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Sample records for activating transcription factor-2

  1. The Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b Is an Essential Cofactor for the Activation of Transcription by Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2

    OpenAIRE

    Nojima, Masanori; Huang, Yehong; Tyagi, Mudit; Kao, Hung-Ying; Fujinaga, Koh

    2008-01-01

    The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), composed of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 and cyclin T1, stimulates the elongation of transcription by hyperphosphorylating the C-terminal region of RNA polymerase II. Aberrant activation of P-TEFb results in manifestations of cardiac hypertrophy in mice, suggesting that P-TEFb is an essential factor for cardiac myocyte function and development. Here, we present evidence that P-TEFb selectively activates transcription mediated by the myocyt...

  2. GABP Transcription Factor (Nuclear Respiratory Factor 2) Is Required for Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhong-Fa; Drumea, Karen; Mott, Stephanie; Wang, Junling; Rosmarin, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles that serve as the major source of ATP production in eukaryotic cells. GABP (also known as nuclear respiratory factor 2) is a nuclear E26 transformation-specific transcription factor (ETS) that binds and activates mitochondrial genes that are required for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. We conditionally deleted Gabpa, the DNA-binding component of this transcription factor complex, from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) t...

  3. The transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    van Oort, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The heart responds to stress signals by hypertrophic growth, which is the first step towards heart failure (HF). The genetic pattern underlying HF remains largely elusive. Although the transcription factor Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 (MEF2) is known to be a common endpoint for several hypertrophic signaling pathways, its precise role in myocardial remodeling is unknown. To this end, we pursued comprehensive gain- and loss-of-function approaches for MEF2 transcriptional activity in heart muscle ...

  4. The NAD-Dependent Deacetylase Sirtuin-1 Regulates the Expression of Osteogenic Transcriptional Activator Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2 and Production of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-13 in Chondrocytes in Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Terauchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is one of the major pathologic factors associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Recently, numerous reports have demonstrated the impact of sirtuin-1 (Sirt1, which is the NAD-dependent deacetylase, on human aging. It has been demonstrated that Sirt1 induces osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the role of Sirt1 in the OA chondrocytes still remains unknown. We postulated that Sirt1 regulates a hypertrophic chondrocyte lineage and degeneration of articular cartilage through the activation of osteogenic transcriptional activator Runx2 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 in OA chondrocytes. To verify whether sirtuin-1 (Sirt1 regulates chondrocyte activity in OA, we studied expressions of Sirt1, Runx2 and production of MMP-13, and their associations in human OA chondrocytes. The expression of Sirt1 was ubiquitously observed in osteoarthritic chondrocytes; in contrast, Runx2 expressed in the osteophyte region in patients with OA and OA model mice. OA relating catabolic factor IL-1βincreased the expression of Runx2 in OA chondrocytes. OA chondrocytes, which were pretreated with Sirt1 inhibitor, inhibited the IL-1β-induced expression of Runx2 compared to the control. Since the Runx2 is a promotor of MMP-13 expression, Sirt1 inactivation may inhibit the Runx2 expression and the resultant down-regulation of MMP-13 production in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest thatSirt1 may regulate the expression of Runx2, which is the osteogenic transcription factor, and the production of MMP-13 from chondrocytes in OA. Since Sirt1 activity is known to be affected by several stresses, including inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as aging, SIRT may be involved in the development of OA.

  5. Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution for Automatic Transcription of Polyphonic Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel N.; Mørup, Morten

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel method for automatic transcription of polyphonic music based on a recently published algorithm for non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution. The method works by simultaneously estimating a time-frequency model for an instrument and a pattern corresponding to the notes which...... are played based on a log-frequency spectrogram of the music....

  6. Mitochondrial transcription termination factor 2 binds to entire mitochondrial DNA and negatively regulates mitochondrial gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Huang; Min Yu; Yang Jiao; Jie Ma; Mingxing Ma; Zehua Wang; Hong Wu; Deyong Tan

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription termination factor 2 (mTERF2) is a mitochondriai matrix protein that binds to the mitochondriai DNA.Previous studies have shown that overexpression of mTERF2 can inhibit cell proliferation, but the mechanism has not been well defined so far.This study aimed to present the binding pattern of mTERF2 to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in vivo, and investigated the biological function of mTERF2 on the replication of mtDNA, mRNA transcription, and protein translation.The mTERF2 binding to entire mtDNA was identified via the chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis.The mtDNA replication efficiency and expression levels of mitochondria genes were significantly inhibited when the mTERF2 was overexpressed in HeLa cells.The inhibition level of mtDNA content was the same with the decreased levels of mRNA and mitochondrial protein expression.Overall, the mTERF2 might be a cell growth inhibitor based on its negative effect on mtDNA replication, which eventually own-regulated all of the oxidative phosphorylation components in the mitochondria that were essential for the cell's energy metabolism.

  7. Expression of paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c (PITX2c) in epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) has been implicated as one of the genes responsible for Rieger syndrome. It has been also shown to play a central role during development. In this study, we investigated the functional role of PITX2 in keratinocyte differentiation. RT-PCR analysis showed that PITX2c isoform was predominantly expressed in a differentiation-dependent manner. Consistent with, immunohistochemical staining showed that PITX2 expression was increased in the upper layer of epidermis. When PITX2c was overexpressed in cultured keratinocytes by a recombinant adenovirus, the differentiation markers such as involucrin and loricrin were significantly increased at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, PITX2c overexpression led to the decrease of cell growth, concomitantly with the upregulation of cell cycle-related genes p21. To investigate the effect of PITX2c in vivo, we microinjected PITX2c expression vector into zebrafish embryo. Interestingly, overexpression of PITX2c in zebrafish embryo led to the formation of horn-like structure and thickening of epidermis, together with the increase of keratin 8 (K8) expression. These results suggest that PITX2c has a role in proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes.

  8. Suppression of estrogen receptor-alpha transactivation by thyroid transcription factor-2 in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunsook; Gong, Eun-Yeung [Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Romanelli, Maria Grazia [Department of Life and Reproduction Sciences, University of Verona, Strada le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona (Italy); Lee, Keesook, E-mail: klee@chonnam.ac.kr [Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 was expressed in mammary glands and breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 repressed ER{alpha} transactivation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptors (ERs), which mediate estrogen actions, regulate cell growth and differentiation of a variety of normal tissues and hormone-responsive tumors through interaction with cellular factors. In this study, we show that thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2) is expressed in mammary gland and acts as ER{alpha} co-repressor. TTF-2 inhibited ER{alpha} transactivation in a dose-dependent manner in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In addition, TTF-2 directly bound to and formed a complex with ER{alpha}, colocalizing with ER{alpha} in the nucleus. In MCF-7/TTF-2 stable cell lines, TTF-2 repressed the expression of endogenous ER{alpha} target genes such as pS2 and cyclin D1 by interrupting ER{alpha} binding to target promoters and also significantly decreased cell proliferation. Taken together, these data suggest that TTF-2 may modulate the function of ER{alpha} as a corepressor and play a role in ER-dependent proliferation of mammary cells.

  9. Expression of paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c (PITX2c) in epidermal keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ge [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Guangxi, Nanning, 530023 (China); Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Choi, Tae-Young; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Sin [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Ou, Bai-sheng [Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University, Guangxi, Nanning, 530023 (China); Kim, Sooil; Lee, Young Ho [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae-Jin [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong-Jin [Department of Dermatology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeung-Hoon [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Deok, E-mail: cdkimd@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) has been implicated as one of the genes responsible for Rieger syndrome. It has been also shown to play a central role during development. In this study, we investigated the functional role of PITX2 in keratinocyte differentiation. RT-PCR analysis showed that PITX2c isoform was predominantly expressed in a differentiation-dependent manner. Consistent with, immunohistochemical staining showed that PITX2 expression was increased in the upper layer of epidermis. When PITX2c was overexpressed in cultured keratinocytes by a recombinant adenovirus, the differentiation markers such as involucrin and loricrin were significantly increased at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, PITX2c overexpression led to the decrease of cell growth, concomitantly with the upregulation of cell cycle-related genes p21. To investigate the effect of PITX2c in vivo, we microinjected PITX2c expression vector into zebrafish embryo. Interestingly, overexpression of PITX2c in zebrafish embryo led to the formation of horn-like structure and thickening of epidermis, together with the increase of keratin 8 (K8) expression. These results suggest that PITX2c has a role in proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes.

  10. Eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation mediates fetal hemoglobin induction through a post-transcriptional mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Cynthia K.; Lowrey, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing eIF2α phosphorylation increases fetal hemoglobin in human primary erythroid progenitors via a post-transcriptional mechanism.Combining pharmacologic agents that use transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms additively induces fetal hemoglobin.

  11. The stress signalling pathway nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 is activated in the liver of sows during lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum Susann; Ringseis Robert; Hillen Sonja; Becker Sabrina; Erhardt Georg; Reiner Gerald; Eder Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It has recently been shown that the lactation-induced inflammatory state in the liver of dairy cows is accompanied by activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway, which regulates the expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes and thereby protects tissues from inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study aimed to study whether the Nrf2 pathway is activated also in the liver of lactating sows. Findings Transcript...

  12. Molecular characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA induction of IL-8 in U937 cells reveals a prominent role for p38MAPK in activating transcription factor-2, cAMP response element binding protein, and NF-kappaB activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Nakayama, Masaaki; Isomoto, Hajime;

    2008-01-01

    intracellular Ca(2+) channels (dantrolene) blocked VacA-induced IL-8 production. Furthermore, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator (BAPTA-AM), which inhibited VacA-activated p38 MAPK, caused a dose-dependent reduction in VacA-induced IL-8 secretion by U937 cells, implying a role for intracellular Ca(2+) in......Helicobacter pylori VacA induces multiple effects on susceptible cells, including vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, inhibition of cell growth, and enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. To assess the ability of H. pylori to modulate the production of inflammatory mediators, we examined the...... mediating activation of MAPK and the canonical NF-kappaB pathway. VacA stimulated translocation of NF-kappaBp65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA of activating transcription factor (ATF)-2 or CREB, which...

  13. Activated Integrin-Linked Kinase Negatively Regulates Muscle Cell Enhancement Factor 2C in C2C12 Cells

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    Zhenguo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study reported that muscle cell enhancement factor 2C (MEF2C was fully activated after inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of integrin-linked kinase (ILK in the skeletal muscle cells of goats. It enhanced the binding of promoter or enhancer of transcription factor related to proliferation of muscle cells and then regulated the expression of these genes. In the present investigation, we explored whether ILK activation depended on PI3K to regulate the phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of MEF2C during C2C12 cell proliferation. We inhibited PI3K activity in C2C12 with LY294002 and then found that ILK phosphorylation levels and MEF2C phosphorylation were decreased and that MCK mRNA expression was suppressed significantly. After inhibiting ILK phosphorylation activity with Cpd22 and ILK-shRNA, we found MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression were increased extremely significantly. In the presence of Cpd22, PI3K activity inhibition increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK mRNA expression indistinctively. We conclude that ILK negatively and independently of PI3K regulated MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression in C2C12 cells. The results provide new ideas for the study of classical signaling pathway of PI3K-ILK-related proteins and transcription factors.

  14. The brain-specific neural zinc finger transcription factor 2b (NZF-2b/7ZFMyt1 suppresses cocaine self-administration in rats

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    Vijay Chandrasekar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain-specific neural-zinc-finger transcription factor-2b (NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 is induced in the mesolimbic dopaminergic region after chronic cocaine exposure and lentiviral-mediated expression of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in the nucleus accumbens results in decreased locomotor activity (Chandrasekar and Dreyer, 2009. In this study the role of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in active cocaine seeking and of its interaction with histone deacetylase on the altered behavior has been observed. Localized expression of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in the nucleus accumbens resulted in attenuated cocaine self-administration, whereas silencing this transcription factor with lentiviruses expressing siRNAs increased the animal′s motivation to self-infuse cocaine. Low doses of sodium butyrate, a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylase, were sufficient to reverse the NZF2b/7ZFMyt1-mediated decrease in cocaine self-administration. NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 expression resulted in strong induction of transcription factors REST1 and NAC1 and of the dopamine D2 receptor, with concomitant inhibition of BDNF and its receptor TrkB. We show that NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 colocalizes with histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2, probably overcoming the suppression of transcriptional activity caused by Lingo1. These findings show that molecular adaptations mediated by NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 expression possibly lead to decreased responsiveness to the reinforcing properties of cocaine and play a prominent role in affecting the behavioral changes induced by the drug.

  15. Intrinsic transcript cleavage activity of RNA polymerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, M; Newlands, J; Das, A; Goldfarb, A; Borukhov, S

    1995-01-01

    The GreA and GreB transcript cleavage factors of Escherichia coli suppress elongation arrest and may have a proofreading role in transcription. With the use of E. coli greA-greB- mutant, RNA polymerase is demonstrated to possess substantial intrinsic transcript cleavage activity. Mildly alkaline pH mimics the effect of the Gre proteins by inducing transcript cleavage in ternary complexes and antagonizing elongation arrest through a cleavage-and-restart reaction. Thus, transcript cleavage cons...

  16. Expression and localization of forkhead transcriptional factor 2 (Foxl2 in the gonads of protogynous wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus

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    Kobayashi Yasuhisa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, is a marine protogynous hermaphrodite fish. Individuals mature either as initial phase (IP males or females. Appropriate social cues induce the sex change from IP female to terminal phase (TP male. However, the molecular mechanisms behind such a sex change remain largely unknown. Recently, the forkhead transcription factor 2 (Foxl2 was identified as an essential regulator of vertebrate ovarian development/function/phenotype. Inspired by this information, we characterized the expression patterns of Foxl2 in the protogynous wrasse assuming Foxl2 as the female-specific marker in this species. Methods First, we clonedFoxl2 cDNA from ovary by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Next, we analysed expression pattern of Foxl2 messenger RNA (mRNA and protein in gonads of different sexual phases by real time quantitative PCR assay and flour fluorescence immunohistochemical method, respectively. Additionally, we studied the changes in Foxl2 expression pattern during aromatase inhibitor (AI-induced sex change. Results The amino acid sequence (306 AA of wrasse Foxl2, especially the forkhead domain, shows high identity with that of other reported teleost Foxl2s. Quite unexpectedly, no sexual dimorphism was observable between the testes and ovary in the expression pattern of Foxl2. In female phase fish, signals for Foxl2 protein were detectable in the granulosa cells, but not the theca cells. Transcript levels of Foxl2 in the testes of IP and TP males were identical to that in the ovaries of females and, further, Foxl2 protein was found to be localized in the interstitial cells including tubules and Leydig cells. Treatment with AI induced sex change in male gonads and an up-regulation was seen in the expression of Foxl2 in these gonads. Conclusions Unlike in other vertebrates, including teleosts, Foxl2 may have a different

  17. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induces osteogenic differentiation through a Runx2 activation in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expression of bone-associated proteins and osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2 in arterial cells has been implicated in the development of vascular calcification. However, the signaling upstream of the Runx2-mediated activation of osteoblastic program in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is poorly understood. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), an important regulator of bone formation, on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC. Stimulation of cultured rat aortic SMC (RASMC) with FGF-2 induced the expression of the osteoblastic markers osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin. Luciferase assays showed that FGF-2 induced osteocyte-specific element (OSE)-dependent transcription. Downregulation of Runx2 by siRNA repressed the basal and FGF-2-stimulated expression of the OPN gene in RASMC. FGF-2 produced hydrogen peroxide in RASMC, as evaluated by fluorescent probe. Induction of OPN expression by FGF-2 was inhibited not only by PD98059 (MEK1 inhibitor) and PP1 (c-Src inhibitor), but also by an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Nuclear extracts from FGF-2-treated RASMC exhibited increased DNA-binding of Runx2 to its target sequence. Immunohistochemistry of human coronary atherectomy specimens and calcified aortic tissues showed that expression of FGF receptor-1 and Runx2 was colocalized. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF-2 plays a role in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC by activating Runx2 through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent- and oxidative stress-sensitive-signaling pathways.

  18. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induces osteogenic differentiation through a Runx2 activation in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Takehiro; Sato, Hiroko; Shimizu, Takehisa; Tanaka, Toru; Matsui, Hiroki; Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Sato, Mahito; Iso, Tatsuya; Arai, Masashi [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kurabayashi, Masahiko, E-mail: mkuraba@med.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)

    2010-04-02

    Expression of bone-associated proteins and osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2 in arterial cells has been implicated in the development of vascular calcification. However, the signaling upstream of the Runx2-mediated activation of osteoblastic program in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is poorly understood. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), an important regulator of bone formation, on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC. Stimulation of cultured rat aortic SMC (RASMC) with FGF-2 induced the expression of the osteoblastic markers osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin. Luciferase assays showed that FGF-2 induced osteocyte-specific element (OSE)-dependent transcription. Downregulation of Runx2 by siRNA repressed the basal and FGF-2-stimulated expression of the OPN gene in RASMC. FGF-2 produced hydrogen peroxide in RASMC, as evaluated by fluorescent probe. Induction of OPN expression by FGF-2 was inhibited not only by PD98059 (MEK1 inhibitor) and PP1 (c-Src inhibitor), but also by an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Nuclear extracts from FGF-2-treated RASMC exhibited increased DNA-binding of Runx2 to its target sequence. Immunohistochemistry of human coronary atherectomy specimens and calcified aortic tissues showed that expression of FGF receptor-1 and Runx2 was colocalized. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF-2 plays a role in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC by activating Runx2 through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent- and oxidative stress-sensitive-signaling pathways.

  19. Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β (TRβ) Mediates Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2) Expression in Thyroid Cancer Cells: A Novel Signaling Pathway in Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Frances E; Tai, Phillip W L; Barnum, Michael S; Gillis, Noelle E; Evans, Katherine G; Taber, Thomas H; White, Jeffrey H; Tomczak, Jennifer A; Jaworski, Diane M; Zaidi, Sayyed K; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulation of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)β is common in human cancers. Restoration of functional TRβ delays tumor progression in models of thyroid and breast cancers implicating TRβ as a tumor suppressor. Conversely, aberrant expression of the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is established in the progression and metastasis of thyroid, breast, and other cancers. Silencing of Runx2 diminishes tumor invasive characteristics. With TRβ as a tumor suppressor and Runx2 as a tumor promoter, a compelling question is whether there is a functional relationship between these regulatory factors in thyroid tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrated that these proteins are reciprocally expressed in normal and malignant thyroid cells; TRβ is high in normal cells, and Runx2 is high in malignant cells. T3 induced a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in Runx2 expression. Silencing of TRβ by small interfering RNA knockdown resulted in a corresponding increase in Runx2 and Runx2-regulated genes, indicating that TRβ levels directly impact Runx2 expression and associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition molecules. TRβ specifically bound to 3 putative thyroid hormone-response element motifs within the Runx2-P1 promoter ((-)105/(+)133) as detected by EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation. TRβ suppressed Runx2 transcriptional activities, thus confirming TRβ regulation of Runx2 at functional thyroid hormone-response elements. Significantly, these findings indicate that a ratio of the tumor-suppressor TRβ and tumor-promoting Runx2 may reflect tumor aggression and serve as biomarkers in biopsy tissues. The discovery of this TRβ-Runx2 signaling supports the emerging role of TRβ as a tumor suppressor and reveals a novel pathway for intervention. PMID:27253998

  20. The stress signalling pathway nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 is activated in the liver of sows during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Susann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been shown that the lactation-induced inflammatory state in the liver of dairy cows is accompanied by activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway, which regulates the expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes and thereby protects tissues from inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS. The present study aimed to study whether the Nrf2 pathway is activated also in the liver of lactating sows. Findings Transcript levels of known Nrf2 target genes, UGT1A1 (encoding glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1, HO-1 (encoding heme oxygenase 1, NQO1 (encoding NAD(PH dehydrogenase, quinone 1, GPX1 (encoding glutathione peroxidase, PRDX6 (encoding peroxiredoxin 6, TXNRD1 (encoding thioredoxin reductase 1, and SOD (encoding superoxide dismutase, in the liver are significantly elevated (between 1.7 and 3.1 fold in lactating sows compared to non-lactating sows. The inflammatory state in the liver was evidenced by the finding that transcript levels of genes encoding acute phase proteins, namely haptoglobin (HP, fibrinogen γ (FGG, complement factor B (CFB, C-reactive protein (CRP and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP, were significantly higher (2 to 8.7 fold in lactating compared to non-lactating sows. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that the Nrf2 pathway in the liver of sows is activated during lactation. The activation of Nrf2 pathway during lactation in sows might be interpreted as a physiologic means to counteract the inflammatory process and to protect the liver against damage induced by inflammatory signals and ROS.

  1. Oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 overexpression promotes oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 expression in the brains of neonatal rats exposed to hypoxia****☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Yang; Hong Cui; Aijun Yang; Wenxing Jiang

    2011-01-01

    To examine the expression profiles of oligodendrocyte transcription factors 1 and 2 (Olig1 and Olig2) and the interaction between these two proteins, Olig1 was transfected into the lateral ventricles of neonatal rats subjected to hypoxia. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Olig2 was expressed throughout the nuclei in the brain, and expression increased at 3 days following hypoxia and was higher than levels at 7 days following Ad5-Olig1 transfection. Western blot revealed that Olig1 and Olig2 expression increased in Olig1-transfected brain cells 3 days after hypoxia, but Olig1 and Olig2 expression decreased at 7 days. These results indicate that Olig1 overexpression enhances Olig2 expression in brain tissues of hypoxia rats.

  2. Chromatin structure near transcriptionally active genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypersensitive domains are the most prominent features of transcriptionally active chromatin. In the case of the β/sup A/-globin gene, it seems likely that two or more protein factors are capable of binding to the DNA so tightly that the nucleosome is prevented from binding. We have shown that nucleosomes, once bound in the assembly process in vitro, cannot be displaced. The interaction of the 5S gene transcription factor TFIIIA with its target DNA also is blocked by histones, and it has been suggested that the activation of the gene must occur during replication, before histones are reassembled on the DNA. We suppose that a similar mechanism may govern the binding of the hypersensitivity factors. It should be noted that nucleosomes are excluded not only from the sites to which the factors bind, but also from the regions between the two domains and at either side. 12 refs., 6 figs

  3. Increased expression of protease-activated receptor 4 and Trefoil factor 2 in human colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Yu

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4, a member of G-protein coupled receptors family, was recently reported to exhibit decreased expression in gastric cancer and esophageal squamous cancer, yet increased expression during the progression of prostate cancer. Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2, a small peptide constitutively expressed in the gastric mucosa, plays a protective role in restitution of gastric mucosa. Altered TFF2 expression was also related to the development of gastrointestinal cancer. TFF2 has been verified to promote cell migration via PAR4, but the roles of PAR4 and TFF2 in the progress of colorectal cancer are still unknown. In this study, the expression level of PAR4 and TFF2 in colorectal cancer tissues was measured using real-time PCR (n = 38, western blotting (n=38 and tissue microarrays (n = 66. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PAR4 and TFF2 were remarkably increased in colorectal cancer compared with matched noncancerous tissues, especially in positive lymph node and poorly differentiated cancers. The colorectal carcinoma cell LoVo showed an increased response to TFF2 as assessed by cell invasion upon PAR4 expression. However, after intervention of PAR4 expression, PAR4 positive colorectal carcinoma cell HT-29 was less responsive to TFF2 in cell invasion. Genomic bisulfite sequencing showed the hypomethylation of PAR4 promoter in colorectal cancer tissues and the hypermethylation in the normal mucosa that suggested the low methylation of promoter was correlated to the increased PAR4 expression. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of PAR4 and TFF2 frequently occurs in colorectal cancer tissues, and that overexpression of PAR4 may be resulted from promoter hypomethylation. While TFF2 promotes invasion activity of LoVo cells overexpressing PAR4, and this effect was significantly decreased when PAR4 was knockdowned in HT-29 cells. Our findings will be helpful in further investigations into the

  4. The gene encoding the mouse contactin-1 axonal glycoprotein is regulated by the collier/Olf1/EBF family early B-Cell factor 2 transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzoca, Antonella; Picocci, Sabrina; Corsi, Patrizia; Arbia, Stefania; Croci, Laura; Consalez, G Giacomo; Gennarini, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    The Contactin-1 axonal glycoprotein (formerly F3/Contactin) plays a relevant role in cerebellar ontogenesis, as shown in Contactin-1 KO-mice and in transgenic mice misexpressing the corresponding cDNA from a heterologous promoter. Likewise, null mutant mice for the Collier/Olf1/Early B-cell family transcription factor EBF2, in which Purkinje neuron development is primarily affected, exhibit abnormalities in cerebellar corticogenesis. Here, to evaluate the contribution to the Ebf2 null phenotype of changes in the profile of Contactin-1, we study its expression in Ebf2 null mice. In addition, we explore the activation profile of the Cntn1 gene promoter upon transferring the Ebf2 mutation to transgenic mice expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter under control of Cntn1 gene regulatory sequences. In Ebf2 null mice, Contactin-1 protein expression and Cntn1 gene promoter activity are both downregulated during embryonic and early postnatal cerebellar development, both in the rostral and caudal folia, while in the latter an upregulation is observed at postnatal day 8. In vitro, vectors driving EBF1,2,3 transcription factors from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter transactivate a Cntn1-Choline acetyltransferse (CAT) promoter-reporter construct in cotransfection assays and, accordingly, by chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that the Cntn1 gene 5' flanking region is bound by the EBF2 transcription factor, consistent with the evidence that this region bears the cognate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) consensus sequences. These data indicate that Contactin-1 expression is dependent upon EBF factors, suggesting that the Cntn1 gene belongs to the expanding regulatory cascade driven by these transcriptional regulators so that changes in its activation may contribute to the phenotype of Ebf2 null mutant mice. PMID:25820347

  5. A TATA sequence-dependent transcriptional repressor activity associated with mammalian transcription factor IIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Aso, T.; Serizawa, H; Conaway, R C; Conaway, J W

    1994-01-01

    In the process of characterizing cellular proteins that modulate basal transcription by RNA polymerase II, we identified a novel repressor activity specific for promoters containing consensus TATA boxes. This activity strongly represses TATA-binding protein (TBP)-dependent transcription initiation from core promoter elements containing a consensus TATA sequence, but activates TBP-dependent transcription from core promoter elements lacking a consensus TATA sequence. Purification of this activi...

  6. Expression of caudal-related homeobox transcription factor caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 in intestinal-type carcinoma%CDX2基因与肠型胃癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武洋; 辛彦

    2007-01-01

    根据Lauren分型,胃癌分为肠型和弥漫型胃癌两种.肠型胃癌经历了正常胃黏膜、肠上皮化生到异型增生再到肠型胃癌的多步骤、多阶段逐渐发展的过程.肠道特异性转录因子(caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2,CDX2),对肠黏膜上皮的发育及保持其形态起着重要作用.正常情况下其产物特异的表达于小肠和结肠上皮中.迄今的研究发现,CDX2基因的异常表达与胃黏膜肠上皮化生和肠型胃癌的发生密切相关.

  7. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500...

  8. Human cytomegalovirus IE2 protein interacts with transcription activating factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐进平; 叶林柏

    2002-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE86 Cdna was cloned into Pgex-2T and fusion protein GST-IE86 was expressed in E. Coli. SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay indicated that fusion protein GST-IE86 with molecular weight of 92 ku is soluble in the supernatant of cell lysate. Protein GST and fusion protein GST-IE86 were purified by affinity chromatography. The technology of co-separation and specific affinity chromatography was used to study the interactions of HCMV IE86 protein with some transcriptional regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors. The results indicated that IE86 interacts separately with transcriptional factor TFIIB and promoter DNA binding transcription trans-activating factors SP1, AP1 and AP2 to form a heterogenous protein complex. These transcriptional trans-activating factors, transcriptional factor and IE86 protein were adsorbed and retained in the affinity chromatography simultaneously. But IE86 protein could not interact with NF-Кb, suggesting that the function of IE86 protein that can interact with transcriptional factor and transcriptional trans-activating factors has no relevance to protein glycosylation. IE86 protein probably has two domains responsible for binding transcriptional trans-activating regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors respectively, thus activating the transcription of many genes. The interactions accelerated the assembly of the transcriptional initiation complexes.

  9. A role of transcriptional activators as antirepressors for the autoinhibitory activity of TATA box binding of transcription factor IID

    OpenAIRE

    Kotani, Tomohiro; Banno, Ken-ichi; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Nakatani, Yoshihiro; Kawaichi, Masashi; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2000-01-01

    The TATA box-binding activity of transcription factor IID (TFIID) is autoinhibited by the N-terminal domain of the Drosophila TATA box-binding protein- (TBP) associated factor 230/yeast TBP-associated factor 145 subunit, which binds to the TATA box-binding domain of TBP by mimicking the TATA box structure. Here, we propose a mechanism of transcriptional activation that involves antirepression of this autoinhibitory activity by transcriptional activators. Like the autoinhibitory domain of TFII...

  10. Enhancer-activated plasmid transcription complexes contain constrained supercoiling.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, P J; Freytag, S O; Lutter, L C

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed that transcriptionally active chromatin contains totally unconstrained supercoiling. The results of recent studies have raised the possibility that this topological state is the property of highly transcribed genes. Since the transcription rate of RNA polymerase II genes can be dramatically increased by the presence of an enhancer, we have determined if the transcription complex of an enhancer-activated plasmid contains totally unconstrained supercoils. Following transfec...

  11. Replacement of the C-terminal tetrapeptide (314PAPV317 to 314SSSM317) in interferon regulatory factor-2 alters its N-terminal DNA-binding activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna Prakash; Pramod C Rath

    2010-12-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-2 (IRF-2) is an important transcription factor involved in cell growth regulation, immune response and cancer. IRF-2 can function as a transcriptional repressor and activator depending on its DNA-binding activity and protein–protein interactions. We compared the amino acid sequences of IRF-2 and found a C-terminal tetrapeptide (314PAPV317) of mouse IRF-2 to be different (314SSSM317) from human IRF-2. Recombinant GST-IRF-2 with 314PAPV317 (wild type) and 314SSSM317 (mutant) expressed in Escherichia coli were assessed for DNA-binding activity with 32P-(GAAAGT)4 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Wild type- and mutant GST-IRF-2 showed similar expression patterns and immunoreactivities but different DNA-binding activities. Mutant (mt) IRF-2 formed higher-molecular-mass, more and stronger DNA–protein complexes in comparison to wild type (wt) IRF-2. Anti-IRF-2 antibody stabilized the DNA–protein complexes formed by both wt IRF-2 and mt IRF-2, resolving the differences. This suggests that PAPV and SSSM sequences at 314-317 in the C-terminal region of mouse and human IRF-2 contribute to conformation of IRF-2 and influence DNA-binding activity of the N-terminal region, indicating intramolecular interactions. Thus, evolution of IRF-2 from murine to human genome has resulted in subtle differences in C-terminal amino acid motifs, which may contribute to qualitative changes in IRF-2-dependent DNA-binding activity and gene expression.

  12. Kruppel-Like Factor 2-Mediated Suppression of MicroRNA-155 Reduces the Proinflammatory Activation of Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shaolin; Yang, LiYuan; Li, Dazhu; LI Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent evidence indicates that significant interactions exist between Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in endothelial cells. Because KLF2 is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit the pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes, we sought to identify how inflammation-associated miR-155 is regulated by KLF2 in macrophages. Approach and Results Peritoneal macrophages from wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6 mice were transfected with either recombinant adenovirus vect...

  13. Inhibition of elongation factor-2 kinase augments the antitumor activity of Temozolomide against glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yuan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common form of brain cancer with an average survival of less than 12 months, is a highly aggressive and fatal disease characterized by survival of glioma cells following initial treatment, invasion through the brain parenchyma and destruction of normal brain tissues, and ultimately resistance to current treatments. Temozolomide (TMZ is commonly used chemotherapy for treatment of primary and recurrent high-grade gliomas. Nevertheless, the therapeutic outcome of TMZ is often unsatisfactory. In this study, we sought to determine whether eEF-2 kinase affected the sensitivity of glioma cells to treatment with TMZ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using RNA interference approach, a small molecule inhibitor of eEF-2 kinase, and in vitro and in vivo glioma models, we observed that inhibition of eEF-2 kinase could enhance sensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ, and that this sensitizing effect was associated with blockade of autophagy and augmentation of apoptosis caused by TMZ. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrated that targeting eEF-2 kinase can enhance the anti-glioma activity of TMZ, and inhibitors of this kinase may be exploited as chemo-sensitizers for TMZ in treatment of malignant glioma.

  14. Activation of archaeal transcription mediated by recruitment of transcription factor B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Simon M; Thumann, Sybille; Richau, Renate; Weirauch, Matt T; Lowe, Todd M; Thomm, Michael; Hausner, Winfried

    2012-05-25

    Archaeal promoters consist of a TATA box and a purine-rich adjacent upstream sequence (transcription factor B (TFB)-responsive element (BRE)), which are bound by the transcription factors TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and TFB. Currently, only a few activators of archaeal transcription have been experimentally characterized. The best studied activator, Ptr2, mediates activation by recruitment of TBP. Here, we present a detailed biochemical analysis of an archaeal transcriptional activator, PF1088, which was identified in Pyrococcus furiosus by a bioinformatic approach. Operon predictions suggested that an upstream gene, pf1089, is polycistronically transcribed with pf1088. We demonstrate that PF1088 stimulates in vitro transcription by up to 7-fold when the pf1089 promoter is used as a template. By DNase I and hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments, we show that the binding site of PF1088 is located directly upstream of the BRE of pf1089. Mutational analysis indicated that activation requires the presence of the binding site for PF1088. Furthermore, we show that activation of transcription by PF1088 is dependent upon the presence of an imperfect BRE and is abolished when the pf1089 BRE is replaced with a BRE from a strong archaeal promoter. Gel shift experiments showed that TFB recruitment to the pf1089 operon is stimulated by PF1088, and TFB seems to stabilize PF1088 operator binding even in the absence of TBP. Taken together, these results represent the first biochemical evidence for a transcriptional activator working as a TFB recruitment factor in Archaea, for which the designation TFB-RF1 is suggested. PMID:22496454

  15. MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and plays a role in bone development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe

    Full Text Available Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1 is a transcriptional co-activator in the Notch signaling pathway. Recently, however, several reports revealed novel and unique roles for MAML1 that are independent of the Notch signaling pathway. We found that MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, a transcription factor essential for osteoblastic differentiation and chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. MAML1 significantly enhanced the Runx2-mediated transcription of the p6OSE2-Luc reporter, in which luciferase expression was controlled by six copies of the osteoblast specific element 2 (OSE2 from the Runx2-regulated osteocalcin gene promoter. Interestingly, a deletion mutant of MAML1 lacking the N-terminal Notch-binding domain also enhanced Runx2-mediated transcription. Moreover, inhibition of Notch signaling did not affect the action of MAML1 on Runx2, suggesting that the activation of Runx2 by MAML1 may be caused in a Notch-independent manner. Overexpression of MAML1 transiently enhanced the Runx2-mediated expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, in the murine pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2. MAML1(-/- embryos at embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5 had shorter bone lengths than wild-type embryos. The area of primary spongiosa of the femoral diaphysis was narrowed. At E14.5, extended zone of collagen type II alpha 1 (Col2a1 and Sox9 expression, markers of chondrocyte differentiation, and decreased zone of collagen type X alpha 1 (Col10a1 expression, a marker of hypertrophic chondrocyte, were observed. These observations suggest that chondrocyte maturation was impaired in MAML1(-/- mice. MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and plays a role in bone development.

  16. Potential drugs which activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 signaling to prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications: A focus on fumaric acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan; Jin, Jingpeng; Bai, Tao; Sachleben, Leroy R; Cai, Lu; Zheng, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes and its cardiovascular complications have been a major public health issue. These complications are mainly attributable to a severe imbalance between free radical and reactive oxygen species production and the antioxidant defense systems. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that controls the basal and inducible expression of a battery of antioxidant enzyme genes and other cyto-protective phase II detoxifying enzymes. As a result, Nrf2 has gained great attention as a promising drug target for preventing diabetic cardiovascular complications. And while animal studies have shown that several Nrf2 activators manifest a potential to efficiently prevent the diabetic complications, their use in humans has not been approved due to the lack of substantial evidence regarding safety and efficacy of the Nrf2 activation. We provide here a brief review of a few clinically-used drugs that can up-regulate Nrf2 with the potential of extending their usage to diabetic patients for the prevention of cardiovascular complications and conclude with a closer inspection of dimethyl fumarate and its mimic members. PMID:26044512

  17. Regulation of oxidative enzyme activity and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 in human skeletal muscle: influence of gender and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Schjerling, P.; Vistisen, Bodil;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gender-related differences in the responses of oxidative enzymes and eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) to exercise. METHODS: The influence of exercise (90 min, 60%VO(2peak)) on citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity and mRNA content......, together with eEF2 expression and phosphorylation at rest, were assessed in skeletal muscle of untrained (UT) and endurance trained (ET) females and males. RESULTS: Citrate synthase and HAD mRNA were higher in females than in males (27% and 48%, respectively, P < 0.05) whereas CS and HAD activity did not...... differ between females and males (NS). In females only, CS activity was enhanced (P < 0.05) by 90 min exercise. Resting CS mRNA content did not differ between UT and ET but, nevertheless, CS activity was 56% higher in ET than in UT volunteers (P < 0.001). HAD mRNA and activity were not influenced by...

  18. A novel nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activator RS9 attenuates brain injury after ischemia reperfusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Keita; Nakano, Yusuke; Imai, Takahiko; Takagi, Toshinori; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Iwama, Toru; Hara, Hideaki

    2016-10-01

    Recanalization of occluded vessels leads to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), with oxidative stress as one of the main causes of injury, despite the fact that recanalization therapy is the most effective treatment for ischemic stroke. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is one of the transcription factors which has an essential role in protection against oxidative stress. RS9 is a novel Nrf2 activator obtained from bardoxolone methyl (BARD), an Nrf2 activator that has already been tested in a clinical trial, using a biotransformation technique. RS9 has been reported to lead to higher Nrf2 activation and less cytotoxicity than BARD. In this study, we investigated the effects of RS9 on IRI. Mice were intraperitoneally treated immediately after 2h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with a vehicle solution or 0.2mg/kg of RS9. Post-onset treatment of RS9 attenuated the infarct volume and improved neurological deficits 22h after reperfusion. RS9 activated Nrf2 2 and 6h after reperfusion and activated heme oxygenase-1 at 6 and 22h after reperfusion. RS9 also attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 2 and 6h after reperfusion. Finally, RS9 improved the survival rate and neurological deficits 7days after MCAO. Our results suggest that the activation of Nrf2 by RS9 has a neuroprotective effect, mediated by attenuating both oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, and that RS9 is an effective therapeutic candidate for the treatment of IRI. PMID:27474227

  19. Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vicari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stem cells are an abundant population of stem cells readily isolated from human adipose tissue that can differentiate into connective tissue lineages including bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB family. It is transcribed in two types of mRNAs (activating transcription factor 5 isoform 1 and activating transcription factor 5 isoform 2, encoding the same single 30-kDa protein. Although it is well demonstrated that it regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, little is known about its potential role in osteogenic differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression levels of the two isoforms and protein during osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. Our data indicate that activating transcription factor 5 is differentially expressed reaching a peak of expression at the stage of bone mineralization. These findings suggest that activating transcription factor 5 could play an interesting regulatory role during osteogenesis, which would provide a powerful tool to study bone physiology.

  20. Cdx2反转录病毒载体的构建及转染膀胱上皮细胞的研究%Construction of human caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 retrovoral vector and transfection of urothelium cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明恩; 邓毕华; 吕夷松; 荣禄; 姚友生

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 plays an important role in the development of epithelium in digestive tract, especial y the smal intestine and colon. OBJECTIVE:To construct the retroviral expression vector of pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2, and to observe the effect of in vitro transfection of pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 in intestinal metaplasia. METHODS:Gene recombinant technology was employed to clone human caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 gene to the retroviral expression vector of pLNCX2, then identified with enzyme digestion and sequencing and packed to the PA317 cells. The plasmids were transfect in urothelium cells, real-time PCR and western blot were used to detect the expressions of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2, vil in and liverintestin-cadherin at the protein and mRNA levels. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The retroviral vector pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 was successful y constructed. The levels of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 protein and mRNA expressions in bladder urothelium celltransfected with pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 were higher than that in control. And the over-expression of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 could up-regulate the levels of vil in and liverintestin-cadherin expressions. Interestingly, specific changes of intestine-like cells were seen in the bladder urothelium cells transfected by pLNCX2-caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2. Over-expression of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 can activate the caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 of urothelium cells and induce intestinal epithelial differentiation, thus inducing the development of cystitis glanduaris.%背景:尾侧型同源转录因子2在消化道尤其是小肠与结肠上皮的发育中起到关键作用。  目的:构建尾侧型同源转录因子2反转录病毒表达载体pLNCX2-Cdx2

  1. First Exon Length Controls Active Chromatin Signatures and Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole I. Bieberstein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we explore the role of splicing in transcription, employing both genome-wide analysis of human ChIP-seq data and experimental manipulation of exon-intron organization in transgenic cell lines. We show that the activating histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K9ac map specifically to first exon-intron boundaries. This is surprising, because these marks help recruit general transcription factors (GTFs to promoters. In genes with long first exons, promoter-proximal levels of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac are greatly reduced; consequently, GTFs and RNA polymerase II are low at transcription start sites (TSSs and exhibit a second, promoter-distal peak from which transcription also initiates. In contrast, short first exons lead to increased H3K4me3 and H3K9ac at promoters, higher expression levels, accuracy in TSS usage, and a lower frequency of antisense transcription. Therefore, first exon length is predictive for gene activity. Finally, splicing inhibition and intron deletion reduce H3K4me3 levels and transcriptional output. Thus, gene architecture and splicing determines transcription quantity and quality as well as chromatin signatures.

  2. Centromeric Transcription Regulates Aurora-B Localization and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Blower

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Centromeric transcription is widely conserved; however, it is not clear what role centromere transcription plays during mitosis. Here, I find that centromeres are transcribed in Xenopus egg extracts into a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA; cen-RNA that localizes to mitotic centromeres, chromatin, and spindles. cen-RNAs bind to the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC in vitro and in vivo. Blocking transcription or antisense inhibition of cen-RNA leads to a reduction of CPC localization to the inner centromere and misregulation of CPC component Aurora-B activation independently of known centromere recruitment pathways. Additionally, transcription is required for normal bipolar attachment of kinetochores to the mitotic spindle, consistent with a role for cen-RNA in CPC regulation. This work demonstrates that cen-RNAs promote normal kinetochore function through regulation of the localization and activation of the CPC and confirm that lncRNAs are components of the centromere.

  3. Isolated HIV-1 core is active for reverse transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Harrich David; Stenzel Deborah; Warrilow David

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Whether purified HIV-1 virion cores are capable of reverse transcription or require uncoating to be activated is currently controversial. To address this question we purified cores from a virus culture and tested for the ability to generate authentic reverse transcription products. A dense fraction (approximately 1.28 g/ml) prepared without detergent, possibly derived from disrupted virions, was found to naturally occur as a minor sub-fraction in our preparations. Core-like particles...

  4. The CREB Transcription Factor Controls Transcriptional Activity of the Human RIC8B Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureira, Alejandro; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Valenzuela, Nicole; Torrejón, Marcela; Hinrichs, María V; Olate, Juan; Gutiérrez, José L

    2016-08-01

    Proper regulation of gene expression is essential for normal development, cellular growth, and differentiation. Differential expression profiles of mRNA coding for vertebrate Ric-8B during embryo and adult stages have been observed. In addition, Ric-8B is expressed in few cerebral nuclei subareas. These facts point to a dynamic control of RIC8B gene expression. In order to understand the transcriptional regulation of this gene, we searched for cis-elements in the sequence of the human RIC8B promoter region, identifying binding sites for the basic/leucine zipper (bZip) CREB transcription factor family (CRE sites) and C/EBP transcription factor family (C/EBP sites). CRE sites were found clustered near the transcription start site, while the C/EBP sites were found clustered at around 300 bp upstream the CRE sites. Here, we demonstrate the ability of CREB1 and C/EBPβ to bind their respective elements identified in the RIC8B promoter. Comparative protein-DNA interaction analyses revealed only the proximal elements as high affinity sites for CREB1 and only the distal elements as high affinity sites for C/EBPβ. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, carried out using a human neuroblastoma cell line, confirmed the preferential association of CREB to the proximal region of the RIC8B promoter. By performing luciferase reporter assays, we found the CRE sites as the most relevant elements for its transcriptional activity. Taken together, these data show the existence of functional CREB and C/EBP binding sites in the human RIC8B gene promoter, a particular distribution of these sites and demonstrate a relevant role of CREB in stimulating transcriptional activity of this gene. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1797-1805, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26729411

  5. Cooperative activation of transcription by autoimmune regulator AIRE and CBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcriptional regulator that is believed to control the expression of tissue-specific genes in the thymus. Mutated AIRE is responsible for onset of the hereditary autoimmune disease APECED. AIRE is able to form nuclear bodies (NBs) and interacts with the ubiquitous transcriptional coactivator CBP. In this paper, we show that CBP and AIRE synergistically activate transcription on different promoter reporters whereas AIRE gene mutation R257X, found in APECED patients, interferes with this coactivation effect. Furthermore, the overexpression of AIRE and CBP collaboratively enhance endogenous IFNβ mRNA expression. The immunohistochemical studies suggest that CBP, depending on the balance of nuclear proteins, is a component of AIRE NBs. We also show that AIRE NBs are devoid of active chromatin and, therefore, not sites of transcription. In addition, we demonstrate by 3D analyses that AIRE and CBP, when colocalizing, are located spatially differently within AIRE NBs. In conclusion, our data suggest that AIRE activates transcription of the target genes, i.e., autoantigens in collaboration with CBP and that this activation occurs outside of AIRE NBs

  6. Estrogen directly activates AID transcription and function

    OpenAIRE

    Pauklin, Siim; Sernández, Isora V.; Bachmann, Gudrun; Ramiro, Almudena R.; Petersen-Mahrt, Svend K.

    2009-01-01

    The immunological targets of estrogen at the molecular, humoral, and cellular level have been well documented, as has estrogen's role in establishing a gender bias in autoimmunity and cancer. During a healthy immune response, activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates cytosines at immunoglobulin (Ig) loci, initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). Protein levels of nuclear AID are tightly controlled, as unregulated expression can lead to alterations in th...

  7. Trans-dominant inhibition of transcription activator LFB1.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicosia, A.; Tafi, R; Monaci, P

    1992-01-01

    Liver-enriched factor LFB1 (also named HNF1) is a dimeric transcription activator which is essential for the expression of many hepatocyte-specific genes. Here we demonstrate that LFB1 mutants in the POU A-like or in the homeo domains inhibit wild-type DNA binding by forming inactive heterodimeric complexes. Co-transfection of one of these mutants with wild-type LFB1 in HeLa cells eliminated LFB1 DNA binding and transcriptional activities through a trans-dominant mechanism. Expression of the ...

  8. PKG-1α mediates GATA4 transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanlin; Wang, Jun; Yu, Yanhong; Schwartz, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    GATA4, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is central for cardiac development and diseases. Here we show that GATA4 transcriptional activity is mediated by cell signaling via cGMP dependent PKG-1α activity. Protein kinase G (PKG), a serine/tyrosine specific kinase is the major effector of cGMP signaling. We observed enhanced transcriptional activity elicited by co-expressed GATA4 and PKG-1α. Phosphorylation of GATA4 by PKG-1α was detected on serine 261 (S261), while the C-terminal activation domain of GATA4 associated with PKG-1α. GATA4's DNA binding activity was enhanced by PKG-1α via by both phosphorylation and physical association. More importantly, a number of human disease-linked GATA4 mutants exhibited impaired S261 phosphorylation, pointing to defective S261 phosphorylation in the elaboration of human heart diseases. We showed S261 phosphorylation was favored by PKG-1α but not by PKA, and several other kinase signaling pathways such as MAPK and PKC. Our observations demonstrate that cGMP-PKG signaling mediates transcriptional activity of GATA4 and links defective GATA4 and PKG-1α mutations to the development of human heart disease. PMID:26946174

  9. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein is Required for Synapse Elimination by the Activity-Dependent Transcription Factor MEF2

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Brad E.; Zang, Tong; Wilkerson, Julia R.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Maksimova, Marina A.; Smith, Laura N.; Cowan, Christopher W.; Huber, Kimberly M.

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common genetic form of mental retardation and autism, is caused by loss of function mutations in an RNA binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Patients’ neurons, as well as those of the mouse model, Fmr1 knockout (KO), are characterized by an excess of dendritic spines, suggesting a deficit in excitatory synapse elimination. In response to neuronal activity, myocyte enhancing factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors induce robust synapse ...

  10. TBP domain symmetry in basal and activated archaeal transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Hausner, Winfried; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2009-01-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is the platform for assembly of archaeal and eukaryotic transcription preinitiation complexes. Ancestral gene duplication and fusion events have produced the saddle-shaped TBP molecule, with its two direct-repeat subdomains and pseudo-two-fold symmetry. Collectively, eukaryotic TBPs have diverged from their present-day archaeal counterparts, which remain highly symmetrical. The similarity of the N- and C-halves of archaeal TBPs is especially pronounced in the Methanococcales and Thermoplasmatales, including complete conservation of their N- and C-terminal stirrups; along with helix H'1, the C-terminal stirrup of TBP forms the main interface with TFB/TFIIB. Here, we show that, in stark contrast to its eukaryotic counterparts, multiple substitutions in the C-terminal stirrup of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mja) TBP do not completely abrogate basal transcription. Using DNA affinity cleavage, we show that, by assembling TFB through its conserved N-terminal stirrup, Mja TBP is in effect ambidextrous with regard to basal transcription. In contrast, substitutions in either its N- or the C-terminal stirrup abrogate activated transcription in response to the Lrp-family transcriptional activator Ptr2. PMID:19007415

  11. Kruppel-Like Factor 2-Mediated Suppression of MicroRNA-155 Reduces the Proinflammatory Activation of Macrophages.

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    Shaolin He

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that significant interactions exist between Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2 and microRNAs (miRNAs in endothelial cells. Because KLF2 is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit the pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes, we sought to identify how inflammation-associated miR-155 is regulated by KLF2 in macrophages.Peritoneal macrophages from wild-type (WT C57Bl/6 mice were transfected with either recombinant adenovirus vector expressing KLF2 (Ad-KLF2 or siRNA targeting KLF2 (KLF2-siRNA for 24 h-48 h, then stimulated with oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL, 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that KLF2 markedly reduced the expression of miR-155 in quiescent/ox-LDL-stimulated macrophages. We also found that the increased expression of miR-155, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 and interleukin (IL-6 and the decreased expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1 and IL-10 in ox-LDL-treated macrophages were significantly suppressed by KLF2. Most importantly, over-expression of miR-155 could partly reverse the suppressive effects of KLF2 on the inflammatory response of macrophages. Conversely, the suppression of miR-155 in KLF2 knockdown macrophages significantly overcame the pro-inflammatory properties associated with KLF2 knockdown. Finally, Ad-KLF2 significantly attenuated the diet-induced formation of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/- mice, which was associated with a significantly reduced expression of miR-155 and its relative inflammatory cytokine genes in the aortic arch and in macrophages.KLF2-mediated suppression of miR-155 reduced the inflammatory response of macrophages.

  12. Repressive effects of resveratrol on androgen receptor transcriptional activity.

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    Wen-feng Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemopreventive effects of resveratrol (RSV on prostate cancer have been well established; the androgen receptor (AR plays pivotal roles in prostatic tumorigenesis. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms about the effects of RSV on AR have not been fully elucidated. A model system is needed to determine whether and how RSV represses AR transcriptional activity. METHODOLOGY: The AR cDNA was first cloned into the retroviral vector pOZ-N and then integrated into the genome of AR-negative HeLa cells to generate the AR(+ cells. The constitutively expressed AR was characterized by monitoring hormone-stimulated nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation, with the AR(- cells serving as controls. AR(+ cells were treated with RSV, and both AR protein levels and AR transcriptional activity were measured simultaneously. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were used to detect the effects of RSV on the recruitment of AR to its cognate element (ARE. RESULTS: AR in the AR (+ stable cell line functions in a manner similar to that of endogenously expressed AR. Using this model system we clearly demonstrated that RSV represses AR transcriptional activity independently of any effects on AR protein levels. However, neither the hormone-mediated nucleus translocation nor the AR/ARE interaction was affected by RSV treatment. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated unambiguously that RSV regulates AR target gene expression, at least in part, by repressing AR transcriptional activity. Repressive effects of RSV on AR activity result from mechanisms other than the affects of AR nuclear translocation or DNA binding.

  13. Moonlighting transcriptional activation function of a fungal sulfur metabolism enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levati, Elisabetta; Sartini, Sara; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Montanini, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Moonlighting proteins, including metabolic enzymes acting as transcription factors (TF), are present in a variety of organisms but have not been described in higher fungi so far. In a previous genome-wide analysis of the TF repertoire of the plant-symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum, we identified various enzymes, including the sulfur-assimilation enzyme phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPS-red), as potential transcriptional activators. A functional analysis performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, now demonstrates that a specific variant of this enzyme, PAPS-red A, localizes to the nucleus and is capable of transcriptional activation. TF moonlighting, which is not present in the other enzyme variant (PAPS-red B) encoded by the T. melanosporum genome, relies on a transplantable C-terminal polypeptide containing an alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino acid motif. A similar moonlighting activity was demonstrated for six additional proteins, suggesting that multitasking is a relatively frequent event. PAPS-red A is sulfur-state-responsive and highly expressed, especially in fruitbodies, and likely acts as a recruiter of transcription components involved in S-metabolism gene network activation. PAPS-red B, instead, is expressed at low levels and localizes to a highly methylated and silenced region of the genome, hinting at an evolutionary mechanism based on gene duplication, followed by epigenetic silencing of this non-moonlighting gene variant. PMID:27121330

  14. The transcriptionally active regions in the genome of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    The majority of all genes have so far been identified and annotated systematically through in silico gene finding. Here we report the finding of 3662 strand-specific transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis by the use of tiling arrays. We have measured the genome...

  15. Activating transcription factor 4 regulates osteoclast differentiation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Huiling; Yu, Shibing; Yao, Zhi; Galson, Deborah L; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Jie; Lu, Binfeng; Guan, Youfei; Luo, Min; Lai, Yumei; Zhu, Yibei; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Patrene, Kenneth; Roodman, G. David

    2010-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical transcription factor for osteoblast (OBL) function and bone formation; however, a direct role in osteoclasts (OCLs) has not been established. Here, we targeted expression of ATF4 to the OCL lineage using the Trap promoter or through deletion of Atf4 in mice. OCL differentiation was drastically decreased in Atf4–/– bone marrow monocyte (BMM) cultures and bones. Coculture of Atf4–/– BMMs with WT OBLs or a high concentration of RANKL failed ...

  16. HAT activity is essential for CBP-1-dependent transcription and differentiation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, Martin; Bei, Yanxia; Gay, Frédérique; Calvo, Dominica; Mello, Craig; Shi, Yang

    2002-01-01

    The p300/CBP family of transcriptional coactivators possesses multiple functional domains, including a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and several activation domains. A number of models have been proposed to account for their roles in transcriptional activation, including interactions with basal transcription machinery and chromatin remodeling. However, individual contributions of these domains to transcriptional activation and their significance in living organisms remain unclear. We address...

  17. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  18. Isolated HIV-1 core is active for reverse transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrich David

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whether purified HIV-1 virion cores are capable of reverse transcription or require uncoating to be activated is currently controversial. To address this question we purified cores from a virus culture and tested for the ability to generate authentic reverse transcription products. A dense fraction (approximately 1.28 g/ml prepared without detergent, possibly derived from disrupted virions, was found to naturally occur as a minor sub-fraction in our preparations. Core-like particles were identified in this active fraction by electron microscopy. We are the first to report the detection of authentic strong-stop, first-strand transfer and full-length minus strand products in this core fraction without requirement for an uncoating activity.

  19. Isolated HIV-1 core is active for reverse transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, David; Stenzel, Deborah; Harrich, David

    2007-01-01

    Whether purified HIV-1 virion cores are capable of reverse transcription or require uncoating to be activated is currently controversial. To address this question we purified cores from a virus culture and tested for the ability to generate authentic reverse transcription products. A dense fraction (approximately 1.28 g/ml) prepared without detergent, possibly derived from disrupted virions, was found to naturally occur as a minor sub-fraction in our preparations. Core-like particles were identified in this active fraction by electron microscopy. We are the first to report the detection of authentic strong-stop, first-strand transfer and full-length minus strand products in this core fraction without requirement for an uncoating activity. PMID:17956635

  20. Activating transcription factor 4 and X box binding protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei transcriptional regulated white spot syndrome virus genes Wsv023 and Wsv083.

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    Xiao-Yun Li

    Full Text Available In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4 which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR-like ER kinase, (PERK]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2α] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE. Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1, has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1 - (XBP1] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE. These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection.

  1. Binding of the unorthodox transcription activator, Crl, to the components of the transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Patrick; Westblade, Lars F; Karimova, Gouzel; Robbe-Saule, Véronique; Norel, Françoise; Kolb, Annie

    2008-11-28

    The small regulatory protein Crl binds to sigmaS, the RNA polymerase stationary phase sigma factor. Crl facilitates the formation of the sigmaS-associated holoenzyme (EsigmaS) and thereby activates sigmaS-dependent genes. Using a real time surface plasmon resonance biosensor, we characterized in greater detail the specificity and mode of action of Crl. Crl specifically forms a 1:1 complex with sigmaS, which results in an increase of the association rate of sigmaS to core RNA polymerase without any effect on the dissociation rate of EsigmaS. Crl is also able to associate with preformed EsigmaS with a higher affinity than with sigmaS alone. Furthermore, even at saturating sigmaS concentrations, Crl significantly increases EsigmaS association with the katN promoter and the productive isomerization of the EsigmaS-katN complex, supporting a direct role of Crl in transcription initiation. Finally, we show that Crl does not bind to sigma70 itself but is able at high concentrations to form a weak and transient 1:1 complex with both core RNA polymerase and the sigma70-associated holoenzyme, leaving open the possibility that Crl might also exert a side regulatory role in the transcriptional activity of additional non-sigmaS holoenzymes. PMID:18818199

  2. Post-translational regulation of Oct4 transcriptional activity.

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    Jonathan P Saxe

    Full Text Available Oct4 is a key component of the molecular circuitry which regulates embryonic stem cell proliferation and differentiation. It is essential for maintenance of undifferentiated, pluripotent cell populations, and accomplishes these tasks by binding DNA in multiple heterodimer and homodimer configurations. Very little is known about how formation of these complexes is regulated, or the mechanisms through which Oct4 proteins respond to complex extracellular stimuli which regulate pluripotency. Here, we provide evidence for a phosphorylation-based mechanism which regulates specific Oct4 homodimer conformations. Point mutations of a putative phosphorylation site can specifically abrogate transcriptional activity of a specific homodimer assembly, with little effect on other configurations. Moreover, we performed bioinformatic predictions to identify a subset of Oct4 target genes which may be regulated by this specific assembly, and show that altering Oct4 protein levels affects transcription of Oct4 target genes which are regulated by this assembly but not others. Finally, we identified several signaling pathways which may mediate this phosphorylation and act in combination to regulate Oct4 transcriptional activity and protein stability. These results provide a mechanism for rapid and reversible alteration of Oct4 transactivation potential in response to extracellular signals.

