in the sugar and alcohol sector. Through a life cycle analysis methodology of surplus electricity production the CO{sub 2} balance is calculated. The results obtained show that 145,3 tons CO{sub 2}/hectare are sequestered during sugarcane cultivation and 111,5 tons CO{sub 2}/hectare are emitted for electricity production, resulting in a viable capture balance scenario of 33,8 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare of plantation in one life cycle of surplus electricity production that is supplied to the electricity distribution companies. The life cycle analysis of the cultivation of sugarcane biomass for surplus electricity production allowed a high value to be obtained for the CO{sub 2} absorption figure. If compared with other forms of electricity generation, the energy produced in sugar mills presents the lowest values of carbon dioxide emissions of all the other forms of electricity production. (author)

  6. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1990-01-01

    There is a long history of the application of chemical analysis to archaeological problems, extending to the last years of the 18th century. The nuclear-age technique of neutron activation analysis, permitting the simultaneous, sensitive, non-destructive estimation of many elements in an archaeological specimen, has found wide application. Important advances have been made, using this technique, in locating the origins of archaeological artifacts such as ceramics, metals, obsidian and semiprecious stones, among other articles of ancient ritual and commerce. In addition, the technique of neutron activation analysis has proved to be almost ideal in studies tracing the development of ancient technologies such as glass-making and smelting. In the future, the development of data banks of analyses of archaeological materials should provide an excellent new tool in studies of prehistory.

  7. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbottle, G.

    1990-01-01

    There is a long history of the application of chemical analysis to archaeological problems, extending to the last years of the 18th century. The nuclear-age technique of neutron activation analysis, permitting the simultaneous, sensitive, non-destructive estimation of many elements in an archaeological specimen, has found wide application. Important advantages have been made, using this technique, in locating the origins of archaeological artifacts such as ceramics, metals, obsidian and semiprecious stones, among other articles of ancient ritual and commerce. In addition, the technique of neutron activation analysis has proved to be almost ideal in studies tracing the development of ancient technologies such as glass-making and smelting. In the future, the development of data banks of analyses of archaeological materials should provide an excellent new tool in studies of prehistory. (orig.)

  8. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  9. Methods of charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Chaudhri, M. Nasir; Jabbar, Q.; Nadeem, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of Chaudhri's method for charged-particle activation analysis published in J. Radioanal. Chem. (1977) v. 37 p. 243 has been further demonstrated by extensive calculations. The nuclear reactions 12 C(d,n) 13 N, 63 Cu( 3 He,p) 65 Zn, 107 Ag(α,n) 110 In and 208 Pb(d,p) 209 Pb, the cross sections of which were easily available, have been examined for the detection of 12 C, 63 Cu, 107 Ag and 208 Pb, respectively, in matrices of Cu, Zr and Pb, at the bombarding energies of 4 - 22 MeV. The 'standard' is assumed to be in a carbon matrix. It has been clearly demonstrated that Chaudhri's method, which makes the charged particle activation analysis as simple as neutron activation analysis, provides results which are almost identical to, or only about 1-2 % different, from the results obtained using the full 'Activity Equation' involving solving complex integrals. It is valid even when the difference in the average atomic weights of matrices of the standard and the sample is large. (author)

  10. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials

  11. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J.; Silverman, A.; Ouellet, C.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  12. Determination of selenium and zinc in rat plasma by instrumental neutron activation analysis; Determinacion de selenio y zinc en plasma mediante analisis por activacion neutronica instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz A, Luis

    1998-12-31

    To evaluate the effects on the thyroid function when simple or multiple zinc, selenium and iodine deficiency are induced, research was carried out in laboratory animals. For simultaneously determining the Zn and Se concentration in rat plasma, an instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was applied. A clean laboratory, was used for the preparation of samples. High purity materials were used for sample collection and storage. Irradiation, decay and counting parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity, accuracy and precision analysis. The Zn and Se concentrations were determined from the peak area of gamma-rays of 1115 and 265 KeV respectively. The analytical methodology used was validated with standard reference materials. The procedure used for the analysis, including the phases of collection, treatment of the samples and analytical determination was considered suitable for the study of trace elements in biological samples, especially plasma. (author). Dissertation to obtain the title of Bachelor in Chemistry; 46 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs. [Espanol] Con el proposito de evaluar los efectos que se producen sobre la funcion tiroidea cuando se induce un deficiencia simple o multiple de zinc, selenio y yodo, se llevo a cabo una investigacion en animales de experimentacion. Se aplico la tecnica de analises por activacion neutronica instrumental para la determinacion de Se y Zn en plasma de ratas. Se utilizo un laboratorio limpio clase 100 para la preparacion de las muestras y se emplearon materiales de alta pureza para su recoleccion y almacenamiento. Se optimizaron los parametros de irradiacion, decaimiento y conteo de las muestras con el proposito de alcanzar la mejor sensibilidad, exactitud y precision analitica. Las concentracion de Se y Zn fueron determinadas evaluando las areas de los fotopicos de 265 y 1115 KeV respectivamente. El metodo analitico fue validado utilizando materiales de referencia. El procedimiento utilizado para el analisis

  13. Activation analysis by filtered neutrons. Preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, G.; Rodinson, T.; Skaalberg, M.; Tokay, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate if measuring sensibility and precision by epithermal neutron activation analysis may be improved, different types of geological and biologic test samples were radiated. The test samples were enclosed in an extra filter of tungsten or sodium in order to reduce the flux of those neutrons that otherwise would induce interfering activity in the sample. The geological test samples consist of granites containing lanthanides which had been crushed in tung- sten carbide grinder. Normally such test samples show a interferins 1 87W-activity. By use of a tungsten filter the activity was reduced by up to 60%, which resulted in a considerable improvement of sensibility and precision of the measurement. The biologic test samples consisted of evaporated urine from patients treated with the cell poison cis-platinol. A reliable method to measure the platinum content has not existed so far. This method, however, enables platinum contents as low as about 0.1 ppm to be determined which is quite adequate. To sum up this preliminary study has demonstrated that activation analysis using filtered neutrons, correctly applied, is a satisfactory method of reducing interferences without complicated and time-consuming chemical separation procedures. (O.S.)

  14. Stratigraphic analysis and geodynamic evolution of the 'Transitional Sequence' in the southern Sergipe-Alagoas Basin; Analise estratigrafica e evolucao geodinamica da 'Sequencia Transicional' na porcao sul da Bacia de Sergipe-Alagoas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Liliane Rabelo [Petrobras, Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao. Avaliacao de Blocos e Interpretacao Geologica e Geofisica], E-mail: lilianerabelo@petrobras.com.br; Cordoba, Valeria Centurion; Sa, Emanuel Ferraz Jardim de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica], Emails: valeria.geo@ufrnet.br, emanuel@ccet.ufrn.br

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents a stratigraphic analysis and considerations about the tectonic activity and subsidence processes that controlled the deposition of the 'Transitional Sequence' in the Sergipe Sub-basin (SBSE), southern Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, during the Neoaptian (upper Alagoas), the transition between the rift and drift stages in this basin. The stratigraphic analysis of selected wells led to the recognition of five third order depositional sequences, that were deposited in decreasing conditions of water circulation, from continental siliciclastic systems to lagoonar-evaporitic systems and, finally, to restricted marine systems, indicating an increase of the base level. In terms of a second order cycle, the 'Transitional Sequence' represents the deposition in a stage of base-level rise and the beginning deposition of a transgressive system tract, whose transition to the overlying marine transgressive sequence is marked by flooding. In terms of a third order cycle, this transition is marked by a local unconformity, which laterally changes to a correlative conformity. Such unconformity is interpreted as a breakup unconformity, of pre-Albian age in the SBSE, contrasting with the more expressive (especially for its angular character) of the Pre-Upper Alagoas Unconformity (DPAL), at the base of the 'Transitional Sequence', frequently regarded in the literature as the breakup unconformity. Even though, the Pre-Albian Unconformity is here favoured as the major change in depositional context and tectonic environment (rift to drift) in the SBSE. The deposition of the 'Transitional Sequence' occurred close to the end of the Rifting Stage, with an epicontinental sea advancing along a segment of continental crust still in extension, controlled by a combination of thermal and mechanical subsidence, the latter already in pronounced decline. (author)

  15. A computer program for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, J.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A computer program for calculating the results of activation analysis is described. The program comprises two gamma spectrum analysis programs, STOAV and SAMPO and one program for calculating elemental concentrations, KVANT. STOAV is based on a simple summation of channels and SAMPO is based on fitting of mathematical functions. The programs are tested by analyzing the IAEA G-1 test spectra. In the determination of peak location SAMPO is somewhat better than STOAV and in the determination of peak area SAMPO is more than twice as accurate as STOAV. On the other hand, SAMPO is three times as expensive as STOAV with the use of a Cyber 170 computer. (author)

  16. Neutron activation analysis of atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekstinya, D.V.; Mednis, I.V.; Veveris, O.Eh.

