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Sample records for activates human myometrium

  1. Immunolocalization and expression of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in human myometrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Sofia T; Svalø, Julie; Nielsen, Karsten;

    2012-01-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channels have been detected in human myometrium and we have previously shown a functional role of SK channels in human myometrium in vitro. The aims of this study were to identify the precise localization of SK3 channels and to quantify SK3 mRNA...

  2. Ghrelin in the human myometrium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Margaret

    2010-05-28

    Abstract Background Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid octanolyated peptide, synthesised primarily in the stomach. It stimulates growth hormone release, food intake and exhibits many other diverse effects. Our group have previously determined that ghrelin inhibited human contractility in vitro. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the expression of ghrelin, its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHS-R1), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) which catalyses ghrelin octanoylation, prohormone convertase 1\\/3 (PC1\\/3) responsible for pro-ghrelin processing, in human myometrium, during pregnancy prior to labour, during labour and in the non-pregnant state. Modulation of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor expression in cultured myometrial cells was also investigated. Methods mRNA and protein were isolated from human myometrium and the myometrial smooth muscle cell line hTERT-HM; and real-time fluorescence RT-PCR, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy performed. The effects of β-Estradiol and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on hTERT-HM gene expression were evaluated by western blotting. Results We have reported for the first time the expression and processing of ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 expression in human myometrium, and also the down-regulation of ghrelin mRNA and protein expression during labour. Furthermore, GHS-R1 protein expression significantly decreased at labour. Myometrial GOAT expression significantly increased during term non-labouring pregnancy in comparison to both non-pregnant and labouring myometrium. Mature PC1\\/3 protein expression was significantly decreased at term pregnancy and labour in comparison to non-pregnant myometrium. Ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 mRNA and protein expression was also detected in the hTERT-HM cells. Ghrelin protein expression decreased upon LPS treatment in these cells while β-Estradiol treatment increased GHS-R1 expression. Conclusions Ghrelin processing occurred in the human

  3. Ghrelin in the human myometrium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid octanolyated peptide, synthesised primarily in the stomach. It stimulates growth hormone release, food intake and exhibits many other diverse effects. Our group have previously determined that ghrelin inhibited human contractility in vitro. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the expression of ghrelin, its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHS-R1), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) which catalyses ghrelin octanoylation, prohormone convertase 1\\/3 (PC1\\/3) responsible for pro-ghrelin processing, in human myometrium, during pregnancy prior to labour, during labour and in the non-pregnant state. Modulation of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor expression in cultured myometrial cells was also investigated. METHODS: mRNA and protein were isolated from human myometrium and the myometrial smooth muscle cell line hTERT-HM; and real-time fluorescence RT-PCR, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy performed. The effects of beta-Estradiol and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on hTERT-HM gene expression were evaluated by western blotting. RESULTS: We have reported for the first time the expression and processing of ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 expression in human myometrium, and also the down-regulation of ghrelin mRNA and protein expression during labour. Furthermore, GHS-R1 protein expression significantly decreased at labour. Myometrial GOAT expression significantly increased during term non-labouring pregnancy in comparison to both non-pregnant and labouring myometrium. Mature PC1\\/3 protein expression was significantly decreased at term pregnancy and labour in comparison to non-pregnant myometrium. Ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 mRNA and protein expression was also detected in the hTERT-HM cells. Ghrelin protein expression decreased upon LPS treatment in these cells while beta-Estradiol treatment increased GHS-R1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Ghrelin processing occurred in the human

  4. Expression of RHOGTPase regulators in human myometrium

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    Morrison John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RHOGTPases play a significant role in modulating myometrial contractility in uterine smooth muscle. They are regulated by at least three families of proteins, RHO guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RHOGEFs, RHOGTPase-activating proteins (RHOGAPs and RHO guanine nucleotide inhibitors (RHOGDIs. RHOGEFs activate RHOGTPases from the inactive GDP-bound to the active GTP-bound form. RHOGAPs deactivate RHOGTPases by accelerating the intrinsic GTPase activity of the RHOGTPases, converting them from the active to the inactive form. RHOGDIs bind to GDP-bound RHOGTPases and sequester them in the cytosol, thereby inhibiting their activity. Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM proteins regulate the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and an ERM protein, moesin (MSN, is activated by and can also activate RHOGTPases. Methods We therefore investigated the expression of various RHOGEFs, RHOGAPs, a RHOGDI and MSN in human myometrium, by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR, real-time fluorescence RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of these molecules was also examined in myometrial smooth muscle cells. Results ARHGEF1, ARHGEF11, ARHGEF12, ARHGAP5, ARHGAP24, ARHGDIA and MSN mRNA and protein expression was confirmed in human myometrium at term pregnancy, at labour and in the non-pregnant state. Furthermore, their expression was detected in myometrial smooth muscle cells. It was determined that ARHGAP24 mRNA expression significantly increased at labour in comparison to the non-labour state. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time the expression of the RHOGTPase regulators ARHGEF1, ARHGEF11, ARHGEF12, ARHGAP5, ARHGAP24, ARHGDIA and MSN in human myometrium, at term pregnancy, at labour, in the non-pregnant state and also in myometrial smooth muscle cells. ARHGAP24 mRNA expression significantly increased at labour in comparison to the non-labouring state. Further investigation of these molecules may enable us

  5. Opioid mediated activity and expression of mu and delta opioid receptors in isolated human term non-labouring myometrium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, Rebecca A

    2013-01-05

    The existence of opioid receptors in mammalian myometrial tissue is now widely accepted. Previously enkephalin degrading enzymes have been shown to be elevated in pregnant rat uterus and a met-enkephalin analogue has been shown to alter spontaneous contractility of rat myometrium. Here we have undertaken studies to determine the effects of met-enkephalin on in vitro human myometrial contractility and investigate the expression of opioid receptors in pregnant myometrium. Myometrial biopsies were taken from women undergoing elective caesarean delivery at term. Organ bath experiments were used to investigate the effect of the met-enkephalin analogue [d-Ala 2, d-met 5] enkephalin (DAMEA) on spontaneous contractility. A confocal immunofluorescent technique and real time PCR were used to determine the expression of protein and mRNA, respectively for two opioid receptor subtypes, mu and delta. DAMEA had a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on contractile activity (1 × 10(-7)M-1 × 10(-4)M; 54% reduction in contractile activity, P<0.001 at 1 × 10(-4)M concentration). Mu and delta opioid receptor protein sub-types and their respective mRNA were identified in all tissues sampled. This is the first report of opioid receptor expression and of an opioid mediated uterorelaxant action in term human non-labouring myometrium in vitro.

  6. Opioid mediated activity and expression of mu and delta opioid receptors in isolated human term non-labouring myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Rebecca A; McMorrow, Jason P; Campion, Deirdre P; Carey, Michael F; O'Connor, John J

    2013-01-05

    The existence of opioid receptors in mammalian myometrial tissue is now widely accepted. Previously enkephalin degrading enzymes have been shown to be elevated in pregnant rat uterus and a met-enkephalin analogue has been shown to alter spontaneous contractility of rat myometrium. Here we have undertaken studies to determine the effects of met-enkephalin on in vitro human myometrial contractility and investigate the expression of opioid receptors in pregnant myometrium. Myometrial biopsies were taken from women undergoing elective caesarean delivery at term. Organ bath experiments were used to investigate the effect of the met-enkephalin analogue [d-Ala 2, d-met 5] enkephalin (DAMEA) on spontaneous contractility. A confocal immunofluorescent technique and real time PCR were used to determine the expression of protein and mRNA, respectively for two opioid receptor subtypes, mu and delta. DAMEA had a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on contractile activity (1 × 10(-7)M-1 × 10(-4)M; 54% reduction in contractile activity, Popioid receptor protein sub-types and their respective mRNA were identified in all tissues sampled. This is the first report of opioid receptor expression and of an opioid mediated uterorelaxant action in term human non-labouring myometrium in vitro.

  7. Thermotolerance of human myometrium: implications for minimally invasive uterine therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aaron C.; Grisez, Brian T.; McMillan, Kathleen; Chill, Nicholas; Harclerode, Tyler P.; Radabaugh, Rebecca; Jones, Ryan M.; Coad, James E.

    2013-02-01

    Endometrial ablation has gained significant clinical acceptance over the last decade as a minimally invasive treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. To improve upon current thermal injury modeling, it is important to better characterize the myometrium's thermotolerance. The extent of myometrial thermal injury was determined across a spectrum of thermal histories/doses (time-temperature combinations). Fresh extirpated human myometrium was obtained from 13 subjects who underwent a previous scheduled benign hysterectomy. Within two hours of hysterectomy, the unfixed myometrium was treated in a stabilized saline bath with temperatures ranging from 45-70 °C and time intervals from 30- 150 seconds. The time-temperature combinations were selected to simulate treatment times under 2.5 minutes. A total of six such thermal matrices, each comprised of 45 time-temperature combinations, were prepared for evaluation. The treated myometrium was cryosectioned for nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining to assess for thermal respiratory enzyme inactivation. Image analysis was subsequently used to quantitatively assess the stained myometrium's capacity to metabolize the tetrazolium at each time-temperature combination. This colorimetric data was then used as marker of cellular viability and determine survival parameters with implications for developing minimally invasive uterine therapies.

  8. Effect of isoproterenol on uptake of calcium-45 by pregnant human and rat myometrium.

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    Hodgson, B J

    1976-05-01

    Rat and human myometria contract is response to substitution of external Na+ with Li+. This contraction was accompanied by elevation of 45Ca uptake in rat but not human uterus. The lanthanum technique failed to demonstrate elevation of cellular 45Ca in human myometrium by Li+ substitution. It also failed to demonstrate reduction of Li-elevated 45Ca uptake by isoproterenol or drugs considered to inhibit calcium influx, in rat myometrium although these drugs prevented Li-induced contraction. In human myometrium, isoproterenol increased 45Ca uptake. This probably represents increased extracellular calcium binding. Isoproterenol relaxed depolarized human myometrium provided that the external calcium had been removed for 15 minutes.

  9. Stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy: influence of maternal body mass index and age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Eva M

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy is limited. Uterine contractile performance may be altered in association with maternal obesity and advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy, and to evaluate a potential influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and age.

  10. Correlation between selective inhibition of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and the contractile activity in human pregnant myometrium near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, M J; Cedrin, I; Breuiller, M; Giovagrandi, Y; Ferre, F

    1989-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the ability of various pharmacological agents to selectively inhibit each cytosolic form of phosphodiesterase isolated from the longitudinal layer of human myometria near term. Among the drugs tested, zaprinast specifically inhibits the first form of PDE which hydrolyses both substrates (cAMP and cGMP) and is stimulated by the Ca2+-calmodulin complex. A second form of PDE specific for cAMP hydrolysis and Ca2+-calmodulin insensitive is only present during pregnancy. Rolipram is the most potent and selective inhibitor of this second form. It is also the most efficient compound to inhibit in vitro the spontaneous contractions of near term myometria. The double effect of rolipram suggests an important role of the second form of PDE in the mechanisms of contractility during the pregnancy. In addition rolipram or other derivatives might be of a therapeutic interest in the prevention of prematurity in so far as they are devoid of undesirable maternal and fetal side effects.

  11. Phasic phosphorylation of caldesmon and ERK 1/2 during contractions in human myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan; Maiti, Kaushik; Read, Mark; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Julia; Chan, Eng-Cheng; Smith, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Human myometrium develops phasic contractions during labor. Phosphorylation of caldesmon (h-CaD) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) has been implicated in development of these contractions, however the phospho-regulation of these proteins is yet to be examined during periods of both contraction and relaxation. We hypothesized that protein phosphorylation events are implicated in the phasic nature of myometrial contractions, and aimed to examine h-CaD and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in myometrium snap frozen at specific stages, including; (1) prior to onset of contractions, (2) at peak contraction and (3) during relaxation. We aimed to compare h-CaD and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in vitro against results from in vivo studies that compared not-in-labor (NIL) and laboring (L) myometrium. Comparison of NIL (n = 8) and L (n = 8) myometrium revealed a 2-fold increase in h-CaD phosphorylation (ser-789; P = 0.012) during onset of labor in vivo, and was associated with significantly up-regulated ERK2 expression (P = 0.022), however no change in ERK2 phosphorylation was observed (P = 0.475). During in vitro studies (n = 5), transition from non-contracting tissue to tissue at peak contraction was associated with increased phosphorylation of both h-CaD and ERK 1/2. Furthermore, tissue preserved at relaxation phase exhibited diminished levels of h-CaD and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation compared to tissue preserved at peak contraction, thereby producing a phasic phosphorylation profile for h-CaD and ERK 1/2. h-CaD and ERK 1/2 are phosphorylated during myometrial contractions, however their phospho-regulation is dynamic, in that h-CaD and ERK 1/2 are phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in phase with contraction and relaxation respectively. Comparisons of NIL and L tissue are at risk of failing to detect these changes, as L samples are not necessarily preserved in the midst of an active contraction.

  12. Loss of prostaglandin F2alpha, but not thromboxane, responsiveness in pregnant human myometrium during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Deborah P; Hutchinson, Jonathon A; Farrar, Diane; O'Donovan, Peter J; Woodward, David F; Marshall, Kay M

    2008-04-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) E2, PGF2alpha and thromboxane (TX) mediate uterine contractility by targeting prostonoid EP, FP and TP receptors respectively. The aim of this study was to elucidate the function of these receptors in isolated human myometrium taken at term gestation prior to and following labour onset. Lower segment myometrial strips were immersed in organ baths in oxygenated Krebs' solution at 37 degrees C and connected to isometric force transducers. After equilibration, spontaneous activity and concentration responses to PGE2, PGF2alpha and U46619 (a stable TX mimetic) were measured as area under the curve and expressed as a percentage of the final contraction induced by hypotonic shock. Results were expressed as arithmetic means+/-s.e.m. and analysed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test. Myometrium excised at late gestation displayed the greatest spontaneous activity compared with the tissues taken during labour (Plabour onset. U46619 consistently stimulated concentration-dependent contractions (Plabour-associated disorders.

  13. Poor spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility in human myometrium from postdates pregnancies.

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    Sarah Arrowsmith

    Full Text Available Prolongation of pregnancy i.e. going more than 10 days over the estimated due date, complicates up to 10% of all pregnancies and is associated with increased risk to both mother and fetus. Despite the obvious need for contractions of the uterus to end pregnancy, there have been no studies directly examining the role of uterine smooth muscle, myometrium, in the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. This study tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic contractile characteristics of myometrium taken from women with prolonged pregnancy (>41 weeks and 3 days was reduced compared to those delivering at term (39-41 weeks. We recruited women undergoing Caesarean Section (CS delivery either pre-labour (n = 27 or in labour (n = 66 at term or postdates. The contractile ability of the postdates myometrium, whether spontaneous or elicited by oxytocin or high-K solution, was significantly reduced compared to term myometrium. These differences remained when adjusted for parity and other maternal characteristics. The findings remained significant when expressed per cross sectional area. Histological examination revealed no differences between the two groups. The contractile differences were however related to intracellular Ca transients suggesting an effect of [Ca] on reduced force production in the postdates group. In summary, myometrium from prolonged pregnancies contracts poorly in vitro even when stimulated with oxytocin and in active labour. Responses to high K(+ and measurements of Ca suggest that alterations in excitation contraction coupling, rather than any histological changes of the myometrium, may underlie the differences between term and postdates myometrium. We show that postdates pregnancy is associated with poor myometrial activity and suggest that this may contribute to increased myometrial quiescence and hence, prolonged gestation.

  14. Analysis of Maxi-K alpha subunit splice variants in human myometrium

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    Morrison John J

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (Maxi-K channels are implicated in the modulation of human uterine contractions and myometrial Ca2+ homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanism(s governing the expression of Maxi-K channels with decreased calcium sensitivity at parturition are unclear. The objectives of this study were to investigate mRNA expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, in human non-pregnant and pregnant myometrium, prior to and after labour onset, to determine whether altered expression of these splice variants is associated with decreased calcium sensitivity observed at labour onset. Methods Myometrial biopsies were obtained at hysterectomy (non-pregnant, NP, and at Caesarean section, at elective (pregnant not-in-labour, PNL and intrapartum (pregnant in-labour, PL procedures. RNA was extracted from all biopsies and quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate for possible differential expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, between these functionally-distinct myometrial tissue sets. Results RT-PCR analysis identified the presence of a 132 bp and an 87 bp spliced exon of the Maxi-K alpha subunit in all three myometrial tissue sets. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated a decrease in the expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit with labour onset. While there was no change in the proportion of Maxi-K alpha subunits expressing the 87 bp spliced exon, the proportion of alpha subunits expressing the 132 bp spliced exon was significantly increased with labour onset, compared to both non-pregnant and pregnant not-in-labour tissues. An increased proportion of 132 bp exon-containing alpha subunit variants with labour onset is of interest, as channels expressing this spliced exon have decreased calcium and voltage sensitivities. Conclusions Our findings suggest that decreased Maxi-K alpha subunit mRNA expression in human myometrium at

  15. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor: Binding and phosphoinositide breakdown in human myometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuiller-Fouche, M.; Doualla-Bell Kotto Maka, F.; Geny, B.; Ferre, F. (INSERM U.166 Groupe de recherches sur l' Endocrinologie de la Reproduction, Maternite Baudelocque, Paris (France))

    1991-07-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were examined in both inner and outer layers of human pregnant myometrium using radioligand binding of (3H)prazosin. (3H)prazosin bound rapidly and reversibly to a single class of high affinity binding sites in myometrial membrane preparations. Scatchard analysis gave similar values of equilibrium dissociation constants in both myometrial layers. In contrast, more alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were detected in the outer layer than in the inner layer. Antagonist inhibited (3H)prazosin binding with an order of potency of prazosin greater than phentolamine greater than idazoxan. Competition experiments have also revealed that a stable guanine nucleotide decreases the apparent affinity of norepinephrine for myometrial (3H)prazosin binding sites. The functional status of these alpha-1 adrenergic receptors was also assessed by measuring the norepinephrine-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in myometrial tissue. Norepinephrine produced a concentration-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates in both myometrial layers. However, norepinephrine-induced increases in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate were only observed in the outer layer. These results indicate that alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in human myometrium at the end of pregnancy are linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and that this response occurs mainly in the outer layer.

  16. STIM and Orai isoform expression in pregnant human myometrium: a potential role in calcium signaling during pregnancy.

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    Evonne eChin-Smith

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Store-operated calcium (Ca2+ entry (SOCE can be mediated by two novel proteins, STIM/Orai. We have previously demonstrated that members of the TRPC family, putative basal and store operated calcium entry channels, are present in human myometrium and regulated by labor associated stimuli IL-1β and mechanical stretch. Although STIM and Orai isoforms (1-3 have been reported in other smooth muscle cell types, there is little known about the expression or gestational regulation of STIM and Orai expression in human myometrium. Total RNA was isolated from lower segment human myometrial biopsies obtained at caesarean section from women at the time of preterm no labor (PTNL, preterm labor (PTL, term non-labor (TNL and term with labor (TL; primary cultured human uterine smooth muscle cells, and a human myometrial cell line (hTERT-HM. STIM1-2, and Orai1-3 mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. All five genes were expressed in myometrial tissue and cultured cells. Orai2 was the most abundant Orai isoform in human myometrium. Expression of STIM1-2/Orai1-3 did not alter with the onset of labor. Orai1 mRNA expression in cultured cells was enhanced by IL-1β treatment. This novel report of STIM1-2 and Orai1-3 mRNA expression in pregnant human myometrium and Orai1 regulation by IL-1β indicates a potential role for these proteins in calcium signaling in human myometrium during pregnancy.

  17. Apamin inhibits NO-induced relaxation of the spontaneous contractile activity of the myometrium from non-pregnant women

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    Kleszczewski Tomasz

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is now considerable evidence for the involvement of K+ channels in nitric oxide (NO induced relaxation of smooth muscles including the myometrium. In order to assess whether apamin-sensitive K+ channels play a role in NO – induced relaxation of the human uterus, we have studied the effect of specific blockers of these channels on the relaxation of myometrium from non-pregnant women. In vitro isometric contractions were recorded in uterine tissues from non-pregnant premenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy. Apamin (10 nM and scyllatoxin (10 nM did not alter spontaneous myometrial contractions. However, 15-min pretreatment of the myometrium strips with apamin completely inhibited relaxation caused by diethylamine-nitric oxide (DEA/NO. The pretreatment with scyllatoxin significantly reduced (about 2.6 times maximum relaxation of the strips induced by DEA/NO (p 2+ and voltage dependent charybdotoxin-sensitive (CTX-sensitive K+ channels, apamin-sensitive K+ channels are also present in the human non-pregnant myometrium. These channels offer an additional target in the development of new tocolytic agents.

  18. EFFECTS OF NOVEL PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4 INHIBITORS,ARIFLO AND SB242126A, ON ENDOTHELIN-1-INDUCED CONTRACTILITY OF ISOLATED HUMAN MYOMETRIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hong(祁红); ZHANG Yong(张勇); CHEN Hong-zhuan(陈红专); Marie Jo LEROY; Charles ADVENIER

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of novel selective phosphodiesterase4 ( PDE4) inhibitors,Ariflo and SB242126A, on the endothelin-1 ( ET-1 ) - induced contractility occurring in nonpregnant human myometrium specimens. Methods Contractile responses to Ariflo and SB242126A were recorded cumulatively on isolated human longitudinal myometrium specimens obtained through surgical operations. Results Ariflo and SB242126A could inhibit both the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions of myometrium (pD2 =8.6and 7. 6,n =4) and ET-1-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner (pD2 =7. 7 and 8. 1 ,n =5),with a potency similar to that of Rolipram. Conclusion Ariflo and SB242126A have an obvious inhibitory effect on endothelin-1-induced contractility of isolated human myometrium. The finding suggested that PDE4 inhibitors might have clinical potential in treating preterm labour and dysmenorrhoea.

  19. Expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor component protein (CGRP-RCP) in human myometrium in differing physiological states and following misoprostol administration.

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    Goharkhay, Nina; Lu, Jing; Felix, Juan C; Wing, Deborah A

    2007-09-01

    Our objective was to assess relative expression levels of mRNA for calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor component protein (CGRP-RCP) in human myometrium in various physiological states. Using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we analyzed myometrial samples from 46 women (10 menopausal, 10 nongravid premenopausal, 19 gravidae, and 7 premenopausal misoprostol-treated nongravid women) for the specific expression of CGRP-RCP mRNA. The expression of CGRP-RCP was significantly increased in gravid compared with nongravid myometrium ( P RCP expression were found among the other study groups. We concluded that the increased mRNA expression CGRP-RCP in gravid myometrium supports the possibility of involvement of CGRP in the control of myometrial contractility. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the exact mechanism of action of CGRP and CGRP-RCP in human myometrium.

  20. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and Identification of Its Splice Variant in Human Myometrium Obtained from Women in Labor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yinping; WAN Jingyuan; YE Duyun; WU Ping; HUANG Yanjun; ZHANG Li; ZHOU Xiaoyan; HUANG Yunfeng; YUAN Ping; ZHANG Daijuan

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human lower segments of myometrium obtained from women in labor and those not in labor and identify the splicing variant of COX-2, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of COX-2. The primers were designed and synthesized according to the sequence of rat COX-2 splice variant which was discovered firstly by us. Then the splicing variant of COX-2 in human myometrium from woman in labor was identified, cloned into vector and sequenced. The results showed that the expression of COX-2 mRNA was lower in human myometrium obtained from women who were not in labor than that in labor women and a new band of COX-2 was obtained in myometrium from labor woman. The fragment included an unspliced intron, which pitched between exons 7 and 8. It was suggested that COX-2 gene was not only expressed highly in human myometrium from woman in labor, but also produced splicing variant by alternative splicing.

  1. Expression of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase in human pregnant myometrium and their roles in the control of uterine contractility.

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    Xing-Ji You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human uterus undergoes distinct molecular and functional changes during pregnancy and parturition. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has recently been shown to play a key role in the control of smooth muscle tension. The role of endogenous H(2S produced locally in the control of uterine contractility during labour is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human myometrium biopsies were obtained from pregnant women undergoing cesarean section at term. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE and cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS, the principle enzymes responsible for H(2S generation, were mainly localized to smooth muscle cells of human pregnant myometrium. The mRNA and protein expression of CBS as well as H(2S production rate were down-regulated in labouring tissues compared to nonlabouring tissues. Cumulative administration of L-cysteine (10(-7-10(-2 mol/L, a precursor of H(2S, caused a dose-dependent decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous contractions in nonlabouring and labouring myometrium strips. L-cysteine at high concentration (10(-3 mol/L increased the frequency of spontaneous contractions and induced tonic contraction. These effects of L-cysteine were blocked by the inhibitors of CBS and CSE. Pre-treatment of myometrium strips with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of L-cysteine on spontaneous contraction amplitude. The effects of L-cysteine on the amplitude of spontaneous contractions and baseline muscle tone were less potent in labouring tissues than that in nonlabouring strips. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: H(2S generated by CSE and CBS locally exerts dual effects on the contractility of pregnant myometrium. Expression of H(2S synthetic enzymes is down-regulated during labour, suggesting that H(2S is one of the factors involved in the transition of pregnant uterus from quiescence to contractile state after onset of parturition.

  2. Activin-A and Myostatin Response and Steroid Regulation in Human Myometrium: Disruption of Their Signalling in Uterine Fibroid

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    Bloise, Enrrico; Gray, Peter C.; Carrarelli, Patrizia; Islam, Md. Soriful; De Pascalis, Flavio; Severi, Filiberto Maria; Vale, Wylie; Castellucci, Mario; Petraglia, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Context: Investigation of activin-A (A) and myostatin (M) in human myometrium (HM) and leiomyoma (HL) will explain their involvement in human myometrial pathophysiology. Objective: We aimed to investigate A and M response and steroid regulation in HM. We also evaluated A and M expression and response in HL. Design: Tissues were analyzed and cultured. Patients: Patients included fertile (in proliferative phase) and menopausal women undergoing hysterectomy. Interventions: HM explant cultures were treated with A and M (for Smad-7 mRNA quantification) or estrogen and progesterone (for A and M mRNA quantification). A and M expression levels were also evaluated in menopausal (physiological absence of steroids) HM specimens. A and M and their receptors were evaluated in HL (n = 8, diameter 5–8 cm) compared with their matched HM. HL explants cultures were treated with A and M (for Smad7 mRNA quantification), and, to explain the absence of response, the levels of follistatin, follistatin-related gene (FLRG), and Cripto were evaluated. Results: A and M increased Smad7 expression in HM explants. A and M mRNAs were both reduced after estradiol treatment, unchanged after progesterone treatment, but were higher in menopausal than fertile (in proliferative phase) specimens. A, M, and FLRG were expressed at higher levels in HL compared with adjacent HM, whereas the receptors, follistatin, and Smad7 mRNAs resulted unchanged. Cripto mRNA was expressed only in HL. Conclusions: A and M act on human HM and are regulated by steroids. In HL there is an increase of A, M, FLRG, and Cripto expression. PMID:21177794

  3. Expression of gastrin-releasing peptide is increased by prolonged stretch of human myometrium, and antagonists of its receptor inhibit contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Mark; Cordeaux, Yolande; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Smith, Gordon C S

    2012-05-01

    Increased uterine stretch appears to increase the risk of preterm labour, but the mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify factors that mediate the effect of stretch on human myometrium.Myometrial explants, prepared from biopsies obtained at elective caesarean delivery, were either studied acutely, or were maintained in prolonged culture (up to 65 h) under tension with either a 0.6 g or a 2.4 g mass, and compared using in vitro contractility, whole genome array, and qRT-PCR. Tissue held at tonic stretch with the 2.4 g mass for either 24 or 65 h showed increased potassium chloride (KCl)-induced and oxytocin-induced contractility compared with that held with the 0.6 g mass. Gene array identified 62 differentially expressed transcripts after 65 h exposure to increased stretch. Two probes for gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), a known stimulatory agonist of smooth muscle, were among the top five up-regulated by stretch (3.4-fold and 2.0-fold). Up-regulation of GRP mRNA by stretch was confirmed in a separate series of 10 samples using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) (2.8-fold, P =0.01). GRP stimulated contractions acutely when added to freshly obtained myometrial strips in 2 out of 9 cases, but Western blot demonstrated expression of the GRP receptor in 9 out of a further 9 cases. Prolonged incubation of stretched explants in the GRP antagonists PD-176252 or RC-3095 (65 and 24 h, respectively) significantly reduced KCl- and oxytocin-induced contractility.Tonic stretch of human myometrium increases contractility and stimulates the expression of a known smooth muscle stimulatory agonist, GRP. Incubation of myometrium with GRP receptor antagonists attenuates the effect of stretch. GRP may be a target for novel therapies to reduce the risk of preterm birth in multiple pregnancy.

  4. Slit2 is decreased after spontaneous labour in myometrium and regulates pro-labour mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ratana; Liong, Stella; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth, a global healthcare problem, is commonly associated with inflammation. As Slit2 plays an emerging role in inflammation, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Slit2 on labour mediators in human gestational tissues. Slit2 mRNA and protein expression were assessed using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in foetal membranes and myometrium obtained before and after labour. Slit2 silencing was achieved using siRNA in primary myometrial cells. Pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators were evaluated by qRT-PCR, ELISA and gelatin zymography. Slit2 mRNA and protein expression were found to be significantly lower in myometrium after labour onset. There was no effect of term or preterm labour on Slit2 expression in foetal membranes. Slit2 mRNA expression was decreased in myometrium treated with LPS and IL-1β. Slit2 siRNA in myometrial cells increased IL-1β-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and release (IL-6 and IL-8), COX-2 expression and prostaglandin PGE2 and PGF2α release, and MMP-9 gene expression and pro MMP-9 release. There was no effect of Slit2 siRNA on IL-1β-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. Our results demonstrate that Slit2 is decreased in human myometrium after labour and our knock-down studies describe an anti-inflammatory effect of Slit2 in myometrial cells.

  5. Secretion of estradiol-17beta by porcine endometrium and myometrium during early pregnancy and luteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, A; Kotwica, G

    2008-02-01

    Past studies of the source of estrogens secreted during maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs have focused on embryonic rather than uterine origin of these steroids. The present study documents: (1) the expression of the gene CYP 17, encoding cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C(17-20) lyase and (2) the synthesis and secretion of estradiol-17 beta (E(2)) in endometrial and myometrial tissues in gilts. The expression of CYP 17 gene was shown in porcine endometrium and myometrium. Basal endometrial secretion of E(2) was higher in pregnant gilts than in cyclic gilts (days 14-16). The myometrium secreted more E(2) during the expected time of luteolysis compared to early pregnancy. Basal secretion of E(2) during pregnancy was higher from the endometrium than from the myometrium. Conversely, during luteolysis E(2) secretion was higher from the myometrium and lower from the endometrium. In pregnant and cyclic gilts (days 14-16), progesterone (P(4), 10(-5)M) in vitro significantly increased E(2) secretion regardless of reproductive status. Oxytocin (OT, 10(-7)M) had no influence on E(2) secretion and did not change the stimulatory effect of P(4) in both tissues examined. In conclusions: (1) the CYP 17 gene transcript is present in porcine endometrium and myometrium; (2) porcine endometrium and myometrium release E(2) in vitro; (3) the endometrium releases more E(2) than the myometrium during early pregnancy; (4) the myometrium releases E(2) mainly during luteolysis; (5) the endometrium and myometrium can increase E(2) release in vitro if substrate (P(4)) is provided during early pregnancy and luteolysis. These data suggest active estrogen production by the myometrium and endometrium as an alternative source for this signal for recognition of pregnancy in the pig.

  6. Oxytocin and vasopressin: distinct receptors in myometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, G.; Balestre, M.N.; Roberts, J.M.; Bottari, S.P.

    1987-06-01

    The binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)oxytocin (( /sup 3/H)OT) and (/sup 3/H)lysine vasopressin (( /sup 3/H)LVP) to nonpregnant human myometrium were investigated. Binding of both radioligands was saturable, time dependent, and reversible. Whereas (/sup 3/H)OT was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity (Kd, 1.5 +/- 0.4 (+/- SEM) nM) and low capacity (maximum binding (Bmax), 34 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein), (/sup 3/H)LVP bound to two classes of sites, one with high affinity (Kd, 2.2 +/- 0.1 nM) and low capacity (Bmax, 198 +/- 7 fmol/mg protein) and another with low affinity (Kd, 655 +/- 209 nM) and high capacity (Bmax, 5794 +/- 1616 fmol/mg protein). The binding of the labeled peptides also displayed a marked difference in sensitivity to Mg2+ and guanine nucleotides. These differences in binding characteristics as well as the differences in potency of analogs in competing for (/sup 3/H)OT and (/sup 3/H)LVP binding indicate the presence of distinct receptors for OT and vasopressin in human myometrium. Pharmacological characterization of the high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)LVP indicated that these are of the V1 subtype. Although, as suggested by others, vasopressin and OT can bind to the same sites, the presence of distinct receptors for both peptides provides an explanation for the previously reported difference in myometrial responsiveness to OT and vasopressin.

  7. Excitatory response of rabbit myometrium to nitric oxide in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, H; Matsuoka, I; Ono, T; Okawa, T; Katahira, K; Nakahata, N

    1996-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) at high concentration (approx. 33 microM) produced a marked excitation: increase of tension development or increase in amplitude of spontaneous contraction, in 7 out of 8 rabbit nonpregnant myometrial strips. One case produced an inhibition: disappearance of spontaneous contraction. A latent period of several sec usually preceded the excitation. The response of the myometrium to NO approx. 33 microM associated with remarkable increase in tissue cyclic GMP levels. NO approx. 33 microM reduced an inhibition, in 1 out of 3 myometrial strips taken from ovariectomized rabbits. Two cases produced an excitatory. A precursor of NO, L-Arginine 100 microM or an inhibitor of NO synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine 100 microM also produced a transient weak excitatory response. On the contrary, 8-bromo-cyclic GMP 100 microM produced an inhibition. The excitatory response to NO 33 microM was almost unaffected by pretreatment with indomethacin 10 microM, whereas the spontaneous motility was remarkably depressed. The contractile response of the isolated rabbit myometrium to electrical field stimulation was almost unaffected by the pretreatment with L-arginine 100 microM or NG-nitro-L-arginine 100 microM. The present findings may indicate that NO has inhibitory and excitatory components on the mechanical activity of the rabbit isolated myometrium.

  8. Increased MMPs expression and decreased contraction in the rat myometrium during pregnancy and in response to prolonged stretch and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zongzhi; Sada, Alaa A; Reslan, Ossama M; Narula, Neha; Khalil, Raouf A

    2012-07-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with uterine relaxation to accommodate the stretch imposed by the growing fetus; however, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between pregnancy-associated uterine stretch and uterine relaxation are unclear. We hypothesized that increased uterine stretch during pregnancy is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which in turn cause inhibition of myometrium contraction and promote uterine relaxation. Uteri from virgin, midpregnant (day 12), and late-pregnant rats (day 19) were isolated, and myometrium strips were prepared for measurement of isometric contraction and MMP expression and activity using RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and gelatin zymography. Oxytocin caused concentration-dependent contraction of myometrium strips that was reduced in mid- and late-pregnant rats compared with virgin rats. Pretreatment with the MMP inhibitors SB-3CT (MMP-2/MMP-9 Inhibitor IV), BB-94 (batimastat), or Ro-28-2653 (cipemastat) enhanced contraction in myometrium of pregnant rats. RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and gelatin zymography demonstrated increased mRNA expression, protein amount, and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in myometrium of late-pregnant>midpregnant>virgin rats. Prolonged stretch of myometrium strips of virgin rats under 8 g basal tension for 18 h was associated with reduced contraction and enhanced expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which were reversed by MMP inhibitors. Concomitant treatment of stretched myometrium of virgin rats with 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), or E2+P4 was associated with further reduction in contraction and increased MMP expression and activity. MMP-2 and MMP-9 caused significant reduction of oxytocin-induced contraction of myometrium of virgin rat. Thus, normal pregnancy is associated with reduced myometrium contraction and increased MMPs expression and activity. The results are consistent with the possibility that myometrium stretch and concomitant increase in

  9. A comparison of the contractile properties of myometrium from singleton and twin pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turton

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Over half of twin pregnancies in US and UK deliver prematurely but the reasons for this are unclear. The contractility of myometrium from twin pregnancies has not been directly investigated. The objective of this research was to determine if there are differences in the contractile activity and response to oxytocin, between myometrium from singleton and twin pregnancies, across a range of gestational ages. Furthermore, we wished to determine if contractile activity correlates with increasing level of stretch, using neonatal birth weights as a marker of uterine stretch. METHODS: This was an in vitro, laboratory based study of myometrial contractility in women pregnant with one or two babies, using biopsies obtained from non-labouring women undergoing Caesarean section. Spontaneous, oxytocin-stimulated and depolarization induced contractile activity was compared. RESULTS: Direct measurements of myometrial contractility under controlled conditions show that the frequency of contractions and responses to oxytocin are significantly increased in twins compared to singletons. The duration of contraction however was significantly reduced. We find that contractile activity correlates with increasing levels of stretch, using neonatal birth weights as a surrogate for uterine stretch, with response to oxytocin being significantly positively correlated with birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: We have found significant differences in contractile properties between myometrium from singleton and twin pregnancies and that increasing uterine stretch can alter the contractile properties of myometrium. We discuss the implication of these findings to preterm delivery and future studies.

  10. Proteoglycans in Leiomyoma and Normal Myometrium: Abundance, Steroid Hormone Control, and Implications for Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Nichole M; Carrino, David A; Caplan, Arnold I; Hurd, William W; Liu, James H; Tan, Huiqing; Mesiano, Sam

    2016-03-01

    Uterine leiomyoma are a common benign pelvic tumors composed of modified smooth muscle cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM). The proteoglycan composition of the leiomyoma ECM is thought to affect pathophysiology of the disease. To test this hypothesis, we examined the abundance (by immunoblotting) and expression (by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) of the proteoglycans biglycan, decorin, and versican in leiomyoma and normal myometrium and determined whether expression is affected by steroid hormones and menstrual phase. Leiomyoma and normal myometrium were collected from women (n = 17) undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy. In vitro studies were performed on immortalized leiomyoma (UtLM) and normal myometrial (hTERT-HM) cells with and without exposure to estradiol and progesterone. In leiomyoma tissue, abundance of decorin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were 2.6-fold and 1.4-fold lower, respectively, compared with normal myometrium. Abundance of versican mRNA was not different between matched samples, whereas versican protein was increased 1.8-fold in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. Decorin mRNA was 2.4-fold lower in secretory phase leiomyoma compared with proliferative phase tissue. In UtLM cells, progesterone decreased the abundance of decorin mRNA by 1.3-fold. Lower decorin expression in leiomyoma compared with myometrium may contribute to disease growth and progression. As decorin inhibits the activity of specific growth factors, its reduced level in the leiomyoma cell microenvironment may promote cell proliferation and ECM deposition. Our data suggest that decorin expression in leiomyoma is inhibited by progesterone, which may be a mechanism by which the ovarian steroids affect leiomyoma growth and disease progression.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis--the study on the pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated.