  3. Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, José R; Zhang, Hongyu; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M; Morón-Oset, Javier; Higueras, Elena; Oliveros, Juan C; Arrabal, María D; Prieto, Angela; Cercós, Pilar; González, Teresa; De la Cruz, Alicia; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rábano, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carmen; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Marta; Li, Jia-Yi; Mellström, Britt

    2016-02-01

    Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD. PMID:26752648

  4. Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, José R.; Zhang, Hongyu; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M.; Morón-Oset, Javier; Higueras, Elena; Oliveros, Juan C.; Arrabal, María D.; Prieto, Angela; Cercós, Pilar; González, Teresa; De la Cruz, Alicia; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rábano, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carmen; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Marta; Li, Jia-Yi; Mellström, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD. PMID:26752648

  5. Regulating the regulators: modulators of transcription factor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Logan; Hansen, Matthew; Hannenhalli, Sridhar

    2010-01-01

    Gene transcription is largely regulated by DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs). However, the TF activity itself is modulated via, among other things, post-translational modifications (PTMs) by specific modification enzymes in response to cellular stimuli. TF-PTMs thus serve as "molecular switchboards" that map upstream signaling events to the downstream transcriptional events. An important long-term goal is to obtain a genome-wide map of "regulatory triplets" consisting of a TF, target gene, and a modulator gene that specifically modulates the regulation of the target gene by the TF. A variety of genome-wide data sets can be exploited by computational methods to obtain a rough map of regulatory triplets, which can guide directed experiments. However, a prerequisite to developing such computational tools is a systematic catalog of known instances of regulatory triplets. We first describe PTM-Switchboard, a recent database that stores triplets of genes such that the ability of one gene (the TF) to regulate a target gene is dependent on one or more PTMs catalyzed by a third gene, the modifying enzyme. We also review current computational approaches to infer regulatory triplets from genome-wide data sets and conclude with a discussion of potential future research. PTM-Switchboard is accessible at http://cagr.pcbi.upenn.edu/PTMswitchboard / PMID:20827600

  6. Development of transcriptional fusions to assess Leptospira interrogans promoter activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Cerqueira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA and Sphingomyelinase 2 (sph2 promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa.

  7. Mechanisms of Leukocyte Accumulation and Activation in Chorioamnionitis: Interleukin 1β and Tumor Necrosis Factor α Enhance Colony Stimulating Factor 2 Expression in Term Decidua

    OpenAIRE

    Arcuri, Felice; Toti, Paolo; Buchwalder, Lynn; Casciaro, Alessandra; Cintorino, Marcella; Schatz, Frederick; Rybalov, Basya; Lockwood, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of prematurity as well as perinatal morbidity and mortality. The present study observed a marked increase in immunohistochemical staining for Colony Stimulating Factor 2 (CSF2; also known as granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor), a potent neutrophil and macrophage chemoattractant and activator, in the decidua of patients with CAM compared with controls (n = 8; P = .001). To examine the regulation of this CSF2, cultured decidual cells primed with e...

  8. Transcriptional activation domains stimulate initiation and elongation at different times and via different residues.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S. A.; Weirich, C S; Newton, E M; Kingston, R E

    1998-01-01

    Transcriptional activators can stimulate multiple steps in the transcription process. We have used GAL4 fusion proteins to characterize the ability of different transcriptional activation domains to stimulate transcriptional elongation on the hsp70 gene in vitro. Stimulation of elongation apparently occurs via a mechanistic pathway different from that of stimulation of initiation: the herpes simplex virus VP16, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and amphipathic helix (AH) activation domains all stimu...

  9. Environmental phthalate monoesters activate pregnane X receptor-mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phthalate esters, widely used as plasticizers in the manufacture of products made of polyvinyl chloride, induce reproductive and developmental toxicities in rodents. The mechanism that underlies these effects of phthalate exposure, including the potential role of members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is not known. The present study investigates the effects of phthalates on the pregnane X receptor (PXR), which mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The ability of phthalate monoesters to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in a HepG2 cell reporter assay following transfection with mouse PXR (mPXR), human PXR (hPXR), or the hPXR allelic variants V140M, D163G, and A370T. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) increased the transcriptional activity of both mPXR and hPXR (5- and 15-fold, respectively) with EC50 values of 7-8 μM. mPXR and hPXR were also activated by monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, up to 5- to 6-fold) but were unresponsive to monomethyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate (M(n)BP) at the highest concentrations tested (300 μM). hPXR-V140M and hPXR-A370T exhibited patterns of phthalate responses similar to the wild-type receptor. By contrast, hPXR-D163G was unresponsive to all phthalate monoesters tested. Further studies revealed that hPXR-D163G did respond to rifampicin, but required approximately 40-fold higher concentrations than wild-type receptor, suggesting that the ligand-binding domain D163G variant has impaired ligand-binding activity. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by phthalate monoesters demonstrated here suggests that these ubiquitous environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals

  10. Aurora kinase B activity is modulated by thyroid hormone during transcriptional activation of pituitary genes

    OpenAIRE

    Tardáguila, Manuel; González-Gugel, Elena; Sánchez-Pacheco, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    Covalent histone modifications clearly play an essential role in ligand-dependent transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors. One of the predominant mechanisms used by nuclear receptors to activate or repress target-gene transcription is the recruitment of coregulatory factors capable of covalently modify the amino terminal ends of histones. Here we show that the thyroid hormone (T3) produces a rapid increase in histone H3Ser10 phosphorylation (H3Ser10ph) concomitant to the rapid displac...

  11. Active transcription and ultrastructural changes during Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis

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    Ludmila R.P. Ferreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of proliferating epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi , the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas’ disease, into the infective and non-proliferating metacyclic forms can be reproduced in the laboratory by incubating the cells in a chemically-defined medium that mimics the urine of the insect vector. Epimastigotes have a spherical nucleus, a flagellum protruding from the middle of the protozoan cell, and a disk-shaped kinetoplast - an organelle that corresponds to the mitochondrial DNA. Metacyclic trypomastigotes have an elongated shape with the flagellum protruding from the posterior portion of the cell and associated with a spherical kinetoplast. Here we describe the morphological events of this transformation and characterize a novel intermediate stage by three-dimensional reconstruction of electron microscope serial sections. This new intermediate stage is characterized by a kinetoplast compressing an already elongated nucleus, indicating that metacyclogenesis involves active movements of the flagellar structure relative to the cell body. As transcription occurs more intensely in proliferating epimastigotes than in metacyclics, we also examined the presence of RNA polymerase II and measured transcriptional activity during the differentiation process. Both the presence of the enzyme and transcriptional activity remain unchanged during all steps of metacyclogenesis. RNA polymerase II levels and transcriptional activity only decrease after metacyclics are formed. We suggest that transcription is required during the epimastigote-to-metacyclic trypomastigote differentiation process, until the kinetoplast and flagellum reach the posterior position of the parasites in the infective form.A diferenciação de formas epimastigotas (proliferativas do Trypanosoma cruzi, parasita protozoário causador da doença de Chagas, em formas metacíclicas tripomastigotas (infectivas e não proliferativas, pode ser reproduzida em laborat

  12. The HMG-box mitochondrial transcription factor xl-mtTFA binds DNA as a tetramer to activate bidirectional transcription.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoshechkin, I; Bogenhagen, D F; Mastrangelo, I A

    1997-01-01

    The mitochondrial HMG-box transcription factor xl-mtTFA activates bidirectional transcription by binding to a site separating two core promoters in Xenopus laevis mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Three independent approaches were used to study the higher order structure of xl-mtTFA binding to this site. First, co-immunoprecipitation of differentially tagged recombinant mtTFA derivatives established that the protein exists as a multimer. Second, in vitro chemical cross-linking experiments provided e...

  13. Transcriptional and nontranscriptional regulation of NIS activity and radioiodide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Ho; Lee, Kyung Han [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Radioiodide transport has been extensively and successfully used in the evaluation and management of thyroid disease. The molecular characterization of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and cloning of the NIS gene has led to the recent expansion of the use of radioiodide to cancers of the breast and other nonthyroidal tissues exogenously transduced with the NIS gene. More recently, discoveries regarding the functional analysis and regulatory processes of the NIS molecule are opening up exciting opportunities for new research and applications for NIS and radioiodide. The success of NIS based cancer therapy is dependent on achievement of maximal radioiodide transport sufficient to allow delivery of effective radiation doses. This in turn relies on high transcription rates of the NIS gene. However, newer discoveries indicate that nontranscriptional processes that regulate NIS trafficking to cell membrane are also critical determinants of radioiodide uptake. In this review, molecular mechanisms that underlie regulation of NIS transcription and stimuli that augment membrane trafficking and functional activation of NIS molecules will be discussed. A better understanding of how the expression and cell surface targeting of NIS proteins is controlled will hopefully aid in optimizing NIS gene based cancer treatment as well as NIS based reporter-gene imaging strategies.

  14. WRKY Transcription Factors Involved in Activation of SA Biosynthesis Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bol John F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased defense against a variety of pathogens in plants is achieved through activation of a mechanism known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The broad-spectrum resistance brought about by SAR is mediated through salicylic acid (SA. An important step in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate through the action of isochorismate synthase, encoded by the ICS1 gene. Also AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE 3 (PBS3 plays an important role in SA metabolism, as pbs3 mutants accumulate drastically reduced levels of SA-glucoside, a putative storage form of SA. Bioinformatics analysis previously performed by us identified WRKY28 and WRKY46 as possible regulators of ICS1 and PBS3. Results Expression studies with ICS1 promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts cotransfected with 35S::WRKY28 showed that over expression of WRKY28 resulted in a strong increase in GUS expression. Moreover, qRT-PCR analyses indicated that the endogenous ICS1 and PBS3 genes were highly expressed in protoplasts overexpressing WRKY28 or WRKY46, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indentified potential WRKY28 binding sites in the ICS1 promoter, positioned -445 and -460 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Mutation of these sites in protoplast transactivation assays showed that these binding sites are functionally important for activation of the ICS1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with haemagglutinin-epitope-tagged WRKY28 showed that the region of the ICS1 promoter containing the binding sites at -445 and -460 was highly enriched in the immunoprecipitated DNA. Conclusions The results obtained here confirm results from our multiple microarray co-expression analyses indicating that WRKY28 and WRKY46 are transcriptional activators of ICS1 and PBS3, respectively, and support this in silico screening as a powerful tool for identifying new components of stress

  15. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity.

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    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2, and other adipogenic genes in the process of adipogenesis. Berberine decreased cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression at the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX and forskolin were also attenuated by berberine. The binding activities of cAMP responsive element (CRE stimulated by IBMX and forskolin were inhibited by berberine. The binding of phosphorylated CREB to the promoter of C/EBPβ was abrogated by berberine after the induction of preadipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that berberine blocks adipogenesis mainly via suppressing CREB activity, which leads to a decrease in C/EBPβ-triggered transcriptional cascades.

  16. Cloned yeast and mammalian transcription factor TFIID gene products support basal but not activated metallothionein gene transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transcription factor IID (TFIID), the TATA binding factor, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of eukaryotic transcriptional initiation. The authors studied the role of TFIID in the transcription of the yeast metallothionein gene, which is regulated by the copper-dependent activator protein ACE1. Both basal and induced transcription of the metallothionein gene require TFIID and a functional TATA binding site. Crude human and mouse TFIID fractions, prepared from mammalian cells, respond to stimulation by ACE1, In contrast, human and yeast TFIID proteins expressed from the cloned genes do not respond to ACE1, except in the presence of what germ or yeast total cell extracts. These results indicate that the cloned TFIID gene products lack a component(s) or modifications(s) that is required for regulated as compared to basal transription

  17. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 activates transcription of thyroid transcription factor 1 in respiratory epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, K.; Shaw-White, J R; Wert, S E; Whitsett, J A

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), hepatocyte nuclear factor 3alpha (HNF-3alpha), and HNF-3beta regulate the transcription of genes expressed in the respiratory epithelium. To test whether members of the HNF-3/forkhead family influence TTF-1 gene expression, deletion constructs containing the 5' region of the human TTF-1 gene were transfected into immortalized mouse lung epithelial (MLE) cells. DNase I protection and electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified elements in the 5' reg...

  18. The Cellular Bromodomain Protein Brd4 has Multiple Functions in E2-Mediated Papillomavirus Transcription Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Helfer, Christine M.; Junpeng Yan; Jianxin You

    2014-01-01

    The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 functions in multiple processes of the papillomavirus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through its interaction with the viral protein, E2. However, the mechanisms by which E2 and Brd4 activate viral transcription are still not completely understood. In this study, we show that recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), a functional interaction partner of Brd4 in transcription act...

  19. Selective modulation of promoter recruitment and transcriptional activity of PPARγ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor regulated by the insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinediones (TZDs). We studied selective modulation of endogenous genes by PPARγ ligands using microarray, RNA expression kinetics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found over 300 genes that were significantly regulated the TZDs pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and troglitazone. TZD-mediated expression profiles were unique but overlapping. Ninety-one genes were commonly regulated by all three ligands. TZD time course and dose-response studies revealed gene- and TZD-specific expression kinetics. PEPCK expression was induced rapidly but PDK4 expression was induced gradually. Troglitazone EC50 values for PEPCK, PDK4, and RGS2 regulation were greater than those for pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. TZDs differentially induced histone acetylation of and PPARγ recruitment to target gene promoters. Selective modulation of PPARγ by TZDs resulted in distinct expression profiles and transcription kinetics which may be due to differential promoter activation and chromatin remodeling of target genes

  20. Role of hippocampal activity-induced transcription in memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Andrew L; Gajewski, Paula A; Robison, Alfred J

    2016-08-01

    Experience-dependent changes in the strength of connections between neurons in the hippocampus (HPC) are critical for normal learning and memory consolidation, and disruption of this process drives a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Proper HPC function relies upon discrete changes in gene expression driven by transcription factors (TFs) induced by neuronal activity. Here, we describe the induction and function of many of the most well-studied HPC TFs, including cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, serum-response factor, AP-1, and others, and describe their role in the learning process. We also discuss the known target genes of many of these TFs and the purported mechanisms by which they regulate long-term changes in HPC synaptic strength. Moreover, we propose that future research in this field will depend upon unbiased identification of additional gene targets for these activity-dependent TFs and subsequent meta-analyses that identify common genes or pathways regulated by multiple TFs in the HPC during learning or disease. PMID:27180338

  1. Activator control of nucleosome occupancy in activation and repression of transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene O Bryant

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between chromatin structure and gene expression is a subject of intense study. The universal transcriptional activator Gal4 removes promoter nucleosomes as it triggers transcription, but how it does so has remained obscure. The reverse process, repression of transcription, has often been correlated with the presence of nucleosomes. But it is not known whether nucleosomes are required for that effect. A new quantitative assay describes, for any given location, the fraction of DNA molecules in the population that bears a nucleosome at any given instant. This allows us to follow the time courses of nucleosome removal and reformation, in wild-type and mutant cells, upon activation (by galactose and repression (by glucose of the GAL genes of yeast. We show that upon being freed of its inhibitor Gal80 by the action of galactose, Gal4 quickly recruits SWI/SNF to the genes, and that nucleosome "remodeler" rapidly removes promoter nucleosomes. In the absence of SWI/SNF, Gal4's action also results in nucleosome removal and the activation of transcription, but both processes are significantly delayed. Addition of glucose to cells growing in galactose represses transcription. But if galactose remains present, Gal4 continues to work, recruiting SWI/SNF and maintaining the promoter nucleosome-free despite it being repressed. This requirement for galactose is obviated in a mutant in which Gal4 works constitutively. These results show how an activator's recruiting function can control chromatin structure both during gene activation and repression. Thus, both under activating and repressing conditions, the activator can recruit an enzymatic machine that removes promoter nucleosomes. Our results show that whereas promoter nucleosome removal invariably accompanies activation, reformation of nucleosomes is not required for repression. The finding that there are two routes to nucleosome removal and activation of transcription-one that requires the

  2. Role of cysteine-58 and cysteine-95 residues in the thiol di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nikhil; Hoti, S L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is the first human cytokine reported and was thought to have a central role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Homologs of this molecule have been reported in bacteria, invertebrates and plants. Apart from cytokine activity, it also has two catalytic activities viz., tautomerase and di-sulfide oxidoreductase, which appear to be involved in immunological functions. The CXXC catalytic site is responsible for di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of MIF. We have recently reported thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti (Wba-MIF-2), although it lacks the CXXC motif. We hypothesized that three conserved cysteine residues might be involved in the formation of di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic site. Homology modeling of Wba-MIF-2 showed that among the three cysteine residues, Cys58 and Cys95 residues came in close proximity (3.23Å) in the tertiary structure with pKa value 9, indicating that these residues might play a role in the di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic activity. We carried out site directed mutagenesis of these residues (Cys58Ser & Cys95Ser) and expressed mutant proteins in Escherichia coli. The mutant proteins did not show any oxidoreductase activity in the insulin reduction assay, thus indicating that these two cysteine residues are vital for the catalytic activity of Wba-MIF-2. PMID:26432350

  3. Enterovirus type 71 2A protease functions as a transcriptional activator in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Meng-Jiun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enterovirus type 71 (EV71 2A protease exhibited strong transcriptional activity in yeast cells. The transcriptional activity of 2A protease was independent of its protease activity. EV71 2A protease retained its transcriptional activity after truncation of 40 amino acids at the N-terminus but lost this activity after truncation of 60 amino acids at the N-terminus or deletion of 20 amino acids at the C-terminus. Thus, the acidic domain at the C-terminus of this protein is essential for its transcriptional activity. Indeed, deletion of amino acids from 146 to 149 (EAME in this acidic domain lost the transcriptional activity of EV71 2A protein though still retained its protease activity. EV71 2A protease was detected both in the cytoplasm and nucleus using confocal microscopy analysis. Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease also exhibited transcriptional activity in yeast cells. As expected, an acidic domain in the C-terminus of Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease was also identified. Truncation of this acidic domain resulted in the loss of transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this acidic region of poliovirus 2A protease is critical for viral RNA replication. The transcriptional activity of the EV71 or Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease should play a role in viral replication and/or pathogenesis.

  4. Inhibition of human insulin gene transcription and MafA transcriptional activity by the dual leucine zipper kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnke, Marie-Jeannette; Dickel, Corinna; Schröder, Sabine; Kaiser, Diana; Blume, Roland; Stein, Roland; Pouponnot, Celio; Oetjen, Elke

    2014-09-01

    Insulin biosynthesis is an essential β-cell function and inappropriate insulin secretion and biosynthesis contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2. Previous studies showed that the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) induces β-cell apoptosis. Since β-cell dysfunction precedes β-cell loss, in the present study the effect of DLK on insulin gene transcription was investigated in the HIT-T15 β-cell line. Downregulation of endogenous DLK increased whereas overexpression of DLK decreased human insulin gene transcription. 5'- and 3'-deletion human insulin promoter analyses resulted in the identification of a DLK responsive element that mapped to the DNA binding-site for the β-cell specific transcription factor MafA. Overexpression of DLK wild-type but not its kinase-dead mutant inhibited MafA transcriptional activity conferred by its transactivation domain. Furthermore, in the non-β-cell line JEG DLK inhibited MafA overexpression-induced human insulin promoter activity. Overexpression of MafA and DLK or its kinase-dead mutant into JEG cells revealed that DLK but not its mutant reduced MafA protein content. Inhibition of the down-stream DLK kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by SP600125 attenuated DLK-induced MafA loss. Furthermore, mutation of the serine 65 to alanine, shown to confer MafA protein stability, increased MafA-dependent insulin gene transcription and prevented DLK-induced MafA loss in JEG cells. These data suggest that DLK by activating JNK triggers the phosphorylation and degradation of MafA thereby attenuating insulin gene transcription. Given the importance of MafA for β-cell function, the inhibition of DLK might preserve β-cell function and ultimately retard the development of diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:24726898

  5. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethanol Extract of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense Kitamura Exhibits the Activation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2-dependent Antioxidant Response Element and Protects Human Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells Against Oxidative DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ok-Kyung; Choi, Bu Young; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Byoung-Kwon; Joo, Chul Gue; Heo, Hyo-Jung; Keum, Young-Sam

    2016-01-01

    Keratinocytes are constantly exposed to extracellular insults, such as ultraviolet B, toxic chemicals and mechanical stress, all of which can facilitate the aging of keratinocytes via the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in protecting keratinocytes against oxidants and xenobiotics by binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE), a cis-acting element existing in the promoter of most phase II cytoprotective genes. In the present study, we have attempted to find novel ethanol extract(s) of indigenous plants of Jeju island, Korea that can activate the Nrf2/ARE-dependent gene expression in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. As a result, we identified that ethanol extract of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense Kitamura (ECJUK) elicited strong stimulatory effect on the ARE-dependent gene expression. Supporting this observation, we found that ECJUK induced the expression of Nrf2, hemoxygenase-1, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and this event was correlated with Akt1 phosphorylation. We also found that ECJUK increased the intracellular reduced glutathione level and suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate-induced 8-hydroxyguanosine formation without affecting the overall viability. Collectively, our results provide evidence that ECJUK can protect against oxidative stress-mediated damages through the activation of Nrf2/ARE-dependent phase II cytoprotective gene expression. PMID:27051652

  7. Interferon-tau activates multiple signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins and has complex effects on interferon-responsive gene transcription in ovine endometrial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M D; Stewart, D M; Johnson, G A; Vyhlidal, C A; Burghardt, R C; Safe, S H; Yu-Lee, L Y; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

    2001-01-01

    Interferon-tau (IFNtau), a type I IFN produced by sheep conceptus trophectoderm, is the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy. Although it is clear that IFNtau suppresses transcription of the estrogen receptor alpha and oxytocin receptor genes and induces expression of various IFN-stimulated genes within the endometrial epithelium, little is known of the signal transduction pathway activated by the hormone. This study determined the effects of IFNtau on signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) activation, expression, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation using an ovine endometrial epithelial cell line. IFNtau induced persistent tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and -2 (10 min to 48 h), but transient phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3, -5a/b, and -6 (10 to gene factor-3 and STAT1 homodimers formed and bound an IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and gamma-activated sequence (GAS) element, respectively. IFNtau increased transcription of GAS-driven promoters at 3 h, but suppressed their activity at 24 h. In contrast, the activity of an ISRE-driven promoter was increased at 3 and 24 h. These results indicate that IFNtau activates multiple STATs and has differential effects on ISRE- and GAS-driven gene transcription. PMID:11145571

  8. Improving fold activation of small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) with rational RNA engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarai; Chappell, James; Sankar, Sitara; Chew, Rebecca; Lucks, Julius B

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory RNAs have become integral components of the synthetic biology and bioengineering toolbox for controlling gene expression. We recently expanded this toolbox by creating small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) that act by disrupting the formation of a target transcriptional terminator hairpin placed upstream of a gene. While STARs are a promising addition to the repertoire of RNA regulators, much work remains to be done to optimize the fold activation of these systems. Here we apply rational RNA engineering strategies to improve the fold activation of two STAR regulators. We demonstrate that a combination of promoter strength tuning and multiple RNA engineering strategies can improve fold activation from 5.4-fold to 13.4-fold for a STAR regulator derived from the pbuE riboswitch terminator. We then validate the generality of our approach and show that these same strategies improve fold activation from 2.1-fold to 14.6-fold for an unrelated STAR regulator, opening the door to creating a range of additional STARs to use in a broad array of biotechnologies. We also establish that the optimizations preserve the orthogonality of these STARs between themselves and a set of RNA transcriptional repressors, enabling these optimized STARs to be used in sophisticated circuits. PMID:26134708

  9. Human ZCCHC12 activates AP-1 and CREB signaling as a transcriptional co-activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Li; Qian Liu; Xiang Hu; Du Feng; Shuanglin Xiang; Zhicheng He; Xingwang Hu; Jianlin Zhou; Xiaofeng Ding; Chang Zhou; Jian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Mouse zinc finger CCHC domain containing 12 gene (ZCCHC12) has been identified as a transcriptional co-activator of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) sig-naling,and human ZCCHC12 was reported to be related to non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (NS-XLMR).However,the details of how human ZCCHCI2 involve in the NS-XLMR still remain unclear.In this study,we identified a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the middle of human ZCCHC12 protein which is responsible for the nuclear localization.Multiple-tissue northern blot analysis indi-cated that ZCCHC12 is highly expressed in human brain.Furthermore,in situ hybridization showed that ZCCHC12 is specifically expressed in neuroepithelium of forebrain,midbrain,and diencephalon regions of mouse E10.5 embryos.Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that ZCCHC12 enhanced the transcrip-tional activities of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) as a co-activator.In conclusion,we identified a new NLS in ZCCHC12 and figured out that ZCCHC12 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of AP-1 and CREB.

  10. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 3 Is an Oxygen-Dependent Transcription Activator and Regulates a Distinct Transcriptional Response to Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs play key roles in the cellular response to hypoxia. It is widely accepted that whereas HIF-1 and HIF-2 function as transcriptional activators, HIF-3 inhibits HIF-1/2α action. Contrary to this idea, we show that zebrafish Hif-3α has strong transactivation activity. Hif-3α is degraded under normoxia. Mutation of P393, P493, and L503 inhibits this oxygen-dependent degradation. Transcriptomics and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses identify genes that are regulated by Hif-3α, Hif-1α, or both. Under hypoxia or when overexpressed, Hif-3α binds to its target gene promoters and upregulates their expression. Dominant-negative inhibition and knockdown of Hif-3α abolish hypoxia-induced Hif-3α-promoter binding and gene expression. Hif-3α not only mediates hypoxia-induced growth and developmental retardation but also possesses hypoxia-independent activities. Importantly, transactivation activity is conserved and human HIF-3α upregulates similar genes in human cells. These findings suggest that Hif-3 is an oxygen-dependent transcription factor and activates a distinct transcriptional response to hypoxia.

  11. Attenuation of β-Amyloid-Induced Oxidative Cell Death by Sulforaphane via Activation of NF-E2-Related Factor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available β-amyloid peptide (Aβ, a major component of senile plaques, plays important roles in neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD. An array of in vitro and in vivo data indicates that Aβ-induced neuronal death is mediated by oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate effects of sulforaphane (SUL, an isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables, on Aβ-induced oxidative cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Cells treated with Aβ25–35 exhibited decreased cell viability and underwent apoptosis as determined by MTT assay and TUNEL, respectively. Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic characteristics such as activation of c-JNK, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, altered expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, and DNA fragmentation were effectively attenuated by SUL pretreatment. The antiapoptotic activity of SUL seemed to be mediated by inhibition of intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damages. SUL exerted antioxidant potential by upregulating expression of antioxidant enzymes including γ-glutamylcysteine ligase, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase-1, and heme oxygenase-1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2. The protective effect of SUL against Aβ25–35-induced apoptotic cell death was abolished by siRNA of Nrf2. Taken together, the results suggest that pharmacologic activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway by SUL might be a practical prevention and/or protective treatment for the management of AD.

  12. Activation of Human Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)·Myeloid Differentiation Factor 2 (MD-2) by Hypoacylated Lipopolysaccharide from a Clinical Isolate of Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Kubik, Łukasz; Oblak, Alja; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Cigana, Cristina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Hamad, Mohamad A; De Soyza, Anthony; Silipo, Alba; Jerala, Roman; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Valvano, Miguel A; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles; Molinaro, Antonio

    2015-08-28

    Lung infection by Burkholderia species, in particular Burkholderia cenocepacia, accelerates tissue damage and increases post-lung transplant mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. Host-microbe interplay largely depends on interactions between pathogen-specific molecules and innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which recognizes the lipid A moiety of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The human TLR4·myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) LPS receptor complex is strongly activated by hexa-acylated lipid A and poorly activated by underacylated lipid A. Here, we report that B. cenocepacia LPS strongly activates human TLR4·MD-2 despite its lipid A having only five acyl chains. Furthermore, we show that aminoarabinose residues in lipid A contribute to TLR4-lipid A interactions, and experiments in a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxic shock confirmed the proinflammatory potential of B. cenocepacia penta-acylated lipid A. Molecular modeling combined with mutagenesis of TLR4-MD-2 interactive surfaces suggests that longer acyl chains and the aminoarabinose residues in the B. cenocepacia lipid A allow exposure of the fifth acyl chain on the surface of MD-2 enabling interactions with TLR4 and its dimerization. Our results provide a molecular model for activation of the human TLR4·MD-2 complex by penta-acylated lipid A explaining the ability of hypoacylated B. cenocepacia LPS to promote proinflammatory responses associated with the severe pathogenicity of this opportunistic bacterium. PMID:26160169

  13. Essential role for SphK1/S1P signaling to regulate hypoxia-inducible factor 2α expression and activity in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquerel, P; Gstalder, C; Müller, D; Laurent, J; Brizuela, L; Sabbadini, R A; Malavaud, B; Pyronnet, S; Martineau, Y; Ader, I; Cuvillier, O

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine kinase-1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) signaling pathway has been reported to modulate the expression of the canonical transcription factor hypoxia-inducible HIF-1α in multiple cell lineages. HIF-2α is also frequently overexpressed in solid tumors but its role has been mostly studied in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, where HIF-2α has been established as a driver of a more aggressive disease. In this study, the role of SphK1/S1P signaling with regard to HIF-2α was investigated in various cancer cell models including ccRCC cells. Under hypoxic conditions or in ccRCC lacking a functional von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and expressing high levels of HIF-2α, SphK1 activity controls HIF-2α expression and transcriptional activity through a phospholipase D (PLD)-driven mechanism. SphK1 silencing promotes a VHL-independent HIF-2α loss of expression and activity and reduces cell proliferation in ccRCC. Importantly, downregulation of SphK1 is associated with impaired Akt and mTOR signaling in ccRCC. Taking advantage of a monoclonal antibody neutralizing extracellular S1P, we show that inhibition of S1P extracellular signaling blocks HIF-2α accumulation in ccRCC cell lines, an effect mimicked when the S1P transporter Spns2 or the S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) is silenced. Here, we report the first evidence that the SphK1/S1P signaling pathway regulates the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible HIF-2α in diverse cancer cell lineages notably ccRCC, where HIF-2α has been established as a driver of a more aggressive disease. These findings demonstrate that SphK1/S1P signaling may act as a canonical regulator of HIF-2α expression in ccRCC, giving support to its inhibition as a therapeutic strategy that could contribute to reduce HIF-2 activity in ccRCC. PMID:26974204

  14. MED16 and MED23 of Mediator are coactivators of lipopolysaccharide- and heat-shock-induced transcriptional activators

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Whan; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Jung Mo; Song, Young-Hwa; Kim, Se Nyun; Kim, Young-Joon

    2004-01-01

    Transcriptional activators interact with diverse proteins and recruit transcriptional machinery to the activated promoter. Recruitment of the Mediator complex by transcriptional activators is usually the key step in transcriptional activation. However, it is unclear how Mediator recognizes different types of activator proteins. To systematically identify the subunits responsible for the signal- and activator-specific functions of Mediator in Drosophila melanogaster, each Mediator subunit was ...

  15. EGF activates TTP expression by activation of ELK-1 and EGR-1 transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florkowska Magdalena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tristetraprolin (TTP is a key mediator of processes such as inflammation resolution, the inhibition of autoimmunity and in cancer. It carries out this role by the binding and degradation of mRNA transcripts, thereby decreasing their half-life. Transcripts modulated by TTP encode proteins such as cytokines, pro-inflammatory agents and immediate-early response proteins. TTP can also modulate neoplastic phenotypes in many cancers. TTP is induced and functionally regulated by a spectrum of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, mitogens and drugs in a MAPK-dependent manner. So far the contribution of p38 MAPK to the regulation of TTP expression and function has been best described. Results Our results demonstrate the induction of the gene coding TTP (ZFP36 by EGF through the ERK1/2-dependent pathway and implicates the transcription factor ELK-1 in this process. We show that ELK-1 regulates ZFP36 expression by two mechanisms: by binding the ZFP36 promoter directly through ETS-binding site (+ 883 to +905 bp and by inducing expression of EGR-1, which in turn increases ZFP36 expression through sequences located between -111 and -103 bp. Conclusions EGF activates TTP expression via ELK-1 and EGR-1 transcription factors.

  16. Exercise-Induced VEGF Transcriptional Activation in Brain, Lung and Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Kechun; Xia, Feng Cheng; Wagner, Peter D.; Breen, Ellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle VEGF expression is upregulated by exercise. Whether this VEGF response is regulated by transcription and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms is unknown. Hypoxia may be responsible: myocyte PO2 falls greatly during exercise and VEGF is a hypoxia-responsive gene. Whether exercise induces VEGF expression in other organs important to acute physical activity is also unknown. To address these questions, we created a VEGF/Luciferase reporter mouse and measured VEGF transcription, mRNA and prot...

  17. PolyADP-ribose polymerase is a coactivator for AP-2-mediated transcriptional activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, P; Yu, Y; Wankhade, S; Tainsky, M A

    1999-01-01

    Overexpression of transcription factor AP-2 has been implicated in the tumorigenicity of the human teratocarcinoma cell lines PA-1 that contain an activated ras oncogene. Here we show evidence that overexpression of AP-2 sequesters transcriptional coactivators which results in self-inhibition. We identified AP-2-interacting proteins and determined whether these proteins were coactivators for AP-2-mediated transcription. One such interacting protein is polyADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). PARP su...

  18. Synergistic transcriptional activation by one regulatory protein in response to two metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Bundy, Becky M.; Collier, Lauren S.; Hoover, Timothy R.; Neidle, Ellen L.

    2002-01-01

    BenM is a LysR-type bacterial transcriptional regulator that controls aromatic compound degradation in Acinetobacter sp. ADP1. Here, in vitro transcription assays demonstrated that two metabolites of aromatic compound catabolism, benzoate and cis,cis-muconate, act synergistically to activate gene expression. The level of BenM-regulated benA transcription was significantly higher in response to both compounds than the combined levels due to each alone. These compounds also were more effective ...

  19. Analysis of p53 mutants for transcriptional activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Raycroft, L.; Schmidt, J. R.; Yoas, K; Hao, M M; Lozano, G.

    1991-01-01

    The wild-type p53 protein functions to suppress transformation, but numerous mutant p53 proteins are transformation competent. To examine the role of p53 as a transcription factor, we made fusion proteins containing human or mouse p53 sequences fused to the DNA binding domain of a known transcription factor, GAL4. Human and mouse wild-type p53/GAL4 specifically transactivated expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter in HeLa, CHO, and NIH 3T3 cells. Several mutant p53 protein...

  20. The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 has multiple functions in E2-mediated papillomavirus transcription activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Christine M; Yan, Junpeng; You, Jianxin

    2014-08-01

    The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 functions in multiple processes of the papillomavirus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through its interaction with the viral protein, E2. However, the mechanisms by which E2 and Brd4 activate viral transcription are still not completely understood. In this study, we show that recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), a functional interaction partner of Brd4 in transcription activation, is important for E2's transcription activation activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses demonstrate that P-TEFb is recruited to the actual papillomavirus episomes. We also show that E2's interaction with cellular chromatin through Brd4 correlates with its papillomavirus transcription activation function since JQ1(+), a bromodomain inhibitor that efficiently dissociates E2-Brd4 complexes from chromatin, potently reduces papillomavirus transcription. Our study identifies a specific function of Brd4 in papillomavirus gene transcription and highlights the potential use of bromodomain inhibitors as a method to disrupt the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle. PMID:25140737

  1. The Cellular Bromodomain Protein Brd4 has Multiple Functions in E2-Mediated Papillomavirus Transcription Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Helfer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 functions in multiple processes of the papillomavirus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through its interaction with the viral protein, E2. However, the mechanisms by which E2 and Brd4 activate viral transcription are still not completely understood. In this study, we show that recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, a functional interaction partner of Brd4 in transcription activation, is important for E2’s transcription activation activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analyses demonstrate that P-TEFb is recruited to the actual papillomavirus episomes. We also show that E2’s interaction with cellular chromatin through Brd4 correlates with its papillomavirus transcription activation function since JQ1(+, a bromodomain inhibitor that efficiently dissociates E2-Brd4 complexes from chromatin, potently reduces papillomavirus transcription. Our study identifies a specific function of Brd4 in papillomavirus gene transcription and highlights the potential use of bromodomain inhibitors as a method to disrupt the human papillomavirus (HPV life cycle.

  2. Large-scale transcriptome data reveals transcriptional activity of fission yeast LTR retrotransposons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willerslev Eske

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are transposable elements that proliferate within eukaryotic genomes through a process involving reverse transcription. The numbers of retrotransposons within genomes and differences between closely related species may yield insight into the evolutionary history of the elements. Less is known about the ongoing dynamics of retrotransposons, as analysis of genome sequences will only reveal insertions of retrotransposons that are fixed - or near fixation - in the population or strain from which genetic material has been extracted for sequencing. One pre-requisite for retrotransposition is transcription of the elements. Given their intrinsic sequence redundancy, transcriptome-level analyses of transposable elements are scarce. We have used recently published transcriptome data from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to assess the ability to detect and describe transcriptional activity from Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons. LTR retrotransposons are normally flanked by two LTR sequences. However, the majority of LTR sequences in S. pombe exist as solitary LTRs, i.e. as single terminal repeat sequences not flanking a retrotransposon. Transcriptional activity was analysed for both full-length LTR retrotransposons and solitary LTRs. Results Two independent sets of transcriptome data reveal the presence of full-length, polyadenylated transcripts from LTR retrotransposons in S. pombe during growth phase in rich medium. The redundancy of retrotransposon sequences makes it difficult to assess which elements are transcriptionally active, but data strongly indicates that only a subset of the LTR retrotransposons contribute significantly to the detected transcription. A considerable level of reverse strand transcription is also detected. Equal levels of transcriptional activity are observed from both strands of solitary LTR sequences. Transcriptome data collected during meiosis suggests that transcription

  3. Synthesis of piperlongumine analogues and discovery of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activators as potential neuroprotective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shoujiao; Zhang, Baoxin; Meng, Xianke; Yao, Juan; Fang, Jianguo

    2015-07-01

    The cellular antioxidant system plays key roles in blocking or retarding the pathogenesis of adult neurodegenerative disorders as elevated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of such diseases. Molecules with the ability in enhancing the antioxidant defense thus are promising candidates as neuroprotective agents. We reported herein the synthesis of piperlongumine analogues and evaluation of their cytoprotection against hydrogen peroxide- and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal cell oxidative damage in the neuron-like PC12 cells. The structure-activity relationship was delineated after the cytotoxicity and protection screening. Two compounds (4 and 5) displayed low cytotoxicity and confer potent protection of PC12 cells from the oxidative injury via upregulation of a panel of cellular antioxidant molecules. Genetically silencing the transcription factor Nrf2, a master regulator of the cellular stress responses, suppresses the cytoprotection, indicating the critical involvement of Nrf2 for the cellular action of compounds 4 and 5 in PC12 cells. PMID:26079183

  4. Clinical application of transcriptional activators of bile salt transporters ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdasaryan, Anna; Chiba, Peter; Trauner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hepatobiliary bile salt (BS) transporters are critical determinants of BS homeostasis controlling intracellular concentrations of BSs and their enterohepatic circulation. Genetic or acquired dysfunction of specific transport systems causes intrahepatic and systemic retention of potentially cytotoxic BSs, which, in high concentrations, may disturb integrity of cell membranes and subcellular organelles resulting in cell death, inflammation and fibrosis. Transcriptional regulation of canalicular...

  5. In vivo identification of promoter elements and transcription factors mediating activation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase by T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promoter elements and transcription factors necessary for triiodothyronine (T3) induction of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) were investigated by transfecting rat livers with wild type and mutant HMGR promoter-luciferase constructs using in vivo electroporation. Mutations in the sterol response element (SRE), nuclear factor-y (NF-Y) site, and the newly identified upstream transcription factor-2 (USF-2) site essentially abolished the T3 response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated that T3 treatment caused a 4-fold increase in in vivo binding of USF-2 to the HMGR promoter. Co-transfection of the wild type HMGR promoter with siRNAs to USF-2, SREBP-2, or NF-Y nearly abolished the T3 induction, as measured by promoter activity. These data provide in vivo evidence for functional roles for USF-2, SREBP-2, and NF-Y in mediating the T3-induction of hepatic HMGR transcription.

  6. Inferring yeast cell cycle regulators and interactions using transcription factor activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbraith Simon J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transcription factors are often regulated at the post-transcriptional level, their activities, rather than expression levels may provide valuable information for investigating functions and their interactions. The recently developed Network Component Analysis (NCA and its generalized form (gNCA provide a robust framework for deducing the transcription factor activities (TFAs from various types of DNA microarray data and transcription factor-gene connectivity. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the utility of TFAs in inferring transcription factor functions and interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle regulation. Results Using gNCA, we determined 74 TFAs from both wild type and fkh1 fkh2 deletion mutant microarray data encompassing 1529 ORFs. We hypothesized that transcription factors participating in the cell cycle regulation exhibit cyclic activity profiles. This hypothesis was supported by the TFA profiles of known cell cycle factors and was used as a basis to uncover other potential cell cycle factors. By combining the results from both cluster analysis and periodicity analysis, we recovered nearly 90% of the known cell cycle regulators, and identified 5 putative cell cycle-related transcription factors (Dal81, Hap2, Hir2, Mss11, and Rlm1. In addition, by analyzing expression data from transcription factor knockout strains, we determined 3 verified (Ace2, Ndd1, and Swi5 and 4 putative interaction partners (Cha4, Hap2, Fhl1, and Rts2 of the forkhead transcription factors. Sensitivity of TFAs to connectivity errors was determined to provide confidence level of these predictions. Conclusion By subjecting TFA profiles to analyses based upon physiological signatures we were able to identify cell cycle related transcription factors consistent with current literature, transcription factors with potential cell cycle dependent roles, and interactions between transcription factors.

  7. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor 2-induced apoptosis involves survivin expression, protein kinase Cα activation and subcellular translocation of Smac in human small cell lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng Xiao; Kuansong Wang; Jianhua Zhou; Huiqiu Cao; Zhenghao Deng; Yongbin Hu; Xiahui Qu; Jifang Wen

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) inhibits apoptosis in the human small cell lung cancer cell line H446 subjected to serum starvation,apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation.Survivin expression induced by FGF-2 and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) translocation was detected by subcellular fractionation and Western blot analysis. In addition, FGF-2-induced release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm was analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence.FGF-2 reduced apoptosis induced by serum starvation and up-regulated survivin expression in H446 cells in a dosedependent and time-dependent manner, and inhibited caspase-3 activity. FGF-2 also inhibited the release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm induced by serum starvation and increased PKCα translocation from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. In addition, PKC inhibitor inhibited the expression of survivin. FGF-2 up-regulates the expression of survivin protein in H446 cells and blocks the release of Smac from mitochondria to the cytoplasm. PKCα regulated FGF-2-induced survivin expression. Thus, survivin, Smac,and PKCα might play important roles in the inhibition of apoptosis by FGF-2 in human small cell lung cancer cells.

  8. Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that the ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) functions as a transcriptional repressor in diverse microorganisms. Recent studies demonstrated that Fur also functions as a transcriptional activator. In this study we defined Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Analysis of 37 genes which were previously determined to be iron induced and which contained putative Fur boxes revealed that only 30 of these genes exhibited reduced transcription in a gonococcal fur mutant strain. Fur-mediated activation was established by examining binding of Fur to the putative promoter regions of 16 Fur-activated genes with variable binding affinities observed. Only ∼50% of the newly identified Fur-regulated genes bound Fur in vitro, suggesting that additional regulatory circuits exist which may function through a Fur-mediated indirect mechanism. The gonococcal Fur-activated genes displayed variable transcription patterns in a fur mutant strain, which correlated with the position of the Fur box in each (promoter) region. These results suggest that Fur-mediated direct transcriptional activation is fulfilled by multiple mechanisms involving either competing with a repressor or recruiting RNA polymerase. Collectively, our studies have established that gonococcal Fur functions as an activator of gene transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:22287521

  9. Enhanced transcriptional activation by E2 proteins from the oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovelman, R; Bilter, G K; Glezer, E; Tsou, A Y; Barbosa, M S

    1996-01-01

    A systematic comparison of transcriptional activation by papillomavirus E2 proteins revealed that the E2 proteins from high-risk human papillomaviruses (human papillomavirus type 16 [HPV-16] and HPV-18) are much more active than are the E2 proteins from low-risk HPVs (HPV-6b and HPV-11). Despite the tropism of HPVs for particular epithelial cell types, this difference in transcriptional activation was observed in a number of different epithelial and nonepithelial cells. The enhanced activitie...

  10. Expression, processing and transcriptional regulation of granulysin in short-term activated human lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Groscurth Peter; Dumrese Claudia; Sundstrom Hanna; Walch Michael; Latinovic-Golic Sonja; Ziegler Urs

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Granulysin, a cytotoxic protein expressed in human natural killer cells and activated T lymphocytes, exhibits cytolytic activity against a variety of intracellular microbes. Expression and transcription have been partially characterised in vitro and four transcripts (NKG5, 519, 520, and 522) were identified. However, only a single protein product of 15 kDa was found, which is subsequently processed to an active 9 kDa protein. Results In this study we investigated generatio...

  11. Prevention of Premature Fusion of Calvarial Suture in GLI-Kruppel Family Member 3 (Gli3)-deficient Mice by Removing One Allele of Runt-related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yukiho; Veistinen, Lotta; Alakurtti, Kirsi; Takatalo, Maarit; Rice, David P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the zinc finger transcription factor GLI3 (GLI-Kruppel family member 3) have been identified in patients with Grieg cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome in which premature fusion of calvarial suture (craniosynostosis) is an infrequent but important feature. Here, we show that Gli3 acts as a repressor in the developing murine calvaria and that Dlx5, Runx2 type II isoform (Runx2-II), and Bmp2 are expressed ectopically in the calvarial mesenchyme, which results in aberrant osteoblastic differentiation in Gli3-deficient mouse (Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J) and resulted in craniosynostosis. At the same time, enhanced activation of phospho-Smad1/5/8 (pSmad1/5/8), which is a downstream mediator of canonical Bmp signaling, was observed in Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J embryonic calvaria. Therefore, we generated Gli3;Runx2 compound mutant mice to study the effects of decreasing Runx2 dosage in a Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J background. Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J Runx2+/− mice have neither craniosynostosis nor additional ossification centers in interfrontal suture and displayed a normalization of Dlx5, Runx2-II, and pSmad1/5/8 expression as well as sutural mesenchymal cell proliferation. These findings suggest a novel role for Gli3 in regulating calvarial suture development by controlling canonical Bmp-Smad signaling, which integrates a Dlx5/Runx2-II cascade. We propose that targeting Runx2 might provide an attractive way of preventing craniosynostosis in patients. PMID:22547067

  12. DNA-recognition by a σ54 transcriptional activator from Aquifex aeolicus

    OpenAIRE

    Vidangos, Natasha K.; Heideker, Johanna; Lyubimov, Artem; Lamers, Meindert; Huo, Yixin; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Ton, Jimmy; Gralla, Jay; Berger, James; Wemmer, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription initiation by bacterial σ54-polymerase requires the action of a transcriptional activator protein. Activators bind sequence-specifically upstream of the transcription initiation site via a DNA-binding domain. The structurally characterized DNA-binding domains from activators all belong to the Factor for Inversion Stimulation (Fis) family of helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. We report here structures of the free and DNA-bound forms of the DNA-binding domain of NtrC4 (4DBD) f...

  13. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasim, Vivi, E-mail: vivikasim78@gmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Yunxia [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Li [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Miyagishi, Makoto [Molecular Composite Medicine Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Wu, Shourong, E-mail: shourongwu@hotmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73.

  14. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73

  15. TBP Domain Symmetry in Basal and Activated Archaeal Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Hausner, Winfried; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2008-01-01

    The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is the platform for assembly of archaeal and eukaryotic transcription preinitiation complexes. Ancestral gene duplication and fusion events have produced the saddle-shaped TBP molecule, with its two direct-repeat subdomains and pseudo-two-fold symmetry. Collectively, eukaryotic TBPs have diverged from their present-day archaeal counterparts, which remain highly symmetrical. The similarity of the N- and C-halves of archaeal TBPs is especially pronounced in th...

  16. Variable Glutamine-Rich Repeats Modulate Transcription Factor Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gemayel, Rita; Chavali, Sreenivas; Pougach, Ksenia; Legendre, Matthieu; Zhu, Bo; Boeynaems, Steven; van der Zande, Elisa; Gevaert, Kris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Babu, M Madan; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Excessive expansions of glutamine (Q)-rich repeats in various human proteins are known to result in severe neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease and several ataxias. However, the physiological role of these repeats and the consequences of more moderate repeat variation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Q-rich domains are highly enriched in eukaryotic transcription factors where they act as functional modulators. Incremental changes in the number of repeats i...

  17. Thioredoxin interacting protein inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor transcriptional activity

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Michael R; Rogers, Lynette K.; Liu, Yusen; Welty, Stephen E.; Tipple, Trent E.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is required for proper lung development and is transcriptionally regulated in alveolar epithelial cells by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Previous findings in a newborn mouse model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) suggest that thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip) is a novel regulator of VEGF expression. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that Txnip negatively regulates VEGF through effects on HIF-mediated gene expression. ...

  18. Genome-wide lentiviral shRNA screen identifies serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 as a determinant of oncolytic virus activity in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workenhe, S T; Ketela, T; Moffat, J; Cuddington, B P; Mossman, K L

    2016-05-12

    Oncolytic human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) shows promising treatment efficacy in late-stage clinical trials. The anticancer activity of oncolytic viruses relies on deregulated pathways in cancer cells, which make them permissive to oncolysis. To identify pathways that restrict HSV-1 KM100-mediated oncolysis, this study used a pooled genome-wide short hairpin RNA library and found that depletion of the splicing factor arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) leads to enhanced cytotoxicity of breast cancer cells by KM100. Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are a family of RNA-binding phosphoproteins that control both constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Further characterization showed that KM100 infection of HS578T cells under conditions of low SRSF2 leads to pronounced apoptosis without a corresponding increase in virus replication. As DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors can limit the phosphorylation of SRSF2, we combined a topoisomerase I inhibitor chemotherapeutic with KM100 and observed synergistic anticancer effect in vitro and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice in vivo. PMID:26257065

  19. Analysis of Gal4-directed transcription activation using Tra1 mutants selectively defective for interaction with Gal4

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ling; Chamberlain, Lynn; Lihua J Zhu; Green, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Promoter-specific transcriptional activators (activators) stimulate transcription through direct interactions with one or more components of the transcription machinery, termed the “target.” The identification of direct in vivo targets of activators has been a major challenge. Previous studies have provided evidence that the Tra1 subunit of the yeast SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) complex is the target of the yeast activator Gal4. However, several other general transcription factors, i...

  20. Inhibition of transcriptional activity of c-JUN by SIRT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    c-JUN is a major component of heterodimer transcription factor AP-1 (Activator Protein-1) that activates gene transcription in cell proliferation, inflammation and stress responses. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1) is a histone deacetylase that controls gene transcription through modification of chromatin structure. However, it is not clear if SIRT1 regulates c-JUN activity in the control of gene transcription. Here, we show that SIRT1 associated with c-JUN in co-immunoprecipitation of whole cell lysate, and inhibited the transcriptional activity of c-JUN in the mammalian two hybridization system. SIRT1 was found in the AP-1 response element in the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) promoter DNA leading to inhibition of histone 3 acetylation as shown in a ChIP assay. The SIRT1 signal was reduced by the AP-1 activator PMA, and induced by the SIRT1 activator Resveratrol in the promoter DNA. SIRT1-mediaetd inhibition of AP-1 was demonstrated in the MMP9 gene expression at the gene promoter, mRNA and protein levels. In mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) with SIRT1 deficiency (SIRT1-/-), mRNA and protein of MMP9 were increased in the basal condition, and the inhibitory activity of Resveratrol was significantly attenuated. Glucose-induced MMP9 expression was also inhibited by SIRT1 in response to Resveratrol. These data consistently suggest that SIRT1 directly inhibits the transcriptional activity of AP-1 by targeting c-JUN

  1. Master regulator for chondrogenesis, Sox9, regulates transcriptional activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer BBF2H7/CREB3L2 in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Kenta; Saito, Atsushi; Kido, Miori; Kanemoto, Soshi; Asada, Rie; Takai, Tomoko; Cui, Min; Cui, Xiang; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2014-05-16

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer, box B-binding factor 2 human homolog on chromosome 7 (BBF2H7), is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transmembrane transcription factor. This molecule is activated in response to ER stress during chondrogenesis. The activated BBF2H7 accelerates cartilage matrix protein secretion through the up-regulation of Sec23a, which is responsible for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus and is a target of BBF2H7. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanisms of the transcriptional activation of Bbf2h7 in chondrocytes. The transcription of Bbf2h7 is regulated by Sex determining region Y-related high-mobility group box 9 (Sox9), a critical factor for chondrocyte differentiation that facilitates the expression of one of the major cartilage matrix proteins Type II collagen (Col2), through binding to the Sox DNA-binding motif in the Bbf2h7 promoter. BBF2H7 is activated as a transcription factor in response to physiological ER stress caused by abundant synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins, and consequently regulates the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins. Taken together, our findings demonstrate novel regulatory mechanisms of Sox9 for controlling the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins through the activation of BBF2H7-Sec23a signaling during chondrogenesis. PMID:24711445

  2. A Taiwanese Propolis Derivative Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress and Activating Transcription Factor-3 in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fat-Moon Suk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activating transcription factor-(ATF- 3, a stress-inducible transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated under various stress conditions and plays an important role in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. NBM-TP-007-GS-002 (GS-002 is a Taiwanese propolin G (PPG derivative. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of GS-002 in human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells in vitro. First, we found that GS-002 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. Several main apoptotic indicators were found in GS-002-treated cells, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. GS-002 also induced endoplasmic reticular (ER stress as evidenced by increases in ER stress-responsive proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α, phosphorylated protein endoplasmic-reticular-resident kinase (PERK, and ATF-3. The induction of ATF-3 expression was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in GS-002-treated cells. Furthermore, we found that GS-002 induced more cell apoptosis in ATF-3-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis by the propolis derivative, GS-002, is partially mediated through ER stress and ATF-3-dependent pathways, and GS-002 has the potential for development as an antitumor drug.

  3. Farnesoid X Receptor Inhibits the Transcriptional Activity of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Human Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Sandrine; Huaman Samanez, Carolina; Dehondt, Hélène; Ploton, Maheul; Briand, Olivier; Lien, Fleur; Dorchies, Emilie; Dumont, Julie; Postic, Catherine; Cariou, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Philippe; Staels, Bart

    2013-01-01

    The glucose-activated transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) induces the expression of hepatic glycolytic and lipogenic genes. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear bile acid receptor controlling bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. FXR negatively regulates hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis in mouse liver. The aim of this study was to determine whether FXR regulates the transcriptional activity of ChREBP in human hepatocytes and to unravel the...

  4. Nuclear factor RIP140 modulates transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaillès, V; Dauvois, S; L'Horset, F; Lopez, G; Hoare, S.; Kushner, P J; Parker, M G

    1995-01-01

    A conserved region in the hormone-dependent activation domain AF2 of nuclear receptors plays an important role in transcriptional activation. We have characterized a novel nuclear protein, RIP140, that specifically interacts in vitro with this domain of the estrogen receptor. This interaction was increased by estrogen, but not by anti-estrogens and the in vitro binding capacity of mutant receptors correlates with their ability to stimulate transcription. RIP140 also interacts with estrogen re...

  5. Transcriptional activation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by phosphorus deficiency in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kentaro; Koizumi, Nozomu; Sato, Fumihiko

    2003-03-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), which catalyses the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate using HCO(3)(-) to generate oxaloacetic acid, is an important enzyme in the primary metabolism of plants. Although the PEPC genes (ppc) comprise only a small gene family, the function of each gene is not clear, except for roles in C(4) photosynthesis and CAM. Three PEPC genes (Nsppc1-3) from the C(3) plant Nicotiana sylvestris were used to investigate their roles and regulation in a C(3) plant, and their regulation by phosphorus depletion in particular. First, the induction of PEPC by phosphorus depletion was confirmed. Next, Nsppc1 was determined to be mainly responsive to phosphorus deficiency at the transcriptional level. Further studies using transgenic tobacco harbouring a chimeric gene consisting of the 2.0 kb promoter region of Nsppc1 and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter showed that PEPC is transcriptionally induced. It was also found that sucrose had a synergistic effect on the induction of PEPC by phosphorus deficiency. A series of transgenic tobacco containing 5'-deletion mutants of Nsppc1 promoter::GUS fusion revealed that the -539 to -442 bp Nsppc1 promoter region, relative to the translation start site, was necessary for the response to phosphorus deficiency. Gain-of-function analysis using a construct containing three tandem repeats of the -539 to -442 bp region confirmed that this region was sufficient to induce the phosphorus-deficiency response in tobacco. PMID:12598567

  6. Activated AMPK inhibits PPAR-{alpha} and PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Margaret S; Lu, Changyue; Zeng, Yan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W

    2011-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) are critical regulators of short-term and long-term fatty acid oxidation, respectively. We examined whether the activities of these molecules were coordinately regulated. H4IIEC3 cells were transfected with PPAR-α and PPAR-γ expression plasmids and a peroxisome-proliferator-response element (PPRE) luciferase reporter plasmid. The cells were treated with PPAR agonists (WY-14,643 and rosiglitazone), AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) and metformin, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Both AICAR and metformin decreased basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity; compound C increased agonist-stimulated reporter activity and partially reversed the effect of the AMPK activators. Similar effects on PPAR-γ were seen, with both AICAR and metformin inhibiting PPRE reporter activity. Compound C increased basal PPAR-γ activity and rosiglitazone-stimulated activity. In contrast, retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α), another nuclear receptor that dimerizes with retinoid X receptor (RXR), was largely unaffected by the AMPK activators. Compound C modestly increased AM580 (an RAR agonist)-stimulated activity. The AMPK activators did not affect PPAR-α binding to DNA, and there was no consistent correlation between effects of the AMPK activators and inhibitor on PPAR and the nuclear localization of AMPK-α subunits. Expression of either a constitutively active or dominant negative AMPK-α inhibited basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity and basal and rosiglitazone-stimulated PPAR-γ activity. We concluded that the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin inhibited transcriptional activities of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ, whereas inhibition of AMPK with compound C activated both PPARs. The effects of AMPK do not appear to be mediated through effects on RXR or on PPAR/RXR binding to DNA. These effects are independent of kinase activity and instead appear to

  7. Voltage-gated Na+ Channel Activity Increases Colon Cancer Transcriptional Activity and Invasion Via Persistent MAPK Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Carrie D.; Wang, Bi-Dar; Ceniccola, Kristin; Williams, Russell; Simaan, May; Olender, Jacqueline; Patel, Vyomesh; Baptista-Hon, Daniel T.; Annunziata, Christina M.; Silvio Gutkind, J.; Hales, Tim G.; Lee, Norman H.

    2015-06-01

    Functional expression of voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) has been demonstrated in multiple cancer cell types where channel activity induces invasive activity. The signaling mechanisms by which VGSCs promote oncogenesis remain poorly understood. We explored the signal transduction process critical to VGSC-mediated invasion on the basis of reports linking channel activity to gene expression changes in excitable cells. Coincidentally, many genes transcriptionally regulated by the SCN5A isoform in colon cancer have an over-representation of cis-acting sites for transcription factors phosphorylated by ERK1/2 MAPK. We hypothesized that VGSC activity promotes MAPK activation to induce transcriptional changes in invasion-related genes. Using pharmacological inhibitors/activators and siRNA-mediated gene knockdowns, we correlated channel activity with Rap1-dependent persistent MAPK activation in the SW620 human colon cancer cell line. We further demonstrated that VGSC activity induces downstream changes in invasion-related gene expression via a PKA/ERK/c-JUN/ELK-1/ETS-1 transcriptional pathway. This is the first study illustrating a molecular mechanism linking functional activity of VGSCs to transcriptional activation of invasion-related genes.

  8. Encoding four gene expression programs in the activation dynamics of a single transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anders S; O'Shea, Erin K

    2016-04-01

    Cellular signaling response pathways often exhibit a bow-tie topology [1,2]: multiple upstream stress signals converge on a single shared transcription factor, which is thought to induce different downstream gene expression programs (Figure 1A). However, if several different signals activate the same transcription factor, can each signal then induce a specific gene expression response? A growing body of literature supports a temporal coding theory where information about environmental signals can be encoded, at least partially, in the temporal dynamics of the shared transcription factor [1,2]. For example, in the case of the budding yeast transcription factor Msn2, different stresses induce distinct Msn2 activation dynamics: Msn2 shows pulsatile nuclear activation with dose-dependent frequency under glucose limitation, but sustained nuclear activation with dose-dependent amplitude under oxidative stress [3]. These dynamic patterns can then lead to differential gene expression responses [3-5], but it is not known how much specificity can be obtained. Thus, a major question of this temporal coding theory is how many gene response programs or cellular functions can be robustly encoded by dynamic control of a single transcription factor. Here we provide the first direct evidence that, simply by regulating the activation dynamics of a single transcription factor, it is possible to preferentially induce four distinct gene expression programs. PMID:27046808

  9. DNA Topoisomerases maintain promoters in a state competent for transcriptional activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Madsen Pedersen

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of DNA topoisomerases in transcription, we have studied global gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient for topoisomerases I and II and performed single-gene analyses to support our findings. The genome-wide studies show a general transcriptional down-regulation upon lack of the enzymes, which correlates with gene activity but not gene length. Furthermore, our data reveal a distinct subclass of genes with a strong requirement for topoisomerases. These genes are characterized by high transcriptional plasticity, chromatin regulation, TATA box presence, and enrichment of a nucleosome at a critical position in the promoter region, in line with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation. Single-gene studies with a range of genes belonging to this group demonstrate that topoisomerases play an important role during activation of these genes. Subsequent in-depth analysis of the inducible PHO5 gene reveals that topoisomerases are essential for binding of the Pho4p transcription factor to the PHO5 promoter, which is required for promoter nucleosome removal during activation. In contrast, topoisomerases are dispensable for constitutive transcription initiation and elongation of PHO5, as well as the nuclear entrance of Pho4p. Finally, we provide evidence that topoisomerases are required to maintain the PHO5 promoter in a superhelical state, which is competent for proper activation. In conclusion, our results reveal a hitherto unknown function of topoisomerases during transcriptional activation of genes with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation.