    1987-01-01

    A review of studies by Soviet and foreign authors on radioactivation analysis is presented. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques have been developed providing the possibility to determine a number of elements in very small portions of aerosols for pollutanless areas of the Earth. Two ways of INAA are presented: with long- and short-living radionuclides. The Antarctic and the Indian Ocean aerosol samples have been analysed for 26 microelements. It has been stated that restrictions of the detection limits attained relate to high proportions of certain elements and their nonhomogeneous distribution in filters. The detection limits can be lowered by the filtered air volume growth per unit of the filter area

  17. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for Human Hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatongchai, W.; Dharmvanij, W; Chongkum, S.

    1998-01-01

    Hair samples from students aged between 7 to 22 years old were analysed by neutron activation analysis at nuclear research reactor TRR-1.M1. From qualitative analysis of short-lived isotopes, A1, V, Ca, I, Cl, Mn, and Na were found. The quantity of those elements can be classified into three groups. The first group is A1, Ca, Na and Cl with variance less than 10%. The second group is V and I with variance between 10% to 50% and the third group, Mn, two samples have concentration about 12 times higher than the others

  18. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyoung Kyun; Jung, Ki Suk; Joe, Kih Soo; Jee, Kwang Yong; Jung, Woo Sik; Sohn, Se Chul; Yeo, In Heong; Han, Sun Ho

    1988-12-01

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  19. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1986-04-01

    Thirty five papers were presented at the conference held in Klucenice, Czechoslovakia from May 4 to 8, 1986. The abstracts of all papers are printed in the proceedings. The conference discussed the following problem areas: the application of activation analysis in determining elements in ores, tectites, fungi, the thyroid, the primary circuit coolant, semiconductor materials; the application of nuclear reaction analysis in determining elements in rubber and coal; the application of tracer techniques in metallurgy; the description of alpha and gamma spectrometric systems and their testing; the use of microcomputers for data processing, and the description of programs. (J.P.)

  20. Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Marcel Neves

    Full Text Available In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and recurrence plots (RPs to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or both. First, we found substantial differences between the activity dynamics of beetles and ants, with the results suggesting that the beetles have quasi-periodic dynamics and the ants do not. Second, workers from different ant species varied with respect to their dynamics, presenting degrees of predictability as well as stochastic signals. Finally, differences were found among minor and major caste of the same (dimorphic ant species. Our results underscore the potential of RQA and RPs in the analysis of complex behavioral patterns, as well as in general inferences on animal behavior and other biological phenomena.

  1. Neutron activation analysis: principle and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful isotope specific nuclear analytical technique for simultaneous determination of elemental composition of major, minor and trace elements in diverse matrices. The technique is capable of yielding high analytical sensitivity and low detection limits (ppm to ppb). Due to high penetration power of neutrons and gamma rays, NAA experiences negligible matrix effects in the samples of different origins. Depending on the sample matrix and element of interest NAA technique is used non-destructively, known as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), or through chemical NAA methods. The present article describes principle of NAA, different methods and gives a overview some applications in the fields like environment, biology, geology, material sciences, nuclear technology and forensic sciences. (author)

  2. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 standardisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the research are: (1) to develop and implement the k0 standardisation method for neutron activation analysis in close collaboration with scientific partners; (2) to exploit fully the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers; (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements in 1997 related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  3. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  4. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  5. Particulate matter and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    In these years, economy of East Asian region is rapidly growing, and countries in this region are facing serious environmental problems. Neutron activation analysis is known as one of high-sensitive analytical method for multi elements. And it is a useful tool for environmental research, particularly for the study on atmospheric particulate matter that consists of various constituents. Elemental concentration represents status of air, such as emission of heavy metals from industries and municipal incinerators, transportation of soil derived elements more than thousands of kilometers, and so on. These monitoring data obtained by neutron activation analysis can be a cue to evaluate environment problems. Japanese government launched National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) employing neutron activation analysis in 1974, and the data has been accumulated at about twenty sampling sites. As a result of mitigation measure of air pollution sources, concentrations of elements that have anthropogenic sources decreased particularly at the beginning of the monitoring period. However, even now, concentrations of these anthropogenic elements reflect the characteristics of each sampling site, e.g. industrial/urban, rural, and remote. Soil derived elements have a seasonal variation because of the contribution of continental dust transported by strong westerly winds prevailing in winter and spring season. The health effects associated with trace elements in particulate matter have not been well characterized. However, there is increasing evidence that particulate air pollution, especially fine portion of particles in many different cities is associated with acute mortality. Neutron activation analysis is also expected to provide useful information to this new study field related to human exposures and health risk. (author)

  6. Research reactor operations for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tv'ehlov, Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA Special Manual devoted to quality control during neutron activation analysis (NAA) on research and test reactors is discussed. Three parts of the publication involve presentation of common rules for performance of NAA, quantitative and qualitative analyses, statistic and systematic errors, safety regulations and radioactive waste management. Besides, the publication contains practical manual for the performance of NAA, and examples of different NAA regulating registration forms are presented [ru

  7. Accuracy and precision in activation analysis: counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Accuracy and precision in activation analysis was investigated with regard to counting of induced radioactivity. The various parameters discussed include configuration, positioning, density, homogeneity, intensity, radioisotopic purity, peak integration, and nuclear constants. Experimental results are presented for many of these parameters. The results obtained indicate that counting errors often contribute significantly to the inaccuracy and imprecision of analyses. The magnitude of these errors range from less than 1 percent to 10 percent or more in many cases

  8. Development of prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmez, I.

    1982-01-01

    Application of prompt gamma-activation analysis to some environmental samples and NBS's standard reference materials were examined, using NBS reactor and the technique developed by the nuclear chemistry group of the University of Maryland. Concentration of several elements, Cd, B, S, Se, Sb, Zn, Ba, Cr, Cs, Co, Si, Hf, Ce, Yb, Lu, Th, Sc, Eu, Fe, Ta and Rb, were determined by both PGAA and INAA. (author)

  9. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niese, S.

    1983-01-01

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  10. Molecular activation analysis for chemical speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai-Chifang

    1998-01-01

    The term of Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in system of interests, though its definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the total concentrations are often without any meaning when assessing health or environmental risks of trace elements.In practice, the MAA is a combination of conventional instrumental or radiochemical activation analysis and physical, chemical or biochemical separation techniques. The MAA is able to play a particular role in speciation studies. However, the critical point in the MAA is that it is not permitted to change the primitive chemical species of elements in systems, or the change has to be under control; in the meantime it is not allowed to form the 'new artifact' originally not present in systems. Some practical examples of MAA for chemical species research performed recently in our laboratory will be presented as follows: Chemical species of platinum group elements in sediment; Chemical species of iodine in marine algae; Chemical species of mercury in human tissues; Chemical species of selenium in corn; Chemical species of rare earth elements in natural plant, etc. The merits and limitations of MAA will be described as well. (author)

  11. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, I. M.A. [Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Smith, H. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1967-10-15

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  12. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez H, V.

    1997-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  13. Nuclear data for proton activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhammedov, S; Vasidov, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, 702132 Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Comsan, M N.H. [Nuclear Research Centre, Inshas Cyclotron Facility, AEA 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-11-15

    The activation analysis with charged particles (ChPAA), as well as proton activation analysis (PAA), mainly requires separately irradiation of thick (thicker than the range of particles) samples and standard. Therefore for simplicity of determination of traces of chemical elements by instrumental PAA the absolute activity of the radionuclides must be known. Consequently we compilated data for nuclear decays (half life, radiation energy and intensity, type of decay, saturation factor), for nuclear reactions (excitation function, threshold energy, Q-value, yields of radionuclides), for the element under study (natural isotopic abundance of the nuclide, which yields the nuclear reaction considered, molar mass), stopping power of the irradiated material and the range of the particle that are used in the calculation of the absolute activity of the radionuclides and for the resolution of a nuclear interference problems of PAA. These data are tabulated. The tables of the radionuclides are presented in dependence on increasing atomic number and radiation energy as well as on methods of the radionuclide formation. The thick target yields of analytical radionuclides are presented versus particle energy.