  12. 产妇子宫平滑肌组织中MAPK信号转导通路及CX43表达与产后出血关系的研究%Expression and Significance of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway and Connexin43 in Myometrium of Parturient Women with Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜建英; 黄科华; 刘青闽; 黄晓燕; 徐榕莉; 余爱丽; 邓婷

    2012-01-01

    切相关,提示MAPK信号通路活化受阻和CX43表达降低可能是宫缩乏力性产后出血发病的重要因素之一,两者相互调控共同参与该病的发生发展.%Objective:To investigate the contractility and contract potentiality of myometrium from parturient women with postpartum hemorrhage by uterine atony,and to determine the expression and significance of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and CX43 in the pathogenesis of postpartum hemorrhage ( PPH). Methods:30 parturient with PPH, who presented to Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital for regular prenatal care and parturition from November 2009 to December 2010, were selected as the study group. 30 health parturient at the same period were chosen as control. Isometric tension recording was used to detect the contractility and its potentiality induced by oxytocin. The levels of CX43, phosphorylation of ERKi/2,JNK1/2 and p38MAPK in myometrium of study group and control were determined by western blotting: The mRNA of CX43 was detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results : (1)The spontaneous contractility and frequency of myometriums in the study group were significanctly lower than those of control(P<0.05). The frequency,range ,contractility and potentiality of the constriction induced by oxytocin in study group were lower than those of control( P<0.05, P<0.01). (2) When contractility of 72.66 g · times per hour was chosen as diagnostic point of postpartum hemorrhage by uterine atony , the area under curve of ROC was 0.802. (3)In the study group,the expressions of p-ERK1/2,p-JNK1/2, p-P38,CX43mRNA and their protein levels in myometrium were significantly lower than those of control (P< 0.05). (4)There were positive correlations between the expressions of p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, p-P38, CX43mRNA and the protein levels in myometrium and the contraction activity in both groups(P<0.05). (5) The CX43mRNA levels and its protein quantum were

  13. Application of electron spin resonance for evaluation of the level of free radicals in the myometrium in full-term pregnancy with normal labour and uterine inertia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Zyrianov; A Ye Sumovskaya; A A Shostak

    2003-02-01

    In order to identify and quantify free radicals in the tissues of patients with normal physiological and pathological states of births, we developed a method to evaluate the amount of free radicals in myometrium of subplacental area and from body of uterus, using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the concentration of free radicals in the myometrium in full-term pregnancy with normal labour and during uterine inertia was studied. The activities of Ca2+-ATPase, cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in samples of these tissues were tested too. Low free radical concentrations in these tissues were associated with disturbances in contractile activity of myometrium along with reduction of Ca2+-ATPase, cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase activity. There proved to be an association between the level of free radicals in the tissues and alteration in the physiological processes.

  14. Effects of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on rat myometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-gang; ZHOU Liang; TANG Hui-fang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on the contractility of isolated uterine muscle strips from pregnant and non-pregnant female rats. Methods: Full-thick myometrial strips were prepared from 18- to 21-day pregnant (n=g) and non-pregnant rats (n=7). After contractions became regular, strips were exposed to cumulative concentrations of the two drugs from 10-8 to 10-4 mol/L, amplitude and frequency of the uterine contraction was recorded. Results: Two local anesthetics caused a concentration dependent inhibition on contractility of myometrial strips from pregnant and non-pregnant rats. In the myometrium from non-pregnant rats, -logIC50 of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were 4.85 and 4.25 respectively. In the myometrium from pregnant rats, similar concentrations of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were observed, -logIC50 were 2.7 and 2.9respectively. Levobupivacaine produced an increase in amplitude of contractions, while bupivacaine showed an increased trend in frequency. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that levobupivacaine and bupivacaine may inhibit myometrium contractility.The inhibitory effect of levobupivacaine or bupivacaine is not enhanced by gestation in rat. Levobupivacaine may have more positive influence than bupivacaine in pregnant myometrium.

  15. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  16. Estradiol inhibits Ca2+ and K+ channels in smooth muscle cells from pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, K; Inoue, Y; Soeda, H

    1999-07-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actions of 17beta-estradiol on the electrical activity of pregnant rat myometrium. The longitudinal layer of the myometrium was dissected from pregnant rats (17 to 19 days of gestation), and single cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion. Calcium currents and potassium currents were recorded by the whole-cell voltage-clamp method, and the single calcium-dependent potassium current was recorded by the outside-out patch-clamp method. The effects of 17beta-estradiol on these currents were investigated. When a myometrial cell was held at -50 mV, depolarization to a potential more positive than -30 mV produced an inward current followed by a slowly developing outward current. Application of tetraethylammonium inhibited the outward current while the inward current was completely abolished in a calcium-free solution. Estradiol at high concentrations (> 3 microM) inhibited both inward and outward currents in a voltage-dependent manner. Removal of estradiol restored the amplitude of the outward but not of the inward current. Estradiol (30 microM) also inhibited the activity of single calcium-dependent potassium channels without changing single channel conductance. In conclusion, estradiol at high concentrations inhibited: (1) voltage-dependent calcium, (2) calcium-dependent potassium and (3) voltage-dependent potassium currents. These actions of estradiol would prevent action potential generation and after-hyperpolarizations. Suppression of the after-hyperpolarization might further prevent spike generation due to slowing of the calcium channel's recovery from the inactivated state.

  17. The oestrogenized rat myometrium inhibits organotypic sympathetic reinnervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, M M; Chávez-Genaro, R; Richeri, A; Viettro, L; Frias, A I; Burnstock, G; Cowen, T

    2002-10-31

    Chronic administration of oestrogen to rats during the infantile/prepubertal period provokes, at 28 days of age, complete loss of noradrenaline-labelled intrauterine sympathetic nerves. It is not known whether oestrogen inhibits the growth or causes the degeneration of developing uterine sympathetic nerves, or whether the uterus recovers its innervation following cessation of infantile/prepubertal oestrogen treatment. In the present study, we analysed the time-course of the effects of oestrogen on the development of uterine sympathetic nerves in the rat, using histochemical methods. In addition, the pattern of sympathetic reinnervation of the uterus of intact and ovariectomised females was assessed 3 and 6 months after cessation of chronic oestrogen treatment. The ability of sympathetic nerves to reinnervate the oestrogenized uterine tissue was assessed in intraocular transplants of uterine myometrium into ovariectomised host rats. Early exposure to oestrogen did not inhibit the approach of sympathetic nerves to the uterus, but prevented the normal growth and maturation of intrauterine sympathetic fibres and abolished the innervation that reached the organ before initiation of treatment. Three or six months following cessation of oestrogen treatment, most of the sympathetic nerves were restricted to the mesometrium and mesometrial entrance, whereas intrauterine innervation remained persistently depressed as a consequence of a sustained oestrous-like state provoked by ovarian dysfunction (polycystic ovary). An organotypic regrowth of uterine sympathetic nerves was observed in ovariectomised infantile/prepubertal oestrogen-treated animals. After 5 weeks in oculo, the innervation of oestrogenized myometrial transplants was reduced by 50%, and substantial changes in the pattern of reinnervation were observed. In control transplants, 86% of the nerves were terminal varicose myometrial and perivascular nerve fibres, whereas 14% were preterminal nerve bundles. In

  18. Mechanical stretch regulates hypertrophic phenotype of the myometrium during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Kwong, Ruth; Lye, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    The adaptive growth of the uterus is a critical event that involves changes in cellular phenotypes throughout pregnancy. In early pregnancy, uterine growth is due to hyperplasia of uterine smooth muscle cells (SMCs) within the myometrium; however, the major component of myometrial growth occurs after mid-gestation. This study sought to test the hypothesis that increase in myometrial growth seen during late pregnancy is due to SMC hypertrophy caused by mechanical stretch of uterine tissue by a growing fetus(es) by providing direct measurements of individual SMC size. We employed a stereological approach to calculate the average cell volumes of uterine myocytes through diameter measurements using the Stereoinvestigator statistical software. Uterine tissues were collected from nonpregnant Wistar rats, as well as from gravid and nongravid horns of unilaterally pregnant animals on gestational days (d) 8 (early gestation), 14 (mid-gestation), 19 (late gestation), 22 (term), and 4 days post partum. Anti-caveolin-1 immunostaining was used to clearly delineate SMC boundaries. The stereological analysis revealed that the dramatic increase in myometrial growth seen during late gestation (d19-22) is due to a threefold increase in the size of uterine myocytes. A significant increase in SMC volumes was detected in the gravid uterine horn as compared with the corresponding empty horn of unilateral term pregnant animals (day 22, mean cell volume 1114 vs 361 microm(3), P<0.05), indicating the effect of uterine occupancy. The restriction of the hypertrophy to cells within the gravid horn suggests that it may be a response to the biological mechanical stretch of uterine walls by the growing fetus(es) and placenta(s).

  19. Effects of Homocysteine on Spontaneous Contractility of Pregnant Guinea-Pig Myometrium

    OpenAIRE

    Ayar, Ahmet; TUĞ, Niyazi; ÇELİK, Hüsnü; ÖZCAN, Mete

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of homocysteine on spontaneous contractions of guinea pig myometrium. Material and method: Full thickness myometrium strips were obtained from late-pregnant guinea pigs following decapitation and suspended in an isolated organ bath which was filled with physiological salt solution at pH 7.4 maintained at 37°C and continuously bubbled with 95 CO2 %-%5 O2. After manifestation of spontaneous contractions under one gram of restin...

  20. General human activity patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  1. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  2. Validation of housekeeping genes for studying differential gene expression in the bovine myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Kowalik, Magdalena K; Kotwica, Jan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the steady-state expression of 13 selected housekeeping genes in the myometrium of cyclic and pregnant cows. Cells taken from bovine myometrium on days 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-20 of the oestrous cycle and in weeks 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12 of pregnancy were used. Reverse transcribed RNA was amplified in real-time PCR using designed primers. Reaction efficiency was determined with the Linreg programme. The geNorm and NormFinder programmes were used to select the best housekeeping genes. They calculate the expression stability factor for each used housekeeping gene with the smallest value for most stably expressed genes. According to geNorm, the most stable housekeeping genes in the myometrium were C2orf29, TPB and TUBB2B, while the least stably expressed genes were 18S RNA, HPRT1 and GAPDH. NormFinder identified the best genes in the myometrium as C2orf29, MRPL12 and TBP, while the worst genes were 18S RNA, B2M and SF3A1. Differences in stability factors between the two programmes may also indicate that the physiological status of the female, e.g. pregnancy, affects the stability of expression of housekeeping genes. The different expression stability of housekeeping genes did not affect progesterone receptor expression but it could be important if small differences in gene expression were measured between studies.

  3. Terms, definitions and measurements to describe sonographic features of myometrium and uterine masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Bosch, Thierry; Dueholm, Margit; Leone, FP

    2015-01-01

    The MUSA (Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment) statement is a consensus statement on terms, definitions and measurements that may be used to describe and report the sonographic features of the myometrium using gray-scale sonography, color/power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound...

  4. Functional expression of purinergic P2X7 receptors in pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Kaoru; Urabe, Satoshi; Kodama, Miho; Kudo, Yoshiki

    2010-04-01

    ATP has been reported to enhance the membrane conductance of myometrial cells and uterine contractility. Purinergic P2 receptor expression has been reported in the myometrium, using molecular biology, but the functional identity of the receptor subtype has not been determined. In this study, ATP-induced currents were recorded and characterized in single myometrial cells from pregnant rats using whole cell patch clamping. Extracellular ATP was applied in the range of 10 muM-1 mM and induced currents with an EC(50) of 74 muM, with no desensitization, time dependency, or voltage dependency. The currents induced carried multiple monovalent cations, with conductances ranked as K(+) > Cs(+) > Li(+) > Na(+). They were activated by P2X receptor agonists, with their effectiveness ranked as 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP > ATP > alphabeta-methylene-ATP > 2-methylthio ATP > or = UTP > or = GTP > ADP. These currents were blocked by the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist 3-[5-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1 H-tetrazol-1-yl]methyl pyridine (A-438079). We therefore concluded that ATP-induced currents in rat myometrial cells crossed cell membranes via P2X7 receptors. We further showed that the ATP-induced currents were blocked by extracellular Mg(2+) (IC(50) = 0.26 mM). Clinically, administering extracellular Mg(2+) is known to inhibit uterine contraction. It therefore seems likely that uterine contraction may be induced by raised extracellular ATP and suppressed via Mg(2+) inhibiting P2X7 receptors. Further research is needed into the P2X7 receptor as a therapeutic target in abnormal uterine contraction, as a possible treatment for premature labor.

  5. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis–the study on the pig model

    OpenAIRE

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; KOTWICA, Genowefa

    2014-01-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation peri...

  7. Phasic oscillations of extracellular potassium (K(o in pregnant rat myometrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger C Young

    Full Text Available K-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure K(+ within the extracellular space (K(o of pregnant rat myometrium. Contractile activity was monitored by measuring either force or bioelectrical signals. Single and double-barreled electrodes were used. Double-barreled electrodes allowed monitoring of electrical activity 15 microns from the site of K(o measurement. From double-barreled electrode experiments, the bioelectrical burst started first, and then K(o began to rise 0.6 ± 0.1 seconds later. This delay indicates that K(+ leaves the cells in response to local electrical activity rather than vice versa. Four control experiments were performed to assess the influence of electrical artifacts caused by tissue motion on K(o values. When observed, artifacts were negative and transient, and hence would result in an underestimation of K(o rises. Artifacts were minimized when tissue motion was minimized by fixing the tissue at both ends. At 37°C, 7 single barreled experiments and 45 contractions were analyzed. Resting K(o was within 1 mM of bath K(+ (5 mM at the beginning and end of the experiments. K(o rose during the contraction, fell after the completion of the contraction, and normalized before the next contraction began. Peak K(o values observed during force production were 18.8 ± 5.9 mM, a value high enough to modulate tissue-level electrical activity. K(o required 15.7 ± 2.8 seconds to normalize halfway (t50. Six experiments expressing 38 contractions were performed at 24°C. The contraction period was longer at 24°C. Values for peak K(o (26.2 ± 9.9 mM and t50 (29.8±16.2 sec were both larger than at 37°C (p<0.0003 for both. The direct relationships between peak K(o, t50 and the contraction period, suggest elevations in K(o may modulate contraction frequency. The myometrial interstitial space appears to be functionally important, and K(o metabolism may participate in cell-cell interactions.

  8. Methanol extracts of Hamelia patens containing oxindole alkaloids relax KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Rivera, Jesús; Oropeza, Martha; Mendoza, Pilar; Amekraz, Badia; Jankowski, Christopher; Campos, Maria

    2004-10-01

    Hamelia patens JAQC. (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal bush widely distributed in tropical areas of the American continent. It is used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the treatment of menstrual disorders, therefore suggesting that its chemical constituents may have some effect on myometrium contractility. Physiological effects might differ due to quantitative variations in the content of alkaloids arising from its wide geographical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the content of oxindole alkaloids in methanol extracts of five different samples collected in Mexico was quantified by GC-MS. Each extract was assayed on contractility of estrogen-primed rat myometrium. Variations in the content of alkaloids were observed among the different samples. All samples relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner the high KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium. Those which lack rumberine and/or maruquine displayed a higher relaxant effect than samples containing them, suggesting that these alkaloids might counteract the effects of isopteropodine. However, in contrast with verapamil, Hamelia patens metanol extracts are poor relaxants.

  9. Growth factors and myometrium: biological effects in uterine fibroid and possible clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Islam, Md. Soriful; Reis, Fernando M.; Gray, Peter C.; Bloise, Enrrico; Petraglia, Felice; Vale, Wylie; Castellucci, Mario

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Growth factors are proteins secreted by a number of cell types that are capable of modulating cellular growth, proliferation and cellular differentiation. It is well accepted that uterine cellular events such as proliferation and differentiation are regulated by sex steroids and their actions in target tissues are mediated by local production of growth factors acting through paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. Myometrial mass is ultimately modified in pregnancy as well as in tumour conditions such as leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are benign tumours of the uterus, considered to be one of the most frequent causes of infertility in reproductive years in women. METHODS For this review, we searched the database MEDLINE and Google Scholar for articles with content related to growth factors acting on myometrium; the findings are hereby reviewed and discussed. RESULTS Different growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and TGF-β perform actions in myometrium and in leiomyomas. In addition to these growth factors, activin and myostatin have been recently identified in myometrium and leiomyoma. CONCLUSIONS Growth factors play an important role in the mechanisms involved in myometrial patho-physiology. PMID:21788281

  10. Estrogen-induced collagen reorientation correlates with sympathetic denervation of the rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G F; Bianchimano, P; Brauer, M M

    2016-12-01

    Estrogen inhibits the growth and causes the degeneration (pruning) of sympathetic nerves supplying the rat myometrium. Previous cryoculture studies evidenced that substrate-bound signals contribute to diminish the ability of the estrogenized myometrium to support sympathetic nerve growth. Using electron microscopy, here we examined neurite-substrate interactions in myometrial cryocultures, observing that neurites grew associated to collagen fibrils present in the surface of the underlying cryosection. In addition, we assessed quantitatively the effects of estrogen on myometrial collagen organization in situ, using ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen and immature females undergoing puberty. Under low estrogen levels, most collagen fibrils were oriented in parallel to the muscle long axis (83% and 85%, respectively). Following estrogen treatment, 89% of fibrils was oriented perpendicularly to the muscle main axis; while after puberty, 57% of fibrils acquired this orientation. Immunohistochemistry combined with histology revealed that the vast majority of fine sympathetic nerve fibers supplying the myometrium courses within the areas where collagen realignment was observed. Finally, to assess whether depending on their orientation collagen fibrils can promote or inhibit neurite outgrowth, we employed cryocultures, now using as substrate tissue sections of rat-tail tendon. We observed that neurites grew extensively in the direction of the parallel-aligned collagen fibrils in the tendon main axis but were inhibited to grow perpendicularly to this axis. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that collagen reorientation may be one of the factors contributing to diminish the neuritogenic capacity of the estrogen-primed myometrial substrate.

  11. Pollen indicators of human activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YiYin; ZHOU LiPing; CUI HaiTing

    2008-01-01

    The study of past human activities and their environmental effect is high in the agenda of global change research. A record of pollen assemblages is one of the most common proxies employed for detecting the impact of human activities on the landscape. In this review, we provide a summary and discussion on the recent progress on the use of pollen as indicators of human activity. For most of the studies related to human impact, the following features have been focused on: (1) decline of certain tree pollen; (2) flourishing of pioneer plant pollen; (3) concomitant occurrence of cereal-type pollen and cropland weed pollen; (4) abrupt changes in pollen concentration and richness; and (5) occurrence of nitrophilous plants and pastoral weed. Pollen of anthropogenic plants (weeds and cereal-type plants) is ideal indicators of human activities. Different types of human activities will result in different pollen assem-blages. Patterns of human-impacted pollen spectra would vary between forested areas and grassland. In the study of human impact with pollen data, high resolution in both time and space must be consid-ered. High resolution in space will help to inform the complexity of the landscape. More importantly, it can help to reveal the interference of human activities on the landscape, hence avoiding the bias cre-ated by the limited data points. Fine resolution in time will make accurate recording of short-lived events possible, hence avoiding the exclusion of events related to human activities. The combination of palynology with other proxies will help to decipher more accurately landscape changes through time. Charcoal is a particularly useful proxy for recording the disturbance of humans on vegetation. Its peak values usually occur with pronounced drop of tree pollen and significant rise of anthropogenic pollen.

  12. Human neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Lehrer, R I; Rest, R F

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) take up opsonized microorganisms into phagosomes that fuse with secretory granules in the PMN cytoplasm to form phagolysosomes. Killing and digestion of microorganisms take place within phagolysosomes. Antimicrobial activities in phagolysosomes are divided into two classes. Oxygen (O2)-dependent mechanisms are expressed when PMNs undergo the "respiratory burst." An NADPH oxidase in the phagolysosome membrane is activated and reduces O2 to superoxide (O2-). O2 reduction is the first step in a series of reactions that produce toxic oxidants. For example, .O2- dismutases to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the azurophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of Cl- by H2O2 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The reaction of HOCl with ammonia and amines modulates the toxicity of this oxidant. O2-independent antimicrobial mechanisms include the activities of lysosomal proteases, other hydrolytic enzymes, and proteins and peptides that bind to microorganisms and disrupt essential processes or structural components. For example, the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, cathepsin G, and the defensins are released into phagolysosomes from the azurophil granules. Proposed mechanisms of action of neutrophil antimicrobial agents, their range of microbial targets, and their possible interactions within phagolysosomes are discussed.

  13. Interobserver variation in measurements of Cesarean scar defect and myometrium with 3D ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Duch; Glavind, Julie; Uldbjerg, Niels;

    -16 months after their first Cesarean section with 2D transvaginal sonography and had 3D volumes recorded. Two observers independently evaluated “off-line” each of the 3D volumes stored. Residual myometrial thickness (RMT) and Cesarean scar defect depth (D) was measured in the sagittal plane with an interval...... of Cesarean section scar size and residual myometrium needs further investigation.......Objectives: To evaluate the Cesarean scar defect depth and the residual myometrial thickness with 3-dimensional (3D) sonography concerning interobserver variation. Methods: Ten women were randomly selected from a larger cohort of Cesarean scar ultrasound evaluations. All women were examined 6...

  14. Retracted: Differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The above article, published online on 20 December 2007 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Professor L Popescu and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been requested by the University of Florida, Office of Research, in response to their investigation which concluded fabrication of data in Figures 2, 3 and 4. Reference Pan Q, Luo X, Chegini N. Retracted: differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids. J Cell Mol Med 12: 227-240. Doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00207.x.

  15. Amylase activity in human bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L A; Joffe, S N; McIntosh, W; Brodie, M J

    1979-03-01

    The mean amylase level in 42 human bile samples was 154 IU/l and there was no significant difference in the amylase activity of 32 paired serum and bile samples. Estimation of the amylase thermolability of bile showed it to be similar to that of serum. This suggests that the amylase activity in bile may have filtered through the liver from the hepatic circulation rather than refluxed from the pancreatic duct. The presence of amylase in human bile provides further evidence that the liver might have a role in the regulation of serum amylase.

  16. INPO Assistance Activities: Human Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, J.T.

    1999-11-14

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) has a number of ongoing activities designed to provide assistance to our members in the human resources area. These include the Educational Assistance Program and the ongoing facilitation of information exchange through Nuclear Network and INPO publications. INPO will continue to seek ways to assist its member utilities.

  17. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  18. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  19. Physiological Uptake of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in Uterine Endometrium and Myometrium: Correlation with Uterine Motility Evaluated by Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, A.; Nishizawa, S.; Okada, H. (Hamamatsu Medical Imaging Center, Hamamatsu Medical Photonics Foundation, Hamakita City, Shizuoka (Japan)); Nakamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Fujimoto, K.; Togashi, K. Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyoto Univ. Hospital, Kyoto City, Kyoto (Japan))

    2009-05-15

    Background: Accumulation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the uterine endometrium and uterine motility are dependent on menstrual cycle. However, the relationship between them remains unknown. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between radiometabolic activity of 18F-FDG in the uterus and uterine motility observed by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 65 healthy, fertile women, selected from 229 women who underwent positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), and MRI for cancer screening at our facility. They were divided into three groups according to their menstrual cycle phases: menstrual, follicular-periovulatory, and luteal. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed over the endometrium and myometrium to calculate the standardized uptake value (SUV). Uterine peristalsis and contraction shown by cine MR imaging were evaluated visually, and the correlation between FDG uptake and uterine movements was assessed. Results: After excluding nine patients due to inadequate images, 56 patients (19 follicular-periovulatory, 27 luteal, and 10 menstrual) were analyzed. FDG uptake of the endometrium, frequency of peristalsis, and the presence of sustained contraction varied according to the menstruation cycle, with a tendency toward greater uptake in the menstrual phase, but there was little relationship between the frequency of uterine peristalsis and FDG accumulation in the uterus. Significantly higher FDG accumulation in the endometrium was observed in patients with sustained contractions (3.32+-1.47) than in those without contractions (2.45+-0.66). Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that FDG accumulation in the endometrium tends to be higher in patients with uterine contraction, although there was no significant correlation between uterine peristalsis and FDG uptake in the uterine myometrium or endometrium

  20. SERPINE2, an inhibitor of plasminogen activators, is highly expressed in the human endometrium during the secretory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwu Yuh-Ming

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SERPINE2, also known as protease nexin-1, belongs to the serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN superfamily. It is one of the potent SERPINs that modulates the activity of plasminogen activators (PAs. PAs and their SERPIN inhibitors, such as SERPINB2 and SERPINE1, were expressed in the human endometrium and were implicated in implantation. However, expression data about SERPINE2 in the human endometrium is still unknown. Thus, we conducted an investigation to reveal the spatiotemporal and cellular expression of SERPINE2 in the human uterus during the menstrual cycle. Methods Seven patients who underwent a hysterectomy and samples of 120 archived patients' endometrial curettage or parts of the uterus that were formalin-fixed and embedded in paraffin. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the antibody. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to localize the SERPINE2 expression site. Quantitative analysis was conducted to evaluate expression levels of SERPINE2 in various sub-phases of the menstrual cycle. Results The SERPINE2 protein was primarily detected in the uterine fluid during the mid- and late-secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. It was predominantly expressed in the luminal and glandular epithelium, less in the myometrium, and only dispersedly in certain stromal cells throughout the menstrual cycle. A quantitative analysis of expression levels of SERPINE2 in the glandular epithelium revealed that it was highly expressed in the endometrium during the secretory phase compared to the proliferative phase. Conclusions The SERPINE2 protein is highly expressed in the endometrium during the secretory phase, indicating that it may participate in tissue remodeling involved in implantation.

  1. Telomerase activity in human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, J.

    2000-10-01

    The overall goal of this collaborative project was to investigate the role in malignant cells of both chromosome telomeres, and telomerase, the enzyme that replicates telomeres. Telomeres are highly conserved nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of eucaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length in somatic cells is reduced by 40--50 nucleotide pairs with every cell division due to incomplete replication of terminal DNA sequences and the absence of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein that adds telomere DNA to chromosome ends. Although telomerase is active in cells with extended proliferative capacities, including more than 85% of tumors, work performed under this contract demonstrated that the telomeres of human cancer cells are shorter than those of paired normal cells, and that the length of the telomeres is characteristic of particular types of cancers. The extent of telomere shortening ostensibly is related to the number of cell divisions the tumor has undergone. It is believed that ongoing cell proliferation leads to the accumulation and fixation of new mutations in tumor cell lineages.Therefore, it is not unreasonable to assume that the degree of phenotypic variability is related to the proliferative history of the tumor, and therefore to telomere length, implying a correlation with prognosis. In some human tumors, short telomeres are also correlated with genomic instabilities, including interstitial chromosome translocation, loss of heterozygosity, and aneuoploidy. Moreover, unprotected chromosome ends are highly recombinogenic and telomere shortening in cultured human cells correlates with the formation of dicentric chromosomes, suggesting that critically short telomeres not only identify, but also predispose, cells to genomic instability, again implying a correlation with prognosis. Therefore, telomere length or content could be an important predictor of metastatic potential or responsiveness to various therapeutic modalities.

  2. Expression of the small conductance Ca²⁺-activated potassium channel subtype 3 (SK3 in rat uterus after stimulation with 17β-estradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Rahbek

    Full Text Available Preterm births accounts for roughly 9% of all births worldwide and can have detrimental or even lethal consequences for the infant. However to develop new treatment that will lower the rate of preterm births, more knowledge is required on the factors contributing to the contraction and relaxation of the myometrium. The small conductance Ca²⁺-activated potassium channel subtype 3 (SK3 has been identified in the myometrium of several species including humans, mice and rats, but with great inter species variation of the expression pattern and regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SK3 in the uterus of rats stimulated with 17β-estradiol and progesterone in order to get an in depth understanding of the rat uterine SK3. Using immunohistochemistry SK3 was localized to the glandular and luminal endometrial lamina epitheliali. Furthermore, a weak signal was observed in the myometrium. Using Western blot the protein level of SK3 was found to increase in uteri from animals treated with 17β-estradiol, an effect that was not reflected at the mRNA level. The levels of mRNA for SK3 were significantly lower in the uterus of 17β-estradiol-treated animals than in the uterus of ovariectomized animals. We conclude that the SK channels are present in the endometrial epithelium, and possibly also in the myometrium of the rat uterus. Furthermore, the hormonal effect on SK3 caused by 17β-estradiol includes divergent regulation at mRNA and protein levels.

  3. Regional and muscle layer variations in cholinergic nerve control of the rat myometrium during the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdeau, Eric; Rossano, Bernadette; Prud'homme, Marie-Jeanne

    2003-02-28

    To determine regional and muscle layer differences in the cholinergic nerve control of uterine activity, functional and immunohistochemical experiments were carried out on the cervix, and circular and longitudinal muscle from the caudal and rostral uterine horn in cyclic rats. During oestrus, in vitro electrical field stimulation evoked contractions in the cervix and myometrium of the caudal horn, predominantly in circular muscle layer. All evoked responses were tetrodotoxin-sensitive and completely abolished by atropine, thus were cholinergic nerve-mediated. In contrast, no electrical field stimulation-induced contraction occurred in either the circular or longitudinal muscle from the rostral uterus. Concentration-response curves for carbachol showed that muscarinic receptor-mediated contractions occurred in all uterine regions and muscle layers during oestrus. Immunohistochemistry for the cholinergic nerve marker, vesicular acetylcholine transporter showed that the predominance of the acetylcholine-dependent contractions in circular muscle preparations were related to a layer-specific distribution of cholinergic nerve fibres, abundant in the circular muscle but scarce in the longitudinal muscle layer. In addition, the absence of electrical field stimulation-evoked acetylcholine-dependent contractions in the rostral uterus was correlated to a marked decrease in the density of cholinergic fibres along the caudo-rostral axis of the organ. In the uterus from diestrus rats, contractions were not elicited in response to electrical field stimulation in the cervix and circular or longitudinal muscle from the caudal as well as rostral uterine horn. Addition of cumulative doses of carbachol failed to increase in a concentration-dependent manner the frequency and amplitude of contractions in the cervix and myometrial layers from either the caudal and rostral uterine horn. The distribution and density of cholinergic nerve fibres along the uterus and between the muscle layers

  4. Complement activation in experimental human malaria infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roestenberg, M.; McCall, M.B.B.; Mollnes, T.E.; Deuren, M. van; Sprong, T.; Klasen, I.S.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate complement activation in uncomplicated, early phases of human malaria. Fifteen healthy volunteers were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Parasitemia and complement activation products were assessed. During blood stage parasitem

  5. Hemeoxygenase-1 inhibits human myometrial contractility via carbon monoxide and is upregulated by progesterone during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, C H; Ahmed, A

    1998-03-01

    Nitric oxide was proposed as an endogenous inhibitor of myometrial contractility during pregnancy. Carbon monoxide (CO) like nitric oxide increases cGMP and is generated during the degradation of heme to biliverdin IX by hemeoxygenases (HO). Here we report that the expression of both HO-1 (inducible) and HO-2 (constitutive) were > 15-fold higher in pregnant myometrium compared to nonpregnant myometrium (n = 4, P synthesis (n = 4, P tin protoporphyrin IX (20 microM). This study clearly demonstrates the expression of HO in the human myometrium and shows that its induction produces CO that limits uterine contractility in pregnant myometrium indicating a role for the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in the maintenance of the quiescent state of the uterus during pregnancy.

  6. Hemeoxygenase-1 inhibits human myometrial contractility via carbon monoxide and is upregulated by progesterone during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, C H; Ahmed, A

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide was proposed as an endogenous inhibitor of myometrial contractility during pregnancy. Carbon monoxide (CO) like nitric oxide increases cGMP and is generated during the degradation of heme to biliverdin IX by hemeoxygenases (HO). Here we report that the expression of both HO-1 (inducible) and HO-2 (constitutive) were > 15-fold higher in pregnant myometrium compared to nonpregnant myometrium (n = 4, P < 0.001, P < 0.005, respectively). Moreover, the activation of the HO-CO pathway ...

  7. Human filarial Wolbachia lipopeptide directly activates human neutrophils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarozzi, F; Wright, H L; Johnston, K L; Edwards, S W; Turner, J D; Taylor, M J

    2014-10-01

    The host inflammatory response to the Onchocerca volvulus endosymbiont, Wolbachia, is a major contributing factor in the development of chronic pathology in humans (onchocerciasis/river blindness). Recently, the toll-like pattern recognition receptor motif of the major inflammatory ligands of filarial Wolbachia, membrane-associated diacylated lipoproteins, was functionally defined in murine models of pathology, including mediation of neutrophil recruitment to the cornea. However, the extent to which human neutrophils can be activated in response to this Wolbachia pattern recognition motif is not known. Therefore, the responses of purified peripheral blood human neutrophils to a synthetic N-terminal diacylated lipopeptide (WoLP) of filarial Wolbachia peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) were characterized. WoLP exposure led to a dose-dependent activation of healthy, human neutrophils that included gross morphological alterations and modulation of surface expressed integrins involved in tethering, rolling and extravasation. WoLP exposure induced chemotaxis but not chemokinesis of neutrophils, and secretion of the major neutrophil chemokine, interleukin 8. WoLP also induced and primed the respiratory burst, and enhanced neutrophil survival by delay of apoptosis. These results indicate that the major inflammatory motif of filarial Wolbachia lipoproteins directly activates human neutrophils in vitro and promotes a molecular pathway by which human neutrophils are recruited to sites of Onchocerca parasitism.

  8. Sodium leak channel, non-selective contributes to the leak current in human myometrial smooth muscle cells from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinl, Erin L; Cabeza, Rafael; Gregory, Ismail A; Cahill, Alison G; England, Sarah K

    2015-10-01

    Uterine contractions are tightly regulated by the electrical activity of myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs). These cells require a depolarizing current to initiate Ca(2+) influx and induce contraction. Cationic leak channels, which permit a steady flow of cations into a cell, are known to cause membrane depolarization in many tissue types. Previously, a Gd(3+)-sensitive, Na(+)-dependent leak current was identified in the rat myometrium, but the presence of such a current in human MSMCs and the specific ion channel conducting this current was unknown. Here, we report the presence of a Na(+)-dependent leak current in human myometrium and demonstrate that the Na(+)-leak channel, NALCN, contributes to this current. We performed whole-cell voltage-clamp on fresh and cultured MSMCs from uterine biopsies of term, non-laboring women and isolated the leak currents by using Ca(2+) and K(+) channel blockers in the bath solution. Ohmic leak currents were identified in freshly isolated and cultured MSMCs with normalized conductances of 14.6 pS/pF and 10.0 pS/pF, respectively. The myometrial leak current was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) by treating cells with 10 μM Gd(3+) or by superfusing the cells with a Na(+)-free extracellular solution. Reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblot analysis of uterine biopsies from term, non-laboring women revealed NALCN messenger RNA and protein expression in the myometrium. Notably, ∼90% knockdown of NALCN protein expression with lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced the Gd(3+)-sensitive leak current density by 42% (P < 0.05). Our results reveal that NALCN, in part, generates the leak current in MSMCs and provide the basis for future research assessing NALCN as a potential molecular target for modulating uterine excitability.

  9. Deep Human Parsing with Active Template Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaodan; Liu, Si; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Liu, Luoqi; Dong, Jian; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the human parsing task, namely decomposing a human image into semantic fashion/body regions, is formulated as an active template regression (ATR) problem, where the normalized mask of each fashion/body item is expressed as the linear combination of the learned mask templates, and then morphed to a more precise mask with the active shape parameters, including position, scale and visibility of each semantic region. The mask template coefficients and the active shape parameters together can generate the human parsing results, and are thus called the structure outputs for human parsing. The deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is utilized to build the end-to-end relation between the input human image and the structure outputs for human parsing. More specifically, the structure outputs are predicted by two separate networks. The first CNN network is with max-pooling, and designed to predict the template coefficients for each label mask, while the second CNN network is without max-pooling to preserve sensitivity to label mask position and accurately predict the active shape parameters. For a new image, the structure outputs of the two networks are fused to generate the probability of each label for each pixel, and super-pixel smoothing is finally used to refine the human parsing result. Comprehensive evaluations on a large dataset well demonstrate the significant superiority of the ATR framework over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F1-score reaches 64.38 percent by our ATR framework, significantly higher than 44.76 percent based on the state-of-the-art algorithm [28].

  10. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jens C; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-06-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species.

  11. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  12. Effect of high-fat diet on rat myometrium during pregnancy-isolated myometrial mitochondria are not affected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin Folke; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    ) a regular chow diet, (2) a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet, or (3) a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet (n = 10 in each group). On day 20 of gestation, corresponding to term pregnancy, total hysterectomy was performed with subsequent examination of the function and morphology of myometrial mitochondria. Body...... not been explored. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity prior to and during gestation affects oxidative capacity and/or morphology of mitochondria in the myometrium at term in an animal model. Rat dams were fed for 47 days prior to impregnation and during gestation with either (1...... composition was regularly assessed by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, and blood sampling was done prior to diet assignment, impregnation, and hysterectomy. Dams on the high-fat low-carbohydrate diet achieved higher fat percentage compared to rats on the regular chow diet (p 

  13. Clouds caused by human activities: the anthropoclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, Jordi; Costa, Marcel; Pino, David; Lorente, Jeroni

    2013-04-01

    The classification of clouds is based on the pioneering classification carried out by Howard (1804). In this classification, and also in the successive editions of the International Classification of Clouds published by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO, 1975, 1987) 10 basic cloud genera are included and described. In all cases, the cause that leads to the formation of clouds remains as a secondary issue. It is assumed that all of them are exclusively produced by natural mechanisms without any human intervention. However, aerosol and water vapour emissions produced by human activity may increase cloud formation having an increasing importance in the atmospheric energy budget and consequently in the earth's climate. Effectively, since the end of the Nineteenth century, human activity has been injecting large amounts of water vapour into the atmosphere, cloud condensation nuclei and hot air mainly generated in the combustion processes that under certain spatial and temporal conditions can enhance cloud formation. These anthropogenic aerosols are linked to the climate and the water cycle (Kaufman et al, 2002). The aim of this communication is to point out the anthropic origin of some clouds in the cloud classification. Several cases of the 7 basic genera cloud caused by human activities will be shown to discuss the importance of differentiating the origin of clouds in weather observations. This differentiation would improve the understanding the contribution of these clouds to climate change. To differentiate the clouds formed by human activity, we propose to use the prefix anthropo- before the scientific name (and a- before the abbreviation) in some of the 10 basic clouds defined by the International Classification of Clouds, those which could have an anthropic origin, and thus begin new data of cloud observations that could help future research to improve the effect of human activity in the troposphere.