  10. Withaferin A inhibits activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in human breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joomin; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Singh, Shivendra V

    2010-01-01

    We have shown previously that withaferin A (WA), a promising anticancer constituent of Ayurvedic medicine plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells in culture and in vivo in association with apoptosis induction. The present study builds on these observations and demonstrates that WA inhibits constitutive as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6)-inducible activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is an oncogenic transcription factor act...

  11. Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3 and the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Norval Anderson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been recognised for over a century that the ability of axons to regenerate in peripheral nerves is fundamentally greater than that of axons in the brain, spinal cord or optic nerves [early literature was reviewed in (Ramon y Cajal, 1928]. One factor that contributes to the successful regeneration of the axons in peripheral nerves is the complex cell body response the neurons show to axotomy. That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation that several hundred genes are regulated in neurons during axonal regeneration (Costigan et al., 2002; Boeshore et al., 2004. In addition, similarly large numbers of genes are regulated in the non-neuronal cells present in injured peripheral nerves [especially Schwann cells (Barrette et al., 2010] and CNS tissue. Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 (also known as LRF-1, LRG-21, CRG-5 and TI-241 is also upregulated in most of the neurons (Fig. 1 and Schwann cells that express c-jun. Indeed, ATF-3 has become a standard marker for neurons axotomised by peripheral nerve injury (Tsuzuki et al., 2001; Yamanaka et al., 2005; Yano et al., 2008; Linda et al., 2011 and its expression by injured neurons is closely correlated with a regenerative response. None the less, surprisingly little is known about the functions of ATF3 in neurons or glia within the injured nervous system, especially when compared with those of its potential binding partner, c-Jun.

  12. Transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor through ligand-dependent receptor recruitment and chromatin remodelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Waterfall, Joshua J; Kim, Dong Wook;

    2015-01-01

    facilitates recruitment of co-activators to activate transcription. Here we show that in addition to hormone-independent TR occupancy, ChIP-seq against endogenous TR in mouse liver tissue demonstrates considerable hormone-induced TR recruitment to chromatin associated with chromatin remodelling and activated...

  13. Targeted HIV-1 Latency Reversal Using CRISPR/Cas9-Derived Transcriptional Activator Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K Bialek

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 technology is currently considered the most advanced tool for targeted genome engineering. Its sequence-dependent specificity has been explored for locus-directed transcriptional modulation. Such modulation, in particular transcriptional activation, has been proposed as key approach to overcome silencing of dormant HIV provirus in latently infected cellular reservoirs. Currently available agents for provirus activation, so-called latency reversing agents (LRAs, act indirectly through cellular pathways to induce viral transcription. However, their clinical performance remains suboptimal, possibly because reservoirs have diverse cellular identities and/or proviral DNA is intractable to the induced pathways. We have explored two CRISPR/Cas9-derived activator systems as targeted approaches to induce dormant HIV-1 proviral DNA. These systems recruit multiple transcriptional activation domains to the HIV 5' long terminal repeat (LTR, for which we have identified an optimal target region within the LTR U3 sequence. Using this target region, we demonstrate transcriptional activation of proviral genomes via the synergistic activation mediator complex in various in culture model systems for HIV latency. Observed levels of induction are comparable or indeed higher than treatment with established LRAs. Importantly, activation is complete, leading to production of infective viral particles. Our data demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-derived technologies can be applied to counteract HIV latency and may therefore represent promising novel approaches in the quest for HIV elimination.

  14. Phosphatidylserine enhances IKBKAP transcription by activating the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donyo, Maya; Hollander, Dror; Abramovitch, Ziv; Naftelberg, Shiran; Ast, Gil

    2016-04-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a genetic disorder manifested due to abnormal development and progressive degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. FD is caused by a point mutation in the IKBKAP gene encoding the IKAP protein, resulting in decreased protein levels. A promising potential treatment for FD is phosphatidylserine (PS); however, the manner by which PS elevates IKAP levels has yet to be identified. Analysis of ChIP-seq results of the IKBKAP promoter region revealed binding of the transcription factors CREB and ELK1, which are regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. We show that PS treatment enhanced ERK phosphorylation in cells derived from FD patients. ERK activation resulted in elevated IKBKAP transcription and IKAP protein levels, whereas pretreatment with the MAPK inhibitor U0126 blocked elevation of the IKAP protein level. Overexpression of either ELK1 or CREB activated the IKBKAP promoter, whereas downregulation of these transcription factors resulted in a decrease of the IKAP protein. Additionally, we show that PS improves cell migration, known to be enhanced by MAPK/ERK activation and abrogated in FD cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PS activates the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, resulting in activation of transcription factors that bind the promoter region of IKBKAP and thus enhancing its transcription. Therefore, compounds that activate the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway could constitute potential treatments for FD. PMID:26769675

  15. Constitutively expressed ERF-VII transcription factors redundantly activate the core anaerobic response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Liem T; Giuntoli, Beatrice; Kosmacz, Monika; Parlanti, Sandro; Licausi, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Plant adaptation to hypoxic conditions is mediated by the transcriptional activation of genes involved in the metabolic reprogramming of plant cells to cope with reduced oxygen availability. Recent studies indicated that members of the group VII of the Ethylene Responsive Transcription Factor (ERFs) family act as positive regulators of this molecular response. In the current study, the five ERF-VII transcription factors of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared to infer a hierarchy in their role with respect to the anaerobic response. When the activity of each transcription factor was tested on a set of hypoxia-responsive promoters, RAP2.2, RAP2.3 and RAP2.12 appeared to be the most powerful activators. RAP2.12 was further dissected in transactivation assays in Arabidopsis protoplasts to identify responsible regions for transcriptional activation. An ultimate C-terminal motif was identified as sufficient to drive gene transcription. Finally, using realtime RT-PCR in single and double mutants for the corresponding genes, we confirmed that RAP2.2 and RAP2.12 exert major control upon the anaerobic response. PMID:26025519

  16. Suppression of estrogen receptor transcriptional activity by connective tissue growth factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cheng

    Full Text Available Secreted growth factors have been shown to stimulate the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors (ER that are responsible for many biological processes. However, whether these growth factors physically interact with ER remains unclear. Here, we show for the first time that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF physically and functionally associates with ER. CTGF interacted with ER both in vitro and in vivo. CTGF interacted with ER DNA-binding domain. ER interaction region in CTGF was mapped to the thrombospondin type I repeat, a cell attachment motif. Overexpression of CTGF inhibited ER transcriptional activity as well as the expression of estrogen-responsive genes, including pS2 and cathepsin D. Reduction of endogenous CTGF with CTGF small interfering RNA enhanced ER transcriptional activity. The interaction between CTGF and ER is required for the repression of estrogen-responsive transcription by CTGF. Moreover, CTGF reduced ER protein expression, whereas the CTGF mutant that did not repress ER transcriptional activity also did not alter ER protein levels. The results suggested the transcriptional regulation of estrogen signaling through interaction between CTGF and ER, and thus may provide a novel mechanism by which cross-talk between secreted growth factor and ER signaling pathways occurs.

  17. Conserved interaction of the papillomavirus E2 transcriptional activator proteins with human and yeast TFIIB proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, J D; Lawande, R; Howley, P M

    1997-01-01

    Papillomavirus early gene expression is regulated by the virus gene-encoded E2 proteins. The best-characterized E2 protein, encoded by bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1), has been shown to interact with basal transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) and the TATA binding protein basal transcription factor (N. M. Rank and P. F. Lambert, J. Virol. 69:6323-6334, 1995). We demonstrate that the potent E2 transcriptional activator protein encoded by a gene of human PV type 16 also interacts with TFIIB in ...

  18. A Powerful CRISPR/Cas9-Based Method for Targeted Transcriptional Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Shota; Moriguchi, Tetsuo; Ohtsu, Naoki; Kondo, Toru

    2016-05-23

    Targeted transcriptional activation of endogenous genes is important for understanding physiological transcriptional networks, synthesizing genetic circuits, and inducing cellular phenotype changes. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has great potential to achieve this purpose, however, it has not yet been successfully used to efficiently activate endogenous genes and induce changes in cellular phenotype. A powerful method for transcriptional activation by using CRISPR/Cas9 was developed. Replacement of a methylated promoter with an unmethylated one by CRISPR/Cas9 was sufficient to activate the expression of the neural cell gene OLIG2 and the embryonic stem cell gene NANOG in HEK293T cells. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-based OLIG2 activation induced the embryonic carcinoma cell line NTERA-2 to express the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin. PMID:27079176

  19. EBF contains a novel zinc coordination motif and multiple dimerization and transcriptional activation domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, J; Gutch, M J; H. Lin; Grosschedl, R.

    1995-01-01

    Early B cell factor (EBF) was identified and cloned as a transcription factor expressed specifically in B lymphocytes and adipocytes. This protein was also identified as olfactory factor 1 (Olf-1) in olfactory neurons. In this study, we analyzed the structural requirements for DNA binding, homodimerization and transcriptional activation by EBF. A carboxyl-terminal region, containing a repeat of alpha-helices related to the helix-loop-helix motif, is important for dimerization of EBF in soluti...

  20. Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein mutants defective in positive control of lac operon transcription.

    OpenAIRE

    Eschenlauer, A C; Reznikoff, W S

    1991-01-01

    We isolated three Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein mutants that are defective in the positive control of transcription initiation from the lac operon promoter region yet retain negative control of transcription from other promoters. One mutant has a substitution of valine for glutamate at residue 72, which lies in the cyclic AMP binding domain and contacts cyclic AMP. The other two mutants have substitutions of asparagine and cysteine for glycine 162, which lies in a surface...

  1. Activating transcription factor 3 is not up-regulated in hypospadias patients in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki Takahashi; Akihiro Shimotakahara; Katsumi Miyahara; Geoffrey J Lane; Atsuyuki Yamataka

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aetiology of hypospadias is largely uncharacterized. Some of the researchers have advocated that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), an oestrogen-responsive transcription factor, is up-regulated in patients with hypospadias. The purpose is to evaluate the universality of this fact; we studied the expression of ATF3 protein in prepuce tissue obtained from hypospadias and phimosis patients living in metropolitan Tokyo. Materials and Methods: Prepuce tissue was obtained fro...

  2. Oxidant stress leads to transcriptional activation of the human heme oxygenase gene in cultured skin fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyse, S M; Applegate, L. A.; Tromvoukis, Y; Tyrrell, R M

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with near-UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induces accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA and protein. In this study, these treatments led to a dramatic increase in the rate of RNA transcription from the heme oxygenase gene but had no effect on mRNA stability. Transcriptional activation, therefore, appears to be the major mechanism of stimulation of expression of this gene by either oxidative stress or sulfydryl reagents.

  3. Oxidant stress leads to transcriptional activation of the human heme oxygenase gene in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with near-UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induces accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA and protein. In this study, these treatments led to a dramatic increase in the rate of RNA transcription from the heme oxygenase gene but had no effect on mRNA stability. Transcriptional activation, therefore, appears to be the major mechanism of stimulation of expression of this gene by either oxidative stress or sulfydryl reagents

  4. Using targeted transgenic reporter mice to study promoter-specific p53 transcriptional activity

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Amanda M.; Lim, Chin Yan; Chiam, Poh Cheang; LI, LING; Mann, Michael B.; Mann, Karen M.; Menendez, Sergio; Lane, David P

    2012-01-01

    The p53 transcription factor modulates gene expression programs that induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, thereby preventing tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms by which these fates are selected are unclear. Our objective is to understand p53 target gene selection and, thus, enable its optimal manipulation for cancer therapy. We have generated targeted transgenic reporter mice in which EGFP expression is driven by p53 transcriptional activity at a response element from eithe...

  5. The central domain of Rhizobium leguminosarum DctD functions independently to activate transcription.

    OpenAIRE

    Huala, E; Stigter, J; Ausubel, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Sigma 54-dependent transcriptional activators such as Escherichia coli NtrC, Rhizobium meliloti NifA, and Rhizobium leguminosarum DctD share similar central and carboxy-terminal domains but differ in the structure and function of their amino-terminal domains. We have deleted the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains of R. leguminosarum DctD and have demonstrated that the central domain of DctD, like that of NifA, is transcriptionally competent.

  6. The myogenic regulatory gene Mef2 is a direct target for transcriptional activation by Twist during Drosophila myogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cripps, Richard M.; Black, Brian L.; Zhao, Bin; Lien, Ching-Ling; Schulz, Robert A.; Olson, Eric N.

    1998-01-01

    MEF2 is a MADS-box transcription factor required for muscle development in Drosophila. Here, we show that the bHLH transcription factor Twist directly regulates Mef2 expression in adult somatic muscle precursor cells via a 175-bp enhancer located 2245 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Within this element, a single evolutionarily conserved E box is essential for enhancer activity. Twist protein can bind to this E box to activate Mef2 transcription, and ectopic expression of twist ...

  7. DREAM controls the on/off switch of specific activity-dependent transcription pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellström, Britt; Sahún, Ignasi; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Murtra, Patricia; Gomez-Villafuertes, Rosa; Savignac, Magali; Oliveros, Juan C; Gonzalez, Paz; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Knafo, Shira; Zhuo, Min; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Errington, Michael L; Maldonado, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier; Jefferys, John G R; Bliss, Tim V P; Dierssen, Mara; Naranjo, Jose R

    2014-03-01

    Changes in nuclear Ca(2+) homeostasis activate specific gene expression programs and are central to the acquisition and storage of information in the brain. DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator), also known as calsenilin/KChIP-3 (K(+) channel interacting protein 3), is a Ca(2+)-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. To study the function of DREAM in the brain, we used transgenic mice expressing a Ca(2+)-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM). Using genome-wide analysis, we show that DREAM regulates the expression of specific activity-dependent transcription factors in the hippocampus, including Npas4, Nr4a1, Mef2c, JunB, and c-Fos. Furthermore, DREAM regulates its own expression, establishing an autoinhibitory feedback loop to terminate activity-dependent transcription. Ablation of DREAM does not modify activity-dependent transcription because of gene compensation by the other KChIP family members. The expression of daDREAM in the forebrain resulted in a complex phenotype characterized by loss of recurrent inhibition and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus and impaired learning and memory. Our results indicate that DREAM is a major master switch transcription factor that regulates the on/off status of specific activity-dependent gene expression programs that control synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. PMID:24366545

  8. Cooperation between core promoter elements influences transcriptional activity in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Colgan, J.; Manley, J L

    1995-01-01

    Core promoters for RNA polymerase II frequently contain either (or both) of two consensus sequence elements, a TATA box and/or an initiator (Inr). Using test promoters consisting of prototypical TATA and/or Inr elements, together with binding sites for sequence-specific activators, we have analyzed the function of TATA and Inr elements in vivo. In the absence of activators, the TATA element was significantly more active than the Inr, and the combination of elements was only slightly more effe...

  9. Regulation of physicochemical properties, osteogenesis activity, and fibroblast growth factor-2 release ability of β-tricalcium phosphate for bone cement by calcium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ching-Chuan [Antai Medical Care Cooperation Antai Tian-Sheng Memorial Hospital, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Chia-Tze; Hung, Chi-Jr [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Jyun [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Dental Department, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tsui-Hsien, E-mail: thh@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength, and weight loss of composites were considered before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) released from β-TCP/CS composites and in vitro human dental pulp cell (hDPC) and studied its behavior. The results showed that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites was enhanced as the CS content was increased. For composites with more than 50% CS contents, the samples were completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 19%, 24%, 33%, 42%, and 51% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 70%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by FGF-2 released from β-TCP/CS composites. The combination of FGF-2 in degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of CS gives a strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • The higher the CS in the cement, the shorter the setting time and the higher the DTS. • The cell behavior was stimulated by FGF-2 released from composite containing 50% CS. • β-TCP/CS composite with FGF-2 has optimal properties for

  10. Regulation of physicochemical properties, osteogenesis activity, and fibroblast growth factor-2 release ability of β-tricalcium phosphate for bone cement by calcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength, and weight loss of composites were considered before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) released from β-TCP/CS composites and in vitro human dental pulp cell (hDPC) and studied its behavior. The results showed that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites was enhanced as the CS content was increased. For composites with more than 50% CS contents, the samples were completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 19%, 24%, 33%, 42%, and 51% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 70%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by FGF-2 released from β-TCP/CS composites. The combination of FGF-2 in degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of CS gives a strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • The higher the CS in the cement, the shorter the setting time and the higher the DTS. • The cell behavior was stimulated by FGF-2 released from composite containing 50% CS. • β-TCP/CS composite with FGF-2 has optimal properties for

  11. Redefining the transcriptional regulatory dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages by deepCAGE transcriptomics

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, S.

    2015-06-27

    Classically or alternatively activated macrophages (M1 and M2, respectively) play distinct and important roles for microbiocidal activity, regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. Despite this, their transcriptional regulatory dynamics are poorly understood. Using promoter-level expression profiling by non-biased deepCAGE we have studied the transcriptional dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Transcription factor (TF) binding motif activity analysis revealed four motifs, NFKB1_REL_RELA, IRF1,2, IRF7 and TBP that are commonly activated but have distinct activity dynamics in M1 and M2 activation. We observe matching changes in the expression profiles of the corresponding TFs and show that only a restricted set of TFs change expression. There is an overall drastic and transient up-regulation in M1 and a weaker and more sustainable up-regulation in M2. Novel TFs, such as Thap6, Maff, (M1) and Hivep1, Nfil3, Prdm1, (M2) among others, were suggested to be involved in the activation processes. Additionally, 52 (M1) and 67 (M2) novel differentially expressed genes and, for the first time, several differentially expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcriptome markers were identified. In conclusion, the finding of novel motifs, TFs and protein-coding and lncRNA genes is an important step forward to fully understand the transcriptional machinery of macrophage activation.

  12. Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Jaskowiak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley) by maleic hydrazide (MH) cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment. PMID:27257817

  13. An activator of transcription regulates phage TP901-1 late gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Lone; Pedersen, Margit; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    A promoter active in the late phase of the lytic cycle of lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 has been identified. The promoter is tightly regulated and requires the product of the phage TP901-1 orf29 for activity. A deletion analysis of the late promoter region showed that a fragment as small as 99...... activate transcription of the promoter. Several lactococcal bacteriophages encode ORF29 homologous proteins, indicating that late transcription may be controlled by a similar mechanism in these phages. With the identification of this novel regulator, our results suggest that within the P335 group of...

  14. PU.1 can participate in an active enhancer complex without its transcriptional activation domain

    OpenAIRE

    Pongubala, Jagan M. R.; Atchison, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The transcription factor PU.1 is necessary for the development of multiple hematopoietic lineages and contributes to the activity of the immunoglobulin κ 3′ enhancer. A variety of proteins bind to the 3′ enhancer (PU.1, PIP, ATF1, CREM, c-Fos, c-Jun, and E2A), but the mechanism of 3′-enhancer activity and the proteins necessary for its activity are presently unclear. We show here that PU.1 participates with other transcription factors in forming a higher-order complex with 3′-enhancer DNA seq...

  15. A New Microsphere-Based Immunoassay for Measuring the Activity of Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chueh-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are several traditional and well-developed methods for analyzing the activity of transcription factors, such as EMSA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reporter gene activity assays. All of these methods have their own distinct disadvantages, but none can analyze the changes in transcription factors in the few cells that are cultured in the wells of 96-well titer plates. Thus, a new microsphere-based immunoassay to measure the activity of transcription factors (MIA-TF was developed. In MIA-TF, NeutrAvidin-labeled microspheres were used as the solid phase to capture biotin-labeled double-strand DNA fragments which contain certain transcription factor binding elements. The activity of transcription factors was detected by immunoassay using a transcription factor-specific antibody to monitor the binding with the DNA probe. Next, analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The targets hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB were applied and detected in this MIA-TF method; the results that we obtained demonstrated that this method could be used to monitor the changes of NF-κB or HIF within 50 or 100 ng of nuclear extract. Furthermore, MIA-TF could detect the changes in NF-κB or HIF in cells that were cultured in wells of a 96-well plate without purification of the nuclear protein, an important consideration for applying this method to high-throughput assays in the future. The development of MIA-TF would support further progress in clinical analysis and drug screening systems. Overall, MIA-TF is a method with high potential to detect the activity of transcription factors.

  16. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB activates transcription via two distinct genetic elements of the human glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of glucose-6-phosphatase to glucose, the final step in the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. Expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene is induced by glucocorticoids and elevated levels of intracellular cAMP. The effect of cAMP in regulating glucose-6-phosphatase gene transcription was corroborated by the identification of two genetic motifs CRE1 and CRE2 in the human and murine glucose-6-phosphatase gene promoter that resemble cAMP response elements (CRE. Results The cAMP response element is a point of convergence for many extracellular and intracellular signals, including cAMP, calcium, and neurotrophins. The major CRE binding protein CREB, a member of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP family of transcription factors, requires phosphorylation to become a biologically active transcriptional activator. Since unphosphorylated CREB is transcriptionally silent simple overexpression studies cannot be performed to test the biological role of CRE-like sequences of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. The use of a constitutively active CREB2/CREB fusion protein allowed us to uncouple the investigation of target genes of CREB from the variety of signaling pathways that lead to an activation of CREB. Here, we show that this constitutively active CREB2/CREB fusion protein strikingly enhanced reporter gene transcription mediated by either CRE1 or CRE2 derived from the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. Likewise, reporter gene transcription was enhanced following expression of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA in the nucleus of transfected cells. In contrast, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2, known to compete with CREB for binding to the canonical CRE sequence 5'-TGACGTCA-3', did not transactivate reporter genes containing CRE1, CRE2, or both CREs derived from the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. Conclusions Using a constitutively active CREB2

  17. Weak estrogenic transcriptional activities of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S

    OpenAIRE

    GRIGNARD ELISE; Bremer, Susanne; LAPENNA SILVIA

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the European Commission has restricted the use of Bisphenol A in plastic infant feeding bottles. In a response to this restriction, Bisphenol S is now often used as a component of plastic substitutes for the production of babybottles. One of the major concerns leading to the restriction of Bisphenol A was its weak estrogenic activity. By using two highly standardised transactivation assays, we could demonstrate that the estrogenic activity of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S i...

  18. Protease footprinting reveals a surface on transcription factor TFIIB that serves as an interface for activators and coactivators.

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, R; Pyo, S.; Carey, M

    1995-01-01

    Transcriptional stimulation by the model activator GAL4-VP16 (a chimeric protein consisting of the DNA-binding domain of the yeast activator GAL4 and the acidic activation domain of the herpes simplex virus protein VP16) involves a series of poorly understood protein-protein interactions between the VP16 activation domain and components of the RNA polymerase II general transcription machinery. One of these interactions is the VP16-mediated binding and recruitment of transcription factor TFIIB...

  19. Functional analysis of differences in transcriptional activity conferred by genetic variants in the 5' flanking region of the IL12RB2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Kogoe, Nahoko; Ohyama, Hideki; Okano, Soichiro; Yamanegi, Koji; Yamada, Naoko; Hata, Masaki; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Terada, Nobuyuki; Nakasho, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 12 receptor β chain (IL12RB2) is a crucial regulatory factor involved in cell-mediated immune responses, and genetic variants of the gene encoding IL12RB2 are associated with susceptibility to various immune-related diseases. We previously demonstrated that haplotypes with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' flanking region of IL12RB2, including -1035A>G (rs3762315) and -1023A>G (rs3762316), affect the expression of IL12RB2, thereby altering susceptibility to leprosy and periodontal diseases. In the present study, we identified transcription factors associated with the haplotype-specific transcriptional activity of IL12RB2 in T cells and NK cells. The -1023G polymorphism was found to create a consensus binding site for the transcription factor activating protein (AP)-1, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based binding assays showed that these SNPs enhanced AP-1 binding to this region. In reporter assays, suppression of JunB expression using siRNA eliminated differences in the -1035G/-1023G and -1035A/-1023A regions containing IL12RB2 promoter activity in Jurkat T cells and NK3.3 cells. These results suggested that the -1035/-1023 polymorphisms created differential binding affinities for JunB that could lead to differential IL12RB2 expression. Moreover, the -1035G and -1035A alleles formed binding sites for GATA-3 and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF-2), respectively. Our data indicated that in addition to JunB, the SNP at -1035/-1023 influenced GATA-3 and MEF-2 binding affinity, potentially altering IL12RB2 transcriptional activity. These findings confirm the effects of rs3762315 and rs3762316 on IL12RB2 transcription. These genetic variants may alter cellular activation of T cells and NK cells and modify cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:26552659

  20. Transcriptional regulation of the presenilin-1 gene controls gamma-secretase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sebum; Das, Hriday K

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of basal JNK activity by JNK inhibitor SP600125 or JNK1siRNA repressed presenilin-1 (PS1) expression in SK-N-SH cells by augmenting the level of p53, a repressor of the PS1 gene (1). We now showed that repression of PS1 transcription by JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited gamma-secretase mediated processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in the accumulation of C99 fragment and the reduction of secreted Abeta40 level without altering the expression of nicastrin (NCT). Co-treatment of cells with SP600125 and p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-alpha, partially nullified the suppressive effects of SP610025 on PS1 expression and secreted Abeta40 level. Suppression of JNK1 by JNK1siRNA also decreased Abeta40 level. Furthermore, overexpression of the repressors p53, ZNF237 and CHD3 of the PS1 gene also suppressed the processing of APP through repression of PS1 transcription by deacetylation of histone at the PS1 promoter. Transcriptional activator Ets2 increased PS1 protein and secreted Abeta40 levels without affecting the expression of NCT by activating PS1 transcription via hyper-acetylation of histone at the PS1 promoter. Therefore, regulation of PS1 transcription modulates gamma-secretase activity. PMID:20036849

  1. Elk3 from hamster--a ternary complex factor with strong transcriptional repressor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortoe, Gertrud Malene; Weilguny, Dietmar; Willumsen, Berthe Marie

    2005-01-01

    Elk3 belongs to the Ets family of transcription factors, which are regulated by the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway. In the absence of Ras, this protein is a strong inhibitor of transcription and may be directly involved in regulation of growth by downregulating the transcription of genes that are activated during entry into G1. We have isolated the Cricetulus griseus Elk3 gene from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and investigated the transcriptional potential of this factor. Transient transfections revealed that, in addition to its regulation of the c-fos promoter, Elk3 from CHO cells seems to inhibit other promoters controlling expression of proteins involved in G1/S phase progression; Cyclin D1 and DHFR. As has been described for the Elk3 homologs Net (Mouse) and Sap-2 (Human), the results of the present study further indicate that hamster Elk3 is a target of the Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway, and cotransfections with constitutively active H-ras relieves its negative transcriptional activity. No cells stably expressing exogenous Elk3 could be obtained, possibly due to an unspecified toxic or growth retarding effect. These findings support a possible role for Elk3 in growth regulation and reveal a high degree of homology for this protein across species. PMID:15684718

  2. Mutations that alter the ability of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein to activate transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A; Gaston, K; Williams, R; Chapman, K; Kolb, A; Buc, H; Minchin, S; Williams, J; Busby, S

    1990-12-25

    The effects of a number of mutations in the E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) have been determined by monitoring the in vivo expression and in vitro open complex formation at two semi-synthetic promoters that are totally CRP-dependent. At one promoter the CRP-binding site is centered around 41.5 base pairs upstream from the transcription start whilst at the other promoter it is 61.5 base pairs upstream. The CRP mutation E171K reduces expression from both promoters whilst H159L renders CRP totally inactive: neither mutation stops CRP binding at either promoter. The mutations K52N and K52Q reverse the effect of H159L and 'reeducate' CRP to activate transcription. CRP carrying both H159L and K52N activates transcription from the promoter with the CRP site at -41.5 better than wild type CRP. In sharp contrast, this doubly changed CRP is totally inactive with respect to the activation of transcription from the promoter carrying the CRP site at -61.5. Our results suggest that CRP can use different contacts and/or conformations during transcription activation at promoters with different architectures. PMID:2259621

  3. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, R

    2011-06-28

    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  4. Inhibition of Phosphatase Activity Follows Decline in Sulfatase Activity and Leads to Transcriptional Effects through Sustained Phosphorylation of Transcription Factor MITF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Tobacman, Joanne K

    2016-01-01

    Arylsulfatase B (B-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase; ARSB) is the enzyme that removes 4-sulfate groups from the non-reducing end of the glycosaminoglycans chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Decline in ARSB has been shown in malignant prostate, colonic, and mammary cells and tissues, and decline in ARSB leads to transcriptional events mediated by galectin-3 with AP-1 and Sp1. Increased mRNA expression of GPNMB (transmembrane glycoprotein NMB) in HepG2 cells and in hepatic tissue from ARSB-deficient mice followed decline in expression of ARSB and was mediated by the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), but was unaffected by silencing galectin-3. Since GPNMB is increased in multiple malignancies, studies were performed to determine how decline in ARSB increased GPNMB expression. The mechanism by which decline in ARSB increased nuclear phospho-MITF was due to reduced activity of SHP2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase with Src homology (SH2) domains that regulates multiple cellular processes. SHP2 activity declined due to increased binding with chondroitin 4-sulfate when ARSB was reduced. When SHP2 activity was inhibited, phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-associated phosphokinase (MAPK) and of MITF increased, leading to GPNMB promoter activation. A dominant negative SHP2 construct, the SHP2 inhibitor PHSP1, and silencing of ARSB increased phospho-p38, nuclear MITF, and GPNMB. In contrast, constitutively active SHP2 and overexpression of ARSB inhibited GPNMB expression. The interaction between chondroitin 4-sulfate and SHP2 is a novel intersection between sulfation and phosphorylation, by which decline in ARSB and increased chondroitin 4-sulfation can inhibit SHP2, thereby regulating downstream tyrosine phosphorylations by sustained phosphorylations with associated activation of signaling and transcriptional events. PMID:27078017

  5. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Zhang; Hongju Tang; Ruyuan Deng; Ning Wang; Yuqing Zhang; Yao Wang; Yun Liu; Fengying Li; Xiao Wang; Libin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α, peroxisome pro...

  6. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C-C; Cole, S W

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1-4 (EGR1-4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators. PMID:27219347

  7. Wnt-induced transcriptional activation is exclusively mediated by TCF/LEF

    OpenAIRE

    Schuijers, Jurian; Mokry, Michal; Hatzis, Pantelis; Cuppen, Edwin; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Active canonical Wnt signaling results in recruitment of β-catenin to DNA by TCF/LEF family members, leading to transcriptional activation of TCF target genes. However, additional transcription factors have been suggested to recruit β-catenin and tether it to DNA. Here, we describe the genome-wide pattern of β-catenin DNA binding in murine intestinal epithelium, Wnt-responsive colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and HEK293 embryonic kidney cells. We identify two classes of β-catenin binding sites. ...

  8. β-Catenin-independent activation of TCF1/LEF1 in human hematopoietic tumor cells through interaction with ATF2 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumolato, Luca; Liu, Guizhong; Haremaki, Tomomi; Mungamuri, Sathish Kumar; Mong, Phyllus; Akiri, Gal; Lopez-Bergami, Pablo; Arita, Adriana; Anouar, Youssef; Mlodzik, Marek; Ronai, Ze'ev A; Brody, Joshua; Weinstein, Daniel C; Aaronson, Stuart A

    2013-01-01

    The role of Wnt signaling in embryonic development and stem cell maintenance is well established and aberrations leading to the constitutive up-regulation of this pathway are frequent in several types of human cancers. Upon ligand-mediated activation, Wnt receptors promote the stabilization of β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus and binds to the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) family of transcription factors to regulate the expression of Wnt target genes. When not bound to β-catenin, the TCF/LEF proteins are believed to act as transcriptional repressors. Using a specific lentiviral reporter, we identified hematopoietic tumor cells displaying constitutive TCF/LEF transcriptional activation in the absence of β-catenin stabilization. Suppression of TCF/LEF activity in these cells mediated by an inducible dominant-negative TCF4 (DN-TCF4) inhibited both cell growth and the expression of Wnt target genes. Further, expression of TCF1 and LEF1, but not TCF4, stimulated TCF/LEF reporter activity in certain human cell lines independently of β-catenin. By a complementary approach in vivo, TCF1 mutants, which lacked the ability to bind to β-catenin, induced Xenopus embryo axis duplication, a hallmark of Wnt activation, and the expression of the Wnt target gene Xnr3. Through generation of different TCF1-TCF4 fusion proteins, we identified three distinct TCF1 domains that participate in the β-catenin-independent activity of this transcription factor. TCF1 and LEF1 physically interacted and functionally synergized with members of the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) family of transcription factors. Moreover, knockdown of ATF2 expression in lymphoma cells phenocopied the inhibitory effects of DN-TCF4 on the expression of target genes associated with the Wnt pathway and on cell growth. Together, our findings indicate that, through interaction with ATF2 factors, TCF1/LEF1 promote the growth of hematopoietic malignancies in the absence of

  9. Transcription of Mammalian cis-Regulatory Elements Is Restrained by Actively Enforced Early Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austenaa, Liv M I; Barozzi, Iros; Simonatto, Marta; Masella, Silvia; Della Chiara, Giulia; Ghisletti, Serena; Curina, Alessia; de Wit, Elzo; Bouwman, Britta A M; de Pretis, Stefano; Piccolo, Viviana; Termanini, Alberto; Prosperini, Elena; Pelizzola, Mattia; de Laat, Wouter; Natoli, Gioacchino

    2015-11-01

    Upon recruitment to active enhancers and promoters, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) generates short non-coding transcripts of unclear function. The mechanisms that control the length and the amount of ncRNAs generated by cis-regulatory elements are largely unknown. Here, we show that the adaptor protein WDR82 and its associated complexes actively limit such non-coding transcription. WDR82 targets the SET1 H3K4 methyltransferases and the nuclear protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complexes to the initiating Pol II. WDR82 and PP1 also interact with components of the transcriptional termination and RNA processing machineries. Depletion of WDR82, SET1, or the PP1 subunit required for its nuclear import caused distinct but overlapping transcription termination defects at highly expressed genes and active enhancers and promoters, thus enabling the increased synthesis of unusually long ncRNAs. These data indicate that transcription initiated from cis-regulatory elements is tightly coordinated with termination mechanisms that impose the synthesis of short RNAs. PMID:26593720

  10. Transcriptional activation of nuclear estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qi-Liang; Qiu, Jing-Tao; Cui, Sheng; Xia, Guo-Liang; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2016-08-25

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are two important members of steroid receptors family, an evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors. Upon binding to their ligands, ER and PR enter cell nucleus to interact with specific DNA element in the context of chromatin to initiate the transcription of diverse target genes, which largely depends on the timely recruitment of a wide range of cofactors. Moreover, the interactions between steroid hormones and their respective receptors also trigger post-translational modifications on these receptors to fine-tune their transcriptional activities. Besides the well-known phosphorylation modifications on tyrosine and serine/threonine residues, recent studies have identified several other covalent modifications, such as ubiquitylation and sumoylation. These post-translational modifications of steroid receptors affect its stability, subcellular localization, and/or cofactor recruitment; eventually influence the duration and extent of transcriptional activation. This review is to focus on the recent research progress on the transcriptional activation of nuclear ER and PR as well as their physiological functions in early pregnancy, which may help us to better understand related female reproductive diseases. PMID:27546504

  11. SUMOylation can regulate the activity of ETS-like transcription factor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Sanna; Makkonen, Harri; Rytinki, Miia; Palvimo, Jorma J

    2010-08-01

    ETS-like transcription factor 4 (ELK4) (a.k.a. serum response factor accessory protein 1) belongs to the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of E twenty-six (ETS) domain transcription factors. Compared to the other TCF subfamily members, ELK1 and ELK3 (NET), there is limited information of the mechanisms regulating the ELK4 activity. Here, we show that the ELK4 can be covalently modified (SUMOylated) by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) 1 protein, an important regulator of signaling and transcription. SUMOylation of ELK4 was reversed by SUMO-specific proteases (SENP) 1 and 2 and stimulated by SUMO E3 ligase PIAS3. Conserved lysine residue 167 that is located in the NET inhibitory domain of ELK4 was identified as the main site of SUMO-1 conjugation. Interestingly, mutation of the K167 disrupting the SUMOylation markedly enhanced the transcriptional activity of the ELK4, but weakened its repressive function on c-fos promoter. In conclusion, our results suggest that covalent modification by SUMO-1 can regulate the activity of ELK4, contributing to the transcriptional repression by the ELK4. PMID:20637912

  12. Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Prashanth; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John Edward; Van Dijck, Patrick; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Plants respond to low carbon supply by massive reprogramming of the transcriptome and metabolome. We show here that the carbon starvation-induced NAC (for NO APICAL MERISTEM/ARABIDOPSIS TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATION FACTOR/CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON) transcription factor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Transcription Activation Factor1 (ATAF1) plays an important role in this physiological process. We identified TREHALASE1, the only trehalase-encoding gene in Arabidopsis, as a direct downstream target of ATAF1. Overexpression of ATAF1 activates TREHALASE1 expression and leads to reduced trehalose-6-phosphate levels and a sugar starvation metabolome. In accordance with changes in expression of starch biosynthesis- and breakdown-related genes, starch levels are generally reduced in ATAF1 overexpressors but elevated in ataf1 knockout plants. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by ATAF1 are broadly associated with energy and carbon starvation responses. Furthermore, transcriptional responses triggered by ATAF1 largely overlap with expression patterns observed in plants starved for carbon or energy supply. Collectively, our data highlight the existence of a positively acting feedforward loop between ATAF1 expression, which is induced by carbon starvation, and the depletion of cellular carbon/energy pools that is triggered by the transcriptional regulation of downstream gene regulatory networks by ATAF1. PMID:26149570

  13. Effect of protein kinase C inhibitor (PKCI) on radiation sensitivity and c-fos transcription activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a multisystem disease characterized by extreme radiosensitivity. The recent identification of the gene mutated in AT, ATM, and the demonstration that it encodes a homologous domain of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), the catalytic subunit of an enzyme involved in transmitting signals from the cell surface to the nucleus, provide support for a role of this gene in signal transduction. Although ionizing radiation was known to induce c-fos transcription, nothing is known about how ATM or PKCI mediated signal transduction pathway modulates the c-fos gene transcription and gene expression. Here we have studied the effect of PKCI on radiation sensitivity and c-fos transcription in normal and AT cells. Normal (LM217) and AT (AT58IVA) cells were transfected with PKCI expression plasmid and the overexpression and integration of PKCI was evaluated by northern blotting and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. 5 Gy of radiation was exposed to LM and AT cells transfected with PKCI expression plasmid and cells were harvested 48 hours after radiation and investigated apoptosis with TUNEL method. The c-fos transcription activity was studied by performing CAT assay of reporter gene after transfection of c-fos CAT plasmid into AT and LM cells. Our results demonstrate for the first time a role of PKCI on. the radiation sensitivity and c-fos expression in LM and AT cells. PKCI increased radiation induced apoptosis in LM cells but reduced apoptosis in AT cells. The basal c-fos transcription activity is 70 times lower in AT cells than that in LM cells. The c-fos transcription activity was repressed by overexpression of PKCI in LM cells but not in AT cells. After induction of c-fos by Ras protein, overexpression of PKCI repressed c-fos transcription in LM cells but not in AT cells. Overexpression of PKCI increased radiation sensitivity and repressed c-fos transcription in LM cells but not in AT cells. The results may be a

  14. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosner, Judah L [NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH; Martin, Robert G [NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH

    2009-01-01

    The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  15. Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transcriptional activator Athb-1 alters leaf cell fate in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, T; Dong, C H; Wu, Y; Carabelli, M; Sessa, G; Ruberti, I; Morelli, G; Chua, N H

    1995-11-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana Athb-1 is a homeobox gene of unknown function. By analogy with homeobox genes of other organisms, its gene product, Athb-1, is most likely a transcription factor involved in developmental processes. We constructed a series of Athb-1-derived genes to examine the roles of Athb-1 in transcriptional regulation and plant development. Athb-1 was found to transactivate a promoter linked to a specific DNA binding site by transient expression assays. In transgenic tobacco plants, overexpression of Athb-1 or its chimeric derivatives with heterologous transactivating domains of the yeast transcription factor GAL4 or herpes simplex virus transcription factor VP16 conferred deetiolated phenotypes in the dark, including cotyledon expansion, true leaf development, and an inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Expression of Athb-1 or the two chimeric derivatives also affected the development of palisade parenchyma under normal growth conditions, resulting in light green sectors in leaves and cotyledons, whereas other organs in the transgenic plants remained normal. Both developmental phenotypes were induced by glucocorticoid in transgenic plants expressing a chimeric transcription factor comprising the Athb-1 DNA binding domain, the VP16 transactivating domain, and the glucocorticoid receptor domain. Plants with severe inducible phenotypes showed additional abnormality in cotyledon expansion. Our results suggest that Athb-1 is a transcription activator involved in leaf development. PMID:8535134

  16. Lysine methylation of HIV-1 Tat regulates transcriptional activity of the viral LTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Elizabeth K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of transcription of the HIV-1 viral genome is mediated by the interaction of the viral protein Tat with the LTR and other transcriptional machinery. These specific interactions can be affected by the state of post-translational modifications on Tat. Previously, we have shown that Tat can be phosphorylated and acetylated in vivo resulting in an increase in the rate of transcription. In the present study, we investigated whether Tat could be methylated on lysine residues, specifically on lysine 50 and 51, and whether this modification resulted in a decrease of viral transcription from the LTR. Results We analyzed the association of Tat with histone methyltransferases of the SUV39-family of SET domain containing proteins in vitro. Tat was found to associate with both SETDB1 and SETDB2, two enzymes which exhibit methyltransferase activity. siRNA against SETDB1 transfected into cell systems with both transient and integrated LTR reporter genes resulted in an increase in transcription of the HIV-LTR in the presence of suboptimal levels of Tat. In vitro methylation assays with Tat peptides containing point mutations at lysines 50 and 51 showed an increased incorporation of methyl groups on lysine 51, however, both residues indicated susceptibility for methylation. Conclusion The association of Tat with histone methyltransferases and the ability for Tat to be methylated suggests an interesting mechanism of transcriptional regulation through the recruitment of chromatin remodeling proteins to the HIV-1 promoter.

  17. Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 Reprograms Angiogenic Activities of Secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lauren W; Cox, Nicole I; Phelps, Cody A; Lai, Shao-Chiang; Poddar, Arjun; Talbot, Conover; Mu, David

    2016-01-01

    Through both gain- and loss-of-TTF-1 expression strategies, we show that TTF-1 positively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and that the VEGF promoter element contains multiple TTF-1-responsive sequences. The major signaling receptor for VEGF, i.e VEGFR2, also appears to be under a direct and positive regulation of TTF-1. The TTF-1-dependent upregulation of VEGF was moderately sensitive to rapamycin, implicating a partial involvement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). However, hypoxia did not further increase the secreted VEGF level of the TTF-1(+) lung cancer cells. The TTF-1-induced VEGF upregulation occurs in both compartments (exosomes and exosome-depleted media (EDM)) of the conditioned media. Surprisingly, the EDM of TTF-1(+) lung cancer cells (designated EDM-TTF-1(+)) displayed an anti-angiogenic activity in the endothelial cell tube formation assay. Mechanistic studies suggest that the increased granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) level in the EDM-TTF-1(+) conferred the antiangiogenic activities. In human lung cancer, the expression of TTF-1 and GM-CSF exhibits a statistically significant and positive correlation. In summary, this study provides evidence that TTF-1 may reprogram lung cancer secreted proteome into an antiangiogenic state, offering a novel basis to account for the long-standing observation of favorable prognosis associated with TTF-1(+) lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:26912193

  18. PEA3activates CXCL12transcription in MCF-7breast cancer cells%PEA3 activates CXCL12 transcription in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHEN Bo-bin; LI Jun-jie; JIN Wei; SHAO Zhi-min

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the activity of PEA3 ( polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 ) on CXCL12 (Chemokine CXC motif ligand 12) transcription and to reveal the role of PEA3 involved in CXCL12-mediated metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Methods Methods such as cell transfection, ChIP assay (chromatin immunoprecipitation ), and siRNA (small interfering RNA) were applied to demonstrate and confirm the interaction between PEA3 and CXCL12. Results Over-expression of PEA3 could increase the CXCL12 mRNA level and the CXCL12 promoter activity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ChIP assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCL12 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector. PEA3 siRNA decreased CXCL12 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCL12 promoter in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions PEA3 could activate CXCL12 promoter transcription. It may be a potential mechanism of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis regarding of PEA3 and CXCL12.

  19. Nerve growth factor enhances the CRE-dependent transcriptional activity activated by nobiletin in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takito, Jiro; Kimura, Junko; Kajima, Koji; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Masanori; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    Prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease are urgent problems for elderly people in developed countries. We previously reported that nobiletin, a poly-methoxylated flavone from the citrus peel, improved the symptoms in various types of animal models of memory loss and activated the cAMP responsive element (CRE)-dependent transcription in PC12 cells. Nobiletin activated the cAMP/PKA/MEK/Erk/MAPK signaling pathway without using the TrkA signaling activated by nerve growth factor (NGF). Here, we examined the effect of combination of nobiletin and NGF on the CRE-dependent transcription in PC12 cells. Although NGF alone had little effect on the CRE-dependent transcription, NGF markedly enhanced the CRE-dependent transcription induced by nobiletin. The NGF-induced enhancement was neutralized by a TrkA antagonist, K252a. This effect of NGF was effective on the early signaling event elicited by nobiletin. These results suggested that there was crosstalk between NGF and nobiletin signaling in activating the CRE-dependent transcription in PC12 cells. PMID:27128150

  20. Tip60-mediated acetylation activates transcription independent apoptotic activity of Abl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandita Tej K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proto-oncogene, c-Abl encodes a ubiquitously expressed tyrosine kinase that critically governs the cell death response induced by genotoxic agents such as ionizing radiation and cisplatin. The catalytic function of Abl, which is essential for executing DNA damage response (DDR, is normally tightly regulated but upregulated several folds upon IR exposure due to ATM-mediated phosphorylation on S465. However, the mechanism/s leading to activation of Abl's apoptotic activity is currently unknown. Results We investigated the role of acetyl modification in regulating apoptotic activity of Abl and the results showed that DNA strand break-inducing agents, ionizing radiation and bleomycin induced Abl acetylation. Using mass spectrophotometry and site-specific acetyl antibody, we identified Abl K921, located in the DNA binding domain, and conforming to one of the lysine residue in the consensus acetylation motif (KXXK--X3-5--SGS is acetylated following DNA damage. We further observed that the S465 phosphorylated Abl is acetyl modified during DNA damage. Signifying the modification, cells expressing the non acetylatable K921R mutant displayed attenuated apoptosis compared to wild-type in response to IR or bleomycin treatment. WT-Abl induced apoptosis irrespective of new protein synthesis. Furthermore, upon γ-irradiation K921R-Abl displayed reduced chromatin binding compared to wild type. Finally, loss of Abl K921 acetylation in Tip60-knocked down cells and co-precipitation of Abl with Tip60 in DNA damaged cells identified Tip60 as an Abl acetylase. Conclusion Collective data showed that DNA damage-induced K921 Abl acetylation, mediated by Tip60, stimulates transcriptional-independent apoptotic activity and chromatin-associative property thereby defining a new regulatory mechanism governing Abl's DDR function.

  1. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) β has intrinsic, GRα-independent transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene produces C-terminal GRβ and GRα isoforms through alternative use of specific exons 9β and α, respectively. We explored the transcriptional activity of GRβ on endogenous genes by developing HeLa cells stably expressing EGFP-GRβ or EGFP. Microarray analyses revealed that GRβ had intrinsic gene-specific transcriptional activity, regulating mRNA expression of a large number of genes negatively or positively. Majority of GRβ-responsive genes was distinct from those modulated by GRα, while GRβ and GRα mutually modulated each other's transcriptional activity in a subpopulation of genes. We did not observe in HCT116 cells nuclear translocation of GRβ and activation of this receptor by RU 486, a synthetic steroid previously reported to bind GRβ and to induce nuclear translocation. Our results indicate that GRβ has intrinsic, GRα-independent, gene-specific transcriptional activity, in addition to its previously reported dominant negative effect on GRα-induced transactivation of GRE-driven promoters.

  2. Inflammatory transcription factors as activation markers and functional readouts in immune-to-brain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Immune-to-brain communication pathways involve humoral mediators, including cytokines, central modulation by neuronal afferents and immune cell trafficking to the brain. During systemic inflammation these pathways contribute to mediating brain-controlled sickness symptoms including fever. Experimentally, activation of these signaling pathways can be mimicked and studied when injecting animals with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPS). One central component of the brain inflammatory response, which leads, for example, to fever induction, is transcriptional activation of brain cells via cytokines and PAMPS. We and others have studied the spatiotemporal activation and the physiological significance of transcription factors for the induction of inflammation within the brain and the manifestation of fever. Evidence has revealed a role of nuclear factor (NF)κB in the initiation, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 in the maintenance and NF-interleukin (IL)6 in the maintenance or even termination of brain-inflammation and fever. Moreover, psychological stressors, such as exposure to a novel environment, leads to increased body core temperature and genomic NF-IL6-activation, suggesting a potential use of NF-IL6-immunohistochemistry as a multimodal brain cell activation marker and a role for NF-IL6 for differential brain activity. In addition, the nutritional status, as reflected by circulating levels of the cytokine-like hormone leptin, influence immune-to-brain communication and age-dependent changes in LPS-induced fever. Overall, transcription factors remain therapeutically important targets for the treatment of brain-inflammation and fever induction during infectious/non-infectious inflammatory and psychological stress. However, the exact physiological role and significance of these transcription factors requires to be further investigated. PMID:26348582

  3. Transcriptional activity around bacterial cell death reveals molecular biomarkers for cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuren Frank H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteriology, the ability to grow in selective media and to form colonies on nutrient agar plates is routinely used as a retrospective criterion for the detection of living bacteria. However, the utilization of indicators for bacterial viability-such as the presence of specific transcripts or membrane integrity-would overcome bias introduced by cultivation and reduces the time span of analysis from initiation to read out. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between transcriptional activity, membrane integrity and cultivation-based viability in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Results We present microbiological, cytological and molecular analyses of the physiological response to lethal heat stress under accurately defined conditions through systematic sampling of bacteria from a single culture exposed to gradually increasing temperatures. We identified a coherent transcriptional program including known heat shock responses as well as the rapid expression of a small number of sporulation and competence genes, the latter only known to be active in the stationary growth phase. Conclusion The observed coordinated gene expression continued even after cell death, in other words after all bacteria permanently lost their ability to reproduce. Transcription of a very limited number of genes correlated with cell viability under the applied killing regime. The transcripts of the expressed genes in living bacteria – but silent in dead bacteria-include those of essential genes encoding chaperones of the protein folding machinery and can serve as molecular biomarkers for bacterial cell viability.

  4. E2F1-mediated transcriptional inhibition of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziczak, M; Müller, H; Helin, K;

    2001-01-01

    -sensitive retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a shift to a permissive temperature induced PAI-1 mRNA expression. In U2OS cells stably expressing an E2F1-estrogen receptor chimeric protein that could be activated by tamoxifen, PAI-1 gene transcription was markedly reduced by tamoxifen even in the presence of cycloheximide. These...

  5. Physiological and transcriptional responses of nitrifying bacteria exposed to copper in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fan; Zhai, Hongyan; Ji, Min; Zhang, Hongyang; Dong, Zhao

    2016-01-15

    Cu inhibition of gene transcription in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were rarely studied simultaneously in activated sludge. In this study, the transcription of amoA (for AOB) and nxrB (for NOB), nitrification efficiencies, AOB and NOB respiratory rates, and Cu distribution were simultaneously investigated. Modeling the relationships among the aforementioned parameters revealed that in complex activated sludge systems, nitrification efficiency was an insensitive parameter for showing Cu inhibition. Respiration activities and gene transcription were sensitive to Cu and positively correlated with each other. The transcription of amoA and nxrB genes indicated that the Cu had different inhibitory effects on AOB and NOB. AOB were more susceptible to Cu toxicity than NOB. Moreover, the degree of Cu inhibition on ammonia oxidation was greater than on nitrite oxidation. The analysis and related modeling results indicate that the inhibitory actions of Cu on nitrifying bacteria could mainly be attributed to intracellular Cu. The findings from this study provide insight into the mechanism of Cu inhibition on nitrification in complex activated sludge systems. PMID:26348150

  6. Modulation of CP2 family transcriptional activity by CRTR-1 and sumoylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah To

    Full Text Available CRTR-1 is a member of the CP2 family of transcription factors. Unlike other members of the family which are widely expressed, CRTR-1 expression shows specific spatio-temporal regulation. Gene targeting demonstrates that CRTR-1 plays a central role in the maturation and function of the salivary glands and the kidney. CRTR-1 has also recently been identified as a component of the complex transcriptional network that maintains pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES cells. CRTR-1 was previously shown to be a repressor of transcription. We examine the activity of CRTR-1 in ES and other cells and show that CRTR-1 is generally an activator of transcription and that it modulates the activity of other family members, CP2, NF2d9 and altNF2d9, in a cell specific manner. We also demonstrate that CRTR-1 activity is regulated by sumoylation at a single major site, residue K30. These findings imply that functional redundancy with other family members may mask important roles for CRTR-1 in other tissues, including the blastocyst stage embryo and embryonic stem cells.

  7. Cloning and Transcriptional Activity of the Mouse Omi/HtrA2 Gene Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HtrA serine peptidase 2 (HtrA2, also named Omi, is a pro-apoptotic protein that exhibits dramatic changes in expression levels in a variety of disorders, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, cancer, and neurodegeneration. In our study, Omi/HtrA2 protein levels were high in the heart, brain, kidney and liver, with elevated heart/brain expression in aging mice. A similar expression pattern was observed at the mRNA level, which suggests that the regulation of Omi/HtrA2 is predominately transcriptional. Promoter binding by transcription factors is the main influencing factor of transcription, and to identify specific promoter elements that contribute to the differential expression of mouse Omi/HtrA2, we constructed truncated Omi/HtrA2 promoter/luciferase reporter vectors and analyzed their relative luciferase activity; it was greatest in the promoter regions at −1205~−838 bp and −146~+93 bp, with the −838~−649 bp region exhibiting negative regulatory activity. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the Omi/HtrA2 gene promoter contains a CpG island at −709~+37 bp, and eight heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 sites, two Sp1 transcription factor (SP1sites, one activator protein (AP site, seven p53 sites, and four YY1 transcription factor(YY1 sites were predicted in the core areas. Furthermore, we found that p53 and HSF1 specifically binds to the Omi/HtrA2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. These results provide a foundation for understanding Omi/HtrA2 regulatory mechanisms, which could further understanding of HtrA-associated diseases.

  8. Cloning and Transcriptional Activity of the Mouse Omi/HtrA2 Gene Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Xin; Wu, Ye; Wang, Wen; Ma, Xinliang; Liu, Huirong

    2016-01-01

    HtrA serine peptidase 2 (HtrA2), also named Omi, is a pro-apoptotic protein that exhibits dramatic changes in expression levels in a variety of disorders, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, cancer, and neurodegeneration. In our study, Omi/HtrA2 protein levels were high in the heart, brain, kidney and liver, with elevated heart/brain expression in aging mice. A similar expression pattern was observed at the mRNA level, which suggests that the regulation of Omi/HtrA2 is predominately transcriptional. Promoter binding by transcription factors is the main influencing factor of transcription, and to identify specific promoter elements that contribute to the differential expression of mouse Omi/HtrA2, we constructed truncated Omi/HtrA2 promoter/luciferase reporter vectors and analyzed their relative luciferase activity; it was greatest in the promoter regions at -1205~-838 bp and -146~+93 bp, with the -838~-649 bp region exhibiting negative regulatory activity. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the Omi/HtrA2 gene promoter contains a CpG island at -709~+37 bp, and eight heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) sites, two Sp1 transcription factor (SP1)sites, one activator protein (AP) site, seven p53 sites, and four YY1 transcription factor(YY1) sites were predicted in the core areas. Furthermore, we found that p53 and HSF1 specifically binds to the Omi/HtrA2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. These results provide a foundation for understanding Omi/HtrA2 regulatory mechanisms, which could further understanding of HtrA-associated diseases. PMID:26784188

  9. Parathyroid Hormone Increases Activating Transcription Factor 4 Expression and Activity in Osteoblasts: Requirement for Osteocalcin Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Shibing; Franceschi, Renny T; Luo, Min; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Di; Lai, Yumei; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Guozhi

    2008-01-01

    PTH is an important peptide hormone regulator of calcium homeostasis and osteoblast function. However, its mechanism of action in osteoblasts is poorly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that PTH activates mouse osteocalcin (Ocn) gene 2 promoter through the osteoblast-specific element 1 site, a recently identified activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) -binding element. In the present study, we examined effects of PTH on ATF4 expression and activity as well as the requirement for A...

  10. Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. → PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. → Akt modulates PPAR-γ transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-γ is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-γ. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by a Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-γ was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-γ transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-γ transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-γ, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-γ might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.

  11. Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-pil [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Eun Kyoung [MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Medical Research Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung Woon [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae [MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Medical Research Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sun Sik, E-mail: sunsik@pusan.ac.kr [MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Medical Research Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. {yields} PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. {yields} Akt modulates PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-{gamma} is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by a Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-{gamma} was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-{gamma} might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.

  12. One enhancer mediates mafK transcriptional activation in both hematopoietic and cardiac muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuoka, Fumiki; Motohashi, Hozumi; Onodera, Ko; Suwabe, Naruyoshi; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    Members of the small Maf family of transcription factors play important roles in hematopoiesis. Using transgenic assays, we discovered a tissue-specific enhancer 3′ to the mafK gene. This enhancer directs mafK transcription in hematopoietic as well as in developing cardiac muscle cells, and was thus designated the hematopoietic and cardiac enhancer of mafK (HCEK). Only two of four GATA consensus motifs identified within HCEK contributed to enhancer activity, and both of these sites were requi...

  13. Elk3 from hamster-a ternary complex factor with strong transcriptional repressor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, G.M.; Weilguny, D.; Willumsen, Berthe Marie

    2005-01-01

    transcription of genes that are activated during entry into G1. We have isolated the Cricetulus griseus Elk3 gene from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and investigated the transcriptional potential of this factor. Transient transfections revealed that, in addition to its regulation of the c......-fos promoter, Elk3 from CHO cells seems to inhibit other promoters controlling expression of proteins involved in G1/S phase progression; Cyclin D1 and DHFR. As has been described for the Elk3 homologs Net (Mouse) and Sap-2 (Human), the results of the present study further indicate that hamster Elk3 is a...

  14. A transcriptional activator is located in the coding region of the yeast PGK gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Mellor, J; Dobson, M J; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1987-01-01

    Expression of heterologous genes from the PGK promoter on high copy number plasmids in yeast is relatively poor compared to the intact PGK gene because of low steady-state RNA levels. In this paper we show that low levels of heterologous RNA are not due to instability of mRNA but result from inefficient transcription due to a defect in RNA synthesis. A comparison of RNA levels from homologous and heterologous transcription units allowed the identification of a positive activator for transcrip...

  15. Staf, a promiscuous activator for enhanced transcription by RNA polymerases II and III.

    OpenAIRE

    Schaub, M; Myslinski, E; Schuster, C.; Krol, A.; Carbon, P

    1997-01-01

    Staf is a zinc finger protein that we recently identified as the transcriptional activator of the RNA polymerase III-transcribed selenocysteine tRNA gene. In this work we demonstrate that enhanced transcription of the majority of vertebrate snRNA and snRNA-type genes, transcribed by RNA polymerases II and III, also requires Staf. DNA binding assays and microinjection of mutant genes into Xenopus oocytes showed the presence of Staf-responsive elements in the genes for human U4C, U6, Y4 and 7SK...