  14. Nuclear data for proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Vasidov, A.; Comsan, M.N.H.

    2000-01-01

    The activation analysis with charged particles (ChPAA), as well as proton activation analysis (PAA), mainly requires separately irradiation of thick (thicker than the range of particles) samples and standard. Therefore for simplicity of determination of traces of chemical elements by instrumental PAA the absolute activity of the radionuclides must be known. Consequently we compilated data for nuclear decays (half life, radiation energy and intensity, type of decay, saturation factor), for nuclear reactions (excitation function, threshold energy, Q-value, yields of radionuclides), for the element under study (natural isotopic abundance of the nuclide, which yields the nuclear reaction considered, molar mass), stopping power of the irradiated material and the range of the particle that are used in the calculation of the absolute activity of the radionuclides and for the resolution of a nuclear interference problems of PAA. These data are tabulated. The tables of the radionuclides are presented in dependence on increasing atomic number and radiation energy as well as on methods of the radionuclide formation. The thick target yields of analytical radionuclides are presented versus particle energy

  15. Neutron activation analysis of geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greef, G.J.

    1977-05-01

    In neutron activation analysis the precision and accuracy of results are often misleading, since only the statistical errors which accompany the measuring of radioactivity are taken into consideration. Several other factors can, however, also influence precision and accuracy. It was found that a geological sample was contaminated with the construction material of the mill in which it had been pulverised. Several geometrical differences which could possibly play a role were also investigated. Impurities in the irradiation containers affect the determination of some elements in the samples; the contamination materials in quarts irradiation tubes were determined. The flux gradients which may effect the relative activities of the samples and standards were measured. Suitable standards are necessary to ensure accurate analyses of geological material. Available natural standards were critically evaluated and several methods were investigated by which synthetic standards may be prepared. In order to accurately determine gallium, lanthanum and samarium by means of neutron activation analysis, sodium first had to be removed. After irradiation the sample was dissolved in a mixture of acids and the soidium absorbed from the solution on a hydrated antimony pentoxide column. Gallium, lanthanum and samarium activities were measured by means of precision gamma-spectrometry

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  17. Evaluation of nuclear reactor based activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Kucera, J.

    1977-09-01

    A survey is presented of the basic types of activation analysis applied in environmental control. Reactor neutron activation analysis is described (including the reactor as a neutron source, sample activation in the reactor, methodology of neutron activation analysis, sample transport into the reactor and sample packaging after irradiation, instrumental activation analysis with radiochemical separation, data measurement and evaluation, sampling and sample preparation). Sources of environmental contamination with trace elements, sampling and sample analysis by neutron activation are described. The analysis is described of soils, waters and biological materials. Methods are shown of evaluating neutron activation analysis results and of their interpretation for purposes of environmental control. (J.B.)

  18. Programming of a refinery from the perspective of the decision makers: trade-offs analysis for corporate and technical guidelines; A programacao de uma refinaria sob a otica do decisor: uma analise dos trade-offs diante das orientacoes tecnicas e corporativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, Thais; Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur; Proenca, Adriano [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Refineries usually gather a set of activities that shape how complex and dynamic it is. Adding to the complexity of the refining process, there is also a great freedom in the refinery operations, multiple arrangements possible to convert certain oil in derivatives. In this context, this article focuses on decision-making processes that lead refineries of an integrated oil company in their day to day. As decision-making, the text refers to a process that always brings a kind of conflict resolution, in which contradictory goals have to be negotiated and reconciled. The object of analysis is inserted in hierarchical decision-making processes, ie a process of disintegration, which begins with a comprehensive assessment, and then divides the decision in elements smaller and more defined, so that they are interdependent. The output at an aggregate level shall be the input in the next detailed level. In each level of the hierarchical, decision-making is the result of a problem, presented in a given context to a decision maker. Decision maker will be the responsible for the direction of the refinery production to which it is allocated. The programmer of each refinery is general guidelines that should be considered, albeit non-explicit or non-configurable, in some cases these take the form of technical criteria and in other situations derived from the business. From these, this article presents a critical and analytical in the face of dilemmas that emerge in front of decision makers search for converging a production schedule that meets both the criteria set. (author)

  19. Trace element analysis of common salt using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, K.

    1993-01-01

    Instrumental Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (IFNAA) technique has been used in the qualitative and quantitative determination of the impurity elements in common salt. Samples of the different types of common salt processed in Nigeria and some of those imported into the country were used. The type A711 KAMAN neutron generator and a high-purity Germanium (HpGe) gamma spectrometer available at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria has been used. The ORTEC ADCAM 100 Emulation Software (Maestro) was used in the qualitative measurement of the detected elements. The G.R.G Activation Analysis System by G. R. Gilmore, 1987, was used in the quantitative determination of the elements detected by relative method. Aluminium and arsenic were detected and measured

  20. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  1. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, T.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252 Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  2. Optimization of time characteristics in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, L.G.; Umaraliev, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The activation analysis temporal characteristics optimization methods developed at present are aimed at determination of optimal values of the three important parameters - irradiation time, cooling time and measurement time. In the performed works, especially in [1-5] the activation analysis processes are described, the optimal values of optimization parameters are obtained from equations solved, and the computational results are given for these parameters for a number of elements. However, the equations presented in [2] were inaccurate, did not allow one to have optimization parameters results for one element content calculations, and it did not take into account background dependence of time. Therefore, we proposed modified equations to determine the optimal temporal parameters and iteration processes for the solution of these equations. It is well-known that the activity of studied sample during measurements does not change significantly, i.e. measurement time is much shorter than the half-life, thus the processes taking place can be described by the Poisson probability distribution, and in general case one can apply binomial distribution. The equation and iteration processes use in this research describe both probability distributions. Expectedly, the cooling time iteration expressions obtained for one element analysis case are similar for the both distribution types, as the optimised time values occurred to be of the same order as half-life values, whereas the cooling time, as we observed, depends on the ratio of the studied sample's peak value to the background peak, and can be significantly larger than the half-life value. This pattern is general, and can be derived from the optimized time expressions, which is supported by the experimental data on short-living isotopes [3,4]. For the isotopes with large half-lives, up to years, like cobalt-60, the cooling time values given in the above mentioned works are equal to months which, apparently

  3. Evaluation by design of experiments of active clay specimens behavior in the presence of distilled water, saline solutions and cationic inhibitors; Avaliacao por analise estatistica experimental do comportamento de corpos de prova de argila aditivada na presenca de agua destilada, solucoes salinas e inibidores cationicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Emanuella Layne Ferreira; Araujo, Bruno Alysson Barbosa Duarte; Borges, Mauricio Rodrigues; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    During the drilling, in general, there are layers of clays which water absorption easily as smectites. In drilling with clays swelling when is applied water-base fluid there is necessary the use of the clay inhibitors to avoid the incorporation of the cutting to the drilling fluid. The most used chemical inhibitors in drilling fluids are sodium and potassium chlorides. However, the cationic inhibitors have been used as alternative form to increase the inhibition power of the drilling fluids. In this work was evaluated the behaviour of the activated clay test bodies in the presence of distilled water, aqueous solution potassium chlorides, and cationic inhibitors. The solutions were submitted at Capillary Suction Timer tests to evaluation the capacity of the water retention in activated clay samples. At the interpretation of the results was used Design of Experiments (DOE) by Response Surface Methodology (RSM), using Umetrics MODDE 7.0{sup TM} programme. It was observed that the clay samples when in contact with the solutions presented lower water retention than in the presence of distilled water only. This result indicates that the clay was inhibited. (author)

  4. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of airborne inorganic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerdoegh, M.; Kalman, L.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the radioactive and non-radioactive pollution of the air in the environment of the atomic reactor WWR-S of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Accordingly the investigations were carried out by two ways: the samples were analysed partly without previous irradiation and partly by neutron activation analysis. The use of several filter papers was studied and the most suitable filter paper (Whatman No. 41) was chosen for this investigation. The quantitative determination of more than twenty elements has been performed. First the natural activity of the aerosol samples taken periodically was measured and subsequently they have been analysed after irradiation in the atomic reactor for 1 minute, 1 hour, and 50 hours, respectively. A 45 cm 3 Ge/Li detector/ Nuclear Diodes/ was used in connection with a 1024 channel analyzer /type NTA-512B/. The analyses were made nondestructively, and the gamma-spectra were evaluated by computer. (K.A.)

  6. Opportunities for innovation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Bode

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation laboratories worldwide are at a turning point at which new staff has to be found for the retiring pioneers from the 1960s-1970s. A scientific career in a well-understood technique, often characterized as 'mature' may only be attractive to young scientists if still challenges for further improvement and inspiring new applications can be offered. The strengths and weaknesses of neutron activation analysis (NAA) are revisited to identify opportunities for innovation. Position-sensitive detection of elements in large samples, Monte Carlo calculations replacing the use of standards, use of scintillator detectors and new deconvolution techniques for increasing the sensitivity are examples of challenging new roads in NAA. Material science provides challenges for the application of NAA in both bulk samples, ultrathin layers and ultrapure materials. (author)

  7. Optimization of instrumental activation analysis conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.; Gavrilas-Guinn, M.