  14. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  15. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  16. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  17. NET amyloidogenic backbone in human activated neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulze, L; Bassani, B; Gini, E; D'Antona, P; Grimaldi, A; Luini, A; Marino, F; Noonan, D M; Tettamanti, G; Valvassori, R; de Eguileor, M

    2016-03-01

    Activated human neutrophils produce a fibrillar DNA network [neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)] for entrapping and killing bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Our results suggest that the neutrophil extracellular traps show a resistant amyloidogenic backbone utilized for addressing reputed proteins and DNA against the non-self. The formation of amyloid fibrils in neutrophils is regulated by the imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytoplasm. The intensity and source of the ROS signal is determinant for promoting stress-associated responses such as amyloidogenesis and closely related events: autophagy, exosome release, activation of the adrenocorticotrophin hormone/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH/α-MSH) loop and synthesis of specific cytokines. These interconnected responses in human activated neutrophils, that have been evaluated from a morphofunctional and quantitative viewpoint, represent primitive, but potent, innate defence mechanisms. In invertebrates, circulating phagocytic immune cells, when activated, show responses similar to those described previously for activated human neutrophils. Invertebrate cells within endoplasmic reticulum cisternae produce a fibrillar material which is then assembled into an amyloidogenic scaffold utilized to convey melanin close to the invader. These findings, in consideration to the critical role played by NET in the development of several pathologies, could explain the structural resistance of these scaffolds and could provide the basis for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in immunomediated diseases in which the innate branch of the immune system has a pivotal role.

  18. Human Activity Detection from RGBD Images

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, Jaeyong; Selman, Bart; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Being able to detect and recognize human activities is important for making personal assistant robots useful in performing assistive tasks. The challenge is to develop a system that is low-cost, reliable in unstructured home settings, and also straightforward to use. In this paper, we use a RGBD sensor (Microsoft Kinect) as the input sensor, and present learning algorithms to infer the activities. Our algorithm is based on a hierarchical maximum entropy Markov model (MEMM). It considers a person's activity as composed of a set of sub-activities, and infers the two-layered graph structure using a dynamic programming approach. We test our algorithm on detecting and recognizing twelve different activities performed by four people in different environments, such as a kitchen, a living room, an office, etc., and achieve an average performance of 84.3% when the person was seen before in the training set (and 64.2% when the person was not seen before).

  19. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/48004

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of Internet technology enables human explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e. traces), we can get insights about dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, book, and movie rating, are comprehensively investigated by using detrended fluctuation analysis technique and multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three type medias show the similar scaling property with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of interevent time series in three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest the stronger long-rang...

  20. A human activity approach to User Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    How can we understand why a bank teller has different needs for a user interface than those of casual users of a machine teller, or why a graphic designer needs a different user interface than a secretary? This article presents a framework for the design of user interfaces that originates from...... the work situations in which computer-based artifacts are used: The framework deals with the role of the user interface in purposeful human work. Human activity theory is used in this analysis. The purpose of this article is to make the reader curious and hopefully open his or her eyes to a somewhat...... different way of thinking about the user interface. The article applies examples of real-life interfaces to support this process, but it does not include a systematic presentation of empirical results. I focus on the role of the computer application in use. Thus, it is necessary to consider human...

  1. Does human activity widen the tropics?

    CERN Document Server

    Georgieva, Katya

    2008-01-01

    The progress article - Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate - by Seidel et al. (2008) published in the first issue of Nature Geosciences, summarizes the results of several methods to determine the width of the tropical zone. All they show evidence that the tropics have been expanding over the past few decades. We confirm this widening based on one more indicator - the position of the subtropical centers of high pressure. However, we question the implication of the authors that the tropics widen in response to human activity, and suggest as a more probable cause the increasing solar activity. Consequently, we question their conclusion that this widening may continue into the future in association with anthropogenic climate change, and suggest that whether the tropics will continue widening will depend on the future evolution of solar activity rather than on anthropogenic activity.

  2. Understanding Usability Work as a Human Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie

    Three core themes are explored in eight papers: Usability work as a human activity, usability practice and methods, and persuasiveness of evaluation results and feedback. We explore how usability work is much more than methods and work procedures, and argue that maturing our understanding...... systems struggle with making methods meet practical realities and demands, and that the concept of usability in games is not satisfactorily covered by for example the ISO 9241-11. With this in mind we call for future work that broadens the concept of usability to include concepts more relevant to games...... of usability work to include a human perspective, is crucial to downstream utility—how usability work impacts the on-going development process. Our work shows that cross-professional collaboration is subject to challenges that arise from stakeholders having conflicting priorities, procedures and personalities...

  3. Physical Human Activity Recognition Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Attal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of different classification techniques used to recognize human activities from wearable inertial sensor data. Three inertial sensor units were used in this study and were worn by healthy subjects at key points of upper/lower body limbs (chest, right thigh and left ankle. Three main steps describe the activity recognition process: sensors’ placement, data pre-processing and data classification. Four supervised classification techniques namely, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, and Random Forest (RF as well as three unsupervised classification techniques namely, k-Means, Gaussian mixture models (GMM and Hidden Markov Model (HMM, are compared in terms of correct classification rate, F-measure, recall, precision, and specificity. Raw data and extracted features are used separately as inputs of each classifier. The feature selection is performed using a wrapper approach based on the RF algorithm. Based on our experiments, the results obtained show that the k-NN classifier provides the best performance compared to other supervised classification algorithms, whereas the HMM classifier is the one that gives the best results among unsupervised classification algorithms. This comparison highlights which approach gives better performance in both supervised and unsupervised contexts. It should be noted that the obtained results are limited to the context of this study, which concerns the classification of the main daily living human activities using three wearable accelerometers placed at the chest, right shank and left ankle of the subject.

  4. CFTR targeting during activation of human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hang Pong; Valentine, Vincent G; Wang, Guoshun

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel, plays critical roles in phagocytic host defense. However, how activated neutrophils regulate CFTR channel distribution subcellularly is not well defined. To investigate, we tested multiple Abs against different CFTR domains, to examine CFTR expression in human peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. The data confirmed that resting neutrophils had pronounced CFTR expression. Activation of neutrophils with soluble or particulate agonists did not significantly increase CFTR expression level, but induced CFTR redistribution to cell surface. Such CFTR mobilization correlated with cell-surface recruitment of formyl-peptide receptor during secretory vesicle exocytosis. Intriguingly, neutrophils from patients with ΔF508-CF, despite expression of the mutant CFTR, showed little cell-surface mobilization upon stimulation. Although normal neutrophils effectively targeted CFTR to their phagosomes, ΔF508-CF neutrophils had impairment in that process, resulting in deficient hypochlorous acid production. Taken together, activated neutrophils regulate CFTR distribution by targeting this chloride channel to the subcellular sites of activation, and ΔF508-CF neutrophils fail to achieve such targeting, thus undermining their host defense function.

  5. [Changes in the innervation of the uterus during pregnancy and following parturition. Histochemical and electron microscopic observations in rat and humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M

    1988-02-01

    A histochemical, electronmicroscopic study was made of time changes in uterine nerves during and after pregnancy in rats. Uterine observations in pregnant humans were also conducted with the following results. 1. Except at the oviductal end, the catecholamine (CA) fluorescence of adrenergic nerves distributed in the uterine horn myometrium begins to decrease around the implantation sites, and this spreads peripherally until most of the fluorescence in the uterine horns, including the mesometrium, disappears directly after parturition. 2. In lactating rats, fluorescence is almost completely restored by 1 month after parturition. But in non-lactating rats, recovery of fluorescence after parturition is delayed about 3 months. 3. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in rat uterine cholinergic nerves clearly decreased during pregnancy. 4. In the early, middle and late periods of pregnancy, axonal swelling, agglutination of axonal cytoplasm and mitochondrial breakdown were observed, but no marked degeneration appeared in virgin rat uteri. 5. In humans, there was a sporadic distribution of adrenergic nerves in the uterine body myometrium, but fluorescent fibers were present in the terminal period of pregnancy. These results suggest that rat uterine nerves, especially most adrenergic nerves, degenerate and regenerate throughout pregnancy, parturition and puerperium. Apparently a localized humoral factor from the placenta and systemic endocrine environment affected by lactation or non-lactation is involved in the process.

  6. Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovato James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22. Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88 after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

  7. Universal activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Formentin, Marco; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new universal pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent's contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We show this universal behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one's environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns constrain future models of com...

  8. Planning as a part of human resource management activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kulić, Živko; Milošević, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Human resource management activities are most often grouped, or classified in that they are reduced to some ten basic activities. These activities are considered to be: work analysis; human resource planning; human resource recruitment; human resource selection; employee socialization and orientation; employee training and education; employee performance evaluation; employee rewarding and motivating; employee health and security; career management, and employee degradation and lying off. The ...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR REGIONAL INNOVATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lukyanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resource development regarding an innovation activity. Concepts of labor and human resources have been surveyed. An integral index for assessment of human resources for regional innovation activity has been developed and assessment of the Russian regions has been made on the basis of it. Development tendencies of modern human resources for innovation activity in Russia have been revealed.

  10. Recognition of human activities with wearable sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weihua; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao; Li, Xinke

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach for recognizing human activities with wearable sensors is investigated in this article. The key techniques of this approach include the generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) and the relevance vector machines (RVM). The feature vectors extracted from the measured signal are processed by GDA, with its dimension remarkably reduced from 350 to 12 while fully maintaining the most discriminative information. The reduced feature vectors are then classified by the RVM technique according to an extended multiclass model, which shows good convergence characteristic. Experimental results on the Wearable Action Recognition Dataset demonstrate that our approach achieves an encouraging recognition rate of 99.2%, true positive rate of 99.18% and false positive rate of 0.07%. Although in most cases, the support vector machines model has more than 70 support vectors, the number of relevance vectors related to different activities is always not more than 4, which implies a great simplicity in the classifier structure. Our approach is expected to have potential in real-time applications or solving problems with large-scale datasets, due to its perfect recognition performance, strong ability in feature reduction, and simple classifier structure.

  11. Towards a computational reconstruction of the electrodynamics of premature and full term human labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanidi, O; Atia, J; Benson, A P; van den Berg, H A; Blanks, A M; Choi, C; Gilbert, S H; Goryanin, I; Hayes-Gill, B R; Holden, A V; Li, P; Norman, J E; Shmygol, A; Simpson, N A B; Taggart, M J; Tong, W C; Zhang, H

    2011-10-01

    We apply virtual tissue engineering to the full term human uterus with a view to reconstruction of the spatiotemporal patterns of electrical activity of the myometrium that control mechanical activity via intracellular calcium. The three-dimensional geometry of the gravid uterus has been reconstructed from segmented in vivo magnetic resonance imaging as well as ex vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to resolve fine scale tissue architecture. A late-pregnancy uterine smooth muscle cell model is constructed and bursting analysed using continuation algorithms. These cell models are incorporated into partial differential equation models for tissue synchronisation and propagation. The ultimate objective is to develop a quantitative and predictive understanding of the mechanisms that initiate and regulate labour.

  12. Physiological increases in lactate inhibit intracellular calcium transients, acidify myocytes and decrease force in term pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Jacqui-Ann; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan

    2015-10-15

    Lactate is increased in myometrial capillary blood from women in slow or non-progressive labour (dystocia), suggesting that it is detrimental to uterine contractions. There are, however, no studies of the effect of lactate on the myometrium. We therefore investigated its effects and mechanism of action on myometrial strips from term pregnant rats. The effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in response to sodium lactate and other weak acids (1-20 mM) were studied. In some experiments, simultaneous force and intracellular Ca(2+) or pH (pH(i)) were measured with Indo-1 or Carboxy-SNARF, respectively. Statistical differences were tested using non-parametric tests. Lactate significantly decreased spontaneous contractility with an EC50 of 3.9 mM. Propionate, butyrate and pyruvate also reduced contractions with similar potency. The effects of lactate were reduced in the presence of oxytocin but remained significant. Lactate decreased pH(i) and nulling the decrease in pH(i) abolished its effects. We also show that lactate inhibited Ca(2+) transients, with these changes mirroring those produced on force. If Ca(2+) entry was enhanced by depolarization (high KCl) or applying the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 4644, the effects of lactate were abolished. Taken together, these data show that lactate in the physiological range potently decreases myometrial contractility as a result of its inhibition of Ca(2+) transients, which can be attributed to the induced acidification. The present study suggests that the accumulation of extracellular lactate will reduce myometrial contractions and could therefore contribute to labour dystocia.

  13. Specific activity of radioiodine-labelled human chorionic gonadotropin ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M. (South African Inst. for Medical Research, Sandringham. National Inst. for Virology); Kay, G.W.; Van der Walt, L.A. (South African Inst. for Medical Research, Johannesburg. Dept. of Pathology)

    1983-10-01

    The article deals with the determination of the specific activity of radioiodine-labelled human chorionic gonadotropin ligand. The iodiation of human chorionic gonadotropin and the counting efficiency of /sup 125/I are discussed.

  14. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  15. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  16. New activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, Marco; Lovison, Alberto; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent’s contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We furthermore show that this new behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one’s environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns might be universal, being present in other general interactive environments, and constrain future models of communication and interaction networks, affecting their architecture and evolution.

  17. A Review on Video-Based Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Ru Ke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article surveys extensively the current progresses made toward video-based human activity recognition. Three aspects for human activity recognition are addressed including core technology, human activity recognition systems, and applications from low-level to high-level representation. In the core technology, three critical processing stages are thoroughly discussed mainly: human object segmentation, feature extraction and representation, activity detection and classification algorithms. In the human activity recognition systems, three main types are mentioned, including single person activity recognition, multiple people interaction and crowd behavior, and abnormal activity recognition. Finally the domains of applications are discussed in detail, specifically, on surveillance environments, entertainment environments and healthcare systems. Our survey, which aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the field, also addresses several challenges associated with these systems and applications. Moreover, in this survey, various applications are discussed in great detail, specifically, a survey on the applications in healthcare monitoring systems.

  18. A Spatiotemporal Robust Approach for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zia Uddin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human activity recognition is considered to be one of the fundamental topics in computer vision research areas, including human-robot interaction. In this work, a novel method is proposed utilizing the depth and optical flow motion information of human silhouettes from video for human activity recognition. The recognition method utilizes enhanced independent component analysis (EICA on depth silhouettes, optical flow motion features, and hidden Markov models (HMMs for recognition. The local features are extracted from the collection of the depth silhouettes exhibiting various human activities. Optical flow- based motion features are also extracted from the depth silhouette area and used in an augmented form to form the spatiotemporal features. Next, the augmented features are enhanced by generalized discriminant analysis (GDA for better activity representation. These features are then fed into HMMs to model human activities and recognize them. The experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over the conventional ones.

  19. Expression and significance of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 in uterine myoma tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Chen; Li Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the expression of TAK1 in normal myometrium and uterine leiomyoma tissue, and explore the relationship between these molecules and pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma. Methods:Formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen from 76 patients with uterine leiomyoma and normal myometrium adjacent were obtained from our hospital. The expression of TAK1 was detected by immunohistochemical staining and PCR analysis. Results:The expression of protein and mRNA levels TAK1 in uterine leiomyoma tissues were significantly increased when compared with normal myometrium, but not related to the number of leiomyoma. Furthermore, TAK1 expression was associated with the size of uterine leiomyoma. Conclusion:The present results suggest that the abundant expression of TAK1 protein may have a molecular basis characteristic of leiomyomas in the human uterus, and TAK1 may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of uterine leiomyoma.

  20. In vivo imaging of estrogen receptor concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using FES PET - influence of menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: tsucchy@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Mori, Tetsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yoshida, Yoshio [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to measure estrogen receptor (ER) concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-17{beta}-estradiol (FES) positron emission tomography (PET) and to investigate the relationship between changes in these parameters with the menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen levels. Methods: Sixteen female healthy volunteers were included in this study. After blood sampling to measure endogenous estrogen level, FES PET image was acquired 60 min postinjection of FES. After whole-body imaging of FES PET, averaged standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the endometrium and myometrium were measured, and the relationship between FES uptake and menstrual cycle or endogenous estrogen level was evaluated. Results: Endometrial SUV was significantly higher in the proliferative phase than in the secretory phase (6.03{+-}1.05 vs. 3.97{+-}1.29, P=.022). In contrast, there was no significant difference in myometrial SUV when the proliferative and secretory phases were compared (P=.23). Further, there was no correlation between SUV and endogenous estrogen level in the proliferative phase. Conclusions: The change of ER concentration relative to menstrual cycle as characterized by FES PET was consistent with those from previous reports that used an immunohistochemical technique. These data suggest that FES PET is a feasible, noninvasive method for characterizing changes in ER concentration.

  1. Human multimedia display interface based on human activity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yiting; Lee, Eung-Joo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we will propose a Human Multimedia Display Interface. The interface uses the tracking of human hand movements to control the IP-TV. This paper presents an improved CAMSHIFT algorithm to control an IP-TV system. The CAMSHIFT algorithm (Continuously Adaptive MeanShift) is a method of using color information[1]. It can do tracking with a specific color of the target. In some typical environmental constraints, it can obtain good tracking performance. However, as the question of noise, large area similar to the color interference and so on, only by CAM-SHIFT algorithm it is not competent. Against these issues we propose an improved CAMSHIFT algorithm[2].

  2. Activities of Human Gene Nomenclature Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-16

    The objective of this project, shared between NIH and DOE, has been and remains to enable the medical genetics communities to use common names for genes that are discovered by different gene hunting groups, in different species. This effort provides consistent gene nomenclature and approved gene symbols to the community at large. This contributes to a uniform and consistent understanding of genomes, particularly the human as well as functional genomics based on comparisons between homologous genes in related species (human and mice).

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes Affecting Human Natural Killer Cell Cytolytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Hyoungjun; Billadeau, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that secrete cytokines upon activation and mediate the killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells, especially those that escape the adaptive T cell response caused by the down regulation of MHC-I. The induction of cytotoxicity requires that NK cells contact target cells through adhesion receptors, and initiate activation signaling leading to increased adhesion and accumulation of F-actin at the NK cell cytotoxic synaps...

  4. Leveraging Human Brain Activity to Improve Object Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Ruth Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Today, most object detection algorithms differ drastically from how humans tackle visual problems. In this thesis, I present a new paradigm for improving machine vision algorithms by designing them to better mimic how humans approach these tasks. Specifically, I demonstrate how human brain activity from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be leveraged to improve object classification. Inspired by the graduated manner in which humans learn, I present a novel algorithm that sim...

  5. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject’s body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD data are presented.

  6. Complex human activities recognition using interval temporal syntactic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏利民; 韩芬; 王军

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on interval temporal syntactic model was proposed to recognize human activities in video flow. The method is composed of two parts: feature extract and activities recognition. Trajectory shape descriptor, speeded up robust features (SURF) and histograms of optical flow (HOF) were proposed to represent human activities, which provide more exhaustive information to describe human activities on shape, structure and motion. In the process of recognition, a probabilistic latent semantic analysis model (PLSA) was used to recognize sample activities at the first step. Then, an interval temporal syntactic model, which combines the syntactic model with the interval algebra to model the temporal dependencies of activities explicitly, was introduced to recognize the complex activities with a time relationship. Experiments results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with other state-of-the-art methods on the public databases for the recognition of complex activities.

  7. Human task-specific somatosensory activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, M D; Yoshii, F; Vibulsresth, S; Chang, J Y; Duara, R; Barker, W W; Boothe, T E

    1987-08-01

    We used positron emission tomography to study normal patterns of local cortical metabolic activation induced by somatosensory stimuli. Palpation and sorting of mah-jongg tiles by textured design increased local glucose metabolic rate (lCMRgl), by 18% on average, in contralateral somatosensory cortex. A graphesthesia task gave a similar result. In contrast, vigorous vibrotactile stimulation of fingers, face, or knee did not produce a consistent focus of activation. Our results indicate that lCMRgl activation is best achieved by somatosensory tasks requiring an active perceptual effort.

  8. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  9. Detection of Unusual Human Activities Based on Behavior Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraishi, Kunihiko; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    A type of services that require human physical actions and intelligent decision making exists in various real fields, such as nursing in hospitals and caregiving in nursing homes. In this paper, we propose new formalism for modeling human behavior in such services. Behavior models are estimated from event-logs, and can be used for analysis of human activities. We show two analysis methods: one is to detect unusual human activities that appear in event-logs, and the other is to find staffs tha...

  10. Robust, synergistic regulation of human gene expression using TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Morgan L; Linder, Samantha J; Reyon, Deepak; Angstman, James F; Fu, Yanfang; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-03-01

    Artificial activators designed using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology have broad utility, but previous studies suggest that these monomeric proteins often exhibit low activities. Here we demonstrate that TALE activators can robustly function individually or in synergistic combinations to increase expression of endogenous human genes over wide dynamic ranges. These findings will encourage applications of TALE activators for research and therapy, and guide design of monomeric TALE-based fusion proteins.

  11. Uterine stretch regulates temporal and spatial expression of fibronectin protein and its alpha 5 integrin receptor in myometrium of unilaterally pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Williams, S Joy; Draper, Haley; White, Bryan G; MacPhee, Daniel J; Lye, Stephen J

    2007-11-01

    The adaptive growth of the uterus during pregnancy is a critical event that involves increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and dynamic remodeling of smooth muscle cell (SMC)-ECM interactions. We have previously found a dramatic increase in the expression of the mRNAs that encode fibronectin (FN) and its alpha5-integrin receptor (ITGA5) in pregnant rat myometrium near to term. Since the myometrium at term is exposed to considerable mechanical stretching of the uterine wall by the growing fetus(es), the objective of the present study was to examine its role in the regulation of FN and ITGA5 expression at late gestation and during labor. Using myometrial tissues from unilaterally pregnant rats, we investigated the temporal changes in Itga5 gene expression in gravid and empty uterine horns by Northern blotting and real-time PCR, in combination with immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses of the temporal/spatial distributions of the FN and ITGA5 proteins. In addition, we studied the effects of early progesterone (P4) withdrawal on Itga5 mRNA levels and ITGA5 protein detection. At all time-points examined, the Itga5 mRNA levels were increased in the gravid uterine horn, compared to the empty horn (P < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis confirmed higher ITGA5 and FN protein levels in the myometrium, associated with gravidity (P < 0.05). Immunodetection of ITGA5 was consistently high in the longitudinal muscle layer, increased with gestational age in the circular muscle layer of the gravid horn, and remained low in the empty horn. ITGA5 and FN immunostaining in the gravid horn exhibited a continuous layer of variable thickness associated directly with the surfaces of individual SMCs. In contrast to the effects of stretch, P4 does not appear to regulate ITGA5 expression. We speculate that the reinforcement of the FN-ITGA5 interaction: 1) contributes to myometrial hypertrophy and remodeling during late pregnancy; and 2) facilitates force transduction

  12. ActivityNet: A Large-Scale Video Benchmark for Human Activity Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2015-06-02

    In spite of many dataset efforts for human action recognition, current computer vision algorithms are still severely limited in terms of the variability and complexity of the actions that they can recognize. This is in part due to the simplicity of current benchmarks, which mostly focus on simple actions and movements occurring on manually trimmed videos. In this paper we introduce ActivityNet, a new largescale video benchmark for human activity understanding. Our benchmark aims at covering a wide range of complex human activities that are of interest to people in their daily living. In its current version, ActivityNet provides samples from 203 activity classes with an average of 137 untrimmed videos per class and 1.41 activity instances per video, for a total of 849 video hours. We illustrate three scenarios in which ActivityNet can be used to compare algorithms for human activity understanding: untrimmed video classification, trimmed activity classification and activity detection.

  13. Characterization of ATPase Activity of Recombinant Human Pif1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu HUANG; Deng-Hong ZHANG; Jin-Qiu ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1p helicase is the founding member of the Pif1 subfamily that is conserved from yeast to human. The potential human homolog of the yeast PIF1 gene has been cloned from the cDNA library of the Hek293 cell line. Here, we described a purification procedure of glutathione Stransferase (GST)-fused N terminal truncated human Pif1 protein (hPif1△N) from yeast and characterized the enzymatic kinetics of its ATP hydrolysis activity. The ATPase activity of human Pif1 is dependent on divalent cation, such as Mg2+, Ca2+ and single-stranded DNA. Km for ATP for the ATPase activity is approximately 200 μM. As the ATPase activity is essential for hPif1's helicase activity, these results will facilitate the further investigation on hPif1.

  14. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Michio; Watanabe,Akiharu; Higashi, Toshiro; Tsuji, Takao

    1988-01-01

    Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful...

  15. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto,Noriaki

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful for estimating the degradation of type IV collagen.

  16. POTENT INVITRO ANTI-HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-1 ACTIVITY OF MODIFIED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RW; MOLEMA, G; PAUWELS, R; SCHOLS, D; DECLERCQ, E; MEIJER, DKF

    1991-01-01

    A series of neoglycoproteins was synthesized by coupling of thiophosgene-activated p-aminophenyl derivatives [Biol. Cell. 47:95-110 (1983); J. Histochem. Cytochem. 32:1091-1094 (1984)] of various sugars to human serum albumin. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against human im

  17. Multilevel depth and image fusion for human activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bingbing; Pei, Yong; Moulin, Pierre; Yan, Shuicheng

    2013-10-01

    Recognizing complex human activities usually requires the detection and modeling of individual visual features and the interactions between them. Current methods only rely on the visual features extracted from 2-D images, and therefore often lead to unreliable salient visual feature detection and inaccurate modeling of the interaction context between individual features. In this paper, we show that these problems can be addressed by combining data from a conventional camera and a depth sensor (e.g., Microsoft Kinect). We propose a novel complex activity recognition and localization framework that effectively fuses information from both grayscale and depth image channels at multiple levels of the video processing pipeline. In the individual visual feature detection level, depth-based filters are applied to the detected human/object rectangles to remove false detections. In the next level of interaction modeling, 3-D spatial and temporal contexts among human subjects or objects are extracted by integrating information from both grayscale and depth images. Depth information is also utilized to distinguish different types of indoor scenes. Finally, a latent structural model is developed to integrate the information from multiple levels of video processing for an activity detection. Extensive experiments on two activity recognition benchmarks (one with depth information) and a challenging grayscale + depth human activity database that contains complex interactions between human-human, human-object, and human-surroundings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multilevel grayscale + depth fusion scheme. Higher recognition and localization accuracies are obtained relative to the previous methods.

  18. Hemagglutinin activity of human plasma fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuento, M

    1979-09-01

    Purified human plasma fibronectin at concentrations of about 30 microgram/ml was found to agglutinate trypsin-treated erythrocytes from certain species. The hemagglutination reaction was inhibited by specific antibodies to fibronectin, by relatively low concentrations of polyamines and by higher concentrations of basic amino acids and nonacetylated amino sugars. The divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate did not affect the reaction. None of the neutral amino acids, neutral sugars or polyanions tested was inhibitory. The results imply that plasma fibronectin is capable of interacting with cell surfaces and support the idea of a similarity between cellular and plasma fibronectins.

  19. Determination of the functional size of oxytocin receptors in plasma membranes from mammary gland and uterine myometrium of the rat by radiation inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloff, M.S.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1988-05-01

    Gel filtration of detergent-solubilized oxytocin (OT) receptors in plasma membrane fractions from both regressed mammary gland and labor myometrium of the rat, showed that specific (/sup 3/H)OT binding was associated with a heterogeneously sized population of macromolecules. As radiation inactivation is the only method available to measure the apparent molecular weights of membrane proteins in situ, we used this approach to define the functional sizes of OT receptors. The results indicate that both mammary and myometrial receptors are uniform in size and of similar molecular mass. Mammary and myometrial receptors were estimated to be 57.5 +/- 3.8 (SD) and 58.8 +/- 1.6 kilodaltons, respectively. Knowledge of the functional size of OT receptors will be useful in studies involving the purification and characterization of the receptor and associated membrane components.

  20. Activation of the Small GTPase Rap1 in Human Neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'Rabet, Laura; Coffer, P.J.; Zwartkruis, G.J.T.; Franke, Barbara; Segal, Anthony W.; Koenderman, L.; Bos, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The small GTPase Rap1 is highly expressed in human neutrophils, but its function is largely unknown. Using the Rap1- binding domain of RalGDS (RalGDS-RBD) as an activationspecific probe for Rap1, we have investigated the regulation of Rap1 activity in primary human neutrophils. We found that a varie

  1. Activation of Raf-1 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, D H; Jardines, L A; Chang, H; Ruggeri, B

    1997-04-01

    Point mutations in the Ras oncogene cause Ras to remain in its active GTP-bound state sending signals downstream continuously. Since 75 to 90% of all human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas harbor activating mutations at codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene it was our belief that Raf-1-MEK-MAPK will be activated in the majority of human pancreatic cancers. The aim of this study was to confirm activation of Raf-1 in K-ras mutant human pancreatic cancer. Additionally, we sought to determine if Raf-1 activation differed in K-ras mutant and nonmutant pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, we were interested in determining if Raf-1 activation in pancreatic cancer led to subsequent activation of downstream effectors such as MAP kinase. The presence of mutations in codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene in 14 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines was determined by use of mutant allele-specific PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Raf-1 expression of quiescent cells was determined by immunoblotting using a rabbit anti-human polyclonal antibody and enhanced chemiluminescence. MAP kinase activity was determined by measuring the incorporation of phosphate into Myelin Basic Protein. Seven cell lines were noted to have mutations in codon 12 of K-ras while seven cell lines did not. There was no difference in expression of the 74 kDa-activated form of Raf-1 in K-ras mutant vs K-ras nonmutant cell lines. However, there was a significant increase in MAP kinase activity in the nonmutant cell lines compared to the cell lines with Ras mutations (P = 0.026). We conclude that Raf-1 is expressed in its active form in human pancreatic cancer regardless of K-ras status. However, signalling downstream of Raf-1 differs in cell lines with K-ras mutations compared to those cell lines without K-ras mutations.

  2. Antibacterial activity of human cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, H; Kahana, A; Carmel, S

    1975-01-01

    The antimicrobial property of human uterine cervical mucus was tested in three groups of women. Healthy women, using no contraception, women using an intrauterine device and women receiving hormonal treatment for contraception. Cervical mucus was taken on the 10th, 14th, 18th and 22nd day of the menstrual cycle. Cervical mucus had a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Micrococcus lysodeicticus in all three groups. The strength of the inhibitory effect on the other microorganisms were in the following order: Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus faecalis. Use of an intrauterine device did not affect the antimicrobial effect of cervical mucus. The use of hormonal contraceptive canceled the antimicrobial effect on the series of microorganisms, with the exception of M. lysodeicticus. The maximum inhibitory effect occurred on the 14th day and declined toward the end of the menstrual cycle.

  3. Dietary methanol regulates human gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Shindyapina

    Full Text Available Methanol (MeOH is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA, which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling.

  4. Human suspicious activity recognition in thermal infrared video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Jakir; Jacobs, Eddie; Chowdhury, Fahmida K.

    2014-10-01

    Detecting suspicious behaviors is important for surveillance and monitoring systems. In this paper, we investigate suspicious activity detection in thermal infrared imagery, where human motion can be easily detected from the background regardless of the lighting conditions and colors of the human clothing and surfaces. We use locally adaptive regression kernels (LARK) as patch descriptors, which capture the underlying local structure of the data exceedingly well, even in the presence of significant distortions. Patch descriptors are generated for each query patch and for each database patch. A statistical approach is used to match the query activity with the database to make the decision of suspicious activity. Human activity videos in different condition such as, walking, running, carrying a gun, crawling, and carrying backpack in different terrains were acquired using thermal infrared camera. These videos are used for training and performance evaluation of the algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves good performance in suspicious activity recognition.

  5. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses.

  6. COMMUNICATIVE INTERACTION ACTIVITIES USING HUMAN INTEREST STORIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Shunling

    1983-01-01

    @@ As an EFL teacher actively engaged in promoting communicative approach in teaching post-intermediate students I have been all the time aware of the risks involved in classroom discussion and debate in the target language. Despite elaborate preparations on thepart of both teacher and students and numerous encouraging cues from the teacher to induce an adequate interaction during the session, the end product is anything but satisfactory: few more able students may hog the show for a few minutes while the rest clamp up, then stony silence dominates and the teacher has recourse to monologue.

  7. Human biomonitoring activities--programmes by industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    Biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals has been practiced for over half a century on a regular basis. During the last decade, however, the focus changed from occupational to environmental settings, requiring a different interpretative framework. Under the auspices of the European Centre for Ecology and Ecotoxicology (ECETOC) a framework was developed that allows to assess the relevance of any biomonitoring result to be interpreted reliably. If biomonitoring data is to be used for the evaluation of health risks of a substance, information is required on the analytical integrity of the data, the toxicokinetics of this substance, and its health effects in relation to (low) exposures. In addition, a weight-of-evidence needs to be used. The framework also identifies a number of data-gaps, several of which are addressed through the Long-range Research Initiative (LRI), an initiative of the global chemical industries (EU, USA, and Japan), which aims to help answering important questions in the application of biomonitoring data in human health risk assessment.

  8. Supporting Human Activities - Exploring Activity-Centered Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore an activity-centered computing paradigm that is aimed at supporting work processes that are radically different from the ones known from office work. Our main inspiration is healthcare work that is characterized by an extreme degree of mobility, many interruptions, ad...... objects. We also present an exploratory prototype design and first implementation and present some initial results from evaluations in a healthcare environment....

  9. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  10. Human activity understanding for robot-assisted living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigated the problem of understanding human activities, at different levels of granularity and taking into account both the variability in activities and annotator disagreement. To be able to capture the large variations within each of the action classes, we propose a model that uses

  11. ACTIVATION OF HUMAN BLOOD MONONUCLEARS BY LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zubova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS composition upon activation of human blood mononuclears was investigated, by measuring levels of pro-inflammatory TNFα and IL-6 cytokines released by the cells. It is shown that LPS from Rhodobacter capsulatus PG, in contrast to E. coli LPS, did not activate the target cells for synthesis of the cytokines.

  12. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  13. Dual-induced multifractality of human online activity

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yuhao; Cai, Shimin; Gao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries of human activity reveal the existence of long-term correlation and its relation with the fat-tailed distribution of inter-event times, which imply that there exists the fractality of human activity. However, works further analyzing the type of fractality and its origin still lack. Herein, DFA and MFDFA methods are applied in the analysis of time series of online reviewing activity from Movielens and Netflix. Results show the long-term correlation at individual and whole community level, while the strength of such correlation at individual level is restricted to activity level. Such long-term correlation reveals the fractality of online reviewing activity. In our further investigation of this fractality, we \\emph{first} demonstrate it is multifractality, which results from the dual effect of broad probability density function and long-term correlation of time series in online reviewing activity. This result is also verified by three synthesized series. Therefore, we conclude that the combin...

  14. Understanding human activity patterns based on space-time-semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Songnian

    2016-11-01

    Understanding human activity patterns plays a key role in various applications in an urban environment, such as transportation planning and traffic forecasting, urban planning, public health and safety, and emergency response. Most existing studies in modeling human activity patterns mainly focus on spatiotemporal dimensions, which lacks consideration of underlying semantic context. In fact, what people do and discuss at some places, inferring what is happening at the places, cannot be simple neglected because it is the root of human mobility patterns. We believe that the geo-tagged semantic context, representing what individuals do and discuss at a place and a specific time, drives a formation of specific human activity pattern. In this paper, we aim to model human activity patterns not only based on space and time but also with consideration of associated semantics, and attempt to prove a hypothesis that similar mobility patterns may have different motivations. We develop a spatiotemporal-semantic model to quantitatively express human activity patterns based on topic models, leading to an analysis of space, time and semantics. A case study is conducted using Twitter data in Toronto based on our model. Through computing the similarities between users in terms of spatiotemporal pattern, semantic pattern and spatiotemporal-semantic pattern, we find that only a small number of users (2.72%) have very similar activity patterns, while the majority (87.14%) show different activity patterns (i.e., similar spatiotemporal patterns and different semantic patterns, similar semantic patterns and different spatiotemporal patterns, or different in both). The population of users that has very similar activity patterns is decreased by 56.41% after incorporating semantic information in the corresponding spatiotemporal patterns, which can quantitatively prove the hypothesis.

  15. Selective activation of neuromuscular compartments within the human trapezius muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Roeleveld, K; Mork, P J;

    2009-01-01

    was to investigate whether subdivisions within the human trapezius can be independently activated by voluntary command using biofeedback guidance. Bipolar electromyographical electrodes were situated on four subdivisions of the trapezius muscle. The threshold for "active" and "rest" for each subdivision was set...... to >12% and biofeedback from each of the four trapezius subdivisions, 11 of 15 subjects learned selective activation of at least one of the four anatomical subdivisions of the trapezius...

  16. A Competitive Approach for Human Activity Recognition on Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Attila; Hendeby, Gustaf; Stricker, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a competitive approach developed for an activity recognition challenge. The competition was defined on a new and publicly available dataset of human activities, recorded with smartphone sensors. This work investigates different feature sets for the activity recognition task of the competition. Moreover, the focus is also on the introduction of a new, confidence-based boosting algorithm called ConfAda- Boost.M1. Results show that the new classification method outperforms c...

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF RICINUS COMMUNIS AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Kushwah Poonam; Singh Krishan Pratap

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with the antimicrobial activities of seed extracts of Ricinus communis against some human pathogenic bacteria namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and two fungal strains namely Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The aqueous and methanol extracts of seeds were screened for their antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion method. The aqueous seed extracts were less active but methanol extracts showed high degree zon...

  18. Functional Assessment of Pharmacological Telomerase Activators in Human T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Effros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are structures at the ends of chromosomes that shorten during cell division and eventually signal an irreversible state of growth arrest known as cellular senescence. To delay this cellular aging, human T cells, which are critical in the immune control over infections and cancer, activate the enzyme telomerase, which binds and extends the telomeres. Several different extracts from the Astragalus membranaceus root have been documented to activate telomerase activity in human T cells. The objective of this research was to compare two extracts from Astragalus membranaceus, TA-65 and HTA, for their effects on both telomerase and proliferative activity of human CD4 and CD8 T cells. Our results demonstrate that, TA-65 increased telomerase activity significantly (1.3 to 3.3-fold relative to controls in T cell cultures from six donors tested, whereas HTA only increased telomerase levels in two out of six donors. We also demonstrate that TA-65 activates telomerase by a MAPK- specific pathway. Finally, we determine that during a three-day culture period, only the T cells treated with the TA-65 extract showed a statistically significant increase in proliferative activity. Our results underscore the importance of comparing multiple telomerase activators within the same experiment, and of including functional assays in addition to measuring telomerase activity.