  16. Exploiting Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR Technology for the Identification of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF2 Antagonists Endowed with Antiangiogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Presta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, is implicated in various physiological/pathological conditions, including embryonic development, inflammation and tumor growth. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2 is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor involved in various physiopathological processes, including tumor neovascularization. Accordingly, FGF2 is considered a target for antiangiogenic therapies. Thus, numerous natural/synthetic compounds have been tested for their capacity to bind and sequester FGF2 in the extracellular environment preventing its interaction with cellular receptors. We have exploited surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique in search for antiangiogenic FGF2 binders/antagonists. In this review we will summarize our experience in SPR-based angiogenesis research, with the aim to validate SPR as a first line screening for the identification of antiangiogenic compounds.

  17. Construction and Activity Assay of the Activating Transcription Factor 3 Reporter Vector pATF/CRE-luc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Qing XU; Jing-Lan DENG; You-Sheng WU; Han-Yan FU; Rui-Hua WANG; Jian ZHANG; Fan LU; Zhong-Liang ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family of transcription factors, is induced by many physiological stresses. To investigate the activity of ATF/CREB in cells with physiological stresses, we developed a practical reporter vector, the plasmid pATF/CRE-luc, bearing activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element (ATF/CRE) binding sites. This plasmid was constructed by inserting three repeats of the ATF/CRE binding element into the plasmid pG51uc, replacing the GAL-4 binding sites. The plasmids pACT/ATF3 and pATF/CRE-luc were transfected into HeLa and NIH3T3 cells, respectively, and the results showed that the expression of luciferase was increased in a dose-dependent manner on plasmid pACT/ATF3. The data suggested that the plasmid pATF/CRE-luc could be used as a sensitive and convenient reporter system of ATF3 activity.

  18. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Couvigny

    Full Text Available The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health.

  19. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M; Guédon, Eric; Lapaque, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health. PMID:25946041

  20. Inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity by human cytomegalovirus UL44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yejin; Kim, Mi-Na; Young Choi, Eun; Heon Kim, Jung; Hwang, Eung-Soo; Cha, Chang-Yong

    2012-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) stimulates cellular synthesis of DNA and proteins and induces transition of the cell cycle from G(1) to S and G(2) /M phase, in spite of increased amounts of p53 in the infected cells. The immediate early protein IE2-86  kDa (IE86) tethers a transcriptional repression domain to p53; however, its repression of p53 function is not enough to abrogate the G(1) checkpoint function of p53. Other HCMV proteins that suppress the activity of p53 were investigated in this study. Of the HCMV proteins that bind to p53 when assessed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis, HCMV UL44 was chosen as a candidate protein. It was found that reporter gene containing p53 consensus sequence was activated by transfection with wild type p53, but when plasmids of p53 with IE86 or UL44 were co-transfected, p53 transcriptional activity was decreased to 3-7% of the p53 control in a dose-dependent manner. When the deletion mutant of UL44 was co-transected with p53, the carboxyl one-third portion of UL44 had little effect on inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity. The amount of mRNA p21 was measured in H1299 by real time PCR after transfection of the combination of p53 and UL44 vectors and it was found that p21 transcription by p53 was inhibited dose-dependently by UL44. Increased G0/G1 and decreased S phases in p53 wild type-transfected H1299 cells were recovered to the level of p53 mutant type-transfected ones by the additional transfection of UL44 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the transcriptional activity of p53 is suppressed by UL44 as well as by IE86. PMID:22376288

  1. Occludin controls HIV transcription in brain pericytes via regulation of SIRT-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Victor; Bertrand, Luc; Luethen, Mareen; Dabrowski, Sebastian; Lombardi, Jorge; Morgan, Laura; Sharova, Natalia; Stevenson, Mario; Blasig, Ingolf E; Toborek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    HIV invades the brain early after infection; however, its interactions with the cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remain poorly understood. Our goal was to evaluate the role of occludin, one of the tight junction proteins that regulate BBB functions in HIV infection of BBB pericytes. We provide evidence that occludin levels largely control the metabolic responses of human pericytes to HIV. Occludin in BBB pericytes decreased by 10% during the first 48 h after HIV infection, correlating with increased nuclear translocation of the gene repressor C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP)-1 and NFκB-p65 activation. These changes were associated with decreased expression and activation of the class III histone deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT)-1. Occludin levels recovered 96 h after infection, restoring SIRT-1 and reducing HIV transcription to 20% of its highest values. We characterized occludin biochemically as a novel NADH oxidase that controls the expression and activation of SIRT-1. The inverse correlation between occludin and HIV transcription was then replicated in human primary macrophages and differentiated monocytic U937 cells, in which occludin silencing resulted in 75 and 250% increased viral transcription, respectively. Our work shows that occludin has previously unsuspected metabolic properties and is a target of HIV infection, opening the possibility of designing novel pharmacological approaches to control HIV transcription. PMID:26601824

  2. The transcription factor DBP affects circadian sleep consolidation and rhythmic EEG activity

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Paulus; Lopez Molina, Luis; Marcacci, Lysiane; Schibler, Ulrich; Tafti, Mehdi

    2000-01-01

    Albumin D-binding protein (DBP) is a PAR leucine zipper transcription factor that is expressed according to a robust circadian rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, harboring the circadian master clock, and in most peripheral tissues. Mice lacking DBP display a shorter circadian period in locomotor activity and are less active. Thus, although DBP is not essential for circadian rhythm generation, it does modulate important clock outputs. We studied the role of DBP in the circadian and homeosta...

  3. Structural and biochemical studies of sigma54 transcriptional activation in Aquifex aeolicus

    OpenAIRE

    Vidangos, Natasha Keith

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses a diversity of questions regarding the structural details of sigma54 transcriptional activation, and the function of sigma54 activation in the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus. In order to place each topic in its appropriate context, a general introduction is provided in the first chapter, and supplemented with additional, more detailed introductions in each subsequent chapter. The second chapter reflects the central project of this thesis, the determination of the s...

  4. High-efficiency and heritable gene targeting in mouse by transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Zhongwei; Liu, Meizhen; Chen, Zhaohua; Shao, Yanjiao; Pan, Hongjie; Wei, Gaigai; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Long; Li, Xia; Ping WANG; Fan, Heng-Yu; Du, Bing; Liu, Bin; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are a powerful new approach for targeted gene disruption in various animal models, but little is known about their activities in Mus musculus, the widely used mammalian model organism. Here, we report that direct injection of in vitro transcribed messenger RNA of TALEN pairs into mouse zygotes induced somatic mutations, which were stably passed to the next generation through germ-line transmission. With one TALEN pair constructed for ea...

  5. A Transcriptional Mechanism Integrating Inputs from Extracellular Signals to Activate Hippocampal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jimena; Urbán, Noelia; Achimastou, Angeliki; Ito, Ayako; Simic, Milesa; Ullom, Kristy; Martynoga, Ben; Lebel, Mélanie; Göritz, Christian; Frisén, Jonas; Nakafuku, Masato; Guillemot, François

    2014-01-01

    Summary The activity of adult stem cells is regulated by signals emanating from the surrounding tissue. Many niche signals have been identified, but it is unclear how they influence the choice of stem cells to remain quiescent or divide. Here we show that when stem cells of the adult hippocampus receive activating signals, they first induce the expression of the transcription factor Ascl1 and only subsequently exit quiescence. Moreover, lowering Ascl1 expression reduces the proliferation rate...

  6. Using targeted transgenic reporter mice to study promoter-specific p53 transcriptional activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Amanda M.; Lim, Chin Yan; Chiam, Poh Cheang; Mann, Michael B.; Mann, Karen M.; Menendez, Sergio; Lane, David P.

    2012-01-01

    The p53 transcription factor modulates gene expression programs that induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, thereby preventing tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms by which these fates are selected are unclear. Our objective is to understand p53 target gene selection and, thus, enable its optimal manipulation for cancer therapy. We have generated targeted transgenic reporter mice in which EGFP expression is driven by p53 transcriptional activity at a response element from either the p21 or Puma promoter, which induces cell cycle arrest/senescence and apoptosis, respectively. We demonstrate that we could monitor p53 activity in vitro and in vivo and detect variations in p53 activity depending on the response element, tissue type, and stimulus, thereby validating our reporter system and illustrating its utility for preclinical drug studies. Our results also show that the sequence of the p53 response element itself is sufficient to strongly influence p53 target gene selection. Finally, we use our reporter system to provide evidence for p53 transcriptional activity during early embryogenesis, showing that p53 is active as early as embryonic day 3.5 and that p53 activity becomes restricted to embryonic tissue by embryonic day 6.5. The data from this study demonstrate that these reporter mice could serve as powerful tools to answer questions related to basic biology of the p53 pathway, as well as cancer therapy and drug discovery. PMID:22307631

  7. EGF activates TTP expression by activation of ELK-1 and EGR-1 transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Florkowska Magdalena; Tymoszuk Piotr; Balwierz Aleksandra; Skucha Anna; Kochan Jakub; Wawro Mateusz; Stalinska Krystyna; Kasza Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tristetraprolin (TTP) is a key mediator of processes such as inflammation resolution, the inhibition of autoimmunity and in cancer. It carries out this role by the binding and degradation of mRNA transcripts, thereby decreasing their half-life. Transcripts modulated by TTP encode proteins such as cytokines, pro-inflammatory agents and immediate-early response proteins. TTP can also modulate neoplastic phenotypes in many cancers. TTP is induced and functionally regulated by...

  8. A global transcriptional view of apoptosis in human T-cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windgassen Dirk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T-cell activation is an essential step of immune response. The process of proper T-cell activation is strictly monitored and regulated by apoptosis signaling. Yet, regulation of apoptosis, an integral and crucial facet during the process of T-cell activation, is not well understood. Methods In this study, a Gene-Ontology driven global gene expression analysis coupled with protein abundance and activity assays identified genes and pathways associated with regulation of apoptosis in primary human CD3+ T cells and separately CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Results We identified significantly regulated apoptotic genes in several protein families, such as BCL2 proteins, CASPASE proteins, and TNF receptors, and detailed their transcriptional kinetics during the T-cell activation process. Transcriptional patterns of a few select genes (BCL2A1, BBC3 and CASP3 were validated at the protein level. Many of these apoptotic genes are involved in NF-κB signaling pathway, including TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10B, TRAF4, TRAF1, TRAF3, and TRAF6. Upregulation of NF-κB and IκB family genes (REL, RELA, and RELB, NFKBIA, NFKBIE and NFKB1 at 48 to 96 hours, supported by the increase of phosphorylated RELA (p65, suggests that the involvement of the NF-κB complex in the process of T-cell proliferation is not only regulated at the protein level but also at the transcriptional level. Examination of genes involved in MAP kinase signalling pathway, important in apoptosis, suggests an induction of p38 and ERK1 cascades in T-cell proliferation (at 48 to 96 hours, which was explored using phosphorylation assays for p38 (MAPK14 and ERK1 (MAPK3. An immediate and short-lived increase of AP-1 activity measured by DNA-binding activity suggests a rapid and transient activation of p38 and/or JNK cascades upon T-cell activation. Conclusion This comparative genome-scale, transcriptional analysis of T-cell activation in the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets and the mixed CD3+ population

  9. Expression, processing and transcriptional regulation of granulysin in short-term activated human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groscurth Peter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulysin, a cytotoxic protein expressed in human natural killer cells and activated T lymphocytes, exhibits cytolytic activity against a variety of intracellular microbes. Expression and transcription have been partially characterised in vitro and four transcripts (NKG5, 519, 520, and 522 were identified. However, only a single protein product of 15 kDa was found, which is subsequently processed to an active 9 kDa protein. Results In this study we investigated generation of granulysin in lymphokine activated killer (LAK cells and antigen (Listeria specific T-cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed NKG5 to be the most prominent transcript. It was found to be up-regulated in a time-dependent manner in LAK cells and antigen specific T-cells and their subsets. Two isoforms of 519 mRNA were up-regulated under IL-2 and antigen stimulation. Moreover, two novel transcripts, without any known function, comprising solely parts of the 5 prime region of the primary transcript, were detected. A significant increase of granulysin expressing LAK cells as well as antigen specific T-cells was shown by fluorescence microscopy. On the subset level, increase in CD4+ granulysin expressing cells was found only under antigen stimulation. Immunoblotting showed the 15 kDa form of granulysin to be present in the first week of stimulation either with IL-2 or with bacterial antigen. Substantial processing to the 9 kDa form was detected during the first week in LAK cells and in the second week in antigen specific T-cells. Conclusion This first comprehensive study of granulysin gene regulation in primary cultured human lymphocytes shows that the regulation of granulysin synthesis in response to IL-2 or bacterial antigen stimulation occurs at several levels: RNA expression, extensive alternative splicing and posttranslational processing.

  10. Transcriptional activation of REST by Sp1 in Huntington's disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ravache

    Full Text Available In Huntington's disease (HD, mutant huntingtin (mHtt disrupts the normal transcriptional program of disease neurons by altering the function of several gene expression regulators such as Sp1. REST (Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription Factor, a key regulator of neuronal differentiation, is also aberrantly activated in HD by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that the level of REST mRNA is increased in HD mice and in NG108 cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells and expressing a toxic mHtt fragment. Using luciferase reporter gene assay, we delimited the REST promoter regions essential for mHtt-mediated REST upregulation and found that they contain Sp factor binding sites. We provide evidence that Sp1 and Sp3 bind REST promoter and interplay to fine-tune REST transcription. In undifferentiated NG108 cells, Sp1 and Sp3 have antagonistic effect, Sp1 acting as an activator and Sp3 as a repressor. Upon neuronal differentiation, we show that the amount and ratio of Sp1/Sp3 proteins decline, as does REST expression, and that the transcriptional role of Sp3 shifts toward a weak activator. Therefore, our results provide new molecular information to the transcriptional regulation of REST during neuronal differentiation. Importantly, specific knockdown of Sp1 abolishes REST upregulation in NG108 neuronal-like cells expressing mHtt. Our data together with earlier reports suggest that mHtt triggers a pathogenic cascade involving Sp1 activation, which leads to REST upregulation and repression of neuronal genes.

  11. Adaptation of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator to activate transcription in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Verner, Eva; Salem, Tarek A; Gurley, William B

    2016-02-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator of the VirA/VirG two-component system was adapted to function in tobacco protoplasts. The subcellular localization of VirG and VirA proteins transiently expressed in onion cells was determined using GFP fusions. Preliminary studies using Gal4DBD-VP16 fusions with VirG and Escherichia coli UhpA, and NarL response regulators indicated compatibility of these bacterial proteins with the eukaryotic transcriptional apparatus. A strong transcriptional activator based on tandem activation domains from the Drosophila fushi tarazu and Herpes simplex VP16 was created. Selected configurations of the two-site Gal4-vir box GUS reporters were activated by chimeric effectors dependent on either the yeast Gal4 DNA-binding domain or that of VirG. Transcriptional induction of the GUS reporter was highest for the VirE19-element promoter with both constitutive and wild-type VirG-tandem activation domain effectors. Multiple VirE19 elements increased the reporter activity proportionately, indicating that the VirG DNA binding domain was functional in plants. The VirG constitutive-Q-VP16 effector was more active than the VirG wild-type. In both the constitutive and wild-type forms of VirG, Q-VP16 activated transcription of the GUS reporter best when located at the C-terminus, i.e. juxtaposed to the VirG DNA binding domain. These results demonstrate the possibility of using DNA binding domains from bacterial response regulators and their cognate binding elements in the engineering of plant gene expression. PMID:26646288

  12. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2) and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Layman, Donald K; Anthony, Tracy G.; Garlick, Peter J.; Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements ...

  13. Impaired transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in age-related myocardial oxidative stress is reversible by moderate exercise training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellamuthu S Gounder

    Full Text Available Aging promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS in cardiomyocytes, which leads to contractile dysfunction and cardiac abnormalities. These changes may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Inducible antioxidant pathways are regulated by nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through antioxidant response cis-elements (AREs and are impaired in the aging heart. Whereas acute exercise stress (AES activates Nrf2 signaling and promotes myocardial antioxidant function in young mice (~2 months, aging mouse (>23 months hearts exhibit significant oxidative stress as compared to those of the young. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent regulation of Nrf2-antioxidant mechanisms and redox homeostasis in mouse hearts and the impact of exercise. Old mice were highly susceptible to oxidative stress following high endurance exercise stress (EES, but demonstrated increased adaptive redox homeostasis after moderate exercise training (MET; 10m/min, for 45 min/day for ~6 weeks. Following EES, transcription and protein levels for most of the ARE-antioxidants were increased in young mice but their induction was blunted in aging mice. In contrast, 6-weeks of chronic MET promoted nuclear levels of Nrf2 along with its target antioxidants in the aging heart to near normal levels as seen in young mice. These observations suggest that enhancing Nrf2 function and endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms by MET, may combat age-induced ROS/RNS and protect the myocardium from oxidative stress diseases.

  14. The Calmodulin-Binding Transcription Activator CAMTA1 Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas-Orth, Carlos; Tan, Yan-Wei; Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Bengtson, C. Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    The formation of long-term memory requires signaling from the synapse to the nucleus to mediate neuronal activity-dependent gene transcription. Synapse-to-nucleus communication is initiated by influx of calcium ions through synaptic NMDA receptors and/or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and involves the activation of transcription factors by…

  15. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... despite the lower relative workload. Interestingly, exercise did not affect nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) mRNA, a gene induced by PGC-1a in cell culture. HKII, mitochondrial transcription factor A, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor a, and calcineurin Aa and Aß mRNA were elevated (˜2- to 6...

  16. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-α transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling

  17. Suppression of epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation by extracts of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Homma, Tetsuya; Norton, James E; Sha, Quan; Siebert, Jason; Gupta, Dave S; Schroeder, James W; Schleimer, Robert P

    2015-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) is often pathogenic in immune-deficient individuals and can cause life-threatening infections such as invasive aspergillosis. The pulmonary epithelial response to AF infection and the signaling pathways associated with it have not been completely studied. BEAS-2B cells or primary human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to extracts of AF and challenged with IFN-β or the Toll-like receptor 3 agonist double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Cytokine release (B-cell activating factor of the TNF family [BAFF], IFN-γ-induced protein-10 [IP-10], etc.) was assessed. AF extract was separated into low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) fractions using ultra 4 centrifugal force filters to characterize the activity. Real-time PCR was performed with a TaqMan method, and protein estimation was performed using ELISA techniques. Western blot was performed to assess phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). IFN-β and dsRNA induced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of BAFF (350- and 452-fold, respectively [n = 3]) and IP-10 (1,081- and 3,044-fold, respectively [n = 3]) in BEAS-2B cells. When cells were pretreated with AF extract for 1 hour and then stimulated with IFN-β or dsRNA for 6 hours, induction of BAFF and IP-10 mRNA was strongly suppressed relative to levels produced by IFN-β and dsRNA alone. When compared with control, soluble BAFF and IP-10 protein levels were maximally suppressed in dsRNA-stimulated wells treated with 1:320 wt/vol AF extract (P < 0.005). Upon molecular size fractionation, a LMW fraction of AF extract had no measurable suppressive effect on IP-10 mRNA expression. However, a HMW fraction of the AF extract significantly suppressed IP-10 expression in BEAS-2B cells that were stimulated with dsRNA or IFN-β. When BEAS-2B cells were pretreated with AF extract and then stimulated with IFN-β, reduced levels of pSTAT1 were observed, with maximum suppression at 4 and 6

  18. KPC2 relocalizes HOXA2 to the cytoplasm and decreases its transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Laure; Bergiers, Isabelle; Draime, Amandine; Halbout, Mathias; Deneyer, Noémie; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Rezsohazy, René

    2015-10-01

    Regulation of transcription factor activity relies on molecular interactions or enzymatic modifications which influence their interaction with DNA cis-regulatory sequences, their transcriptional activation or repression, and stability or intracellular distribution of these proteins. Regarding the well-conserved Hox protein family, a restricted number of activity regulators have been highlighted thus far. In the framework of a proteome-wide screening aiming at identifying proteins interacting with Hoxa2, KPC2, an adapter protein constitutive of the KPC ubiquitin-ligase complex, was identified. In this work, KPC2 was confirmed as being a genuine interactor of Hoxa2 by co-precipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. At functional level, KPC2 diminishes the transcriptional activity and induces the nuclear exit of Hoxa2. Gene expression analyses revealed that Kpc2 is active in restricted areas of the developing mouse embryo which overlap with the Hoxa2 expression domain. Together, our data support that KPC2 regulates Hoxa2 by promoting its relocation to the cytoplasm. PMID:26303204

  19. Telomerase activates transcription of cyclin D1 gene through an interaction with NOL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Juyeong; Lee, Ji Hoon; Chung, In Kwon

    2016-04-15

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that is required for the maintenance of telomere repeats. Although overexpression of telomerase in normal human somatic cells is sufficient to overcome replicative senescence, the ability of telomerase to promote tumorigenesis requires additional activities that are independent of its role in telomere extension. Here, we identify proliferation-associated nucleolar antigen 120 (NOL1, also known as NOP2) as a telomerase RNA component (TERC)-binding protein that is found in association with catalytically active telomerase. Although NOL1 is highly expressed in the majority of human tumor cells, the molecular mechanism by which NOL1 contributes to tumorigenesis remained unclear. We show that NOL1 binds to the T-cell factor (TCF)-binding element of the cyclin D1 promoter and activates its transcription. Interestingly, telomerase is also recruited to the cyclin D1 promoter in a TERC-dependent manner through the interaction with NOL1, further enhancing transcription of the cyclin D1 gene. Depletion of NOL1 suppresses cyclin D1 promoter activity, thereby leading to induction of growth arrest and altered cell cycle distributions. Collectively, our findings suggest that NOL1 represents a new route by which telomerase activates transcription of cyclin D1 gene, thus maintaining cell proliferation capacity. PMID:26906424

  20. Dimer formation and transcription activation in the sporulation response regulator Spo0A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J; Scott, David J; Brannigan, James A; Ladds, Joanne C; Cervin, Marguerite A; Spiegelman, George B; Hoggett, James G; Barák, Imrich; Wilkinson, Anthony J

    2002-02-15

    The response regulator Spo0A is the master control element in the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Like many other multi-domain response regulators, the latent activity of the effector, C-terminal domain is stimulated by phosphorylation on a conserved aspartic acid residue in the regulatory, N-terminal domain. If a threshold concentration of phosphorylated Spo0A is achieved, the transcription of genes required for sporulation is activated, whereas the genes encoding stationary phase sentinels are repressed, and sporulation proceeds. Despite detailed genetic, biochemical and structural characterisation, it is not understood how the phosphorylation signal in the receiver domain is transduced into DNA binding and transcription activation in the distal effector domain. An obstacle to our understanding of Spo0A function is the uncertainty concerning changes in quaternary structure that accompany phosphorylation. Here we have revisited this question and shown unequivocally that Spo0A forms dimers upon phosphorylation and that the subunit interactions in the dimer are mediated principally by the receiver domain. Purified dimers of two mutants of Spo0A, in which the phosphorylatable aspartic acid residue has been substituted, activate transcription from the spoIIG promoter in vitro, whereas monomers do not. This suggests that dimers represent the activated form of Spo0A. PMID:11851334

  1. Notch-1 activates estrogen receptor-α-dependent transcription via IKKα in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L; Rizzo, P; Osipo, C; Pannuti, A; Wyatt, D; Cheung, LW-K; Sonenshein, G; Osborne, BA; Miele, L

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 80% of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and are treated with anti-estrogens. Resistance to these agents is a major cause of mortality. We have shown that estrogen inhibits Notch, whereas anti-estrogens or estrogen withdrawal activate Notch signaling. Combined inhibition of Notch and estrogen signaling has synergistic effects in ERα-positive breast cancer models. However, the mechanisms whereby Notch-1 promotes the growth of ERα-positive breast cancer cells are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Notch-1 increases the transcription of ERα-responsive genes in the presence or absence of estrogen via a novel chromatin crosstalk mechanism. Our data support a model in which Notch-1 can activate the transcription of ERα-target genes via IKKα-dependent cooperative chromatin recruitment of Notch–CSL–MAML1 transcriptional complexes (NTC) and ERα, which promotes the recruitment of p300. CSL binding elements frequently occur in close proximity to estrogen-responsive elements (EREs) in the human and mouse genomes. Our observations suggest that a hitherto unknown Notch-1/ERα chromatin crosstalk mediates Notch signaling effects in ERα-positive breast cancer cells and contributes to regulate the transcriptional functions of ERα itself. PMID:19838210

  2. Identification of active transcriptional regulatory elements from GRO-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Charles G; Hyland, Stephanie L; Core, Leighton J; Martins, Andre L; Waters, Colin T; Lee, Hyung Won; Cheung, Vivian G; Kraus, W Lee; Lis, John T; Siepel, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Modifications to the global run-on and sequencing (GRO-seq) protocol that enrich for 5'-capped RNAs can be used to reveal active transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) with high accuracy. Here, we introduce discriminative regulatory-element detection from GRO-seq (dREG), a sensitive machine learning method that uses support vector regression to identify active TREs from GRO-seq data without requiring cap-based enrichment (https://github.com/Danko-Lab/dREG/). This approach allows TREs to be assayed together with gene expression levels and other transcriptional features in a single experiment. Predicted TREs are more enriched for several marks of transcriptional activation—including expression quantitative trait loci, disease-associated polymorphisms, acetylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac) and transcription factor binding—than those identified by alternative functional assays. Using dREG, we surveyed TREs in eight human cell types and provide new insights into global patterns of TRE function. PMID:25799441

  3. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangnan Zheng; Minzhang Cheng; Liang Xiang; Jian Liang; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distrib...

  4. Sleep loss activates cellular inflammation and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family proteins in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, DE; Witarama, T; Caudill, M; Olmstead, R; Breen, EC

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc.. Sleep disturbance and short sleep duration are associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and certain cancers. This study was undertaken to test the effects of experimental sleep loss on spontaneous cellular inflammation and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family proteins, which together promote an inflammatory microenvironment. In 24 healthy adults (16 females; ...

  5. Individual transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors in primary breast cancer and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To predict the efficacy of hormonal therapy at the individual-level, immunohistochemical methods are used to analyze expression of classical molecular biomarkers such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and HER2. However, the current diagnostic standard is not perfect for the individualization of diverse cases. Therefore, establishment of more accurate diagnostics is required. Previously, we established a novel method that enables analysis of ER transcriptional activation potential in clinical specimens using an adenovirus estrogen response element–green fluorescence protein (ERE-GFP) assay system. Using this assay, we assessed the ERE transcriptional activity of 62 primary breast cancer samples. In 40% of samples, we observed that ER protein expression was not consistent with ERE activity. Comparison of ERE activity with clinicopathological information revealed that ERE activity was significantly correlated with the ER target gene, PgR, rather than ER in terms of both protein and mRNA expression. Moreover, subgrouping of Luminal A-type breast cancer samples according to ERE activity revealed that ERα mRNA expression correlated with ER target gene mRNA expression in the high-, but not the low-, ERE-activity group. On the other hand, the low-ERE-activity group showed significantly higher mRNA expression of the malignancy biomarker Ki67 in association with disease recurrence in 5% of patients. Thus, these data suggest that ER expression does not always correlate with ER transcriptional activity. Therefore, in addition to ER protein expression, determination of ERE activity as an ER functional marker will be helpful for analysis of a variety of diverse breast cancer cases and the subsequent course of treatment

  6. Benzimidazoles diminish ERE transcriptional activity and cell growth in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payton-Stewart, Florastina [Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States); Tilghman, Syreeta L. [Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States); Williams, LaKeisha G. [Division of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States); Winfield, Leyte L., E-mail: lwinfield@spelman.edu [Department of Chemistry, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • The methyl-substituted benzimidazole was more effective at inhibiting growth in MDA-MB 231 cells. • The naphthyl-substituted benzimidazole was more effective at inhibiting growth in MCF-7 cells than ICI. • The benzimidazole molecules demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in ERE transcriptional activity. • The benzimidazole molecules had binding mode in ERα and ERβ comparable to that of the co-crystallized ligand. - Abstract: Estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. They regulate the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes and mediate numerous estrogen related diseases (i.e., fertility, osteoporosis, cancer, etc.). As such, ERs are potentially useful targets for developing therapies and diagnostic tools for hormonally responsive human breast cancers. In this work, two benzimidazole-based sulfonamides originally designed to reduce proliferation in prostate cancer, have been evaluated for their ability to modulate growth in estrogen dependent and independent cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231) using cell viability assays. The molecules reduced growth in MCF-7 cells, but differed in their impact on the growth of MDA-MB 231 cells. Although both molecules reduced estrogen response element (ERE) transcriptional activity in a dose dependent manner, the contrasting activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells seems to suggest that the molecules may act through alternate ER-mediated pathways. Further, the methyl analog showed modest selectivity for the ERβ receptor in an ER gene expression array panel, while the naphthyl analog did not significantly alter gene expression. The molecules were docked in the ligand binding domains of the ERα-antagonist and ERβ-agonist crystal structures to evaluate the potential of the molecules to interact with the receptors. The computational analysis complimented the results obtained in the assay of transcriptional activity and gene expression suggesting that the molecules

  7. P53 and p73 differ in their ability to inhibit glucocorticoid receptor (GR transcriptional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Linghu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p53 is a tumor suppressor and potent inhibitor of cell growth. P73 is highly similar to p53 at both the amino acid sequence and structural levels. Given their similarities, it is important to determine whether p53 and p73 function in similar or distinct pathways. There is abundant evidence for negative cross-talk between glucocorticoid receptor (GR and p53. Neither physical nor functional interactions between GR and p73 have been reported. In this study, we examined the ability of p53 and p73 to interact with and inhibit GR transcriptional activity. Results We show that both p53 and p73 can bind GR, and that p53 and p73-mediated transcriptional activity is inhibited by GR co-expression. Wild-type p53 efficiently inhibited GR transcriptional activity in cells expressing both proteins. Surprisingly, however, p73 was either unable to efficiently inhibit GR, or increased GR activity slightly. To examine the basis for this difference, a series of p53:p73 chimeric proteins were generated in which corresponding regions of either protein have been swapped. Replacing N- and C-terminal sequences in p53 with the corresponding sequences from p73 prevented it from inhibiting GR. In contrast, replacing p73 N- and C-terminal sequences with the corresponding sequences from p53 allowed it to efficiently inhibit GR. Differences in GR inhibition were not related to differences in transcriptional activity of the p53:p73 chimeras or their ability to bind GR. Conclusion Our results indicate that both N- and C-terminal regions of p53 and p73 contribute to their regulation of GR. The differential ability of p53 and p73 to inhibit GR is due, in part, to differences in their N-terminal and C-terminal sequences.

  8. Amphetamine elevates phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) in the rat forebrain via activating dopamine D1 and D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bing; Fitzgerald, Cole A; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q

    2016-09-01

    Psychostimulants have an impact on protein synthesis, although underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Eukaryotic initiation factor 2α-subunit (eIF2α) is a key player in initiation of protein translation and is regulated by phosphorylation. While this factor is sensitive to changing synaptic input and is critical for synaptic plasticity, its sensitivity to stimulants is poorly understood. Here we systematically characterized responses of eIF2α to a systemic administration of the stimulant amphetamine (AMPH) in dopamine responsive regions of adult rat brains. Intraperitoneal injection of AMPH at 5mg/kg increased eIF2α phosphorylation at serine 51 in the striatum. This increase was transient. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), AMPH induced a relatively delayed phosphorylation of the factor. Pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 blocked the AMPH-stimulated eIF2α phosphorylation in both the striatum and mPFC. Similarly, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride reduced the effect of AMPH in the two regions. Two antagonists alone did not alter basal eIF2α phosphorylation. AMPH and two antagonists did not change the amount of total eIF2α proteins in both regions. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of eIF2α to stimulant exposure. AMPH possesses the ability to stimulate eIF2α phosphorylation in striatal and mPFC neurons in vivo in a D1 and D2 receptor-dependent manner. PMID:27338925

  9. DNA recognition by a σ(54) transcriptional activator from Aquifex aeolicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidangos, Natasha K; Heideker, Johanna; Lyubimov, Artem; Lamers, Meindert; Huo, Yixin; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Ton, Jimmy; Gralla, Jay; Berger, James; Wemmer, David E

    2014-10-23

    Transcription initiation by bacterial σ(54)-polymerase requires the action of a transcriptional activator protein. Activators bind sequence-specifically upstream of the transcription initiation site via a DNA-binding domain (DBD). The structurally characterized DBDs from activators all belong to the Fis (factor for inversion stimulation) family of helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. We report here structures of the free and DNA-bound forms of the DBD of NtrC4 (4DBD) from Aquifex aeolicus, a member of the NtrC family of σ(54) activators. Two NtrC4-binding sites were identified upstream (-145 and -85bp) from the start of the lpxC gene, which is responsible for the first committed step in lipid A biosynthesis. This is the first experimental evidence for σ(54) regulation in lpxC expression. 4DBD was crystallized both without DNA and in complex with the -145-binding site. The structures, together with biochemical data, indicate that NtrC4 binds to DNA in a manner that is similar to that of its close homolog, Fis. The greater sequence specificity for the binding of 4DBD relative to Fis seems to arise from a larger number of base-specific contacts contributing to affinity than for Fis. PMID:25158097

  10. cAMP/PKA signaling balances respiratory activity with mitochondria dependent apoptosis via transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourlay Campbell W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate control of mitochondrial function, morphology and biogenesis are crucial determinants of the general health of eukaryotic cells. It is therefore imperative that we understand the mechanisms that co-ordinate mitochondrial function with environmental signaling systems. The regulation of yeast mitochondrial function in response to nutritional change can be modulated by PKA activity. Unregulated PKA activity can lead to the production of mitochondria that are prone to the production of ROS, and an apoptotic form of cell death. Results We present evidence that mitochondria are sensitive to the level of cAMP/PKA signaling and can respond by modulating levels of respiratory activity or committing to self execution. The inappropriate activation of one of the yeast PKA catalytic subunits, Tpk3p, is sufficient to commit cells to an apoptotic death through transcriptional changes that promote the production of dysfunctional, ROS producing mitochondria. Our data implies that cAMP/PKA regulation of mitochondrial function that promotes apoptosis engages the function of multiple transcription factors, including HAP4, SOK2 and SCO1. Conclusions We propose that in yeast, as is the case in mammalian cells, mitochondrial function and biogenesis are controlled in response to environmental change by the concerted regulation of multiple transcription factors. The visualization of cAMP/TPK3 induced cell death within yeast colonies supports a model that PKA regulation plays a physiological role in coordinating respiratory function and cell death with nutritional status in budding yeast.

  11. p55PIK Transcriptionally Activated by MZF1 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available p55PIK, regulatory subunit of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression by interaction with tumor repressor retinoblastoma (Rb protein. A recent study showed that Rb protein can localize to the mitochondria in proliferative cells. Aberrant p55PIK expression may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression. To reveal the mechanisms of p55PIK transcriptional regulation, the p55PIK promoter characteristics were analyzed. The data show that myeloid zinc finger 1, MZF1, is necessary for p55PIK gene transcription activation. ChIP (Chromatin immuno-precipitation assay shows that MZF1 binds to the cis-element “TGGGGA” in p55PIK promoter. In MZF1 overexpressed cells, the promoter activity, expression of p55PIK, and cell proliferation rate were observed to be significantly enhanced. Whereas in MZF1-silenced cells, the promoter activity and expression of p55PIK and cell proliferation level was statistically decreased. In CRC tissues, MZF1 and p55PIK mRNA expression were increased (P=0.046, P=0.047, resp.. A strong positive correlation (Rs=0.94 between MZF1 and p55PIK mRNA expression was observed. Taken together, we concluded that p55PIK is transcriptionally activated by MZF1, resulting in increased proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

  12. SUMOylation regulates the transcriptional repression activity of FOG-2 and its association with GATA-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Perdomo

    Full Text Available Friend of GATA 2 (FOG-2, a co-factor of several GATA transcription factors (GATA-4, -5 and 6, is a critical regulator of coronary vessel formation and heart morphogenesis. Here we demonstrate that FOG-2 is SUMOylated and that this modification modulates its transcriptional activity. FOG-2 SUMOylation occurs at four lysine residues (K324, 471, 915, 955 [corrected]. Three of these residues are part of the characteristic SUMO consensus site (ψKXE, while K955 is found in the less frequent TKXE motif. Absence of SUMOylation did not affect FOG-2's nuclear localization. However, mutation of the FOG-2 SUMOylation sites, or de-SUMOylation, with SENP-1 or SENP-8 resulted in stronger transcriptional repression activity in both heterologous cells and cardiomyocytes. Conversely, increased FOG-2 SUMOylation by overexpression of SUMO-1 or expression of a SUMO-1-FOG-2 fusion protein rendered FOG-2 incapable of repressing GATA-4-mediated activation of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP promoter. Moreover, we demonstrate both increased interaction between a FOG-2 SUMO mutant and GATA-4 and enhanced SUMOylation of wild-type FOG-2 by co-expression of GATA-4. These data suggest a new dynamics in which GATA-4 may alter the activity of FOG-2 by influencing its SUMOylation status.

  13. Effects of a methanolic fraction of soybean seeds on the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Carrara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of soy isoflavones may be mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR, the present study investigated whether the methanolic fractions obtained from soybean seeds (E1 and soybean seed coats with hypocotyls (E2 could influence PPARα, PPARγ and PPARβ/δ transcriptional activity. The isoflavones from E1 and E2 were quantified by HPLC analysis. E1 and E2 were rich in isoflavones (daidzin, glycitin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, malonylglycitin, malonylgenistin, daidzein, glycitein, and genistein. Moreover, E1 and E2 showed no evidence of genetically modified material containing the gene CP4 EPSPS. To investigate PPAR transcriptional activity, human promonocytic U-937 cells were treated with E1 and E2 (200, 400, 800, and 1600 µg/mL, positive controls or vehicle. Data are reported as fold-activation of the luciferase reporter driven by the PPAR-responsive element. Dose-response analysis revealed that E1 and E2 induced the transcriptional activity of PPARα (P < 0.001, with activation comparable to that obtained with 0.1 mM bezafibrate (positive control at 1600 µg/mL (4-fold and 800 µg/mL (9-fold, respectively. In addition, dose-response analysis revealed that E1 and E2 activated PPARβ/δ (P < 0.05, and the activation at 800 µg/mL (4- and 9-fold, respectively was comparable to that of 0.1 mM bezafibrate (positive control. However, no effect on PPARγ was observed. Activation of PPARα is consistent with the lipid-lowering activity of soy isoflavones in vivo, but further studies are needed to determine the physiological significance of PPARβ/δ activation.

  14. Transcriptional activity of human endogenous retrovirus in Albanian children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Emanuela; Cipriani, Chiara; Matteucci, Claudia; Capodicasa, Natale; Pilika, Anita; Korca, Ina; Sorrentino, Roberta; Argaw-Denboba, Ayele; Bucci, Ilaria; Miele, Martino Tony; Coniglio, Antonella; Alessandrelli, Riccardo; Sinibaldi Vallebona, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors, whose possible links could be represented by epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we investigated the transcriptional activity of three human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Albanian ASD children, by quantitative real-time PCR. We aimed to confirm the different expression profile already found in Italian ASD children, and to highlight any social and family health condition emerging from information gathered through a questionnaire, to be included among environmental risk factors. The presence of increased HERV-H transcriptional activity in all autistic patients could be understood as a constant epigenetic imprinting of the disease, potentially useful for early diagnosis and for the development of effective novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27602423

  15. Using in vivo electroporation to identify hepatic LDL receptor promoter elements and transcription factors mediating activation of transcription by T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayami Lopez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of in vivo electroporation was adapted to investigate the promoter elements and transcription factors mediating the rapid induction of hepatic LDL receptor expression in response to thyroid hormone. Direct comparisons between wild type and mutant promoter constructs were made within the same animal. It was demonstrated that both TREs at bp −612 and −156 were required for the l-triiodothyronine (T3 response. ChIP analysis showed that binding of TRβ1 to the −612 and −156 TREs was markedly stimulated by T3 in vivo. Introduction of siRNAs against TRβ1/RXRα with LDL receptor promoter-luciferase construct by in vivo electroporation demonstrated that these transcription factors play the major physiological role in the activation of hepatic LDL receptor transcription. The findings agree with those made by transfecting H4IIE cells in vitro thus validating this technique for in vivo studies of mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. The findings reported herein also indicated, for the first time, that PPARα and USF-2 were required for maximum transcriptional activation of the LDL receptor in response to T3 treatment.

  16. Cooperative activation of transcription by bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 can occur over a large distance.

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry, F; Dostatni, N; Arnos, F; Yaniv, M

    1990-01-01

    The viral transcriptional factors encoded by the E2 open reading frame bind to the specific DNA sequence elements ACCGNNNNCGGT, allowing activation or repression of transcription. We have analyzed bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivation using recombinant genes containing E2-binding sites inserted at either 3' or 5' positions relative to the heterologous transcriptional initiation site of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. In these hybrid plasmids, strong transactivation r...

  17. Activation of AML1-mediated transcription by MOZ and inhibition by the MOZ–CBP fusion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kitabayashi, Issay; Aikawa, Yukiko; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Ohki, Misao

    2001-01-01

    The AML1–CBFβ transcription factor complex is the most frequent target of specific chromosome translocations in human leukemia. The MOZ gene, which encodes a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is also involved in some leukemia-associated translocations. We report here that MOZ is part of the AML1 complex and strongly stimulates AML1-mediated transcription. The stimulation of AML1-mediated transcription is independent of the inherent HAT activity of MOZ. Rather, a potent transactivation domain w...

  18. Structure, function, and tethering of DNA-binding domains in σ⁵⁴ transcriptional activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidangos, Natasha; Maris, Ann E; Young, Anisa; Hong, Eunmi; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Batchelor, Joseph D; Wemmer, David E

    2013-12-01

    We compare the structure, activity, and linkage of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) from σ(54) transcriptional activators and discuss how the properties of the DBDs and the linker to the neighboring domain are affected by the overall properties and requirements of the full proteins. These transcriptional activators bind upstream of specific promoters that utilize σ(54)-polymerase. Upon receiving a signal the activators assemble into hexamers, which then, through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis, drive a conformational change in polymerase that enables transcription initiation. We present structures of the DBDs of activators nitrogen regulatory protein C 1 (NtrC1) and Nif-like homolog 2 (Nlh2) from the thermophile Aquifex aeolicus. The structures of these domains and their relationship to other parts of the activators are discussed. These structures are compared with previously determined structures of the DBDs of NtrC4, NtrC, ZraR, and factor for inversion stimulation. The N-terminal linkers that connect the DBDs to the central domains in NtrC1 and Nlh2 were studied and found to be unstructured. Additionally, a crystal structure of full-length NtrC1 was solved, but density of the DBDs was extremely weak, further indicating that the linker between ATPase and DBDs functions as a flexible tether. Flexible linking of ATPase and DBDs is likely necessary to allow assembly of the active hexameric ATPase ring. The comparison of this set of activators also shows clearly that strong dimerization of the DBD only occurs when other domains do not dimerize strongly. PMID:23818155

  19. FATS is a transcriptional target of p53 and associated with antitumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xifeng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Frequent mutations of p53 in human cancers exemplify its crucial role as a tumor suppressor transcription factor, and p21, a transcriptional target of p53, plays a central role in surveillance of cell-cycle checkpoints. Our previous study has shown that FATS stabilize p21 to preserve genome integrity. In this study we identified a novel transcript variant of FATS (GenBank: GQ499374 through screening a cDNA library from mouse testis, which uncovered the promoter region of mouse FATS. Mouse FATS was highly expressed in testis. The p53-responsive elements existed in proximal region of both mouse and human FATS promoters. Functional study indicated that the transcription of FATS gene was activated by p53, whereas such effect was abolished by site-directed mutagenesis in the p53-RE of FATS promoter. Furthermore, the expression of FATS increased upon DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner. FATS expression was silent or downregulated in human cancers, and overexpression of FATS suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo independently of p53. Our results reveal FATS as a p53-regulated gene to monitor genomic stability.

  20. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Ludwig, Leif S; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-04-19

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptionalcis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders. PMID:27044088

  1. Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) co-transcriptional scanning at single-molecule resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senavirathne, Gayan; Bertram, Jeffrey G.; Jaszczur, Malgorzata; Chaurasiya, Kathy R.; Pham, Phuong; Mak, Chi H.; Goodman, Myron F.; Rueda, David

    2015-12-01

    Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) generates antibody diversity in B cells by initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) during transcription of immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and switch region (IgS) DNA. Using single-molecule FRET, we show that AID binds to transcribed dsDNA and translocates unidirectionally in concert with RNA polymerase (RNAP) on moving transcription bubbles, while increasing the fraction of stalled bubbles. AID scans randomly when constrained in an 8 nt model bubble. When unconstrained on single-stranded (ss) DNA, AID moves in random bidirectional short slides/hops over the entire molecule while remaining bound for ~5 min. Our analysis distinguishes dynamic scanning from static ssDNA creasing. That AID alone can track along with RNAP during transcription and scan within stalled transcription bubbles suggests a mechanism by which AID can initiate SHM and CSR when properly regulated, yet when unregulated can access non-Ig genes and cause cancer.

  2. The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates domain-specific inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Bloodgood, Brenda L.; Sharma, Nikhil; Browne, Heidi Adlman; Trepman, Alissa Z.; Greenberg, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    A heterogeneous population of inhibitory neurons controls the flow of information through a neural circuit1–3. Inhibitory synapses that form on pyramidal neuron dendrites modulate the summation of excitatory synaptic potentials4–6 and prevent the generation of dendritic calcium spikes7,8. Precisely timed somatic inhibition limits both the number of action potentials and the time window during which firing can occur8,9. The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates inhibitory syn...

  3. Inhibition of NF-kappa B specific transcriptional activation by PNA strand invasion.

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers, T A; Griffith, M C; K. Ramasamy; Risen, L M; Freier, S M

    1995-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) strand invasion offers an attractive alternative to DNA oligonucleotide directed triplex formation as a potential tool for gene inhibition. Peptide nucleic acid has been shown to interact with duplex DNA in a process which involves strand invasion of the duplex and binding of one of the DNA strands with two PNA oligomers. By blocking the interaction of a transcription factor with 5' regulatory sequences, PNA might specifically down-regulate gene activity. Here we de...

  4. DREAM Controls the On/Off Switch of Specific Activity-Dependent Transcription Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Mellstr??m, Britt; Sah??n, Ignasi; Ruiz Nu??o, Ana; Murtra, Patricia; G??mez Villafuertes, Rosa; Savignac, Magal??; Oliveros, Juan C.; Gonz??lez, Paz; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Knafo, Shira; Zhuo, Min; Higuera Matas, Alejandro; Errington, Michael L.; Maldonado, Rafael; De Felipe, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Changes in nuclear Ca(2+) homeostasis activate specific gene expression programs and are central to the acquisition and storage of information in the brain. DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator), also known as calsenilin/KChIP-3 (K(+) channel interacting protein 3), is a Ca(2+)-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. To study the function of DREAM in the brain, we used transgenic mice expressing a Ca(2+)-insensitive/CREB-in...

  5. Role of activated transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in learning and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pasini

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the role of Activated Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) in the processes of learning and memory. The topic of learning and memory has always aroused great interest from time immemorial and although a lot of researches have been focused on this subject for a long time, many mechanisms have not yet been fully understood. Identifying the players and the mechanisms involved in learning and memory is of utmost importance because deficits in these cognitive fu...

  6. A chromatin activity based chemoproteomic approach reveals a transcriptional repressome for gene-specific silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Cui; Yu, Yanbao; Liu, Feng; Wei, Xin; Wrobel, John A; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Zhou, Li; Jin, Jian; Chen, Xian

    2014-01-01

    Immune cells develop endotoxin tolerance (ET) after prolonged stimulation. ET increases the level of a repression mark H3K9me2 in the transcriptional-silent chromatin specifically associated with pro-inflammatory genes. However, it is not clear what proteins are functionally involved in this process. Here we show that a novel chromatin activity based chemoproteomic (ChaC) approach can dissect the functional chromatin protein complexes that regulate ET-associated inflammation. Using UNC0638 th...

  7. Green Tea Polyphenols Function as Prooxidants To Activate Oxidative-Stress-Responsive Transcription Factors in Yeasts▿

    OpenAIRE

    Maeta, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Wataru; Takatsume, Yoshifumi; Izawa, Shingo; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2006-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenolic flavonoid in green tea. Catechin and its derivatives, including EGCG, are widely believed to function as antioxidants. Here we demonstrate that both EGCG and green tea extract (GTE) cause oxidative stress-related responses in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under weak alkaline conditions in terms of the activation of oxidative-stress-responsive transcription factors. GT...

  8. Variable Transcriptional Activity of Endogenous Retroviruses in Human Breast Cancer▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Oliver; Verbeke, Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert; Mayer, Jens; Fabarius, Alice; Hehlmann, Rüdiger; Leib-Mösch, Christine; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) account for up to 9% of the human genome and include more than 800 elements related to betaretroviruses. While mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the accepted etiological agent of mammary tumors in mice, the role of retroviral elements in human breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we performed a comprehensive microarray-based analysis of overall retroviral transcriptional activities in 46 mammary gland tissue specimens representing pairs of nonmalignant ...

  9. Transcriptionally Active Regions Are the Preferred Targets for Chromosomal HPV Integration in Cervical Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Irene Kraus; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Schmitz, Martina; Dürst, Matthias; Hovig, Eivind

    2015-01-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) into the host genome is regarded as a determining event in cervical carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanism for integration, and the role of integration in stimulating cancer progression, is not fully characterized. Although integration sites are reported to appear randomly distributed over all chromosomes, fragile sites, translocation break points and transcriptionally active regions have all been suggested as being preferred sites for integrati...

  10. Activating transcription factor 3 is a negative regulator of allergic pulmonary inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilchrist, Mark; Henderson, William R.; Clark, April E.; Simmons, Randi M.; Ye, Xin; Smith, Kelly D.; Aderem, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated the pivotal role of the transcription factor (TF) activating TF 3 (ATF3) in dampening inflammation. We demonstrate that ATF3 also ameliorates allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of human asthma. ATF3 expression was increased in the lungs of mice challenged with ovalbumin allergen, and this was associated with its recruitment to the promoters of genes encoding Th2-associated cytokines. ATF3-deficient mice developed significantl...

  11. 24. The transcription factors and the relevant signaling pathways activated by low concentration MNNG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To explore the transcription factors and related signal transduction pathways activated in the alkylating agents N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanindine (MNNG) exposed cells which may involved in the mechanism of MNNG induced changes of gene expression, especially the elevation of DNA polymerase β expression and also the consequence of JNK kinase activation which were reported previously in this lab. Methods: Clontech Mercury pathway profiling system containing 8 different vectors in which a specific response element is located upstream from the SEAP-reporter gene were employed to detect the transcription factor activation in Vero cells treated with 0.2 μmol/L MNNG for 2 hours. Thoroughly, CREB phosphorylation, protein kinase A (PKA) and the cellular cAMP content were also assayed with PhosphoPlus CREB (ser-133) antibody kit, protein kinase assay kit and cAMP RIA kit respectively. Results: Among 8 different response elements, the expression of the reporter gene governed by the transcription factors CREB (cAMP response element binding protein), AP1 (activator protein 1), NF-κB (nuclear factor κ B) were elevated by 1.3, 1.4 and 1.3 times higber than control respectively. The level of activated CREB by Ser-133 phosphorylation was 2.08 times higher than control in cells treated with MNNG for 60 min, as measured by immunoblotting. The activity of CREB upstream kinase protein kinase A (PKA), which can phosphorylate CREB on ser-133 was also activated, and the activation peaked at 60 min (11.03±2.80 arbitrary units vs 0.86±0.43 of control). Also, cAMP levels were significantly raised after 60-minute-treatment, 1.52 times higher vs those in solvent control. Conclusion: In addition of previously reported JNK activation, we show here that low concentration alkylating agent MNNG can also activate the cAMP-PKA and NF-κB pathway. These in consequence induce the activation of transcription factors APl, CREB and NF-κB, which may related to the MNNG induced changes in

  12. In vivo identification of promoter elements and transcription factors mediating activation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase by T{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Lindsey R.; Niesen, Melissa I. [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Jaroszeski, Mark [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Ness, Gene C., E-mail: gness@hsc.usf.edu [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2009-07-31

    The promoter elements and transcription factors necessary for triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) induction of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) were investigated by transfecting rat livers with wild type and mutant HMGR promoter-luciferase constructs using in vivo electroporation. Mutations in the sterol response element (SRE), nuclear factor-y (NF-Y) site, and the newly identified upstream transcription factor-2 (USF-2) site essentially abolished the T{sub 3} response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated that T{sub 3} treatment caused a 4-fold increase in in vivo binding of USF-2 to the HMGR promoter. Co-transfection of the wild type HMGR promoter with siRNAs to USF-2, SREBP-2, or NF-Y nearly abolished the T{sub 3} induction, as measured by promoter activity. These data provide in vivo evidence for functional roles for USF-2, SREBP-2, and NF-Y in mediating the T{sub 3}-induction of hepatic HMGR transcription.

  13. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Varodayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many central synapses are highly sensitive to alcohol, and it is now accepted that short-term alterations in synaptic function may lead to longer term changes in circuit function. The regulation of postsynaptic receptors by alcohol has been well studied, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on the presynaptic terminal are relatively unexplored. To identify a pathway by which alcohol regulates neurotransmitter release, we recently investigated the mechanism by which ethanol induces the Vamp2 gene, but not Vamp1, in mouse primary cortical cultures. These two genes encode isoforms of synaptobrevin, a vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. We found that alcohol activates the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 to induce Vamp2 gene expression, while Vamp1 mRNA levels remain unaffected. As the Vamp2 gene encodes a SNARE protein, we then investigated whether ethanol exposure and HSF1 transcriptional activity alter neurotransmitter release using electrophysiology. We found that alcohol increased the frequency of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated miniature IPSCs via HSF1, but had no effect on mEPSCs. Overall, these data indicate that alcohol induces HSF1 transcriptional activity to trigger a specific coordinated adaptation in GABAergic presynaptic terminals. This mechanism could explain some of the changes in synaptic function that occur soon after alcohol exposure, and may underlie some of the more enduring effects of chronic alcohol intake on local circuit function.

  14. Separation of the transcriptional activation and replication functions of the bovine papillomavirus-1 E2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, P L; McBride, A A

    1992-11-01

    Replication of bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) DNA requires two viral gene products, the E1 protein and the full-length E2 protein. The 48 kDa E2 protein is a site-specific DNA-binding protein that binds to several sites which lie adjacent to the BPV-1 origin of replication. The 85 amino acid C-terminal domain contains the specific DNA binding and dimerization properties of the protein. The approximately 200 amino acid N-terminal domain is crucial for transcriptional activation. Both of these domains are highly conserved among different papillomaviruses. An internal hinge region separates the two functional domains. The region varies in amino acid sequence and length among the E2 proteins of different papillomaviruses. A series of mutations were constructed within the E2 open reading frame which delete various regions of the conserved DNA binding and transactivation domains as well as the internal hinge region. Two mutated E2 proteins that lack portions of the conserved DNA-binding domain but which support DNA replication were identified using transient replication assays. These mutated E2 proteins were unable to function as transcriptional activators. Conversely, two E2 proteins containing large deletions of the hinge region were able to activate transcription, but were defective for replication. Thus, the replication and transactivation functions of the E2 protein are separable. PMID:1327758

  15. Pim-1 kinase phosphorylates RUNX family transcription factors and enhances their activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltola Katriina J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pim family genes encode oncogenic serine/threonine kinases which in hematopoietic cells have been implicated in cytokine-dependent signaling as well as in lymphomagenesis, especially in cooperation with other oncogenes such as myc, bcl-2 or Runx family genes. The Runx genes encode α-subunits of heterodimeric transcription factors which regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues during development and which can become leukemogenic upon aberrant expression. Results Here we have identified novel protein-protein interactions between the Pim-1 kinase and the RUNX family transcription factors. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we were able to show that the C-terminal part of human RUNX3 associates with Pim-1. This result was confirmed in cell culture, where full-length murine Runx1 and Runx3 both coprecipitated and colocalized with Pim-1. Furthermore, catalytically active Pim-1 kinase was able to phosphorylate Runx1 and Runx3 proteins and enhance the transactivation activity of Runx1 in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusion Altogether, our results suggest that mammalian RUNX family transcription factors are novel binding partners and substrates for the Pim-1 kinase, which may be able to regulate their activities during normal hematopoiesis as well as in leukemogenesis.