    1993-01-01

    In instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) work, a good commonsense rule of thumb is that the opium conditions for the measurement of any induced activity, in a multi-element sample matrix, are an irradiation time, a decay time, and a counting time each approximately equal to the half-life of the radionuclide (if feasible). The INAA Advance Computer Program (APCP) was used to test this rule on ten reference materials. For the 280 radionuclide/material combinations traced through all 14 APCP condition sets, the rule predicted the best set for 67% of them, was off by one set for 31% of them, and was only off by two sets of 2% of them. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  8. Neutron activation analysis of monomineral fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drykhin, V.I.; Belen'kij, B.V.; Voinkov, D.M.; Il'yasova, K.I.; Lejpinskaya, D.I.; Nedostyp, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    The results are described of the development of an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of monomineral sulfides (pyrites, pyrrhotites, chalcopyrites and others), quartzites and other minerals, the technique being intended for geochemical investigations. For a multi-element INAA of monomineral sulfides, the optimum irradiation time in a flux of 10 12 to 1.3x10 13 n/cm 2 (neutron field of a nuclear reactor) is 20 to 40 hours, thus ensuring a reliable determination of a great number of elements not lower than 10 -4 %. The time of the induced activity for determining indium in sulfides is 0.5 to 3 min. The actual sensitivity of the method is 10 -4 %. A sensitivity with respect to gold of 0.01 g/t was attained in monominerals after an irradiation of up to 5 min

  9. Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, S.M.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sertie, J.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, R. W.

    1971-07-01

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country.

  11. Neutron activation analysis of biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Simkova, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are briefly summed up of usino. NAA (neutron activation analysis) for determining element traces in foodstuffs and their intake by organisms, for monitoring changes in the content of important trace elements in tissues and body fluids owing to environmental pollution, for verifying the results of other analytical techniques and for certifying the content of element traces in reference materials. Examples are given of the use of NAA, and the results are summed up of the determination of Cd, Mn and Zn in biological reference materials NBS SRM-1577, Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale, IAEA Milk Powder A-11 and IAEA Animal Muscle H-4. (E.S.)

  12. Toxicological applications of neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.D.; Dale, I.M.; Smith, H.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal neutron-activation analysis is recognised as a useful tool for trace element studies in toxicology. This paper describes some recent applications of the technique to three elements when ingested by people in excess of normal intake Two of the elements (copper and chromium) are essential to life and one (bromine) is as yet unclassified. Three deaths were investiagted and trace element levels compared with normal levels from healthy subjects in the same geographical area who had died as a result of violence. (author)

  13. Activation analysis for food chemistry Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.; Gundorin, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The nondestructive determination of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and P content of animal tissues was reported. The IBR-30 (Dubna) reactor was used as the thermal neutron source for all the (n,ν) reactions needed for the analyses (tabulated), and as the source of fast neutrons for the (n,α) reaction of the P determination, too. Results and errors of the analyses (5-15%) were discussed comparing the reproducibility of the methods in case of different animal tissues, liver, bones, blood, etc. The nondestructive neutron activation multielemental analysis for food chemistry can be recommended in the case of a large scale monitoring program of food samples. (Sz.J.)

  14. Support system for Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Fumio; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Sakurai, Fumio; Onizawa, Koji

    1999-01-01

    In the research reactor of JAERI, the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been utilized as a major part of an irradiation usage. To utilize NAA, research participants are always required to learn necessary technique. Therefore, we started to examine a support system that will enable to carry out INAA easily even by beginners. The system is composed of irradiation device, gamma-ray spectrometer and data analyzing instruments. The element concentration is calculated by using KAYZERO/SOLCOI software with the K 0 standardization method. In this paper, we review on a construction of this INAA support system in JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  15. Activation and chemical analysis of drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ground water samples from Patiala city have been analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis and for seven chemical parameters using standard techniques. It was found that alkali and alkaline earth metals have high concentrations in all samples whereas the concentrations of toxic metals are low in the majority of samples. However, chromium and cadmium concentrations are higher in ground water taken from the industrial belt of the city. This indicates that the overall level of pollution is low, but that some measures are still needed to inhibit various industries from polluting the ground water. (author)

  16. Neutron activation analysis of high purity substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.

    1987-01-01

    Peculiarities of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) of high purity substances are considered. Simultaneous determination of a wide series of elements, high sensitivity (the lower bound of determined contents 10 -9 -10 -10 %), high selectivity and accuracy (Sr=0.10-0.15, and may be decreased up to 0.001), possibility of analysis of the samples from several micrograms to hundreds of grams, simplicity of calibration may be thought NAA advantages. Questions of accounting of NAA systematic errors associated with the neutron flux screening by the analysed matrix and with production of radionuclides of determined elements from accompanying elements according to concurrent nuclear reactions, as well as accounting of errors due to self-absorption of recorded radiation by compact samples, are considered

  17. 14 MeV proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Ivanov, E.; Plostinaru, D.; Popa-Nemoiu, A.; Pascovichi, G.

    1985-01-01

    A fast nuclear nondestructive method for protein analysis using the 14 MeV proton activation has been developed. The total nitrogen content was measured through the reaction: 14 N (p,n) 14 O, (Tsub(1/2)=71 s). The 14 O activity was detected by means of its characteristic 2.312 MeV gamma-ray line with a NaI(Tl) detector. For a fast determination of a large number of samples a mechanized sistem reacting a rate of one sample per minute has been developed. The laboratory electronics comprises a multichannel analyser, a PDP computer and an electronic module comtroller. Comparison of the results obtained by the method described and the classical Kjeldal technique for samples of various cereal grains (soya bean seads, wheat, barley and corn) showed good correlation. A problem of the analysis of the whole protein region on corn and soya-bean seads, where this region is thicker (0,2 - 2 mm), is mentioned. In this case flour was proposed to be used to obtain a protein homogeneous sample and the irradiaton dose for a sample was about 33,000 Gy, mainly (99%) from protons (27 s x 100 nA x 14 MeV)

  18. System analysis of vehicle active safety problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buznikov, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of the road transport safety affects the vital interests of the most of the population and is characterized by a global level of significance. The system analysis of problem of creation of competitive active vehicle safety systems is presented as an interrelated complex of tasks of multi-criterion optimization and dynamic stabilization of the state variables of a controlled object. Solving them requires generation of all possible variants of technical solutions within the software and hardware domains and synthesis of the control, which is close to optimum. For implementing the task of the system analysis the Zwicky “morphological box” method is used. Creation of comprehensive active safety systems involves solution of the problem of preventing typical collisions. For solving it, a structured set of collisions is introduced with its elements being generated also using the Zwicky “morphological box” method. The obstacle speed, the longitudinal acceleration of the controlled object and the unpredictable changes in its movement direction due to certain faults, the road surface condition and the control errors are taken as structure variables that characterize the conditions of collisions. The conditions for preventing typical collisions are presented as inequalities for physical variables that define the state vector of the object and its dynamic limits.

  19. Uncertainty Assessments in Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. D. James; R. Zeisler

    2000-01-01

    Fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA) carried out with the use of small accelerator-based neutron generators is routinely used for major/minor element determinations in industry, mineral and petroleum exploration, and to some extent in research. While the method shares many of the operational procedures and therefore errors inherent to conventional thermal neutron activation analysis, its unique implementation gives rise to additional specific concerns that can result in errors or increased uncertainties of measured quantities. The authors were involved in a recent effort to evaluate irreversible incorporation of oxygen into a standard reference material (SRM) by direct measurement of oxygen by FNAA. That project required determination of oxygen in bottles of the SRM stored in varying environmental conditions and a comparison of the results. We recognized the need to accurately describe the total uncertainty of the measurements to accurately characterize any differences in the resulting average concentrations. It is our intent here to discuss the breadth of potential parameters that have the potential to contribute to the random and nonrandom errors of the method and provide estimates of the magnitude of uncertainty introduced. In addition, we will discuss the steps taken in this recent FNAA project to control quality, assess the uncertainty of the measurements, and evaluate results based on the statistical reproducibility

  20. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, R. E. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1967-10-15

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  1. Comparative analysis of electro-mechanical characteristic of a three-phase induction motor with 1,5 CV with high performance and conventional one; Analise comparativa das caracteristicas eletromecanicas entre um motor de inducao trifasico de 1,5CV de alto-rendimento e convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendieta, J.C.V. [Dalkia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bertoleti, P.H.F.; Magalhaes Sobrinho, P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LAMOTRIZ/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Otimizacao de Sistemas Motrizes Industriais; Souza, T.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, the electric power consumed by three-phase induction motors corresponding to approximately 55% of total electric power consumed by the industrial sector. Therefore, a thorough analysis of this type of engine under the questions of energy saving, economic viability and electro-mechanical characteristics are needed. This work deals with the comparative analysis for two motors three-phase induction, one conventional and another with high performance (manufacturer WEG and IP55 protection grade), aiming to obtain the necessary relationships to do an economical and electro-mechanical analysis.