  19. Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multicamera Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicamera networks are becoming complex involving larger sensing areas in order to capture activities and behavior that evolve over long spatial and temporal windows. This necessitates novel methods to process the information sensed by the network and visualize it for an end user. In this paper, we describe a system for modeling and on-demand visualization of activities of groups of humans. Using the prior knowledge of the 3D structure of the scene as well as camera calibration, the system localizes humans as they navigate the scene. Activities of interest are detected by matching models of these activities learnt a priori against the multiview observations. The trajectories and the activity index for each individual summarize the dynamic content of the scene. These are used to render the scene with virtual 3D human models that mimic the observed activities of real humans. In particular, the rendering framework is designed to handle large displays with a cluster of GPUs as well as reduce the cognitive dissonance by rendering realistic weather effects and illumination. We envision use of this system for immersive visualization as well as summarization of videos that capture group behavior.

  20. Detection of cardiac activity changes from human speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Voznak, Miroslav; Mikulec, Martin; Mehic, Miralem

    2015-05-01

    Impact of changes in blood pressure and pulse from human speech is disclosed in this article. The symptoms of increased physical activity are pulse, systolic and diastolic pressure. There are many methods of measuring and indicating these parameters. The measurements must be carried out using devices which are not used in everyday life. In most cases, the measurement of blood pressure and pulse following health problems or other adverse feelings. Nowadays, research teams are trying to design and implement modern methods in ordinary human activities. The main objective of the proposal is to reduce the delay between detecting the adverse pressure and to the mentioned warning signs and feelings. Common and frequent activity of man is speaking, while it is known that the function of the vocal tract can be affected by the change in heart activity. Therefore, it can be a useful parameter for detecting physiological changes. A method for detecting human physiological changes by speech processing and artificial neural network classification is described in this article. The pulse and blood pressure changes was induced by physical exercises in this experiment. The set of measured subjects was formed by ten healthy volunteers of both sexes. None of the subjects was a professional athlete. The process of the experiment was divided into phases before, during and after physical training. Pulse, systolic, diastolic pressure was measured and voice activity was recorded after each of them. The results of this experiment describe a method for detecting increased cardiac activity from human speech using artificial neural network.

  1. Biofidelic Human Activity Modeling and Simulation with Large Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-25

    capture data to replicate a human activity in 3D space. Since technologies for simultaneously capturing human motion and dynamic shapes are not yet ready...for practical use, a motion capture system can be used to capture markers on the body during motion and a 3D body scanner can be used to capture the...body shape in a pose. Using advanced computer animation software tools, the body scan data and motion capture data are fused to build a dynamic

  2. Human DJ-1-specific Transcriptional Activation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shizuma; Taira, Takahiro; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Niki, Takeshi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutation in the DJ-1 gene causes a subset of familial Parkinson disease. The mechanism underlying DJ-1-related selective vulnerability in the dopaminergic pathway is, however, not known. DJ-1 has multiple functions, including transcriptional regulation, and one of transcriptional target genes for DJ-1 is the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene, the product of which is a key enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis. It has been reported that DJ-1 is a neuroprotective transcriptional co-activator that sequesters a transcriptional co-repressor polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) from the TH gene promoter. In this study, we found that knockdown of human DJ-1 by small interference RNA in human dopaminergic cell lines attenuated TH gene expression and 4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine production but that knockdown or knock-out of mouse DJ-1 in mouse cell lines or in mice did not affect such expression and TH activity. In reporter assays using the human TH gene promoter linked to the luciferase gene, stimulation of TH promoter activity was observed in human cells, but not mouse cells, that had been transfected with DJ-1. Although human DJ-1 and mouse DJ-1 were associated either with human or with mouse PSF, TH promoter activity inhibited by PSF was restored by human DJ-1 but not by mouse DJ-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the complex of PSF with DJ-1 bound to the human but not the mouse TH gene promoter. These results suggest a novel species-specific transcriptional regulation of the TH promoter by DJ-1 and one of the mechanisms for no reduction of TH in DJ-1-knock-out mice. PMID:20938049

  3. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Science Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, A; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has been conducting various scientific activities to promote microgravity education and research. The primary science activity is called 'Zero-gravity Instrument Distribution Project', in which one-axis clinostats will be distributed worldwide. The distribution project will provide unique opportunities for students and researchers to observe the growth of indigenous plants in their countries in a simulated microgravity condition and is expected to create a huge dataset of plant species with their responses to gravity.

  4. Src activity increases and Yes activity decreases during mitosis of human colon carcinoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J.; Cartwright, C A

    1995-01-01

    Src and Yes protein-tyrosine kinase activities are elevated in malignant and premalignant tumors of the colon. To determine whether Src activity is elevated throughout the human colon carcinoma cell cycle as it is in polyomavirus middle T antigen- or F527 Src-transformed cells, and whether Yes activity, which is lower than that of Src in the carcinoma cells, is regulated differently, we measured their activities in cycling cells. We observed that the activities of both kinases were higher thr...

  5. Parasite zoonoses and wildlife: One Health, spillover and human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This review examines parasite zoonoses and wildlife in the context of the One Health triad that encompasses humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the changing ecosystems in which they live. Human (anthropogenic) activities influence the flow of all parasite infections within the One Health triad and the nature and impact of resulting spillover events are examined. Examples of spillover from wildlife to humans and/or domestic animals, and vice versa, are discussed, as well as emerging issues, particularly the need for parasite surveillance of wildlife populations. Emphasis is given to Trypanosoma cruzi and related species in Australian wildlife, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Giardia, Baylisascaris, Toxoplasma and Leishmania.

  6. Dipeptides Increase Functional Activity of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, V V; Durnova, A O; Polyakova, V O; Kvetnoi, I M

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed the effect of dipeptide Glu-Trp and isovaleroyl-Glu-Trp in concentrations of 0.2, 2 and 20 μg/ml and Actovegin preparation on functional activity of human skin fibroblasts. Dipeptides, especially Glu-Trp, produce a stimulating effect on human skin fibroblasts and their effect is equivalent to that of Actovegin. Dipeptides stimulate cell renewal processes by activating synthesis of Ki-67 and reducing expression of caspase-9 and enhance antioxidant function of the cells by stimulating the expression of Hsp-90 and inducible NO-synthase. These findings suggest that dipeptides are promising candidates for preparations stimulating reparative processes.

  7. The impacts of local human activities on the Antarctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, T.; Fleming, Z. L.; Hughes, K. A.; Ainley, D. G.; Convey, P.; Moreno, C. A.; Pfeiffer, S.; Scott, J.; Snape, I.

    2009-04-01

    An overview of a recently published review of the scientific literature from the past decade on the impacts of human activities on the Antarctic environment is presented. An assessment of the cumulative effects of scientists and accompanying base construction, tourists and fishery activities in Antarctica is timely given a decade since the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1998 and the increasing attention given to and human presence in Antarctica during this 2007-2009 IPY. A range of impacts has been identified at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Chemical contamination and sewage disposal on the continent have been found to be long-lived, with contemporary sewage management practices at many coastal stations insufficient to prevent local contamination. Human activities, particularly construction and transport, have affected Antarctic flora and fauna and a small number of non-indigenous plant and animal species has become established on some of the Antarctic Peninsula and sub Antarctic islands. There is little indication of recovery of overexploited fish stocks, and ramifications of fishing activity on bycatch species and the ecosystem could also be far-reaching. The Antarctic Treaty System and its instruments, in particular the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and the Environmental Protocol, provide a framework within which management of human activities take place. In order to ensure comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment, including its intrinsic, wilderness and scientific values in the face of the continuing expansion of human activities in Antarctica, a more effective implementation of a wide range of measures is essential. These include effective environmental impact assessments, long-term monitoring, mitigation measures for non-indigenous species, ecosystem-based management of living resources, and increased regulation of National Antarctic

  8. Pupil diameter covaries with BOLD activity in human locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peter R; O'Connell, Redmond G; O'Sullivan, Michael; Robertson, Ian H; Balsters, Joshua H

    2014-08-01

    The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) neuromodulatory system has been implicated in a broad array of cognitive processes, yet scope for investigating this system's function in humans is currently limited by an absence of reliable non-invasive measures of LC activity. Although pupil diameter has been employed as a proxy measure of LC activity in numerous studies, empirical evidence for a relationship between the two is lacking. In the present study, we sought to rigorously probe the relationship between pupil diameter and BOLD activity localized to the human LC. Simultaneous pupillometry and fMRI revealed a relationship between continuous pupil diameter and BOLD activity in a dorsal pontine cluster overlapping with the LC, as localized via neuromelanin-sensitive structural imaging and an LC atlas. This relationship was present both at rest and during performance of a two-stimulus oddball task, with and without spatial smoothing of the fMRI data, and survived retrospective image correction for physiological noise. Furthermore, the spatial extent of this pupil/LC relationship guided a volume-of-interest analysis in which we provide the first demonstration in humans of a fundamental characteristic of animal LC activity: phasic modulation by oddball stimulus relevance. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential for utilizing pupil diameter to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the role of the LC-NA system in human cognition.

  9. Human activity recognition based on Evolving Fuzzy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Jose Antonio; Angelov, Plamen; Ledezma, Agapito; Sanchis, Araceli

    2010-10-01

    Environments equipped with intelligent sensors can be of much help if they can recognize the actions or activities of their users. If this activity recognition is done automatically, it can be very useful for different tasks such as future action prediction, remote health monitoring, or interventions. Although there are several approaches for recognizing activities, most of them do not consider the changes in how a human performs a specific activity. We present an automated approach to recognize daily activities from the sensor readings of an intelligent home environment. However, as the way to perform an activity is usually not fixed but it changes and evolves, we propose an activity recognition method based on Evolving Fuzzy Systems.

  10. Tirasemtiv amplifies skeletal muscle response to nerve activation in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen,Richard; Saikali, Khalil G; Chou, Willis; Alan J Russell; Chen, Michael M.; Vijayakumar, Vipin; Stoltz, Randall R.; Baudry, Stephane; Enoka, Roger M.; Morgans, David J; Wolff, Andrew A.; Malik, Fady I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In this study we tested the hypothesis that tirasemtiv, a selective fast skeletal muscle troponin activator that sensitizes the sarcomere to calcium, could amplify the response of muscle to neuromuscular input in humans. Methods: Healthy men received tirasemtiv and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 4-period, crossover design. The deep fibular nerve was stimulated transcutaneously to activate the tibialis anterior muscle and produce dorsiflexion of the foot. The force–freque...

  11. Human ECG signal parameters estimation during controlled physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Marcin; Surtel, Wojciech; Dzida, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    ECG signal parameters are commonly used indicators of human health condition. In most cases the patient should remain stationary during the examination to decrease the influence of muscle artifacts. During physical activity, the noise level increases significantly. The ECG signals were acquired during controlled physical activity on a stationary bicycle and during rest. Afterwards, the signals were processed using a method based on Pan-Tompkins algorithms to estimate their parameters and to test the method.

  12. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  13. Linguistic Human Rights Discourse in Deaf Community Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The past three decades of activism for linguistic human rights (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000) have witnessed examples of language planning by various national and supranational actors in national and international spaces, with an exchange of ideas and strategies employed by national, regional, and worldwide organizations. In many countries a key goal of…

  14. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  15. Focus-of-attention for human activity recognition from UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a system to extract metadata about human activities from full-motion video recorded from a UAV. The pipeline consists of these components: tracking, motion features, representation of the tracks in terms of their motion features, and classification of each track as one of the hum

  16. Activation of the insular cortex during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, James; Nobrega, A C; McColl, R;

    1997-01-01

    1. The insular cortex has been implicated as a region of cortical cardiovascular control, yet its role during exercise remains undefined. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the insular cortex was activated during volitional dynamic exercise and to evaluate further its...... alone. 5. These findings provide the first evidence of insular activation during dynamic exercise in humans, suggesting that the left insular cortex may serve as a site for cortical regulation of cardiac autonomic (parasympathetic) activity. Additionally, findings during passive cycling with electrical...

  17. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  18. Downregulation of sulfotransferase expression and activity in diseased human livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Emine B; More, Vijay; Neira, Karissa L; Lu, Zhenqiang James; Cherrington, Nathan J; Slitt, Angela L; King, Roberta S

    2013-09-01

    Sulfotransferase (SULT) function has been well studied in healthy human subjects by quantifying mRNA and protein expression and determining enzyme activity with probe substrates. However, it is not well known if sulfotransferase activity changes in metabolic and liver disease, such as diabetes, steatosis, or cirrhosis. Sulfotransferases have significant roles in the regulation of hormones and excretion of xenobiotics. In the present study of normal subjects with nonfatty livers and patients with steatosis, diabetic cirrhosis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, we sought to determine SULT1A1, SULT2A1, SULT1E1, and SULT1A3 activity and mRNA and protein expression in human liver tissue. In general, sulfotransferase activity decreased significantly with severity of liver disease from steatosis to cirrhosis. Specifically, SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 activities were lower in disease states relative to nonfatty tissues. Alcoholic cirrhotic tissues further contained lower SULT1A1 and 1A3 activities than those affected by either of the two other disease states. SULT2A1, on the other hand, was only reduced in alcoholic cirrhotic tissues. SULT1E1 was reduced both in diabetic cirrhosis and in alcoholic cirrhosis tissues, relative to nonfatty liver tissues. In conclusion, the reduced levels of sulfotransferase expression and activity in diseased versus nondiseased liver tissue may alter the metabolism and disposition of xenobiotics and affect homeostasis of endobiotic sulfotransferase substrates.

  19. Electrical activity in the human oviduct during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talo, A; Pulkkinen, M O

    1982-01-15

    Electrical activity in 25 isolated human oviducts on different days of the menstrual cycle was recorded with six simultaneous suction electrodes in at least 18 locations. During the follicular phase, electrical activity consisted of a smooth, single slow spike that lasted 3 to 6 seconds, and on which was superimposed a fast spike(s) in the ampulla immediately after menstruation. The shape of this activity changed at midcycle, first in the ampulla and later in the isthmus, to a burst of potentials; in the ampulla it sometimes changed to a slow wave on which was superimposed a series of fast spikes. The pacemakers were stable and their number few. The electrical activity spread with a velocity of 1 to 3 mm/sec. The probability of spread toward the uterus varied with the location in the oviduct and with the day of the cycle. After menstruation, electrical activity spread in the uterine direction. On cycle day 12, activity spread toward the ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ) from both ends of the oviduct. On days 14 and 15, it spread a short distance from the ampulla to the isthmus, through the AIJ. On cycle day 18, spread toward the uterus covered the uterine half of the ampulla. AIJ, and the isthmus. Two to 5 days later, no constant features could be detected in the spread. These findings suggest that the human oviduct functions like the oviducts of other mammalian species, with the spread of electrical activity and the transport of ova being related.

  20. Human Temporal Cortical Single Neuron Activity during Language: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Ojemann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Findings from recordings of human temporal cortical single neuron activity during several measures of language, including object naming and word reading are reviewed and related to changes in activity in the same neurons during recent verbal memory and verbal associative learning measures, in studies conducted during awake neurosurgery for the treatment of epilepsy. The proportion of neurons changing activity with language tasks was similar in either hemisphere. Dominant hemisphere activity was characterized by relative inhibition, some of which occurred during overt speech, possibly to block perception of one’s own voice. However, the majority seems to represent a dynamic network becoming active with verbal memory encoding and especially verbal learning, but inhibited during performance of overlearned language tasks. Individual neurons are involved in different networks for different aspects of language, including naming or reading and naming in different languages. The majority of the changes in activity were tonic sustained shifts in firing. Patterned phasic activity for specific language items was very infrequently recorded. Human single neuron recordings provide a unique perspective on the biologic substrate for language, for these findings are in contrast to many of the findings from other techniques for investigating this.

  1. Seasonal variations in physical activity and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J; Aoyagi, Yukitoshi

    2009-10-01

    This review explores the implications of seasonal changes in physical activity for fitness and human health. Photosensitivity and nutrient shortages mediate animal hibernation via the hypothalamus and changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Opportunities for hunting and crop cultivation determine seasonal activity in under-developed human societies, but in developed societies temperature and rainfall are dominant influences, usually over-riding innate rhythms. Both questionnaire data and objective measurements show that many groups from children to the elderly increase their physical activity from winter to spring or summer. Measurements of maximal oxygen intake and muscle strength commonly show parallel seasonal changes. However, potential effects upon body mass and body fat may be counteracted by changes of food intake; subsistence agriculturists sometimes maintain or increase physical activity at the expense of a decrease in body mass. In developed societies, body fat commonly increases during the winter, with parallel changes in blood lipids, blood pressure and blood coagulability; moreover, these changes are not always fully reversed the following summer. Most developed societies show increased all-cause and cardiac mortalities in the winter. Health consequences of seasonal variations in physical activity including an increased vulnerability to cardiac catastrophe and a year-by-year increase in total body fat seem most likely if the average level of physical activity for the year is low. Public health recommendations should underline the importance of maintaining physical activity during adverse environmental conditions by adapting clothing, modifying behaviour and exploiting any available air-conditioned indoor facilities.

  2. The active human gut microbiota differs from the total microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Peris-Bondia

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is considered one of the most fascinating reservoirs of microbial diversity hosting between 400 to 1000 bacterial species distributed among nine phyla with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria representing around 75% of the diversity. One of the most intriguing issues relates to understanding which microbial groups are active players in the maintenance of the microbiota homeostasis.Here, we describe the diversity of active microbial fractions compared with the whole community from raw human fecal samples. We studied four healthy volunteers by 16S rDNA gene pyrosequencing. The fractions were obtained by cell sorting based on bacterial RNA concentration. Bacterial families were observed to appear or disappear on applying a cell sorting method in which flow cytometry was used to evaluate the active cells by pyronin-Y staining of RNA. This method was able to detect active bacteria, indicating that the active players differed from that observed in raw fecal material. Generally, observations showed that in the active fractions, the number of reads related to Bacteroidetes decreased whereas several families from Clostridiales (Firmicutes were more highly represented. Moreover, a huge number of families appeared as part of the active fraction when cell sorting was applied, indicating reads that are simply statistically hidden by the total reads.

  3. Pharmacological activity in growth inhibition and apoptosis of cultured human leiomyomal cells of tropical plant Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Kyun; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Dong-Il; Kim, Hyung-Min; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae) (SB), which is known in traditional Korean medicine, has been used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. Since uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumor of the myometrium, we aimed to determine the growth inhibition and the induction of apoptotic cell death brought about by the herb SB in two different leiomyomal cells, named LM-1 and LM-2, and to clarify the mechanism of this apoptosis. Water-soluble ingredients of SB, and the leiomyomal cell lines of LM-1 and LM-2, were used in vitro. Growth inhibition, induction of cell death, morphological features, the presence of DNA ladders, increases in Caspase 3-like activity, the effects of a Caspase 3 inhibitor on apoptotic cell death, and the release of Cytochrome C by SB were analyzed. SB inhibited the growth and decreased the viability of the leiomyomal cells. The viability of normal myomatrial smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the presence of low concentrations of SB was higher than those of leiomyomal cells. Apoptotic bodies and DNA ladders were observed to be induced in leiomyomal cells of LM-1 and LM-2 by SB. The synthetic tetrapeptide Caspase 3 inhibitor, N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde (Ac-DEVD-CHO), inhibited the apoptotic cell death of leiomyomal cells induced by SB. The Caspase 3-like activity in leiomyomal cells LM-1 and LM-2 increased after the addition of SB. Cytochrome C was released from mitochondria into the cytosol 8h after the addition of SB, and reached a peak at 16h. The peak of Cytochrome C release was earlier than that of Caspase 3-like activity. We concluded that SB inhibited the growth of the leiomyomal cells and induced apoptosis. The apoptosis of leiomyomal cells induced by SB was associated with the release of Cytochrome C from the mitochondria, followed by an increase in Caspase 3-like activity.

  4. Muscular activity and its relationship to biomechanics and human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Gideon

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to address the issue of muscular activity, human motion, fitness, and exercise. Human activity is reviewed from the historical perspective as well as from the basics of muscular contraction, nervous system controls, mechanics, and biomechanical considerations. In addition, attention has been given to some of the principles involved in developing muscular adaptations through strength development. Brief descriptions and findings from a few studies are included. These experiments were conducted in order to investigate muscular adaptation to various exercise regimens. Different theories of strength development were studied and correlated to daily human movements. All measurement tools used represent state of the art exercise equipment and movement analysis. The information presented here is only a small attempt to understand the effects of exercise and conditioning on Earth with the objective of leading to greater knowledge concerning human responses during spaceflight. What makes life from nonliving objects is movement which is generated and controlled by biochemical substances. In mammals. the controlled activators are skeletal muscles and this muscular action is an integral process composed of mechanical, chemical, and neurological processes resulting in voluntary and involuntary motions. The scope of this discussion is limited to voluntary motion.

  5. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  6. Random mitotic activities across human embryonic stem cell colonies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Q.; Duggan, R.; Dasa, S.; Li, F.; Chen, L. (Biosciences Division)

    2010-08-01

    A systemic and quantitative study was performed to examine whether different levels of mitotic activities, assessed by the percentage of S-phase cells at any given time point, existed at different physical regions of human embryonic stem (hES) cell colonies at 2, 4, 6 days after cell passaging. Mitotically active cells were identified by the positive incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) within their newly synthesized DNA. Our data indicated that mitotically active cells were often distributed as clusters randomly across the colonies within the examined growth period, presumably resulting from local deposition of newly divided cells. This latter notion was further demonstrated by the confined growth of enhanced green florescence protein (EGFP) expressing cells amongst non-GFP expressing cells. Furthermore, the overall percentage of mitotically active cells remained constantly at about 50% throughout the 6-day culture period, indicating mitotic activities of hES cell cultures were time-independent under current growth conditions.

  7. Current concepts of active vasodilation in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brett J.; Hollowed, Casey G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In humans, an increase in internal core temperature elicits large increases in skin blood flow and sweating. The increase in skin blood flow serves to transfer heat via convection from the body core to the skin surface while sweating results in evaporative cooling of the skin. Cutaneous vasodilation and sudomotor activity are controlled by a sympathetic cholinergic active vasodilator system that is hypothesized to operate through a co-transmission mechanism. To date, mechanisms of cutaneous active vasodilation remain equivocal despite many years of research by several productive laboratory groups. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advancements in the field of cutaneous active vasodilation framed in the context of some of the historical findings that laid the groundwork for our current understanding of cutaneous active vasodilation.

  8. Transcriptional Activity of Human Endogenous Retroviruses in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Balestrieri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs have been implicated in human physiology and in human pathology. A better knowledge of the retroviral transcriptional activity in the general population and during the life span would greatly help the debate on its pathologic potential. The transcriptional activity of four HERV families (H, K, W, and E was assessed, by qualitative and quantitative PCR, in PBMCs from 261 individuals aged from 1 to 80 years. Our results show that HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W, but not HERV-E, are transcriptionally active in the test population already in the early childhood. In addition, the transcriptional levels of HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W change significantly during the life span, albeit with distinct patterns. Our results, reinforce the hypothesis of a physiological correlation between HERVs activity and the different stages of life in humans. Studies aiming at identifying the factors, which are responsible for these changes during the individual’s life, are still needed. Although the observed phenomena are presumably subjected to great variability, the basal transcriptional activity of each individual, also depending on the different ages of life, must be carefully considered in all the studies involving HERVs as causative agents of disease.

  9. Expression of immunoreactive urocortin in human tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qing; Vicki L Clifton; CUI Ying; HUI Ning; ZHOU Xiao-ning; HE Qian; HAN Qing-feng; SHA Jin-yan; Roger Smith

    2001-01-01

    To localize where urocortin is expressed in human tissue in an attempt to study its physiological functions. Methods: Expression of immunoreactive urocortin in different human tissue was examined using a specific urocortin antibody and the immunoperoxidase staining method. Results: Immunoreactive urocortin was observed in the anterior pituitary cells, decidual stromal cells, syncytiotrophoblasts, amnion epithelium, the vascular smooth muscles of myometrium, fallopian tube and small intestine. Conclusion: The study indicates that urocortin is expressed in some specific areas of human tissue. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that urocortin is produced locally as an endocrine factor, which may act as a neural regulator and a regulator of local blood flow.

  10. Endomorphins fully activate a cloned human mu opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J; Strong, J A; Zhang, S; Yue, X; DeHaven, R N; Daubert, J D; Cassel, J A; Yu, G; Mansson, E; Yu, L

    1998-11-13

    Endomorphins were recently identified as endogenous ligands with high selectivity for mu opioid receptors. We have characterized the ability of endomorphins to bind to and functionally activate the cloned human mu opioid receptor. Both endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 exhibited binding selectivity for the mu opioid receptor over the delta and kappa opioid receptors. Both agonists inhibited forskolin-stimulated increase of cAMP in a dose-dependent fashion. When the mu opioid receptor was coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with G protein-activated K+ channels, application of either endomorphin activated an inward K+ current. This activation was dose-dependent and blocked by naloxone. Both endomorphins acted as full agonists with efficacy similar to that of [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO). These data indicate that endomorphins act as full agonists at the human mu opioid receptor, capable of stimulating the receptor to inhibit the cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway and activate G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels.

  11. Vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator is quiescent in human plasma in the absence of fibrin unlike human tissue plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, S J; Hare, T R; Bergum, P W; Cuca, G C; O'Neill-Palladino, L; Zavodny, S M

    1990-12-15

    The vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (Bat-PA) is a potent PA that exhibits remarkable selectivity toward fibrin-bound plasminogen (Gardell et al, J Biol Chem 256: 3568, 1989). Herein, we describe the activity of recombinant DNA-derived Bat-PA (rBat-PA) in a human plasma milieu. rBat-PA and recombinant human single-chain tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are similarly efficacious at lysing plasma clots. In stark contrast to rt-PA, the addition of 250 nmol/L rBat-PA to plasma in the absence of a clot failed to deplete plasminogen, alpha 2-antiplasmin and fibrinogen. The lytic activities exhibited by finger-domain minus Bat-PA (F- rBat-PA) and finger and epidermal growth factor-like domains minus Bat-PA (FG- rBat-PA) were less than rBat-PA, especially at low concentrations of PA; nevertheless, these truncated forms also possessed a strict requirement for a fibrin cofactor. The loss of PA activity following the addition of rBat-PA to plasma was slower than that observed when either rt-PA or two-chain rt-PA was added. The efficacy, fibrin selectivity, and decreased susceptibility to inactivation exhibited by rBat-PA in vitro in a human plasma milieu suggests that rBat-PA may be superior to rt-PA for the treatment of thrombotic complications.

  12. Activities of human RRP6 and structure of the human RRP6 catalytic domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januszyk, Kurt; Liu, Quansheng; Lima, Christopher D. (SKI)

    2011-08-29

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is a highly conserved multi-subunit complex that catalyzes degradation and processing of coding and noncoding RNA. A noncatalytic nine-subunit exosome core interacts with Rrp44 and Rrp6, two subunits that possess processive and distributive 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity, respectively. While both Rrp6 and Rrp44 are responsible for RNA processing in budding yeast, Rrp6 may play a more prominent role in processing, as it has been demonstrated to be inhibited by stable RNA secondary structure in vitro and because the null allele in budding yeast leads to the buildup of specific structured RNA substrates. Human RRP6, otherwise known as PM/SCL-100 or EXOSC10, shares sequence similarity to budding yeast Rrp6 and is proposed to catalyze 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity on a variety of nuclear transcripts including ribosomal RNA subunits, RNA that has been poly-adenylated by TRAMP, as well as other nuclear RNA transcripts destined for processing and/or destruction. To characterize human RRP6, we expressed the full-length enzyme as well as truncation mutants that retain catalytic activity, compared their activities to analogous constructs for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rrp6, and determined the X-ray structure of a human construct containing the exoribonuclease and HRDC domains that retains catalytic activity. Structural data show that the human active site is more exposed when compared to the yeast structure, and biochemical data suggest that this feature may play a role in the ability of human RRP6 to productively engage and degrade structured RNA substrates more effectively than the analogous budding yeast enzyme.

  13. Human mediator subunit MED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsubo, Takuya; Nishitani, Saori; Kikuchi, Yuko; Iida, Satoshi; Yamada, Kana; Tanaka, Aki; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex is an essential transcriptional cofactor of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, it contains up to 30 subunits and consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. One of the subunits, MED15, is located in the tail module, and was initially identified as Gal11 in budding yeast, where it plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of galactose metabolism with the potent transcriptional activator Gal4. For this reason, we investigated the function of the human MED15 subunit (hMED15) in transcriptional activation. First, we measured the effect of hMED15 knockdown on cell growth in HeLa cells. The growth rate was greatly reduced. By immunostaining, we observed the colocalization of hMED15 with the general transcription factors TFIIE and TFIIH in the nucleus. We measured the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of hMED15 on transcriptional activation using two different transcriptional activators, VP16 and SREBP1a. Treatment with siRNAs reduced transcriptional activation, and this reduction could be rescued by overexpression of HA/Flag-tagged, wild-type hMED15. To investigate hMED15 localization, we treated human MCF-7 cells with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, thus inducing p21 transcription. We found that hMED15 localized to both the p53 binding site and the p21 promoter region, along with TFIIE and TFIIH. These results indicate that hMED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

  14. Optimal Recognition Method of Human Activities Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oniga Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is an exhaustive analysis of the various factors that may influence the recognition rate of the human activity using wearable sensors data. We made a total of 1674 simulations on a publically released human activity database by a group of researcher from the University of California at Berkeley. In a previous research, we analyzed the influence of the number of sensors and their placement. In the present research we have examined the influence of the number of sensor nodes, the type of sensor node, preprocessing algorithms, type of classifier and its parameters. The final purpose is to find the optimal setup for best recognition rates with lowest hardware and software costs.

  15. Ontology-based improvement to human activity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, David; Bonial, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Human activity recognition has often prioritized low-level features extracted from imagery or video over higher-level class attributes and ontologies because they have traditionally been more effective on small datasets. However, by including knowledge-driven associations between actions and attributes while recognizing the lower-level attributes with their temporal relationships, we can attempt a hybrid approach that is more easily extensible to much larger datasets. We demonstrate a combination of hard and soft features with a comparison factor that prioritizes one approach over the other with a relative weight. We then exhaustively search over the comparison factor to evaluate the performance of a hybrid human activity recognition approach in comparison to the base hard approach at 84% accuracy and the current state-of-the-art.

  16. Human psychophysiological activity monitoring methods using fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Uzieblo-Zyczkowska, B.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of fiber optic sensor system for human psycho-physical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes optical phase interferometry or intensity in modalmetric to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an optical fiber interferometer that includes an optical fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled into the optical fiber. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use.

  17. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-06-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  18. [Erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum activate human platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, B; Peyron, F; Sheick Zadiuddin, I; Kolodié, L; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1990-01-01

    Blood platelets are involved in Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathology as shown by thrombocytopenia and increased plasma level of two alpha granule proteins: beta thromboglobulin (beta TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF4). In this study we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes activate directly the secretion of beta TG and PF4 by human platelets. This secretion is related to parasitemia and occurs immediately after contact. Treatment of parasited erythrocytes by trypsin and diffusion chamber experiments suggest that platelet activation is triggered by parasitic substances shed on erythrocyte membrane and released in the culture medium.

  19. Interactions between cardiac, respiratory, and brain activity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musizza, Bojan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    The electrical activity of the heart (ECG), respiratory function and electric activity of the brain (EEG) were simultaneously recorded in conscious, healthy humans. Instantaneous frequencies of the heart beat, respiration and α-waves were then determined from 30-minutes recordings. The instantaneous cardiac frequency was defined as the inverse value of the time interval between two consecutive R-peaks. The instantaneous respiratory frequency was obtained from recordings of the excursions of thorax by application of the Hilbert transform. To obtain the instantaneous frequency of α-waves, the EEG signal recorded from the forehead was first analysed using the wavelet transform. Then the frequency band corresponding to α-waves was extracted and the Hilbert transform applied. Synchronization analysis was performed and the direction of coupling was ascertained, using pairs of instantaneous frequencies in each case. It is shown that the systems are weakly bidirectionally coupled. It was confirmed that, in conscious healthy humans, respiration drives cardiac activity. We also demonstrate from these analyses that α-activity drives both respiration and cardiac activity.

  20. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates.

  1. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, N.; Dereymaeker, A.; Räsänen, O.; Jansen, K.; Vervisch, J.; Matic, V.; Naulaers, G.; De Vos, M.; Van Huffel, S.; Vanhatalo, S.

    2016-01-01

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. PMID:26876605

  2. Evidence for thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase activity in human saliva.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowman, R A; Baron, S S; Obenauf, S D; Byrnes, J J

    1983-01-01

    A procedure was developed for determining the relative levels of lactoperoxidase, leukocyte myeloperoxidase, and thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase in human saliva. With this procedure, most of the peroxidase activity in whole saliva from normal (those without cancer) subjects was found to be associated with lactoperoxidase and thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase, with only a minor contribution from leukocyte myeloperoxidase. In contrast, thiocyanate-sensitive peroxidase and leukocyte myeloperoxid...

  3. Human Glycinamide Ribonucleotide Transformylase: Active Site Mutants as Mechanistic Probes†

    OpenAIRE

    Manieri, Wanda; Moore, Molly E.; Soellner, Matthew B.; Tsang, Pearl; Caperelli, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Human glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase (GART) (EC2.1.2.2) is a validated target for cancer chemotherapy, but mechanistic studies of this therapeutically important enzyme are limited. Site-directed mutagenesis, initial velocity studies, pH-rate studies, and substrate binding studies have been employed to probe the role of the strictly conserved active site residues, N106, H108, D144, and the semi-conserved K170 in substrate binding and catalysis. Only two conservative substitutions, N...

  4. Asbestos exposure increases human bronchial epithelial cell fibrinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Gruenert, D C; Peterson, M W

    1993-03-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos fibers results in fibrotic lung disease. The distal pulmonary epithelium is an early target of asbestos-mediated injury. Local plasmin activity may be important in modulating endoluminal inflammatory responses in the lung. We studied the effects of asbestos exposure on cell-mediated plasma clot lysis as a marker of pericellular plasminogen activation. Exposing human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to 100 micrograms/ml of asbestos fibers for 24 h resulted in increased plasma clot lysis. Fibrinolytic activity was augmented in a dose-dependent fashion, was not due to secreted protease, and occurred only when there was direct contact between the plasma clot and the epithelial monolayer. Further analysis showed that asbestos exposure increased HBE cell-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in a time-dependent manner. The increased cell-associated PA activity could be removed by acid washing. The increase in PA activity following asbestos exposure required new protein synthesis because it was abrogated by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Therefore, asbestos exposure increases epithelial-mediated fibrinolysis by augmenting expression of uPA activity at the cell surface by mechanisms that require new RNA and protein synthesis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby exposure of the distal epithelium to inhaled particulates may result in a chronic inflammatory response that culminates in the development of fibrotic lung disease.

  5. Human brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming; Chance, Britton

    1999-09-01

    Human brain activity was studied with a real time functional Near-InfraRed Imager (fNIRI). The imager has 16 measurement channels and covers 4 cm by 9 cm detection area. Brain activities in occipital, motor and prefrontal area were studied with the fNIRI. In prefrontal stimulation, language cognition, analogies, forming memory for new associations, emotional thinking, and mental arithmetic were carried out. Experimental results measured with fNIRI are demonstrated in this paper. It was shown that fNIRI technique is able to reveal the occipital activity during visual stimulation, and co-register well with results of fMRI in the motor cortex activity during finger tapping. In the studies of the effects of left prefrontal lobe on forming memory for new associations, it is shown that left prefrontal lobe activated more under deep conditions than that under shallow encoding, especially the dorsal part. In the studies of emotional thinking, it was shown that the responses were different between positive- negative emotional thinking and negative-positive emotional thinking. In mental arithmetic studies, higher activation was found in the first task than in the second, regardless of the difficulty, and higher activation was measured in subtraction of 17 than in subtraction of 3.

  6. Activity of protease-activated receptors in primary cultured human myenteric neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Kugler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the four known protease-activated receptors (PARs has been well studied in rodent enteric nervous system and results in animal models established an important role for neuronal PAR2. We recently demonstrated that, unlike in rodents, PAR1 is the dominant neuronal protease receptor in the human submucous plexus. With this study we investigated whether this also applies to the human myenteric plexus. We used voltage sensitive dye recordings to detect action potential discharge in primary cultures of human myenteric neurons in response to PAR activating peptides (AP. Application of the PAR1-AP (TFLLR or PAR4-AP (GYPGQV evoked spike discharge in 79% or 23% of myenteric neurons, respectively. The PAR1-AP response was mimicked by the endogenous PAR1 activator thrombin and blocked by the PAR1 antagonists SCH79797. Human myenteric neurons did not respond to PAR2-AP. This was not due to culture conditions because all three PAR-APs evoked action potentials in cultured guinea pig myenteric neurons. Consecutive application of PAR-APs revealed coexpression (relative to the population responding to PAR-APs of PAR1/PAR2 in 51%, PAR1/PAR4 in 43% and of PAR2/PAR4 in 29% of guinea pig myenteric neurons. Our study provided further evidence for the prominent role of neuronal PAR1 in the human enteric nervous system.

  7. Human Activity Recognition as Time-Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyesuk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a system that can recognize daily human activities with a Kinect-style depth camera. Our system utilizes a set of view-invariant features and the hidden state conditional random field (HCRF model to recognize human activities from the 3D body pose stream provided by MS Kinect API or OpenNI. Many high-level daily activities can be regarded as having a hierarchical structure where multiple subactivities are performed sequentially or iteratively. In order to model effectively these high-level daily activities, we utilized a multiclass HCRF model, which is a kind of probabilistic graphical models. In addition, in order to get view-invariant, but more informative features, we extract joint angles from the subject’s skeleton model and then perform the feature transformation to obtain three different types of features regarding motion, structure, and hand positions. Through various experiments using two different datasets, KAD-30 and CAD-60, the high performance of our system is verified.

  8. Human temporal lobe activation by speech and nonspeech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J R; Frost, J A; Hammeke, T A; Bellgowan, P S; Springer, J A; Kaufman, J N; Possing, E T

    2000-05-01

    Functional organization of the lateral temporal cortex in humans is not well understood. We recorded blood oxygenation signals from the temporal lobes of normal volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation with unstructured noise, frequency-modulated (FM) tones, reversed speech, pseudowords and words. For all conditions, subjects performed a material-nonspecific detection response when a train of stimuli began or ceased. Dorsal areas surrounding Heschl's gyrus bilaterally, particularly the planum temporale and dorsolateral superior temporal gyrus, were more strongly activated by FM tones than by noise, suggesting a role in processing simple temporally encoded auditory information. Distinct from these dorsolateral areas, regions centered in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally were more activated by speech stimuli than by FM tones. Identical results were obtained in this region using words, pseudowords and reversed speech, suggesting that the speech-tones activation difference is due to acoustic rather than linguistic factors. In contrast, previous comparisons between word and nonword speech sounds showed left-lateralized activation differences in more ventral temporal and temporoparietal regions that are likely involved in processing lexical-semantic or syntactic information associated with words. The results indicate functional subdivision of the human lateral temporal cortex and provide a preliminary framework for understanding the cortical processing of speech sounds.