  16. Enhanced NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity associated with antiestrogen resistant breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NFκB and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Two cell line models of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer, MCF7/HER2 and BT474, showing increased AP-1 and NFκB DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, were studied to compare tamoxifen effects on NFκB and AP-1 regulated reporter genes relative to tamoxifen-sensitive MCF7 cells. The model cell lines were treated with the IKK inhibitor parthenolide (PA) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS341), alone and in combination with tamoxifen. Expression microarray data available from 54 UCSF node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases with known clinical outcome were used to search for potential genes signifying upregulated NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity in association with tamoxifen resistance. The association of these genes with patient outcome was further evaluated using node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases identified from three other published data sets (Rotterdam, n = 209; Amsterdam, n = 68; Basel, n = 108), each having different patient age and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment characteristics. Doses of parthenolide and bortezomib capable of sensitizing the two endocrine resistant breast cancer models to tamoxifen were capable of suppressing NFκB and AP-1 regulated gene expression in combination with tamoxifen and also increased ER recruitment of the transcriptional co-repressor, NCoR. Transcript profiles from the UCSF breast cancer cases revealed three NFκB and AP-1 upregulated genes – cyclin D1, uPA and VEGF – capable of dichotomizing node-negative ER-positive cases into early and late relapsing subsets despite adjuvant tamoxfien therapy and most prognostic for younger age cases. Across the four independent sets of node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases (UCSF, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Basel), high expression of

  17. Enhanced NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity associated with antiestrogen resistant breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Dan H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NFκB and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Methods Two cell line models of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer, MCF7/HER2 and BT474, showing increased AP-1 and NFκB DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, were studied to compare tamoxifen effects on NFκB and AP-1 regulated reporter genes relative to tamoxifen-sensitive MCF7 cells. The model cell lines were treated with the IKK inhibitor parthenolide (PA or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS341, alone and in combination with tamoxifen. Expression microarray data available from 54 UCSF node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases with known clinical outcome were used to search for potential genes signifying upregulated NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity in association with tamoxifen resistance. The association of these genes with patient outcome was further evaluated using node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases identified from three other published data sets (Rotterdam, n = 209; Amsterdam, n = 68; Basel, n = 108, each having different patient age and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment characteristics. Results Doses of parthenolide and bortezomib capable of sensitizing the two endocrine resistant breast cancer models to tamoxifen were capable of suppressing NFκB and AP-1 regulated gene expression in combination with tamoxifen and also increased ER recruitment of the transcriptional co-repressor, NCoR. Transcript profiles from the UCSF breast cancer cases revealed three NFκB and AP-1 upregulated genes – cyclin D1, uPA and VEGF – capable of dichotomizing node-negative ER-positive cases into early and late relapsing subsets despite adjuvant tamoxfien therapy and most prognostic for younger age cases. Across the four independent sets of node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases

  18. Genetic dissection of independent and cooperative transcriptional activation by the LysR-type activator ThnR at close divergent promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Marín, Elena; Floriano, Belén; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of tetralin biodegradation operons is one of the examples of unconventional LysR-type mediated transcriptional regulation. ThnR activates transcription from two divergent and closely located promoters PB and PC. Although ThnR activates each promoter independently, transcription from each one increases when both promoters are together. Mutational analysis of the intergenic region shows that cooperative transcription is achieved through formation of a ThnR complex when bound to its respective sites at each promoter, via formation of a DNA loop. Mutations also defined ThnR contact sites that are important for independent transcriptional activation at each promoter. A mutation at the PB promoter region, which abolishes its independent transcription, does not affect at all PB transcription in the presence of the divergent promoter PC, thus indicating that the complex formed via DNA loop can compensate for the deficiencies in the correct protein-DNA interaction at one of the promoters. Combination of mutations in both promoters identifies a region at PC that is not important for its independent transcription but it is essential for cooperative transcription from both promoters. This work provides new insights into the diversity and complexity of activation mechanisms used by the most abundant type of bacterial transcriptional regulators. PMID:27087658

  19. Transcriptional activity of acetylcholinesterase gene is regulated by DNA methylation during C2C12 myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kei M; Gong, Amy G W; Xu, Miranda L; Lam, Candy T W; Zhang, Laura M L; Bi, Cathy W C; Cui, D; Cheng, Anthony W M; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K; Lin, Huangquan

    2016-07-01

    The expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme hydrolyzes neurotransmitter acetylcholine at vertebrate neuromuscular junction, is regulated during myogenesis, indicating the significance of muscle intrinsic factors in controlling the enzyme expression. DNA methylation is essential for temporal control of myogenic gene expression during myogenesis; however, its role in AChE regulation is not known. The promoter of vertebrate ACHE gene carries highly conserved CG-rich regions, implying its likeliness to be methylated for epigenetic regulation. A DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-azacytidine (5-Aza), was applied onto C2C12 cells throughout the myotube formation. When DNA methylation was inhibited, the promoter activity, transcript expression and enzymatic activity of AChE were markedly increased after day 3 of differentiation, which indicated the putative role of DNA methylation. By bisulfite pyrosequencing, the overall methylation rate was found to peak at day 3 during C2C12 cell differentiation; a SP1 site located at -1826bp upstream of mouse ACHE gene was revealed to be heavily methylated. The involvement of transcriptional factor SP1 in epigenetic regulation of AChE was illustrated here: (i) the SP1-driven transcriptional activity was increased in 5-Aza-treated C2C12 culture; (ii) the binding of SP1 onto the SP1 site of ACHE gene was fully blocked by the DNA methylation; and (iii) the sequence flanking SP1 sites of ACHE gene was precipitated by chromatin immuno-precipitation assay. The findings suggested the role of DNA methylation on AChE transcriptional regulation and provided insight in elucidating the DNA methylation-mediated regulatory mechanism on AChE expression during muscle differentiation. PMID:27021952

  20. Transcriptionally active regions are the preferred targets for chromosomal HPV integration in cervical carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kraus Christiansen

    Full Text Available Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV into the host genome is regarded as a determining event in cervical carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanism for integration, and the role of integration in stimulating cancer progression, is not fully characterized. Although integration sites are reported to appear randomly distributed over all chromosomes, fragile sites, translocation break points and transcriptionally active regions have all been suggested as being preferred sites for integration. In addition, more recent studies have reported integration events occurring within or surrounding essential cancer-related genes, raising the question whether these may reflect key events in the molecular genesis of HPV induced carcinomas. In a search for possible common denominators of the integration sites, we utilized the chromosomal coordinates of 121 viral-cellular fusion transcripts, and examined for statistical overrepresentation of integration sites with various features of ENCODE chromatin information data, using the Genomic HyperBrowser. We find that integration sites coincide with DNA that is transcriptionally active in mucosal epithelium, as judged by the relationship of integration sites to DNase hypersensitivity and H3K4me3 methylation data. Finding an association between integration and transcription is highly informative with regard to the spatio-temporal characteristics of the integration process. These results suggest that integration is an early event in carcinogenesis, more than a late product of chromosomal instability. If the viral integrations were more likely to occur in destabilized regions of the DNA, a completely random distribution of the integration sites would be expected. As a by-product of integration in actively transcribing DNA, a tendency of integration in or close to genes is likely to be observed. This increases the possibility of viral signals to modulate the expression of these genes, potentially contributing to the

  1. Molecular genetics of blood-fleshed peach reveals activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by NAC transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Wang, Huiliang; Gu, Chao; Dare, Andrew P; Espley, Richard V; He, Huaping; Allan, Andrew C; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin pigmentation is an important consumer trait in peach (Prunus persica). In this study, the genetic basis of the blood-flesh trait was investigated using the cultivar Dahongpao, which shows high levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside in the mesocarp. Elevation of anthocyanin levels in the flesh was correlated with the expression of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, PpMYB10.1. However, PpMYB10.1 did not co-segregate with the blood-flesh trait. The blood-flesh trait was mapped to a 200-kb interval on peach linkage group (LG) 5. Within this interval, a gene encoding a NAC domain transcription factor (TF) was found to be highly up-regulated in blood-fleshed peaches when compared with non-red-fleshed peaches. This NAC TF, designated blood (BL), acts as a heterodimer with PpNAC1 which shows high levels of expression in fruit at late developmental stages. We show that the heterodimer of BL and PpNAC1 can activate the transcription of PpMYB10.1, resulting in anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco. Furthermore, silencing the BL gene reduces anthocyanin pigmentation in blood-fleshed peaches. The transactivation activity of the BL-PpNAC1 heterodimer is repressed by a SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like TF, PpSPL1. Low levels of PpMYB10.1 expression in fruit at early developmental stages is probably attributable to lower levels of expression of PpNAC1 plus the presence of high levels of repressors such as PpSPL1. We present a mechanism whereby BL is the key gene for the blood-flesh trait in peach via its activation of PpMYB10.1 in maturing fruit. Partner TFs such as basic helix-loop-helix proteins and NAC1 are required, as is the removal of transcriptional repressors. PMID:25688923

  2. Histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase SET8 promotes androgen receptor-mediated transcription activation in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lushuai [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yanyan; Du, Fengxia [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Han, Xiao [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohua [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Niu, Yuanjie [Chawnshang Chang Sex Hormone Research Center, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Ren, Shancheng, E-mail: renshancheng@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Yingli, E-mail: sunyl@big.ac.cn [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Dihydrotestosterone stimulates H4K20me1 enrichment at the PSA promoter. • SET8 promotes AR-mediated transcription activation. • SET8 interacts with AR and promotes cell proliferation. - Abstract: Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.

  3. CITED2 modulates estrogen receptor transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Wen Min; Doucet, Michele; Huang, David; Weber, Kristy L.; Kominsky, Scott L., E-mail: kominsc@jhmi.edu

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •The effects of elevated CITED2 on ER function in breast cancer cells are examined. •CITED2 enhances cell growth in the absence of estrogen and presence of tamoxifen. •CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of ER in breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) is a member of the CITED family of non-DNA binding transcriptional co-activators of the p300/CBP-mediated transcription complex. Previously, we identified CITED2 as being overexpressed in human breast tumors relative to normal mammary epithelium. Upon further investigation within the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subset of these breast tumor samples, we found that CITED2 mRNA expression was elevated in those associated with poor survival. In light of this observation, we investigated the effect of elevated CITED2 levels on ER function. While ectopic overexpression of CITED2 in three ER-positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and CAMA-1) did not alter cell proliferation in complete media, growth was markedly enhanced in the absence of exogenous estrogen. Correspondingly, cells overexpressing CITED2 demonstrated reduced sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Subsequent studies revealed that basal ER transcriptional activity was elevated in CITED2-overexpressing cells and was further increased upon the addition of estrogen. Similarly, basal and estrogen-induced expression of the ER-regulated genes trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) was higher in cells overexpressing CITED2. Concordant with this observation, ChIP analysis revealed higher basal levels of CITED2 localized to the TFF-1 and PGR promoters in cells with ectopic overexpression of CITED2, and these levels were elevated further in response to estrogen stimulation. Taken together, these data indicate that CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator

  4. CITED2 modulates estrogen receptor transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The effects of elevated CITED2 on ER function in breast cancer cells are examined. •CITED2 enhances cell growth in the absence of estrogen and presence of tamoxifen. •CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of ER in breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) is a member of the CITED family of non-DNA binding transcriptional co-activators of the p300/CBP-mediated transcription complex. Previously, we identified CITED2 as being overexpressed in human breast tumors relative to normal mammary epithelium. Upon further investigation within the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subset of these breast tumor samples, we found that CITED2 mRNA expression was elevated in those associated with poor survival. In light of this observation, we investigated the effect of elevated CITED2 levels on ER function. While ectopic overexpression of CITED2 in three ER-positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and CAMA-1) did not alter cell proliferation in complete media, growth was markedly enhanced in the absence of exogenous estrogen. Correspondingly, cells overexpressing CITED2 demonstrated reduced sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Subsequent studies revealed that basal ER transcriptional activity was elevated in CITED2-overexpressing cells and was further increased upon the addition of estrogen. Similarly, basal and estrogen-induced expression of the ER-regulated genes trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) was higher in cells overexpressing CITED2. Concordant with this observation, ChIP analysis revealed higher basal levels of CITED2 localized to the TFF-1 and PGR promoters in cells with ectopic overexpression of CITED2, and these levels were elevated further in response to estrogen stimulation. Taken together, these data indicate that CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator

  5. BTG2 is an LXXLL-dependent co-repressor for androgen receptor transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → BTG2 associates with AR, androgen causes an increase of the interaction. → BTG2 as a co-repressor inhibits the AR-mediated transcription activity. → BTG2 inhibits the transcription activity and expression of PSA. → An intact 92LxxLL96 motif is essential and necessary for these activities of BTG2, while the 20LxxLL24 motif is not required. → Ectopic expression of BTG2 reduces proliferation of prostate cancer cells. -- Abstract: The tumor suppressor gene, BTG2 has been down-regulated in prostate cancer and the ectopic expression of this gene has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. Sequence analysis revealed that the BTG2 protein contains two leucine-rich motifs (20LxxLL24 and 92LxxLL96), which are usually found in nuclear receptor co-factors. Based on this, we postulated that there will be an association between BTG2 and AR. In this study, we discovered that BTG2 directly bound to the androgen receptor (AR) in the absence of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and in the presence of the androgen, this interaction was increased. BTG2 bearing the mutant 20LxxLL24 motif bound to AR equally efficient as the wild-type BTG2, while BTG2 bearing the mutant 92LxxLL96 motif failed to interact with AR. Functional studies indicated that ectopic expression of BTG2 caused a significant inhibition of AR-mediated transcriptional activity and a decreased growth of prostate cancer cells. Androgen-induced promoter activation and expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are significantly attenuated by BTG2. The intact 92LxxLL96 motif is required for these activities. These findings, for the first time, demonstrate that BTG2 complexes with AR via an LxxLL-dependent mechanism and may play a role in prostate cancer via modulating the AR signaling pathway.

  6. Transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 alpha drives the formation of slow-twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiandie; Wu, Hai; Tarr, Paul T; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Wu, Zhidan; Boss, Olivier; Michael, Laura F; Puigserver, Pere; Isotani, Eiji; Olson, Eric N; Lowell, Bradford B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2002-08-15

    The biochemical basis for the regulation of fibre-type determination in skeletal muscle is not well understood. In addition to the expression of particular myofibrillar proteins, type I (slow-twitch) fibres are much higher in mitochondrial content and are more dependent on oxidative metabolism than type II (fast-twitch) fibres. We have previously identified a transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 (PGC-1 alpha), which is expressed in several tissues including brown fat and skeletal muscle, and that activates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. We show here that PGC-1 alpha is expressed preferentially in muscle enriched in type I fibres. When PGC-1 alpha is expressed at physiological levels in transgenic mice driven by a muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter, a fibre type conversion is observed: muscles normally rich in type II fibres are redder and activate genes of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Notably, putative type II muscles from PGC-1 alpha transgenic mice also express proteins characteristic of type I fibres, such as troponin I (slow) and myoglobin, and show a much greater resistance to electrically stimulated fatigue. Using fibre-type-specific promoters, we show in cultured muscle cells that PGC-1 alpha activates transcription in cooperation with Mef2 proteins and serves as a target for calcineurin signalling, which has been implicated in slow fibre gene expression. These data indicate that PGC-1 alpha is a principal factor regulating muscle fibre type determination. PMID:12181572

  7. The role of RNA polymerase I transcription and embryonic genome activation in nucleolar development in bovine preimplantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Strejcek, F.; Petrovicova, I.;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RNA polymerase I (RPI) transcription in nucleolar development during major transcriptional activation (MTA) in cattle. Late eight-cell embryos were cultured in the absence (control group) or presence of actinomycin D (AD) (RPI inhibition...

  8. Activating RNAs associate with Mediator to enhance chromatin architecture and transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, F; Ørom, U.; M. Cesaroni; Beringer, M.; Taatjes, D.; Blobel, G; Shiekhattar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic research have revealed the existence of a large number of transcripts devoid of protein-coding potential in multiple organisms 1-8 . While the functional role for long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been best defined in epigenetic phenomena such as X inactivation and imprinting, different classes of lncRNAs may have varied biological functions 8-13 . We and others have identified a class of lncRNAs, termed ncRNA-activating (ncRNA-a), that function to activate their n...

  9. Transcriptional activities of mammalian genomes at sites of recombination with foreign DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleotide sequences of several sites of recombination between adenovirus DNA and hamster, mouse, or human cell DNAs were determined. These sites of recombination had been cloned from adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)- or type 12 (Ad12)-transformed cells, from Ad12-induced tumor cells, or from a symmetric recombinant between Ad12 DNA and human cell DNA. One important precondition for the generation of recombinants between host and foreign DNAs might be the establishment of a chromatin configuration that permits access of foreign DNA and of the recombination machinery to cellular DNA. Such favorable chromatin structures might arise during cellular DNA replication or transcription or both. As a first approach toward investigating these more complex problems of foreign DNA insertion. The authors determined transcriptional activities of cellular DNA sequences at viral junction sites. The results presented demonstrate that the cellular DNA sequences involved in linkage to viral DNA at five completely different sites in DNA from three different species are transcribed into RNAs even in cells which have not been transformed or infected by adenovirus. These results are consistent with the notion that at least some of the cellular DNA sequences at sites of insertion of adenovirus (foreign) DNA are transcriptionally active and thus provide an opportunity for recombination

  10. Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPARγ in adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Yoon-Jin [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Si Young [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Ryong, E-mail: trlee@amorepacific.com [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPARγ induced MRAP expression. •PPARγ bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPARγ to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the −1209/−1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPARγ is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes.

  11. Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPARγ in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPARγ induced MRAP expression. •PPARγ bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPARγ to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the −1209/−1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPARγ is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes

  12. Bromodomain protein 4 mediates the papillomavirus E2 transcriptional activation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Michal-Ruth; You, Jianxin; Howley, Peter M

    2006-05-01

    The papillomavirus E2 regulatory protein has essential roles in viral transcription and the initiation of viral DNA replication as well as for viral genome maintenance. Brd4 has recently been identified as a major E2-interacting protein and, in the case of the bovine papillomavirus type 1, serves to tether E2 and the viral genomes to mitotic chromosomes in dividing cells, thus ensuring viral genome maintenance. We have explored the possibility that Brd4 is involved in other E2 functions. By analyzing the binding of Brd4 to a series of alanine-scanning substitution mutants of the human papillomavirus type 16 E2 N-terminal transactivation domain, we found that amino acids required for Brd4 binding were also required for transcriptional activation but not for viral DNA replication. Functional studies of cells expressing either the C-terminal domain of Brd4 that can bind E2 and compete its binding to Brd4 or short interfering RNA to knock down Brd4 protein levels revealed a role for Brd4 in the transcriptional activation function of E2 but not for its viral DNA replication function. Therefore, these studies establish a broader role for Brd4 in the papillomavirus life cycle than as the chromosome tether for E2 during mitosis. PMID:16611886

  13. ELK3 suppresses angiogenesis by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of ETS-1 on MT1-MMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sun-Hee; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2014-01-01

    Ets transcription factors play important roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Knockout of the Ets gene family members in mice resulted in disrupted angiogenesis and malformed vascular systems. In this study, the role and mechanism of ELK3, an Ets factor, in angiogenesis was investigated using ELK3-specific siRNA in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo implantation assay. The suppression of ELK3 expression resulted in the reinforcement of VEGF-induced tube formation in HUVECs. The in vivo Matrigel plug assay also showed that ELK3 knockdown resulted in increased angiogenesis. Luciferase activity of the MT1-MMP promoter induced by ETS-1 factor was attenuated ELK3 co-transfection. CHIP assay showed the binding of ELK3 on the MT1-MMP promoter. MT1-MMP knockdown in the ELK3 knockdowned cells resulted in the decrease of tube formation suggesting that MT1-MMP transcriptional repression is required for ELK3-mediated anti-angiogenesis effect. Our data also showed that the suppressive effect of ELK3 on the angiogenesis was partly due to the inhibitory effect of ELK3 to the ETS-1 transcriptional activity on the MT1-MMP promoter rather than direct suppression of ELK3 on the target gene, since the expression level of co-repressor Sin3A is low in endothelial cells. Our results suggest that ELK3 plays a negative role of VEGF-induced angiogenesis through indirectly inhibiting ETS-1 function. PMID:24719561

  14. FBXL5 modulates HIF-1α transcriptional activity by degradation of CITED2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Oliveira, Gisela; Guerreiro, Eduarda; Matias, Ana Catarina; Facucho-Oliveira, João; Pacheco-Leyva, Ivette; Bragança, José

    2015-06-15

    CITED2 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein exhibiting a high affinity for the cysteine-histidine-rich domain 1 (CH1) of the transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300. CITED2 is particularly efficient in the inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) dependent transcription by competing with it for the interaction with the CH1 domain. Here we report a direct and specific interaction between CITED2 and the F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5), a substrate adaptor protein which is part of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes mediating protein degradation by the proteasome. We demonstrated that depletion of FBXL5 by RNA interference led to an increase of CITED2 protein levels. Conversely, overexpression of FBXL5 caused the decrease of CITED2 protein levels in a proteasome-dependent manner, and impaired the interaction between CITED2 and the CH1 domain of p300 in living cells. In undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells, the overexpression of FBXL5 also reduced Cited2 protein levels. Finally, we evidenced that FBXL5 overexpression and the consequent degradation of CITED2 enabled the transcriptional activity of the N-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-1α. Collectively, our results highlighted a novel molecular interaction between CITED2 and FBXL5, which might regulate the steady state CITED2 protein levels and contribute to the modulation of gene expression by HIF-1α. PMID:25956243

  15. Combinatorial activation and repression by seven transcription factors specify Drosophila odorant receptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Jafari

    Full Text Available The mechanism that specifies olfactory sensory neurons to express only one odorant receptor (OR from a large repertoire is critical for odor discrimination but poorly understood. Here, we describe the first comprehensive analysis of OR expression regulation in Drosophila. A systematic, RNAi-mediated knock down of most of the predicted transcription factors identified an essential function of acj6, E93, Fer1, onecut, sim, xbp1, and zf30c in the regulation of more than 30 ORs. These regulatory factors are differentially expressed in antennal sensory neuron classes and specifically required for the adult expression of ORs. A systematic analysis reveals not only that combinations of these seven factors are necessary for receptor gene expression but also a prominent role for transcriptional repression in preventing ectopic receptor expression. Such regulation is supported by bioinformatics and OR promoter analyses, which uncovered a common promoter structure with distal repressive and proximal activating regions. Thus, our data provide insight into how combinatorial activation and repression can allow a small number of transcription factors to specify a large repertoire of neuron classes in the olfactory system.

  16. Cyclin D3 interacts with vitamin D receptor and regulates its transcription activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-type cyclins are essential for the progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Besides serving as cell cycle regulators, D-type cyclins were recently reported to have transcription regulation functions. Here, we report that cyclin D3 is a new interacting partner of vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors for steroid hormones, thyroid hormone, and the fat-soluble vitamins A and D. The interaction was confirmed with methods of yeast two-hybrid system, in vitro binding analysis and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation. Cyclin D3 interacted with VDR in a ligand-independent manner, but treatment of the ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, strengthened the interaction. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that ligand-activated VDR led to an accumulation of cyclin D3 in the nuclear region. Cyclin D3 up-regulated transcriptional activity of VDR and this effect was counteracted by overexpression of CDK4 and CDK6. These findings provide us a new clue to understand the transcription regulation functions of D-type cyclins

  17. Sorafenib Inhibits Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 Signaling in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells by Activating the Phosphatase Shatterproof 2

    OpenAIRE

    Blechacz, Boris R. A.; Smoot, Rory L.; Bronk, Steven F; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Sirica, Alphonse E.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of the key signaling cascades in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells, mediating their resistance to apoptosis. Our aim was to ascertain if sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, may also inhibit JAK/STAT signaling and, therefore, be efficacious for CCA. Sorafenib treatment of three human CCA cell lines resulted in Tyr705 phospho-STAT3 dephosphorylation. Similar results were obtained with the Raf-kinase inhibit...

  18. RelB, a new Rel family transcription activator that can interact with p50-NF-kappa B.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryseck, R P; Bull, P.; Takamiya, M.; Bours, V; Siebenlist, U; Dobrzanski, P; Bravo, R.

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a serum-inducible gene, relB, which encodes a protein of 558 amino acids containing a region with high similarity to c-Rel and other members of the Rel family. Transcriptional activation analysis of GAL4-RelB fusion proteins in yeast cells reveals that RelB contains in its C-terminal 180 amino acids a transcriptional activation domain. The N-terminal part including the region of similarity with the Rel family shows no detectable transcriptional activity. RelB does not bind ...

  19. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  20. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Phlorofucofuroeckol A via Upregulation of Activating Transcription Factor 3 against Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Eo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlorofucofuroeckol A (PFF-A, one of the phlorotannins found in brown algae, has been reported to exert anti-cancer property. However, the molecular mechanism for the anti-cancer effect of PFF-A has not been known. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 has been reported to be associated with apoptosis in colorectal cancer. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which PFF-A stimulates ATF3 expression and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. PFF-A decreased cell viability through apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells. PFF-A increased ATF3 expression through regulating transcriptional activity. The responsible cis-element for ATF3 transcriptional activation by PFF-A was cAMP response element binding protein (CREB, located between positions −147 and −85 of the ATF3 promoter. Inhibition of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK 3β, and IκB kinase (IKK-α blocked PFF-A-mediated ATF3 expression. ATF3 knockdown by ATF3 siRNA attenuated the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP by PFF-A, while ATF3 overexpression increased PFF-A-mediated cleaved PARP. These results suggest that PFF-A may exert anti-cancer property through inducing apoptosis via the ATF3-mediated pathway in human colorectal cancer cells.

  1. Rg1 Attenuates alcoholic hepatic damage through regulating AMP-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shi-Feng; Xia, Cong-Yuan; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Rg1 has shown multiple pharmacological activities and been considered to be evaluated for hepatic protective activity, as Rg1 could modulate different pathways in various diseases. Herein we assessed its effect and potential mechanism in a newly modified ethanol model. C57BL/6 mice were fed with Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin as control diet with or without Rg1. Meanwhile, bicyclol was treated as positive drug to compare the efficacy of Rg1 against alcoholic hepatotoxicity. According to our data, Rg1 indeed improved the survival rate and lowered the abnormal high levels of serum parameters. H&E and Oil Red O staining indicated that the condition of liver damage was mitigated by Rg1 administration. Furthermore, AMPK and Nrf2 pathways were all modulated at both RNA and protein levels. In accordance with these findings, Rg1 effectively protected against alcoholic liver injury, possibly by modulating metabolism, suppressing oxidative stress, and enhancing oxidant defense systems of Nrf2 pathway. In vitro, Rg1 has no cell toxicity and promotes Nrf2 translocate into nuclear. In summary, we demonstrate that Rg1 is a potent activator of Nrf2 pathway, and could therefore be applied for prevention of hepatic damage. PMID:27229011

  2. Tyrosine phosphorylation and protein degradation control the transcriptional activity of WRKY involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIQ) are among the most structurally diverse and pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. A plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, was isolated from Coptis japonica and identified as a transcriptional activator of BIQ biosynthesis. However, the expression of CjWRKY1 gene alone was not sufficient for the activation of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Here, we report the importance of post-translational regulation of CjWRKY1 in BIQ biosynthesis. First, we detected the differential accumulation of CjWRKY1 protein in two cell lines with similar CjWRKY1 gene expression but different levels of accumulated alkaloids. Further investigation of the WRKY protein identified the phosphorylation of the WRKYGQK core domain at Y115. The CjWRKYY115E phosphorylation-mimic mutant showed loss of nuclear localization, DNA-binding activity, and transactivation activity compared to wild-type CjWRKY1. Rapid degradation of the CjWRKY1 protein was also confirmed following treatment with inhibitors of the 26S proteasome and protease inhibitors. The existence of two independent degradation pathways as well as protein phosphorylation suggests the fine-tuning of CjWRKY1 activities is involved in the regulation of biosynthesis of BIQs. PMID:27552928

  3. Leishmania donovani activates nuclear transcription factor-κB in macrophages through reactive oxygen intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of Leishmania donovani with macrophages antagonizes host defense mechanisms by interfering with a cascade of cell signaling processes in the macrophages. An early intracellular signaling event that follows receptor engagement is the activation of transcription factor NF-κB. It has been reported earlier that NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway regulates proinflammatory cytokine release. We therefore investigated the effect of L. donovani infectivity on this nuclear transcription factor in macrophage cell line J774A.1. Both L. donovani and its surface molecule lipophosphoglycan (LPG) resulted in a dose- and time-dependent activation of NF-κB-DNA binding activity in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We also report the involvement of IκB-α and IκB-β in the persistent activation of NF-κB by L. donovani. We demonstrate that the NF-κB activation was independent of viability of the parasite. Electrophoretic mobility supershift assay indicated that the NF-κB complex consists of p65 and c-rel subunits. The interaction of parasite with the macrophages and not the cellular uptake was important for NF-κB activation. Both p38 and ERK mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) activation appears to be necessary for NF-κB activation by LPG. Preincubation of cells with antioxidants resulted in inhibition of L. donovani induced NF-κB activation, thereby suggesting a potential role of reactive oxygen species in L. donovani induced intracellular signaling. The present data indicate that antioxidants could play an important role in working out various therapeutic modalities to control leishmaniasis

  4. Nuclear factor I revealed as family of promoter binding transcription activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plasari Genta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex experimental assays coupled to computational predictions are being increasingly employed for the simultaneous analysis of many specimens at the genome scale, which quickly generates very large amounts of data. However, inferring valuable biological information from the comparisons of very large genomic datasets still represents an enormous challenge. Results As a study model, we chose the NFI/CTF family of mammalian transcription factors and we compared the results obtained from a genome-wide study of its binding sites with chromatin structure assays, gene expression microarray data, and in silico binding site predictions. We found that NFI/CTF family members preferentially bind their DNA target sites when they are located around transcription start sites when compared to control datasets generated from the random subsampling of the complete set of NFI binding sites. NFI proteins preferably associate with the upstream regions of genes that are highly expressed and that are enriched in active chromatin modifications such as H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. We postulate that this is a causal association and that NFI proteins mainly act as activators of transcription. This was documented for one member of the family (NFI-C, which revealed as a more potent gene activator than repressor in global gene expression analysis. Interestingly, we also discovered the association of NFI with the tri-methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3, a chromatin marker previously associated with the protection against silencing of telomeric genes by NFI. Conclusion Taken together, we illustrate approaches that can be taken to analyze large genomic data, and provide evidence that NFI family members may act in conjunction with specific chromatin modifications to activate gene expression.

  5. Epigenetic mediated transcriptional activation of WNT5A participates in arsenical-associated malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen with exposure associated with cancer of the lung, skin, and bladder. Many potential mechanisms have been implicated as playing a role in the process of arsenical-induced malignancy including the perturbation of signaling pathways and aberrant epigenetic regulation. We initiated studies to examine the role of a member of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway, WNT5A, in UROtsa cells and arsenite [URO-ASSC] and monomethylarsonous acid [URO-MSC] malignantly transformed variants. We present data herein that suggest that WNT5A is transcriptionally activated during arsenical-induced malignant transformation. This WNT5A transcriptional activation is correlated with the enrichment of permissive histone modifications and the reduction of repressive modifications in the WNT5A promoter region. The epigenetic activation of WNT5A expression and acetylation of its promoter remain after the removal of the arsenical, consistent with the maintenance of an anchorage independent growth phenotype in these cells. Additionally, treatment with epigenetic modifying drugs supports a functional role for these epigenetic marks in controlling gene expression. Reduction of WNT5A using lentiviral shRNA greatly attenuated the ability of these cells to grow in an anchorage independent fashion. Extension of our model into human bladder cancer cell lines indicates that each of the cell lines examined also express WNT5A. Taken together, these data suggest that the epigenetic remodeling of the WNT5A promoter is correlated with its transcriptional activation and this upregulation likely participates in arsenical-induced malignant transformation

  6. Effects of calmodulin on DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor (HSF) was induced by heat shock (HS) of a whole cell extract. Addition of antiserum, specific to CaM, to a whole cell extract reduced bind of the HSF to the heat shock element (HSE) with maize, and the re-addition of CaM to the sample restored the activity of the HSF for binding to HSE. In addition, DNA-binding activity of the HSF was also induced by directly adding CaM to a whole cell extract at non-HS temperature with maize. Similar results were obtained with wheat and tomato. Our observations provide the first example of the involvement of CaM in regulation of the DNA-binding activity of the HSF.

  7. Post-translational Control of the Temporal Dynamics of Transcription Factor Activity Regulates Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiao-Jiang; Yuan, Liqun; Tiberi, Luca; Claeys, Annelies; De Geest, Natalie; Yan, Jiekun; van der Kant, Rob; Xie, Wei R; Klisch, Tiemo J; Shymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Bollen, Mathieu; Beullens, Monique; Zoghbi, Huda Y; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; Hassan, Bassem A

    2016-01-28

    Neurogenesis is initiated by the transient expression of the highly conserved proneural proteins, bHLH transcriptional regulators. Here, we discover a conserved post-translational switch governing the duration of proneural protein activity that is required for proper neuronal development. Phosphorylation of a single Serine at the same position in Scute and Atonal proneural proteins governs the transition from active to inactive forms by regulating DNA binding. The equivalent Neurogenin2 Threonine also regulates DNA binding and proneural activity in the developing mammalian neocortex. Using genome editing in Drosophila, we show that Atonal outlives its mRNA but is inactivated by phosphorylation. Inhibiting the phosphorylation of the conserved proneural Serine causes quantitative changes in expression dynamics and target gene expression resulting in neuronal number and fate defects. Strikingly, even a subtle change from Serine to Threonine appears to shift the duration of Atonal activity in vivo, resulting in neuronal fate defects. PMID:26824657

  8. Regulation of WRKY46 Transcription Factor Function by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Arsheed H; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Pecher, Pascal; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Sinha, Alok K; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are central signaling pathways activated in plants after sensing internal developmental and external stress cues. Knowledge about the downstream substrate proteins of MAPKs is still limited in plants. We screened Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factors as potential targets downstream of MAPKs, and concentrated on characterizing WRKY46 as a substrate of the MAPK, MPK3. Mass spectrometry revealed in vitro phosphorylation of WRKY46 at amino acid position S168 by MPK3. However, mutagenesis studies showed that a second phosphosite, S250, can also be phosphorylated. Elicitation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the bacterial flagellin-derived flg22 peptide led to in vivo destabilization of WRKY46 in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Mutation of either phosphorylation site reduced the PAMP-induced degradation of WRKY46. Furthermore, the protein for the double phosphosite mutant is expressed at higher levels compared to wild-type proteins or single phosphosite mutants. In line with its nuclear localization and predicted function as a transcriptional activator, overexpression of WRKY46 in protoplasts raised basal plant defense as reflected by the increase in promoter activity of the PAMP-responsive gene, NHL10, in a MAPK-dependent manner. Thus, MAPK-mediated regulation of WRKY46 is a mechanism to control plant defense. PMID:26870073

  9. Impact of Heavy Metals on Transcriptional and Physiological Activity of Nitrifying Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Vikram; Li, Xuan; Elk, Michael; Chandran, Kartik; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-11-17

    Heavy metals can inhibit nitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. The transcriptional responses of amoA, hao, nirK, and norB were measured in conjunction with specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) for nitrifying enrichment cultures exposed to different metals (Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II)). There was significant decrease in sOUR with increasing concentrations for Ni(II) (0.03-3 mg/L), Zn(II) (0.1-10 mg/L), and Cd(II) (0.03-1 mg/L) (p amoA and hao decreased when exposed to Ni(II) dosages. Slight up-regulation of amoA, hao, and nirK (0.5-1.5-fold) occurred after exposure to 0.3-3 mg/L Zn(II), although their expression decreased for 10 mg/L Zn(II). With the exception of 1000 mg/L Pb(II), stimulation of all genes occurred on Cd(II) and Pb(II) exposure. While overall the results show that RNA-based function-specific assays can be used as potential surrogates for measuring nitrification activity, the degree of inhibition inferred from sOUR and gene transcription is different. We suggest that variations in transcription of functional genes may supplement sOUR based assays as early warning indicators of upsets in nitrification. PMID:26501957

  10. Pim1 promotes human prostate cancer cell tumorigenicity and c-MYC transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serine/threonine kinase PIM1 has been implicated as an oncogene in various human cancers including lymphomas, gastric, colorectal and prostate carcinomas. In mouse models, Pim1 is known to cooperate with c-Myc to promote tumorigenicity. However, there has been limited analysis of the tumorigenic potential of Pim1 overexpression in benign and malignant human prostate cancer cells in vivo. We overexpressed Pim1 in three human prostate cell lines representing different disease stages including benign (RWPE1), androgen-dependent cancer (LNCaP) and androgen-independent cancer (DU145). We then analyzed in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity as well as the effect of Pim1 overexpression on c-MYC transcriptional activity by reporter assays and gene expression profiling using an inducible MYC-ER system. To validate that Pim1 induces tumorigenicity and target gene expression by modulating c-MYC transcriptional activity, we inhibited c-MYC using a small molecule inhibitor (10058-F4) or RNA interference. Overexpression of Pim1 alone was not sufficient to convert the benign RWPE1 cell to malignancy although it enhanced their proliferation rates when grown as xenografts in vivo. However, Pim1 expression enhanced the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials of the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145. Reporter assays revealed increased c-MYC transcriptional activity in Pim1-expressing cells and mRNA expression profiling demonstrated that a large fraction of c-MYC target genes were also regulated by Pim1 expression. The c-MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 suppressed the tumorigenicity of Pim1-expressing prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, 10058-F4 treatment also led to a reduction of Pim1 protein but not mRNA. Knocking-down c-MYC using short hairpin RNA reversed the effects of Pim1 on Pim1/MYC target genes. Our results suggest an in vivo role of Pim1 in promoting prostate tumorigenesis although it displayed distinct oncogenic activities depending on the disease stage of the

  11. Conserved and Diverged Functions of the Calcineurin-Activated Prz1 Transcription Factor in Fission Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield-Reed, Kate; Vachon, Lianne; Kwon, Eun-Joo Gina; Chua, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation in response to intracellular calcium is mediated by the calcineurin-activated transcription factor Prz1 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Genome-wide studies of the Crz1 and CrzA fungal orthologs have uncovered numerous target genes involved in conserved and species-specific cellular processes. In contrast, very few target genes of Prz1 have been published. This article identifies an extensive list of genes using transcriptome and ChIP-chip analyses under inducing conditions of Prz1, including CaCl2 and tunicamycin treatment, as well as a ∆pmr1 genetic background. We identified 165 upregulated putative target genes of Prz1 in which the majority contained a calcium-dependent response element in their promoters, similar to that of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog Crz1. These genes were functionally enriched for Crz1-conserved processes such as cell-wall biosynthesis. Overexpression of prz1+ increased resistance to the cell-wall degradation enzyme zymolyase, likely from upregulation of the O-mannosyltransferase encoding gene omh1+. Loss of omh1+ abrogates this phenotype. We uncovered a novel inhibitory role in flocculation for Prz1. Loss of prz1+ resulted in constitutive flocculation and upregulation of genes encoding the flocculins Gsf2 and Pfl3, as well as the transcription factor Cbf12. The constitutive flocculation of the ∆prz1 strain was abrogated by the loss of gsf2+ or cbf12+. This study reveals that Prz1 functions as a positive and negative transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cell-wall biosynthesis and flocculation, respectively. Moreover, comparison of target genes between Crz1/CrzA and Prz1 indicate some conservation in DNA-binding specificity, but also substantial rewiring of the calcineurin-mediated transcriptional regulatory network. PMID:26896331

  12. Conserved and Diverged Functions of the Calcineurin-Activated Prz1 Transcription Factor in Fission Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield-Reed, Kate; Vachon, Lianne; Kwon, Eun-Joo Gina; Chua, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Gene regulation in response to intracellular calcium is mediated by the calcineurin-activated transcription factor Prz1 in the fission yeastSchizosaccharomyces pombe Genome-wide studies of theCrz1and CrzA fungal orthologs have uncovered numerous target genes involved in conserved and species-specific cellular processes. In contrast, very few target genes of Prz1 have been published. This article identifies an extensive list of genes using transcriptome and ChIP-chip analyses under inducing conditions of Prz1, including CaCl2and tunicamycin treatment, as well as a∆pmr1genetic background. We identified 165 upregulated putative target genes of Prz1 in which the majority contained a calcium-dependent response element in their promoters, similar to that of theSaccharomyces cerevisiaeorthologCrz1 These genes were functionally enriched forCrz1-conserved processes such as cell-wall biosynthesis. Overexpression ofprz1(+)increased resistance to the cell-wall degradation enzyme zymolyase, likely from upregulation of theO-mannosyltransferase encoding geneomh1(+) Loss ofomh1(+)abrogates this phenotype. We uncovered a novel inhibitory role in flocculation for Prz1. Loss ofprz1(+)resulted in constitutive flocculation and upregulation of genes encoding the flocculins Gsf2 and Pfl3, as well as the transcription factor Cbf12. The constitutive flocculation of the∆prz1strain was abrogated by the loss ofgsf2(+)orcbf12(+) This study reveals that Prz1 functions as a positive and negative transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cell-wall biosynthesis and flocculation, respectively. Moreover, comparison of target genes betweenCrz1/CrzA and Prz1 indicate some conservation in DNA-binding specificity, but also substantial rewiring of the calcineurin-mediated transcriptional regulatory network. PMID:26896331

  13. Essential role of RelA Ser311 phosphorylation by ζPKC in NF-κB transcriptional activation

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, Angeles; Diaz-Meco, María T.; Moscat, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    The activation of the transcription factor NF-κB is central to the control of the cellular response triggered by many stimuli. Once released from the inhibitory molecule IκB, NF-κB is translocated to the nucleus, and it has to be phosphorylated to activate transcription. In ζ protein kinase C (PKC)-deficient cells, NF-κB is transcriptionally inactive and the phosphorylation of the RelA subunit in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) is severely impaired. In vitro assays showed that ζPKC ...

  14. Regulation of Transcription through Light-Activation and Light-Deactivation of Triplex-Forming Oligonucleotides in Mammalian Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Govan, Jeane M.; Uprety, Rajendra; Hemphill, James; Lively, Mark O.; Deiters, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are efficient tools to regulate gene expression through the inhibition of transcription. Here, nucleobase-caging technology was applied to the first temporal regulation of transcription through light-activated TFOs. Through site-specific incorporation of caged thymidine nucleotides, the TFO:DNA triplex formation is blocked, rendering the TFO inactive. However, after a brief UV irradiation, the caging groups are removed, activating the TFO, and leading t...

  15. A dual role for zinc fingers in both DNA binding and zinc sensing by the Zap1 transcriptional activator

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Amanda J.; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Huan; Jensen, Laran T.; Srinivasan, Chandra; Evans-Galea, Marguerite; Winge, Dennis R.; Eide, David J.

    2000-01-01

    The Zap1 transcriptional activator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae controls zinc homeostasis. Zap1 induces target gene expression in zinc-limited cells and is repressed by high zinc. One such target gene is ZAP1 itself. In this report, we examine how zinc regulates Zap1 function. First, we show that transcriptional autoregulation of Zap1 is a minor component of zinc responsiveness; most regulation of Zap1 activity occurs post-translationally. Secondly, nuclear localization of Zap1 does not change...

  16. Transcriptional activation of the nitrogenase promoter in vitro: adenosine nucleotides are required for inhibition of NIFA activity by NIFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eydmann, T; Söderbäck, E; Jones, T; Hill, S; Austin, S; Dixon, R

    1995-03-01

    The enhancer-binding protein NIFA is required for transcriptional activation of nif promoters by the alternative holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase, which contains the sigma factor sigma 54 (sigma N). NIFA hydrolyzes nucleoside triphosphates to catalyze the isomerization of closed promoter complexes to transcriptionally competent open complexes. The activity of NIFA is antagonized by the regulatory protein NIFL in response to oxygen and fixed nitrogen in vivo. We have investigated the requirement for nucleotides in the formation and stability of open promoter complexes by NIFA and inhibition of its activity by NIFL at the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifH promoter. Open complexes formed by sigma 54-containing RNA polymerase are considerably more stable to heparin challenge in the presence of GTP than in the presence of ATP. This differential stability is most probably a consequence of GTP being the initiating nucleotide at this promoter. Adenosine nucleosides are specifically required for Azotobacter vinelandii NIFL to inhibit open complex formation by native NIFA, and the nucleoside triphosphatase activity of NIFA is strongly inhibited by NIFL under these conditions. We propose a model in which NIFL modulates the activity of NIFA via an adenosine nucleotide switch. PMID:7868590

  17. Functional interactions of the AF-2 activation domain core region of the human androgen receptor with the amino-terminal domain and with the transcriptional coactivator TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor2)

    OpenAIRE

    Berrevoets, Cor; P. Doesburg; Steketee, Karine; Trapman, Jan; Brinkmann, Albert

    1998-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies in yeast and mammalian cells showed a functional interaction between the amino-terminal domain and the carboxy-terminal, ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR). In the present study, the AR subdomains involved in this in vivo interaction were determined in more detail. Cotransfection experiments in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and two-hybrid experiments in yeast revealed that two regions in the NH2-terminal domain are involved in the ...

  18. Dual effects of TGF-β on ERα-mediated estrogenic transcriptional activity in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-β resistance often develops in breast cancer cells that in turn overproduce this cytokine to create a local immunosuppressive environment that fosters tumor growth and exacerbates the invasive and metastatic behavior of the tumor cells themselves. Smads-mediated cross-talk with the estrogen receptor has been implied to play an important role in development and/or progression of breast cancer. We investigated how TGF-β regulates ERα-induced gene transcription and potential mechanisms of frequent TGF-β resistance in breast cancer. Methods Effect of TGF-β on ERα-mediated gene transcription was investigated in breast cancer cell lines using transient transfection, real-time PCR, sequential DNA precipitation, and small interfering RNA assays. The expression of Smads on both human breast cancer cell lines and ERα-positive human breast cancer tissue was evaluated by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical assays. Results A complex of Smad3/4 mediates TGF-β inhibition of ERα-mediated estrogenic activity of gene transcription in breast cancer cells, and Smad4 is essential and sufficient for such repression. Either overexpression of Smad3 or inhibition of Smad4 leads to the "switch" of TGF-β from a repressor to an activator. Down-regulation and abnormal cellular distribution of Smad4 were associated with some ERα-positive infiltrating human breast carcinoma. There appears a dynamic change of Smad4 expression from benign breast ductal tissue to infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Conclusion These results suggest that aberrant expression of Smad4 or disruption of Smad4 activity lead to the loss of TGF-β suppression of ERα transactivity in breast cancer cells.

  19. Activating transcription factor 6 is necessary and sufficient for alcoholic fatty liver disease in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L Howarth

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease (FLD is characterized by lipid accumulation in hepatocytes and is accompanied by secretory pathway dysfunction, resulting in induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6, one of three main UPR sensors, functions to both promote FLD during acute stress and reduce FLD during chronic stress. There is little mechanistic understanding of how ATF6, or any other UPR factor, regulates hepatic lipid metabolism to cause disease. We addressed this using zebrafish genetics and biochemical analyses and demonstrate that Atf6 is necessary and sufficient for FLD. atf6 transcription is significantly upregulated in the liver of zebrafish with alcoholic FLD and morpholino-mediated atf6 depletion significantly reduced steatosis incidence caused by alcohol. Moreover, overexpression of active, nuclear Atf6 (nAtf6 in hepatocytes caused FLD in the absence of stress. mRNA-Seq and qPCR analyses of livers from five day old nAtf6 transgenic larvae revealed upregulation of genes promoting glyceroneogenesis and fatty acid elongation, including fatty acid synthase (fasn, and nAtf6 overexpression in both zebrafish larvae and human hepatoma cells increased the incorporation of 14C-acetate into lipids. Srebp transcription factors are key regulators of lipogenic enzymes, but reducing Srebp activation by scap morpholino injection neither prevented FLD in nAtf6 transgenics nor synergized with atf6 knockdown to reduce alcohol-induced FLD. In contrast, fasn morpholino injection reduced FLD in nAtf6 transgenic larvae and synergistically interacted with atf6 to reduce alcoholic FLD. Thus, our data demonstrate that Atf6 is required for alcoholic FLD and epistatically interacts with fasn to cause this disease, suggesting triglyceride biogenesis as the mechanism of UPR induced FLD.

  20. Controlled Osteogenic Differentiation of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Tetracycline-Controlled Transcriptional Activation of Amelogenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wang

    Full Text Available Regenerative dental therapies for bone tissues rely on efficient targeting of endogenous and transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to guide bone formation. Amelogenin is the primary component of Emdogain, which is used to regenerate periodontal defects; however, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects on alveolar bone remain unclear. The tetracycline (Tet-dependent transcriptional regulatory system is a good candidate to investigate distinct roles of genes of interest during stem cell differentiation. Here, we investigated amelogenin-dependent regulation of osteogenesis in MSCs by establishing a Tet-controlled transcriptional activation system. Clonal mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs were lentivirally transduced with the Tet repressor (TetR expression vector followed by drug selection to obtain MSCs constitutively expressing TetR (MSCs-TetR. Expression vectors that contained the Tet operator and amelogenin-coding (Amelx cDNA fragments were constructed using the Gateway system and lentivirally introduced into MSCs-TetR to generate a Tet regulation system in MSCs (MSCs-TetR/Amelx. MSCs-TetR/Amelx significantly overexpressed the Amelx gene and protein in the presence of the tetracycline derivative doxycycline. Concomitant expression of osterix, bone sialoprotein (BSP, osteopontin, and osteocalcin was modulated by addition or removal of doxycycline under osteogenic guidance. During osteogenic induction, MSCs-TetR/Amelx treated with doxycycline showed significantly increased gene expression of osterix, type I collagen, BSP, and osteocalcin in addition to increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation. Enhanced extracellular matrix calcification was observed when forced Amelx expression commenced at the early stage but not at the intermediate or late stages of osteogenesis. These results suggest that a Tet-controlled Amelx gene regulation system for mouse MSCs was successfully established, in which transcriptional

  1. Transcriptional activation of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 by nuclear receptor TLX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An orphan nuclear receptor TLX is a transcriptional repressor that promotes the proliferation and self-renewal of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, is highly expressed in the NPCs and participates in neurogenesis. Here, we found that TLX colocalized with SIRT1 and knockdown of TLX by small interfering RNAs decreased SIRT1 levels in NPCs. TLX increased the SIRT1 expression by binding to the newly identified TLX-activating element in the SIRT1 gene promoter in HEK293 cells. Thus, TLX is an inducer of SIRT1 and may contribute to neurogenesis both as a transactivator and as a repressor.

  2. Transcriptional activation of NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 by nuclear receptor TLX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Naotoshi [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Hisahara, Shin; Hayashi, Takashi [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Department of Neurology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Horio, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: horio@sapmed.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan)

    2009-09-04

    An orphan nuclear receptor TLX is a transcriptional repressor that promotes the proliferation and self-renewal of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SIRT1, an NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase, is highly expressed in the NPCs and participates in neurogenesis. Here, we found that TLX colocalized with SIRT1 and knockdown of TLX by small interfering RNAs decreased SIRT1 levels in NPCs. TLX increased the SIRT1 expression by binding to the newly identified TLX-activating element in the SIRT1 gene promoter in HEK293 cells. Thus, TLX is an inducer of SIRT1 and may contribute to neurogenesis both as a transactivator and as a repressor.

  3. Interdependent Recruitment of SAGA and Srb Mediator by Transcriptional Activator Gcn4p

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Hongfang; Hu, Cuihua; Zhang, Fan; Hwang, Gwo Jiunn; Swanson, Mark J.; Boonchird, Cheunchit; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional activation by Gcn4p is enhanced by the coactivators SWI/SNF, SAGA, and Srb mediator, which stimulate recruitment of TATA binding protein (TBP) and polymerase II to target promoters. We show that wild-type recruitment of SAGA by Gcn4p is dependent on mediator but independent of SWI/SNF function at three different promoters. Recruitment of mediator is also independent of SWI/SNF but is enhanced by SAGA at a subset of Gcn4p target genes. Recruitment of all three coactivators to A...

  4. Autogenous regulation of ethanolamine utilization by a transcriptional activator of the eut operon in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Roof, D M; Roth, J R

    1992-01-01

    The genes required for use of ethanolamine as a carbon and nitrogen source are encoded by a single operon (eut) whose expression is induced by the simultaneous presence of both ethanolamine and cobalamin (vitamin B12). The action of B12 as an inducer of this operon reflects the fact that this cofactor is required by the degradative enzyme ethanolamine lyase (eutBC). The eutR gene encodes a protein that activates transcription of the eut operon in response to the simultaneous presence of B12 a...

  5. Comprehensive analysis of the specificity of transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juillerat, Alexandre; Dubois, Gwendoline; Valton, Julien;

    2014-01-01

    A key issue when designing and using DNA-targeting nucleases is specificity. Ideally, an optimal DNA-targeting tool has only one recognition site within a genomic sequence. In practice, however, almost all designer nucleases available today can accommodate one to several mutations within their...... target site. The ability to predict the specificity of targeting is thus highly desirable. Here, we describe the first comprehensive experimental study focused on the specificity of the four commonly used repeat variable diresidues (RVDs; NI:A, HD:C, NN:G and NG:T) incorporated in transcription activator...

  6. Separation of the transcriptional activation and replication functions of the bovine papillomavirus-1 E2 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Winokur, P. L.; McBride, A A

    1992-01-01

    Replication of bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) DNA requires two viral gene products, the E1 protein and the full-length E2 protein. The 48 kDa E2 protein is a site-specific DNA-binding protein that binds to several sites which lie adjacent to the BPV-1 origin of replication. The 85 amino acid C-terminal domain contains the specific DNA binding and dimerization properties of the protein. The approximately 200 amino acid N-terminal domain is crucial for transcriptional activation. Both of these...

  7. Multiple cooperative interactions constrain BPV-1 E2 dependent activation of transcription.

    OpenAIRE

    Sowden, M; Harrison, S; Ashfield, R.; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1989-01-01

    Transcription directed by the BPV-1 long control region (LCR) is conditional upon activation by the virally encoded E2 protein. Within the 1.0 kb LCR there are five separate regions, A to E, that contain E2 responsive enhancers. The smallest functional region, A, is only 38 bp and contains two copies of the consensus sequence ACC(N)6GGT that is known to function as an E2 binding site in vitro. We show that a pair of these constitutes a minimal functional E2 responsive enhancer element but tha...

  8. Efficient activation of transcription in yeast by the BPV1 E2 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanway, C A; Sowden, M P; Wilson, L.E.; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1989-01-01

    The full-length gene product encoded by the E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) is a transcriptional transactivator. It is believed to mediate its effect on the BPV1 long control region (LCR) by binding to motifs with the consensus sequence ACCN6GGT. The minimal functional cis active site, called the E2 response element (E2RE), in mammalian cells comprises two copies of this motif. Here we have shown that E2 can function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by placing an...

  9. An unidentified ultraviolet-B-specific photoreceptor mediates transcriptional activation of the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase gene in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioki, Motohide; Takahashi, Shinya; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Fujikura, Kohei; Tamaoki, Masanori; Saji, Hikaru; Kubo, Akihiro; Aono, Mitsuko; Kanna, Machi; Ogawa, Daisuke; Fukazawa, Jutarou; Oda, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Seiji; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Kondo, Noriaki

    2008-12-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) constitute a majority of DNA lesions caused by ultraviolet-B (UVB). CPD photolyase, which rapidly repairs CPDs, is essential for plant survival under sunlight containing UVB. Our earlier results that the transcription of the cucumber CPD photolyase gene (CsPHR) was activated by light have prompted us to propose that this light-driven transcriptional activation would allow plants to meet the need of the photolyase activity upon challenges of UVB from sunlight. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the light-dependent transcriptional activation of CsPHR were unknown. In order to understand spectroscopic aspects of the plant response, we investigated the wavelength-dependence (action spectra) of the light-dependent transcriptional activation of CsPHR. In both cucumber seedlings and transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings expressing reporter genes under the control of the CsPHR promoter, the action spectra exhibited the most predominant peak in the long-wavelength UVB waveband (around 310 nm). In addition, a 95-bp cis-acting region in the CsPHR promoter was identified to be essential for the UVB-driven transcriptional activation of CsPHR. Thus, we concluded that the photoperception of long-wavelength UVB by UVB photoreceptor(s) led to the induction of the CsPHR transcription via a conserved cis-acting element. PMID:18825406

  10. Structural Features and Transcriptional Activity of Chicken PPARs (α, β, and γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Takada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While an understanding of lipid metabolism in chickens is critical for a further improvement of food production, there are few studies concerning differences in lipid metabolism mechanisms between chickens and other species at a molecular level. Chickens have three PPAR gene subtypes (α, β, and γ that function differently from those present in humans and mice. The chicken PPAR-gamma (cPPARγ gene is shorter than that in humans and lacks a γ2 isoform. Moreover, in serum-free media, cPPARγ shows high transcriptional activity without exogenous ligands. Luciferase reporter assays were used to examine the effect of sera on cPPAR transcriptional activities and showed that adult bovine serum and chicken serum highly activate cPPARα and β functions. Moreover, we found that bezafibrate induces the transactivation function of cPPARβ, but not human PPARδ (human PPARβ ortholog. This ligand selectivity relies on one amino acid residue (chicken: Val419, human: Met444. These results show the possibilities for unique functions of cPPARs on chicken-specific lipid glucose metabolism. As such, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism in chickens could result in higher productivity for the poultry industry.

  11. The Ability to Associate with Activation Domains in vitro is not Required for the TATA Box-Binding Protein to Support Activated Transcription in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, William P.; Herr, Winship

    1995-11-01

    The TATA box-binding protein (TBP) interacts in vitro with the activation domains of many viral and cellular transcription factors and has been proposed to be a direct target for transcriptional activators. We have examined the functional relevance of activator-TBP association in vitro to transcriptional activation in vivo. We show that alanine substitution mutations in a single loop of TBP can disrupt its association in vitro with the activation domains of the herpes simplex virus activator VP16 and of the human tumor suppressor protein p53; these mutations do not, however, disrupt the transcriptional response of TBP to either activation domain in vivo. Moreover, we show that a region of VP16 distinct from its activation domain can also tightly associate with TBP in vitro, but fails to activate transcription in vivo. These data suggest that the ability of TBP to interact with activation domains in vitro is not directly relevant to its ability to support activated transcription in vivo.

  12. [Review on the associations of signal transducer and activators of transcription 3 with hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J X; Gao, Q J

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies with high fatality rate in China. To investigate the related risk factors and therapeutic targets, and actively carry out the prevention and early treatment is of great public health value. Signal transducer and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is the key molecule of multiple inflammation-associated signaling pathways. Recent studies have found that HCC patients have high expressing levels of STAT3 in tumor tissues, and aberrant activation of STAT3 is closely associated with the occurrence, development, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of HCC. In this paper, we reviewed the researches on the associations of STAT3 with the occurrence and prognosis of HCC and prospected on the issues of causal prophylaxis and targeted therapy for HCC which could offer reference for the protection strategy of HCC. PMID:27141908

  13. Menin and RNF20 recruitment is associated with dynamic histone modifications that regulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1-activated transcription of the interferon regulatory factor 1 gene (IRF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buro Lauren J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT activation of gene expression is both rapid and transient, and when properly executed it affects growth, differentiation, homeostasis and the immune response, but when dysregulated it contributes to human disease. Transcriptional activation is regulated by alterations to the chromatin template. However, the role of histone modification at gene loci that are activated for transcription in response to STAT signaling is poorly defined. Results Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we profiled several histone modifications during STAT1 activation of the interferon regulatory factor 1 gene (IRF1. Methylated lysine histone proteins H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K79me3, H3K36me3 and monoubiquitinated histone ubH2B are dynamic and correlate with interferon (IFNγ induction of STAT1 activity. Chemical inhibition of H3K4 methylation downregulates IRF1 transcription and decreases RNA polymerase II (Pol II occupancy at the IRF1 promoter. MEN1, a component of a complex proteins associated with Set1 (COMPASS-like complex and the hBRE1 component, RNF20, are localized to IRF1 in the uninduced state and are further recruited when IRF1 is activated. RNAi-mediated depletion of RNF20 lowers both ubH2B and H3K4me3, but surprisingly, upregulates IFNγ induced IRF1 transcription. The dynamics of phosphorylation in the C-terminal domain (CTD of Pol II are disrupted during gene activation as well. Conclusions H2B monoubiquitination promotes H3K4 methylation, but the E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF20, is repressive of inducible transcription at the IRF1 gene locus, suggesting that ubH2B can, directly or indirectly, affect Pol II CTD phosphorylation cycling to exert control on ongoing transcription.

  14. E1A activates transcription of p73 and Noxa to induce apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinterman, Marcella; Guelen, Lars; Ezzati-Nik, Samira; Killick, Richard; Melino, Gerry; Tominaga, Kazuya; Mymryk, Joe S; Gäken, Joop; Tavassoli, Mahvash

    2005-02-18

    p73, a member of the p53 family of proteins, transcriptionally activates a number of genes involved in the control of cell cycle and apoptosis. Overexpression of p73 was detected in a large number of primary head and neck cancers, and in the established cell lines examined, these all contained inactivating p53 mutations. The significance of p73 overexpression in the pathogenesis of head and neck cancer is currently unclear. We have shown that the expression of adenovirus 5 E1A in a panel of head and neck cancer cell lines induces apoptosis independently of their p53 status. In this study we examined the role of p73 and its transcriptional targets in E1A-mediated induction of apoptosis. E1A expression resulted in significant activation of the TAp73 promoter but had no effect on the alternative, DeltaNp73 promoter. E1A also increased expression of endogenous TAp73 mRNA and protein. E1A mutants lacking the p300- and/or pRB-binding sites showed reduced ability to activate the TAp73 promoter. Additionally, mutations in the E2F1-binding sites in the TAp73 promoter impaired activation by E1A. Importantly, expression of the 13S isoform of E1A substantially induced the p53 apoptotic target Noxa in several p53-deficient cancer cell lines. Our results indicate that E1A activation of p73 and the p53 apoptotic target Noxa can occur in the absence of a functional p53. This activation is likely to play a key role in the mechanism of p53-independent apoptosis induced by E1A in some cancers and may provide an avenue for future cancer therapies. PMID:15572378

  15. First functional polymorphism in CFTR promoter that results in decreased transcriptional activity and Sp1/USF binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing evidences show that functionally relevant polymorphisms in various promoters alter both transcriptional activity and affinities of existing protein-DNA interactions, and thus influence disease progression in humans. We previously reported the -94G>T CFTR promoter variant in a female CF patient in whom any known disease-causing mutation has been detected. To investigate whether the -94G>T could be a regulatory variant, we have proceeded to in silico analyses and functional studies including EMSA and reporter gene assays. Our data indicate that the promoter variant decreases basal CFTR transcriptional activity in different epithelial cells and alters binding affinities of both Sp1 and USF nuclear proteins to the CFTR promoter. The present report provides evidence for the first functional polymorphism that negatively affects the CFTR transcriptional activity and demonstrates a cooperative role of Sp1 and USF transcription factors in transactivation of the CFTR gene promoter

  16. Immunolocalization of anti-hsf1 to the acetabular glands of infectious schistosomes suggests a non-transcriptional function for this transcriptional activator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishida

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronically debilitating disease caused by parasitic worms of the genus Schistosoma, and it is a global problem affecting over 240 million people. Little is known about the regulatory proteins and mechanisms that control schistosome host invasion, gene expression, and development. Schistosome larvae, cercariae, are transiently free-swimming organisms and infectious to man. Cercariae penetrate human host skin directly using proteases that degrade skin connective tissue. These proteases are secreted from anucleate acetabular glands that contain many proteins, including heat shock proteins. Heat shock transcription factors are strongly conserved activators that play crucial roles in the maintenance of cell homeostasis by transcriptionally regulating heat shock protein expression. In this study, we clone and characterize the schistosome Heat shock factor 1 gene (SmHSF1. We verify its ability to activate transcription using a modified yeast one-hybrid system, and we show that it can bind to the heat shock binding element (HSE consensus DNA sequence. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that SmHSF1 is expressed throughout several life-cycle stages from sporocyst to adult worm. Interestingly, using immunohistochemistry, a polyclonal antibody raised against an Hsf1-peptide demonstrates a novel localization for this conserved, stress-modulating activator. Our analysis suggests that schistosome Heat shock factor 1 may be localized to the acetabular glands of infective cercariae.