  2. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Analise da viabilidade tecnico-economico-ambiental da operacao do sistema elevatorio Tiete-Billings no suprimento de agua e eletricidade na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E

  3. Optimization through experiment planning for determination of experimental conditions which guarantees the metrological reliability for analysis of chloride and sulfate in fuel alcohol; Otimizacao via planejamento de experimento para determinar as condicoes experimentais que garantam confiabilidade metrologica para analise de cloreto e sulfato em alcool combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza e Silva, Renata; Araujo, Thiago de Oliveira [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: rsouza@inmetro.gov.br, toaraujo@inmetro.gov.br; Aguiar, Paula Fernandes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: pfaguiar@ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a method of analysis to determine chloride and sulfate in fuel alcohol which allowed eliminate or minimized the matrix effect in sample of fuel alcohol, using the Doehlert planning for the stage of optimization.

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1985-01-01

    The main characteristics of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA),relevant for environmental research and monitoring, was reviewed and discussed-sensitivity, suitable for detection of many toxic elements, the low risks of contamination of element loss, lack of matrix effects, lack of light element interference except for 24 Na, capability for multi-element determination, comparatively low costs. A detailed description of the IRI analysis system for routine INAA is given. The system is based on the single comparator method of standartization to take full advantage of multi-element without preparation and use the trace element standards. Zinc was used as mono element standard, the element concentrations are calculated on the basis of 65 Zn and 69m Zn-activities. The irradiations were carried out in a thermal neutron flux of 1.10 13 n/cm 2 .s. The gamma spectra is converted into element concentrations using a set of dedicated software, performing the following functions: spectrum analysis and interpretation, comparison and combination of the intermediate results from different decay times, generation of the final report, bookkeeping of the results obtained. The main applications of the INAA system mentioned are: identification of sources of heavy metal air pollution using air filters or biological indicators such as mosses, lichens, toe-nails, bird feathers, molusks and waterplants; and study of the uptake and translocation of heavy element in plants. Special attention was paid to mathematical techniques for a reliable interpretation of the element concentration patterns observed in sets of lichen samples. Future developments in INAA in environmental science are briefly mentioned

  5. Qualitative risk analysis in the process of treatment in radiation oncology for the steps performed by the technician/technologist in intensity modulated radiotherapy (lMRT); Analise qualitativa do risco no processo de tratamento em radioterapia para as etapas executadas pelo tecnico/tecnologo na radioterapia de intensidade modulada (lMRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Flavia C.S., E-mail: flavia@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Faria, Alessandra L.; Pereira, Danielle P.S.; Silva, Fabiana M.I. [Universidade UNIGRANRIO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The efficacy of radiation therapy is to eradicate the tumor while preserving the integrity of normal tissues. Technological advances have allowed to develop techniques capable of modulating doses delivered to the target volume, providing more effective treatments. However, the operational complexity of these techniques makes the benefits offered are directly proportional to the chances of occurrences of serious errors. The objective of this work is to analyze the steps performed by the technician/technologist in Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), to detect possible errors in order to determine ways to mitigate them. After literature regarding errors in the radiation therapy, a prospective analysis was performed in the first half of 2012 in a radiation clinic located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in which 11 technicians/technologists contributed to the survey data analysis. The method of risk analysis Failure Mode and Effects Analysis was used for prospective analysis of accidents/incidents, with respect to a qualitative assessment . The method allowed mapping 16 steps performed by technicians/technologists in the treatments with IMRT, identifying possible failures and their causes allowing to find ways to avoid possible errors. This analysis helped to confirm that the qualification and continuing education of technicians/technologists, allied to implement quality assurance programs and a computerized management can make a tool capable of IMRT to achieve the greatest challenge of radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Takeover bid held by Natural Gas SDG on all of the shares of Iberdrola: a critical analysis and similarities to the Brazilian case; Oferta publica de aquisicao realizada pela Gas Natural SDG sobre a totalidade de acoes da Iberdrola: uma analise critica e similaridades com o caso brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julia Rotstein Smith da; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires; Cecchi, Jose Cesario [Agencia Nacional de Petroleo (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: jrotstein@anp.gov.br; mmathias@anp.gov.br; cecchi@anp.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    Competition defense is especially relevant to the industry of natural gas, because, in it, potentially competitive activities coexist with monopolistic activities. Thus, the regulatory agencies have an important role in regulating this sector, working on continuous improvement of the rules that govern and attempt for the actions of the agents that work on monopolistic segments or dominant in the competitive segments. Furthermore, it is mister monitoring the processes of alliances, joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions between business groups active in the gas industry and/or related sectors. In this context, the article describes the operation relating to Takeover bid held on 10 March 2003, for the company Gas Natural SDG SA for the whole of shares of Iberdrola S.A. It is examined the procedures performed by the Spanish regulatory agency, Comision Nacional de Energia (CNE), in decision making on this attempt to form a new business group, active both in the energy sector as in the gas sector. Simultaneously, covers up the Brazilian experience, which highlighted the activities of the National Petroleum Agency (ANP) in promoting competition, reducing the perceived risks for investors in infrastructure and prevention of anti competitive practices. It is also the need to undertaking of joint efforts between the ANP and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), so that these two regulators consistently assess movements of merger and acquisition activities in the concerned gas and electric sectors in the country. Finally, it is proposed the ratification of an agreement on technical cooperation between the agencies in order to avoid unclear and/or possible problems of overlapping of responsibilities among the various regulatory spheres of national energy industry.

  7. Statistic analysis of grouping in evaluation of the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in effluent from uranium mining; Analise de agrupamento na avaliacao do comportamento de elementos quimicos estaveis e parametros fisico-quimicos em efluente de mineracao de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S., E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (GETA/LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dores, Luis A. de C.B.; Campelo, Emanuele L.C.; Morais, Gustavo F. de; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.br, E-mail: kclecom@uol.com.br [lndustrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a uranium mine off. The statistical analysis of clustering was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physico-chemical variables in their effluents. The use of cluster analysis proved effective in the evaluation, allowing to identify groups of chemical elements in physico-chemical variables and group analyzes (element and variables ). As a result, we can say, based on the analysis of the data, a strong link between Ca and Mg and between Al and TR{sub 2}O{sub 3} (rare earth oxides) in the UTM effluents. The SO{sub 4} was also identified as strongly linked to total solids and dissolved and these linked to electrical conductivity. Other associations existed, but were not as strongly linked. Additional collections for seasonal evaluation are required so that assessments can be confirmed. Additional statistics analysis (ordination techniques) should be used to help identify the origins of the groups identified in this analysis. (author)

  8. Risk analysis and management of pipeline systems - the TRANSPETRO's experience in Sao Paulo and Brazil's Mid-West; Analise e gerenciamento de riscos de sistemas de dutos - a experiencia da TRANSPETRO em Sao Paulo e no Centro Oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risk Analysis is an important instrument on risk management and emergency control. TRANSPETRO has a long pipeline network to transport oil and by-products in Sao Paulo State and Brazil Midwest. The beginning of the elaboration of Risk Analysis in TRANSPETRO was in 1987 and extended continually until 2000. Since 2001, with the Excellence Program on Environmental and Operational Safety Management, a review of Risk Analysis has been done on all pipeline's system. This work presents the experience acquired, the main difficulties, the solutions adopted, the results about individual and social risks, the main risk management actions and the evolution of the studies during the last fifteen years pointing out the technical development of the TRANSPETRO, the environment agency and the consultant companies. (author)

  9. Multielement analysis of biological standards by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 28 elements were determined in two IAEA standards: Animal Muscle H4 and Fish Soluble A 6/74, and three NBS standards: Spinach: SRM-1570, Tomato Leaves: SRM-1573 and Pine Needles: SRM-1575 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Seven noble metals were determined in two NBS standards: Coal: SRM-1632 and Coal Fly Ash: SRM-1633 by radiochemical procedure while 11 rare earth elements were determined in NBS standard Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The results are in good agreement with the certified and/or literature data where available. The irradiations were performed at the Cornell TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 1-3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . The short-lived species were determined after a 2-minute irradiation in the pneumatic rabbit tube, and the longer-lived species after an 8-hour irradiation in the central thimble facility. The standards and samples were counted on coaxial 56-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The system resolution was 1.96 keV (FWHM) with a peak to Compton ratio of 37:1 and counting efficiency of 13%, all compared to the 1.332 MeV photopeak of Co-60. (T.I.)