  9. Differences in transcriptional activity of cutaneous human papillomaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa; Nielsen, Lone; Doherty, Geoff;

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between UV-B irradiation and cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been suggested to be of relevance for the development of non-melanoma skin cancers. We investigated the activity within the upstream regulatory region (URR) of the HPV types 8, 38, 92, 93 and 96, as well...... and 96 URR was up-regulated by cellular differentiation, linking the activity of these HPVs to the cellular state. UV-B irradiation activated HPV-8 but inhibited HPV-38 and HPV-93 whereas HPV-92 and 96 were not affected. As there are variable UV-B responses among the HPV types, further studies...... of interactions between UV-B and HPV need to consider the HPV type....

  10. Listening to humans walking together activates the social brain circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.

  11. Structural divergence of GPI-80 in activated human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitto, Takeaki; Takeda, Yuji; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Sendo, Fujiro; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2007-07-27

    GPI-80 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that is mainly expressed in human neutrophils. Previous studies using 3H9, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against GPI-80, suggested that GPI-80 regulates leukocyte adherence and migration through Mac-1. GPI-80, which is anchored at the plasma membrane in resting neutrophils, moves into the pseudopodia and is released from activated human neutrophils. Here, we demonstrate that neutrophil activation affects GPI-80 dynamics using a new anti-GPI-80 mAb, designated 4D4, which is directed against the form of GPI-80 found on resting human neutrophils. Similar to 3H9, 4D4 influences Mac-1-dependent neutrophil adhesion. Treatment of purified GPI-80 with periodic acid and trypsin indicated that 3H9 and 4D4 recognize peptide and carbohydrate moieties, respectively. Stimulation with fMLP decreased the binding of 4D4 to GPI-80 on the neutrophil surface but increased the overall expression of GPI-80, as visualized by the 3H9 signal. Confocal laser microscopy revealed the 4D4 signal mainly on cell bodies and at a low level on pseudopodia during migration toward increasing concentrations of fMLP, whereas the 3H9 signal was observed in both areas. In addition, soluble GPI-80 released from activated neutrophils did not bind 4D4. These results suggest that there are two populations of GPI-80 that differ in the ability to bind 4D4. The 4D4-recognized form may regulate Mac-1-dependent neutrophil adhesion, and may subsequently be converted to a 4D4-unrecognized form during neutrophil activation.

  12. Nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshinari; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Shin, Seung-Heon; Ponikau, Jens U; Kita, Hirohito

    2005-10-15

    Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. In this study we investigated whether human eosinophils have an innate immune response to certain fungal organisms. We incubated human eosinophils with extracts from seven environmental airborne fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia spicifera, and Penicillium notatum). Alternaria and Penicillium induced calcium-dependent exocytosis (e.g., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release) in eosinophils from normal individuals. Alternaria also strongly induced other activation events in eosinophils, including increases in intracellular calcium concentration, cell surface expression of CD63 and CD11b, and production of IL-8. Other fungi did not induce eosinophil degranulation, and Alternaria did not induce neutrophil activation, suggesting specificity for fungal species and cell type. The Alternaria-induced eosinophil degranulation was pertussis toxin sensitive and desensitized by preincubating cells with G protein-coupled receptor agonists, platelet-activating factor, or FMLP. The eosinophil-stimulating activity in Alternaria extract was highly heat labile and had an M(r) of approximately 60 kDa. Thus, eosinophils, but not neutrophils, possess G protein-dependent cellular activation machinery that directly responds to an Alternaria protein product(s). This innate response by eosinophils to certain environmental fungi may be important in host defense and in the exacerbation of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases.

  13. Effect of magnesium ion on human osteoblast activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Y. He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium, a promising biodegradable metal, has been reported in several studies to increase bone formation. Although there is some information regarding the concentrations of magnesium ions that affect bone remodeling at a cellular level, little is known about the effect of magnesium ions on cell gap junctions. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically investigate the effects of different concentrations of magnesium on bone cells, and further evaluate its effect on gap junctions of osteoblasts. Cultures of normal human osteoblasts were treated with magnesium ions at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3 mM, for 24, 48 and 72 h. The effects of magnesium ions on viability and function of normal human osteoblasts and on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC in osteoblasts were investigated. Magnesium ions induced significant (P<0.05 increases in cell viability, alkaline phosphate activity and osteocalcin levels of human osteoblasts. These stimulatory actions were positively associated with the concentration of magnesium and the time of exposure. Furthermore, the GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly promoted by magnesium ions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that magnesium ions induced the activity of osteoblasts by enhancing GJIC between cells, and influenced bone formation. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the influence of magnesium on bone remodeling and to the advance of its application in clinical practice.

  14. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  15. Multi-dimensional dynamics of human electromagnetic brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo eKida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency, which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  16. Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  17. Human activity and damaging landslides and floods on Madeira Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baioni, D.

    2011-11-01

    Over the last few decades, the island of Madeira has become an important offshore tourism and business center, with rapid economic and demographic development that has caused changes to the landscape due to human activity. In Madeira's recent history, there has been an increase over time in the frequency of occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events. As a result, the costs of restoration work due to damage caused by landslide and flood events have become a larger and larger component of Madeira's annual budget. Landslides and floods in Madeira deserve particular attention because they represent the most serious hazard to human life, to property, and to the natural environment and its important heritage value. The work reported on in this paper involved the analysis of historical data regarding damaging landslide and flood events on Madeira (in particular from 1941 to 1991) together with data on geological characteristics, topographic features, and climate, and from field observations. This analysis showed that the main factor triggering the occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events is rainfall, but that the increase in the number of damaging events recorded on Madeira Island, especially in recent times, seems to be related mostly to human activity, specifically to economic development and population growth, rather than to natural factors.

  18. Human activity and damaging landslides and floods on Madeira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baioni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the island of Madeira has become an important offshore tourism and business center, with rapid economic and demographic development that has caused changes to the landscape due to human activity. In Madeira's recent history, there has been an increase over time in the frequency of occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events. As a result, the costs of restoration work due to damage caused by landslide and flood events have become a larger and larger component of Madeira's annual budget. Landslides and floods in Madeira deserve particular attention because they represent the most serious hazard to human life, to property, and to the natural environment and its important heritage value.

    The work reported on in this paper involved the analysis of historical data regarding damaging landslide and flood events on Madeira (in particular from 1941 to 1991 together with data on geological characteristics, topographic features, and climate, and from field observations. This analysis showed that the main factor triggering the occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events is rainfall, but that the increase in the number of damaging events recorded on Madeira Island, especially in recent times, seems to be related mostly to human activity, specifically to economic development and population growth, rather than to natural factors.

  19. ras activation in human tumors and in animal model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, M.; Sloan, S.R.; Leon, J.; Kamino, Hideko; Newcomb, E.W.; Pellicer, A. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Environmental agents such as radiation and chemicals are known to cause genetic damage. Alterations in a limited set of cellular genes called proto-oncogenes lead to unregulated proliferation and differentiation. The authors have studied the role of the ras gene family in carcinogenesis using two different animal models. In one case, thymic lymphomas were induced in mice by either gamma or neutron radiation, and in the other, keratoacanthomas were induced in rabbit skin with dimethylbenzanthracene. Human keratoacanthomas similar to the ones induced in rabbits were also analyzed. They found that different types of radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons, induced different point mutations in ras genes. A novel K-ras mutation in codon 146 has been found in thymic lymphomas induced by neutrons. Keratoacanthomas induced in rabbit skin by dimethylbenzanthracene show a high frequency of H-ras-activated genes carrying a mutation in codon 61. The same is observed in human keratoacanthomas, although mutations are in both the 12th and the 61st codons of the H-ras gene. H-ras activation is less frequent in human squamous cell carcinomas than in keratoacanthomas, suggesting that ras genes could play a role in vivo in differentiation as well as in proliferation.

  20. Human B cell activating factor (BCAF): production by a human T cell tumor line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevrier, M; Diu, A; Mollier, P; Abadie, A; Olive, D; Mawas, C; Theze, J

    1989-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that supernatants from human T cell clones stimulated by a pair of anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies cause resting human B cells to become activated and to proliferate in the absence of any other signals. The activity responsible for these effects was shown to be different from already characterized lymphokines and in particular from IL-2 and IL-4, and was named B Cell Activating Factor or BCAF. In this paper, we describe the production of BCAF by a human T cell tumor line T687 after phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation; this production can be potentiated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). We further show that the stimulatory phase can be separated from the secretory phase thereby avoiding contamination of BCAF-containing supernatant by PMA and PHA. Supernatants produced under these conditions do not contain either IL-4 or IFN but contain traces of lymphotoxin and 2 to 10 ng/ml of IL-2. The T687 cell line will allow us to obtain a large volume of supernatant for biochemical study and purification of the molecule(s) responsible for BCAF activity.

  1. [Human social activity under conditions of relative social isolation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhvatilov, A Iu

    1992-01-01

    The differences in using a "social isolation" concept in the psychological literature are presented. The term of "relative social isolation" is clarified. A relationship between human adaptation to the relative social isolation environments and the development of his social qualities and social activities is presented. The "social context", dictating motivation attitudes of a man to the isolation situation, emotional experiences, self-appraisal of activity is of crucial importance for evaluating the real environments of relative social isolations. Social activity of a personality is studied as the relations of a man with the conditions of his activity. The results of studying the dynamics of the psychic state of a man during individual and group isolation are compared. It is concluded that social activity of man and his functional state are interrelated. The particular manifestations and direction of the changes in the social activity of the subject depend on the duration of isolation and are determined first of all by social significance and meaningful and balanced work for a person as well as by the amount and frequency of direct and mediated social contacts under specific conditions of relative social isolation.

  2. Mechanism of human natural killer cell activation by Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Janowicz, Diane M; Fortney, Kate R; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2009-08-15

    The role of natural killer (NK) cells in the host response to Haemophilus ducreyi infection is unclear. In pustules obtained from infected human volunteers, there was an enrichment of CD56bright NK cells bearing the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, compared with peripheral blood. To study the mechanism by which H. ducreyi activated NK cells, we used peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected volunteers. H. ducreyi activated NK cells only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells. H. ducreyi-infected monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages activated NK cells in a contact- and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-dependent manner, whereas monocyte-derived dendritic cells induced NK activation through soluble IL-12. More lesional NK cells than peripheral blood NK cells produced IFN-gamma in response to IL-12 and IL-18. We conclude that NK cells are recruited to experimental lesions and likely are activated by infected macrophages and dendritic cells. IFN-gamma produced by lesional NK cells may facilitate phagocytosis of H. ducreyi.

  3. Acetaminophen induces human neuroblastoma cell death through NFKB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Posadas

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma resistance to apoptosis may contribute to the aggressive behavior of this tumor. Therefore, it would be relevant to activate endogenous cellular death mechanisms as a way to improve neuroblastoma therapy. We used the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as a model to study the mechanisms involved in acetaminophen (AAP-mediated toxicity by measuring CYP2E1 enzymatic activity, NFkB p65 subunit activation and translocation to the nucleus, Bax accumulation into the mitochondria, cytochrome c release and caspase activation. AAP activates the intrinsic death pathway in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. AAP metabolism is partially responsible for this activation, because blockade of the cytochrome CYP2E1 significantly reduced but did not totally prevent, AAP-induced SH-SY5Y cell death. AAP also induced NFkB p65 activation by phosphorylation and its translocation to the nucleus, where NFkB p65 increased IL-1β production. This increase contributed to neuroblastoma cell death through a mechanism involving Bax accumulation into the mitochondria, cytochrome c release and caspase3 activation. Blockade of NFkB translocation to the nucleus by the peptide SN50 prevented AAP-mediated cell death and IL-1β production. Moreover, overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-x(L did not decrease AAP-mediated IL-1β production, but prevented both AAP and IL-1β-mediated cell death. We also confirmed the AAP toxic actions on SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma and U87MG glioblastoma cell lines. The results presented here suggest that AAP activates the intrinsic death pathway in neuroblastoma cells through a mechanism involving NFkB and IL-1β.

  4. Activation-induced force enhancement in human adductor pollicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2009-10-01

    It has been known for a long time that the steady-state isometric force after muscle stretch is bigger than the corresponding force obtained in a purely isometric contraction for electrically stimulated and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Recent studies using sub-maximal voluntary contractions showed that force enhancement only occurred in a sub-group of subjects suggesting that force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions has properties different from those of electrically-induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Specifically, force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions may contain an activation-dependent component that is independent of muscle stretching. To address this hypothesis, we tested for force enhancement using (i) sub-maximal electrically-induced contractions and stretch and (ii) using various activation levels preceding an isometric reference contraction at 30% of MVC (no stretch). All tests were performed on human adductor pollicis muscles. Force enhancement following stretching was found for all subjects (n=10) and all activation levels (10%, 30%, and 60% of MVC) for electrically-induced contractions. In contrast, force enhancement at 30% of MVC, preceded by 6s of 10%, 60%, and 100% of MVC was only found in a sub-set of the subjects and only for the 60% and 100% conditions. This result suggests that there is an activation-dependent force enhancement for some subjects for sub-maximal voluntary contractions. This activation-dependent force enhancement was always smaller than the stretch-induced force enhancement obtained at the corresponding activation levels. Active muscle stretching increased the force enhancement in all subjects, independent whether they showed activation dependence or not. It appears that post-activation potentiation, and the associated phosphorylation of the myosin light chains, might account for the stretch-independent force enhancement observed here.

  5. Activation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeli, Stefan; Böhnke, Jana; Feldpausch, Mareike; Gorzelniak, Kerstin; Janke, Jürgen; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Harvey-White, Judy; Luft, Friedrich C; Sharma, Arya M; Jordan, Jens

    2005-10-01

    Obesity is the main risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Activation of the central endocannabinoid system increases food intake and promotes weight gain. Blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB-1) receptor reduces body weight in animals by central and peripheral actions; the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity is now being extensively investigated. We measured circulating endocannabinoid concentrations and studied the expression of CB-1 and the main degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), in adipose tissue of lean (n = 20) and obese (n = 20) women and after a 5% weight loss in a second group of women (n = 17). Circulating levels of anandamide and 1/2-arachidonoylglycerol were increased by 35 and 52% in obese compared with lean women (P obese subjects (P endocannabinoids. Circulating endocannabinoids and CB-1 or FAAH expression were not affected by 5% weight loss. The expression of CB-1 and FAAH was increased in mature human adipocytes compared with in preadipocytes and was found in several human tissues. Our findings support the presence of a peripheral endocannabinoid system that is upregulated in human obesity.

  6. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  7. Circadian pattern and burstiness in human communication activity

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    The temporal pattern of human communication is inhomogeneous and bursty, as reflected by the heavy tail distribution of the inter-event times. For the origin of this behavior two main mechanisms have been suggested: a) Externally driven inhomogeneities due to the circadian and weekly activity patterns and b) intrinsic correlation based inhomogeneity rooted deeply in the task handling strategies of humans. Here we address this question by providing systematic de-seasoning methods to remove the circadian and weekly patterns from the time series of communication events. We find that the heavy tails of the inter-event time distributions are robust with respect to this procedure indicating that burstiness is mostly caused by the latter mechanism b). Moreover, we find that our de-seasoning procedure improves the scaling behavior of the distribution.

  8. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  9. High Accuracy Human Activity Monitoring using Neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Annapurna; Chung, Wan-Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the designing of a neural network for the classification of Human activity. A Triaxial accelerometer sensor, housed in a chest worn sensor unit, has been used for capturing the acceleration of the movements associated. All the three axis acceleration data were collected at a base station PC via a CC2420 2.4GHz ISM band radio (zigbee wireless compliant), processed and classified using MATLAB. A neural network approach for classification was used with an eye on theoretical and empirical facts. The work shows a detailed description of the designing steps for the classification of human body acceleration data. A 4-layer back propagation neural network, with Levenberg-marquardt algorithm for training, showed best performance among the other neural network training algorithms.

  10. Evaluation of Hemagglutination Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Muniz de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4 D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L−1. The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH.

  11. Evaluation of hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L(-1). The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH.

  12. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  13. Workshop on Human Activity at Scale in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Melissa R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aziz, H. M. Abdul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coletti, Mark A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kennedy, Joseph H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sujithkumar S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-26

    Changing human activity within a geographical location may have significant influence on the global climate, but that activity must be parameterized in such a way as to allow these high-resolution sub-grid processes to affect global climate within that modeling framework. Additionally, we must have tools that provide decision support and inform local and regional policies regarding mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. The development of next-generation earth system models, that can produce actionable results with minimum uncertainties, depends on understanding global climate change and human activity interactions at policy implementation scales. Unfortunately, at best we currently have only limited schemes for relating high-resolution sectoral emissions to real-time weather, ultimately to become part of larger regions and well-mixed atmosphere. Moreover, even our understanding of meteorological processes at these scales is imperfect. This workshop addresses these shortcomings by providing a forum for discussion of what we know about these processes, what we can model, where we have gaps in these areas and how we can rise to the challenge to fill these gaps.

  14. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus IE2 protein interacts with transcription activating factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Jinping(徐进平); YE; Linbai(叶林柏)

    2002-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE86 Cdna was cloned into Pgex-2T and fusion protein GST-IE86 was expressed in E. Coli. SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay indicated that fusion protein GST-IE86 with molecular weight of 92 ku is soluble in the supernatant of cell lysate. Protein GST and fusion protein GST-IE86 were purified by affinity chromatography. The technology of co-separation and specific affinity chromatography was used to study the interactions of HCMV IE86 protein with some transcriptional regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors. The results indicated that IE86 interacts separately with transcriptional factor TFIIB and promoter DNA binding transcription trans-activating factors SP1, AP1 and AP2 to form a heterogenous protein complex. These transcriptional trans-activating factors, transcriptional factor and IE86 protein were adsorbed and retained in the affinity chromatography simultaneously. But IE86 protein could not interact with NF-Кb, suggesting that the function of IE86 protein that can interact with transcriptional factor and transcriptional trans-activating factors has no relevance to protein glycosylation. IE86 protein probably has two domains responsible for binding transcriptional trans-activating regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors respectively, thus activating the transcription of many genes. The interactions accelerated the assembly of the transcriptional initiation complexes.

  16. Design of phosphorylated dendritic architectures to promote human monocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupot, Mary; Griffe, Laurent; Marchand, Patrice; Maraval, Alexandrine; Rolland, Olivier; Martinet, Ludovic; L'Faqihi-Olive, Fatima-Ezzahra; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Poupot, Rémy

    2006-11-01

    As first defensive line, monocytes are a pivotal cell population of innate immunity. Monocyte activation can be relevant to a range of immune conditions and responses. Here we present new insights into the activation of monocytes by a series of phosphonic acid-terminated, phosphorus-containing dendrimers. Various dendritic or subdendritic structures were synthesized and tested, revealing the basic structural requirements for monocyte activation. We showed that multivalent character and phosphonic acid capping of dendrimers are crucial for monocyte targeting and activation. Confocal videomicroscopy showed that a fluorescein-tagged dendrimer binds to isolated monocytes and gets internalized within a few seconds. We also found that dendrimers follow the phagolysosomial route during internalization by monocytes. Finally, we performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments between a specifically designed fluorescent dendrimer and phycoerythrin-coupled antibodies. We showed that the typical innate Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 is clearly involved, but not alone, in the sensing of dendrimers by monocytes. In conclusion, phosphorus-containing dendrimers appear as precisely tunable nanobiotools able to target and activate human innate immunity and thus prove to be good candidates to develop new drugs for immunotherapies.

  17. Automated conductimetric assay of human serum cholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P; Wallach, J M

    1989-01-01

    Serum cholinesterase activity was determined by conductimetry using samples in the microliter range. Butyrylcholine iodide was demonstrated to be a convenient substrate for the conductimetric assay. Validation of the microassay was made by using either purified enzyme or control serum. In the range of 0-60 U/l, a linear relationship was demonstrated. Correlation with a reference spectrophotometric method was obtained with a slope of 1.18. An explanation of this value is proposed, as different hydrolysis rates were obtained with human sera, depending on the substrate used (butyrylthio- or butyryl-choline ester).

  18. 77 FR 33774 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project... of Collection: Education and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance. OMB Approval Number: 3145... States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR), a unit within...

  19. The effect of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α on estradiol-17β release in the myometrium: the in vitro study on the pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, A; Wojciechowicz, B; Kolakowska, J; Kotwica, G

    2014-01-15

    Estradiol-17β (E2) is a potent regulator of early pregnancy and the estrous cycle in pigs. Production of E2 occurs in the porcine myometrium, but the factors involved in its regulation are unknown. In this in vitro study, it was investigated whether interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α affect the release of E2 from the porcine myometrium on Days 10 to 11, 12 to 13, and 15 to 16 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. The expression of the cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19) gene and the presence of the aromatase cytochrome P450 protein in the myometrium confirmed the ability of the tissue to produce E2. In gravid pigs, the expression of IL1RI mRNA and IL6R mRNA was markedly increased on Days 15 to 16 of gestation, whereas TNFRI mRNA was increased on Days 10 to 11 of gestation. In cyclic pigs, the expression of myometrial IL1RI mRNA did not differ among the studied days, although the expression of IL6R and TNFRI mRNAs was increased on Days 15 to 16. In gravid pigs, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α increased myometrial E2 secretion on Days 15 to 16 but did not affect E2 release on Days 10 to 11 and 12 to 13 of pregnancy. In cyclic pigs, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α did not increase myometrial E2 release. In conclusion, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α affected myometrial E2 release in a manner that is dependent on the physiologic status of the female. The porcine myometrium expresses IL1RI, IL6R, and TNFRI genes and is the target tissue for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. In gravid pigs, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α may increase myometrial release of E2 in vitro specifically on Days 15 to 16 of pregnancy. These findings may be of interest to researchers using pigs as an animal model for fetal programming.

  20. Relationship Between Myometrium Closure Methods and the Incidence of Cesarean Scar Defect in Cesarean Section%剖宫产子宫切口缝合术式与子宫切口假腔的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游一平; 阳笑; 唐雅兵; 靳晓丹

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨剖宫产子宫切口缝合术式与子宫切口假腔(cesarean scar defect)发生的关系.[方法]应用阴道四维B超观察改良新式剖宫产中“连续套锁缝合(continuous lock catch suture)”及“连续单层缝合(Continuous single-layer closure)”在子宫切口缝合后患者子宫切口假腔发生的情况(阴道B超追踪术后4d、42 d、1年、2年子宫切口情况).计算切口假腔的发生率.[结果]行“连续单层缝合”子宫切口的患者,子宫切口假腔发生率显著低于行“连续套锁缝合”子宫切口的患者(2.74% vs 6.76%,P<0.05).[结论]子宫切口假腔的发生与子宫切口缝合术式相关,“连续单层缝合”子宫切口的缝合术式可有效降低子宫切口假腔的发生.%[Objective] To explore the relationship between myometrium closure methods and the incidence of cesarean scar defect. [Methods] Transvaginal B-ultrasound scan was used to observe the incidence of cesarean scar defect after continuous lock catch suture or continuous single-layer closure in modified new cesarean section. Uterine incision condition at 4d, 42d, 1 year and 2 years after the operation was followed up by using transvaginal B-ultrasound scan. The incidence of cesarean scar defect was calculated. [Results] The incidence of cesarean scar defect in patients undergoing continuous single-layer closure of myometrium was significantly lower than that in patients undergoing continuous lock catch closure of myometrium. [Conclusion] The incidence of cesarean scar defect is related with myometrium closure methods. Continuous single-layer closure can effectively decrease the incidence of cesarean scar defect.

  1. 2000 years of human activity in Tuchola Pinewoods (northern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    During the last two millennia human activity and their settlements together with varying climate conditions strongly influenced landscape scale changes. Especially within palaeoecological records these environmental responses are well expressed. However, a robust age control is needed for the evaluation and interpretation of biotic proxies.We present a record from the annually laminated (varved) sediments of Lake Czechowskie, located in northern Poland. The investigated record covers the past 2000 years and demonstrates the continuous vegetation history and human activity in the Northern part of the Tuchola Pinewoods. The chronology was established by varve counting and confirmed by AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity measurement and a tephra layer (Askja 1875). We used high-resolution biotic (pollen, green algae and diatom analysis) sedimentological (varve and sublayer thickness variations) and geochemical (µ-XRF data) proxies to reconstruct the environmental changes within a time of increasing human activity and fluctuating climatic conditions. Based on different spatial sampling and measuring increments the temporal resolution varies between subseasonal (µ-XRF), annual (varves) up to five-varveresolution (biotic proxies) making it possible to trace even short lasting local and regional changes. Our results display visible human pressure in this area between 50- 350 yr. AD (Roman Period) exerted by tribes related to the Wielbark Culture. The development of persisting settlements and agriculture took place at expense of surrounding hornbeam forests. An intensification of lake productivity (expressed as an increase of varve thickness) started after 250 AD. If this lake ecosystem response relates to an intensified agriculture (and a possible transport of nutrients from neighboring rural lands) or to a climate shift will be further discussed. The rapid decline of human indicators about 350 years AD at the transition to the migration period might be related to cooler

  2. Depression of cortical activity in humans by mild hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesen, Thomas; Leontiev, Oleg; Song, Tao; Dehghani, Nima; Hagler, Donald J; Huang, Mingxiong; Buxton, Richard; Halgren, Eric

    2012-03-01

    The effects of neural activity on cerebral hemodynamics underlie human brain imaging with functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. However, the threshold and characteristics of the converse effects, wherein the cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic milieu influence neural activity, remain unclear. We tested whether mild hypercapnia (5% CO2 ) decreases the magnetoencephalogram response to auditory pattern recognition and visual semantic tasks. Hypercapnia induced statistically significant decreases in event-related fields without affecting behavioral performance. Decreases were observed in early sensory components in both auditory and visual modalities as well as later cognitive components related to memory and language. Effects were distributed across cortical regions. Decreases were comparable in evoked versus spontaneous spectral power. Hypercapnia is commonly used with hemodynamic models to calibrate the blood oxygenation level-dependent response. Modifying model assumptions to incorporate the current findings produce a modest but measurable decrease in the estimated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen change with activation. Because under normal conditions, low cerebral pH would arise when bloodflow is unable to keep pace with neuronal activity, the cortical depression observed here may reflect a homeostatic mechanism by which neuronal activity is adjusted to a level that can be sustained by available bloodflow. Animal studies suggest that these effects may be mediated by pH-modulating presynaptic adenosine receptors. Although the data is not clear, comparable changes in cortical pH to those induced here may occur during sleep apnea, sleep, and exercise. If so, these results suggest that such activities may in turn have generalized depressive effects on cortical activity.

  3. A human vitamin D receptor mutant activated by cholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Amanda M; Castillo, Hilda S; Duraj-Thatte, Anna; Doyle, Donald F; Azizi, Bahareh

    2011-07-01

    The human vitamin D receptor (hVDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, involved in calcium and phosphate homeostasis; hence implicated in a number of diseases, such as Rickets and Osteoporosis. This receptor binds 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (also referred to as 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and other known ligands, such as lithocholic acid. Specific interactions between the receptor and ligand are crucial for the function and activation of this receptor, as implied by the single point mutation, H305Q, causing symptoms of Type II Rickets. In this work, further understanding of the significant and essential interactions between the ligand and the receptor was deciphered, through a combination of rational and random mutagenesis. A hVDR mutant, H305F, was engineered with increased sensitivity towards lithocholic acid, with an EC(50) value of 10 μM and 40±14 fold activation in mammalian cell assays, while maintaining wild-type activity with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Furthermore, via random mutagenesis, a hVDR mutant, H305F/H397Y, was discovered to bind a novel small molecule, cholecalciferol, a precursor in the 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) biosynthetic pathway, which does not activate wild-type hVDR. This variant, H305F/H397Y, binds and activates in response to cholecalciferol concentrations as low as 100 nM, with an EC(50) value of 300 nM and 70±11 fold activation in mammalian cell assays. In silico docking analysis of the variant displays a dramatic conformational shift of cholecalciferol in the ligand binding pocket in comparison to the docked analysis of cholecalciferol with wild-type hVDR. This shift is hypothesized to be due to the introduction of two bulkier residues, suggesting that the addition of these bulkier residues introduces molecular interactions between the ligand and receptor, leading to activation with cholecalciferol.

  4. Activity clocks: spreading dynamics on temporal networks of human contact

    CERN Document Server

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical processes on time-varying complex networks are key to un- derstanding and modeling a broad variety of processes in socio-technical systems. Here we focus on empirical temporal networks of human proxim- ity and we aim at understanding the factors that, in simulation, shape the arrival time distribution of simple spreading processes. Abandoning the notion of wall-clock time in favour of node-specific clocks based on activ- ity exposes robust statistical patterns in the arrival times across different social contexts. Using randomization strategies and generative models constrained by data, we show that these patterns can be understood in terms of heterogeneous inter-event time distributions coupled with hetero- geneous numbers of events per edge. We also show, both empirically and by using a synthetic dataset, that significant deviations from the above behavior can be caused by the presence of edge classes with strong activity correlations.

  5. Combining Users' Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant. PMID:25856329

  6. Proteomic profiling of endorepellin angiostatic activity on human endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iozzo Renato V

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endorepellin, the C-terminal domain V of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, exhibits powerful and targeted anti-angiogenic activity on endothelial cells. To identify proteins involved with endorepellin anti-angiogenic action, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic analysis between vehicle- and endorepellin-treated human endothelial cells. Results Proteomic analysis of endorepellin influence on human umbilical vein endothelial cells identified five differentially expressed proteins, three of which (β-actin, calreticulin, and chaperonin/Hsp60 were down-regulated and two of which (vimentin and the β subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase also known as protein disulfide isomerase were up-regulated in response to endorepellin treatment—and associated with a fold change (endorepellin/control ≤ 0.75 and ≥ 2.00, and a statistically significant p-value as determined by Student's t test. Conclusion The proteins identified represent potential target areas involved with endorepellin anti-angiogenic mechanism of action. Further elucidation as such will ultimately provide useful in utilizing endorepellin as an anti-angiogenic therapy in humans.

  7. Modelling large scale human activity in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Diverse group of people with a wide variety of schedules, activities and travel needs compose our cities nowadays. This represents a big challenge for modeling travel behaviors in urban environments; those models are of crucial interest for a wide variety of applications such as traffic forecasting, spreading of viruses, or measuring human exposure to air pollutants. The traditional means to obtain knowledge about travel behavior is limited to surveys on travel journeys. The obtained information is based in questionnaires that are usually costly to implement and with intrinsic limitations to cover large number of individuals and some problems of reliability. Using mobile phone data, we explore the basic characteristics of a model of human travel: The distribution of agents is proportional to the population density of a given region, and each agent has a characteristic trajectory size contain information on frequency of visits to different locations. Additionally we use a complementary data set given by smart subway fare cards offering us information about the exact time of each passenger getting in or getting out of the subway station and the coordinates of it. This allows us to uncover the temporal aspects of the mobility. Since we have the actual time and place of individual's origin and destination we can understand the temporal patterns in each visited location with further details. Integrating two described data set we provide a dynamical model of human travels that incorporates different aspects observed empirically.

  8. [Purification and antimicrobial activity of human neutrophil defensins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, X; Wang, A

    1991-11-01

    Neutrophils are one of the weapons of host defenses against microbial infection. Their ability to kill the invading microorganisms depends on two principle mechanisms. One depends on production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by stimulated neutrophils, and the other depends on the delivery of antimicrobial contents of the neutrophils' cytoplasmic granules, oxygen-independent. The defensins have the highest concentration in the neutrophils, and the broadest antimicrobial spectrum, being capable of killing gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi and some envelope viruses. We purified human defensins from the neutrophils' granules by gel permeation chromatography and SDS-preparative acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of human defensins is between 3,000-4,000 daltons. After testing, C. neoformans was susceptible to these defensins. Under condition of 37 degrees C, pH 7.4 and low ionic strength, antifungal activity by human defensins was related to its concentration and incubating time. All of these illustrate that nonoxidative killing mechanism of neutrophils, especially the function of defensins is very important in host defenses.

  9. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in human endothelial cells increases plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶平; 胡晓晖; 刘永学; 赵亚力

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activators on plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and elucidate a possible mechanism.Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were obtained from normal fetus, and cultured conventionally. Then the HUVEC were exposed to fatty acids and prostaglandin J2 in varying concentrations with fresh media. RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of PPAR and PAI-1 in HUVECs. Transient co-transfection of PAI-1 promoter and PPARα gene or PPARγ gene to ECV304 was performed.Results PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ mRNA in HUVECs were detected by RT-PCR. Treatment of HUVECs with PPARα and PPARγ activators-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and prostaglandin J2, but not with stearic acid could augment PAI-I mRNA expression and protein secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Proportional induction of PAI-1 promoter activity was observed through increasing amounts of PPARα DNA in HUVECs through a transient gene transfection assay, although the mRNA expression of the 3 subtypes of PPAR with their activators were not changed compared with controls.Conclusions HUVECs express PPARs. PPARs activators may increase PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells (EC). Although PPARs expression was not enhanced after being stimulated by their activators in EC, the functionally active PPARα is probably involved in regulating PAI-1 expression in EC.

  10. 3D active workspace of human hand anatomical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu Loredana

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If the model of the human hand is created with accuracy by respecting the type of motion provided by each articulation and the dimensions of articulated bones, it can function as the real organ providing the same motions. Unfortunately, the human hand is hard to model due to its kinematical chains submitted to motion constraints. On the other hand, if an application does not impose a fine manipulation it is not necessary to create a model as complex as the human hand is. But always the hand model has to perform a certain space of motions in imposed workspace architecture no matter what the practical application does. Methods Based on Denavit-Hartenberg convention, we conceived the kinematical model of the human hand, having in mind the structure and the behavior of the natural model. We obtained the kinematical equations describing the motion of every fingertip with respect to the general coordinate system, placed on the wrist. For every joint variable, a range of motion was established. Dividing these joint variables to an appropriate number of intervals and connecting them, the complex surface bordering the active hand model workspace was obtained. Results Using MATLAB 7.0, the complex surface described by fingertips, when hand articulations are all simultaneously moving, was obtained. It can be seen that any point on surface has its own coordinates smaller than the maximum length of the middle finger in static position. Therefore, a sphere having the centre in the origin of the general coordinate system and the radius which equals this length covers the represented complex surface. Conclusion We propose a human hand model that represents a new solution compared to the existing ones. This model is capable to make special movements like power grip and dexterous manipulations. During them, the fingertips do not exceed the active workspace encapsulated by determined surfaces. The proposed kinematical model can help to choose

  11. Human Endogenous Retrovirus W Activity in Cartilage of Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signy Bendiksen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of viruses in osteoarthritis remains controversial because the prevalence of viral nucleic acid sequences in peripheral blood or synovial fluid from osteoarthritis patients and that in healthy control subjects are similar. Until now the presence of virus has not been analyzed in cartilage. We screened cartilage and chondrocytes from advanced and non-/early osteoarthritis patients for parvovirus B19, herpes simplex virus-1, Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus-6, hepatitis C virus, and human endogenous retroviruses transcripts. Endogenous retroviruses transcripts, but none of the other viruses, were detected in 15 out the 17 patients. Sequencing identified the virus as HERV-WE1 and E2. HERV-W activity was confirmed by high expression levels of syncytin, dsRNA, virus budding, and the presence of virus-like particles in all advanced osteoarthritis cartilages examined. Low levels of HERV-WE1, but not E2 envelope RNA, were observed in 3 out of 8 non-/early osteoarthritis patients, while only 3 out of 7 chondrocytes cultures displayed low levels of syncytin, and just one was positive for virus-like particles. This study demonstrates for the first time activation of HERV-W in cartilage of osteoarthritis patients; however, a causative role for HERV-W in development or deterioration of the disease remains to be proven.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ccahuana-Vasquez, Renzo Alberto; Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa was tested in vitro to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on selected microbial strains. The tested strains were oral clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa ranged from 0.25-5% in Müeller-Hinton agar. Three percent Uncaria tomentosa inhibited 8% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 52% of S. mutans and 96% of Staphylococcus spp. The tested concentrations did not present inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It could be concluded that micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa presented antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, S. mutans and Staphylococcus spp. isolates.

  13. Human transcriptional coactivator PC4 stimulates DNA end joining and activates DSB repair activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Kiran; Yokokawa, Masatoshi; Takeyasu, Kunio; Kundu, Tapas K

    2009-01-23

    Human transcriptional coactivator PC4 is a highly abundant nuclear protein that is involved in diverse cellular processes ranging from transcription to chromatin organization. Earlier, we have shown that PC4, a positive activator of p53, overexpresses upon genotoxic insult in a p53-dependent manner. In the present study, we show that PC4 stimulates ligase-mediated DNA end joining irrespective of the source of DNA ligase. Pull-down assays reveal that PC4 helps in the association of DNA ends through its C-terminal domain. In vitro nonhomologous end-joining assays with cell-free extracts show that PC4 enhances the joining of noncomplementary DNA ends. Interestingly, we found that PC4 activates double-strand break (DSB) repair activity through stimulation of DSB rejoining in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate PC4 as an activator of nonhomologous end joining and DSB repair activity.

  14. A near atomic structure of the active human apoptosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tat Cheung; Hong, Chuan; Akey, Ildikó V; Yuan, Shujun; Akey, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    In response to cell death signals, an active apoptosome is assembled from Apaf-1 and procaspase-9 (pc-9). Here we report a near atomic structure of the active human apoptosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The resulting model gives insights into cytochrome c binding, nucleotide exchange and conformational changes that drive assembly. During activation an acentric disk is formed on the central hub of the apoptosome. This disk contains four Apaf-1/pc-9 CARD pairs arranged in a shallow spiral with the fourth pc-9 CARD at lower occupancy. On average, Apaf-1 CARDs recruit 3 to 5 pc-9 molecules to the apoptosome and one catalytic domain may be parked on the hub, when an odd number of zymogens are bound. This suggests a stoichiometry of one or at most, two pc-9 dimers per active apoptosome. Thus, our structure provides a molecular framework to understand the role of the apoptosome in programmed cell death and disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17755.001

  15. [Role of acetylcholine in coordination od spontaneous electrical activity of various areas of the rat uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Akopian, R R

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous electrical activity of myometrium was studied in areas of the uterine corpus, zone of its connection with uterine tube and cervix at intravenous administration of various acetylcholine concentrations. Under these conditions, changes of the frequency and amplitude characteristics of rhythmogenesis were studied both separately and in their combined active state. The presence of 10(-3) M acetylcholine in the animal blood creates the most optimal conditions for synchronization and coordination of activities of all studied uterus areas.