  17. The cancer gene WWOX behaves as an inhibitor of SMAD3 transcriptional activity via direct binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WW domain containing protein WWOX has been postulated to behave as a tumor suppressor in breast and other cancers. Expression of this protein is lost in over 70% of ER negative tumors. This prompted us to investigate the phenotypic and gene expression effects of loss of WWOX expression in breast cells. Gene expression microarrays and standard in vitro assays were performed on stably silenced WWOX (shRNA) normal breast cells. Bioinformatic analyses were used to identify gene networks and transcriptional regulators affected by WWOX silencing. Co-immunoprecipitations and GST-pulldowns were used to demonstrate a direct interaction between WWOX and SMAD3. Reporter assays, ChIP, confocal microscopy and in silico analyses were employed to determine the effect of WWOX silencing on TGFβ-signaling. WWOX silencing affected cell proliferation, motility, attachment and deregulated expression of genes involved in cell cycle, motility and DNA damage. Interestingly, we detected an enrichment of targets activated by the SMAD3 transcription factor, including significant upregulation of ANGPTL4, FST, PTHLH and SERPINE1 transcripts. Importantly, we demonstrate that the WWOX protein physically interacts with SMAD3 via WW domain 1. Furthermore, WWOX expression dramatically decreases SMAD3 occupancy at the ANGPTL4 and SERPINE1 promoters and significantly quenches activation of a TGFβ responsive reporter. Additionally, WWOX expression leads to redistribution of SMAD3 from the nuclear to the cytoplasmic compartment. Since the TGFβ target ANGPTL4 plays a key role in lung metastasis development, we performed a meta-analysis of ANGPTL4 expression relative to WWOX in microarray datasets from breast carcinomas. We observed a significant inverse correlation between WWOX and ANGPTL4. Furthermore, the WWOXlo/ANGPTL4hi cluster of breast tumors is enriched in triple-negative and basal-like sub-types. Tumors with this gene expression signature could represent candidates for anti-TGFβ targeted

  18. Mechanical stress activates Smad pathway through PKCδ to enhance interleukin-11 gene transcription in osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Kido

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mechanical stress rapidly induces ΔFosB expression in osteoblasts, which binds to interleukin (IL-11 gene promoter to enhance IL-11 expression, and IL-11 enhances osteoblast differentiation. Because bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs also stimulate IL-11 expression in osteoblasts, there is a possibility that BMP-Smad signaling is involved in the enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by mechanical stress. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether mechanical stress affects BMP-Smad signaling, and if so, to elucidate the role of Smad signaling in mechanical stress-induced enhancement of IL-11 gene transcription. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mechanical loading by fluid shear stress (FSS induced phosphorylation of BMP-specific receptor-regulated Smads (BR-Smads, Smad1/5, in murine primary osteoblasts (mPOBs. FSS rapidly phosphorylated Y311 of protein kinase C (PKCδ, and phosphorylated PKCδ interacted with BR-Smads to phosphorylate BR-Smads. Transfection of PKCδ siRNA or Y311F mutant PKCδ abrogated BR-Smads phosphorylation and suppressed IL-11 gene transcription enhanced by FSS. Activated BR-Smads bound to the Smad-binding element (SBE of IL-11 gene promoter and formed complex with ΔFosB/JunD heterodimer via binding to the C-terminal region of JunD. Site-directed mutagenesis in the SBE and the AP-1 site revealed that both SBE and AP-1 sites were required for full activation of IL-11 gene promoter by FSS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that PKCδ-BR-Smads pathway plays an important role in the intracellular signaling in response to mechanical stress, and that a cross-talk between PKCδ-BR-Smads and ΔFosB/JunD pathways synergistically stimulates IL-11 gene transcription in response to mechanical stress.

  19. Human Mitochondrial Transcription Factor B1 Interacts with the C-Terminal Activation Region of h-mtTFA and Stimulates Transcription Independently of Its RNA Methyltransferase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch, Vicki; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2003-01-01

    A significant advancement in understanding mitochondrial gene expression is the recent identification of two new human mitochondrial transcription factors, h-mtTFB1 and h-mtTFB2. Both proteins stimulate transcription in collaboration with the high-mobility group box transcription factor, h-mtTFA, and are homologous to rRNA methyltransferases. In fact, the dual-function nature of h-mtTFB1 was recently demonstrated by its ability to methylate a conserved rRNA substrate. Here, we demonstrate tha...

  20. Targeted mutagenesis of the human papillomavirus type 16 E2 transactivation domain reveals separable transcriptional activation and DNA replication functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H; Yasugi, T; Benson, J D; Dowhanick, J J; Howley, P M

    1996-03-01

    The E2 gene products of papillomavirus play key roles in viral replication, both as regulators of viral transcription and as auxiliary factors that act with E1 in viral DNA replication. We have carried out a detailed structure-function analysis of conserved amino acids within the N-terminal domain of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E2 protein. These mutants were tested for their transcriptional activation activities as well as transient DNA replication and E1 binding activities. Analysis of the stably expressed mutants revealed that the transcriptional activation and replication activities of HPV16 E2 could be dissociated. The 173A mutant was defective for the transcriptional activation function but retained wild-type DNA replication activity, whereas the E39A mutant wild-type transcriptional activation function but was defective in transient DNA replication assays. The E39A mutant was also defective for HPV16 E1 binding in vitro, suggesting that the ability of E2 protein to form a complex with E1 appears to be essential for its function as an auxiliary replication factor. PMID:8627680

  1. Hepatitis C virus core protein regulates p300/CBP co-activation function. Possible role in the regulation of NF-AT1 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core is a viral structural protein; it also participates in some cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation. However, the mechanisms of core-mediated transcriptional regulation remain poorly understood. Oncogenic virus proteins often target p300/CBP, a known co-activator of a wide variety of transcription factors, to regulate the expression of cellular and viral genes. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that HCV core protein interacts with p300/CBP and enhances both its acetyl-transferase and transcriptional activities. In addition, we demonstrate that nuclear core protein activates the NH2-terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) of NF-AT1 in a p300/CBP-dependent manner. We propose a model in which core protein regulates the co-activation function of p300/CBP and activates NF-AT1, and probably other p300/CBP-regulated transcription factors, by a novel mechanism involving the regulation of the acetylation state of histones and/or components of the transcriptional machinery

  2. RPB5-Mediating Protein Suppresses Hepatitis B Virus (HBV Transcription and Replication by Counteracting the Transcriptional Activation of Hepatitis B virus X Protein in HBV Replication Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background RPB5-Mediating protein (RMP is associated with the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5. This protein functionally counteracts the transcriptional activation of Hepatitis B Virus X protein (HBx by competitively binding to the RPB5; however, the effects of RMP on Hepatitis B virus (HBV transcription and replication remain unknown. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RMP on viral transcription and replication in vivo by using the hydrodynamic-based HBV replication mouse model. Materials and Methods Male balb/c mice were transfected with wild type (1.2 wt or the HBx minus HBV plasmids (1.2x (- with or without HBx and RMP, to establish an HBV replication mouse model by hydrodynamic injection through the tail vein. The HBV RNA and HBV DNA replication intermediates (RI were analyzed in the liver. Results RPB5-Mediating protein could inhibit HBV transcription and replication in groups transfected with the 1.2 wt and HBx. The inhibitory effect disappeared in the 1.2x (- groups, yet it reappeared in the groups co-transfected with 1.2x (- and HBx. An inhibitory effect was indicated at a low dose of RMP (0.3 ug, 0.5 ug and 0.7 ug compared to the control group and groups that had received high doses of RMP. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that a low dose of RMP could inhibit HBV transcription and replication, which is dependent on the appearance of HBx in vivo.

  3. Conserved hypothetical BB0462 protein enhances the transcription activity of oppAV promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi BB0462 ORF encodes an unknown functional protein with 110 amino acids.A BLAST search in protein databases and the secondary structure being predicted by the program JUFO showed that the conserved hypothetical BB0462 protein was similar to the members of the YbaB protein family in both amino acid composition and protein structure.The co-transformation of BB0462 ORF and oppA upstream regulation DNA into E.coli host cells and β-galactosidase activity assay demonstrated that the BB0462 protein enhanced the transcriptional activity of the oppAV promoter,but does not affect those of oppAⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ promoters.Analysis of DNA retardation and competitive repression also confirmed that the BB0462 protein bound to the 409 bp upstream regulation DNA fragment close to the initiation codon of the oppAV gene.All data in our study suggested that the BB0462 protein was involved in the transcriptional regulation of the oppAV gene

  4. Transcription Activity of Ectogenic Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen Promoter in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Weining; FANG Huijuan; XU Yongjian; XIONG Shendao; CAO Yong; SONG Qingfeng; ZENG Daxiong; ZHANG Huilan

    2006-01-01

    The transcription activity of ectogenic human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was investigated for the further gene-targeting therapy. The reporter gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by CEA promoter and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were relatively constructed and named plasmid pCEA-EGFP and pCMV-GFP respectively. The intensity of fluorescence was detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry analysis after the pCEA-GFP and pSNAV-GFP plasmids were transfected into A549 cells through liposome respectively. The results showed (4.08±0.63) % of the A549 cells transfected with pCEA-AFP plasmid expressed, significantly lower than that of the A549 cells transfected with pCMV-GFP [(43.27±3.54) %]. It was suggested that ectogenic human CEA promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was weakly expressed. The distinct specificity of CEA promoter in CEA high expression cells was regarded as a tool in selective gene therapy, but the transcription activity of ectogenic human CEA promoter was needed to increase in the future.

  5. GFP tracking transcriptional activity endogenous p53: vector construction and application in genotoxicity detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei-sen; LUO Chen; XIE Wei-bing; CHEN Han-yuan

    2001-01-01

    To establish a sensitive.and specific system for genotoxicity detection in vivo. Methods: Endogenous p53 tracer vector p53RE was constructed by using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter to trace p53 transcriptional activity under the control of base SV40 early promoter. The tracer cells 3T3-REG were established by transfecting NIH3T3 cells with tracer vector and treated with ultraviolet, H202 and adriamycin to induce DNA damage and the subsequent endogenous p53 expression. The GFP expression and its green fluorescence in the tracer cells were observed and measured with fluorescent microscope and FACS. Results: The GFP expression increased rapidly after various treatment and reached the maximum 1 h later, and decreased gradually afterwards. FACS analysis showed that GFP expression in 3T3-REG tracer cells was consistent with the concentration of H202, while that in 3T3-SVG cells, which were transfected with control vector pSV-GFP, hardly increased in response to the treatment. Conclusion: GFP tracing p53 transcriptional activity is a sensitive and specific method for genotoxicity detection.

  6. PARP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by sumoylation upon heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nadine; Schwamborn, Klaus; Schreiber, Valérie; Werner, Andreas; Guillier, Christelle; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Bischof, Oliver; Seeler, Jacob-S; Dejean, Anne

    2009-11-18

    Heat shock and other environmental stresses rapidly induce transcriptional responses subject to regulation by a variety of post-translational modifications. Among these, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and sumoylation have received growing attention. Here we show that the SUMO E3 ligase PIASy interacts with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP-1, and that PIASy mediates heat shock-induced poly-sumoylation of PARP-1. Furthermore, PIASy, and hence sumoylation, appears indispensable for full activation of the inducible HSP70.1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that PIASy, SUMO and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 are rapidly recruited to the HSP70.1 promoter upon heat shock, and that they are subsequently released with kinetics similar to PARP-1. Finally, we provide evidence that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 mediates heat-shock-inducible ubiquitination of PARP-1, regulates the stability of PARP-1, and, like PIASy, is a positive regulator of HSP70.1 gene activity. These results, thus, point to a novel mechanism for regulating PARP-1 transcription function, and suggest crosstalk between sumoylation and RNF4-mediated ubiquitination in regulating gene expression in response to heat shock. PMID:19779455

  7. Identification and Characterization of Reverse Transcriptase Domain of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons in Wheat Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Miao TANG; You-Zhi MA; Lian-Cheng LI; Xing-Guo YE

    2005-01-01

    To clarify activation characterization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) retrotransposons, transcriptionally active Ty1-copia retrotransposons were found in wheat by using RT-PCR to amplify the RT domain. Sequence analysis of random RT-PCR clones reveals that Ty1-copia retrotransposons are highly heterogeneous and can be divided into at least four groups, which are tentatively named TaRT-1 to TaRT-4.Dot blot hybridization indicates that TaRT- 1 exists in the wheat genome as multiple copies (at 30 000 copies/a hexaploid genome (ABD)). Northern blot hybridization showed that TaRT-1 is only expressed at a low level under normal conditions in seedlings, but at a high level when induced by powdery mildew fungus, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). These results suggest that the TaRT-1 expression is highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  8. Transcriptional Activation by Wild-Type But Not Transforming Mutants of the p53 Anti-Oncogene

    OpenAIRE

    Raycroft, Loretta; Wu, Hongyun; Lozano, Guillermina

    1990-01-01

    The protein encoded by the wild-type p53 proto-oncogene has been shown to suppress transformation, whereas certain mutations that alter p53 become transformation competent. Fusion proteins between p53 and the GAL4 DNA binding domain were made to anchor p53 to a DNA target sequence and to allow measurement of transcriptional activation of a reporter plasmid. The wild-type p53 stimulated transcription in this assay, but two transforming mutations in p53 were unable to act as transcriptional act...

  9. FOXP3 Inhibits HIV-1 Infection of CD4 T-cells via Inhibition of LTR Transcriptional Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Selliah, Nithianandan; Zhang, Mingce; White, Sara; Zoltick, Philip; Sawaya, Bassel E.; Finkel, Terri H.; Cron, Randy Q

    2008-01-01

    FOXP3 is a necessary transcription factor for the development and function of CD4+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs). The role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection remains unclear. Here, we show expression of FOXP3 in primary human CD4 T-cells significantly inhibits HIV-1 infection. Since FOXP3 inhibits NFAT activity, and NFAT proteins contribute to HIV-1 transcription, we explore a transcriptional repressive function of HIV-1 LTR by FOXP3. Over-expression of FOXP3 in primary CD4 T-cells inhibits wild-type H...

  10. Arabidopsis Actin-Depolymerizing Factor-4 links pathogen perception, defense activation and transcription to cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Porter

    Full Text Available The primary role of Actin-Depolymerizing Factors (ADFs is to sever filamentous actin, generating pointed ends, which in turn are incorporated into newly formed filaments, thus supporting stochastic actin dynamics. Arabidopsis ADF4 was recently shown to be required for the activation of resistance in Arabidopsis following infection with the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst expressing the effector protein AvrPphB. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of RPS5, the cognate resistance protein of AvrPphB, was dramatically reduced in the adf4 mutant, suggesting a link between actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the transcriptional regulation of R-protein activation. By examining the PTI (PAMP Triggered Immunity response in the adf4 mutant when challenged with Pst expressing AvrPphB, we observed a significant reduction in the expression of the PTI-specific target gene FRK1 (Flg22-Induced Receptor Kinase 1. These data are in agreement with recent observations demonstrating a requirement for RPS5 in PTI-signaling in the presence of AvrPphB. Furthermore, MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-signaling was significantly reduced in the adf4 mutant, while no such reduction was observed in the rps5-1 point mutation under similar conditions. Isoelectric focusing confirmed phosphorylation of ADF4 at serine-6, and additional in planta analyses of ADF4's role in immune signaling demonstrates that nuclear localization is phosphorylation independent, while localization to the actin cytoskeleton is linked to ADF4 phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for ADF4 in controlling gene-for-gene resistance activation, as well as MAPK-signaling, via the coordinated regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics and R-gene transcription.

  11. Intermedin/adrenomedullin 2 is a stress-inducible gene controlled by activating transcription factor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Irina E; Garaeva, Alisa A; Chumakov, Peter M; Evstafieva, Alexandra G

    2016-09-15

    Intermedin or adrenomedullin 2 is a set of calcitonin-related peptides with a putative tumor angiogenesis promoting activity that are formed by proteolytic processing of the ADM2 gene product. It has been proposed that the ADM2 gene is regulated by the estrogen response element (ERE) and hypoxia response elements (HRE) found within its promoter region. In the present study we reveal a functional mechanism by which ADM2 participates in the unfolded protein response (UPR) and in responses to the mitochondrial respiration chain inhibition. We show that the ADM2 gene is controlled by activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), the principal regulator of the integrated stress response (ISR). The upregulation of ADM2 mRNA could be prevented by the pharmacological ISR inhibitor ISRIB and by the downregulation of ATF4 with specific shRNA, while ectopic expression of ATF4 cDNA resulted in a notable increase in ADM2 gene transcription. A potential ATF4-binding site was identified in the coding region of the ADM2 gene and the requirement of this site during the ATF4-mediated ADM2 gene promoter activation was validated by the luciferase reporter assay. Mutagenesis of the putative ATF4-response element prevented the induction of luciferase activity in response to ATF4 overproduction, as well as in response to mitochondrial electron transfer chain inhibition by piericidin A and ER stress induction by tunicamycin and brefeldin A. Since ADM2 was shown to inhibit ATF4 expression during myocardial ER stress, a feedback mechanism could be proposed for the ADM2 regulation under ER stress conditions. PMID:27328454

  12. RNA polymerase II transcription inhibits DNA repair by photolyase in the transcribed strand of active yeast genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone-Zatchej, M; Meier, A; Suter, B.; Thoma, F

    1997-01-01

    Yeast uses nucleotide excision repair (NER) and photolyase (photoreactivation) to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) generated by ultraviolet light. In active genes, NER preferentially repairs the transcribed strand (TS). In contrast, we recently showed that photolyase preferentially repairs the non-transcribed strands (NTS) of the URA3 and HIS3 genes in minichromosomes. To test whether photoreactivation depends on transcription, repair of CPDs was investigated in the transcriptional...

  13. The transcription factor Sox11 promotes nerve regeneration through activation of the regeneration-associated gene Sprr1a

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Xiaotang; Wang, Ting; Huang, Shaohua; Glorioso, Joseph C.; Albers, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Factors that enhance the intrinsic growth potential of adult neurons are key players in the successful repair and regeneration of neurons following injury. Injury-induced activation of transcription factors has a central role in this process because they regulate expression of regeneration-associated genes. Sox11 is a developmentally expressed transcription factor that is significantly induced in adult neurons in response to injury. Its function in injured neurons is however undefined. Here, ...

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana class-II TGA transcription factors are essential activators of jasmonic acid/ethylene-induced defense responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, Mark; Camera, Sylvain La; Lamotte, Olivier; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Gatz, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The three closely related Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors TGA2, TGA5 and TGA6 are required for the establishment of the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent plant defense response systemic acquired resistance, which is effective against biotrophic pathogens. Here we show that the same transcription factors are essential for the activation of jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-dependent defense mechanisms that counteract necrotrophic pathogens: the tga256 triple mutan...

  15. Different human TFIIIB activities direct RNA polymerase III transcription from TATA-containing and TATA-less promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Schramm, Laura; Pendergrast, P. Shannon; Sun, Yuling; Hernandez, Nouria

    2000-01-01

    Transcription initiation at RNA polymerase III promoters requires transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB), an activity that binds to RNA polymerase III promoters, generally through protein–protein contacts with DNA binding factors, and directly recruits RNA polymerase III. Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIIIB is a complex of three subunits, TBP, the TFIIB-related factor BRF, and the more loosely associated polypeptide β″. Although human homologs for two of the TFIIIB subunits, the TATA box–binding prot...

  16. Yeast transcription co-activator Sub1 and its human homolog PC4 preferentially bind to G-quadruplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Zybailov, Boris L.; Byrd, Alicia K.; Griffin, Wezley C.; Chib, Shubeena; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Tackett, Alan J.; Raney, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Using a G-quadruplex bait, we identified the transcription co-activator Sub1 as a G-quadruplex binding protein by quantitative LC-MS/MS and demonstrated in vivo G-quadruplex binding by ChIP. In vitro, Sub1, and its human homolog PC4, bind preferentially to G-quadruplexes. This provides a possible mechanism by which G-quadruplexes can influence gene transcription. PMID:25813861

  17. A CaMK cascade activates CRE-mediated transcription in neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshishige; Corcoran, Ethan E.; Eto, Koh; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Muramatsu, Masa-aki; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Freedman, Jonathan H.; Mitani, Shohei; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Means, Anthony R.; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) signals regulate a diverse set of cellular responses, from proliferation to muscular contraction and neuro-endocrine secretion. The ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor, calmodulin (CaM), translates changes in local intracellular Ca2+ concentrations into changes in enzyme activities. Among its targets, the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinases I and IV (CaMKs) are capable of transducing intraneuronal signals, and these kinases are implicated in neuronal gene regulation that mediates synaptic plasticity in mammals. Recently, the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) has been proposed as a target for a CaMK cascade involving not only CaMKI or CaMKIV, but also an upstream kinase kinase that is also CaM regulated (CaMKK). Here, we report that all components of this pathway are coexpressed in head neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Utilizing a transgenic approach to visualize CREB-dependent transcription in vivo, we show that this CaMK cascade regulates CRE-mediated transcription in a subset of head neurons in living nematodes. PMID:12231504

  18. SUMOylation of DEC1 Protein Regulates Its Transcriptional Activity and Enhances Its Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujing; Bi, Hailian; Yang, Chunhua; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Ying; Ao, Xiang; Chang, Alan K.; Wu, Huijian

    2011-01-01

    Differentiated embryo-chondrocyte expressed gene 1 (DEC1, also known as sharp2, stra13, or BHLHB2) is a mammalian basic helix-loop-helix protein that is involved in many aspects of gene regulation through acting as a transcription factor. Changes in DEC1 expression levels have been implicated in the development of cancers. Using COS-7 cell, we showed that DEC1 can be modified by the small ubiquitin-like modifiers, SUMO1, 2 and 3. Two major SUMOylation sites (K159 and K279) were identified in the C-terminal domain of DEC1. Substitution of either K159 or K279 with arginine reduced DEC1 SUMOylation, but substitution of both K159 and K279 abolished SUMOylation, and more protein appeared to be retained in the cytoplasm compared to wild-type DEC1. The expression of DEC1 was up-regulated after serum starvation as previously reported, but at the same time, serum starvation also led to more SUMOylation of DEC1. In MCF-7 cells SUMOylation also stabilized DEC1 through inhibiting its ubiquitination. Moreover, SUMOylation of DEC1 promoted its repression of CLOCK/BMAL1-mediated transcriptional activity through recruitment of histone deacetylase1. These findings suggested that posttranslational modification of DEC1 in the form of SUMOylation may serve as a key factor that regulates the function of DEC1 in vivo. PMID:21829689

  19. Activating transcription factor 3 is not up-regulated in hypospadias patients in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Takahashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aetiology of hypospadias is largely uncharacterized. Some of the researchers have advocated that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3, an oestrogen-responsive transcription factor, is up-regulated in patients with hypospadias. The purpose is to evaluate the universality of this fact; we studied the expression of ATF3 protein in prepuce tissue obtained from hypospadias and phimosis patients living in metropolitan Tokyo. Materials and Methods: Prepuce tissue was obtained from outer foreskin at the time of surgery, quickly prepared for paraffin-embedded sectioning and stained immunohistochemically for ATF3. Two researchers blindly evaluated immunoreactivity and scored it semi-quantitatively as nil = 0, weak = 1, or strong = 2, to give a final staining intensity score (SIS. Subjects were 18 hypospadias patients and 17 phimosis patients (as controls who had surgery between January, 2009 and March, 2010. Results: All subjects lived in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan. Mean ages at surgery were 2.9 ± 1.0 and 3.9 ± 2.4 years, respectively (P > 0.05. SIS was not statistically different between hypospadias patients (1.4 ± 0.5 and controls (1.5 ± 0.5, (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Our data suggest that ATF3 is not highly associated with hypospadias in metropolitan Tokyo. Differences in ethnicity might have influenced our results.

  20. The Transcriptional Activator Krüppel-like Factor-6 Is Required for CNS Myelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, John N.; Zhang, Jingya; Liu, Jia; Sawai, Setsu; Chapouly, Candice; Horng, Sam; Kramer, Elisabeth G.; Loo, Hannah; Burlant, Natalie; Nudelman, German; Lee, Young-Min; Braun, David A.; Lu, Q. Richard; Narla, Goutham; Raine, Cedric S.; Friedman, Scott L.; Casaccia, Patrizia; John, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors of the gp130 family promote oligodendrocyte differentiation, and viability, and myelination, but their mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. Here, we show that these effects are coordinated, in part, by the transcriptional activator Krüppel-like factor-6 (Klf6). Klf6 is rapidly induced in oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLP) by gp130 factors, and promotes differentiation. Conversely, in mice with lineage-selective Klf6 inactivation, OLP undergo maturation arrest followed by apoptosis, and CNS myelination fails. Overlapping transcriptional and chromatin occupancy analyses place Klf6 at the nexus of a novel gp130-Klf-importin axis, which promotes differentiation and viability in part via control of nuclear trafficking. Klf6 acts as a gp130-sensitive transactivator of the nuclear import factor importin-α5 (Impα5), and interfering with this mechanism interrupts step-wise differentiation. Underscoring the significance of this axis in vivo, mice with conditional inactivation of gp130 signaling display defective Klf6 and Impα5 expression, OLP maturation arrest and apoptosis, and failure of CNS myelination. PMID:27213272

  1. SUMOylation of DEC1 protein regulates its transcriptional activity and enhances its stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongde Hong

    Full Text Available Differentiated embryo-chondrocyte expressed gene 1 (DEC1, also known as sharp2, stra13, or BHLHB2 is a mammalian basic helix-loop-helix protein that is involved in many aspects of gene regulation through acting as a transcription factor. Changes in DEC1 expression levels have been implicated in the development of cancers. Using COS-7 cell, we showed that DEC1 can be modified by the small ubiquitin-like modifiers, SUMO1, 2 and 3. Two major SUMOylation sites (K(159 and K(279 were identified in the C-terminal domain of DEC1. Substitution of either K(159 or K(279 with arginine reduced DEC1 SUMOylation, but substitution of both K(159 and K(279 abolished SUMOylation, and more protein appeared to be retained in the cytoplasm compared to wild-type DEC1. The expression of DEC1 was up-regulated after serum starvation as previously reported, but at the same time, serum starvation also led to more SUMOylation of DEC1. In MCF-7 cells SUMOylation also stabilized DEC1 through inhibiting its ubiquitination. Moreover, SUMOylation of DEC1 promoted its repression of CLOCK/BMAL1-mediated transcriptional activity through recruitment of histone deacetylase1. These findings suggested that posttranslational modification of DEC1 in the form of SUMOylation may serve as a key factor that regulates the function of DEC1 in vivo.

  2. CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we showed for the first time that mouse CacyBP/SIP interacts with extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). We also established that a calcium binding protein, S100A6, competes for this interaction. Moreover, the E217K mutant of CacyBP/SIP does not bind significantly to ERK1/2 although it retains the ability to interact with S100A6. Molecular modeling shows that the E217K mutation in the 189-219 CacyBP/SIP fragment markedly changes its electrostatic potential, suggesting that the binding with ERK1/2 might have an electrostatic character. We also demonstrate that CacyBP/SIP-ERK1/2 interaction inhibits phosphorylation of the Elk-1 transcription factor in vitro and in the nuclear fraction of NB2a cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the binding of CacyBP/SIP with ERK1/2 might regulate Elk-1 phosphorylation/transcriptional activity and that S100A6 might further modulate this effect via Ca2+-dependent interaction with CacyBP/SIP and competition with ERK1/2.

  3. RNA exosome-regulated long non-coding RNA transcription controls super-enhancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pefanis, Evangelos; Wang, Jiguang; Rothschild, Gerson; Lim, Junghyun; Kazadi, David; Sun, Jianbo; Federation, Alexander; Chao, Jaime; Elliott, Oliver; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Economides, Aris N; Bradner, James E; Rabadan, Raul; Basu, Uttiya

    2015-05-01

    We have ablated the cellular RNA degradation machinery in differentiated B cells and pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by conditional mutagenesis of core (Exosc3) and nuclear RNase (Exosc10) components of RNA exosome and identified a vast number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) with emergent functionality. Unexpectedly, eRNA-expressing regions accumulate R-loop structures upon RNA exosome ablation, thus demonstrating the role of RNA exosome in resolving deleterious DNA/RNA hybrids arising from active enhancers. We have uncovered a distal divergent eRNA-expressing element (lncRNA-CSR) engaged in long-range DNA interactions and regulating IgH 3' regulatory region super-enhancer function. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated ablation of lncRNA-CSR transcription decreases its chromosomal looping-mediated association with the IgH 3' regulatory region super-enhancer and leads to decreased class switch recombination efficiency. We propose that the RNA exosome protects divergently transcribed lncRNA expressing enhancers by resolving deleterious transcription-coupled secondary DNA structures, while also regulating long-range super-enhancer chromosomal interactions important for cellular function. PMID:25957685

  4. Alteration of transcriptional networks in the entorhinal cortex after maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Sharon L; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Cairns, Murray J

    2016-08-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabinoid exposure (ACE) have both been identified as major environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined the effects of these two risk factors alone, and in combination, on gene expression during late adolescence. Pregnant rats were exposed to the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day (GD) 15. Adolescent offspring received daily injections of the cannabinoid HU210 for 14days starting on postnatal day (PND) 35. Gene expression was examined in the left entorhinal cortex (EC) using mRNA microarrays. We found prenatal treatment with poly I:C alone, or HU210 alone, produced relatively minor changes in gene expression. However, following combined treatments, offspring displayed significant changes in transcription. This dramatic and persistent alteration of transcriptional networks enriched with genes involved in neurotransmission, cellular signalling and schizophrenia, was associated with a corresponding perturbation in the expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA). These results suggest that a combination of environmental exposures during development leads to significant genomic remodeling that disrupts maturation of the EC and its associated circuitry with important implications as the potential antecedents of memory and learning deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26923065

  5. Reinstate the Damaged VEGF Signaling Pathway with VEGF-activating Transcription Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-guo Yang; Heng Guan; Chang-wei Liu; Yong-jun Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor-activating transcriptional factor(VEGF-ATF)on the VEGF signaling pathway in diabetes mellitus.Methods Totally,20 C57BL/6 mice fed with high fat diet was induced into diabetes mellitus.Ten diabetes mellitus mice received a lower limb muscle injection with VEGF-ATF plasmid,and another ten were as control.VEGF-ATF is an engineered transcription factor designed to increase VEGF expression.Three days later,mice were sacrificed and the injected gastrocnemius was used for analysis.VEGF mRNA and protein expressions were examined by real-time PCR and ELISA respectively.VEGF receptor 2 mRNA expression was tested with RT-PCR.Phosphorylated Akt,Akt,endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS),and phosphorylated eNOS were assessed by western blot.Results At 3 days post-injection,in mice with diabetes mellitus,VEGF gene transfer increased VEGF mRNA copies and VEGF protein expression in injected muscles compared with control;and reinstated the impaired VEGF signaling pathway with increasing the ratios of phosphorylated Akt/Akt and phosphorylated eNOS/eNOS.However,it did not affect the expression of VEGF receptor 2 mRNA.Conclusion Gene transfer with VEGF-ATF is able to reinstate the impaired VEGF downstream pathway,and potentially promote therapeutic angiogenesis in mice with diabetes mcllitus.

  6. A flower-specific Myb protein activates transcription of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablowski, R W; Moyano, E; Culianez-Macia, F A; Schuch, W; Martin, C; Bevan, M

    1994-01-01

    Synthesis of flavonoid pigments in flowers requires the co-ordinated expression of genes encoding enzymes in th phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. Some cis-elements involved in the transcriptional control of these genes have been defined. We report binding of petal-specific activities from tobacco and Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) to an element conserved in promoters of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and implicated in expression in flowers. These binding activities were inhibited by antibodies raised against Myb305, a flower-specific Myb protein previously cloned from Antirrhinum by sequence homology. Myb305 bound to the same element and formed a DNA-protein complex with the same mobility as the Antirrhinum petal protein in electrophoretic mobility shift experiments. Myb305 activated expression from its binding site in yeast and in tobacco protoplasts. In protoplasts, activation also required a G-box-like element, suggesting co-operation with other elements and factors. The results strongly suggest a role for Myb305-related proteins in the activation of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in flowers. This is consistent with the genetically demonstrated role of plant Myb proteins in the regulation of genes involved in flavonoid synthesis. PMID:8306956

  7. The ERF11 Transcription Factor Promotes Internode Elongation by Activating Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Signaling1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Zhong-Lin; Tyler, Ludmila; Yusuke, Jikumaru; Qiu, Kai; Lumba, Shelley; Desveaux, Darrell; McCourt, Peter; Sun, Tai-ping

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in promoting stem elongation in plants. Previous studies show that GA activates its signaling pathway by inducing rapid degradation of DELLA proteins, GA signaling repressors. Using an activation-tagging screen in a reduced-GA mutant ga1-6 background, we identified AtERF11 to be a novel positive regulator of both GA biosynthesis and GA signaling for internode elongation. Overexpression of AtERF11 partially rescued the dwarf phenotype of ga1-6. AtERF11 is a member of the ERF (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR) subfamily VIII-B-1a of ERF/AP2 transcription factors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Overexpression of AtERF11 resulted in elevated bioactive GA levels by up-regulating expression of GA3ox1 and GA20ox genes. Hypocotyl elongation assays further showed that overexpression of AtERF11 conferred elevated GA response, whereas loss-of-function erf11 and erf11 erf4 mutants displayed reduced GA response. In addition, yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation, and transient expression assays showed that AtERF11 enhances GA signaling by antagonizing the function of DELLA proteins via direct protein-protein interaction. Interestingly, AtERF11 overexpression also caused a reduction in the levels of another phytohormone ethylene in the growing stem, consistent with recent finding showing that AtERF11 represses transcription of ethylene biosynthesis ACS genes. The effect of AtERF11 on promoting GA biosynthesis gene expression is likely via its repressive function on ethylene biosynthesis. These results suggest that AtERF11 plays a dual role in promoting internode elongation by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis and activating GA biosynthesis and signaling pathways. PMID:27255484

  8. Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (NMF2D) model, which decomposes a matrix into a 2-dimensional convolution of two factor matrices. This model is an extension of the non-negative matrix factor deconvolution (NMFD) recently introduced by Smaragdis (2004). We derive and ...... this form of factorization. The developed algorithms have been used for source separation and music transcription....

  9. Protolichesterinic acid derivatives: α-methylene-γ-lactones as potent dual activators of PPARγ and Nrf2 transcriptional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lamer, Anne-Cécile; Authier, Hélène; Rouaud, Isabelle; Coste, Agnès; Boustie, Joël; Pipy, Bernard; Gouault, Nicolas

    2014-08-15

    PPARγ and Nrf2 are important transcriptional factors involved in many signaling pathways, especially in the anti-infectious response of macrophages. Compounds bearing a Michael acceptor moiety are well known to activate such transcriptional factors, we thus evaluated the potency of α,β-unsaturated lactones synthesized using fluorous phase organic synthesis. Compounds were first screened for their cytotoxicity in order to select lactones for PPARγ and Nrf2 activation evaluation. Among them, two α-methylene-γ-lactones were identified as potent dual activators of PPARγ and Nrf2 in macrophages. PMID:25027935

  10. KLF4 and SOX9 Transcription Factors Antagonize β-Catenin and Inhibit TCF-Activity In Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sellak, Hassan; Wu, Songwei; Lincoln, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptional activator β-catenin is a key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. β-catenin itself does not bind DNA but functions via interaction with T-cell factor (TCF)/ lymphoid-enhancing factor (LEF) transcription factors. Thus, in the case of active Wnt signaling, β-catenin, in cooperation with TCF/LEF proteins family, activates the expression of a wide variety of genes. To date, the list of established β-catenin interacting targets is far from complete. In this study, w...

  11. Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) in Splenocyte Proliferation of Asthma Mice Induced by Ovalbumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping Li; Zhigang Liu; Peixing Ran; Jing Qiu; Nanshan Zhong

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the role of signal transducer and transcriptional activator 5 (STAT5) activated in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced splenocyte proliferation of asthma mice, an asthma mouse model was set up by intraperitoneal injection and aspiration of OVA with nebulizer. The proliferation of splenocytes isolated from the asthma mice was detected by [3H] thymidine incorporation. The phosphorytation of STAT5 was examined by Western blotting and STAT5-DNA binding was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). OVA could pronouncedly induce the splenocyte proliferation of asthma mice in a dose-dependent manner compared with control groups. Phosphorylation of STAT5 and STAT5-DNA binding were observed in splenocytes from asthma mice induced by OVA at 1 h and 3 h. These results indicated that STAT5 signal pathway played an important role in lymphocyte proliferation of asthma mice induced by OVA. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2004;1(6):471-474.

  12. Dynamic transcription factor activity profiles reveal key regulatory interactions during megakaryocytic and erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mark T; Shin, Seungjin; Wu, Jia J; Mays, Zachary; Weng, Stanley; Bagheri, Neda; Miller, William M; Shea, Lonnie D

    2014-10-01

    The directed differentiation toward erythroid (E) or megakaryocytic (MK) lineages by the MK-E progenitor (MEP) could enhance the ex vivo generation of red blood cells and platelets for therapeutic transfusions. The lineage choice at the MEP bifurcation is controlled in large part by activity within the intracellular signal transduction network, the output of which determines the activity of transcription factors (TFs) and ultimately gene expression. Although many TFs have been implicated, E or MK differentiation is a complex process requiring multiple days, and the dynamics of TF activities during commitment and terminal maturation are relatively unexplored. Herein, we applied a living cell array for the large-scale, dynamic quantification of TF activities during MEP bifurcation. A panel of hematopoietic TFs (GATA-1, GATA-2, SCL/TAL1, FLI-1, NF-E2, PU.1, c-Myb) was characterized during E and MK differentiation of bipotent K562 cells. Dynamic TF activity profiles associated with differentiation towards each lineage were identified, and validated with previous reports. From these activity profiles, we show that GATA-1 is an important hub during early hemin- and PMA-induced differentiation, and reveal several characteristic TF interactions for E and MK differentiation that confirm regulatory mechanisms documented in the literature. Additionally, we highlight several novel TF interactions at various stages of E and MK differentiation. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism by which nicotinamide (NIC) promoted terminal MK maturation using an MK-committed cell line, CHRF-288-11 (CHRF). Concomitant with its enhancement of ploidy, NIC strongly enhanced the activity of three TFs with known involvement in terminal MK maturation: FLI-1, NF-E2, and p53. Dynamic profiling of TF activity represents a novel tool to complement traditional assays focused on mRNA and protein expression levels to understand progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:24853077

  13. Activation of transcription at divergent urea-dependent promoters by the urease gene regulator UreR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, S E; Thomas, V; Collins, C M

    1996-08-01

    The Proteus mirabilis and plasmid-encoded urease loci contain seven contiguous structural and accessory genes (ureDABCEFG) and the divergently transcribed ureR, which codes for an AraC-like transcriptional activator. Previously, it was shown that the plasmid-encoded ureR to ureD intergenic region contained divergent promoters (ureRp and ureDp). Transcription from these promoters required both the effector molecule urea and the activator protein UreR. In this report, we demonstrate that the P. mirabilis urease gene cluster contains similar divergent urea- and UreR-dependent promoters. The ureR gene products from either urease locus were able to activate transcription at both the plasmid-encoded and P. mirabilis promoters. The minimal concentration of urea required to activate transcription at ureRp or ureDp from either gene cluster was approximately 4 mM. The transcriptional start sites for the plasmid-encoded and P. mirabilis divergent promoters were similar in an Escherichia coli DH5 alpha background, as determined by primer-extension analysis. However, in P. mirabilis HI4320, transcription of ureR initiated predominately at an alternative site. Physical mapping and inhibition studies were used to localize the UreR-binding sites within the plasmid-encoded ureRp and ureDp intergenic sequences to regions of 68 bp and 86 bp, respectively. Gel shift analysis demonstrated that UreR bound to a 135 bp fragment in the approximate centre of the plasmid-encoded ureR to ureD intergenic region. The results presented here suggest that the P. mirabilis and plasmid-encoded urease gene clusters utilize similar mechanisms of transcriptional activation in response to urea. PMID:8866486

  14. Number of active transcription factor binding sites is essential for the Hes7 oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Angelis Martin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly accepted that embryonic segmentation of vertebrates is regulated by a segmentation clock, which is induced by the cycling genes Hes1 and Hes7. Their products form dimers that bind to the regulatory regions and thereby repress the transcription of their own encoding genes. An increase of the half-life of Hes7 protein causes irregular somite formation. This was shown in recent experiments by Hirata et al. In the same work, numerical simulations from a delay differential equations model, originally invented by Lewis, gave additional support. For a longer half-life of the Hes7 protein, these simulations exhibited strongly damped oscillations with, after few periods, severely attenuated the amplitudes. In these simulations, the Hill coefficient, a crucial model parameter, was set to 2 indicating that Hes7 has only one binding site in its promoter. On the other hand, Bessho et al. established three regulatory elements in the promoter region. Results We show that – with the same half life – the delay system is highly sensitive to changes in the Hill coefficient. A small increase changes the qualitative behaviour of the solutions drastically. There is sustained oscillation and hence the model can no longer explain the disruption of the segmentation clock. On the other hand, the Hill coefficient is correlated with the number of active binding sites, and with the way in which dimers bind to them. In this paper, we adopt response functions in order to estimate Hill coefficients for a variable number of active binding sites. It turns out that three active transcription factor binding sites increase the Hill coefficient by at least 20% as compared to one single active site. Conclusion Our findings lead to the following crucial dichotomy: either Hirata's model is correct for the Hes7 oscillator, in which case at most two binding sites are active in its promoter region; or at least three binding sites are active, in which

  15. A conserved TATA-less proximal promoter drives basal transcription from the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soravia, E; Grebe, A; De Luca, P;

    1995-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) focuses at the cell surface the activation of pro-uPA and, hence, the formation of plasmin, thus enhancing directional extracellular proteolysis. To characterize the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control receptor expression, we...

  16. USP10 Antagonizes c-Myc Transcriptional Activation through SIRT6 Stabilization to Suppress Tumor Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghong Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduced protein expression of SIRT6 tumor suppressor is involved in tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying SIRT6 protein downregulation in human cancers remain unknown. Using a proteomic approach, we have identified the ubiquitin-specific peptidase USP10, another tumor suppressor, as one of the SIRT6-interacting proteins. USP10 suppresses SIRT6 ubiquitination to protect SIRT6 from proteasomal degradation. USP10 antagonizes the transcriptional activity of the c-Myc oncogene through SIRT6, as well as p53, to inhibit cell-cycle progression, cancer cell growth, and tumor formation. To support this conclusion, we detected significant reductions in both USP10 and SIRT6 protein expression in human colon cancers. Our study discovered crosstalk between two tumor-suppressive genes in regulating cell-cycle progression and proliferation and showed that dysregulated USP10 function promotes tumorigenesis through SIRT6 degradation.

  17. Signal transducers and activators of transcription as regulators of growth, apoptosis and breast development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAT transcription factors were discovered 10 years ago as mediators of interferon-induced gene expression. They now form an important group, comprising seven members, that are activated by virtually every cytokine and growth factor. Their critical role in development and normal cell signaling has been largely determined through the analysis of transgenic mice lacking individual STAT genes. In addition, cell culture work has further delineated their importance in cellular transformation, apoptosis, differentiation and growth control. This review discusses the specific phenotypes of STAT-deficient animals with a focus on STAT5 and STAT3, as these two STAT molecules are required for normal breast development and involution, respectively, and may play an important role in breast carcinogenesis

  18. Neuronal activity rapidly induces transcription of the CREB-regulated microRNA-132, in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nudelman, Aaron Samuel; DiRocco, Derek P; Lambert, Talley J;

    2010-01-01

    expression in mouse brain was monitored by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Pilocarpine-induced seizures led to a robust, rapid, and transient increase in the primary transcript of miR-132 (pri-miR-132) followed by a subsequent rise in mature microRNA (miR-132). Activation of neurons in the hippocampus......, olfactory bulb, and striatum by contextual fear conditioning, odor-exposure, and cocaine-injection, respectively, also increased pri-miR-132. Induction kinetics of pri-miR-132 were monitored and found to parallel those of immediate early genes, peaking at 45 min and returning to basal levels within 2 h of...

  19. A Nonradioactive Method for Detecting DNA-binding Activity of Nuclear Transcription Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 徐永健; 张珍祥; 熊维宁

    2003-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of a nonradioactive electrophoresis mobility shift assay fordetecting nuclear transcription factor, double-stranded oligonucleotides encoding the consensus tar-get sequence of NF-κB were labled with DIG by terminal transferase. After nuclear protein stimula-ted with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or PMA and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDT C)electrophoresed on 8 % nondenaturing poliacrylamide gel together with oligeonucleotide probe, theywere electro-blotted nylon membrane positively charged. Anti-DIG-AP antibody catalyzed chemilu-minescent substrate CSPD to image on X-film. The results showed that nuclear proteins binded spe-cifically to the NF-κB consensus sequence in the EMSA by chemiluminescent technique method andthe activity of NF-κB in PMA group was more than that in PMA+PDTC group. It is suggestedthat detection of NF-κB by EMSA with chemiluminescent technique is feasible and simple, whichcan be performed in ordinary laboratories.

  20. Involvement of tristetraprolin in transcriptional activation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► siRNAs to tristetraprolin blocks transcription of HMGR in vivo in rat liver. ► siRNAs to tristetraprolin inhibits insulin activation of HMGR transcription. ► Insulin acts to rapidly increase tristetraprolin in liver nuclear extracts. -- Abstract: Several AU-rich RNA binding element (ARE) proteins were investigated for their possible effects on transcription of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) in normal rats. Using in vivo electroporation, four different siRNAs to each ARE protein were introduced together with HMGR promoter (−325 to +20) luciferase construct and compared to saline controls. All four siRNAs to tristetraprolin (TTP) completely eliminated transcription from the HMGR promoter construct. Since insulin acts to rapidly increase hepatic HMGR transcription, the effect of TTP siRNA on induction by insulin was tested. The 3-fold stimulation by insulin was eliminated by this treatment. In comparison, siRNA to AU RNA binding protein/enoyl coenzyme A hydratase (AUH) had no effect. These findings indicate a role for TTP in the insulin-mediated activation of hepatic HMGR transcription.

  1. Involvement of tristetraprolin in transcriptional activation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, Gene C., E-mail: gness@hsc.usf.edu [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Edelman, Jeffrey L.; Brooks, Patricia A. [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNAs to tristetraprolin blocks transcription of HMGR in vivo in rat liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNAs to tristetraprolin inhibits insulin activation of HMGR transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin acts to rapidly increase tristetraprolin in liver nuclear extracts. -- Abstract: Several AU-rich RNA binding element (ARE) proteins were investigated for their possible effects on transcription of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) in normal rats. Using in vivo electroporation, four different siRNAs to each ARE protein were introduced together with HMGR promoter (-325 to +20) luciferase construct and compared to saline controls. All four siRNAs to tristetraprolin (TTP) completely eliminated transcription from the HMGR promoter construct. Since insulin acts to rapidly increase hepatic HMGR transcription, the effect of TTP siRNA on induction by insulin was tested. The 3-fold stimulation by insulin was eliminated by this treatment. In comparison, siRNA to AU RNA binding protein/enoyl coenzyme A hydratase (AUH) had no effect. These findings indicate a role for TTP in the insulin-mediated activation of hepatic HMGR transcription.

  2. Quercetin represses apolipoprotein B expression by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of C/EBPβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Shimizu

    Full Text Available Quercetin is one of the most abundant polyphenolic flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables and has anti-oxidative and anti-obesity effects. Because the small intestine is a major absorptive organ of dietary nutrients, it is likely that highly concentrated food constituents, including polyphenols, are present in the small intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that food factors may have a profound effect in this tissue. To identify novel targets of quercetin in the intestinal enterocytes, mRNA profiling using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells was performed. We found that mRNA levels of some apolipoproteins, particularly apolipoprotein B (apoB, are downregulated in the presence of quercetin. On the exposure of Caco-2 cells to quercetin, both mRNA and protein levels of apoB were decreased. Promoter analysis of the human apoB revealed that quercetin response element is localized at the 5'-proximal promoter region, which contains a conserved CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP-response element. We found that quercetin reduces the promoter activity of apoB, driven by the enforced expression of C/EBPβ. Quercetin had no effect on either mRNA or protein levels of C/EBPβ. In contrast, we found that quercetin inhibits the transcriptional activity of C/EBPβ but not its recruitment to the apoB promoter. On the exposure of Caco-2 cells to quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, which is in a cell-impermeable form, no notable change in apoB mRNA was observed, suggesting an intracellular action of quercetin. In vitro interaction experiments using quercetin-conjugated beads revealed that quercetin binds to C/EBPβ. Our results describe a novel regulatory mechanism of transcription of apolipoprotein genes by quercetin in the intestinal enterocytes.

  3. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2). PMID:25692407

  4. Polymorphisms in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and lung function in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Ross

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying genetic determinants for lung function is important in providing insight into the pathophysiology of asthma. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 is a transcription factor latent in the cytoplasm; the gene (STAT3 is activated by a wide range of cytokines, and may play a role in lung development and asthma pathogenesis. Methods We genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the STAT3 gene in a cohort of 401 Caucasian adult asthmatics. The associations between each SNP and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, as a percent of predicted, at the baseline exam were tested using multiple linear regression models. Longitudinal analyses involving repeated measures of FEV1 were conducted with mixed linear models. Haplotype analyses were conducted using imputed haplotypes. We completed a second association study by genotyping the same six polymorphisms in a cohort of 652 Caucasian children with asthma. Results We found that three polymorphisms were significantly associated with baseline FEV1: homozygotes for the minor alleles of each polymorphism had lower FEV1 than homozygotes for the major alleles. Moreover, these associations persisted when we performed an analysis on repeated measures of FEV1 over 8 weeks. A haplotypic analysis based on the six polymorphisms indicated that two haplotypes were associated with baseline FEV1. Among the childhood asthmatics, one polymorphism was associated with both baseline FEV1 and the repeated measures of FEV1 over 4 years. Conclusion Our results indicate that genetic variants in STAT3, independent of asthma treatment, are determinants of FEV1 in both adults and children with asthma, and suggest that STAT3 may participate in inflammatory pathways that have an impact on level of lung function.

  5. Quantifying colocalization of a conditionally active transcription factor FOXP3 in three-dimensional cellular space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Thomas; Allan, Sarah E.; Levings, Megan K.

    2009-02-01

    Biological macromolecular interactions between proteins, transcription factors, DNA and other types of biomolecules, are fundamentally important to several cellular and biological processes. 3D Multi-channel confocal microscopy and colocalization analysis of fluorescent signals have proven to be invaluable tools for detecting such molecular interactions. The aim of this work was to quantify colocalization of the FOXP3 transcription factor in 3D cellular space generated from the confocal 3D image sets. 293T cells transfected with a conditionally active form of FOXP3 were stained for nuclei with Hoechst, for FOXP3 with anti-FOXP3 conjugated to PE, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen used as protein translocation and activation agent. Since the protein signal was weak and nonspecific intensity contributions were strong, it was difficult to perform colocalization analysis and estimate colocalization quantities. We performed 3D restoration by deconvolution method on the confocal images using experimentally measured point spread functions (PSFs) and subsequently a color shift correction. The deconvolution method eliminated nonspecific intensity contributions originating from PSF imposed by optical microscopy diffraction resolution limits and noise since these factors significantly affected colocalization analysis and quantification. Visual inspection of the deconvolved 3D image suggested that the FOXP3 molecules are predominantly colocalized within the nuclei although the fluorescent signals from FOXP3 molecules were also present in the cytoplasm. A close inspection of the scatter plot (colocalization map) and correlation quantities such as the Pearsons and colocalization coefficients showed that the fluorescent signals from the FOXP3 molecules and DNA are strongly correlated. In conclusion, our colocalization quantification approach confirms the preferential association of the FOXP3 molecules with the DNA despite the presence of fluorescent signals from the former one both in the

  6. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo, E-mail: sjsj@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Wnt signaling as well as β-catenin overexpression enhance HuR cytoplasmic export. • HuR overexpression promotes cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin from the perinuclear fraction. • Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity is repressesed by HuR. - Abstract: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells.

  7. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in transcriptional activation of ceruloplasmin by iron deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Mazumder, B.; Fox, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    A role of the copper protein ceruloplasmin (Cp) in iron metabolism is suggested by its ferroxidase activity and by the tissue iron overload in hereditary Cp deficiency patients. In addition, plasma Cp increases markedly in several conditions of anemia, e.g. iron deficiency, hemorrhage, renal failure, sickle cell disease, pregnancy, and inflammation. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) involved. We have reported that iron chelators increase Cp mRNA expression and protein synthesis in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we have shown that the increase in Cp mRNA is due to increased rate of transcription. We here report the results of new studies designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional activation of Cp by iron deficiency. The 5'-flanking region of the Cp gene was cloned from a human genomic library. A 4774-base pair segment of the Cp promoter/enhancer driving a luciferase reporter was transfected into HepG2 or Hep3B cells. Iron deficiency or hypoxia increased luciferase activity by 5-10-fold compared with untreated cells. Examination of the sequence showed three pairs of consensus hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs). Deletion and mutation analysis showed that a single HRE was necessary and sufficient for gene activation. The involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was shown by gel-shift and supershift experiments that showed HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta binding to a radiolabeled oligonucleotide containing the Cp promoter HRE. Furthermore, iron deficiency (and hypoxia) did not activate Cp gene expression in Hepa c4 hepatoma cells deficient in HIF-1beta, as shown functionally by the inactivity of a transfected Cp promoter-luciferase construct and by the failure of HIF-1 to bind the Cp HRE in nuclear extracts from these cells. These results are consistent with in vivo findings that iron deficiency increases plasma Cp and provides a molecular mechanism that may help to understand these

  8. CMYB1 Encoding a MYB Transcriptional Activator Is Involved in Abiotic Stress and Circadian Rhythm in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of cold-induced transcriptome, a novel gene encoding a putative MYB transcription factor was isolated and designated Cold induced MYB 1 (CMYB1. Tissue-specific gene expression analysis revealed that CMYB1 was highly expressed in rice stems and nodes. qRT-PCR assay indicated that CMYB1 was dramatically induced by cold stress (>100-folds and induced by exogenous ABA and osmotic stress. Interestingly, CMYB1 showed rhythmic expression profile in rice leaves at different developmental stages. Subcellular localization assay suggested that CMYB1-GFP (green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in the nuclei. Moreover, CMYB1 exhibited the transcriptional activation activity when transiently expressed in rice protoplast cells. Taken together, CMYB1 probably functions as a transcriptional activator in mediating stress and rhythm responsive gene expression in rice.

  9. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation is associated with bladder cancer cell growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fu-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 signaling pathway plays an important role in several human cancers. Activation of Stat3 is dependent on the phosphorylation at the tyrosine residue 705 by upstream kinases and subsequent nuclear translocation after dimerization. It remains unclear whether oncogenic Stat3 signaling pathway is involved in the oncogenesis of bladder cancer. Results We found that elevated Stat3 phosphorylation in 19 of 100 (19% bladder cancer tissues as well as bladder cancer cell lines, WH, UMUC-3 and 253J. To explore whether Stat3 activation is associated with cell growth and survival of bladder cancer, we targeted the Stat3 signaling pathway in bladder cancer cells using an adenovirus-mediated dominant-negative Stat3 (Y705F and a small molecule compound, STA-21. Both prohibited cell growth and induction of apoptosis in these bladder cancer cell lines but not in normal bladder smooth muscle cell (BdSMC. The survival inhibition might be mediated through apoptotic caspase 3, 8 and 9 pathways. Moreover, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin and a cell cycle regulating gene (cyclin D1 was associated with the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Conclusion These results indicated that activation of Stat3 is crucial for bladder cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, interference of Stat3 signaling pathway emerges as a potential therapeutic approach for bladder cancer.

  10. Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibits transcription of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene by interacting with nuclear factor kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wenzheng; Kone, Bruce C

    2002-01-01

    Prolific generation of NO by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) can cause unintended injury to host cells during glomerulonephritis and other inflammatory diseases. While much is known about the mechanisms of iNOS induction, few transcriptional repressors have been found. We explored the role of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) proteins in interleukin (IL)-1beta- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+interferon (IFN)-gamma-mediated iNOS induction in murine mesangial cells. Both stimuli induced rapid phosphorylation of STAT3 and sequence-specific STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Supershift assays with a STAT3 element probe demonstrated that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 and p50 complexed with STAT3 in the DNA-protein complex. The direct interaction of STAT3 and NF-kappaB p65 was verified in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro by pull-down assays with glutathione S-transferase-NF-kappaB p65 fusion protein and in vitro -translated STAT3alpha. Overexpression of STAT3 dramatically inhibited IL-1beta- or LPS+IFN-gamma-mediated induction of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs that contained the wild-type iNOS promoter or ones harbouring mutated STAT-binding elements. In tests of indirect inhibitory effects of STAT3, overexpression of STAT3 dramatically inhibited the activity of an NF-kappaB-dependent promoter devoid of STAT-binding elements without affecting NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. Thus STAT3, via direct interactions with NF-kappaB p65, serves as a dominant-negative inhibitor of NF-kappaB activity to suppress indirectly cytokine induction of the iNOS promoter in mesangial cells. These results provide a new model for the termination of NO production by activated iNOS following exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli. PMID:12057007

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling enhances nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of BRCA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signaling pathways involved in regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of BRCA1 have not been previously reported. Here, we provide evidence that heregulin β1-induced activation of the Akt pathway increases the nuclear content of BRCA1. First, treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with heregulin β1 results in a two-fold increase in nuclear BRCA1 as assessed by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. This heregulin-induced increase in nuclear BRCA1 is blocked by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Akt. Second, mutation of threonine 509 in BRCA1, the site of Akt phosphorylation, to an alanine, attenuates the ability of heregulin to induce BRCA1 nuclear accumulation. These data suggest that Akt-catalyzed phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required for the heregulin-regulated nuclear concentration of BRCA1. Because most functions ascribed to BRCA1 occur within the nucleus, we postulated that phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 would result in enhanced nuclear activity, specifically transcriptional activity, of BRCA1. This postulate is affirmed by our observation that the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate GADD45 promoter constructs was enhanced in T47D cells treated with heregulin β1. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 human breast cancer cells, which have constitutively active Akt, also induces GADD45 promoter activity, whereas the expression of BRCA1 in which threonine 509 has been mutated to an alanine is able to only minimally induce promoter activity. These findings implicate Akt in upstream events leading to BRCA1 nuclear localization and function

  12. Transcriptional dysregulation of inflammatory/immune pathways after active vaccination against Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Arlene I; Manley, Kevin; Rong, Yinghui; Reilly, Andrew; Messer, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Immunotherapy, both active and passive, is increasingly recognized as a powerful approach to a wide range of diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant disorder triggered by misfolding of huntingtin (HTT) protein with an expanded polyglutamine tract, could also benefit from this approach. Individuals can be identified genetically at the earliest stages of disease, and there may be particular benefits to a therapy that can target peripheral tissues in addition to brain. In this active vaccination study, we first examined safety and immunogenicity for a broad series of peptide, protein and DNA plasmid immunization protocols, using fragment (R6/1), and knock-in (zQ175) models. No safety issues were found. The strongest and most uniform immune response was to a combination of three non-overlapping HTT Exon1 coded peptides, conjugated to KLH, delivered with alum adjuvant. An N586-82Q plasmid, delivered via gene gun, also showed ELISA responses, mainly in the zQ175 strain, but with more variability, and less robust responses in HD compared with wild-type controls. Transcriptome profiling of spleens from the triple peptide-immunized cohort showed substantial HD-specific differences including differential activation of genes associated with innate immune responses, absence of negative feedback control of gene expression by regulators, a temporal dysregulation of innate immune responses and transcriptional repression of genes associated with memory T cell responses. These studies highlight critical issues for immunotherapy and HD disease management in general. PMID:26307082

  13. DNA Topoisomerases Maintain Promoters in a State Competent for Transcriptional Activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Madsen; Fredsøe, Jacob Christian; Rødgaard, Morten Terpager; Andreasen, Lotte; Mundbjerg, Kamilla; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Brinch, Marie; Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Bjergbæk, Lotte; Andersen, Anni Hangaard

    -depth analysis of the inducible PHO5 gene reveals that topoisomerases are essential for binding of the Pho4p transcription factor to the PHO5 promoter, which is required for promoter nucleosome removal during activation. In contrast, topoisomerases are dispensable for constitutive transcription initiation and...... elongation of PHO5, as well as the nuclear entrance of Pho4p. Finally, we provide evidence that topoisomerases are required to maintain the PHO5 promoter in a superhelical state, which is competent for proper activation. In conclusion, our results reveal a hitherto unknown function of topoisomerases during...