  10. Collection methodology evaluation and solvents analysis/mixtures solvents in the air in work ambient: methanol in MEG mixture (methanol 33%, ethanol 60% and gasoline 7%); Avaliacao de metodologia de coleta e analise de solventes/misturas de solventes no ar em ambiente de trabalho: metanol em mistura MEG (metanol 33%, etanol 60% e gasolina 7%)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Luiza Maria Nunes

    1995-07-01

    This thesis presents a proposal for evaluation of collection and solvent/solvent mixtures analysis methodology for the air in the work environment by studying the following issues of present solvents: historical aspects; methanol - properties and toxicity; collection methodology evaluation, and gases and vapors analysis in the air; experimental data. The denominated mixture MEG - methanol, ethanol and gasoline is analyzed in terms of its chemical characteristics. The author concludes the work detaching that the methodology presented can only be used for short duration measurements in concentrations peaks studies.

  11. Semi-empiric model of an air cooled cabinet air conditioner for the dynamic analysis of the building and acclimation systems integrated behaviour; Modelo semi-empirico de condicionador de gabinete resfriado a ar para analise dinamica do comportamento integrado de edificacoes e sistemas de climatizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Jorge E. [Para Univ., Belem (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: jecorrea@amazon.com.br; Melo, Claudio. E-mail: melo@nrva.ufsc.br; Negrao, Cezar O. R. E-mail: negrao@energia.damec.cefetpr.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a semi-empirical model for a air cooled case air conditioner. This model is to be inserted in the EPS-r program (Environmental System Performance - research version) allowing the dynamic analysis of the integrated behaviour of buildings and acclimation systems using this equipment. Results obtained from simulations under the operation conditions existing in Brazil are analysed.

  12. Proposal for the optimization of the procedures for the analysis, assessment and follow-up of energy efficiency at the Manaus Energia S/A enterprise environment; Proposta de otimizacao dos procedimentos para analise, avaliacao e acompanhamento de projetos de eficiencia energetica no ambito da empresa Manaus Energia S/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Benjamim Cordeiro [Manaus Energia S/A., AM (Brazil). Programa de Eficiencia Energetica e Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2006-07-01

    The present article has for objective, to present a proposal to optimize the procedures for analysis and evaluation of projects that composes the annual Program of Energy Efficiency of Manaus Energia S/A, assisting to criteria of market prices, sustainability and return for the company. (author)

  13. Prompt radiation activation analysis, (1) Theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Barouni, A. M.; Araddad, S. Y.; Mosbah, D. S.; Elfakhri, S. M.; Rateb, J. M.; Benghzail, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the prompt γ following neutron capture in the reaction has been extensively developed. In this method the gamma-ray intensity is depended only upon the radiative capture cross-section and not upon the half-life of the product nucleus. The prompt gamma-ray activation analysis method stems from the radiative capture process which results in the decay of the compound nucleus by the emission of characteristic gamma radiation, either as a single photon with kinetic energy equal to the excitation energy less the recoil energy or, more likely, by a cascade of two or more photons with the same energy. The equations and the computer program required to calculate the yield, the intensity and the K χ emission probability per disintegration, are given in this study.(author)

  14. Reactor neutron activation for multielemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator (K 0 NAA method) has been used for obtaining multielemental profiles in a variety of matrices related to environment. Gold was used as the comparator. Neutron flux was characterised by determining f, the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio and cc, the deviation from ideal shape of the neutron spectrum. The f and a were determined in different irradiation positions in APSARA reactor, PCF position in CIRUS reactor and tray rod position in Dhruva reactor using both cadmium cut off and multi isotope detector methods. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used for radioactive assay of the activation products. This technique is being used for multielement analysis in a variety of matrices like lake sediments, sea nodules and crusts, minerals, leaves, cereals, pulses, leaves, water and soil. Elemental profiles of the sediments corresponding to different depths from Nainital lake were determined and used to understand the history of natural absorption/desorption pattern of the previous 160 years. Ferromanganese crusts from different locations of Indian Ocean were analysed with a view to studying the distribution of some trace elements along with Fe and Mn. Variation of Mn/Fe ratio was used to identify the nature of the crusts as hydrogenous or hydrothermal. Fe-rich and Fe-depleted nodules from Indian Ocean were analysed to understand the REE patterns and it is proposed that REE-Th associated minerals could be the potential Th contributors to the sea water and thus reached ferromanganese nodules. Dolomites (unaltered and altered), two types of serpentines and intrusive rock dolerite from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin were analysed for major, minor and trace elements. The elemental concentrations are used for distinguishing and characterising these minerals. From our investigations, it was concluded that both dolomite and dolerite contribute elements in the serpentinisation process. Chemical neutron

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Kuan, L.L.; Bakar, M.A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Kidney stone samples of the types calcium oxalate, uric acid, and xanthine were analyzed for their elemental contents by neutron activation analysis to study both the elemental correlation and influence of element on stone precipitation processes. Elements, such as Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe,H, I, K, Mg, Na, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were determined quantitatively. Calcium oxalate stones contained higher concentration of all the elements analyzed compared to uric acid or xanthine stones. The concentrations of Cl, Fe, K, Na, Sr, and Zn were relatively higher than Au, Co, Cr, and Sb. A positive correlation exists between Ca and Zn, whereas a negative correlation exists between Sr and Ca. Zinc may play an important role in the formation of calcium oxalate stone

  16. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Souka, S.; Sanad, W.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  17. Neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.; Verevkin, G.V.; Obrazovskij, E.G.; Shatskaya, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    A scheme of neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium is developed. Weighed amount of Te (0.5 g) is irradiated for 20-40 hr in the flux of 2x10 13 neutron/(cm 2 xs). After decomposition of the sample impurities of gold and palladium are determined by the extraction with organic sulphides. Tellurium separation from the remaining impurities is carried out by the extraction with monothiobenzoic acid from weakly acidic HCl solutions in the presence of iodide-ions, suppressing silver extraction. Remaining impurity elements in the refined product are determined γ-spectrometrically. The method allows to determine 34 impurities with determination limits 10 -6 -10 -11 g

  18. Neutron activation analysis: recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful isotope specific nuclear analytical technique for simultaneous determination of major to trace elemental concentrations in diverse matrices. NAA is associated with high analytical sensitivities and low detection limits (ppm to ppb) due to utilization of high neutron flux from research reactors and high efficiency high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Elemental concentrations are determined either by conventional NAA using relative method or by single comparator method of NAA (k 0 -NAA). Since 1994, Radiochemistry Division is actively engaged in developments and applications of k 0 -based NAA and Prompt Gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) methods for compositional characterization of materials, in addition to conventional instrumental NAA (INAA) and chemical NAA (CNAA) methods for total as well as speciation studies. The article briefly summarizes developments of k 0 based method of NAA using an external single comparator (k 0 -NAA) and an internal monostandard (lM-NAA) and PGNAA and their applications to small as well as large size samples. The article also briefly highlights the application of INAA and chemical NAA (CNAA) for speciation studies of arsenic and iodine in environmental and food samples respectively and bioaccesibility of selenium in food samples and trace elements wheatgrass samples

  19. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovsky, L.; Soliman, K.

    1999-01-01

    Food samples were irradiated with thermal and epithermal neutrons. The average ratios of thermal to epithermal activity were determined for 80 Br, 49 Ca, 38 Cl, 60m Co, 42 K, 27 Mg, 56 Mn, 24 Na, and 86m Rb. They were equal to 2.1, 26, 24, 6.6, 19, 16, 11, 23 and 1.9, respectively. Then, 57 food samples were analyzed by epithermal neutron activation analysis for Br and Rb. The concentrations (in ppm) of Br and Rb were in asparagus (2) 2.3, 11.5; beets (3) 0.5, 0.8; beef (3) 1.7, 3.6; cabbage (5) 0.5, 10.8; carrot (3) 0.2, 3.7; chicken (3) 0.6, 4.4; chocolate (7) 11.1, 18.7; egg (3) 0.9, 1.9; french bean (3) 0.3, 1.0; goose (2) 1.3, 9.3; lettuce (2) 0.9, 1.7; pork (1) 1.5, 4.4; potato (7) 1.0, 1.2; sausage (3) 4.8, 3.5; spinach (3) 3.6, 4.0; strawberry jam (3) 0.4, 1.4; tomato (1) 13.5, 14.6; turkey (3) 1.2, 4.9. respectively. The number of samples and analyzed is indicated in parentheses. (author)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Arsenic is considered a toxic trace element for plant, animal, and human organisms. Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic is emitted in appreciable quantities into the atmosphere by coal combustion and the production of cement. Arsenic enters the aquatic environment through industrial activities such as smelting of metallic ores, metallurgical glassware, and ceramics as well as insecticide production and use. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining arsenic. This paper is a review of research studies of arsenic in the Greek environment by NAA performed at our radioanalytical laboratory. The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine levels of arsenic concentrations in environmental materials, (b) to pinpoint arsenic pollution sources and estimate the extent of arsenic pollution, and (c) to find out whether edible marine organisms from the gulfs of Greece receiving domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes have elevated concentrations of arsenic in their tissues that could render them dangerous for human consumption