  16. Isolation of biologically-active exosomes from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Laurent; Hong, Chang-Sook; Stolz, Donna B; Watkins, Simon C; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of exosomes present in human plasma on immune cells have not been examined in detail. Immunological studies with plasma-derived exosomes require their isolation by procedures involving ultracentrifugation. These procedures were largely developed using supernatants of cultured cells. To test biologic activities of plasma-derived exosomes, methods are necessary that ensure adequate recovery of exosome fractions free of contaminating larger vesicles, cell fragments and protein/nucleic acid aggregates. Here, an optimized method for exosome isolation from human plasma/serum specimens of normal controls (NC) or cancer patients and its advantages and pitfalls are described. To remove undesirable plasma-contaminating components, ultrafiltration of differentially-centrifuged plasma/serum followed by size-exclusion chromatography prior to ultracentrifugation facilitated the removal of contaminants. Plasma or serum was equally acceptable as a source of exosomes based on the recovered protein levels (in μg protein/mL plasma) and TEM image quality. Centrifugation on sucrose density gradients led to large exosome losses. Fresh plasma was the best source of morphologically-intact exosomes, while the use of frozen/thawed plasma decreased exosome purity but not their biologic activity. Treatments of frozen plasma with DNAse, RNAse or hyaluronidase did not improve exosome purity and are not recommended. Cancer patients' plasma consistently yielded more isolated exosomes than did NCs' plasma. Cancer patients' exosomes also mediated higher immune suppression as evidenced by decreased CD69 expression on responder CD4+ T effector cells. Thus, the described procedure yields biologically-active, morphologically-intact exosomes that have reasonably good purity without large protein losses and can be used for immunological, biomarker and other studies.

  17. Human Brain Activity Related to the Tactile Perception of Stickiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jiwon; Kim, Junsuk; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation. From the two psychophysics experiments-the methods of constant stimuli and the magnitude estimation-we could classify the silicone stimuli into two groups according to whether a sticky perception was evoked: the Supra-threshold group that evoked sticky perception and the Infra-threshold group that did not. In the Supra-threshold vs. Sham contrast analysis of the fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM), the contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) and ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed significant activations in subjects, whereas no significant result was found in the Infra-threshold vs. Sham contrast. This result indicates that the perception of stickiness not only activates the somatosensory cortex, but also possibly induces higher cognitive processes. Also, the Supra- vs. Infra-threshold contrast analysis revealed significant activations in several subcortical regions, including the pallidum, putamen, caudate and thalamus, as well as in another region spanning the insula and temporal cortices. These brain regions, previously known to be related to tactile discrimination, may subserve the discrimination of different intensities of tactile stickiness. The present study unveils the human neural correlates of the tactile perception of stickiness and may contribute to broadening the understanding of neural mechanisms associated with tactile perception.

  18. Human Brain Activity Related to the Tactile Perception of Stickiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jiwon; Kim, Junsuk; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation. From the two psychophysics experiments–the methods of constant stimuli and the magnitude estimation—we could classify the silicone stimuli into two groups according to whether a sticky perception was evoked: the Supra-threshold group that evoked sticky perception and the Infra-threshold group that did not. In the Supra-threshold vs. Sham contrast analysis of the fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM), the contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) and ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed significant activations in subjects, whereas no significant result was found in the Infra-threshold vs. Sham contrast. This result indicates that the perception of stickiness not only activates the somatosensory cortex, but also possibly induces higher cognitive processes. Also, the Supra- vs. Infra-threshold contrast analysis revealed significant activations in several subcortical regions, including the pallidum, putamen, caudate and thalamus, as well as in another region spanning the insula and temporal cortices. These brain regions, previously known to be related to tactile discrimination, may subserve the discrimination of different intensities of tactile stickiness. The present study unveils the human neural correlates of the tactile perception of stickiness and may contribute to broadening the understanding of neural mechanisms associated with tactile perception. PMID:28163677

  19. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Torreggiani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet lysate (PL in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one of the effectors of PL activity. Exosomes were isolated from human PL by differential ultracentrifugation, and analysed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC treated with three different exosome concentrations (0.6 μg, 5 μg and 50 μg showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control. In addition, osteogenic differentiation assays demonstrated that exosome concentration differently affected the ability of MSC to deposit mineralised matrix. Finally, the analysis of exosome protein content revealed a higher amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 as compared to PL. In regards to RNA content, an enrichment of small RNAs in exosomes as compared to donor platelets has been found. These results suggest that exosomes consistently contribute to PL activity and could represent an advantageous nanodelivery system for cell-free regeneration therapies.

  20. Epac Activation Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Migration and Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiao-Le; Deng, Ruixia; Chung, Sookja K; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2016-04-01

    How to enhance the homing of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to the target tissues remains a clinical challenge nowadays. To overcome this barrier, the mechanism responsible for the hMSCs migration and engraftment has to be defined. Currently, the exact mechanism involved in migration and adhesion of hMSCs remains unknown. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a novel protein discovered in cAMP signaling pathway, may have a potential role in regulating cells adhesion and migration by triggering the downstream Rap family signaling cascades. However, the exact role of Epac in cells homing is elusive. Our study evaluated the role of Epac in the homing of hMSCs. We confirmed that hMSCs expressed functional Epac and its activation enhanced the migration and adhesion of hMSCs significantly. The Epac activation was further found to be contributed directly to the chemotactic responses induced by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) which is a known chemokine in regulating hMSCs homing. These findings suggested Epac is connected to the SDF-1 signaling cascades. In conclusion, our study revealed that Epac plays a role in hMSCs homing by promoting adhesion and migration. Appropriate manipulation of Epac may enhance the homing of hMSCs and facilitate their future clinical applications.

  1. Respiratory activity and growth of human skin derma fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, F; Scacco, S; Vergari, R; Bucaria, V; Dioguardi, D; Papa, S

    1998-09-01

    A study has been made on the speed of growth and respiratory activity of fibroblast cultures from control derma, cheloid (hypertrophic) scar and stabilized scar taken from human skin. The speed of growth and the efficiency of plaque formation of fibroblasts from cheloid scar were greater in comparison with those of fibroblasts from stabilized scar and were stimulated by the addition to the culture medium of the exudate from post-traumatic ulcer. Measurement of the contents of cytochromes showed a decrease in the content of cytochromes b562 and c + c1 in the fibroblast culture from both cheloid and stabilized scar as compared to the fibroblast culture from control derma. Cytochrome aa3 content did not show significant difference among the three types of fibroblast cultures. The respiratory activities supported by pyruvate plus malate, succinate or ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine did not show, however, significant difference among the three fibroblast cultures. These observations show that the speed of growth of skin fibroblasts does not depend on the overall respiratory capacity. The exudate stimulated the activity of cytochrome c oxidase in fibroblasts from control derma, and cheloid scar. This effect and the accompanying stimulation of fibroblast growth might be correlated with the balance of oxygen free radicals.

  2. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation.

  3. Quantitative morphological assessment of microvascular network of leiomyoma tissue and the layers of myometrium in patients with uterine leiomyoma with hypo- and hyperestrogenic conditions induced by different schemes of gonadotroping relising hormone agonists therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular components of myomatous tissue and the layers of myometrium were evaluated using mорmorphometric analysis in 35 patients with uterine leiomyoma with long-term and short-term preoperative hormonal correction with Gosereline Acetate. Our results show that the microvessels density depends on morphological type of the fibroid, which in case of the cellular leiomyoma is 2.9 times greater compared to the regular one. The tissue is characterized by decreased vascularization of simple leiomyoma as compared to surrounding myometrium. In conditions of a drug-induced 3-month menopause density of microvessels was significantly decreased. In conditions of elevated levels of sex steroids amount of microvessels in fibrois tissue increases, with expanding of the lumen of arterioles and metarterioles and thickening of their walls. Hipoestrogenic condition contributes significantly to reduction of the average diameter of arterioles in the tissue of cellular and simple leiomyoma, which in some cases leads to complete obliteration of the vessels. Short-time hypere-strogenemia leads to a statistically significant increase in wall thickness of arterioles in fibroid tissue samples. Similar changes observed in vessels of pseudocapsula of women with cellular leiomyoma.

  4. Efficiency of Human Activity on Information Spreading on Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Benito, R M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the collective reaction to individual actions is key to effectively spread information in social media. In this work we define efficiency on Twitter, as the ratio between the emergent spreading process and the activity employed by the user. We characterize this property by means of a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emergent from human interactions, and show it to be universal across several Twitter conversations. We found that some influential users efficiently cause remarkable collective reactions by each message sent, while the majority of users must employ extremely larger efforts to reach similar effects. Next we propose a model that reproduces the retweet cascades occurring on Twitter to explain the emergent distribution of the user efficiency. The model shows that the dynamical patterns of the conversations are strongly conditioned by the topology of the underlying network. We conclude that the appearance of a small fraction of extremely efficient users resul...

  5. Which activation function of cooperation describes human behavior?

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Properties of cooperation's probability function in Prisoner`s Dilemma have impact on evolution of game. Basic model defines that probability of cooperation depends linearly, both on the player's altruism and the co-player's reputation. I propose modification of activation function to smooth one (hyperbolic tangent with scaling parameter a, which corresponds to its shape) and observe three phases for different range of a. (1) For small a, strategies seem to randomly change in time and situation of mixed choices (one cooperates and second defects) dominate. (2) For medium a, players choose only one strategy for given period of time (the common state can switch to opposite one with some probability). (3) For large a, mixed strategy (once defect, once cooperate) is coexisting with common strategies and no change is allowed. I believe that proposed function characterizes better socio-economical phenomena and especially phase 1 and 2 contain most of human behavior.

  6. Impacts of human activity on reindeer and caribou: The matter

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    Ingunn Vistnes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of human activity and infrastructure development on reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus have been studied for decades and have resulted in numerous debates among scientists, developers and indigenous people affected. Herein, we discuss the development within this field of research in the context of choice of spatial and temporal scale and concurrent trends in wildlife disturbance studies. Before the 1980s, the vast majority of Rangifer disturbance studies were behavioural studies of individual animals exposed directly to potential disturbance sources. Most of these local studies reported few and short-term impacts on Rangifer. Around the mid 1980s focus shifted to regional scale landscape ecology studies, reporting that reindeer and caribou reduced the use of areas within 5 km from infrastructure and human activity by 50-95%, depending on type of disturbance, landscape, season, sensitivity of herds, and sex and age distribution of animals. In most cases where avoidance was documented a smaller fraction of the animals, typically bulls, were still observed closer to infrastructure or human activity. Local-scale behavioural studies of individual animals may provide complementary information, but will alone seriously underestimate potential regional impacts. Of 85 studies reviewed, 83% of the regional studies concluded that the impacts of human activity were significant, while only 13% of the local studies did the same. Traditional ecological knowledge may further increase our understanding of disturbance effects.Effekter av menneskelig aktivitet på rein og caribou: Betydningen av valg av skalaAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Effektene av menneskelig aktivitet og utbygging på rein og caribou (Rangifer tarandus har vært studert i flere tiår og har resultert i utallige debatter mellom forskere, utbyggere og berørt urbefolkning. I denne artikkelen diskuterer vi utviklingen innenfor dette forskningsfeltet i forhold til valg av

  7. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  8. Sensitivity of the Indian Monsoon to Human Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. KNOPF; K. ZICKFELD; M. FLECHSIG; V. PETOUKHOV

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the authors perform an extensive sensitivity analysis of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall to changes in parameters and boundary conditions which are influenced by human activities. For this study, the authors use a box model of the Indian monsoon which reproduces key features of the observed monsoon dynamics such as the annual course of precipitation and the transitions between winter and summer regimes. Because of its transparency and computational efficiency, this model is highly suitable for exploring the effects of anthropogenic perturbations such as emissions of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide, and land cover changes, on the Indian monsoon. Results of a systematic sensitivity analysis indicate that changes in those parameters which are related to emissions of greenhouse gases lead to an increase in Indian summer rainfall. In contrast, all parameters related to higher atmospheric aerosol concentrations lead to a decrease in Indian rainfall. Similarly, changes in parameters which can be related to forest conversion or desertification, act to decrease the summer precipitation. The results indicate that the sign of precipitation changes over India will be dependent on the direction and relative magnitude of different human perturbations.

  9. Exergy Analysis of Human Respiration Under Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Itizo Yanagihara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of the human body under physical activity. A model of the respiratory system and a model of the thermal system were used for this purpose. These models consider heat and mass transfers in lungs, tissues and blood. Each component of these models is represented by a uniform compartment governed by equations for diffusion, convection, O2 consumption, CO2/heat generation and heat and mass transfer with the environment. The models allow the calculation of the exergy destruction in the lung and tissues, and the contribution of each entropy generation mechanism in the total generation. Furthermore, a discussion is proposed regarding the efficiency of the human body under physical exercise.

  10. Ragweed subpollen particles of respirable size activate human dendritic cells.

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    Kitti Pazmandi

    Full Text Available Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen grains, which are generally considered too large to reach the lower respiratory tract, release subpollen particles (SPPs of respirable size upon hydration. These SPPs contain allergenic proteins and functional NAD(PH oxidases. In this study, we examined whether exposure to SPPs initiates the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs. We found that treatment with freshly isolated ragweed SPPs increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in moDCs. Phagocytosis of SPPs by moDCs, as demonstrated by confocal laser-scanning microscopy, led to an up-regulation of the cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and HLA-DQ and an increase in the production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10. Furthermore, SPP-treated moDCs had an increased capacity to stimulate the proliferation of naïve T cells. Co-culture of SPP-treated moDCs with allogeneic CD3(+ pan-T cells resulted in increased secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17 by T cells of both allergic and non-allergic subjects, but induced the production of IL-4 exclusively from the T cells of allergic individuals. Addition of exogenous NADPH further increased, while heat-inactivation or pre-treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases, strongly diminished, the ability of SPPs to induce phenotypic and functional changes in moDCs, indicating that these processes were mediated, at least partly, by the intrinsic NAD(PH oxidase activity of SPPs. Collectively, our data suggest that inhaled ragweed SPPs are fully capable of activating dendritic cells (DCs in the airways and SPPs' NAD(PH oxidase activity is involved in initiation of adaptive immune responses against innocuous pollen proteins.

  11. Effect of contraction intensity on sympathetic nerve activity to active human skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBoulton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of contraction intensity on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA to active human limbs has not been established. To address this, MSNA was recorded from the left peroneal nerve during and after dorsiflexion contractions sustained for two minutes by the left leg at ~10, 25 and 40 %MVC. To explore the involvement of the muscle metaboreflex, limb ischaemia was imposed midway during three additional contractions and maintained during recovery. Compared with total MSNA at rest (11.5 ± 4.1 mv.min-1, MSNA in the active leg increased significantly at the low (21.9 ± 13.6 mv.min-1, medium (30.5 ± 20.8 mv.min-1 and high (50.0 ± 24.5 mv.min-1 intensities. This intensity-dependent effect was more strongly associated with increases in MSNA burst amplitude than burst frequency. Total MSNA then returned to resting levels within the first minute of recovery. Limb ischaemia had no significant influence on the intensity-dependent rise in MSNA or its decline during recovery in the active leg. These findings reveal intensity-dependent increases in total MSNA and burst amplitude to contracting human skeletal muscle that do not appear to involve the muscle metaboreflex.

  12. Granzyme release and caspase activation in activated human T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, J M; Takahashi, R; Salvesen, G S; Reed, J C

    1998-03-20

    Recently it has been reported that caspase-3 activation occurs in stimulated T-lymphocytes without associated apoptosis (Miossec, C., Dutilleul, V., Fassy, F., and Diu-Hercend, A. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 13459-13462). To explore this phenomenon, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were stimulated with mitogenic lectins or anti-CD3 antibody, and the proteolytic processing of different caspases and caspase substrates was analyzed by immunoblotting. Proteolytic processing of caspases-3 and -7 and the caspase substrates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, GDP dissociation inhibitor, and PKCdelta was observed when PBLs were activated in vitro, and lysates were prepared using RIPA buffer which contains 1% Nonidet P-40, 0.5% deoxycholate, and 0.1% SDS. In contrast, when a lysis buffer containing 2% SDS was used, the caspases remained in their zymogen pro-forms, and no proteolytic processing of caspase substrates was detected. Moreover, in experiments using intact cells and a cell-permeable fluorigenic caspase substrate, no caspase activity was observed in activated T-cells, whereas it was clearly detected when PBLs were treated with the apoptosis-inducing anticancer drug etoposide. Since the granzyme B is a direct activator of caspase-3 and its expression is induced following T-cell activation, we tested the effects of anti-GraB, an engineered serpin that specifically inhibits GraB. When the activated T-lymphocytes were lysed in RIPA buffer containing anti-GraB, no proteolytic processing or activation of caspase-3 was observed, strongly suggesting that release of GraB or similar proteases from their storage sites in cytotoxic granules during the lysis procedure is responsible for caspase activation. These findings demonstrate that T-cells do not process caspases upon activation and caution about the method of cell lysis used when studying granzyme-expressing cells.

  13. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

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    Dario Moreira-Arce

    Full Text Available Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in

  14. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  15. Chemotactic Activity on Human Neutrophils to Streptococcus mutans

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    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemotactic activity o neutrophil to S. mutans. Chemotaxis assay was performed in blind well chambers. Materials and Methods: Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS containing 106 S. mutans,  108 S. mutans, 10-8 M fMLP, or HBSS alone were placed in the lower wells of the chamber and covered with polycorbonate membrane filter. Neutrophils suspension (2x105 cells was then placed in the upper compartment. After incubation for 60 mins at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2, the filters were removed and stained with Giemsa. Result: ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences among groups (p<0.05, indicating that S. mutans induced neutrophils chemotaxis. The number of neutrophils migration in response to 108 S. mutans and 106 S. mutans were signifiantly greater compared to fMLP (p<0.05. Conclusion: S. mutans may activate human neutrophils, resulting in the chemotaxis of the neutrophils.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.99

  16. Activation of human complement by immunoglobulin G antigranulocyte antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, P K; Currie, M S; Logue, G L

    1982-01-01

    The ability of antigranulocyte antibody to fix the third component of complement (C3) to the granulocyte surface was investigated by an assay that quantitates the binding of monoclonal anti-C3 antibody to paraformaldehyde-fixed cells preincubated with Felty's syndrome serum in the presence of human complement. The sera from 7 of 13 patients with Felty's syndrome bound two to three times as much C3 to granulocytes as sera from patients with uncomplicated rheumatoid arthritis. The complement-activating ability of Felty's syndrome serum seemed to reside in the monomeric IgG-containing serum fraction. For those sera capable of activating complement, the amount of C3 fixed to granulocytes was proportional to the amount of granulocyte-binding IgG present in the serum. Thus, complement fixation appeared to be a consequence of the binding of antigranulocyte antibody to the cell surface. These studies suggest a role for complement-mediated injury in the pathophysiology of immune granulocytopenia, as has been demonstrated for immune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:7174786

  17. Does meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) activate human platelets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, A E; Andrews, J C H; Parfitt, A; Jagroop, I A; Mikhailidis, D P; Henry, J A

    2006-02-01

    mCPP (meta-chlorophenylpiperazine), an agonist at serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2 receptors, has been used as a probe of serotonergic function. We assessed its effect on platelet activation by measuring median platelet volume (MPV), the Sonoclot (SCT) pattern and plasma and intraplatelet serotonin. (a) In vitro study: MPV was measured (n = 7) using a high-resolution channelyzer: Saline (median and range (5.23 fl; 5.10-6.18) vs. mCPP (5.36; 5.10-6.44) P = 0.03; ADP (5.42; 5.29-6.44) vs. ADP + mCPP (5.67; 5.42-6.63) P = 0.02; mCPP (5.36; 5.10-6.44) vs. ADP + mCPP (5.67; 5.42-6.63) P = 0.02. Therefore, mCPP increases the MPV and enhances the effect of ADP. (b) In vivo study: The SCT time to inflection (TI) and time to peak (TP) were measured following the oral administration of mCPP (0.5 mg/kg) or aspirin (300 mg) (n = 10). Ingestion of mCPP significantly shortened TI and TP indicating platelet activation. TI: 0 h (mean +/- SD: 10.2 +/- 2.0 min) vs. 6 h (9.3 +/- 1.5) P = 0.03; TP: 0 h (31.9 +/- 7.6) vs. 6 h (23.1 +/- 2.9) P = 0.01. Aspirin had no effect on TI or TP. There were no significant changes in plasma and intraplatelet 5-HT. It is concluded that mCPP activates human platelets via 5-HT receptors.

  18. Active site conformational dynamics in human uridine phosphorylase 1.

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    Tarmo P Roosild

    Full Text Available Uridine phosphorylase (UPP is a central enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzing the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose-1-phosphate. Human UPP activity has been a focus of cancer research due to its role in activating fluoropyrimidine nucleoside chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and capecitabine. Additionally, specific molecular inhibitors of this enzyme have been found to raise endogenous uridine concentrations, which can produce a cytoprotective effect on normal tissues exposed to these drugs. Here we report the structure of hUPP1 bound to 5-FU at 2.3 A resolution. Analysis of this structure reveals new insights as to the conformational motions the enzyme undergoes in the course of substrate binding and catalysis. The dimeric enzyme is capable of a large hinge motion between its two domains, facilitating ligand exchange and explaining observed cooperativity between the two active sites in binding phosphate-bearing substrates. Further, a loop toward the back end of the uracil binding pocket is shown to flexibly adjust to the varying chemistry of different compounds through an "induced-fit" association mechanism that was not observed in earlier hUPP1 structures. The details surrounding these dynamic aspects of hUPP1 structure and function provide unexplored avenues to develop novel inhibitors of this protein with improved specificity and increased affinity. Given the recent emergence of new roles for uridine as a neuron protective compound in ischemia and degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, inhibitors of hUPP1 with greater efficacy, which are able to boost cellular uridine levels without adverse side-effects, may have a wide range of therapeutic applications.

  19. Complement alternative pathway activation in human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

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    Filip M Segers

    Full Text Available The innate immune system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Recently we reported complement activation in human NASH. However, it remained unclear whether the alternative pathway of complement, which amplifies C3 activation and which is frequently associated with pathological complement activation leading to disease, was involved. Here, alternative pathway components were investigated in liver biopsies of obese subjects with healthy livers (n = 10 or with NASH (n = 12 using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Properdin accumulated in areas where neutrophils surrounded steatotic hepatocytes, and colocalized with the C3 activation product C3c. C3 activation status as expressed by the C3c/native C3 ratio was 2.6-fold higher (p<0.01 in subjects with NASH despite reduced native C3 concentrations (0.94±0.12 vs. 0.57±0.09; p<0.01. Hepatic properdin levels positively correlated with levels of C3c (rs = 0.69; p<0.05 and C3c/C3 activation ratio (rs = 0.59; p<0.05. C3c, C3 activation status (C3c/C3 ratio and properdin levels increased with higher lobular inflammation scores as determined according to the Kleiner classification (C3c: p<0.01, C3c/C3 ratio: p<0.05, properdin: p<0.05. Hepatic mRNA expression of factor B and factor D did not differ between subjects with healthy livers and subjects with NASH (factor B: 1.00±0.19 vs. 0.71±0.07, p = 0.26; factor D: 1.00±0.21 vs. 0.66±0.14, p = 0.29;. Hepatic mRNA and protein levels of Decay Accelerating Factor tended to be increased in subjects with NASH (mRNA: 1.00±0.14 vs. 2.37±0.72; p = 0.22; protein: 0.51±0.11 vs. 1.97±0.67; p = 0.28. In contrast, factor H mRNA was downregulated in patients with NASH (1.00±0.09 vs. 0.71±0.06; p<0.05 and a similar trend was observed with hepatic protein levels (1.12±0.16 vs. 0.78±0.07; p = 0.08. Collectively, these data suggest a role for alternative

  20. Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J McCarthy1, X Gong2, D Nahirney2, M Duszyk2, MW Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function.Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Cl- channels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches.Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl- channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl- and HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl- channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl- channels by the nanoparticles.Conclusion: This is the first study to identify

  1. Activation of human tonsil and skin mast cells by agonists of proteinase activated receptor-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-heng HE; Hua XIE; Yi-ling FU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the agonists of proteinase activated receptor (PAR)-2,and histamine on degranulation of human mast cells. Methods: Human mast cells were enzymatically dispersed from tonsil and skin tissues. The dis persed cells were then cultured with various stimuli, and tryptase and histamine levels in cell supernatants collected from challenge tubes were measured. Results:PAR-2 agonist peptide SLIGKV provoked a dose-dependent release of histamine from skin mast cells. It also induced tryptase release from tonsil mast cells, tcLIGRLO appeared less potent than SLIGKV in induction of release of histamine and tryptase. Trypsin was able to induce a "bell" shape increase in tryptase release from tonsil mast cells. It was also able to induce a dose-dependent release of histamine from both tonsil and skin mast cells. The actions of trypsin on mast cells were inhibited by soy bean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) or α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT).Time course study revealed that both stimulated tryptase or histamine release initiated within 10 s and reached their peak release between 4 and 6 min. Pretreatment of cells with metabolic inhibitors or pertussis toxin reduced the ability of mast cells to release tryptase or histamine. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the in vitro tryptase release properties of human tonsil and skin mast cells suggested a novel type of mast cell heterogeneity. The activation of mast cells by PAR-2 agonists indicated a self-amplification mechanism of mast cell degranulation.

  2. Oxidatively fragmented phosphatidylcholines activate human neutrophils through the receptor for platelet-activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, P L; Stremler, K E; Prescott, S M; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M

    1991-06-15

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) activates neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMN) through a receptor that specifically recognizes short sn-2 residues. We oxidized synthetic [2-arachidonoyl]phosphatidylcholine to fragment and shorten the sn-2 residue, and then examined the phospholipid products for the ability to stimulate PMN. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was fragmented by ozonolysis to 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. This phospholipid activated human neutrophils at submicromolar concentrations, and is effects were inhibited by specific PAF receptor antagonists WEB2086, L659,989, and CV3988. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine next was fragmented by an uncontrolled free radical-catalyzed reaction: it was treated with soybean lipoxygenase to form its sn-2 15-hydroperoxy derivative (which did not activate neutrophils) and then allowed to oxidize under air. The secondary oxidation resulted in the formation of numerous fragmented phospholipids (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103), some of which activated PMN. Hydrolysis of sn-2 residues with phospholipase A2 destroyed biologic activity, as did hydrolysis with PAF acetylhydrolase. PAF acetylhydrolase is specific for short or intermediate length sn-2 residues and does not hydrolyze the starting material (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103). Neutrophil activation was completely blocked by L659,989, a specific PAF receptor antagonist. We conclude that diacylphosphatidylcholines containing an sn-2 polyunsaturated fatty acyl residue can be oxidatively fragmented to species with sn-2 residues short enough to activate the PAF receptor of neutrophils. This suggests a new mechanism for the appearance of biologically active phospholipids, and shows

  3. A Novel Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Approach Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Hiram; Martínez-Villaseñor, María de Lourdes; Miralles-Pechuán, Luis

    2016-07-05

    Human activity recognition has gained more interest in several research communities given that understanding user activities and behavior helps to deliver proactive and personalized services. There are many examples of health systems improved by human activity recognition. Nevertheless, the human activity recognition classification process is not an easy task. Different types of noise in wearable sensors data frequently hamper the human activity recognition classification process. In order to develop a successful activity recognition system, it is necessary to use stable and robust machine learning techniques capable of dealing with noisy data. In this paper, we presented the artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHN) technique to the human activity recognition community. Our artificial hydrocarbon networks novel approach is suitable for physical activity recognition, noise tolerance of corrupted data sensors and robust in terms of different issues on data sensors. We proved that the AHN classifier is very competitive for physical activity recognition and is very robust in comparison with other well-known machine learning methods.

  4. Epigenetic signature and enhancer activity of the human APOE gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-En; Cudaback, Eiron; Foraker, Jessica; Thomson, Zachary; Leong, Lesley; Lutz, Franziska; Gill, James Anthony; Saxton, Aleen; Kraemer, Brian; Navas, Patrick; Keene, C. Dirk; Montine, Thomas; Bekris, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    The human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene plays an important role in lipid metabolism. It has three common genetic variants, alleles ɛ2/ɛ3/ɛ4, which translate into three protein isoforms of apoE2, E3 and E4. These isoforms can differentially influence total serum cholesterol levels; therefore, APOE has been linked with cardiovascular disease. Additionally, its ɛ4 allele is strongly associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas the ɛ2 allele appears to have a modest protective effect for AD. Despite decades of research having illuminated multiple functional differences among the three apoE isoforms, the precise mechanisms through which different APOE alleles modify diseases risk remain incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the genomic structure of APOE in search for properties that may contribute novel biological consequences to the risk of disease. We identify one such element in the ɛ2/ɛ3/ɛ4 allele-carrying 3′-exon of APOE. We show that this exon is imbedded in a well-defined CpG island (CGI) that is highly methylated in the human postmortem brain. We demonstrate that this APOE CGI exhibits transcriptional enhancer/silencer activity. We provide evidence that this APOE CGI differentially modulates expression of genes at the APOE locus in a cell type-, DNA methylation- and ɛ2/ɛ3/ɛ4 allele-specific manner. These findings implicate a novel functional role for a 3′-exon CGI and support a modified mechanism of action for APOE in disease risk, involving not only the protein isoforms but also an epigenetically regulated transcriptional program at the APOE locus driven by the APOE CGI. PMID:23892237

  5. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  6. Metabolic activity and collagen turnover in human tendon in response to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, H; Miller, B F

    2005-01-01

    transcription and especially post-translational modifications of proteins of the extracellular matrix are enhanced following exercise. Conversely, inactivity markedly decreases collagen turnover. Training leads to a chronically increased collagen turnover, and dependent on the type of collagen also to some...... interstitial increase in growth factors that are known potentially to stimulate synthesis of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins. Taken together, human tendon tissue mounts a vigorous acute and chronic response to mechanical loading in terms of metabolic-circulatory changes as well......Connective tissue of the human tendon plays an important role in force transmission. The extracellular matrix turnover of tendon is influenced by physical activity. Blood flow, oxygen demand, and the level of collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinases increase with mechanical loading. Gene...

  7. Integrating ecology and social science using two examples of wandering wildlife and human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many researchers have studied impacts of human activity on wildlife or human attitudes toward wildlife, but not both simultaneously. Understanding these interactions is critical to better understand the intricacies of real world conservation issues. The goal of my presentation ...

  8. Haemophilus ducreyi partially activates human myeloid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Keith E; Humphreys, Tricia L; Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Wilkes, David S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2007-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses to bacteria. How Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes genital ulcers and regional lymphadenitis, interacts with DC is unknown. H. ducreyi evades uptake by polymorphonuclear leukocyte and macrophage-like cell lines by secreting LspA1 and LspA2. Many H. ducreyi strains express cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), and recombinant CDT causes apoptosis of DC in vitro. Here, we examined interactions between DC and H. ducreyi 35000HP, which produces LspA1, LspA2, and CDT. In human volunteers infected with 35000HP, the ratio of myeloid DC to plasmacytoid DC was 2.8:1 in lesions, compared to a ratio of 1:1 in peripheral blood. Using myeloid DC derived from monocytes as surrogates for lesional DC, we found that DC infected with 35000HP remained as viable as uninfected DC for up to 48 h. Gentamicin protection and confocal microscopy assays demonstrated that DC ingested and killed 35000HP, but killing was incomplete at 48 h. The expression of LspA1 and LspA2 did not inhibit the uptake of H. ducreyi, despite inactivating Src kinases. Infection of DC with live 35000HP caused less cell surface marker activation than infection with heat-killed 35000HP and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inhibited maturation by LPS. However, infection of DC with live bacteria caused the secretion of significantly higher levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha than infection with heat-killed bacteria and LPS. The survival of H. ducreyi in DC may provide a mechanism by which the organism traffics to lymph nodes. Partial activation of DC may abrogate the establishment of a full Th1 response and an environment that promotes phagocytosis.

  9. A two-layered approach to recognize high-level human activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu; G. Englebienne; B. Kröse

    2014-01-01

    Automated human activity recognition is an essential task for Human Robot Interaction (HRI). A successful activity recognition system enables an assistant robot to provide precise services. In this paper, we present a two-layered approach that can recognize sub-level activities and high-level activi

  10. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km{sup 2} near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the

  11. Global changes in biogeochemical cycles in response to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Melillo, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of our research was to characterize biogeochemical cycles at continental and global scales in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This characterization applied to both natural ecosystems and those disturbed by human activity. The primary elements of interest were carbon and nitrogen and the analysis sought to quantify standing stocks and dynamic cycling processes. The translocation of major nutrients from the terrestrial landscape to the atmosphere (via trace gases) and to fluvial systems (via leaching, erosional losses, and point source pollution) were of particular importance to this study. Our aim was to develop the first generation of Earth System Models. Our research was organized around the construction and testing of component biogeochemical models which treated terrestrial ecosystem processes, aquatic nutrient transport through drainage basins, and trace gas exchanges at the continental and global scale. A suite of three complementary models were defined within this construct. The models were organized to operate at a 1/2 degree latitude by longitude level of spatial resolution and to execute at a monthly time step. This discretization afforded us the opportunity to understand the dynamics of the biosphere down to subregional scales, while simultaneously placing these dynamics into a global context.

  12. Impact of human activities on soil respiration:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration is one of the primary fluxes of carbon between soils and the atmosphere.It is produced by rhizosphere respiration and soil microbial respiration.Soil respiration is not only affected by environmental factors,but also changes with the hu-man-induced disturbances of ecosystems.Land-use,the measures of land management,the pollution of soil,and so on can affect soil respiration and change the soil efflux.According to some research,the authors summed up their impacts on soil respiration by human activities through land-use changes and land-management measures among agroecosystem,grassland ecosystem,and for-est ecosystem.The results showed that (1) when adding fertilization to farmland,the soil respiration will increase;(2) fenced land can decrease soil respiration,while soil respiration in the grazed land at a grassland ecosystem will decline with the increasing of grazing intensity;(3) with grassland fertilization;farmland cultivation;fire,fertilization,and cutting of forest,conflicting results were found in the changes of soil respiration.Perhaps plant species,site condition,and measurement season can lead to different results on soil respiration.

  13. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  14. Rhythmic Working Memory Activation in the Human Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Leszczyński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM maintenance is assumed to rely on a single sustained process throughout the entire maintenance period. This assumption, although fundamental, has never been tested. We used intracranial electroencephalography (EEG recordings from the human hippocampus in two independent experiments to investigate the neural dynamics underlying WM maintenance. We observed periodic fluctuations between two different oscillatory regimes: Periods of “memory activation” were reflected by load-dependent alpha power reductions and lower levels of cross-frequency coupling (CFC. They occurred interleaved with periods characterized by load-independent high levels of alpha power and CFC. During memory activation periods, a relevant CFC parameter (load-dependent changes of the peak modulated frequency correlated with individual WM capacity. Fluctuations between these two periods predicted successful performance and were locked to the phase of endogenous delta oscillations. These results show that hippocampal maintenance is a dynamic rather than constant process and depends critically on a hierarchy of oscillations.

  15. Sympathetic nerve activity and simulated diving in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuzzaman, Abu; Ackerman, Michael J; Kuniyoshi, Fatima Sert; Accurso, Valentina; Davison, Diane; Amin, Raouf S; Somers, Virend K

    2014-04-01

    The goal of our study was to develop a simple and practical method for simulating diving in humans using facial cold exposure and apnea stimuli to measure neural and circulatory responses during the stimulated diving reflex. We hypothesized that responses to simultaneous facial cold exposure and apnea (simulated diving) would be synergistic, exceeding the sum of responses to individual stimuli. We studied 56 volunteers (24 female and 32 male), average age of 39 years. All subjects were healthy, free of cardiovascular and other diseases, and on no medications. Although muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, and vascular resistance increased markedly during both early and late phases of simulated diving, significant reductions in heart rate were observed only during the late phase. Total MSNA during simulated diving was greater than combined MSNA responses to the individual stimuli. We found that simulated diving is a powerful stimulus to sympathetic nerve traffic with significant bradycardia evident in the late phase of diving and eliciting synergistic sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. Our data provide insight into autonomic triggers that could help explain catastrophic cardiovascular events that may occur during asphyxia or swimming, such as in patients with obstructive sleep apnea or congenital long QT syndrome.

  16. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  17. Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus response towards human activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the question of how human activities and infrastructure influence reindeer/caribou’s (Rangifer tarandus behaviour and habitat use and review studies based on current methodologies. Anthropogenic activities have a direct affect on Rangifer behaviour through the senses hearing, sight and smell, and all of these are important tools for behavioural risk assessment. Short term indirect responses, such as habituation, sensitisation, avoidance, and displacement, develop through neutral, positive or negative associations towards stimulus in terms of Rangifer’s ability to experience, learn, and remember. Long term behavioural responses develop through interaction with predators and, for reindeer, also domestication. A survey of the literature dealing with behavioural studies reveals that although Rangifer in most cases retreat from anthropogenic activities, comfort distances (i.e. distances beyond which animal behaviour or activity are not influenced are relatively short. In most cases, energetic implications appear moderate and small compared to other natural, biotic influences such as disturbance (and death caused by insect and/or predator harassment. Unless obstructing access, physical constructions of various kinds apparently have limited effects on Rangifer behaviour or habitat use. On the other hand, constructions that do obstruct or limit access and recreational or other motorized and non-motorized activities appear to have stronger impacts on avoidance and redistribution of Rangifer. Behavioural effects that might decrease survival and reproduction include retreat from favourable habitat near disturbance sources and reduction of time spent feeding with resulting energy depletion over time. Rangifer habitat use, habitat avoidance, and feeding preferences are governed by a complexity of natural interacting factors. Domestication, habituation and sensitisation are essential in shaping Rangifer’s adaptability, and should be included

  18. Purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase activity differ in rat and human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    P2Y receptor activation may link the effect of purines to increased maximal in vitro activity of the Na,K-ATPase in rat muscle. The hypothesis that a similar mechanism is present in human skeletal muscle was investigated with membranes from rat and human skeletal muscle.......P2Y receptor activation may link the effect of purines to increased maximal in vitro activity of the Na,K-ATPase in rat muscle. The hypothesis that a similar mechanism is present in human skeletal muscle was investigated with membranes from rat and human skeletal muscle....

  19. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1, serpine mRNA binding protein 1 and nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonina, Dominika; Kowalik, Magdalena K; Kotwica, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the (1) expression of progesterone membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA and (2) protein expression levels of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR isoforms A and B in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri from cows on days 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 of the estrous cycle and weeks 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12 of pregnancy were used (n=5-6 per period). There were no changes (P>0.05) in PGRMC1 mRNA expression during the estrous cycle, while expression of SERBP1 and PR mRNA was the lowest (P0.05) in SERBP1 protein expression in cycling and pregnant cows, while the highest (P<0.05) PGRMC1 protein expression was found during weeks 3-5 of pregnancy. Similar protein expression profiles for PRA and PRB were found, and protein levels were highest on days 1-5 of the estrous cycle. From day 6 of the cycle, PRA and PRB protein expression decreased and were maintained at this lower level during pregnancy. In conclusion, our study assessed mRNA and protein expression levels of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. It is possible that progesterone (P4) affects myometrial function in a genomic and nongenomic manner.