  14. Unique transcriptional profile of sustained ligand-activated preconditioning in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Ashton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning induced by 3-5 days of opioid receptor (OR agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%. Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des, natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds. Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3, cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3, together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1 and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid. Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia, which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2 and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu, and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1 and Txnip. CONCLUSIONS: Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up

  15. The 42-kDa coat protein of Andean potato mottle virus acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of viral proteins play an important role in the virus life cycle, especially in capsid assembly. Andean potato mottle comovirus (APMoV is a plant RNA virus with a virion formed by two coat proteins (CP42 and CP22. Both APMoV coat protein open reading frames were cloned into pGBT9 and pGAD10, two-hybrid system vectors. HF7c yeast cells transformed with the p9CP42 construct grew on yeast dropout selection media lacking tryptophan and histidine. Clones also exhibited ß-galactosidase activity in both qualitative and quantitative assays. These results suggest that CP42 protein contains an amino acid motif able to activate transcription of His3 and lacZ reporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several deletions of the CP42 gene were cloned into the pGBT9 vector to locate the region involved in this activation. CP42 constructions lacking 12 residues from the C-terminal region and another one with 267 residues deleted from the N-terminus are still able to activate transcription of reporter genes. However, transcription activation was not observed with construction p9CP42deltaC57, which does not contain the last 57 amino acid residues. These results demonstrate that a transcription activation domain is present at the C-terminus of CP42 between residues 267 and 374.

  16. Transcription factors GAF and HSF act at distinct regulatory steps to modulate stress-induced gene activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuda, Nicholas J.; Mahat, Dig B.; Core, Leighton J.; Guertin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is fundamental to development and homeostasis. Inducible systems are invaluable when studying transcription because the regulatory process can be triggered instantaneously, allowing the tracking of ordered mechanistic events. Here, we use precision run-on sequencing (PRO-seq) to examine the genome-wide heat shock (HS) response in Drosophila and the function of two key transcription factors on the immediate transcription activation or repression of all genes regulated by HS. We identify the primary HS response genes and the rate-limiting steps in the transcription cycle that GAGA-associated factor (GAF) and HS factor (HSF) regulate. We demonstrate that GAF acts upstream of promoter-proximally paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) formation (likely at the step of chromatin opening) and that GAF-facilitated Pol II pausing is critical for HS activation. In contrast, HSF is dispensable for establishing or maintaining Pol II pausing but is critical for the release of paused Pol II into the gene body at a subset of highly activated genes. Additionally, HSF has no detectable role in the rapid HS repression of thousands of genes. PMID:27492368

  17. Predicting transcription factor activities from combined analysis of microarray and ChIP data: a partial least squares approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strimmer Korbinian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the network between transcription factors and their targets is important for understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms in a cell. Unfortunately, with standard microarray experiments it is not possible to measure the transcription factor activities (TFAs directly, as their own transcription levels are subject to post-translational modifications. Results Here we propose a statistical approach based on partial least squares (PLS regression to infer the true TFAs from a combination of mRNA expression and DNA-protein binding measurements. This method is also statistically sound for small samples and allows the detection of functional interactions among the transcription factors via the notion of "meta"-transcription factors. In addition, it enables false positives to be identified in ChIP data and activation and suppression activities to be distinguished. Conclusion The proposed method performs very well both for simulated data and for real expression and ChIP data from yeast and E. Coli experiments. It overcomes the limitations of previously used approaches to estimating TFAs. The estimated profiles may also serve as input for further studies, such as tests of periodicity or differential regulation. An R package "plsgenomics" implementing the proposed methods is available for download from the CRAN archive.

  18. RKIP Inhibits Local Breast Cancer Invasion by Antagonizing the Transcriptional Activation of MMP13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Datar

    Full Text Available Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein or RKIP was initially identified as a Raf-1 binding protein using the yeast 2-hybrid screen. RKIP inhibits the activation phosphorylation of MEK by Raf-1 by competitively inhibiting the binding of MEK to Raf-1 and thus exerting an inhibitory effect on the Raf-MEK-Erk pathway. RKIP has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene. Expression of RKIP is low in cancer metastases. Although primary tumor growth remains unaffected, re- expression of RKIP inhibits cancer metastasis. Mechanistically, RKIP constrains metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis, local invasion, intravasation, and colonization. The molecular mechanism of how RKIP inhibits these individual steps remains undefined. In our present study, using an unbiased PCR based screening and by analyzing DNA microarray expression datasets we observe that the expression of multiple metalloproteases (MMPs including MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP13 are negatively correlated with RKIP expression in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Since expression of MMPs by cancer cells is important for cancer metastasis, we hypothesize that RKIP may mediate suppression of breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting multiple MMPs. We show that the expression signature of RKIP and MMPs is better at predicting high metastatic risk than the individual gene. Using a combination of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we find that MMP13 is the cause of RKIP-mediated inhibition of local cancer invasion. Interestingly expression of MMP13 alone is not sufficient to reverse the inhibition of breast cancer cell metastasis to the lung due to the expression of RKIP. We find that RKIP negatively regulates MMP13 through the Erk2 signaling pathway and the repression of MMP13 by RKIP is transcription factor AP-1 independent. Together, our findings indicate that RKIP inhibits cancer cell invasion, in part, via MMP13 inhibition. These data also implicate RKIP in the regulation of MMP

  19. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 and Trophoblast Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald JS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human trophoblast cells have the fascinating property of physiological invasiveness into allogenic tissue. The underlying mechanisms, such as extra- and intracellular signalling, are very similar to those abused by a variety of tumours. The main contrasting feature to cancerous cells is the very fundamental ability of trophoblasts to auto-regulate invasion with respect to time and space. Trophoblast cells start invasion into the decidua very shortly after implantation, which approaches a maximum during the first trimester of gestation period. During this period of time, several cytokines from cells of different maternal origin, including NK cells, dendritic cells, stroma cells and endothelial cells, are present which, analogous to the situation in tumours, have the potential to trigger and enhance invasion, migration and proliferation of trophoblast cells. These mainly include interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-11, Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF and Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGF. Cytokines, upon binding to their specific receptors present on the trophoblast cells, trigger several intracellular signalling cascades. One of these signalling pathways is the Janus Kinase (Jak/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT pathway. As recent studies have shown, the tyrosine phosphorylated form of STAT3 is a major inducer of invasiveness which mainly takes place upon binding of LIF to its receptor. For autoregulation of signals, STAT3 induces the transcription of Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 3 (SOCS3. The balance between STAT3 and SOCS3 may be argued as one of the main tuners of trophoblast invasion for successful implantation. Disturbances in this balance may lead to serious complications like cancer and implantation failure.

  20. Functional characterization of NAC55 transcription factor from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) as a novel transcriptional activator modulating reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fangfang; Wang, Chen; Yan, Jingli; Guo, Xiaohua; Wu, Feifei; Yang, Bo; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2016-09-01

    NAC transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific and play important roles in development, responses to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. So far, only a few NAC genes have been reported to regulate cell death. In this study, we identified and characterized a NAC55 gene isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). BnaNAC55 responds to multiple stresses, including cold, heat, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. BnaNAC55 has transactivation activity and is located in the nucleus. BnaNAC55 is able to form homodimers in planta. Unlike ANAC055, full-length BnaNAC55, but not either the N-terminal NAC domain or C-terminal regulatory domain, induces ROS accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when expressed both in oilseed rape protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, BnaNAC55 expression causes obvious nuclear DNA fragmentation. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that the expression levels of multiple genes regulating ROS production and scavenging, defense response as well as senescence are significantly induced. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay, we further confirm that BnaNAC55 could activate the expression of a few ROS and defense-related gene expression. Taken together, our work has identified a novel NAC TF from oilseed rape that modulates ROS accumulation and cell death. PMID:27312204

  1. Site-specific phosphorylation regulates the transcriptive activity of vesicular stomatitis virus NS protein.

    OpenAIRE

    C. H. Hsu; Morgan, E M; Kingsbury, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    In vitro transcription by vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsids is inhibited by enzymatic dephosphorylation of the NS protein. We provide evidence that specific, partial dephosphorylation of NS molecules is the only detectable change in nucleocapsids treated with bacterial alkaline phosphatase under conditions that prevent the action of adventitious protease. Dephosphorylation appeared to affect only the rate of transcription; there were no changes in sedimentation rates of transcripts. To...

  2. 核因子E2相关因子2激活剂及其在皮肤科的应用%Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 activators and their application in dermatology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩雯; 朱慧兰

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activators,with Nrf2 as their target,exert antioxidant activity,and have become one of the most important antioxidants.They may activate Nrf2/Keapl system directly or indirectly,induce the expression of antioxidant genes and phase Ⅱ enzyme genes,increase the antioxidant ability of cells,and hence,play important roles in cellular protection and defense.Recently,numerous studies in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that Nrf2 activators,such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate,curcumin,sulforaphane and aspirin,have a favorable efficacy in the management of sun damage,vitiligo,bullous dermatoses,wound healing,skin tumors,chloasma,psoriasis,and so on.%核转录相关因子激活剂以核转录相关因子为靶点发挥其抗氧化作用,成为目前最重要的抗氧化剂之一.核转录相关因子激活剂直接或间接激活Nrf2/Keap1系统,诱导抗氧化基因及Ⅱ相解毒酶的表达,提高细胞抗氧化能力,在细胞的防御保护中发挥重要作用.目前体内外研究证实,核转录相关因子激活剂,如(-)-表没食子儿茶素-3-没食子酸酯、姜黄素、莱菔硫烷和阿司匹林等,在日光损伤、白癜风、大疱性皮肤病、伤口愈合、皮肤肿瘤、黄褐斑与银屑病等疾病中起到了较好的治疗作用.

  3. Andrographolide stimulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-heme oxygenase 1 signaling in primary cerebral endothelial cells for definite protection against ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ting-Lin; Chen, Ray-Jade; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Stroke pathogenesis involves complex oxidative stress-related pathways. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathways have been considered molecular targets in pharmacologic intervention for ischemic diseases. Andrographolide, a labdane diterpene, has received increasing attention in recent years because of its various pharmacologic activities. We determined that andrographolide modulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-Nrf2-HO-1 signaling cascade in primary cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) to provide positive protection against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in rats. In the present study, andrographolide (10 μM) increased HO-1 protein and messenger RNA expressions, Nrf2 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation in CECs, and these activities were disrupted by a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, but not by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125. Similar results were observed in confocal microscopy analysis. Moreover, andrographolide-induced Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions were significantly inhibited by Nrf2 small interfering RNA. Moreover, HO-1 knockdown attenuated the protective effect of andrographolide against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced CEC death. Andrographolide (0.1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed free radical formation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain infarction in MCAO-insulted rats, and these effects were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX. The mechanism is attributable to HO-1 activation, as directly evidenced by andrographolide-induced pronounced HO-1 expression in brain tissues, which was highly localized in the cerebral capillary. In conclusion, andrographolide increased Nrf2-HO-1 expression through p38 MAPK regulation, confirming that it provides protection against MCAO-induced brain injury. These findings provide strong evidence that andrographolide could

  4. Jmjd2C increases MyoD transcriptional activity through inhibiting G9a-dependent MyoD degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun-Shil; Sim, Ye-Ji; Jeong, Hoe-Su; Kim, Su-Jin; Yun, Ye-Jin; Song, Joo-Hoon; Jeon, Su-Hee; Choe, Chungyoul; Park, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Kye-Seong

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal muscle cell differentiation requires a family of proteins called myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) to which MyoD belongs. The activity of MyoD is under epigenetic regulation, however, the molecular mechanism by which histone KMTs and KDMs regulate MyoD transcriptional activity through methylation remains to be determined. Here we provide evidence for a unique regulatory mechanism of MyoD transcriptional activity through demethylation by Jmjd2C demethylase whose level increases during muscle differentiation. G9a decreases MyoD stability via methylation-dependent MyoD ubiquitination. Jmjd2C directly associates with MyoD in vitro and in vivo to demethylate and stabilize MyoD. The hypo-methylated MyoD due to Jmjd2C is significantly more stable than hyper-methylated MyoD by G9a. Cul4/Ddb1/Dcaf1 pathway is essential for the G9a-mediated MyoD degradation in myoblasts. By the stabilization of MyoD, Jmjd2C increases myogenic conversion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and MyoD transcriptional activity with erasing repressive H3K9me3 level at the promoter of MyoD target genes. Collectively, Jmjd2C increases MyoD transcriptional activity to facilitate skeletal muscle differentiation by increasing MyoD stability through inhibiting G9a-dependent MyoD degradation. PMID:26149774

  5. Regulation of transcription through light-activation and light-deactivation of triplex-forming oligonucleotides in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, Jeane M; Uprety, Rajendra; Hemphill, James; Lively, Mark O; Deiters, Alexander

    2012-07-20

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are efficient tools to regulate gene expression through the inhibition of transcription. Here, nucleobase-caging technology was applied to the temporal regulation of transcription through light-activated TFOs. Through site-specific incorporation of caged thymidine nucleotides, the TFO:DNA triplex formation is blocked, rendering the TFO inactive. However, after a brief UV irradiation, the caging groups are removed, activating the TFO and leading to the inhibition of transcription. Furthermore, the synthesis and site-specific incorporation of caged deoxycytidine nucleotides within TFO inhibitor sequences was developed, allowing for the light-deactivation of TFO function and thus photochemical activation of gene expression. After UV-induced removal of the caging groups, the TFO forms a DNA dumbbell structure, rendering it inactive, releasing it from the DNA, and activating transcription. These are the first examples of light-regulated TFOs and their application in the photochemical activation and deactivation of gene expression. In addition, hairpin loop structures were found to significantly increase the efficacy of phosphodiester DNA-based TFOs in tissue culture. PMID:22540192

  6. Low ozone concentrations stimulate cytoskeletal organization, mitochondrial activity and nuclear transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Costanzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone therapy is a modestly invasive procedure based on the regeneration capabilities of low ozone concentrations and used in medicine as an alternative/adjuvant treatment for different diseases. However, the cellular mechanisms accounting for the positive effects of mild ozonization are still largely unexplored. To this aim, in the present study the effects of low ozone concentrations (1 to 20 µg O3/mL O2 on structural and functional cell features have been investigated in vitro by using morphological, morphometrical, cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques at bright field, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Cells exposed to pure O2 or air served as controls. The results demonstrated that the effects of ozoneadministration are dependent on gas concentration, and the cytoskeletal organization, mitochondrial activity and nuclear transcription may be differently affected. This suggests that, to ensure effective and permanent metabolic cell activation, ozone treatments should take into account the cytological and cytokinetic features of the different tissues. 

  7. High-efficiency and heritable gene targeting in mouse by transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongwei; Liu, Meizhen; Chen, Zhaohua; Shao, Yanjiao; Pan, Hongjie; Wei, Gaigai; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Long; Li, Xia; Wang, Ping; Fan, Heng-Yu; Du, Bing; Liu, Bin; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are a powerful new approach for targeted gene disruption in various animal models, but little is known about their activities in Mus musculus, the widely used mammalian model organism. Here, we report that direct injection of in vitro transcribed messenger RNA of TALEN pairs into mouse zygotes induced somatic mutations, which were stably passed to the next generation through germ-line transmission. With one TALEN pair constructed for each of 10 target genes, mutant F0 mice for each gene were obtained with the mutation rate ranged from 13 to 67% and an average of ∼40% of total healthy newborns with no significant differences between C57BL/6 and FVB/N genetic background. One TALEN pair with single mismatch to their intended target sequence in each side failed to yield any mutation. Furthermore, highly efficient germ-line transmission was obtained, as all the F0 founders tested transmitted the mutations to F1 mice. In addition, we also observed that one bi-allele mutant founder of Lepr gene, encoding Leptin receptor, had similar diabetic phenotype as db/db mouse. Together, our results suggest that TALENs are an effective genetic tool for rapid gene disruption with high efficiency and heritability in mouse with distinct genetic background. PMID:23630316

  8. Identification of target genes of transcription factor activator protein 2 gamma in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activator protein 2 gamma (AP-2γ) is a member of the transcription factor activator protein-2 (AP-2) family, which is developmentally regulated and plays a role in human neoplasia. AP-2γ has been found to be overexpressed in most breast cancers, and have a dual role to inhibit tumor initiation and promote tumor progression afterwards during mammary tumorigensis. To identify the gene targets that mediate its effects, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to isolate AP-2γ binding sites on genomic DNA from human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453. 20 novel DNA fragments proximal to potential AP-2γ targets were obtained. They are categorized into functional groups of carcinogenesis, metabolism and others. A combination of sequence analysis, reporter gene assays, quantitative real-time PCR, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays and immunoblot analysis further confirmed the four AP-2γ target genes in carcinogenesis group: ErbB2, CDH2, HPSE and IGSF11. Our results were consistent with the previous reports that ErbB2 was the target gene of AP-2γ. Decreased expression and overexpression of AP-2γ in human breast cancer cells significantly altered the expression of these four genes, indicating that AP-2γ directly regulates them. This suggested that AP-2γ can coordinate the expression of a network of genes, involving in carcinogenesis, especially in breast cancer. They could serve as therapeutic targets against breast cancers in the future

  9. Transcriptional activation of JC virus by human T-lymphotropic virus type I Tax protein in human neuronal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y; Sawa, H; Tanaka, S; Takada, A; Suzuki, S; Hasegawa, H; Umemura, T; Fujisawa, J; Tanaka, Y; Hall, W W; Nagashima, K

    2000-06-01

    Polyomavirus JC (JCV) causes the human demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The recent demonstration of cases of PML in association with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection prompted us to examine whether the HTLV-I-encoded regulatory protein Tax activates JCV transcription. By employing a dual luciferase assay, we initially found that the expression of Tax activated the transcriptional potential of both early and late promoters of JCV in human neuronal but not in non-neuronal cells. We subsequently analyzed the mechanism of Tax-induced activation of the JCV promoter in neuronal cells with the following results: 1) the JCV promoter that lacks the NF-kappaB-binding motif could not be activated by Tax; 2) the overexpression of IkappaBalpha abolished Tax-induced transcriptional activation of the JCV promoter; 3) a Tax mutant (M22) lacking the potential for activation via the NF-kappaB pathway did not activate the JCV promoter. Furthermore, Tax enhances the gene expression of JCV T antigen and VP1. We examined mechanisms of the cell-specific activation of the JCV promoter by Tax. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated the presence of Tax-bound protein(s) that were specifically present in non-neuronal cells. This study is the first demonstration of the activation of JCV promoter by HTLV-I Tax in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. PMID:10828075

  10. Sertad1 encodes a novel transcriptional co-activator of SMAD1 in mouse embryonic hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yin [Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Zhao, Shaomin [Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Song, Langying [Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Wang, Manyuan [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Jiao, Kai, E-mail: kjiao@uab.edu [Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •SERTAD1 interacts with SMAD1. •Sertad1 is expressed in mouse embryonic hearts. •SERTAD1 is localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus of cardiomyocytes. •SERTAD1 enhances expression of BMP target cardiogenic genes as a SMAD1 co-activator. -- Abstract: Despite considerable advances in surgical repairing procedures, congenital heart diseases (CHDs) remain the leading noninfectious cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the molecular/genetic mechanisms underlying normal cardiogenesis will provide essential information for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against CHDs. BMP signaling plays complex roles in multiple cardiogenic processes in mammals. SMAD1 is a canonical nuclear mediator of BMP signaling, the activity of which is critically regulated through its interaction partners. We screened a mouse embryonic heart yeast two-hybrid library using Smad1 as bait and identified SERTAD1 as a novel interaction partner of SMAD1. SERTAD1 contains multiple potential functional domains, including two partially overlapping transactivation domains at the C terminus. The SERTAD1-SMAD1 interaction in vitro and in mammalian cells was further confirmed through biochemical assays. The expression of Sertad1 in developing hearts was demonstrated using RT-PCR, western blotting and in situ hybridization analyses. We also showed that SERTAD1 was localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of immortalized cardiomyocytes and primary embryonic cardiomyocyte cultures. The overexpression of SERTAD1 in cardiomyocytes not only enhanced the activity of two BMP reporters in a dose-dependent manner but also increased the expression of several known BMP/SMAD regulatory targets. Therefore, these data suggest that SERTAD1 acts as a SMAD1 transcriptional co-activator to promote the expression of BMP target genes during mouse cardiogenesis.

  11. Sertad1 encodes a novel transcriptional co-activator of SMAD1 in mouse embryonic hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •SERTAD1 interacts with SMAD1. •Sertad1 is expressed in mouse embryonic hearts. •SERTAD1 is localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus of cardiomyocytes. •SERTAD1 enhances expression of BMP target cardiogenic genes as a SMAD1 co-activator. -- Abstract: Despite considerable advances in surgical repairing procedures, congenital heart diseases (CHDs) remain the leading noninfectious cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the molecular/genetic mechanisms underlying normal cardiogenesis will provide essential information for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against CHDs. BMP signaling plays complex roles in multiple cardiogenic processes in mammals. SMAD1 is a canonical nuclear mediator of BMP signaling, the activity of which is critically regulated through its interaction partners. We screened a mouse embryonic heart yeast two-hybrid library using Smad1 as bait and identified SERTAD1 as a novel interaction partner of SMAD1. SERTAD1 contains multiple potential functional domains, including two partially overlapping transactivation domains at the C terminus. The SERTAD1-SMAD1 interaction in vitro and in mammalian cells was further confirmed through biochemical assays. The expression of Sertad1 in developing hearts was demonstrated using RT-PCR, western blotting and in situ hybridization analyses. We also showed that SERTAD1 was localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of immortalized cardiomyocytes and primary embryonic cardiomyocyte cultures. The overexpression of SERTAD1 in cardiomyocytes not only enhanced the activity of two BMP reporters in a dose-dependent manner but also increased the expression of several known BMP/SMAD regulatory targets. Therefore, these data suggest that SERTAD1 acts as a SMAD1 transcriptional co-activator to promote the expression of BMP target genes during mouse cardiogenesis

  12. Direct interaction of natural and synthetic catechins with signal transducer activator of transcription 1 affects both its phosphorylation and activity

    KAUST Repository

    Menegazzi, Marta

    2013-12-10

    Our previous studies showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits signal transducer activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Since EGCG may be a promising lead compound for new anti-STAT1 drug design, 15 synthetic catechins, characterized by the (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate stereochemistry, were studied in the human mammary MDA-MB-231 cell line to identify the minimal structural features that preserve the anti-STAT1 activity. We demonstrate that the presence of three hydroxyl groups of B ring and one hydroxyl group in D ring is essential to preserve their inhibitory action. Moreover, a possible molecular target of these compounds in the STAT1 pathway was investigated. Our results demonstrate a direct interaction between STAT1 protein and catechins displaying anti-STAT1 activity. In particular, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis and molecular modeling indicate the presence of two putative binding sites (a and b) with different affinity. Based on docking data, site-directed mutagenesis was performed, and interaction of the most active catechins with STAT1 was studied with SPR to test whether Gln518 on site a and His568 on site b could be important for the catechin-STAT1 interaction. Data indicate that site b has higher affinity for catechins than site a as the highest affinity constant disappears in the H568ASTAT1 mutant. Furthermore, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) kinase assay data suggest that the contemporary presence in vitro of STAT1 and catechins inhibits JAK2-elicited STAT1 phosphorylation. The very tight catechin-STAT1 interaction prevents STAT1 phosphorylation and represents a novel, specific and efficient molecular mechanism for the inhibition of STAT1 activation. © Copyright 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  13. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor and enhances its transcriptional activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togi, Sumihito; Nakasuji, Misa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Kitai, Yuichi; Kon, Shigeyuki [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Oritani, Kenji [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi, E-mail: tmatsuda@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which interacts with cellular proteins, plays a central role in modification of viral and/or cellular gene expression. Here, we show that LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and that LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between LANA and GR in transiently transfected 293T and HeLa cells. In human B-lymphoma cells, LANA overexpression enhanced GR activity and cell growth suppression following glucocorticoid stimulation. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that activated GR was bound to LANA and accumulated in the nucleus, leading to an increase in binding of activated GR to the glucocorticoid response element of target genes. Taken together, KSHV-derived LANA acts as a transcriptional co-activator of GR. Our results might suggest a careful use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with KSHV-related malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. - Highlights: • KSHV-LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR in 293T and HeLa cells. • KSHV-LANA physically associates with GR. • KSHV-LANA enhances GR activation and cell growth suppression in human B-lymphocytes. • KSHV-LANA influences the nuclear retention and DNA binding activity of GR.

  14. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor and enhances its transcriptional activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which interacts with cellular proteins, plays a central role in modification of viral and/or cellular gene expression. Here, we show that LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and that LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between LANA and GR in transiently transfected 293T and HeLa cells. In human B-lymphoma cells, LANA overexpression enhanced GR activity and cell growth suppression following glucocorticoid stimulation. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that activated GR was bound to LANA and accumulated in the nucleus, leading to an increase in binding of activated GR to the glucocorticoid response element of target genes. Taken together, KSHV-derived LANA acts as a transcriptional co-activator of GR. Our results might suggest a careful use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with KSHV-related malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. - Highlights: • KSHV-LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR in 293T and HeLa cells. • KSHV-LANA physically associates with GR. • KSHV-LANA enhances GR activation and cell growth suppression in human B-lymphocytes. • KSHV-LANA influences the nuclear retention and DNA binding activity of GR

  15. CAR-mediated repression of Foxo1 transcriptional activity regulates the cell cycle inhibitor p21 in mouse livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CAR activation decreased the level of Foxo1 in mouse livers. • CAR activation decreased the level of p21 in mouse livers. • CAR activation inhibited Foxo1 transcriptional activity in mouse livers. - Abstract: 1,4-Bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), an agonist of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), is a well-known strong primary chemical mitogen for the mouse liver. Despite extensive investigation of the role of CAR in the regulation of cell proliferation, our knowledge of the intricate mediating mechanism is incomplete. In this study, we demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increased liver-to-body weight ratio and decreased tumour suppressor Foxo1 expression and transcriptional activity, which were correlated with reduced expression of genes regulated by Foxo1, including the cell-cycle inhibitor Cdkn1a(p21), and upregulation of the cell-cycle regulator Cyclin D1. Moreover, we demonstrated the negative regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on the association of Foxo1 with the target Foxo1 itself and Cdkn1a(p21) promoters. Thus, we identified CAR-mediated repression of cell cycle inhibitor p21, as mediated by repression of FOXO1 expression and transcriptional activity. CAR-FOXO1 cross-talk may provide new opportunities for understanding liver diseases and developing more effective therapeutic approaches to better drug treatments

  16. A transcription factor active on the epidermal growth factor receptor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed an in vitro transcription system for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncogene by using nuclear extracts of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, which overproduce EGFR. They found that a nuclear factor, termed EGFR-specific transcription factor (ETF), specifically stimulated EGFR transcription by 5- to 10-fold. In this report, ETF, purified by using sequence-specific oligonucleotide affinity chromatography, is shown by renaturing material eluted from a NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel to be a protein with a molecular mass of 120 kDa. ETF binds to the promoter region, as measured by DNase I footprinting and gel-mobility-shift assays, and specifically stimulates the transcription of the EGFR gene in a reconstituted in vitro transcription system. These results suggest that ETF could play a role in the overexpression of the cellular oncogene EGFR

  17. Effects of antiandrogens on transformation and transcription activation of wild-type and mutated (LNCaP) androgen receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); J. Veldscholte (Jos); E. Mulder (Eppo)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractLNCaP cells contain androgen receptors with a mutation in the steroid binding domain (Thr 868 changed to Ala) resulting in a changed hormone specificity. Both the wild-type and mutated androgen receptors were transfected into COS cells. Transcription activation was studied in cells co-tr

  18. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 is implicated in disease activity in adult and juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshaal, Safa; El Refai, Rasha; El Saie, Ahmed; El Hawary, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeostasis in humans. It is the principal signaling mechanism for a wide array of cytokines and growth factors. Dysregulated cytokine action on immune cells plays an important role in the initiation and progress of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we tried to assess the role of STAT5 in systemic lupus erythematosus and correlate its phosphorylation level with the disease activity. The activation of the STAT5 was assessed by measuring the level of expression of phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) using flow cytometry on the peripheral blood T and B cells in 58 SLE patients (40 adult and 18 juvenile onset) and on 23 healthy age- and sex-matched controls for both groups. Serum prolactin level was also assessed in the patients and control by ELISA. The study revealed that the level of pSTAT5 was higher in adult SLE patients than in healthy control (p = 0.001) and in juvenile-onset SLE patients versus age-matched control (p = 0.031). A positive correlation existed between the pSTAT5 levels and Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) score and also with multiple clinical manifestations indicating a potential role of STAT5 signaling in pathogenesis SLE. The pSTAT5 signaling is implicated in the disease activity of SLE and may be a useful target of therapy by correcting the dysregulation of cytokines involved in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:27041383

  19. The transcriptional regulator megakaryoblastic leukemia-1 mediates serum response factor-independent activation of tenascin-C transcription by mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asparuhova, Maria B; Ferralli, Jacqueline; Chiquet, Matthias; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    The extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C (TNC) is up-regulated in processes influenced by mechanical stress, such as inflammation, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Cyclic strain-induced TNC expression depends on RhoA-actin signaling, the pathway that regulates transcriptional activity of serum response factor (SRF) by its coactivator megakaryoblastic leukemia-1 (MKL1). Therefore, we tested whether MKL1 controls TNC transcription. We demonstrate that overexpression of MKL1 strongly induces TNC expression in mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts and normal HC11 and transformed 4T1 mammary epithelial cells. Part of the induction was dependant on SRF and a newly identified atypical CArG box in the TNC promoter. Another part was independent of SRF but required the SAP domain of MKL1. An MKL1 mutant incapable of binding to SRF still strongly induced TNC, while induction of the SRF target c-fos was abolished. Cyclic strain failed to induce TNC in MKL1-deficient but not in SRF-deficient fibroblasts, and strain-induced TNC expression strongly depended on the SAP domain of MKL1. Promoter-reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments unraveled a SAP-dependent, SRF-independent interaction of MKL1 with the proximal promoter region of TNC, attributing for the first time a functional role to the SAP domain of MKL1 in regulating gene expression. PMID:21705668

  20. Keap1 silencing boosts lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of interleukin 6 via activation of nuclear factor κB in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peng [Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Xue, Peng; Dong, Jian [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Peng, Hui [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Evaluation and Research Center for Toxicology, Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Sciences (China); Clewell, Rebecca [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wang, Aiping [Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Yue [Institute for Medical Device Standardization Administration, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing (China); Peng, Shuangqing [Evaluation and Research Center for Toxicology, Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Sciences (China); Qu, Weidong [Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E. [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates immune and inflammatory responses. Multiple transcription factors, including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulate IL6 transcription. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is a substrate adaptor protein for the Cullin 3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which regulates the degradation of many proteins, including Nrf2 and IκB kinase β (IKKβ). Here, we found that stable knockdown of Keap1 (Keap1-KD) in RAW 264.7 (RAW) mouse macrophages and human monocyte THP-1 cells significantly increased expression of Il6, and Nrf2-target genes, under basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.001–0.1 μg/ml)-challenged conditions. However, Nrf2 activation alone, by tert-butylhydroquinone treatment of RAW cells, did not increase expression of Il6. Compared to cells transduced with scrambled non-target negative control shRNA, Keap1-KD RAW cells showed enhanced protein levels of IKKβ and increased expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 under non-stressed and LPS-treated conditions. Because the expression of Il6 in Keap1-KD RAW cells was significantly attenuated by silencing of Ikkβ, but not Nrf2, it appears that stabilized IKKβ is responsible for the enhanced transactivation of Il6 in Keap1-KD cells. This study demonstrated that silencing of Keap1 in macrophages boosts LPS-induced transcription of Il6 via NF-κB activation. Given the importance of IL6 in the inflammatory response, the Keap1–IKKβ–NF-κB pathway may be a novel target for treatment and prevention of inflammation and associated disorders. - Highlights: • Knockdown of Keap1 increases expression of Il6 in macrophages. • Silencing of Keap1 results in protein accumulation of IKKβ and NF-κB p65. • Induction of Il6 resulting from Keap1 silencing is attributed to NF-κB activation.

  1. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-10-24

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation. PMID:18682402

  2. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 Represses Transcription of p21CIP1 by Inhibition of Transcription Activation by p53 and Sp1*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Eun; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kim, Se Hoon; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation has been postulated as the driving force for tumorigenesis. FBI-1 (formerly called Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a critical oncogenic factor that specifically represses transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF, potentially leading indirectly to p53 inactivation. Our investigations on transcriptiona...

  3. Effects of chronic renal failure rat serum on histone acetyltransferase p300 and activation of activating transcription factor 4 of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀全

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the rat serum with chronic renal failure(CRF)on ubiquitin-proteasome pathway,histone acetyltransferase p300 and activation of activating transcription factor 4(ATF4)of rat arterial vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs)cultured in vitro,and explore the possible mechanism.Methods Objective To establish the rat model of

  4. Interactions of the ubiquitous octamer-binding transcription factor-1 with both the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and the glucocorticoid receptor mediate prolactin and glucocorticoid-induced β-casein gene expression in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xi; Zhao, Feng-Qi

    2013-03-01

    Regulation of milk protein gene expression by lactogenic hormones (prolactin and glucocorticoids) provides an attractive model for studying the mechanisms by which protein and steroid hormones synergistically regulate gene expression. β-Casein is one of the major milk proteins and its expression in mammary epithelial cells is stimulated by lactogenic hormones. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and glucocorticoid receptor are essential downstream mediators of prolactin and glucocorticoid signaling, respectively. Previous studies have shown that mutating the octamer-binding site of the β-casein gene proximal promoter dramatically reduces the hormonal induction of the promoter activity. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this report, we show that lactogenic hormones rapidly induce the binding of octamer-binding transcription factor-1 to the β-casein promoter and this induction is not mediated by either increasing the expression of octamer-binding transcription factor-1 or inducing its translocation to the nucleus. Rather, lactogenic hormones induce physical interactions between the octamer-binding transcription factor-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, and glucocorticoid receptor to form a ternary complex, and these interactions enhance or stabilize the binding of these transcription factors to the promoter. Abolishing these interactions significantly reduces the hormonal induction of β-casein gene transcription. Thus, our study indicates that octamer-binding transcription factor-1 may serve as a master regulator that facilitates the DNA binding of both signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and glucocorticoid receptor in hormone-induced β-casein expression, and defines a novel mechanism of regulation of tissue-specific gene expression by the ubiquitous octamer-binding transcription factor-1. PMID:23313770

  5. The dimerization domain of SOX9 is required for transcription activation of a chondrocyte-specific chromatin DNA template

    OpenAIRE

    Coustry, Françoise; Oh, Chun-do; Hattori, Takako; Maity, Sankar N.; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in SOX9, a gene essential for chondrocyte differentiation cause the human disease campomelic dysplasia (CD). To understand how SOX9 activates transcription, we characterized the DNA binding and cell-free transcription ability of wild-type SOX9 and a dimerization domain SOX9 mutant. Whereas formation of monomeric mutant SOX9–DNA complex increased linearly with increasing SOX9 concentrations, formation of a wild-type SOX9–DNA dimeric complex increased more slowly suggesting a more sig...

  6. Transcriptional cofactors exhibit differential preference toward peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta in uterine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung J; Moon, Irene; Han, Kyuyong

    2004-06-01

    We previously showed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is crucial for embryo implantation as a receptor for cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostacyclin in mice. PPARs belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. They form heterodimer with a retinoid X receptor, recruit transcriptional cofactors, and bind to a specific recognition element for regulation of target genes. Although cofactors are generally shared by various nuclear receptors, some are involved in cell-specific events. The objective of this investigation was to examine interactions of transcriptional cofactors with PPARdelta in uterine cells for its effectiveness in regulating gene expression. We chose two uterine cellular systems: periimplantation mouse uterus and AN(3)CA human uterine cell line. As examined by in situ hybridization, steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-2, SRC-3, PPAR-interacting protein, receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140), nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR), and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) exhibit overlapping expression with that of PPARdelta in the periimplantation mouse uterus. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays show that PPARdelta physically interacts with SRC 1-3, RIP140, PPAR-binding protein, N-CoR, and SMRT in the absence of ligands, suggesting their potent interactions with PPARdelta. Transient transfection assays in AN(3)CA cells show that among members of the SRC family, only SRC-2 serves as a true coactivator for PPARdelta, whereas all SRC members could enhance PPARalpha-induced transcriptional activation. Interestingly, N-CoR and SMRT potently repress PPARdelta-induced transcriptional activation but fail to repress PPARalpha activity. RIP140 is effective in repressing basal and PPAR-induced transcriptional activation. Collectively, the results suggest that gene regulation by PPARdelta in the uterine cells uniquely responds to SRC-2, N-CoR, SMRT, or RIP140, and these interactions may be

  7. Identification of retrotransposon families and analysis of their transcriptional activation in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yimiao; MA Youzhi; LI Liancheng; XIN Zhiyong

    2005-01-01

    Variations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) domain were analyzed to clarify retrotransposon family structure and their evolution in wheat genome. RT-PCR was conducted by using primers based on the conserved RT peptide motifs of plant retrotransposons to amplify the RT domain of retrotransposons in the seedlings of wheat line Pm97034 treated with powdery mildew fungus. High level of heterogeneity was detected in 51 (RT1-51) clones randomly selected and the identity of nucleotide sequence among them ranged from 75.4% to 97.9%. These sequences, in combination with previously identified seven representatives from wheat retrotransposon families (families 1―7), were used to construct a composite phylogenetic tree. Three new families, designated family 8 to family 10, were identified. Famliy 8 formed before divergence of the Pooideae subfamily and was regarged as an ancient retrotransposon family. Some members of family 4 and family 7 had transcriptional activativity, and were present with multiple copies in wheat and its related species.

  8. Identification and characterization a novel transcription factor activator protein-1 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Limeng; Li, Chenghua; Chang, Yaqing; Gao, Yinxue; Wang, Yi; Wei, Jing; Song, Jian; Sun, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important gene expression regulator with typical Jun and region-leucine zipper (bZIP) domains and can respond to a plethora of physiological and pathological stimulus. In this study, we identified a novel AP-1 gene in Apostichopus japonicus by transcriptome sequencing and RACE approaches (designated as AjAP-1). The full-length of AjAP-1 was of 2944 bp including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 201 bp, a 3' UTR of 1753 bp and a putative open reading frame of 990 bp encoding a polypeptide of 329 amino acid residues. Two representative domains of Jun and bZIP as well as two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were also detected in deduced amino acid of AjAP-1. Spatial distribution expression indicated that AjAP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with predominant expression in the body wall, moderate in the tube feet, respiratory tree and colemocytes and slightly weak in the intestine and longitudinal muscle. Time-course expression analysis in intestine and coelomocytes revealed that AjAP-1 both reached its peak expression at 4 h after Vibrio splendidus challenge with a 2.6 and 8.2-fold increase compared to their control groups, respectively. Taken together, all these results suggested that AjAP-1 was a novel immune factor and might be involved in the processes of anti-bacteria response in sea cucumber. PMID:26093208

  9. Transcriptional activation by heat and cold of a thiol protease gene in tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, M.A.; Fischer, R.L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases. We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40{degree}C) and low (4{degree}C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40{degree}C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4{degree}C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40{degree}C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activate C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed.

  10. Structural basis for S-adenosylmethionine binding and methyltransferase activity by mitochondrial transcription factor B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guja, Kip E; Venkataraman, Krithika; Yakubovskaya, Elena; Shi, Hui; Mejia, Edison; Hambardjieva, Elena; Karzai, A Wali; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Eukaryotic transcription factor B (TFB) proteins are homologous to KsgA/Dim1 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methyltransferases. The mammalian TFB1, mitochondrial (TFB1M) factor is an essential protein necessary for mitochondrial gene expression. TFB1M mediates an rRNA modification in the small ribosomal subunit and thus plays a role analogous to KsgA/Dim1 proteins. This modification has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunctions leading to maternally inherited deafness, aminoglycoside sensitivity and diabetes. Here, we present the first structural characterization of the mammalian TFB1 factor. We have solved two X-ray crystallographic structures of TFB1M with (2.1 Å) and without (2.0 Å) its cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine. These structures reveal that TFB1M shares a conserved methyltransferase core with other KsgA/Dim1 methyltransferases and shed light on the structural basis of S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding and methyltransferase activity. Together with mutagenesis studies, these data suggest a model for substrate binding and provide insight into the mechanism of methyl transfer, clarifying the role of this factor in an essential process for mitochondrial function. PMID:23804760

  11. hSSB1 regulates both the stability and the transcriptional activity of p53

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangbing Xu; Yuanzhong Wu; Qiong Chen; Jingying Cao; Kaishun Hu; Jianjun Tang; Yi Sang

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is essential for several cellular processes that are involved in the response to diverse genotoxic stress,including cell cycle arrest,DNA repair,apoptosis and senescence.Studies of the regulation of p53 have mostly focused on its stability and transactivation; however,new regulatory molecules for p53 have also been frequently identified.Here,we report that human ssDNA binding protein SSB1 (hSSB1),a novel DNA damageassociated protein,can interact with p53 and protect p53 from ubiquitin-mediated degradation.Furthermore,hSSB1 also associates with the acetyltransferase p300 and is required for efficient transcriptional activation of the p53 target gene p21 by affecting the acetylation of p53 at lysine382.Functionally,the hSSB1 knockdown-induced abrogation of the G2/M checkpoint is partially dependent on p53 or p300.Collectively,our results indicate that hSSB1 may regulate DNA damage checkpoints by positively modulating p53 and its downstream target p21.

  12. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages

    KAUST Repository

    Lescot, Magali

    2015-11-27

    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage.

  13. Direct observation of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) protein dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuculis, Luke; Abil, Zhanar; Zhao, Huimin; Schroeder, Charles M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we describe a single molecule assay to probe the site-search dynamics of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins along DNA. In modern genetics, the ability to selectively edit the human genome is an unprecedented development, driven by recent advances in targeted nuclease proteins. Specific gene editing can be accomplished using TALE proteins, which are programmable DNA-binding proteins that can be fused to a nuclease domain. In this way, TALENs are a leading technology that has shown great success in the genomic editing of pluripotent stem cells. A major hurdle facing clinical implementation, however, is the potential for deleterious off-target binding events. For these reasons, a molecular-level understanding of TALE binding and target sequence search on DNA is essential. To this end, we developed a single-molecule fluorescence imaging assay that provides a first-of-its-kind view of the 1-D diffusion of TALE proteins along stretched DNA. Taken together with co-crystal structures of DNA-bound TALEs, our results suggest a rotationally-coupled, major groove tracking model for diffusion. We further report diffusion constants for TALE proteins as a function of salt concentration, consistent with previously described models of 1-D protein diffusion.

  14. TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATOR-LIKE EFFECTOR NUCLEASES-AMAZING TOOL FOR GENOME EDITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avantika Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs are used to cut specific target DNA sequence in order to knock out a gene or to change its sequence. They are formed by the fusion of TALE protein serving as DNA binding domain along with non-specific DNA cleaving nucleases. Its specificity towards DNA bases in the target sequence is derived from the structure of the DNA binding domain, consisting of variable pair of amino acids in middle of the tandem array of repeated segment. Earlier targeted genome editing was performed using Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN. Recently TALENS have rapidly emerged as alternative to Zinc Finger Nucleases for genome editing and introducing targeted Double Stranded Break. The TALEN approach improves on tools currently available for genome modification. This breakthrough could eventually make it possible to efficiently modify plant, animal and even human genomes. Targeted nucleases offer the potential to correct or disrupt the gene product or sequences that causes the disorder and thus motivates the strategies for treatment of wide range of genetic and other diseases. The road to practical use of TALENs could still contain potholes. But particularly to academics, the potential of TALENs seems limitless.

  15. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-01-01

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine. PMID:26078220

  16. Band-pass processing in a GPCR signaling pathway selects for NFAT transcription factor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumit, M; Neubig, R R; Takayama, S; Linderman, J J

    2015-11-01

    Many biological processes are rhythmic and proper timing is increasingly appreciated as being critical for development and maintenance of physiological functions. To understand how temporal modulation of an input signal influences downstream responses, we employ microfluidic pulsatile stimulation of a G-protein coupled receptor, the muscarinic M3 receptor, in single cells with simultaneous real-time imaging of both intracellular calcium and NFAT nuclear localization. Interestingly, we find that reduced stimulation with pulses of ligand can give more efficient transcription factor activation, if stimuli are timed appropriately. Our experiments and computational analyses show that M3 receptor-induced calcium oscillations form a low pass filter while calcium-induced NFAT translocation forms a high pass filter. The combination acts as a band-pass filter optimized for intermediate frequencies of stimulation. We demonstrate that receptor desensitization and NFAT translocation rates determine critical features of the band-pass filter and that the band-pass may be shifted for different receptors or NFAT dynamics. As an example, we show that the two NFAT isoforms (NFAT4 and NFAT1) have shifted band-pass windows for the same receptor. While we focus specifically on the M3 muscarinic receptor and NFAT translocation, band-pass processing is expected to be a general theme that applies to multiple signaling pathways. PMID:26374065

  17. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescot, Magali; Hingamp, Pascal; Kojima, Kenji K; Villar, Emilie; Romac, Sarah; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Boccara, Martine; Jaillon, Olivier; Iudicone, Daniele; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage. PMID:26613339

  18. BDNF selectively regulates GABAA receptor transcription by activation of the JAK/STAT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingrid V; Hu, Yinghui; Raol, YogendraSinh H; Benham, Rebecca S; Faris, Ramona; Russek, Shelley J; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R

    2008-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor in the brain. Its multiple subunits show regional, developmental, and disease-related plasticity of expression; however, the regulatory networks controlling GABA(A)R subunit expression remain poorly understood. We report that the seizure-induced decrease in GABA(A)R alpha1 subunit expression associated with epilepsy is mediated by the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF- and seizure-dependent phosphorylation of STAT3 cause the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) family member ICER (inducible cAMP early repressor) to bind with phosphorylated CREB at the Gabra1:CRE site. JAK/STAT pathway inhibition prevents the seizure-induced decrease in GABA(A)R alpha1 abundance in vivo and, given that BDNF is known to increase the abundance of GABA(A)R alpha4 in a JAK/STAT-independent manner, indicates that BDNF acts through at least two distinct pathways to influence GABA(A)R-dependent synaptic inhibition. PMID:18922788

  19. EBV tegument protein BNRF1 disrupts DAXX-ATRX to activate viral early gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tsai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Productive infection by herpesviruses involve the disabling of host-cell intrinsic defenses by viral encoded tegument proteins. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV typically establishes a non-productive, latent infection and it remains unclear how it confronts the host-cell intrinsic defenses that restrict viral gene expression. Here, we show that the EBV major tegument protein BNRF1 targets host-cell intrinsic defense proteins and promotes viral early gene activation. Specifically, we demonstrate that BNRF1 interacts with the host nuclear protein Daxx at PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs and disrupts the formation of the Daxx-ATRX chromatin remodeling complex. We mapped the Daxx interaction domain on BNRF1, and show that this domain is important for supporting EBV primary infection. Through reverse transcription PCR and infection assays, we show that BNRF1 supports viral gene expression upon early infection, and that this function is dependent on the Daxx-interaction domain. Lastly, we show that knockdown of Daxx and ATRX induces reactivation of EBV from latently infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, suggesting that Daxx and ATRX play a role in the regulation of viral chromatin. Taken together, our data demonstrate an important role of BNRF1 in supporting EBV early infection by interacting with Daxx and ATRX; and suggest that tegument disruption of PML-NB-associated antiviral resistances is a universal requirement for herpesvirus infection in the nucleus.

  20. Crystal structure of the caseinolytic protease gene regulator, a transcriptional activator in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Santina; Schweitzer, Jens-Eric; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael; Pohl, Ehmke

    2009-02-20

    Human pathogens of the genera Corynebacterium and Mycobacterium possess the transcriptional activator ClgR (clp gene regulator) which in Corynebacterium glutamicum has been shown to regulate the expression of the ClpCP protease genes. ClgR specifically binds to pseudo-palindromic operator regions upstream of clpC and clpP1P2. Here, we present the first crystal structure of a ClgR protein from C. glutamicum. The structure was determined from two different crystal forms to resolutions of 1.75 and 2.05 A, respectively. ClgR folds into a five-helix bundle with a helix-turn-helix motif typical for DNA-binding proteins. Upon dimerization the two DNA-recognition helices are arranged opposite to each other at the protein surface in a distance of approximately 30 A, which suggests that they bind into two adjacent major grooves of B-DNA in an anti-parallel manner. A binding pocket is situated at a strategic position in the dimer interface and could possess a regulatory role altering the positions of the DNA-binding helices. PMID:19019826

  1. The Involvement of NFAT Transcriptional Activity Suppression in SIRT1-Mediated Inhibition of COX-2 Expression Induced by PMA/Ionomycin

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Yan Jia; Jie Lu; Yue Huang; Guang Liu; Peng Gao; Yan-Zhen Wan; Ran Zhang; Zhu-Qin Zhang; Rui-Feng Yang; Xiaoqiang Tang; Jing Xu; Xu Wang; Hou-Zao Chen; De-Pei Liu

    2014-01-01

    SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase, acts as a negative regulator for many transcription factors, and plays protective roles in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) has been previously shown to play pro-inflammatory roles in endothelial cells. Inhibition of NFAT signaling may be an attractive target to regulate inflammation in atherosclerosis. However, whether NFAT transcriptional activity is suppressed by SIRT1 remains unknown. ...

  2. The Proteasome Activator PA28γ, a Negative Regulator of p53, Is Transcriptionally Up-Regulated by p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Xing Wan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available PA28γ (also called REGγ, 11Sγ or PSME3 negatively regulates p53 activity by promoting its nuclear export and/or degradation. Here, using the RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE method, we identified the transcription start site of the PA28γ gene. Assessment with the luciferase assay demonstrated that the sequence −193 to +16 is the basal promoter. Three p53 binding sites were found within the PA28γ promoter utilizing a bioinformatics approach and were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and biotinylated DNA affinity precipitation experiments. The p53 protein promotes PA28γ transcription, and p53-stimulated transcription of PA28γ can be inhibited by PA28γ itself. Our results suggest that PA28γ and p53 form a negative feedback loop, which maintains the balance of p53 and PA28γ in cells.

  3. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  4. Interaction of the Srb10 Kinase with Sip4, a Transcriptional Activator of Gluconeogenic Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Olivier; Kuchin, Sergei; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Townley, Robert; Vyas, Valmik K; Carlson, Marian

    2001-01-01

    Sip4 is a Zn2Cys6 transcriptional activator that binds to the carbon source-responsive elements of gluconeogenic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Snf1 protein kinase interacts with Sip4 and regulates its phosphorylation and activator function in response to glucose limitation; however, evidence suggested that another kinase also regulates Sip4. Here we examine the role of the Srb10 kinase, a component of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that has been primarily implicated in transcriptio...

  5. Sox17 modulates Wnt3A/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of the Lef-1 promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoming; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Wells, James M.; Goodheart, Michael J.; Engelhardt, John F

    2010-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin-dependent activation of lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (Lef-1) plays an important role in numerous developmental processes. In this context, transcription of the Lef-1 gene is increased by Wnt-mediated TCF4/β-catenin activation on the Lef-1 promoter through mechanisms that remain poorly defined. In mouse airway submucosal gland progenitor cells, Wnt3A transiently induces Lef-1 gene expression, and this process is required for epithelial cell proliferation and glandular morphogenesis...

  6. Antibacterial action of gramicidin S and tyrocidines in relation to active transport, in vitro transcription, and spore outgrowth.

    OpenAIRE

    Danders, W; Marahiel, M A; Krause, M.; Kosui, N; Kato, T.; Izumiya, N; Kleinkauf, H

    1982-01-01

    The cyclopeptide antibiotic gramicidin S or tyrocidine in concentrations of 2 to 4 mumol/mg of membrane protein inhibited the active transport of [3H]alanine and [3H]uridine in membrane vesicles isolated from Bacillus brevis and Bacillus subtilis. We used one analog of gramicidin S and two of tyrocidine A to study the relationship between peptide structure and antibacterial action as seen in inhibiting active transport and in vitro transcription and in delaying spore outgrowth. The data showe...

  7. Expression of multiple tfb genes in different Halobacterium salinarum strains and interaction of TFB with transcriptional activator GvpE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiholder, Anne; Frommherz, Regina; Teufel, Katharina; Pfeifer, Felicitas

    2012-04-01

    Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 contains multiple TBP and TFB proteins required for the recruitment of RNA polymerase for transcription initiation. The presence and the expression of genes encoding TFB were investigated in the two Hbt. salinarum strains NRC-1 and PHH1 and the mutant strain PHH4. The plasmid-encoded tfbC and tfbE genes of NRC-1 were lacking in PHH1 and PHH4. The 5'-end of the tfbF transcript was determined and contained a 5'-untranslated region of 39 nucleotides able to form a stem-loop structure. The expression of these tfb genes was studied in cultures growing at 15, 37°C and under heat shock conditions. Cold temperatures reduced growth and except for tfbF also the amounts of all tfb transcripts. However, the formation of gas vesicles increased in PHH1 and NRC-1. Heat shock reduced growth of PHH1 and NRC-1, but PHH4 was not affected. A 100-fold increase in tfbA and tfbB mRNA was observed in PHH1 and PHH4, whereas NRC-1 reduced the amounts of these transcripts and increased the expression of tfbG. All TFB proteins tested were able to interact with the transcription activator GvpE involved in gas vesicle formation that thus is able to recruit TFB to the gvp promoter. PMID:21969032

  8. Active and passive MDMA ('ecstasy') intake induces differential transcriptional changes in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Castillo, N; Orejarena, M J; Ribasés, M; Blanco, E; Casas, M; Robledo, P; Maldonado, R; Cormand, B

    2012-02-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is a recreational drug widely used by adolescents and young adults. Although its rewarding effects are well established, there is controversy on its addictive potential. We aimed to compare the consequences of active and passive MDMA administration on gene expression in the mouse brain since all previous studies were based on passive MDMA administration. We used a yoked-control operant intravenous self-administration paradigm combined with microarray technology. Transcriptomic profiles of ventral striatum, frontal cortex, dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus were analysed in mice divided in contingent MDMA, yoked MDMA and yoked saline groups, and several changes were validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The comparison of contingent MDMA and yoked MDMA vs. yoked saline mice allowed the identification of differential expression in several genes, most of them with immunological and inflammatory functions, but others being involved in neuroadaptation. In the comparison of contingent MDMA vs. yoked MDMA administration, hippocampus and the dorsal raphe nucleus showed statistically significant changes. The altered expression of several genes involved in neuroadaptative changes and synapse function, which may be related to learning self-administration behaviour, could be validated in these two brain structures. In conclusion, our study shows a strong effect of MDMA administration on the expression of immunological and inflammatory genes in all the four brain regions studied. In addition, experiments on MDMA self-administration suggest that the dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus may be involved in active MDMA-seeking behaviour, and show specific alterations on gene expression that support the addictive potential of this drug. PMID:21951708

  9. Improved somatic mutagenesis in zebrafish using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finola E Moore

    Full Text Available Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs made by Context-Dependent Assembly (CoDA and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs provide robust and user-friendly technologies for efficiently inactivating genes in zebrafish. These designer nucleases bind to and cleave DNA at particular target sites, inducing error-prone repair that can result in insertion or deletion mutations. Here, we assess the relative efficiencies of these technologies for inducing somatic DNA mutations in mosaic zebrafish. We find that TALENs exhibited a higher success rate for obtaining active nucleases capable of inducing mutations than compared with CoDA ZFNs. For example, all six TALENs tested induced DNA mutations at genomic target sites while only a subset of CoDA ZFNs exhibited detectable rates of mutagenesis. TALENs also exhibited higher mutation rates than CoDA ZFNs that had not been pre-screened using a bacterial two-hybrid assay, with DNA mutation rates ranging from 20%-76.8% compared to 1.1%-3.3%. Furthermore, the broader targeting range of TALENs enabled us to induce mutations at the methionine translation start site, sequences that were not targetable using the CoDA ZFN platform. TALENs exhibited similar toxicity to CoDA ZFNs, with >50% of injected animals surviving to 3 days of life. Taken together, our results suggest that TALEN technology provides a robust alternative to CoDA ZFNs for inducing targeted gene-inactivation in zebrafish, making it a preferred technology for creating targeted knockout mutants in zebrafish.

  10. The reverse transcription inhibitor abacavir shows anticancer activity in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Carlini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transposable Elements (TEs comprise nearly 45% of the entire genome and are part of sophisticated regulatory network systems that control developmental processes in normal and pathological conditions. The retroviral/retrotransposon gene machinery consists mainly of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs-1 and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs that code for their own endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT. Interestingly, RT is typically expressed at high levels in cancer cells. Recent studies report that RT inhibition by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs induces growth arrest and cell differentiation in vitro and antagonizes growth of human tumors in animal model. In the present study we analyze the anticancer activity of Abacavir (ABC, a nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI, on PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ABC significantly reduces cell growth, migration and invasion processes, considerably slows S phase progression, induces senescence and cell death in prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis on PC3 cells shows that ABC induces specific and dose-dependent changes in gene expression, involving multiple cellular pathways. Notably, by quantitative Real-Time PCR we found that LINE-1 ORF1 and ORF2 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by ABC treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential of ABC as anticancer agent able to induce antiproliferative activity and trigger senescence in prostate cancer cells. Noteworthy, we show that ABC elicits up-regulation of LINE-1 expression, suggesting the involvement of these elements in the observed cellular modifications.

  11. The Groucho co-repressor is primarily recruited to local target sites in active chromatin to attenuate transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamna Kaul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression is regulated by the complex interaction between transcriptional activators and repressors, which function in part by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to control accessibility of DNA to RNA polymerase. The evolutionarily conserved family of Groucho/Transducin-Like Enhancer of split (Gro/TLE proteins act as co-repressors for numerous transcription factors. Gro/TLE proteins act in several key pathways during development (including Notch and Wnt signaling, and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human cancers. Gro/TLE proteins form oligomers and it has been proposed that their ability to exert long-range repression on target genes involves oligomerization over broad regions of chromatin. However, analysis of an endogenous gro mutation in Drosophila revealed that oligomerization of Gro is not always obligatory for repression in vivo. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq to profile Gro recruitment in two Drosophila cell lines. We find that Gro predominantly binds at discrete peaks (<1 kilobase. We also demonstrate that blocking Gro oligomerization does not reduce peak width as would be expected if Gro oligomerization induced spreading along the chromatin from the site of recruitment. Gro recruitment is enriched in "active" chromatin containing developmentally regulated genes. However, Gro binding is associated with local regions containing hypoacetylated histones H3 and H4, which is indicative of chromatin that is not fully open for efficient transcription. We also find that peaks of Gro binding frequently overlap the transcription start sites of expressed genes that exhibit strong RNA polymerase pausing and that depletion of Gro leads to release of polymerase pausing and increased transcription at a bona fide target gene. Our results demonstrate that Gro is recruited to local sites by transcription factors to attenuate rather than silence gene expression by promoting histone

  12. Activation of Transcription Factor Nrf2 Signalling by the Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor SKI-II Is Mediated by the Formation of Keap1 Dimers

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Nicolas; Kizawa, Yasuo; Ueda, Keitaro; Xiong, Yeping; Kimura, Genki; Moses, Audric; Jonathan M. Curtis; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-oxidant capacity is crucial defence against environmental or endogenous oxidative stress. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that plays a key defensive role against oxidative and cytotoxic stress and cellular senescence. However, Nrf2 signalling is impaired in several aging-related diseases, such as chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD), cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, novel therapeutics that enhanc...