  1. Principal component analysis for verifying {sup 1}H NMR spectral assignments. The case of 3-aryl (1,2,4)-oxadiazole-5-carbohydrazide benzylidene; Aplicacao de analise de componentes principais para verificacao de atribuicoes de sinais nos espetros de RMN 1H. O caso dos 3-aril (1,2,4)-oxadiazol-5-carboidrazida benzilidenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Bosco P. da; Malvestiti, Ivani; Hallwass, Fernando; Ramos, Mozart N. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental]. E-mail: paraiso@ufpe.br; Leite, Lucia F.C. da Costa [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barreiro, Eliezer J. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2005-06-01

    The {sup 1}H NMR data set of a series of 3-aryl (1,2,4)-oxadiazole-5-carbohydrazide benzylidene derivatives synthesized in our group was analyzed using the chemometric technique of principal component analysis (PCA). Using the original 1H NMR data PCA allowed identifying some misassignments of the proton aromatic chemical shifts. As a consequence of this multivariate analysis, nuclear Overhauser difference experiments were performed to investigate the ambiguity of other assignments of the ortho and meta aromatic hydrogens for the compound with the bromine substituent. The effect of the 1,2,4-oxadiazole group as an electron acceptor, mainly for the hydrogens 12,13, has been highlighted. (author)

  2. Epithermal neutron activation analysis in applied microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Frontasyeva

    2012-01-01

    Some results from applying epithermal neutron activation analysis at FLNP JINR, Dubna, Russia, in medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology are reviewed. In the biomedical experiments biomass from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such essential trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into S. platensis biocomplexes retaining its protein composition and natural beneficial properties was shown. The absorption of mercury on growth dynamics of S. platensis and other bacterial strains was observed. Detoxification of Cr and Hg by Arthrobacter globiformis 151B was demonstrated. Microbial synthesis of technologically important silver nanoparticles by the novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD and blue-green alga S. platensis were characterized by a combined use of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. It was established that the tested actinomycete S. glaucus 71 MD produces silver nanoparticles extracellularly when acted upon by the silver nitrate solution, which offers a great advantage over an intracellular process of synthesis from the point of view of applications. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by S. platensis proceeded differently under the short-term and long-term silver action. (author)

  3. Neutron activation analysis of limestone objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, P.; Van Zelst, L.

    1977-01-01

    The elemental composition of samples from limestone objects were determined by neutron activation analysis to investigate whether this technique can be used to distinguish between objects made of limestone from different sources. Samples weighing between 0.2-2 grams were obtained by drilling from a series of ancient Egyptian and medieval Spanish objects. Analysis was performed on aliquots varying in weight from 40-100 milligrams. The following elements were determined quantitatively: Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ba, Sc, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Hf, Th, Ta, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn. The data on Egyptian limestones indicate that, because of the inhomogeneous nature of the stone, 0.2-2 gram samples may not be representative of an entire object. Nevertheless, multivariate statistical methods produced a clear distinction between objects originating from the Luxor area (ancient Thebes) and objects found north of Luxor. The Spanish limestone studied appeared to be more homogeneous. Samples from stylistically related objects have similar elemental compositions while relative large differences were observed between objects having no relationship other than the common provenance of medieval Spain. (orig.) [de

  4. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    2000-07-01

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235 U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  5. Quality assurance in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.

    1984-01-01

    As a potential reference method, neutron activation analysis does not have to rely on other reference materials to ascertain the quality of analytical results. The fundamental characteristics of the method with the clear separation between irradiation, processing, and counting makes possible the estimation of uncertainties of individual results from a priori assumptions. Such estimates of the standard deviation from a series of independent sources of variation are compared with the a posteriori variability of replicate determinations in order to ascertain that the analytical method is in a state of statistical control. This Analysis of Precision tests the absence of unknown errors by means of a statistic T, which is closely approximated by a chi-square distribution. In this manner an evaluation is made of a commercially available computer program for peak evaluation in γ-spectrometry, as well as of other factors affecting the precision and accuracy of the counting process. An attempt is also made to determine sampling constants of one gram or less in a candidate biological reference material

  6. Clays as green catalysts in the cholesterol esterification: spectroscopic characterization and polymorphs identification by thermal analysis methods. An interdisciplinary laboratorial proposal for the undergraduate level; Argilas como catalisadores verdes na esterificacao do colesterol: caracterizacao espectroscopica e identificacao de polimorfos por metodos de analise termica. Uma proposta laboratorial interdisciplinar para o primeiro ciclo universitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, Teresa M R.; Nunes, Rui M. D.; Pereira, Mariette M.; Eusebio, M. Ermelinda S. [Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: troseiro@ci.uc.pt

    2009-07-01

    A laboratory experiment that enables the professor to introduce the problematic of sustainable development in pharmaceutical chemistry to undergraduate students is proposed, using a simple synthetic procedure. Cholesteryl acetate is prepared by the esterification of cholesterol using Montmorillonite K10 as heterogeneous catalyst. Cholesterol and cholesteryl acetate are characterized by spectroscopic ({sup 1}H RMN, {sup 13}C RMN, FTIR) and thermal analysis techniques. The thermal methods are used to introduce the concepts of polymorphism and the nature of mesophases. (author)

  7. Analysis of the environmental impact study of PCH (small hydropower plant) Ninho da Aguia. Proposal for optimization of the environmental licensing process using a simplified matrix; Analise do estudo de impacto ambiental da PCH Ninho da Aguia. Proposta de otimizacao do processo de licenciamento ambiental utilizando uma matriz simplificada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Tania Aparecida de Souza

    2004-07-01

    This work intended to study the methodologies used for EIA - Study of Environmental Impact - and propose the adaptation of a simplified matrix for the assessment of environmental impacts regarding small hydropower plants. A case study of Ninho da Aguia SHP, located in the city of Delfim Moreira, MG, was used for elaborating the matrix. The methodology used the analysis of all the negative impacts and they were given combined weight based on a pre-established impact scale. The weights that were given to each impact were distributed according to the combination of features presented in the referred EIA. The results attained show that the environmental damage is reduced by 45% when the mitigating measures suggested by the EIA and by the analysis carried out by this study are applied. Besides, this preliminary proposal will make it possible for environmental licensing process to be accelerated. Today, this process is considered as an inhibiting investment because of it takes too much time. Also, the proposal may be used as initial guidelines regarding the environmental cost of the implementation of enterprises. The proposed matrix shows itself as efficient because it is easy to be used and it is a useful tool for the analysis of projects that will be implemented. (author)

  8. Utilization of the IAIA (Investigation and Analysis of Incidents and Accidents) method in the investigation of the P-36 platform accident; Utilizacao do metodo IAIA (Investigacao e Analise de Acidentes e Incidentes) na investigacao do acidente ocorrido na plataforma P-36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In the beginning of XXI century the Brazilian oil industry report a big accident involving that which was the biggest petroleum platform of the world. With capacity production of 180.000 barrels a day and capacity compression of 7,2 million cubic meter a day of natural gas, the off-shore platform P-36 was situated on Roncador field, in Campos basin, operating in 1360 meters of water. As consequences, eleven deaths with irreparable traumas to the families, friends and worker partners, one billion dollars in prejudices to brazilian country, environmental damages by oil leak and injuries to PETROBRAS reputation in Brazil and in the world. The method of investigation and analysis of incidents and accidents - IAIA is very wide and its philosophy contain a lot of topics, since basic concepts, investigation actions, analysis action and diagnosis by the general kind of fail. Using this method and taking advantage from the report elaborated by the commission organized by ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo and DPC - Diretoria de Portos e Costas, responsible for the investigation and analysis of the accident occurred with P-36, this paper identify the direct and indirect causes of the accident, in attempt to avoid new similar situations. (author)

  9. The importance of Real Options Theory in the analysis of investment: what is the added value to a GTL (Gas to Liquid) plant considering managerial flexibility; Qual o valor agregado a uma planta 'Gas to Liquid' considerando-se a flexibilidade gerencial: a importancia da teoria das opcoes reais na analise de investimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Marcela Lobo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this article is to do an investment analysis applying Real Options Theory in the plant Gas to Liquid (GTL). This analysis is the most indicated, because there are several flexibilities in this plant, related to the inputs (many products can be applied) as well the outputs (there are many possible combinations to use). In order to make the analysis as close as possible of reality and the most accurate it became fundamental to calculate the value that those flexibilities add to final value of the plant. It is going to be calculated the value of switch use of inputs (possibility to each semester to choose different resources) and the value of switch use of outputs (the possibility of the plant to produce more than one combination of outputs). Although in order to be feasible the implementation of the real option of switch use it is necessary to know if the added value is bigger or lesser from the cost of implementation. In the research it is achieve the conclusion that the value of switch use of inputs is lower than the cost of its implementation. (author)