  20. Variability of human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Little, JM; Lester, R; Kuipers, F; Vonk, R; Mackenzie, PI; Drake, RR; Frame, L; Radominska-Pandya, A

    1999-01-01

    The availability of a unique series of liver samples from human subjects, both control patients (9) and those with liver disease (6; biliary atresia (2), retransplant, chronic tyrosinemia type I, tyrosinemia, Wilson's disease) allowed us to characterize human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases usi

  1. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km{sup 2} near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km{sup 2}, three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The

  2. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km{sup 2} near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km{sup 2}, three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The

  3. Demonstration in human plasma of a lectin activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Thiel, S; Isager, H

    1987-01-01

    Evidence of the existence in human plasma of an activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin is presented. The human plasma component was characterized antigenically and functionally. Human plasma was shown to agglutinate complement-coated erythrocytes in the presence of Ca2+, and this conglu...

  4. 77 FR 74517 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...: Education and Human Resources Program Monitoring Clearance. OMB Approval Number: 3145-NEW. Type of Request... parts of the United States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources...

  5. Human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity among sexually active adults in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M Shebl

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sexual transmission of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8 has been implicated among homosexual men, but the evidence for sexual transmission among heterosexual individuals is controversial. We investigated the role of sexual transmission of HHV8 in a nationally representative sample in Uganda, where HHV8 infection is endemic and transmitted mostly during childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was a subset of participants (n = 2681 from a population-based HIV/AIDS serobehavioral survey of adults aged 15-59 years conducted in 2004/2005. High risk for sexual transmission was assessed by questionnaire and serological testing for HIV and herpes simplex virus 2. Anti-HHV8 antibodies were measured using two enzyme immunoassays targeting synthetic peptides from the K8.1 and orf65 viral genes. The current study was restricted to 2288 sexually active adults. ORs and 95% CIs for HHV8 seropositivity were estimated by fitting logistic regression models with a random intercept using MPLUS and SAS software. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of HHV8 seropositivity was 56.2%, based on 1302 seropositive individuals, and it increased significantly with age (P(trend<0.0001. In analyses adjusting for age, sex, geography, education, and HIV status, HHV8 seropositivity was positively associated with reporting two versus one marital union (OR:1.52, 95% CI: 1.17-1.97 and each unit increase in the number of children born (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.08, and was inversely associated with ever having used a condom (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.89. HHV8 seropositivity was not associated with HIV (P = 0.660 or with herpes simplex virus 2 (P = 0.732 seropositivity. Other sexual variables, including lifetime number of sexual partners or having had at least one sexually transmitted disease, and socioeconomic variables were unrelated to HHV8 seropositivity. CONCLUSION: Our findings are compatible with the conclusion that sexual transmission of HHV8 in

  6. Accelerometer signal-based human activity recognition using augmented autoregressive model coefficients and artificial neural nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A M; Lee, Y K; Kim, T S

    2008-01-01

    Automatic recognition of human activities is one of the important and challenging research areas in proactive and ubiquitous computing. In this work, we present some preliminary results of recognizing human activities using augmented features extracted from the activity signals measured using a single triaxial accelerometer sensor and artificial neural nets. The features include autoregressive (AR) modeling coefficients of activity signals, signal magnitude areas (SMA), and title angles (TA). We have recognized four human activities using AR coefficients (ARC) only, ARC with SMA, and ARC with SMA and TA. With the last augmented features, we have achieved the recognition rate above 99% for all four activities including lying, standing, walking, and running. With our proposed technique, real time recognition of some human activities is possible.

  7. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  8. Does lycopene offer human LDL any protection against myeloperoxidase activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Poh Yeong; Riley, Lucy; Graham, Daniel L; Rahman, Khalid; Lowe, Gordon M

    2012-02-01

    Lycopene is a lipophilic antioxidant that is largely transported in human blood by Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL). One of the early events in the aetiology of atherosclerosis is thought to be the oxidation of LDL. Myeloperoxidase an enzyme secreted by neutrophils and macrophages is thought to oxidise human LDL particles. In this study, isolated human LDL was challenged with myeloperoxidase or copper, and the LDL was screened for lipoperoxidation and oxidation of apolipoprotein B100, depletion of lycopene and oxidation of cholesterol. Myeloperoxidase induced oxidation of LDL through direct interaction with apolipoprotein B100. No lipoperoxidation was observed following myeloperoxidase treatment; however, 7-ketocholesterol was detected indicating the products of myeloperoxidase interact with the surface of the LDL particles. Lycopene does react with the products of myeloperoxidase in solvent, but played no role in protecting against enzyme derived oxidation of human LDL.

  9. Through the Interface - a human activity approach to user interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    In providing a theoretical framework for understanding human- computer interaction as well as design of user interfaces, this book combines elements of anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, software engineering, and computer science. The framework examines the everyday work practices...

  10. Sialic acid content in human saliva and anti-influenza activity against human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwat, Nattavatchara; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Auewarakul, Prasert

    2016-03-01

    It was shown previously that human saliva has higher antiviral activity against human influenza viruses than against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and that the major anti-influenza activity was associated with sialic-acid-containing molecules. To further characterize the differential susceptibility to saliva among influenza viruses, seasonal influenza A and B virus, pandemic H1N1 virus, and 15 subtypes of avian influenza virus were tested for their susceptibility to human and chicken saliva. Human saliva showed higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers against seasonal influenza A virus and the pandemic H1N1 viruses than against influenza B virus and most avian influenza viruses, except for H9N2 and H12N9 avian influenza viruses, which showed high HI and NT titers. To understand the nature of sialic-acid-containing anti-influenza factors in human saliva, α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid was measured in human saliva samples using a lectin binding and dot blot assay. α2,6-linked sialic acid was found to be more abundant than α2,3-linked sialic acid, and a seasonal H1N1 influenza virus bound more efficiently to human saliva than an H5N1 virus in a dot blot analysis. These data indicated that human saliva contains the sialic acid type corresponding to the binding preference of seasonal influenza viruses.

  11. Therapeutic Role of Rifaximin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Clinical Implication of Human Pregnane X Receptor Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jie; Yatrik M. Shah; Ma, Xiaochao; Pang, Xiaoyan; Tanaka, Toshiya; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Human pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Rifaximin, a human PXR activator, is in clinical trials for treatment of IBD and has demonstrated efficacy in Crohn's disease and active ulcerative colitis. In the current study, the protective and therapeutic role of rifaximin in IBD and its respective mechanism were investigated. PXR-humanized (hPXR), wild-type, and Pxr-null mice were treated with rifaximin in the dextran sulfate sod...

  12. A survey of video datasets for human action and activity recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chaquet, José M.; Fernández Caballero, Antonio; Carmona Suárez, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Vision-based human action and activity recognition has an increasing importance among the computer vision community with applications to visual surveillance, video retrieval and human?computer interaction. In recent years, more and more datasets dedicated to human action and activity recognition have been created. The use of these datasets allows us to compare different recognition systems with the same input data. The survey introduced in this paper tries to cover the lack of a complete desc...

  13. Plasminogen activators in normal tissue and carcinomas of the human oesophagus and stomach.

    OpenAIRE

    Sier, C. F.; Verspaget, H W; Griffioen, G.; GANESH, S.; Vloedgraven, H. J.; Lamers, C B

    1993-01-01

    Carcinogenesis in the human colon is associated with a marked increase of urokinase type plasminogen activator and a decrease of tissue type plasminogen activator. This study was performed to determine the concentrations of urokinase type plasminogen activator and tissue type plasminogen activator in normal tissue and carcinomas along the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. Activity and antigen levels of both activators were determined in homogenates of endoscopically obtained biopsies ...

  14. Human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) is an active metalloprotease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loechel, F; Gilpin, B J; Engvall, E

    1998-01-01

    in a latent form, probably by means of a cysteine switch. The zymogen could be activated chemically by alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide. Cleavage of the prodomain at a site for a furin-like endopeptidase resulted in an ADAM 12 protein with proteolytic activity. The protease activity was sensitive...... 12 is catalytically active. We used the trapping mechanism of alpha2-macroglobulin to assay for protease activity of wild-type and mutant ADAM 12 proteins produced in a COS cell transfection system. We found that ADAM 12 is synthesized as a zymogen, with the prodomain maintaining the metalloprotease...

  15. The effect of human activity noise on the acoustic quality in open plan office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlbæk, Tania Stenholt; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    A disadvantage of open plan offices is the noise annoyance. Noise problems in open plan offices have been dealt with in several studies, and standards have been set up. Still, what has not been taken into account is the effect of human activity noise on acoustic conditions. In this study, measure...... D2,S have an impact on the variation in the activity noise. At 1 kHz, the technical background noise influences human activity noise positively. In both octave bands, the human activity noise level varies significantly with the office type, from a call center to a lawyer’s office....

  16. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GASTRIC AND COLORECTAL CANCER AND SURROUNDING TISSUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen; ZHANG Qiao; WAN De-sen; CUN Ling-yun; WU Cheng-qiu; PAN Zhi-zhong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the telomerase activities in human gastric and colorectal tumors. Methods: The telomerase activity was assayed by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) technique. Forty human tumor samples including 9 colonic, 20 rectal and 11gastric carcinomas and their surrounding tissues were used for the detection. Results: Thirty-six out of 40human tumor samples exhibited telomerase activity regardless of the stages or the differentiation of the tumors. However, only 1 out of 39 tumor surrounding tissues showed telomerase activity. Conclusion: Telomerase may be a good diagnosis biomarker for tumor detection.

  17. Corticospinal contribution to arm muscle activity during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    potentials (MEPs) elicited in the posterior deltoid muscle (PD) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were modulated during the gait cycle in parallel with changes in the background EMG activity. There was no significant difference in the size of the MEPs at a comparable level of background EMG during...... walking and during static PD contraction. Short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI; 2 ms interval) studied by paired-pulse TMS was diminished during bursts of PD EMG activity. This could not be explained only by changes in background EMG activity and/or control MEP size, since SICI showed...... no correlation to the level of background EMG activity during static PD contraction. Finally, TMS at intensity below the threshold for activation of corticospinal tract fibres elicited a suppression of the PD EMG activity during walking. Since TMS at this intensity is likely to only activate intracortical...

  18. Human odontoblast-like cells produce nitric oxide with antibacterial activity upon TLR2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Bellanger, Aurélie; Ducret, Maxime; Aubert-Foucher, Elisabeth; Richard, Béatrice; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Bleicher, Françoise; Carrouel, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The penetration of cariogenic oral bacteria into enamel and dentin during the caries process triggers an immune/inflammatory response in the underlying pulp tissue, the reduction of which is considered a prerequisite to dentinogenesis-based pulp regeneration. If the role of odontoblasts in dentin formation is well known, their involvement in the antibacterial response of the dental pulp to cariogenic microorganisms has yet to be elucidated. Our aim here was to determine if odontoblasts produce nitric oxide (NO) with antibacterial activity upon activation of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), a cell membrane receptor involved in the recognition of cariogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Human odontoblast-like cells differentiated from dental pulp explants were stimulated with the TLR2 synthetic agonist Pam2CSK4. We found that NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 gene expression was increased in Pam2CSK4-stimulated odontoblast-like cells compared to unstimulated ones. NOS2 was the most up-regulated gene. NOS1 and NOS3 proteins were not detected in Pam2CSK4-stimulated or control cultures. NOS2 protein synthesis, NOS activity and NO extracellular release were all augmented in stimulated samples. Pam2CSK4-stimulated cell supernatants reduced Streptococcus mutans growth, an effect counteracted by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In vivo, the NOS2 gene was up-regulated in the inflamed pulp of carious teeth compared with healthy ones. NOS2 protein was immunolocalized in odontoblasts situated beneath the caries lesion but not in pulp cells from healthy teeth. These results suggest that odontoblasts may participate to the antimicrobial pulp response to dentin-invading Gram-positive bacteria through NOS2-mediated NO production. They might in this manner pave the way for accurate dental pulp healing and regeneration. PMID:26157393

  19. Human odontoblast-like cells produce nitric oxide with antibacterial activity upon TLR2 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe eFARGES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of cariogenic oral bacteria into enamel and dentin during the caries process triggers an immune/inflammatory response in the underlying pulp tissue, the reduction of which is considered a prerequisite to dentinogenesis-based pulp regeneration. If the role of odontoblasts in dentin formation is well known, their involvement in the antibacterial response of the dental pulp to cariogenic microorganisms has yet to be elucidated. Our aim here was to determine if odontoblasts produce nitric oxide (NO with antibacterial activity upon activation of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2, a cell membrane receptor involved in the recognition of cariogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Human odontoblast-like cells differentiated from dental pulp explants were stimulated with the TLR2 synthetic agonist Pam2CSK4. We found that NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3 gene expression was increased in Pam2CSK4-stimulated odontoblast-like cells compared to unstimulated ones. NOS2 was the most up-regulated gene. NOS1 and NOS3 proteins were not detected in Pam2CSK4-stimulated or control cultures. NOS2 protein synthesis, NOS activity and NO extracellular release were all augmented in stimulated samples. Pam2CSK4-stimulated cell supernatants reduced Streptococcus mutans growth, an effect counteracted by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In vivo, the NOS2 gene was up-regulated in the inflamed pulp of carious teeth compared with healthy ones. NOS2 protein was immunolocalized in odontoblasts situated beneath the caries lesion but not in pulp cells from healthy teeth. These results suggest that odontoblasts may participate to the antimicrobial pulp response to dentin-invading Gram-positive bacteria through NOS2-mediated NO production. They might in this manner pave the way for accurate dental pulp healing and regeneration.

  20. Effects of human subsistence activities on forest birds in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesio, Luca

    2008-04-01

    Indigenous tribes and conservation biologists may have common goals and may be able to collaborate on the maintenance of biodiversity, but few researchers have evaluated the impacts and potential benefits of human subsistence activities. I studied the effects of subsistence activities (primarily wood collection) of nomadic pastoralists in 3 Afromontane forests of northern Kenya. In surveys of 404, 25-m-radius plots, I recorded vegetation structure and composition of the forest bird community. Plots with higher levels of human activity had significantly different vegetation structure, with more-open canopies, more grass, and fewer tree stems. Nectarivores (abundance +231%) and aerial insectivores (+66%) were more abundant in plots with more-intense wood collecting than in plots with less human activity, whereas abundance of forest specialists (-28%) decreased in plots with more-intense human activity. Abundance of 58% of the bird species either increased or decreased significantly in plots with more-intense human activity. Generally, the number of individuals of forest specialists decreased (6 of 7 species showed significant responses) and the number of individuals of edge and nonforest species increased with increasing human activity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that an intensification of human activities would favor nectarivores, aerial insectivores, granivores, and omnivores and would negatively affect large-sized, ground-foraging species and arboreal frugivores. Subsistence human activities favored the invasion of forest by edge species at the expense of forest specialists; thus, further intensification of forest exploitation by local peoples is not recommended. At the same time, however, subsistence activities in northern Kenya forests appeared to increase the structural diversity of the vegetation and provided suitable habitat for part (but not all) of the forest avifauna, which suggests that subsistence human activities may have a role in the

  1. Human Activity Differentially Redistributes Large Mammals in the Canadian Rockies National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kimo. Rogala

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available National parks are important for conservation of species such as wolves (Canis lupus and elk (Cervus canadensis. However, topography, vegetation conditions, and anthropogenic infrastructure within parks may limit available habitat. Human activity on trails and roads may lead to indirect habitat loss, further limiting available habitat. Predators and prey may respond differentially to human activity, potentially disrupting ecological processes. However, research on such impacts to wildlife is incomplete, especially at fine spatial and temporal scales. Our research investigated the relationship between wolf and elk distribution and human activity using fine-scale Global Positioning System (GPS wildlife telemetry locations and hourly human activity measures on trails and roads in Banff, Kootenay, and Yoho National Parks, Canada. We observed a complex interaction between the distance animals were located from trails and human activity level resulting in species adopting both mutual avoidance and differential response behaviors. In areas < 50 m from trails human activity led to a mutual avoidance response by both wolves and elk. In areas 50 - 400 m from trails low levels of human activity led to differential responses; wolves avoided these areas, whereas elk appeared to use these areas as a predation refugia. These differential impacts on elk and wolves may have important implications for trophic dynamics. As human activity increased above two people/hour, areas 50 - 400 m from trails were mutually avoided by both species, resulting in the indirect loss of important montane habitat. If park managers are concerned with human impacts on wolves and elk, or on these species' trophic interactions with other species, they can monitor locations near trails and roads and consider hourly changes of human activity levels in areas important to wildlife.

  2. Pacemaker activity of the human sinoatrial node: Role of the hyperpolarization-activated current, I-f

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Verkerk; A.C.G. van Ginneken; R. Wilders

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of primary, spontaneous cardiac pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node (SAN) has extensively been studied in several animal species, but is virtually unexplored in man. Understanding the mechanisms of human SAN pacemaker activity is important for developing new therapeutic approache

  3. Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oku T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneyuki Oku¹, Kenichi Tanabe¹, Shigeharu Ogawa², Naoki Sadamori¹, Sadako Nakamura¹¹Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Japan; ²Juzenkai Hospital, Kagomachi, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether it is possible to extrapolate results from studies of the hydrolyzing activity of disaccharidases from rats to humans.Materials and methods: We measured disaccharidase activity in humans and rats using identical preparation and assay methods, and investigated the similarity in hydrolyzing activity. Small intestinal samples without malignancy were donated by five patients who had undergone bladder tumor surgery, and homogenates were prepared to measure disaccharidase activity. Adult rat homogenates were prepared using small intestine.Results: Maltase activity was the highest among the five disaccharidases, followed by sucrase and then palatinase in humans and rats. Trehalase activity was slightly lower than that of palatinase in humans and was similar to that of sucrase in rats. Lactase activity was the lowest in humans, but was similar to that of palatinase in rats. Thus, the hydrolyzing activity of five disaccharidases was generally similar in humans and rats. The relative activity of sucrose and palatinase versus maltase was generally similar between humans and rats. The ratio of rat to human hydrolyzing activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase was 1.9–3.1, but this was not a significant difference. Leaf extract from Morus alba strongly inhibited the activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase, but not trehalase and lactase, and the degree of inhibition was similar in humans and rats. L-arabinose mildly inhibited sucrase activity, but hardly inhibited the activity of maltase, palatinase, trehalase and lactase in humans and rats. The digestibility of 1-kestose, galactosylsucrose, and panose by small intestinal enzymes was very similar between humans and

  4. Structural Basis for Putrescine Activation of Human S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase† ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, Shridhar; Lopez, Maria M.; Makhatadze, George I.; Fang, Qingming; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    Putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) activates the autoprocessing and decarboxylation reactions of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), a critical enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. In human AdoMetDC, putrescine binds in a buried pocket containing acidic residues Asp174, Glu178, and Glu256. The pocket is away from the active site but near the dimer interface; however, a series of hydrophilic residues connect the putrescine binding site and the active site. Mutation of the...

  5. Variations in Human Capital Investment Activity by Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Patricia A.; Greller, Martin M.; Stroh, Linda K.

    2002-01-01

    Late-career workers (ages 50-65) were more likely to participate in credentialing programs, targeted job-related courses, and on-the-job computer training than younger adults and received similar employer support. However, participation might be a consequence of support received. Human capital investment thus is more complex than conventional…

  6. Antimicrobial activity of human salivary mucin-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated: a) relationships between molecular properties and antimicrobial functions of MUC7 peptides, b) effects of host physiological factors on the antimicrobial activity of MUC7 peptides, c) enhancement of antifungal activity by combination of MUC7 peptides with EDTA or other agents, d) an

  7. Influence of Magnetite Nanoparticles on Human Leukocyte Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džarová, Anežka; Dubničková, Martina; Závišová, Vlasta; Koneracká, Martina; Kopčanský, Peter; Gojzewski, Hubert; Timko, Milan

    2010-12-01

    Chemically synthesized magnetite particles coated by sodium oleate and PEG (MNP), and magnetosomes (MS) influence the process of phagocytosis and the metabolic activity (lysozyme and peroxidase activity) in leukocytes. Lysozyme activity is oxygen-independent liquidation mechanisms of engulfed microorganism, peroxidase activity is an oxygen-dependent mechanism. Both tested types of nanoparticles lysed leukocyte cells during incubation. MNP at concentrations of 10 and 20 μg/mL lysed almost all leukocytes and their cell viability was in the 14±0.05% range. On the other hand MS begin to influence leukocytes activity at the concentration of 1 μg/ml and this influence grows with increasing concentration up to 20 μg/ml. MS are more suitable for biological applications than MNP which are more aggressive material than MS. MS should not be used above 10 μg/mL.

  8. Cardiolipin hydrolysis by human phospholipases A2. The multiple enzymatic activities of human cytosolic phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, A G; Kinkaid, A R; Wilton, D C

    1998-02-05

    The ability of mammalian phospholipases A2 (PLA2) to hydrolyse cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol) was monitored with a fluorescent displacement assay which allows the use of natural phospholipid substrates. The mammalian enzymes used were porcine pancreatic (Group I) secretory PLA2 (sPLA2), human non-pancreatic (Group II) sPLA2 and human cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2). High activity was observed with porcine pancreas sPLA2 whereas the human sPLA2 demonstrated only minimal activity with this substrate. In comparison, sPLA2 from Naja naja venom (Group I) also showed only modest activity with this substrate. Since many lipases possess PLA1 activity, a representative enzyme from Rhizopus arrhizus was also assessed for its ability to hydrolyse cardiolipin which proved to be a good substrate for this fungal lipase. In all cases dilysocardiolipin was the major product while some monolyso intermediate was detected after chromatographic separation. Human cPLA2 was unable to hydrolyse cardiolipin at a significant rate, however, both monolysocardiolipin and dilysocardiolipin, which are prepared by the PLA2-catalysed hydrolysis of cardiolipin, were good substrates providing a further example of the extensive lysophospholipase activity of this enzyme. Moreover, cardiolipin that was initially hydrolysed in situ with either excess porcine pancreatic PLA2 or R. arrhizus lipase (PLA1) was subsequently hydrolysed by human cPLA2. One explanation of this result is that human cPLA2 is able to hydrolyse both 1-acyl and 2-acyl-lysophospholipids. (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Transcriptome-based network analysis reveals a spectrum model of human macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Schmidt, Susanne V; Sander, Jil; Draffehn, Astrid; Krebs, Wolfgang; Quester, Inga; De Nardo, Dominic; Gohel, Trupti D; Emde, Martina; Schmidleithner, Lisa; Ganesan, Hariharasudan; Nino-Castro, Andrea; Mallmann, Michael R; Labzin, Larisa; Theis, Heidi; Kraut, Michael; Beyer, Marc; Latz, Eicke; Freeman, Tom C; Ulas, Thomas; Schultze, Joachim L

    2014-02-20

    Macrophage activation is associated with profound transcriptional reprogramming. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of macrophage activation, polarization, and function, the transcriptional programs regulating these processes remain poorly characterized. We stimulated human macrophages with diverse activation signals, acquiring a data set of 299 macrophage transcriptomes. Analysis of this data set revealed a spectrum of macrophage activation states extending the current M1 versus M2-polarization model. Network analyses identified central transcriptional regulators associated with all macrophage activation complemented by regulators related to stimulus-specific programs. Applying these transcriptional programs to human alveolar macrophages from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) revealed an unexpected loss of inflammatory signatures in COPD patients. Finally, by integrating murine data from the ImmGen project we propose a refined, activation-independent core signature for human and murine macrophages. This resource serves as a framework for future research into regulation of macrophage activation in health and disease.

  10. Differential effects of triclosan on the activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Wu, Qiangen; Beland, Frederick A; Ge, Peter; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Fang, Jia-Long

    2014-11-18

    Triclosan is an anti-bacterial agent used in many personal care products, household items, medical devices, and clinical settings. Liver tumors occur in mice exposed to triclosan, a response attributed to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activation; however, the effects of triclosan on mouse and human PPARα have not been fully evaluated. We compared the effects of triclosan on mouse and human PPARα using PPARα reporter assays and on downstream events of PPARα activation using mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells and human hepatoma HepG2 cells. PPARα transcriptional activity was increased by triclosan in a mouse PPARα reporter assay and decreased in a human PPARα reporter assay. Concentrations of triclosan inhibiting 50% cell growth were similar in both human and mouse hepatoma cells. Western blotting analysis showed that triclosan increased acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX1), a PPARα target, in Hepa1c1c7 cells but decreased the level in HepG2 cells. Treatment of Hepa1c1c7 cells with triclosan enhanced DNA synthesis and suppressed transforming growth factor beta-mediated apoptosis. This did not occur in HepG2 cells. These data demonstrate that triclosan had similar cytotoxicity in Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells, but differential effects on the activation of PPARα, the expression of ACOX1, and downstream events including DNA synthesis and apoptosis.

  11. Education and making human resources activities in japanese universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshikazu, Takeda [Osaka Univ., Div. of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Suita Osaka (Japan); Yoshiaki, Oka [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Management (Japan); Seiji, Shiroya [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Education systems of Japanese Universities for developing human resources in nuclear industry are described. As examples, the present nuclear engineering curricula of the University of Tokyo, of the Tokyo Institute of Technology and of the Osaka University are presented. The experimental courses on reactor physics using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly, the Kinki University Training Reactor, and the Joyo reactor and Monju are also presented. (authors)

  12. Effects of motor fatigue on human brain activity, an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Hiske; Renken, Remco; Maurits, Natasha; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate effects of motor fatigue on brain activation in humans, using fMRI. First, we assessed brain activation that correlated with muscle activity during brief contractions at different force levels (force modulation). Second, a similar analysis was done f

  13. Human-Computer Interaction and Operators' Performance Optimizing Work Design with Activity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z

    2010-01-01

    Directed to a broad and interdisciplinary audience, this book provides a complete account of what has been accomplished in applied and systemic-structural activity theory. It presents a new approach to applied psychology and the study of human work that has derived from activity theory. The selected articles demonstrate the basic principles of studying human work and particularly computer-based work in complex sociotechnical systems. The book includes examples of applied and systemic-structural activity theory to HCI and man-machine-systems, aviation, safety, design and optimization of human p

  14. Protein composition of catalytically active human telomerase from immortal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Scott B; Graham, Mark E; Lovrecz, George O;

    2007-01-01

    on the enzyme's ability to catalyze nucleotide addition onto a DNA oligonucleotide of telomeric sequence, thereby providing specificity for catalytically active telomerase. Mass spectrometric sequencing of the protein components and molecular size determination indicated an enzyme composition of two molecules...

  15. The evolution of lineage-specific regulatory activities in the human embryonic limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotney, Justin; Leng, Jing; Yin, Jun; Reilly, Steven K; DeMare, Laura E; Emera, Deena; Ayoub, Albert E; Rakic, Pasko; Noonan, James P

    2013-07-03

    The evolution of human anatomical features likely involved changes in gene regulation during development. However, the nature and extent of human-specific developmental regulatory functions remain unknown. We obtained a genome-wide view of cis-regulatory evolution in human embryonic tissues by comparing the histone modification H3K27ac, which provides a quantitative readout of promoter and enhancer activity, during human, rhesus, and mouse limb development. Based on increased H3K27ac, we find that 13% of promoters and 11% of enhancers have gained activity on the human lineage since the human-rhesus divergence. These gains largely arose by modification of ancestral regulatory activities in the limb or potential co-option from other tissues and are likely to have heterogeneous genetic causes. Most enhancers that exhibit gain of activity in humans originated in mammals. Gains at promoters and enhancers in the human limb are associated with increased gene expression, suggesting they include molecular drivers of human morphological evolution.

  16. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  17. Positive and negative reinforcement activate human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Tina; Puschmann, Sebastian; Brechmann, André; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an auditory discrimination task, where participants had to judge the duration of frequency modulated tones. In one session correct performance resulted in financial gains at the end of the trial, in a second session incorrect performance resulted in financial loss. Incorrect performance in the rewarded as well as correct performance in the punishment condition resulted in a neutral outcome. The size of gains and losses was either low or high (10 or 50 Euro cent) depending on the direction of frequency modulation. We analyzed neural activity at the end of the trial, during reinforcement, and found increased neural activity in auditory cortex when gaining a financial reward as compared to gaining no reward and when avoiding financial loss as compared to receiving a financial loss. This was independent on the size of gains and losses. A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses. To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

  18. Positive and negative reinforcement activate human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eWeis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an auditory discrimination task, where participants had to judge the duration of frequency modulated tones. In one session correct performance resulted in financial gains at the end of the trial, in a second session incorrect performance resulted in financial loss. Incorrect performance in the rewarded as well as correct performance in the punishment condition resulted in a neutral outcome. The size of gains and losses was either low or high (10 or 50 Euro cent depending on the direction of frequency modulation. We analyzed neural activity at the end of the trial, during reinforcement, and found increased neural activity in auditory cortex when gaining a financial reward as compared to gaining no reward and when avoiding financial loss as compared to receiving a financial loss. This was independent on the size of gains and losses. A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses. To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

  19. Modulation of human motoneuron activity by a mental arithmetic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Laurent; Duclos, Yann; Rossi-Durand, Christiane

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the performance of a mental task affects motoneuron activity. To this end, the tonic discharge pattern of wrist extensor motor units was analyzed in healthy subjects while they were required to maintain a steady wrist extension force and to concurrently perform a mental arithmetic (MA) task. A shortening of the mean inter-spike interval (ISI) and a decrease in ISI variability occurred when MA task was superimposed to the motor task. Aloud and silent MA affected equally the rate and variability of motoneuron discharge. Increases in surface EMG activity and force level were consistent with the modulation of the motor unit discharge rate. Trial-by-trial analysis of the characteristics of motor unit firing revealed that performing MA increases activation of wrist extensor SMU. It is suggested that increase in muscle spindle afferent activity, resulting from fusimotor drive activation by MA, may have contributed to the increase in synaptic inputs to motoneurons during the mental task performance, likely together with enhancement in the descending drive. The finding that a mental task affects motoneuron activity could have consequences in assessment of motor disabilities and in rehabilitation in motor pathologies.

  20. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  1. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  2. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  3. A Novel Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Approach Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Ponce

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition has gained more interest in several research communities given that understanding user activities and behavior helps to deliver proactive and personalized services. There are many examples of health systems improved by human activity recognition. Nevertheless, the human activity recognition classification process is not an easy task. Different types of noise in wearable sensors data frequently hamper the human activity recognition classification process. In order to develop a successful activity recognition system, it is necessary to use stable and robust machine learning techniques capable of dealing with noisy data. In this paper, we presented the artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHN technique to the human activity recognition community. Our artificial hydrocarbon networks novel approach is suitable for physical activity recognition, noise tolerance of corrupted data sensors and robust in terms of different issues on data sensors. We proved that the AHN classifier is very competitive for physical activity recognition and is very robust in comparison with other well-known machine learning methods.

  4. Immune parameters differentiating active from latent tuberculosis infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Jung, Young Won; Jeong, Ina; Joh, Joon-Sung; Sim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Boram; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Lim, Dong-Gyun

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis remains a highly prevalent infectious disease worldwide. Identification of the immune parameters that differentiate active disease from latent infection will facilitate the development of efficient control measures as well as new diagnostic modalities for tuberculosis. Here, we investigated the cytokine production profiles of monocytes and CD4(+) T lymphocytes upon encountering mycobacterial antigens. In addition, cytokines and lipid mediators with immune-modulating activities were examined in plasma samples ex vivo. Comparison of these parameters in active tuberculosis patients and healthy subjects with latent infection revealed that, active tuberculosis was associated with diminished Th1-type cytokine secretion from CD4(+) T cells and less augmented inflammatory cytokine secretion from monocytes induced by IFN-γ than that in latent tuberculosis infection. In addition, a higher plasma concentration of lipoxin A4 and lower ratio of prostaglandin E2 to lipoxin A4 were observed in active cases than in latent infections. These findings have implications for preparing new therapeutic strategies and for differential diagnosis of the two types of tuberculosis infection.

  5. Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Gabriela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae, comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. Results In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the α chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3α chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. Conclusion Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process.

  6. Active stream segregation specifically involves the left human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deike, Susann; Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André

    2010-06-14

    An important aspect of auditory scene analysis is the sequential grouping of similar sounds into one "auditory stream" while keeping competing streams separate. In the present low-noise fMRI study we presented sequences of alternating high-pitch (A) and low-pitch (B) complex harmonic tones using acoustic parameters that allow the perception of either two separate streams or one alternating stream. However, the subjects were instructed to actively and continuously segregate the A from the B stream. This was controlled by the additional instruction to listen for rare level deviants only in the low-pitch stream. Compared to the control condition in which only one non-separable stream was presented the active segregation of the A from the B stream led to a selective increase of activation in the left auditory cortex (AC). Together with a similar finding from a previous study using a different acoustic cue for streaming, namely timbre, this suggests that the left auditory cortex plays a dominant role in active sequential stream segregation. However, we found cue differences within the left AC: Whereas in the posterior areas, including the planum temporale, activation increased for both acoustic cues, the anterior areas, including Heschl's gyrus, are only involved in stream segregation based on pitch.

  7. Profiling gene expression induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 activation in human kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Y Suen

    Full Text Available Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2 has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis, but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293, a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2 and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2. Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes, the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2 and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15. Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4 known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents.

  8. Feature integration with random forests for real-time human activity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hirokatsu; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an approach for real-time human activity recognition. Three different kinds of features (flow, shape, and a keypoint-based feature) are applied in activity recognition. We use random forests for feature integration and activity classification. A forest is created at each feature that performs as a weak classifier. The international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) proposed by WHO is applied in order to set the novel definition in activity recognition. Experiments on human activity recognition using the proposed framework show - 99.2% (Weizmann action dataset), 95.5% (KTH human actions dataset), and 54.6% (UCF50 dataset) recognition accuracy with a real-time processing speed. The feature integration and activity-class definition allow us to accomplish high-accuracy recognition match for the state-of-the-art in real-time.

  9. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity

  10. Biohazards for human activities on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.; Schmitt, D.

    Exobiological research on Mars is a key element of the Aurora Exploration Program. It has been acknowledged that it is essential to have a better understanding of a potential Martian biosphere before sending humans. Reason for that is not so much the fact that humans will contaminate Mars once they have landed, but to understand the presence of a biosphere on Mars as a potential hazard to human exploration. A biological hazard could come from either extinct life in the form of toxins that would only affect the crew, or from extant life in the form of pathogens that could affect the terrestrial biosphere using the human mission as a host. Both threats are very small, but cannot be neglected due to a lack of adequate information. There is no biological hazard that can be expected on the surface of the Moon. However, the Apollo missions showed clearly the problems that the all-penetrating lunar dust can generate within a few days of surface operations. Mars, like the Moon, is a dusty planet. And it is the dust that is the major carrier for any contamination - be it biological or chemical. Therefore it is of utmost importance to better understand the hazardous potential of Martian dust in order to establish risk factors for potential biological hazards. This requires dedicated in-situ and sample return missions. However, any robotic missions could realistically only assess whether biological hazards are widespread on Mars or not. They will not be capable to asses the biological hazard in areas that can only be explored by a crew. Hence, it is necessary to develop capabilities to keep the Martian dust out of the habitation area. A new ESA-study on decontamination procedures for EVA-suits, habitat areas, and waste, will partly address these issues. The logical next step would be to go to the Moon and test technologies and procedures for isolating the habitat (including the EVA-suit) from the dust on the Moon where there is no danger of biological contamination in case of

  11. The Role of Consciousness in Human Cognitive Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Allakhverdov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of consciousness is examined in the article. It is argued that all the existing approaches to consciousness do not explain the role consciousness plays in human life. An attempt of revealing and describing the principles of the mind’s work is made. Experimental phenomena observed by the author and his followers, particularly, the tendency of previously non-realized ideas not to be realized subsequently, are reviewed. The discussion of these phenomena allows to formulate a novel view on the nature of consciousness.

  12. Counseling sexually active teenagers treated with potential human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilalukey, K; Kaufman, M; Bradley, S; Francombe, W H; Amankwah, K; Goldberg, E; Shear, N; Olivieri, N F; Koren, G

    1997-09-01

    Adolescents with hemoglobinopathies need daily chelation therapy with drugs which are known or suspected to be teratogenic. The prevention of fetal exposure to such drugs is therefore a major task for health professionals caring for these patients. We describe a pilot program aiming to prevent pregnancy among sexually active adolescents treated with iron chelators in Toronto. Most of them had normal response to GnRH, suggesting endocrinologic fertility, and unlike the literature concerning their healthy peers, all sexually active patients in this study reported use of at least one form of contraception.

  13. In-Vitro Archaeacidal Activity of Biocides against Human-Associated Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several methanogenic archaea have been detected in the human intestinal microbiota. These intestinal archaea may contaminate medical devices such as colonoscopes. However, no biocide activity has been reported among these human-associated archaea. METHODOLOGY: The minimal archaeacidal concentration (MAC) of peracetic acid, chlorhexidine, squalamine and twelve parent synthetic derivatives reported in this study was determined against five human-associated methanogenic archaea inclu...

  14. Evaluation of genotoxic activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in human peripheral lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Kubra Kurt; Lale Donbak; Ahmet Kayraldiz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) iinfection, treat by preventing the proliferation of HIV in human body. People with HIV have to use this drugs for lifelong because of inability of the drugs to eradicate the viruses. In this study, we investigated the in vitro genotoxic activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate one of the antiretroviral drugs, in human peripheral lymphocytes. Material and Methods: The cells were treated with four d...

  15. 78 FR 8192 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project... study will assess the implementation of resources, models, and technologies to determine how and...

  16. Ecobiological assessment of a freshwater lake at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica, with reference to human activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The scale and magnitude of probable impact of human activities over a decade (1983-1994) on the freshwater lake Priyadarshini, at Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica, was assessed through an ecological study conducted over an annual cycle during...

  17. The Long and the Short of It: Comments on Multiple Timescale Studies of Human Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Jay L.

    2001-01-01

    Comments on four articles in a special issue of the Journal of the Learning Sciences on methodology in learning sciences. Analyzes the articles within a general model seeking to analyze human activity across multiple time scales. (Author/MM)

  18. Pharmacology of the human red cell voltage-dependent cation channel Part I. Activation by clotrimazole and analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barksmann, Trine Lyberth; Kristensen, Berit I.; Christophersen, Palle.

    2004-01-01

    Human red cells, Nonselective voltage dependent cation channel, NSVDC channel, Gárdos channel blockers, NSVDC channel activators......Human red cells, Nonselective voltage dependent cation channel, NSVDC channel, Gárdos channel blockers, NSVDC channel activators...