  13. Thanatos-associated protein 7 associates with template activating factor-Ibeta and inhibits histone acetylation to repress transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlan, Todd; Parker, J Brandon; Nagata, Kyosuke; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2006-02-01

    The posttranslational modifications of histones on chromatin or a lack thereof is critical in transcriptional regulation. Emerging studies indicate a role for histone-binding proteins in transcriptional activation and repression. We have previously identified template-activating factor-Ibeta (TAF-Ibeta, also called PHAPII, SET, and I(2)(pp2A)) as a component of a cellular complex called inhibitor of acetyltransferases (INHAT) that masks histone acetylation in vitro and blocks histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-dependent transcription in living cells. TAF-Ibeta has also been shown to associate with transcription factors, including nuclear receptors, to regulate their activities. To identify novel interactors of TAF-Ibeta, we employed a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified a previously uncharacterized human protein called thanatos-associated protein-7 (THAP7), a member of a large family of THAP domain-containing putative DNA-binding proteins. In this study we demonstrate that THAP7 associates with TAF-Ibeta in vitro and map their association domains to a C-terminal predicted coiled-coil motif on THAP7 and the central region of TAF-Ibeta. Similarly, stably transfected THAP7 associates with endogenous TAF-Ibeta in intact cells. Like TAF-Ibeta, THAP7 associates with histone H3 and histone H4 and inhibits histone acetylation. The histone-interacting domain of THAP7 is sufficient for this activity in vitro. Promoter-targeted THAP7 can also recruit TAF-Ibeta and silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors/nuclear hormone receptor corepressor (NCoR) proteins to promoters, and knockdown of TAF-Ibeta by small interfering RNA relieves THAP7-mediated repression, indicating that, like nuclear hormone receptors, THAP7 may represent a novel class of transcription factor that uses TAF-Ibeta as a corepressor to maintain histones in a hypoacetylated, repressed state. PMID:16195249

  14. New Role for Kruppel-like Factor 14 as a Transcriptional Activator Involved in the Generation of Signaling Lipids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assuncao, Thiago M.; Lomberk, Gwen; Cao, Sheng; Yaqoob, Usman; Mathison, Angela; Simonetto, Douglas A.; Huebert, Robert C.; Urrutia, Raul A.; Shah, Vijay H.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is an FGF-inducible gene responsible for generation of sphingosine-1-phosphate, a critical lipid signaling molecule implicated in diverse endothelial cell functions. In this study, we identified SK1 as a target of the canonical FGF2/FGF receptor 1 activation pathway in endothelial cells and sought to identify novel transcriptional pathways that mediate lipid signaling. Studies using the 1.9-kb SK1 promoter and deletion mutants revealed that basal and FGF2-stimulated promoter activity occurred through two GC-rich regions located within 633 bp of the transcription start site. Screening for GC-rich binding transcription factors that could activate this site demonstrated that KLF14, a gene implicated in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, binds to this region. Congruently, overexpression of KLF14 increased basal and FGF2-stimulated SK1 promoter activity by 3-fold, and this effect was abrogated after mutation of the GC-rich sites. In addition, KLF14 siRNA transfection decreased SK1 mRNA and protein levels by 3-fold. Congruently, SK1 mRNA and protein levels were decreased in livers from KLF14 knock-out mice. Combined, luciferase, gel shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that KLF14 couples to p300 to increase the levels of histone marks associated with transcriptional activation (H4K8ac and H3K14ac), while decreasing repressive marks (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3). Collectively, the results demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby SK1 lipid signaling is regulated by epigenetic modifications conferred by KLF14 and p300. Thus, this is the first description of the activity and mechanisms underlying the function of KLF14 as an activator protein and novel regulator of lipid signaling. PMID:24759103

  15. New role for Kruppel-like factor 14 as a transcriptional activator involved in the generation of signaling lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assuncao, Thiago M; Lomberk, Gwen; Cao, Sheng; Yaqoob, Usman; Mathison, Angela; Simonetto, Douglas A; Huebert, Robert C; Urrutia, Raul A; Shah, Vijay H

    2014-05-30

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is an FGF-inducible gene responsible for generation of sphingosine-1-phosphate, a critical lipid signaling molecule implicated in diverse endothelial cell functions. In this study, we identified SK1 as a target of the canonical FGF2/FGF receptor 1 activation pathway in endothelial cells and sought to identify novel transcriptional pathways that mediate lipid signaling. Studies using the 1.9-kb SK1 promoter and deletion mutants revealed that basal and FGF2-stimulated promoter activity occurred through two GC-rich regions located within 633 bp of the transcription start site. Screening for GC-rich binding transcription factors that could activate this site demonstrated that KLF14, a gene implicated in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, binds to this region. Congruently, overexpression of KLF14 increased basal and FGF2-stimulated SK1 promoter activity by 3-fold, and this effect was abrogated after mutation of the GC-rich sites. In addition, KLF14 siRNA transfection decreased SK1 mRNA and protein levels by 3-fold. Congruently, SK1 mRNA and protein levels were decreased in livers from KLF14 knock-out mice. Combined, luciferase, gel shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that KLF14 couples to p300 to increase the levels of histone marks associated with transcriptional activation (H4K8ac and H3K14ac), while decreasing repressive marks (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3). Collectively, the results demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby SK1 lipid signaling is regulated by epigenetic modifications conferred by KLF14 and p300. Thus, this is the first description of the activity and mechanisms underlying the function of KLF14 as an activator protein and novel regulator of lipid signaling. PMID:24759103

  16. Expression of influenza virus hemagglutinin activates transcription factor NF-kappa B.

    OpenAIRE

    Pahl, H L; Baeuerle, P A

    1995-01-01

    Influenza virus infection initiates transcription of a variety of genes for cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), TNF-beta, interleukin 1 alpha, (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and gamma interferon. However, the mechanism by which virus infection elicits cytokine expression remains unknown. Six influenza virus-induced cytokine genes are targets for the inducible transcription factor NF-kappa B, a central ...

  17. Wild-type but not mutant huntingtin modulates the transcriptional activity of liver X receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Futter, Marie; Diekmann, Heike; Schoenmakers, Erik; Sadiq, Oana; Chatterjee, Krishna; Rubinsztein, David C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Huntington’s disease is caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract found in the amino-terminal of the ubiquitously expressed protein huntingtin. Well studied in its mutant form, huntingtin has a wide variety of normal functions, loss of which may also contribute to disease progression. Widespread transcriptional dysfunction occurs in brains of Huntington’s disease patients and in transgenic mouse and cell models of Huntington’s disease. Methods: To identify new transcriptional p...

  18. Large-scale transcriptome data reveals transcriptional activity of fission yeast LTR retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Willerslev, Eske

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Retrotransposons are transposable elements that proliferate within eukaryotic genomes through a process involving reverse transcription. The numbers of retrotransposons within genomes and differences between closely related species may yield insight into the evolutionary......-requisite for retrotransposition is transcription of the elements. Given their intrinsic sequence redundancy, transcriptome-level analyses of transposable elements are scarce. We have used recently published transcriptome data from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to assess the ability to detect and describe...

  19. Clonal selection for transcriptionally active viral oncogenes during progression to cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Tine, BA Van; Kappes, JC; Banerjee, NS; Knops, J.; Lai, L; Steenbergen, R D M; Meijer, C J L M; Snijders, P J F; Chatis, P; Broker, TR; Moen, PTJr; Chow, L T

    2004-01-01

    Primary keratinocytes immortalized by human papillomaviruses (HPVs), along with HPV-induced cervical carcinoma cell lines, are excellent models for investigating neoplastic progression to cancer. By simultaneously visualizing viral DNA and nascent viral transcripts in interphase nuclei, we demonstrated for the first time a selection for a single dominant papillomavirus transcription center or domain (PVTD) independent of integrated viral DNA copy numbers or loci. The PVTD did not associate wi...

  20. Foxj3 transcriptionally activates Mef2c and regulates adult skeletal muscle fiber type identity

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Matthew S.; Shi, Xiaozhong; Voelker, Kevin A.; Grange, Robert W.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Robert E Hammer; Garry, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle differentiation, fiber type diversity and muscle regeneration are incompletely defined. Forkhead transcription factors are critical regulators of cellular fate determination, proliferation, and differentiation. We identified a forkhead/winged helix transcription factor, Foxj3, which was expressed in embryonic and adult skeletal muscle. To define the functional role of Foxj3, we examined Foxj3 mutant mice. Foxj3 mutant mice are viable but have signi...

  1. Leptin upregulates telomerase activity and transcription of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, He, E-mail: herenrh@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Tiansuo; Wang, Xiuchao; Gao, Chuntao; Wang, Jian; Yu, Ming [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin (China); Hao, Jihui, E-mail: jihuihao@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2010-03-26

    The aim was to analyze the mechanism of leptin-induced activity of telomerase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We found that leptin activated telomerase in a dose-dependent manner; leptin upregulated the expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) at mRNA and protein levels; blockade of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation significantly counteracted leptin-induced hTERT transcription and protein expression; chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that leptin enhanced the binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter. This study uncovers a new mechanism of the proliferative effect of leptin on breast cancer cells and provides a new explanation of obesity-related breast cancer.

  2. Tcf1 and Lef1 transcription factors establish CD8(+) T cell identity through intrinsic HDAC activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shaojun; Li, Fengyin; Zeng, Zhouhao; Zhao, Yunjie; Yu, Shuyang; Shan, Qiang; Li, Yalan; Phillips, Farrah C; Maina, Peterson K; Qi, Hank H; Liu, Chengyu; Zhu, Jun; Pope, R Marshall; Musselman, Catherine A; Zeng, Chen; Peng, Weiqun; Xue, Hai-Hui

    2016-06-01

    The CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell dichotomy is essential for effective cellular immunity. How individual T cell identity is established remains poorly understood. Here we show that the high-mobility group (HMG) transcription factors Tcf1 and Lef1 are essential for repressing CD4(+) lineage-associated genes including Cd4, Foxp3 and Rorc in CD8(+) T cells. Tcf1- and Lef1-deficient CD8(+) T cells exhibit histone hyperacetylation, which can be ascribed to intrinsic histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in Tcf1 and Lef1. Mutation of five conserved amino acids in the Tcf1 HDAC domain diminishes HDAC activity and the ability to suppress CD4(+) lineage genes in CD8(+) T cells. These findings reveal that sequence-specific transcription factors can utilize intrinsic HDAC activity to guard cell identity by repressing lineage-inappropriate genes. PMID:27111144

  3. Leptin upregulates telomerase activity and transcription of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to analyze the mechanism of leptin-induced activity of telomerase in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We found that leptin activated telomerase in a dose-dependent manner; leptin upregulated the expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) at mRNA and protein levels; blockade of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation significantly counteracted leptin-induced hTERT transcription and protein expression; chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that leptin enhanced the binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter. This study uncovers a new mechanism of the proliferative effect of leptin on breast cancer cells and provides a new explanation of obesity-related breast cancer.

  4. Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis through suppressing cellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Wenhao; Xu, Chan; Hong, Zongguo; Mei, Zhinan; Yang, Xinzhou, E-mail: xinzhou_yang@hotmail.com

    2014-12-01

    Kurarinol is a flavonoid isolated from roots of the medical plant Sophora flavescens. However, its cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and toxic effects on mammalians remain largely unexplored. Here, the pro-apoptotic activities of kurarinol on HCC cells and its toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice were evaluated. The molecular mechanisms underlying kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis were also investigated. We found that kurarinol dose-dependently provoked HepG2, Huh-7 and H22 HCC cell apoptosis. In addition, kurarinol gave rise to a considerable decrease in the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in HCC cells. Suppression of STAT3 signaling is involved in kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that kurarinol injection substantially induced transplanted H22 cell apoptosis with low toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, the transcriptional activity of STAT3 in transplanted tumor tissues was significantly suppressed after kurarinol treatment. Collectively, our current research demonstrated that kurarinol has the capacity of inducing HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo with undetectable toxic impacts on the host. Suppressing STAT3 signaling is implicated in kurarinol-mediated HCC cell apoptosis. - Highlights: • Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis. • Kurarinol induces HCC cell apoptosis via inhibiting STAT3. • Kurarinol exhibits low toxic effects on tumor-bearing animals.

  5. Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis through suppressing cellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurarinol is a flavonoid isolated from roots of the medical plant Sophora flavescens. However, its cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and toxic effects on mammalians remain largely unexplored. Here, the pro-apoptotic activities of kurarinol on HCC cells and its toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice were evaluated. The molecular mechanisms underlying kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis were also investigated. We found that kurarinol dose-dependently provoked HepG2, Huh-7 and H22 HCC cell apoptosis. In addition, kurarinol gave rise to a considerable decrease in the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in HCC cells. Suppression of STAT3 signaling is involved in kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that kurarinol injection substantially induced transplanted H22 cell apoptosis with low toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, the transcriptional activity of STAT3 in transplanted tumor tissues was significantly suppressed after kurarinol treatment. Collectively, our current research demonstrated that kurarinol has the capacity of inducing HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo with undetectable toxic impacts on the host. Suppressing STAT3 signaling is implicated in kurarinol-mediated HCC cell apoptosis. - Highlights: • Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis. • Kurarinol induces HCC cell apoptosis via inhibiting STAT3. • Kurarinol exhibits low toxic effects on tumor-bearing animals

  6. Rice Phospholipase Dα is Involved in Salt Tolerance by the Mediation of H+-ATPase Activity and Transcription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Shen; Rong Wang; Wen Jing; Wenhua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipase Dα (PLDα) is involved in plant response to salt stress, but the mechanisms remain unclear.We investigated rice PLDα (OsPLDα) localization and its effect on tonoplast (TP) and plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase activity and transcription in response to NaCl. When rice suspension-cultured cells were treated with 100 mM NaCI, PLDα activity in cell extracts showed a transient activation with a threefold increase at 1 h. The amount of OsPLDα protein decreased slightly in the cytosolic fractions, whereas it increased significantly in the TP after NaCI treatment. OsPLDα1 knockdown cells were developed using RNA interference (RNAi) methods. The increase in TP and PM H+-ATPase activity induced by NaCl was significantly inhibited in OsPLDα1-RNAi cells. Knockdown of OsPLDα1 prevented the NaCl-induced increase in the transcript level of OsVHA-A (encodes TP H+-ATPase) and OSA2 (encodes PM H+-ATPase),as well as OsNHX1 (encodes TP Na+/H+ antiporter). The cells died more in OsPLDα1-RNAi mutant than in wild type when they were treated with NaCl. These results suggest that OsPLDα is involved in salt tolerance in rice through the mediation of H+-ATPase activity and transcription.

  7. Bicarbonate-mediated transcriptional activation of divergent operons by the virulence regulatory protein, RegA, from Citrobacter rodentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Hart, Emily; Tauschek, Marija; Price, G Dean; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Strugnell, Richard A; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2008-04-01

    Regulation of virulence gene expression plays a central role in the pathogenesis of enteric bacteria as they encounter diverse environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts. In this study, we investigated environmental regulation of two putative virulence determinants adcA and kfc by RegA, an AraC/XylS-like regulator, from Citrobacter rodentium, and identified bicarbonate as the environmental signal which induced transcription of adcA and kfc through RegA. Primer extension experiments showed that adcA and kfc were divergently transcribed from sigma(70) promoters. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that bicarbonate facilitated and stabilized the binding of RegA to an operator located between the two promoters. The interaction of RegA with its DNA target resulted in the formation of a nucleosome-like structure, which evidently displaced the histone-like proteins, H-NS and StpA, from the adcA and kfc promoter regions, leading to transcriptional derepression. In addition, our results indicated that RegA also behaved as a Class I activator by directly stimulating transcription initiation by RNA polymerase. This is the first report to describe the molecular mechanism by which an environmental chemical stimulates transcription of virulence-associated genes of an enteric pathogen through an AraC/XlyS-like activator. PMID:18284589

  8. Mediator facilitates transcriptional activation and dynamic long-range contacts at the IgH locus during class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Claudepierre, Anne-Sophie; Robert, Isabelle; Rocha, Pedro P; Raviram, Ramya; Schiavo, Ebe; Heyer, Vincent; Bonneau, Richard; Luo, Vincent M; Reddy, Janardan K; Borggrefe, Tilman; Skok, Jane A; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by the transcription-coupled recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to Ig switch regions (S regions). During CSR, the IgH locus undergoes dynamic three-dimensional structural changes in which promoters, enhancers, and S regions are brought to close proximity. Nevertheless, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we show that Med1 and Med12, two subunits of the mediator complex implicated in transcription initiation and long-range enhancer/promoter loop formation, are dynamically recruited to the IgH locus enhancers and the acceptor regions during CSR and that their knockdown in CH12 cells results in impaired CSR. Furthermore, we show that conditional inactivation of Med1 in B cells results in defective CSR and reduced acceptor S region transcription. Finally, we show that in B cells undergoing CSR, the dynamic long-range contacts between the IgH enhancers and the acceptor regions correlate with Med1 and Med12 binding and that they happen at a reduced frequency in Med1-deficient B cells. Our results implicate the mediator complex in the mechanism of CSR and are consistent with a model in which mediator facilitates the long-range contacts between S regions and the IgH locus enhancers during CSR and their transcriptional activation. PMID:26903242

  9. Signal transduction and activator of transcription (STAT) protein-dependent activation of angiotensinogen promoter: A cellular signal for hypertrophy in cardiac muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Mascareno, Eduardo; Dhar, Manya; M.A.Q. SIDDIQUI

    1998-01-01

    The role of the peptide hormone angiotensin (AngII) in promoting myocardial hypertrophy is well documented. Our studies demonstrate that AngII uses a signaling pathway in cardiac myocytes in which the promoter of the gene encoding its prohormone, angiotensinogen, serves as the target site for activated signal transduction and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. Gel mobility-shift assay revealed that STAT3 and STAT6 are selectively activated by AngII treatment of cardiomyocytes in cult...

  10. Analysis of the spacing between the two palindromes of activation sequence-1 with respect to binding to different TGA factors and transcriptional activation potential

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, Stefanie; Thurow, Corinna; Niggeweg, Ricarda; Gatz, Christiane

    2002-01-01

    In higher plants, activation sequence-1 (as-1) of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter mediates both salicylic acid- and auxin-inducible transcriptional activation. Originally found in viral and T-DNA promoters, as-1-like elements are also functional elements of plant promoters activated in the course of a defence response upon pathogen attack. as-1-like elements are characterised by two imperfect palindromes with the palindromic centres being spaced by 12 bp. They are recognised by plan...

  11. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2 and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. Layman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2. This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0 or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270, 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80, 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6, 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0, or water (Sham control. Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0, but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to

  12. Structure-activity relationship of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide fragments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maixnerová, Jana; Hlaváček, Jan; Blokešová, Darja; Kowalczyk, W.; Elbert, Tomáš; Šanda, Miloslav; Blechová, Miroslava; Železná, Blanka; Slaninová, Jiřina; Maletínská, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 10 (2007), s. 1945-1953. ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/0614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : CART peptide * fragments * binding * PC12 cells Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  13. The transcriptional activator LdtR from 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' mediates osmotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliai, Fernando A; Gardner, Christopher L; Bojilova, Lora; Sarnegrim, Amanda; Tamayo, Cheila; Potts, Anastasia H; Teplitski, Max; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L

    2014-04-01

    The causal agent of Huanglongbing disease, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', is a non-culturable, gram negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium. Current methods to control the spread of this disease are still limited to the removal and destruction of infected trees. In this study, we identified and characterized a regulon from 'Ca. L. asiaticus' involved in cell wall remodeling, that contains a member of the MarR family of transcriptional regulators (ldtR), and a predicted L,D-transpeptidase (ldtP). In Sinorhizobium meliloti, mutation of ldtR resulted in morphological changes (shortened rod-type phenotype) and reduced tolerance to osmotic stress. A biochemical approach was taken to identify small molecules that modulate LdtR activity. The LdtR ligands identified by thermal shift assays were validated using DNA binding methods. The biological impact of LdtR inactivation by the small molecules was then examined in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Liberibacter crescens, where a shortened-rod phenotype was induced by growth in presence of the ligands. A new method was also developed to examine the effects of small molecules on the viability of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus', using shoots from HLB-infected orange trees. Decreased expression of ldtRLas and ldtPLas was observed in samples taken from HLB-infected shoots after 6 h of incubation with the LdtR ligands. These results provide strong proof of concept for the use of small molecules that target LdtR, as a potential treatment option for Huanglongbing disease. PMID:24763829

  14. The transcriptional activator LdtR from 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' mediates osmotic stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Pagliai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The causal agent of Huanglongbing disease, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', is a non-culturable, gram negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium. Current methods to control the spread of this disease are still limited to the removal and destruction of infected trees. In this study, we identified and characterized a regulon from 'Ca. L. asiaticus' involved in cell wall remodeling, that contains a member of the MarR family of transcriptional regulators (ldtR, and a predicted L,D-transpeptidase (ldtP. In Sinorhizobium meliloti, mutation of ldtR resulted in morphological changes (shortened rod-type phenotype and reduced tolerance to osmotic stress. A biochemical approach was taken to identify small molecules that modulate LdtR activity. The LdtR ligands identified by thermal shift assays were validated using DNA binding methods. The biological impact of LdtR inactivation by the small molecules was then examined in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Liberibacter crescens, where a shortened-rod phenotype was induced by growth in presence of the ligands. A new method was also developed to examine the effects of small molecules on the viability of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus', using shoots from HLB-infected orange trees. Decreased expression of ldtRLas and ldtPLas was observed in samples taken from HLB-infected shoots after 6 h of incubation with the LdtR ligands. These results provide strong proof of concept for the use of small molecules that target LdtR, as a potential treatment option for Huanglongbing disease.

  15. Thyroid hormone receptor inhibits hepatoma cell migration through transcriptional activation of Dickkopf 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Liao, Chen-Hsin [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Ya-Hui [Medical Research Central, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Sheng-Ming; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Liao, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Chung, I-Hsiao; Wu, Tzu-I [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Wei-Jan [First Cardiovascular Division, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Kwang-Huei, E-mail: khlin@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •T{sub 3} affects DKK4 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2-TR cells. •Regulation of DKK4 by T{sub 3} is at transcriptional level. •DKK4 overexpression suppresses hepatoma cell metastasis. -- Abstract: Triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) is a potent form of thyroid hormone mediates several physiological processes including cellular growth, development, and differentiation via binding to the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). Recent studies have demonstrated critical roles of T{sub 3}/TR in tumor progression. Moreover, long-term hypothyroidism appears to be associated with the incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), independent of other major HCC risk factors. Dickkopf (DKK) 4, a secreted protein that antagonizes the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is induced by T{sub 3} at both mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying T{sub 3}-mediated regulation of DKK4 remains unknown. In the present study, the 5′ promoter region of DKK4 was serially deleted, and the reporter assay performed to localize the T{sub 3} response element (TRE). Consequently, we identified an atypical direct repeat TRE between nucleotides −1645 and −1629 conferring T{sub 3} responsiveness to the DKK4 gene. This region was further validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Stable DKK4 overexpression in SK-Hep-1 cells suppressed cell invasion and metastatic potential, both in vivo andin vitro, via reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. Our findings collectively suggest that DKK4 upregulated by T{sub 3}/TR antagonizes the Wnt signal pathway to suppress tumor cell progression, thus providing new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid hormone activity in HCC.

  16. Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: molecular evidence for metabolic interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Cara L.; Labrie, Micheline; Jarett, Jessica K.; Lesser, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to (1) characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs (2) identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, (3) characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling biogeochemistry on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin). These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic interchange highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host

  17. Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: Molecular Evidence for Metabolic Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Fiore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to 1 characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs 2 identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, 3 characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin. These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic interchange highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host

  18. DAX-1 Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation by Inhibiting β-Catenin Transcriptional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Lei Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC represents the most common type of liver cancer. DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital critical region on X chromosome, gene 1, an atypical member of the nuclear receptor family due to lack of classical DNA-binding domains, has been known for its fundamental roles in the development, especially in the sex determination and steroidogenesis. Previous studies also showed that DAX-1 played a critical role in endocrine and sex steroid-dependent neoplasms such as adrenocortical, pituitary, endometrial, and ovarian tumors. However, its biological roles in the development of HCC remain largely unexplored. Methods: Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of DAX-1 in HCC tissues and cell lines. Immunoprecipitation (IP assay was used to show the interaction between DAX-1 and β-Catenin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA was used to silence the expression of DAX-1. BrdU incorporation and Cell-cycle assays were used to detect the role of DAX-1 in HCC cells proliferation. Migration and invasion assays were carried out to test the metastasis ability of DAX-1 in HCC cells. Results: In the present study, we found that mRNA and protein levels of DAX-1 were down-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, overexpression of DAX-1 could inhibit while its knockdown using small interfering RNA promoted cell proliferation in several HCC cell lines. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that DAX-1 could interact with β-Catenin and attenuate its transcriptional activity. Conclusion: Therefore, our results suggest a previously unknown DAX-1/β-Catenin molecular network controlling HCC development.

  19. Peripheral CLOCK regulates target-tissue glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in a circadian fashion in man.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Charmandari

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Circulating cortisol fluctuates diurnally under the control of the "master" circadian CLOCK, while the peripheral "slave" counterpart of the latter regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR at local glucocorticoid target tissues through acetylation. In this manuscript, we studied the effect of CLOCK-mediated GR acetylation on the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to glucocorticoids in humans. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined GR acetylation and mRNA expression of GR, CLOCK-related and glucocorticoid-responsive genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained at 8 am and 8 pm from 10 healthy subjects, as well as in PBMCs obtained in the morning and cultured for 24 hours with exposure to 3-hour hydrocortisone pulses every 6 hours. We used EBV-transformed lymphocytes (EBVLs as non-synchronized controls. RESULTS: GR acetylation was higher in the morning than in the evening in PBMCs, mirroring the fluctuations of circulating cortisol in reverse phase. All known glucocorticoid-responsive genes tested responded as expected to hydrocortisone in non-synchronized EBVLs, however, some of these genes did not show the expected diurnal mRNA fluctuations in PBMCs in vivo. Instead, their mRNA oscillated in a Clock- and a GR acetylation-dependent fashion in naturally synchronized PBMCs cultured ex vivo in the absence of the endogenous glucocorticoid, suggesting that circulating cortisol might prevent circadian GR acetylation-dependent effects in some glucocorticoid-responsive genes in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral CLOCK-mediated circadian acetylation of the human GR may function as a target-tissue, gene-specific counter regulatory mechanism to the actions of diurnally fluctuating cortisol, effectively decreasing tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids in the morning and increasing it at night.

  20. Transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) mediates noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Fakhera; Ackermann, Sandra; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Roels, Frederik; Engesser, Anne; Hertwig, Falk; Kocak, Hayriye; Hero, Barbara; Dreidax, Daniel; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Berthold, Frank; Nürnberg, Peter; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal pediatric tumor that originates from the developing sympathetic nervous system and shows a broad range of clinical behavior, ranging from fatal progression to differentiation into benign ganglioneuroma. In experimental neuroblastoma systems, retinoic acid (RA) effectively induces neuronal differentiation, and RA treatment has been therefore integrated in current therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation are still poorly understood. We here investigated the role of transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B), a key factor in sympathetic nervous system development, in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and differentiation. Microarray analyses of primary neuroblastomas (n = 649) demonstrated that low TFAP2B expression was significantly associated with unfavorable prognostic markers as well as adverse patient outcome. We also found that low TFAP2B expression was strongly associated with CpG methylation of the TFAP2B locus in primary neuroblastomas (n = 105) and demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in induction of TFAP2B expression in vitro, suggesting that TFAP2B is silenced by genomic methylation. Tetracycline inducible re-expression of TFAP2B in IMR-32 and SH-EP neuroblastoma cells significantly impaired proliferation and cell cycle progression. In IMR-32 cells, TFAP2B induced neuronal differentiation, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the catecholamine biosynthesizing enzyme genes DBH and TH, and down-regulation of MYCN and REST, a master repressor of neuronal genes. By contrast, knockdown of TFAP2B by lentiviral transduction of shRNAs abrogated RA-induced neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)c neuroblastoma cells almost completely. Taken together, our results suggest that TFAP2B is playing a vital role in retaining RA responsiveness and mediating noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma. PMID:26598443

  1. Genomewide transcriptional signatures of migratory flight activity in a globally invasive insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Mironidis, George K; Vontas, John; Yang, Yihua; Lim, Ka S; Oakeshott, John G; Bass, Chris; Chapman, Jason W

    2015-10-01

    Migration is a key life history strategy for many animals and requires a suite of behavioural, morphological and physiological adaptations which together form the 'migratory syndrome'. Genetic variation has been demonstrated for many traits that make up this syndrome, but the underlying genes involved remain elusive. Recent studies investigating migration-associated genes have focussed on sampling migratory and nonmigratory populations from different geographic locations but have seldom explored phenotypic variation in a migratory trait. Here, we use a novel combination of tethered flight and next-generation sequencing to determine transcriptomic differences associated with flight activity in a globally invasive moth pest, the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. By developing a state-of-the-art phenotyping platform, we show that field-collected H. armigera display continuous variation in flight performance with individuals capable of flying up to 40 km during a single night. Comparative transcriptomics of flight phenotypes drove a gene expression analysis to reveal a suite of expressed candidate genes which are clearly related to physiological adaptations required for long-distance flight. These include genes important to the mobilization of lipids as flight fuel, the development of flight muscle structure and the regulation of hormones that influence migratory physiology. We conclude that the ability to express this complex set of pathways underlines the remarkable flexibility of facultative insect migrants to respond to deteriorating conditions in the form of migratory flight and, more broadly, the results provide novel insights into the fundamental transcriptional changes required for migration in insects and other taxa. PMID:26331997

  2. Arabidopsis GARP transcriptional activators interact with the Pro-rich activation domain shared by G-box-binding bZIP factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Hiroki; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    The Pro-rich regions, found in a subset of plant bZIP transcription factors, including G-box-binding factors (GBFs) of Arabidopsis thaliana, are thought to be deeply involved in transcriptional regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms of the Pro-rich region-mediated transcriptional regulation are still largely unknown. Here we report evidence showing that two closely related Arabidopsis proteins, designated GPRI1 and GPRI2, containing a GARP DNA-binding domain, are likely partners of one or more GBFs. The results of yeast two-hybrid assays and in vitro binding assays indicated that GPRI1 can interact with the Pro-rich regions of GBF1 and GBF3. GPRI2 interacted with the Pro-rich region of GBF1. GPRI1 and GPRI2 transactivated transcription in yeast. In GPRI1 the region responsible for this activation was mapped in the N-terminal third of the protein. Transient assays showed that in Arabidopsis cells not only the N-terminal but also the C-terminal regions of GPRI1 can function as a separable activation domain. GPRI1 and GPRI2 may function in some promoters in concert with a GBF through interaction with its Pro-rich region to enhance the transcriptional level of the corresponding genes. PMID:11828027

  3. Cocaine induces cell death and activates the transcription nuclear factor kappa-B in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, Lucilia B; Munhoz, Carolina D; Kawamoto, Elisa M; Yshii, Lidia M; Lima, Larissa S; Curi-Boaventura, Maria F; Salgado, Thais M L; Curi, Rui; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Scavone, Cristoforo

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine is a worldwide used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is very complex and involves several neurotransmitter systems. For example, cocaine increases extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulates several transcription factors. NF-kappaB is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression involved in cellular death. Our aim was to investigate the toxicity and modulation of NF-kappaB activity by cocaine in PC 12 cells. Treatment with cocaine (1 mM) for 24 hours induced DNA fragmentation, cellular membrane rupture and reduction of mitochondrial activity. A decrease in Bcl-2 protein and mRNA levels, and an increase in caspase 3 activity and cleavage were also observed. In addition, cocaine (after 6 hours treatment) activated the p50/p65 subunit of NF-kappaB complex and the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, attenuated the NF-kappaB activation. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by using PDTC and Sodium Salicilate increased cell death caused by cocaine. These results suggest that cocaine induces cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) and activates NF-kappaB in PC12 cells. This activation occurs, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors and seems to have an anti-apoptotic effect on these cells. PMID:19183502

  4. Cocaine induces cell death and activates the transcription nuclear factor kappa-b in pc12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepsch Lucilia B

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cocaine is a worldwide used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is very complex and involves several neurotransmitter systems. For example, cocaine increases extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulates several transcription factors. NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression involved in cellular death. Our aim was to investigate the toxicity and modulation of NF-κB activity by cocaine in PC 12 cells. Treatment with cocaine (1 mM for 24 hours induced DNA fragmentation, cellular membrane rupture and reduction of mitochondrial activity. A decrease in Bcl-2 protein and mRNA levels, and an increase in caspase 3 activity and cleavage were also observed. In addition, cocaine (after 6 hours treatment activated the p50/p65 subunit of NF-κB complex and the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, attenuated the NF-κB activation. Inhibition of NF-κB activity by using PDTC and Sodium Salicilate increased cell death caused by cocaine. These results suggest that cocaine induces cell death (apoptosis and necrosis and activates NF-κB in PC12 cells. This activation occurs, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors and seems to have an anti-apoptotic effect on these cells.

  5. The biphasic redox sensing of SENP3 accounts for the HIF-1 transcriptional activity shift by oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WANG; Jie YANG; Kai YANG; Hui CANG; Xin-zhi HUANG; Hui LI; Jing YI

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the mechanisms underlying the biphasic redox regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcriptional activity under different levels of oxidative stress caused by reactive oxidative species (ROS).Methods:HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations of H2O2 as a simple model for mild and severe oxidative stress.Luciferase reporter assay and/or quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the transcriptional activity.Immunoblot was used to detect protein expression.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to detect HIF-1/DNA binding.The interaction of p300with HIF-1α or with SENP3,and the SUMO2/3 conjugation states of p300 were examined by coimmunoprecipitation.Results:HIF-1 transcriptional activity in HeLa cells was enhanced by low doses (0.05-0.5 mmol/L) of H202,but suppressed by high doses (0.75-8.0 mmol/L) of H2O2.The amount of co-activator p300 bound to HIF-1α in HeLa cells was increased under mild oxidative stress,but decreased under severe oxidative stress.The ROS levels differentially modified cysteines 243 and 532 in the cysteine protease SENP3,regulating the interaction of SENP3 with p300 to cause different SUMOylation of p300,thus shifting HIF-1 transcriptional activity.Conclusion:The shift of HIF-1 transactivation by ROS is correlated with and dependent on the biphasic redox sensing of SENP3 that leads to the differential SENP3/p300 interaction and the consequent fluctuation in the p300 SUMOylation status.

  6. Activity and interactions of methane seep microorganisms assessed by parallel transcription and FISH-NanoSIMS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekas, Anne E; Connon, Stephanie A; Chadwick, Grayson L; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-03-01

    To characterize the activity and interactions of methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and Deltaproteobacteria at a methane-seeping mud volcano, we used two complimentary measures of microbial activity: a community-level analysis of the transcription of four genes (16S rRNA, methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA), adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase α-subunit (aprA), dinitrogenase reductase (nifH)), and a single-cell-level analysis of anabolic activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (FISH-NanoSIMS). Transcript analysis revealed that members of the deltaproteobacterial groups Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus (DSS) and Desulfobulbaceae (DSB) exhibit increased rRNA expression in incubations with methane, suggestive of ANME-coupled activity. Direct analysis of anabolic activity in DSS cells in consortia with ANME by FISH-NanoSIMS confirmed their dependence on methanotrophy, with no (15)NH4(+) assimilation detected without methane. In contrast, DSS and DSB cells found physically independent of ANME (i.e., single cells) were anabolically active in incubations both with and without methane. These single cells therefore comprise an active 'free-living' population, and are not dependent on methane or ANME activity. We investigated the possibility of N2 fixation by seep Deltaproteobacteria and detected nifH transcripts closely related to those of cultured diazotrophic Deltaproteobacteria. However, nifH expression was methane-dependent. (15)N2 incorporation was not observed in single DSS cells, but was detected in single DSB cells. Interestingly, (15)N2 incorporation in single DSB cells was methane-dependent, raising the possibility that DSB cells acquired reduced (15)N products from diazotrophic ANME while spatially coupled, and then subsequently dissociated. With this combined data set we address several outstanding questions in methane seep microbial ecosystems and highlight the benefit of measuring microbial activity in

  7. Radiation-Induced Hypomethylation Triggers Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Transcription in Meningioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Velpula

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown the role of radiation-induced urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA expression in the progression of meningioma. In the present study, we investigated whether modulation of DNA methylation profiles could regulate uPA expression. Initially, radiation treatment was found to induce hypomethylation in meningioma cells with a decrease in DNA (cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 and methyl-CpG binding domain protein (MBD expression. However, oxidative damage by H2O2 or pretreatment of irradiated cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC did not show any influence on these proteins, thereby indicating a radiation-specific change in the methylation patterns among meningioma cells. Further, we identified that hypomethylation is coupled to an increase in uPA expression in these cells. Azacytidine treatment induced a dose-dependent surge of uPA expression, whereas pre-treatment with sodium butyrate inhibited radiation-induced uPA expression, which complemented our prior results. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction on bisulfite-treated genomic DNA revealed a diminished methylation of uPA promoter in irradiated cells. Transfection with small hairpin RNA (shRNA-expressing plasmids targeting CpG islands of the uPA promoter showed a marked decline in uPA expression with subsequent decrease in invasion and proliferation of meningioma cells. Further, radiation treatment was found to recruit SP1 transcription factor, which was abrogated by shRNA treatment. Analysis on signaling events demonstrated the activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in radiation-treated cells, while U0126 (MEK/ERK inhibitor blocked hypomethylation, recruitment of SP1, and uPA expression. In agreement with our in vitro data, low DNMT1 levels and high uPA were found in intracranial tumors treated with radiation compared to untreated tumors. In conclusion, our data suggest that radiation-mediated hypomethylation

  8. Prostaglandin F2a activates stress response signaling and induces expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in bovine large luteal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pulsatile uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) triggers the regression of the corpus luteum (CL). Recent studies have explored global changes in gene expression in response to PGF that may contribute to structural and functional regression of the CL. Activating transcription facto...

  9. Inhibition of human insulin gene transcription by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and thiazolidinedione oral antidiabetic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinner, S; Krätzner, R; Baun, D; Dickel, C; Blume, R; Oetjen, E

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is essential for glucose homeostasis. PPARγ ligands reducing insulin levels in vivo are used as drugs to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genes regulated by PPARγ have been found in several tissues including insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells. However, the role of PPARγ at the insulin gene was unknown. Therefore, the effect of PPARγ and PPARγ ligands like rosiglitazone on insulin gene transcription was investigated. Experimental approach: Reporter gene assays were used in the β-cell line HIT and in primary mature pancreatic islets of transgenic mice. Mapping studies and internal mutations were carried out to locate PPARγ-responsive promoter regions. Key results: Rosiglitazone caused a PPARγ-dependent inhibition of insulin gene transcription in a β-cell line. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and had an EC50 similar to that for the activation of a reporter gene under the control of multimerized PPAR binding sites. Also in normal primary pancreatic islets of transgenic mice, known to express high levels of PPARγ, rosiglitazone inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin gene transcription. Transactivation and mapping experiments suggest that, in contrast to the rat glucagon gene, the inhibition of the human insulin gene promoter by PPARγ/rosiglitazone does not depend on promoter-bound Pax6 and is attributable to the proximal insulin gene promoter region around the transcription start site from −56 to +18. Conclusions and implications: The human insulin gene represents a novel PPARγ target that may contribute to the action of thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:19338578

  10. Control of gene expression during T cell activation: alternate regulation of mRNA transcription and mRNA stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorospe Myriam

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The effective correlation of observed changes in gene expression with shared transcription regulatory elements remains difficult to demonstrate convincingly. One reason for this difficulty may result from the intricate convergence of both transcriptional and mRNA turnover events which, together, directly influence steady-state mRNA levels. Results In order to investigate the relative contribution of gene transcription and changes in mRNA stability regulation to standard analyses of gene expression, we used two distinct microarray methods which individually measure nuclear gene transcription and changes in polyA mRNA gene expression. Gene expression profiles were obtained from both polyA mRNA (whole-cell and nuclear run-on (newly transcribed RNA across a time course of one hour following the activation of human Jurkat T cells with PMA plus ionomycin. Comparative analysis revealed that regulation of mRNA stability may account for as much as 50% of all measurements of changes in polyA mRNA in this system, as inferred by the absence of any corresponding regulation of nuclear gene transcription activity for these groups of genes. Genes which displayed dramatic elevations in both mRNA and nuclear run-on RNA were shown to be inhibited by Actinomycin D (ActD pre-treatment of cells while large numbers of genes regulated only through altered mRNA turnover (both up and down were ActD-resistant. Consistent patterns across the time course were observed for both transcribed and stability-regulated genes. Conclusion We propose that regulation of mRNA stability contributes significantly to the observed changes in gene expression in response to external stimuli, as measured by high throughput systems.

  11. CRP interacts with promoter-bound sigma54 RNA polymerase and blocks transcriptional activation of the dctA promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Y. P. Wang; Kolb, A; M. Buck; Wen, J.; O'Gara, F.; Buc, H

    1998-01-01

    The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is an activator of sigma70-dependent transcription. Analysis of the sigma54-dependent dctA promoter reveals a novel negative regulatory function for CRP. CRP can bind to two distant sites of the dctA promoter, sites which overlap the upstream activator sequences for the DctD activator. CRP interacts with Esigma54 bound at the dctA promoter via DNA loop formation. When the CRP-binding sites are deleted, CRP still interacts in a cAMP-dependent manner with the sta...

  12. MalT, the regulatory protein of the Escherichia coli maltose system, is an ATP-dependent transcriptional activator.

    OpenAIRE

    Richet, E; Raibaud, O

    1989-01-01

    We show that MalT, the transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli maltose regulon, specifically binds ATP and dATP with a high affinity (Kd = 0.4 microM) and exhibits a weak ATPase activity. Using an abortive initiation assay, we further show that activation of open complex formation by MalT depends on the presence of ATP in addition to that of maltotriose, the inducer of the maltose system. Similar experiments in which ATP was replaced by ADP or AMP-PNP, a non-hydrolysable analogue of...

  13. Estradiol repression of tumor necrosis factor-α transcription requires estrogen receptor activation function-2 and is enhanced by coactivators

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jinping; Ribeiro, Ralff C. J.; Webb, Paul; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Kushner, Peter J.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    1999-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoter was used to explore the molecular mechanisms of estradiol (E2)-dependent repression of gene transcription. E2 inhibited basal activity and abolished TNF-α activation of the TNF-α promoter. The E2-inhibitory element was mapped to the −125 to −82 region of the TNF-α promoter, known as the TNF-responsive element (TNF-RE). An AP-1-like site in the TNF-RE is essential for repression activity. Estrogen receptor (ER) β is more potent than ERα at repressin...

  14. Activity and interactions of methane seep microorganisms assessed by parallel transcription and FISH-NanoSIMS analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Dekas, Anne E.; Connon, Stephanie A.; Chadwick, Grayson L; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Orphan, Victoria J

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the activity and interactions of methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and Deltaproteobacteria at a methane-seeping mud volcano, we used two complimentary measures of microbial activity: a community-level analysis of the transcription of four genes (16S rRNA, methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA), adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase α-subunit (aprA), dinitrogenase reductase (nifH)), and a single-cell-level analysis of anabolic activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled...

  15. DcE2F, a functional plant E2F-like transcriptional activator from Daucus carota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albani, D; Mariconti, L; Ricagno, S;

    2000-01-01

    In animal cells the progression of the cell cycle through G(1)/S transition and S phase is under the control of the pRB/E2F regulatory pathway. The E2F transcription factors are key activators of genes coding for several regulatory proteins and for enzymes involved in nucleotide and DNA synthesis....... In this report we have detected the presence of E2F-like DNA binding activities in carrot nuclear extracts, and we have isolated a carrot cDNA (DcE2F) encoding a plant E2F homologue. The DcE2F gene is expressed in proliferating cells and is induced during the G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle......, transactivation assays have revealed that DcE2F is a functional transcription factor that can transactivate, together with a DP partner, an E2F-responsive reporter gene in both plant and mammalian cells....

  16. The transcriptional activator GAL4-VP16 regulates the intra-molecular interactions of the TATA-binding protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anurag Kumar Mishra; Perumal Vanathi; Purnima Bhargava

    2003-06-01

    Binding characteristics of yeast TATA-binding protein (yTBP) over five oligomers having different TATA variants and lacking a UASGAL, showed that TATA-binding protein (TBP)-TATA complex gets stabilized in the presence of the acidic activator GAL4-VP16. Activator also greatly suppressed the non-specific TBP-DNA complex formation. The effects were more pronounced over weaker TATA boxes. Activator also reduced the TBP dimer levels both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the dimer may be a direct target of transcriptional activators. The transcriptional activator facilitated the dimer to monomer transition and activated monomers further to help TBP bind even the weaker TATA boxes stably. The overall stimulatory effect of the GAL4-VP16 on the TBP-TATA complex formation resembles the known effects of removal of the N-terminus of TBP on its activity, suggesting that the activator directly targets the N-terminus of TBP and facilitates its binding to the TATA box.

  17. Signal transduction and HIV transcriptional activation after exposure to ultraviolet light and other DNA-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light (UVC) radiation was much more potent in activating transcription of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) reporter genes stably integrated into the genomes of human and monkey cells than ionizing radiation (IR) from a 137Cs source at similarly cytotoxic doses. A similar differential was also observed when c-jun transcription levels were examined. However, these transcription levels do not correlate with activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB and AP-1 measured by band-shift assays, i.e. both types of radiation produce similar increases in NF-kB and AP-1 activity, suggesting existence of additional levels of regulation during these responses. Because of the well-established involvement of cytoplasmic signaling pathways in the cellular response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), UVC, and IR using other types of assays, the role of TNF-α in the UVC response of HIV and c-jun was investigated in our cell system. We demonstrate that UVC and TNF-α activate HIV gene expression in a synergistic fashion, suggesting that it is unlikely that TNF-α is involved in UVC activation of HIV transcription in stably transfected HeLa cells. Moreover, maximum TNF-α stimulation resulted in one order of magnitude lower levels of HIV expression than that observed after UVC exposure. We also observed an additive effect of UVC and TNF-α on c-jun steady-state mRNA levels, suggestive of a partial overlap in activation mechanism of c-jun by UVC and TNF-α; yet these responses are distinct to some extent. Our results indicate that the HIV, and to some extent also the c-jun, transcriptional responses to UVC are not the result of TNF-α stimulation and subsequent downstream cytoplasmic signaling events in HeLa cells. In addition to the new data, this report also summarizes our current views regarding UVC-induced activations of HIV gene expression in stably transfected cells. (Author)

  18. Transcriptional activation of a pap pilus virulence operon from uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Båga, M; M. Göransson; Normark, S; Uhlin, B E

    1985-01-01

    A gene cluster mediating production of pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli was analysed with respect to regulation of pili synthesis. Two cistrons, papB and papI, were localized upstream of the major pilus subunit gene, papA. The papI-papB-papA region was characterized by nucleotide sequencing and by transcriptional analysis. The papA gene was primarily represented by an 800 nucleotide long transcript but was also co-transcribed with papB as a less abundant 1300 nucleotide long mRNA. Both ...

  19. A novel epidermal growth factor receptor variant lacking multiple domains directly activates transcription and is overexpressed in tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Piccione, EC; Lieu, TJ; Gentile, CF; Williams, TR; Connolly, AJ; Godwin, AK; Koong, AC; Wong, AJ

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is essential to multiple physiological and neoplastic processes via signaling by its tyrosine kinase domain and subsequent activation of transcription factors. EGFR overexpression and alteration, including point mutations and structural variants, contribute to oncogenesis in many tumor types. In this study, we identified an in-frame splice variant of the EGFR called mini-LEEK (mLEEK) that is more broadly expressed than the EGFR and is overexpressed ...

  20. Transcriptional activation by TAL1 and FUS-CHOP proteins expressed in acute malignancies as a result of chromosomal abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-García, I; Rabbitts, T H

    1994-01-01

    Proteins that appear to participate in transcriptional control of gene expression are increasingly implicated in leukemias and malignant solid tumors. We report here that the N-terminal domains of the proteins TAL1 (ectopically activated in T-cell acute leukemias after chromosomal abnormalities caused by V-D-J recombinase error) (V, variable; D, diversity; J, joining) and FUS-CHOP (a liposarcoma tumor-specific fusion protein that is produced as a result of a chromosomal translocation) can fun...

  1. Transcriptional Modulation of the Immune Response by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α Agonists in Autoimmune Disease1

    OpenAIRE

    Gocke, Anne R.; Hussain, Rehana Z.; Yang, Yuhong; Peng, Haiyan; Weiner, Jeffrey; Ben, Li-Hong; Drew, Paul D.; Stuve, Olaf; Lovett-Racke, Amy E.; Racke, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonists have been shown to have a therapeutic benefit in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which the PPARα agonist gemfibrozil induces immune deviation and protects mice from EAE. We demonstrated that treatment with gemfibrozil increases expression of the Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 and decreases expression of the Th1 transcripti...

  2. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 5 controls the proliferation and differentiation of mammary alveolar epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Keiko; Shillingford, Jonathan M.; Smith, Gilbert H.; Grimm, Sandra L.; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Oka, Takami; Rosen, Jeffrey M.; Robinson, Gertraud W.; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    Functional development of mammary epithelium during pregnancy depends on prolactin signaling. However, the underlying molecular and cellular events are not fully understood. We examined the specific contributions of the prolactin receptor (PrlR) and the signal transducers and activators of transcription 5a and 5b (referred to as Stat5) in the formation and differentiation of mammary alveolar epithelium. PrlR- and Stat5-null mammary epithelia were transplanted into wild-type hosts, and pregnan...

  3. Activating Transcription Factor 4 Confers a Multidrug Resistance Phenotype to Gastric Cancer Cells through Transactivation of SIRT1 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwu Zhu; Limin Xia; Yongguo Zhang; Honghong Wang; Wenjing Xu; Hao Hu; Jing Wang; Jing Xin; Yi Gang; Sumei Sha; Bin Xu; Daiming Fan; Yongzhan Nie; Kaichun Wu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR) in gastric cancer remains a major challenge to clinical treatment. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress response gene involved in homeostasis and cellular protection. However, the expression and function of ATF4 in gastric cancer MDR remains unknown. In this study, we investigate whether ATF4 play a role in gastric cancer MDR and its potential mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated that ATF4 overexpression confered th...

  4. Three novel acetylation sites in the Foxp3 transcription factor regulate the suppressive activity of regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hye-Sook; Lim, Hyung W; Wu, Jessica; Schnoelzer, Martina; Verdin, Eric; Ott, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The Foxp3 transcription factor is the master regulator of regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation and function. Its activity is regulated by reversible acetylation. Using mass spectrometry of immunoprecipitated proteins, we identify three novel acetylation sites in murine Foxp3 (K31, K262, and K267) and the corresponding sites in human FoxP3 proteins. Newly raised modification-specific antibodies against acetylated K31 and K267 confirm acetylation of these residues in murine Tregs. Mutant Fo...

  5. TRAP/SMCC/Mediator-Dependent Transcriptional Activation from DNA and Chromatin Templates by Orphan Nuclear Receptor Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Sohail; Wallberg, Annika E.; Kang, Yun Kyoung; Roeder, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) regulates the expression of many liver-specific genes both during development and in the adult animal. Towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which HNF-4 functions, we have established in vitro transcription systems that faithfully recapitulate HNF-4 activity. Here we have focused on the coactivator requirements for HNF-4, especially for the multicomponent TRAP/SMCC/Mediator complex that has emerged as the central regu...

  6. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, José R

    2013-08-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  7. Lipotoxic brain microvascular injury is mediated by activating transcription factor 3-dependent inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Hnin Hnin; Altman, Robin; Nyunt, Tun; Kim, Jeffrey; Nuthikattu, Saivageethi; Budamagunta, Madhu; Voss, John C; Wilson, Dennis; Rutledge, John C; Villablanca, Amparo C

    2016-06-01

    Dysfunction of the cerebrovasculature plays an important role in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Lipotoxic injury of the systemic endothelium in response to hydrolyzed triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs; TGRL lipolysis products) or a high-fat Western diet (WD) suggests similar mechanisms may be present in brain microvascular endothelium. We investigated the hypothesis that TGRL lipolysis products cause lipotoxic injury to brain microvascular endothelium by generating increased mitochondrial superoxide radical generation, upregulation of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)-dependent inflammatory pathways, and activation of cellular oxidative stress and apoptotic pathways. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells were treated with human TGRL lipolysis products that induced intracellular lipid droplet formation, mitochondrial superoxide generation, ATF3-dependent transcription of proinflammatory, stress response, and oxidative stress genes, as well as activation of proapoptotic cascades. Male apoE knockout mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol WD for 2 months, and brain microvessels were isolated by laser capture microdissection. ATF3 gene transcription was elevated 8-fold in the hippocampus and cerebellar brain region of the WD-fed animals compared with chow-fed control animals. The microvascular injury phenotypes observed in vitro and in vivo were similar. ATF3 plays an important role in mediating brain microvascular responses to acute and chronic lipotoxic injury and may be an important preventative and therapeutic target for endothelial dysfunction in VCI. PMID:27087439

  8. An in vitro investigation on the cytotoxic and nuclear receptor transcriptional activity of the mycotoxins fumonisin B1 and beauvericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, Celia; Frizzell, Caroline; Shannon, Maeve; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-08-22

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and beauvericin (BEA) are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi, which under appropriate temperature and humidity conditions may develop on various foods and feeds. To date few studies have been performed to evaluate the toxicological and endocrine disrupting effects of FB1 and BEA. The present study makes use of various in vitro bioassays including; oestrogen, androgen, progestagen and glucocorticoid reporter gene assays (RGAs) for the study of nuclear receptor transcriptional activity, the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to monitor cytotoxicity and high content analysis (HCA) for the detection of pre-lethal toxicity in the RGA and Caco-2 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. At the receptor level, 0.001-10μM BEA or FB1 did not induce any agonist responses in the RGAs. However at non-cytotoxic concentrations, an antagonistic effect was exhibited by FB1 on the androgen nuclear receptor transcriptional activity at 10μM and BEA on the progestagen and glucocorticoid receptors at 1μM. MTT analysis showed no decrease in cell viability at any concentration of FB1, whereas BEA showed a significant decrease in viability at 10μM. HCA analysis confirmed that the reduction in the progestagen receptor transcriptional activity at 1μM BEA was not due to pre-lethal toxicity. In addition, BEA (10μM) induced significant toxicity in both the TM-Luc (progestagen responsive) and Caco-2 cells. PMID:27234500

  9. Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Gene Transcription by Triterpenoids and Their Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Loboda, Agnieszka; Rojczyk-Golebiewska, Ewa; Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Lucjusz, Zaprutko; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Chemoprevention represents a strategy designed to protect cells or tissues against various carcinogens and carcinogenic metabolites derived from exogenous or endogenous sources. Recent studies indicate that plant-derived triterpenoids, like oleanolic acid, may exert cytoprotective functions via regulation of the activity of different transcription factors. The chemopreventive effects may be mediated through induction of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription fact...

  10. An adenosine at position 27 in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activation response element is not critical for transcriptional or translational activation by Tat.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, A. D.; Powell, R; Braddock, M; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1992-01-01

    Tat protein binds to the trans-activation response (TAR) element of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNAs and activates gene expression at the level of transcription in mammalian cell lines and translation in Xenopus oocytes. Certain residues within TAR are important for Tat binding in vitro, including residue A-27, which appears to be able to be modified in a Tat-dependent manner in Xenopus oocytes (L. Sharmeen, B. Bass, N. Sonenberg, H. Weintraub, and M. Groudine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ...

  11. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating into a variety of lineages, including bone, cartilage, or fat, depending on the inducing stimuli and specific growth and factors. It is acknowledged that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes chondrogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, but thorough investigations of its effects on adipogenic differentiation are lacking. In this study, we demonstrate at the cellular and molecular levels the effect of FGF-2 on adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, as induced by an adipogenic hormonal cocktail consisting of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone, insulin, and indomethacin. FGF-2 significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. Furthermore, in cultures receiving FGF-2 before adipogenic induction, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, was upregulated. The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration

  12. TDP2 protects transcription from abortive topoisomerase activity and is required for normal neural function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Herreros, F.; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J.H.M.; McCormack, M.; Greally, M.T.; Rulten, S.; Romero-Granados, R.; Counihan, T.J.; Chaila, E.; Conroy, J.; Ennis, S.; Delanty, N.; Cortes-Ledesma, F.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Cavalleri, G.L.; El-Khamisy, S.F.; Vries, B.B. de; Caldecott, K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerase II (TOP2) removes torsional stress from DNA and facilitates gene transcription by introducing transient DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Such DSBs are normally rejoined by TOP2 but on occasion can become abortive and remain unsealed. Here we identify homozygous mutations in the TDP2 ge

  13. Inhibition of MITF transcriptional activity independent of targeting p300/CBP coactivators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vachtenheim, J.; Šestáková, B.; Tuháčková, Zdena

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-51. ISSN 0893-5785 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NR8026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : microphthalmia-associated transcription factor * E1A * p300 * tyrosinase * melanoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.288, year: 2007

  14. Dual Roles for PARP1 during Heat Shock: Transcriptional Activator and Posttranscriptional Inhibitor of Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sejal; Chang, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Di Giammartino et al. (2012) identify a new function for PARP1 in the post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs via ADP-ribosylation of poly(A) polymerase, a mRNA 3′ processing enzyme.

  15. Structures of BmrR-Drug Complexes Reveal a Rigid Multidrug Binding Pocket And Transcription Activation Through Tyrosine Expulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, K.J.; Huffman, J.L.; Miller, M.C.; Vazquez-Laslop, N.; Neyfakh, A.A.; Brennan, R.G.

    2009-05-22

    BmrR is a member of the MerR family and a multidrug binding transcription factor that up-regulates the expression of the bmr multidrug efflux transporter gene in response to myriad lipophilic cationic compounds. The structural mechanism by which BmrR binds these chemically and structurally different drugs and subsequently activates transcription is poorly understood. Here, we describe the crystal structures of BmrR bound to rhodamine 6G (R6G) or berberine (Ber) and cognate DNA. These structures reveal each drug stacks against multiple aromatic residues with their positive charges most proximal to the carboxylate group of Glu-253 and that, unlike other multidrug binding pockets, that of BmrR is rigid. Substitution of Glu-253 with either alanine (E253A) or glutamine (E253Q) results in unpredictable binding affinities for R6G, Ber, and tetraphenylphosphonium. Moreover, these drug binding studies reveal that the negative charge of Glu-253 is not important for high affinity binding to Ber and tetraphenylphosphonium but plays a more significant, but unpredictable, role in R6G binding. In vitro transcription data show that E253A and E253Q are constitutively active, and structures of the drug-free E253A-DNA and E253Q-DNA complexes support a transcription activation mechanism requiring the expulsion of Tyr-152 from the multidrug binding pocket. In sum, these data delineate the mechanism by which BmrR binds lipophilic, monovalent cationic compounds and suggest the importance of the redundant negative electrostatic nature of this rigid drug binding pocket that can be used to discriminate against molecules that are not substrates of the Bmr multidrug efflux pump.

  16. The phzA2-G2 transcript exhibits direct RsmA-mediated activation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ren

    Full Text Available In bacteria, RNA-binding proteins of the RsmA/CsrA family act as post-transcriptional regulators that modulate translation initiation at target transcripts. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome contains two phenazine biosynthetic (phz gene clusters, phzA1-G1 (phz1 and phzA2-G2 (phz2, each of which is responsible for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA biosynthesis. In the present study, we show that RsmA exhibits differential gene regulation on two phz clusters in P. aeruginosa M18 at the post-transcriptional level. Based on the sequence analysis, four GGA motifs, the potential RsmA binding sites, are found on the 5'-untranslated region (UTR of the phz2 transcript. Studies with a series of lacZ reporter fusions, and gel mobility shift assays suggest that the third GGA motif (S3, located 21 nucleotides upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence, is involved in direct RsmA-mediated activation of phz2 expression. We therefore propose a novel model in which the binding of RsmA to the target S3 results in the destabilization of the stem-loop structure and the enhancement of ribosome access. This model could be fully supported by RNA structure prediction, free energy calculations, and nucleotide replacement studies. In contrast, various RsmA-mediated translation repression mechanisms have been identified in which RsmA binds near the SD sequence of target transcripts, thereby blocking ribosome access. Similarly, RsmA is shown to negatively regulate phz1 expression. Our new findings suggest that the differential regulation exerted by RsmA on the two phz clusters may confer an a