  10. Validation of methods for WDXRF and OES-spark techniques in steel analysis. Determination of the uncertainty of measurements for API steel plant sample; Validacao de metodos para as tecnicas de WDXRF e OES-spark na analise de acos. Calculo de incerteza de medicao para amostras de processo, aco classe API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo da

    2009-07-01

    The increase of gas and petroleum demanding in the national and international markets, the specification and certification of the chemical analysis results of gas and oil pipe-line have became more and more challenging. A continuous development has been outlined to improve API grade alloy steels (American Petroleum Institute). The steel properties depend on the chemical composition control and process parameters during its manufacturing. In this work, a comparison of the measurement uncertainty between X-ray fluorescence (WD system) and Optical Emission (OES-spark) spectrometry, for API grade steel plant samples analysis, was outlined. Usually, this kind of analyze requires less than 40 seconds for full chemical characterization for adjustment in the process parameters production. The main influence source in the chemical analysis was evaluated for design of experiments. The constituents and trace elements such as Al, Si, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Nb, Mo and Sn were determined using the ASTM E-322, E-415, E-1009 and E-1085 standard methodologies. The 185A and 187A certified reference materials from CMI (Czech Metrology Institute) were used for evaluation of the methods. The uncertainty of the measurement, precision, accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements were obtained applying statistic tests, recommended by ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of measurement for each element is discussed for both techniques. (author)

  11. Structural analysis of CuO / CeO{sub 2}-based catalytic materials intended for PROX reaction: Part I; Analise estrutural de materiais cataliticos a base de CuO/CeO{sub 2} destinados a reacao de PROX: parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiva, L.S.; Simoes, A.N.; Bispo, A.; Ribeiro, M.A.; Gama, L., E-mail: lsoutoneiva@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Aademica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    This work relates the synthesis process of CuO/CeO{sub 2} catalytic materials by a combustion reaction method as well as it introduces a structural analysis of the developed material, this structural analysis had as main focus to evaluate the influence of the doping substance (CuO) when being incorporated in the hostess matrix structure that is CeO{sub 2}. The CuO/CeO catalytic materials developed in this work are destined to preferential oxidation of CO reaction (PROX). The developed materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and textural complete analysis by the BET method. According to the results, the CuO incorporation changed crystallinity of the structure of the catalytic materials. On the other hand, the morphologic and textural characteristics did not showed significant differences regarding the presence of the doping substance (CuO) in the structure of the developed materials. The porosity of the structures of the developed catalytic materials belongs to the type macroporous. (author)

  12. Analysis of production models and hydrogen supply for urban collective transportation buses: a case study at Foz do Iguacu; Analise de modelos de producao e abastecimento de hidrogenio para onibus de transporte coletivo urbano: estudo de caso em Foz do Iguacu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros-Godoy, Gustavo [Universidade Nacional de Assuncao (Paraguay). Faculdade de Ciencias Quimicas]. E-mail: riveros@qui.una.py; Cavaliero, Carla; Peres, Ennio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    Even though technical-economical barriers still exist for the development of an economy based in the hydrogen, these difficulties are opportunities for the appearance of new business of goods and services, energetic matrix diversification, focusing of researches activities, development and support to provide sustainability to the new economy. This study presents the technical-economical comparison of hydrogen production and supply models, using the so-called Spilled Turbinable Energy of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant and available for the transport sector. The substitution of the urban collective diesel bus fleet with fuel cell buses in Foz do Iguacu city was used as a case study in this work. (author)

  13. Administrative protection of the environment and the actions of IBAMA in the framework of the petroleum industry: an analysis of Normative Instruction in IBAMA. 14/2009; A tutela administrativa do meio ambiente e a atuacao do IBAMA (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis) no ambito da industria do petroleo: uma analise da instrucao normativa IBAMA no. 14/2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Gabrielle Trindade Moreira de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    2009-08-15

    The Oil Industry includes the practice of activities that involve high costs and risks to the environment. Thus, there is a need to regulate, supervise and, when necessary, restrain the performance of the sector with the aim of avoiding any acts that impact the environment. According to the Federal Constitution which provides in its article 225, it is responsibility of the Government to apply the penal and administrative sanctions, regardless of the obligation to repair the damage, the responsible, be it natural or juridical person, the conduct and activities considered harmful to the environment. These sanctions are the means of protecting the environment, namely civil, criminal and administrative protection. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to address the administrative supervision of the environment, through the notions pertaining to the police power of environmental and administrative responsibility, emphasizing that theme in its assumptions and its legal nature. Then review the administrative sanctions under infra constitutional level, alluding to that available to the specific legal matters, ie, Law 9.605/98 and Decree No 6.514/08. Finally, we explain the performance of the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA) in the defense of legal and common usage that is the environment.

  14. Analysis of the perception of risk of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro using the risk evaluation system in radiotherapy (SEVRRA / FORUM); Analise da percepcao de risco de servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro usando o sistema de avaliacao de risco em radioterapia (SEVRRA/FORO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Adam de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    In this work it was possible to analyze the perception of risks associated with existing processes in the high-dose rate brachytherapy and teletherapy using linear accelerators of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, through the combined use of two proposed methods: FMECA and risk matrix, using a general analysis and other more specific ones. The database software (SEVRRA) was used to identify possible existing processes in radiotherapy services (brachytherapy and teletherapy) and to classify the sequence of events in risk levels. The risk levels were analyzed at each stage and sub-stage, present in the treatment of patients undergoing high dose rate gynecological intracavitary brachytherapy and teletherapy treatments with the use of linear accelerators applying electron or photon beams in order to establish recommendations to the risks of highest priority for each case. The results show that although the procedure of high dose rate brachytherapy be automated and less susceptible to errors or failures, daily, one can still find considerable amounts of processes with worrying levels of risk perception. The processes that are more subject to radiological accident risks was associated with procedures, for of which the majority of the failures record and planning step of the treatment. The controls analyzed showed low efficiency, warning of the need to seek and implement new more efficient controls in routine brachytherapy for each participant service. About teletherapy procedure it was found that most of the failures were related to the registration and planning of treatment and equipment stages. The controls analyzed to teletherapy showed a poor result with a first type of analysis performed by suggesting a new type of more appropriate analysis. With a second type of analysis, these controls could be better analyzed and showed an order of importance according to a percentage of efficiency. Controls such as 'Double-check', &apos

  15. Comparative analysis of the heat transfer rates in constant (CAV) and variable (VAV) volumes type multi zone acclimation system operating in hot and humid climate; Analise comparativa das taxas transferencia de calor em sistemas de climatizacao do tipo volume de ar constante (CAV) e volume de ar variavel (VAV) multizona operando em clima quente e umido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cesar A.G.; Correa, Jorge E. [Para Univ., Belem (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: gsantos@ufpa.br; jecorrea@amazon.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This work performs a comparative analysis among the constant and variable air volume multi zones acclimation systems, used for provide the thermal comfort in buildings. The work used the simulation HVAC2KIT computer program. The results of sensible and latent heats transfer rates on the cooling and dehumidification, inflating fan capacity, and heat transfer on the final heating condenser were obtained and analysed for the climate conditions of the Brazilian city of Belem from Para State, presenting hot and humid climate during all the year.

  16. Gastrointestinal transit after transverse colostomy: study of solid radiopaque markers progression and others clinical and radiological events - analysis of 20 cases; Transito gastrintestinal apos fechamento de transversostomia: estudo atraves da progressao de marcadores solidos radiopacos e de outros eventos clinicos e radiologicos - analise de 20 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Claudio Roberto

    1988-07-01

    The gastrointestinal transit was studied in 20 patients with loop transverse colostomies and previously normal colons. This analysis was performed through radiological observation of progression of 20 radiopaque pellets and measurements of its transit time in the various segments of the digestive tract. An evaluation of other related clinical and radiological events was carried out sentimentality's. In order to better understand the influence of the surgical procedure, the study was performed under similar dietary and supportive care conditions and standard radiological studies before and after the re-establishment of transit, thus enabling a comparison with the same individual. (author)

  17. Project and analysis of the toroidal magnetic field production circuits and the plasma formation of the ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment) tokamak; Projeto e analise dos circuitos de producao de campo magnetico toroidal e de formacao do plasma do Tokamak ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Luis Filipe F.P.W.; Bosco, Edson del

    1994-12-31

    This report presents the project and analysis of the circuit for production of the toroidal magnetic field in the Tokamak ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment). The ETE is a Tokamak with a small-aspect-ratio parameter to be used for studying the plasma physics for the research on thermonuclear fusion. This machine is being constructed at the Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP) of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) in Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. (author). 20 refs., 39 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Analysis of Brazilian snake venoms by neutron