  19. Hsp60 is actively secreted by human tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Merendino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hsp60, a Group I mitochondrial chaperonin, is classically considered an intracellular chaperone with residence in the mitochondria; nonetheless, in the last few years it has been found extracellularly as well as in the cell membrane. Important questions remain pertaining to extracellular Hsp60 such as how generalized is its occurrence outside cells, what are its extracellular functions and the translocation mechanisms that transport the chaperone outside of the cell. These questions are particularly relevant for cancer biology since it is believed that extracellular chaperones, like Hsp70, may play an active role in tumor growth and dissemination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since cancer cells may undergo necrosis and apoptosis, it could be possible that extracellular Hsps are chiefly the result of cell destruction but not the product of an active, physiological process. In this work, we studied three tumor cells lines and found that they all release Hsp60 into the culture media by an active mechanism independently of cell death. Biochemical analyses of one of the cell lines revealed that Hsp60 secretion was significantly reduced, by inhibitors of exosomes and lipid rafts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that Hsp60 release is the result of an active secretion mechanism and, since extracellular release of the chaperone was demonstrated in all tumor cell lines investigated, our observations most likely reflect a general physiological phenomenon, occurring in many tumors.

  20. Concurrent multitasking : From neural activity to human cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Multitasking has become an important part of our daily lives. This delicate juggling act between several activities occurs when people drive, when they are working, and even when they should be paying attention in the classroom. While multitasking is typically considered as something to avoid, there

  1. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J;

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-H......-(2-amino-4-methylphenylthio)benzylamine ([11C]MADAM). In secondary analyses, 5-HTT BPND was correlated with other TCI dimensions....

  2. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  3. Fear bradycardia and activation of the human periaqueductal grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.; Henckens, M.J.A.G.; Roelofs, K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of predator defense distinguish qualitatively different behavioral modes that are activated at increasing levels of predation threat. A defense mode observed at intermediate threat levels is freezing: a cessation of locomotion that is characterized by a parasympathetically dominated au

  4. Novel Bioactivity of Ellagic Acid in Inhibiting Human Platelet Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranates are widely consumed either as fresh fruit or in beverage form as juice and wine. Ellagic acid possesses potent antioxidative properties; it is known to be an effective phytotherapeutic agent with antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic qualities. Ellagic acid (20 to 80 μM exhibited a potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen; however, it did not inhibit platelet aggregation stimulated by thrombin, arachidonic acid, or U46619. Treatment with ellagic acid (50 and 80 μM significantly inhibited platelet activation stimulated by collagen; this alteration was accompanied by the inhibition of relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, and Akt, as well as hydroxyl radical (OH● formation. In addition, ellagic acid also inhibited p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, ellagic acid did not significantly affect PKC activation and platelet aggregation stimulated by PDBu. This study is the first to show that, in addition to being considered a possible agent for preventing tumor growth, ellagic acid possesses potent antiplatelet properties. It appears to initially inhibit the PLCγ2-PKC cascade and/or hydroxyl radical formation, followed by decreased phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, ultimately inhibiting platelet aggregation.

  5. Hemopexin activity is associated with angiotensin II responsiveness in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, Jan A.; Lely, Anna T.; Borghuis, Theo; Faas, Marijke M.; van Goor, Harry; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephanus; Bakker, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hemopexin, an acute phase protein, can downregulate the angiotensin (ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) in vitro. Whether hemopexin is involved in the responsiveness to ang II in vivo is unknown. Therefore, we tested whether variations in endogenous hemopexin activity are associated with th

  6. Characterization and ATPase activity of human platelet actomyosin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemans, J.; Bouma, B.N.; Sixma, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Platelet actomyosin, partially purified by successive precipitation had a specific viscosity of 0,15 and a sensitivity to ATP of 60 %. The enzyme preparation was separated into the actin and myosin components and some myosin fragments by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The ATPase activity of

  7. Nonhomeostatic control of human appetite and physical activity in regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Katarina T

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin and leptin, putative controllers of human appetite, have no effect on human meal-to-meal appetite but respond to variations in energy availability. Nonhomeostatic characteristics of appetite and spontaneous activity stem from inhibition by leptin and ghrelin of brain reward circuit that is responsive to energy deficit, but refractory in obesity, and from the operation of a meal-timing circadian clock.

  8. Repeat-element driven activation of proto-oncogenes in human malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Björn; Bonifer, Constanze; Mathas, Stephan

    2010-11-01

    Recent data demonstrated that the aberrant activity of endogenous repetitive elements of the DNA in humans can drive the expression of proto-oncogenes. This article summarizes these results and gives an outlook on the impact of these findings on the pathogenesis and therapy of human cancer.

  9. Human Ebola virus infection results in substantial immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Anita K; Akondy, Rama S; Davis, Carl W; Ellebedy, Ali H; Mehta, Aneesh K; Kraft, Colleen S; Lyon, G Marshall; Ribner, Bruce S; Varkey, Jay; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Campbell, Shelley; Ströher, Ute; Damon, Inger; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-04-14

    Four Ebola patients received care at Emory University Hospital, presenting a unique opportunity to examine the cellular immune responses during acute Ebola virus infection. We found striking activation of both B and T cells in all four patients. Plasmablast frequencies were 10-50% of B cells, compared with less than 1% in healthy individuals. Many of these proliferating plasmablasts were IgG-positive, and this finding coincided with the presence of Ebola virus-specific IgG in the serum. Activated CD4 T cells ranged from 5 to 30%, compared with 1-2% in healthy controls. The most pronounced responses were seen in CD8 T cells, with over 50% of the CD8 T cells expressing markers of activation and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that all four patients developed robust immune responses during the acute phase of Ebola virus infection, a finding that would not have been predicted based on our current assumptions about the highly immunosuppressive nature of Ebola virus. Also, quite surprisingly, we found sustained immune activation after the virus was cleared from the plasma, observed most strikingly in the persistence of activated CD8 T cells, even 1 mo after the patients' discharge from the hospital. These results suggest continued antigen stimulation after resolution of the disease. From these convalescent time points, we identified CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to several Ebola virus proteins, most notably the viral nucleoprotein. Knowledge of the viral proteins targeted by T cells during natural infection should be useful in designing vaccines against Ebola virus.

  10. Recognition of human activities using depth images of Kinect for biofied building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Ami; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    These days, various functions in the living spaces are needed because of an aging society, promotion of energy conservation, and diversification of lifestyles. To meet this requirement, we propose "Biofied Building". The "Biofied Building" is the system learnt from living beings. The various information is accumulated in a database using small sensor agent robots as a key function of this system to control the living spaces. Among the various kinds of information about the living spaces, especially human activities can be triggers for lighting or air conditioning control. By doing so, customized space is possible. Human activities are divided into two groups, the activities consisting of single behavior and the activities consisting of multiple behaviors. For example, "standing up" or "sitting down" consists of a single behavior. These activities are accompanied by large motions. On the other hand "eating" consists of several behaviors, holding the chopsticks, catching the food, putting them in the mouth, and so on. These are continuous motions. Considering the characteristics of two types of human activities, we individually, use two methods, R transformation and variance. In this paper, we focus on the two different types of human activities, and propose the two methods of human activity recognition methods for construction of the database of living space for "Biofied Building". Finally, we compare the results of both methods.

  11. A Systematic Approach to Identify Markers of Distinctly Activated Human Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan eSudan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polarization has been a useful concept for describing activated macrophage phenotypes and gene expression profiles. However, macrophage activation status within tumors and other settings are often inferred based on only a few markers. Complicating matters for relevance to human biology, many of the best studied macrophage activation markers have been best characterized in mice and sometimes are not similarly regulated in human macrophages. To identify novel markers of activated human macrophages, gene expression profiles for human macrophages of a single donor subjected to 33 distinct activating conditions were obtained and a set of putative activation markers were subsequently evaluated in macrophages from multiple donors using integrated fluidic circuit (IFC-based RT-PCR. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the microarray screen, highly-altered transcripts (>4-fold change in expression sorted the macrophage transcription profiles into two major and 13 minor clusters. Among the 1874 highly-altered transcripts, over 100 were uniquely altered in one major or two related minor clusters. IFC PCR-derived data confirmed the microarray results and to show the kinetics of expression of potential macrophage activation markers. Transcripts encoding chemokines, cytokines, and cell surface were prominent in our analyses. The activation markers identified by this study could be used to better characterize tumor-associated macrophages from biopsies as well as other macrophage populations collected from human clinical samples.

  12. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jianxia; Zhang, Hongxue; Wang, Yimin; Zhu, Yuelu

    2016-01-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impact of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impact on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resource management. By using an elasticity-based method and calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrological models, we quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activities and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in the Jinghe basin, located...

  13. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activity to streamflow variation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, J.; Zhang, H.; Y. Wang; Zhu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impacts of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impacts on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resources management. By using an elasticity-based method, calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrologic models, we have quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activity and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in Jinhe b...

  14. Assessing the impact of climate variability and human activities on streamflow variation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, J.; Zhang, H.; Y. Wang; Zhu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Water resources in river systems have been changing under the impact of both climate variability and human activities. Assessing the respective impact on decadal streamflow variation is important for water resource management. By using an elasticity-based method and calibrated TOPMODEL and VIC hydrological models, we quantitatively isolated the relative contributions that human activities and climate variability made to decadal streamflow changes in Jinghe basin, located in ...

  15. Homologous DNA strand exchange activity of the human mitochondrial DNA helicase TWINKLE

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Doyel; Patel, Gayatri; Smita S Patel

    2016-01-01

    A crucial component of the human mitochondrial DNA replisome is the ring-shaped helicase TWINKLE—a phage T7-gene 4-like protein expressed in the nucleus and localized in the human mitochondria. Our previous studies showed that despite being a helicase, TWINKLE has unique DNA annealing activity. At the time, the implications of DNA annealing by TWINKLE were unclear. Herein, we report that TWINKLE uses DNA annealing function to actively catalyze strand-exchange reaction between the unwinding su...

  16. Unsupervised learning human's activities by overexpressed recognized non-speech sounds

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Human activity and environment produces sounds such as, at home, the noise produced by water, cough, or television. These sounds can be used to determine the activity in the environment. The objective is to monitor a person's activity or determine his environment using a single low cost microphone by sound analysis. The purpose is to adapt programs to the activity or environment or detect abnormal situations. Some patterns of over expressed repeatedly in the sequences of recognized sounds int...

  17. Antiviral Activity of Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well. This review highlights the antiviral mechanisms of resveratrol in human and animal viral infections and how some of these effects are associated with the antioxidant properties of the compound.

  18. Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Keane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis.

  19. Comparison of the activity of human and bovine milk on two cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocoví, Coloma; Conesa, Celia; Barbana, Chockry; Pérez, María D; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2009-08-01

    The activity of human milk on cell growth has been evaluated on two cell lines, MDCK and Caco-2. The proportion of human milk samples that reduced by half the growth of MDCK cells was of 36%. This inhibitory activity was associated with casein and not the whey fraction. Great variability was found in the degree of inhibitory activity depending on the milk sample. The susceptibility of Caco-2 cells to milk inhibitory activity was lower than that of MDCK. Bovine milk did not have any effect on cell growth, either as skimmed milk or as whey or casein. Morphology of cells incubated with active human casein showed abnormal features, such as chromatin condensation, reduced cellular volume and apoptotic bodies, and also fragmented DNA, which are all features of apoptosis.

  20. Human activity recognition based on feature selection in smart home using back-propagation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongqing; He, Lei; Si, Hao; Liu, Peng; Xie, Xiaolei

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, Back-propagation(BP) algorithm has been used to train the feed forward neural network for human activity recognition in smart home environments, and inter-class distance method for feature selection of observed motion sensor events is discussed and tested. And then, the human activity recognition performances of neural network using BP algorithm have been evaluated and compared with other probabilistic algorithms: Naïve Bayes(NB) classifier and Hidden Markov Model(HMM). The results show that different feature datasets yield different activity recognition accuracy. The selection of unsuitable feature datasets increases the computational complexity and degrades the activity recognition accuracy. Furthermore, neural network using BP algorithm has relatively better human activity recognition performances than NB classifier and HMM.

  1. Ornithine decarboxylase, mitogen-activated protein kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expressions in human colon tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takahiro Nemoto; Shunichiro Kubota; Hideyuki Ishida; Nobuo Murata; Daijo Hashimoto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expressions of omithine decarboxylase (ODC), MMP-2, and Erk, and their relationship in human colon tumors.METHODS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase activity (Erk phosphorylation) were determined in 58 surgically removed human colon tumors and their adjacent normal tissues, using [1-14C]-ornithine as a substrate, ELISA assay, and Western blotting, respectively.RESULTS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and Erk phosphorylation were significantly elevated in colon tumors, compared to those in adjacent normal tissues. A significant correlation was observed between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels.CONCLUSION: This is the first report showing a significant correlation between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels in human colon tumors. As MMP-2 is involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, and colon cancer overexpresses ODC, suppression of ODC expression may be a rational approach to treat colon cancer which overexpresses ODC.

  2. Human activity helps prey win the predator-prey space race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler B Muhly

    Full Text Available Predator-prey interactions, including between large mammalian wildlife species, can be represented as a "space race", where prey try to minimize and predators maximize spatial overlap. Human activity can also influence the distribution of wildlife species. In particular, high-human disturbance can displace large carnivore predators, a trait-mediated direct effect. Predator displacement by humans could then indirectly benefit prey species by reducing predation risk, a trait-mediated indirect effect of humans that spatially decouples predators from prey. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that high-human activity was displacing predators and thus indirectly creating spatial refuge for prey species, helping prey win the "space race". We measured the occurrence of eleven large mammal species (including humans and cattle at 43 camera traps deployed on roads and trails in southwest Alberta, Canada. We tested species co-occurrence at camera sites using hierarchical cluster and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS analyses; and tested whether human activity, food and/or habitat influenced predator and prey species counts at camera sites using regression tree analysis. Cluster and NMS analysis indicated that at camera sites humans co-occurred with prey species more than predator species and predator species had relatively low co-occurrence with prey species. Regression tree analysis indicated that prey species were three times more abundant on roads and trails with >32 humans/day. However, predators were less abundant on roads and trails that exceeded 18 humans/day. Our results support the hypothesis that high-human activity displaced predators but not prey species, creating spatial refuge from predation. High-human activity on roads and trails (i.e., >18 humans/day has the potential to interfere with predator-prey interactions via trait-mediated direct and indirect effects. We urge scientist and managers to carefully consider and

  3. Human activity helps prey win the predator-prey space race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhly, Tyler B; Semeniuk, Christina; Massolo, Alessandro; Hickman, Laura; Musiani, Marco

    2011-03-02

    Predator-prey interactions, including between large mammalian wildlife species, can be represented as a "space race", where prey try to minimize and predators maximize spatial overlap. Human activity can also influence the distribution of wildlife species. In particular, high-human disturbance can displace large carnivore predators, a trait-mediated direct effect. Predator displacement by humans could then indirectly benefit prey species by reducing predation risk, a trait-mediated indirect effect of humans that spatially decouples predators from prey. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that high-human activity was displacing predators and thus indirectly creating spatial refuge for prey species, helping prey win the "space race". We measured the occurrence of eleven large mammal species (including humans and cattle) at 43 camera traps deployed on roads and trails in southwest Alberta, Canada. We tested species co-occurrence at camera sites using hierarchical cluster and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) analyses; and tested whether human activity, food and/or habitat influenced predator and prey species counts at camera sites using regression tree analysis. Cluster and NMS analysis indicated that at camera sites humans co-occurred with prey species more than predator species and predator species had relatively low co-occurrence with prey species. Regression tree analysis indicated that prey species were three times more abundant on roads and trails with >32 humans/day. However, predators were less abundant on roads and trails that exceeded 18 humans/day. Our results support the hypothesis that high-human activity displaced predators but not prey species, creating spatial refuge from predation. High-human activity on roads and trails (i.e., >18 humans/day) has the potential to interfere with predator-prey interactions via trait-mediated direct and indirect effects. We urge scientist and managers to carefully consider and quantify the

  4. Human B cells have an active phagocytic capability and undergo immune activation upon phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Zhang, Min; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Wenjing; Zhang, Guangyun; Yang, Longxiu; Zhi, Jin; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Gengyao; Chen, Pin; Yang, Yining; Dai, Wen; Liu, Tingting; He, Ying; Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Gang

    2016-04-01

    The paradigm that B cells are nonphagocytic was taken for granted for a long time until phagocytic B cells were found in early vertebrate animals. Thereafter, limited evidence has shown that human B cells may also internalize bacteria. However, whether human B cells can actively phagocytose bacteria has been less extensively investigated; in particular, the mechanisms and significance of the phagocytosis require clarification. Here, we show that the human Raji B cell line can phagocytose both live and dead Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and the phagocytosed Mtb in turn affects the immune functions of the B cells. After incubation of Raji cells with Mtb, our confocal microscopy, electron microscopy and flow cytometry data showed that Raji cells effectively engulfed Mtb as well as latex beads. The phagocytic rate was proportional to the incubation time and the amount of Mtb or beads added. Additionally, we found that normal human serum could enhance the ability of Raji cells to phagocytose Mtb, while heat-inactivated serum reversed this promoting effect. The phagocytic process of B cells could partially be inhibited by cytochalasin B, an actin inhibitor. Importantly, the phagocytosed Mtb could regulate B cell immune functions, such as stimulating IgM production and upregulating the expression of the antigen-presenting costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. Therefore, our results provide the first evidence that human B cells can phagocytose Mtb in an active manner that is independent of bacterial viability, and phagocytosed Mtb can in turn regulate the immune activation of B cells.

  5. Reduced influenza viral neutralizing activity of natural human trimers of surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L; White, Mitchell R; Tecle, Tesfaldet

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Common human polymorphisms of SP-D have been found in many human populations and associated with increased risk of certain infections. We recently reported that the Thr...... human SP-D multimers as well as reduced hemagglutination inhibiting activity against several strains of IAV. Natural SP-D trimers also had different interactions with human neutrophil peptide defensins (HNPs) in viral neutralization assays as compared to multimeric SP-D. CONCLUSION: These studies......-D can be useful for dissecting out different functional properties of the protein....

  6. Classification of human activity on water through micro-Dopplers using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwook; Moon, Taesup

    2016-05-01

    Detecting humans and classifying their activities on the water has significant applications for surveillance, border patrols, and rescue operations. When humans are illuminated by radar signal, they produce micro-Doppler signatures due to moving limbs. There has been a number of research into recognizing humans on land by their unique micro-Doppler signatures, but there is scant research into detecting humans on water. In this study, we investigate the micro-Doppler signatures of humans on water, including a swimming person, a swimming person pulling a floating object, and a rowing person in a small boat. The measured swimming styles were free stroke, backstroke, and breaststroke. Each activity was observed to have a unique micro-Doppler signature. Human activities were classified based on their micro-Doppler signatures. For the classification, we propose to apply deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), a powerful deep learning technique. Rather than using conventional supervised learning that relies on handcrafted features, we present an alternative deep learning approach. We apply the DCNN, one of the most successful deep learning algorithms for image recognition, directly to a raw micro-Doppler spectrogram of humans on the water. Without extracting any explicit features from the micro-Dopplers, the DCNN can learn the necessary features and build classification boundaries using the training data. We show that the DCNN can achieve accuracy of more than 87.8% for activity classification using 5- fold cross validation.

  7. Differential activation of nerve fibers with magnetic stimulation in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olree Kenneth S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier observations in our lab had indicated that large, time-varying magnetic fields could elicit action potentials that travel in only one direction in at least some of the myelinated axons in peripheral nerves. The objective of this study was to collect quantitative evidence for magnetically induced unidirectional action potentials in peripheral nerves of human subjects. A magnetic coil was maneuvered to a location on the upper arm where physical effects consistent with the creation of unidirectional action potentials were observed. Electromyographic (EMG and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP recordings were then made from a total of 20 subjects during stimulation with the magnetic coil. Results The relative amplitudes of the EMG and SEP signals changed oppositely when the current direction in the magnetic coil was reversed. This effect was consistent with current direction in the coil relative to the arm for all subjects. Conclusion A differential evocation of motor and sensory fibers was demonstrated and indicates that it may be possible to induce unidirectional action potentials in myelinated peripheral nerve fibers with magnetic stimulation.

  8. Complex Human Activity Recognition Using Smartphone and Wrist-Worn Motion Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Bosch, Stephan; Durmaz Incel, Ozlem; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The position of on-body motion sensors plays an important role in human activity recognition. Most often, mobile phone sensors at the trouser pocket or an equivalent position are used for this purpose. However, this position is not suitable for recognizing activities that involve hand gestures, such

  9. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  10. Low Temperature Irradiation Applied to Neutron Activation Analysis of Mercury In Human Whole Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.

    1966-02-15

    The distribution of mercury in human whole blood has been studied by means of neutron activation analysis. During the irradiation procedure the samples were kept at low temperature by freezing them in a cooling device in order to prevent interferences caused by volatilization and contamination. The mercury activity was separated by means of distillation and ion exchange techniques.

  11. The application of structure-activity relationships in human hazard assessment: a first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos EM; Janssen PAH; Maslankiewicz L; Meijerink MCM; Muller JJA; Pelgrom SMG; Verdam L; Vermeire TG; CSR

    2001-01-01

    In this report an overview is given of structure-activity relationships (SARs) described in literature that can be helpful for the daily human hazard evaluation of chemicals. SARs describe the relation between molecular structure and biological- or physical-chemical activity of the chemical. Chemica

  12. Synergistic Structure in the Speed Dependent Modulation of Muscle Activity in Human Walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Tom J W; Lamoth, Claudine J C; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Otter, den A. Rob

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a modular organisation has been proposed to simplify control of the large number of muscles involved in human walking. Although previous research indicates that a single set of modular activation patterns can account for muscle activity at different speeds, these studies only provide indir

  13. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  14. Enrolment Purposes, Instructional Activities, and Perceptions of Attitudinal Learning in a Human Trafficking MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Kim, Woori

    2016-01-01

    This study examines learner enrolment purposes, perceptions on instructional activities and their relationship to learning gains in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. Using an author-developed survey, learners reported their perceptions on instructional activities and learning gains within the…

  15. Human Capital and Economic Activity in Urban America. Staff Report No. 332

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Jaison R.; Gabe, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relationship between human capital and economic activity in U.S. metropolitan areas, extending the literature in two ways. First, we utilize new data on metropolitan area GDP to measure economic activity. Results show that a one-percentage-point increase in the proportion of residents with a college degree is associated with about a…

  16. Pacemaker current inhibition in experimental human cardiac sympathetic activation: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, C.; Heusser, K.; Zoerner, A.A.; Grosshennig, A.; Wenzel, D.; May, M.; Sweep, F.C.; Mehling, H.; Luft, F.C.; Tank, J.; Jordan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated 4 (HCN4) channels comprise the final pathway for autonomic heart rate (HR) regulation. We hypothesized that HCN4 inhibition could reverse autonomic imbalance in a human model of cardiac sympathetic activation. Nineteen healthy men ingested oral me

  17. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J;

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the origin of plasma DOPA (3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine), the relationship between plasma DOPA and acute or chronic changes in sympathetic activity has been studied. Plasma DOPA and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...... in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy, whereas baseline plasma DOPA concentrations were similar in the three groups investigated: 6.55 (5.03-7.26, median [interquartile range], n = 8) nmol l-1 in diabetics with neuropathy, 7.41 (5.79-7.97, n = 8) nmol l-1...... in diabetics without neuropathy, and 6.85 (5.58-7.36, n = 8) nmol l-1 in controls. No relationship was obtained between baseline values of plasma NE and plasma DOPA. Plasma DOPA did not change in the upright position, whereas plasma NE increased significantly. Our results indicate that plasma DOPA...

  18. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  19. Viewing the motion of human body parts activates different regions of premotor, temporal, and parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Kylie J; Thompson, James C; Syngeniotis, Ari; Abbott, David F; Puce, Aina

    2004-05-01

    Activation of premotor and temporoparietal cortex occurs when we observe others movements, particularly relating to objects. Viewing the motion of different body parts without the context of an object has not been systematically evaluated. During a 3T fMRI study, 12 healthy subjects viewed human face, hand, and leg motion, which was not directed at or did not involve an object. Activation was identified relative to static images of the same human face, hand, and leg in both individual subject and group average data. Four clear activation foci emerged: (1) right MT/V5 activated to all forms of viewed motion; (2) right STS activated to face and leg motion; (3) ventral premotor cortex activated to face, hand, and leg motion in the right hemisphere and to leg motion in the left hemisphere; and (4) anterior intraparietal cortex (aIP) was active bilaterally to viewing hand motion and in the right hemisphere leg motion. In addition, in the group data, a somatotopic activation pattern for viewing face, hand, and leg motion occurred in right ventral premotor cortex. Activation patterns in STS and aIP were more complex--typically activation foci to viewing two types of human motion showed some overlap. Activation in individual subjects was similar; however, activation to hand motion also occurred in the STS with a variable location across subjects--explaining the lack of a clear activation focus in the group data. The data indicate that there are selective responses to viewing motion of different body parts in the human brain that are independent of object or tool use.

  20. Independent component feature-based human activity recognition via Linear Discriminant Analysis and Hidden Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md; Lee, J J; Kim, T S

    2008-01-01

    In proactive computing, human activity recognition from image sequences is an active research area. This paper presents a novel approach of human activity recognition based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of Independent Component (IC) features from shape information. With extracted features, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is applied for training and recognition. The recognition performance using LDA of IC features has been compared to other approaches including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), LDA of PC, and ICA. The preliminary results show much improved performance in the recognition rate with our proposed method.

  1. Anticancer Activities of Substituted Cinnamic Acid Phenethyl Esters on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShu-chun; LIHui; ZHANGFa; LIZhong-jun; CUIJing-rong

    2003-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and sixteen substituted cinnamic acid phenethyl esters were prepared via conventional procedures in order to test their in vitro anticancer activities by either MTT assay or SRB assay on six different human cancer cell lines. The results indicated that in the concentration of 10μmol·L-1 the lead compmuM CAPE possessed anficancer activities against human HL-60, Bel-7402, and Hela cell lines, and two other compounds possessed potent anticancer activities against Bel-7402 and Hela cell lines.

  2. Regression-Based Feature Selection on Large Scale Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Mazaar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an approach for regression-based feature selection in human activity recognition. Due to high dimensional features in human activity recognition, the model may have over-fitting and can’t learn parameters well. Moreover, the features are redundant or irrelevant. The goal is to select important discriminating features to recognize the human activities in videos. R-Squared regression criterion can identify the best features based on the ability of a feature to explain the variations in the target class. The features are significantly reduced, nearly by 99.33%, resulting in better classification accuracy. Support Vector Machine with a linear kernel is used to classify the activities. The experiments are tested on UCF50 dataset. The results show that the proposed model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Activation of pro-urokinase and plasminogen on human sarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, R W; Pöllänen, J; Tapiovaara, H

    1989-01-01

    Human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells produce urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). We found that after incubation of monolayer cultures with purified native human plasminogen in serum-containing medium, bound plasmin activity could be eluted...... from the cells with tranexamic acid, an analogue of lysine. The bound plasmin was the result of plasminogen activation on the cell surface; plasmin activity was not taken up onto cells after deliberate addition of plasmin to the serum-containing medium. The cell surface plasmin formation was inhibited...... to inhibition by endogenous PAI-1 and by added PAI-2, while the cell-bound plasmin was inaccessible to serum inhibitors, but accessible to added aprotinin and an anticatalytic monoclonal antibody. A model for cell surface plasminogen activation is proposed in which plasminogen binding to cells from serum medium...

  4. Interleukin 2 and 15 activate Stat3alpha in human T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Nordahl, M; Svejgaard, A

    1998-01-01

    in response to interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15. Here, cytokine-induced activation of Stat3 in previously activated CD4(+) human T cells was examined using Stat3 antibodies directed against different regions of Stat3. As determined by tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and binding to an h......SIE-oligonucleotide probe, IL-2 and IL-15 activated the slowly migrating isoform, Stat3alpha. In contrast, minimal or no activation of Stat3beta was observed, suggesting that IL-2 and IL-15 predominantly activate Stat3alpha in human CD4(+) T cells. In this way, diversity in the expression and activation of Stat3 proteins...... may provide additional means of regulating cytokine-induced T cell responses....

  5. A triboelectric motion sensor in wearable body sensor network for human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Huang; Xian Li; Ye Sun

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study is to design a novel triboelectric motion sensor in wearable body sensor network for human activity recognition. Physical activity recognition is widely used in well-being management, medical diagnosis and rehabilitation. Other than traditional accelerometers, we design a novel wearable sensor system based on triboelectrification. The triboelectric motion sensor can be easily attached to human body and collect motion signals caused by physical activities. The experiments are conducted to collect five common activity data: sitting and standing, walking, climbing upstairs, downstairs, and running. The k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) clustering algorithm is adopted to recognize these activities and validate the feasibility of this new approach. The results show that our system can perform physical activity recognition with a successful rate over 80% for walking, sitting and standing. The triboelectric structure can also be used as an energy harvester for motion harvesting due to its high output voltage in random low-frequency motion.

  6. Fluvial deposits as an archive of early human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S.; White, M. J.; Beaumont, P.; Antoine, P.; Bridgland, D. R.; Limondin-Lozouet, N.; Santisteban, J. I.; Schreve, D. C.; Shaw, A. D.; Wenban-Smith, F. F.; Westaway, R. W. C.; White, T. S.

    2007-11-01

    River terraces are well established as an important source of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic artefacts in Europe, large collections having been assembled there during the years of manual gravel extraction. Now that many terrace sequences can be reliably dated and correlated with the oceanic record, potentially useful patterns can be recognized in the distribution of artefacts. The earliest appearance of artefacts in terrace staircases, marking the arrival of the first tool-making hominins in the region in question, is the first of several archaeological markers within fluvial sequences. The Lower to Middle Palaeolithic transition, with the appearance of Levallois, is another. Others may be more regional in significance: the occurrences of Clactonian (Mode 1) industry, twisted ovate handaxes and bout coupé handaxes, for example. IGCP Project no. 449 instigated the compilation of fluvial records from all over the 'old world'. Comparison between British and Central European sequences confirms the established view that there is a demarcation between handaxe making in the west and flake/core industries in the east. Other centres of activity reported here have been in the Middle East (Syria), South Africa and India. Data from such areas will be key in deciphering the story of the earlier 'out-of-Africa' migration, that by pre-Homo sapiens people. There is clear evidence for diachroneity between the first appearances of different industries, in keeping with the well-established idea of northward migration.

  7. Sensor Data Acquisition and Processing Parameters for Human Activity Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian D. Bersch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that parameter selection for data sampling frequency and segmentation techniques (including different methods and window sizes has an impact on the classification accuracy. For Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, no clear information to select these parameters exists, hence a wide variety and inconsistency across today’s literature is observed. This paper presents the empirical investigation of different data sampling rates, segmentation techniques and segmentation window sizes and their effect on the accuracy of Activity of Daily Living (ADL event classification and computational load for two different accelerometer sensor datasets. The study is conducted using an ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA based on 32 different window sizes, three different segmentation algorithm (with and without overlap, totaling in six different parameters and six sampling frequencies for nine common classification algorithms. The classification accuracy is based on a feature vector consisting of Root Mean Square (RMS, Mean, Signal Magnitude Area (SMA, Signal Vector Magnitude (here SMV, Energy, Entropy, FFTPeak, Standard Deviation (STD. The results are presented alongside recommendations for the parameter selection on the basis of the best performing parameter combinations that are identified by means of the corresponding Pareto curve.

  8. Altered behavior in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Watts, Heather E.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996–98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996–98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988–90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988–90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996–98 than in 1988–90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction.

  9. Dioxin-like activity of environmental compounds in human blood and environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    R transactivation bioassay is utilized in an array of projects to study the AhR-mediated activities of individual chemicals and mixtures and for epidemiological purposes. This review summarizes a series of studies regarding the DL-activity of single compounds and complex compound mixtures in the environment...... a cost-effective and integrated screening tool for measurement of the DL-activity in human, environmental and commercial samples....

  10. Dioxin-like activity in environmental and human samples from Greenland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    R transactivation bioassay is utilized in an array of projects to study the AhR-mediated activities of individual chemicals and mixtures and for epidemiological purposes. This review summarizes a series of studies regarding the DL-activity of single compounds and complex compound mixtures in the environment...... a cost-effective and integrated screening tool for measurement of the DL-activity in human, environmental and commercial samples....

  11. Comparison of fusion methods based on DST and DBN in human activity recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ambient assistive living environments require sophisticated information fusion and reasoning techniques to accurately identify activities of a person under care. In this paper, we explain, compare and discuss the application of two powerful fusion methods, namely dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST), for human activity recognition. Both methods are described, the implementation of activity recognition based on these methods is explained, and model acquisition and composition are ...

  12. Resonance of about-weekly human heart rate rhythm with solar activity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F; Wendt, H W; Bingham, C; Sothern, R B; Haus, E; Kleitman, E; Kleitman, N; Revilla, M A; Revilla, M; Breus, T K; Pimenov, K; Grigoriev, A E; Mitish, M D; Yatsyk, G V; Syutkina, E V

    1996-12-01

    In several human adults, certain solar activity rhythms may influence an about 7-day rhythm in heart rate. When no about-weekly feature was found in the rate of change in sunspot area, a measure of solar activity, the double amplitude of a circadian heart rate rhythm, approximated by the fit of a 7-day cosine curve, was lower, as was heart rate corresponds to about-weekly features in solar activity and/or relates to a sunspot cycle.

  13. Mitochondrial Respiration Chain Enzymatic Activities in the Human Brain: Methodological Implications for Tissue Sampling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Remor, Aline Pertile; Lopes, Mark William; Hohl, Alexandre; Troncoso, Iris H Z; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Boos, Gustavo Luchi; Kondageski, Charles; Nunes, Jean Costa; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Lin, Kátia; Latini, Alexandra Susana; Walz, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes enzymatic (MRCCE) activities were successfully evaluated in frozen brain samples. Epilepsy surgery offers an ethical opportunity to study human brain tissue surgically removed to treat drug resistant epilepsies. Epilepsy surgeries are done with hemodynamic and laboratory parameters to maintain physiology, but there are no studies analyzing the association among these parameters and MRCCE activities in the human brain tissue. We determined the intra-operative parameters independently associated with MRCCE activities in middle temporal neocortex (Cx), amygdala (AMY) and head of hippocampus (HIP) samples of patients (n = 23) who underwent temporal lobectomy using multiple linear regressions. MRCCE activities in Cx, AMY and HIP are differentially associated to trans-operative mean arterial blood pressure, O2 saturation, hemoglobin, and anesthesia duration to time of tissue sampling. The time-course between the last seizure occurrence and tissue sampling as well as the sample storage to biochemical assessments were also associated with enzyme activities. Linear regression models including these variables explain 13-17 % of MRCCE activities and show a moderate to strong effect (r = 0.37-0.82). Intraoperative hemodynamic and laboratory parameters as well as the time from last seizure to tissue sampling and storage time are associated with MRCCE activities in human samples from the Cx, AMYG and HIP. Careful control of these parameters is required to minimize confounding biases in studies using human brain samples collected from elective neurosurgery.

  14. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, Mark J; Crowder, Lauren A; Lahey, Lauren J; Wagner, Catriona A; Robinson, William H; Aucott, John N

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005) in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL19 (MIP3B) were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively). There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  15. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Soloski

    Full Text Available Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005 in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL19 (MIP3B were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively. There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01 and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375. The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  16. A THREE-STEP SPATIAL-TEMPORAL-SEMANTIC CLUSTERING METHOD FOR HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time to four dimensions (space, time and semantics. More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people “say” for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The

  17. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  18. Studying the Anti-aging Effect of Human Growth Hormone on Human Fibroblast Cells via Telomerase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Chaparzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, studies have focused on the telomerase for cancer treatmentby repressing telomerase in cancerous cells or prevent cell aging by activating it in theaged cells. Thus, in these studies natural and synthetic agents have been used to repressor activate telomerase. In this research, we investigated the effects of human growth hormone(hGH on aging via evaluation of telomerase activity.Materials and Methods: Primary human foreskin fibroblast cells were isolated, culturedand treated with different concentrations of hGH. BrdU and MTT cell proliferation assaysand cells number counting. Cell aging was assayed by the senescence sensitivegalactosidase staining method. Telomerase activity was measured with a telomerasePCR ELISA kit.Data were analyzed with SPSS software (one-way ANOVA and univariateANOVA.Results: Our results indicated that cells treated with a lower concentration (0.1, 1 ng/mlof hGH had more green color cells (aged cells. Furthermore, cell proliferation increasedwith increasing hGH concentrations (10 to 100 ng/ml which was significant in comparisonwith untreated control cells. TRAP assay results indicated that telomerase activityincreased with increasing hGH concentration, but there was no significant difference. Additionally,more rapid cell growth and telomerase activity was noted in the absence of H2O2when compared with the presence of H2O2, which was significantly different.Conclusion: Although increasing cell proliferation along with increasing hGH concentrationwas confirmed by all cell proliferation assays, only the cell counting test was statisticallysignificant. Thus, it is inconclusive that hGH (up to 100 ng/ml has an anti-agingeffect. Also, because there was no significant difference in the telomerase activity results(in spite of increasing progress along with increasing hGH concentration we can not certainlyconclude that hGH (up to 100 ng/ml impacts telomerase activity.

  19. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  20. Contribution of multiple climatic variables and human activities to streamflow changes across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianyu; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun

    2017-02-01

    Using monthly streamflow data from the 1960-2000 period and annual streamflow data from the 2001-2014 period, and also meteorological data from the 1960 to 2014 period from 815 meteorological stations across China, the Budyko-based hydrothermal balance model was used to quantitatively evaluate the fractional contributions of climate change and human activities to streamflow changes in ten river basins across China. Particular importance was attached to human activities, such as population density and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and also water reservoirs in terms of their relationship with streamflow changes. Results indicated that: (1) streamflow changes of river basins in northern China were more sensitive to climate change than those of river basins in southern China. Based on the degree of sensitivity, the influencing factors to which streamflow changes are sensitive included: precipitation > human activities > relative humidity > solar radiation > maximum temperature > wind speed > minimum temperature. Hence, it can be argued that hydrological systems in northern China are more fragile and more sensitive to changing environment than those in southern China and hence water resources management in northern China is more challenging; (2) during 1980-2000, climate change tended to increase streamflow changes across China and have a dominant role in streamflow variation. However, climate change tends to decrease streamflow in river basins of northern China. Generally, human activities cause a decrease of streamflow across China; (3) In recent years such as a period of 2001-2014, human activities tend to have increasing or enhancing impacts on instream flow changes, and fractional contributions of climate change and human activities to streamflow changes are, respectively, 53.5% and 46.5%. Increasing human-induced impacts on streamflow changes have the potential to add more uncertainty in the management of water resources at different spatial and temporal scales.

  1. Impacts of human activity modes and climate on heavy metal "spread" in groundwater are biased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Qin, Xiaosheng; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater quality deterioration has attracted world-wide concerns due to its importance for human water supply. Although more and more studies have shown that human activities and climate are changing the groundwater status, an investigation on how different groundwater heavy metals respond to human activity modes (e.g. mining, waste disposal, agriculture, sewage effluent and complex activity) in a varying climate has been lacking. Here, for each of six heavy metals (i.e. Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd and Cu) in groundwater, we use >330 data points together with mixed-effect models to indicate that (i) human activity modes significantly influence the Cu and Mn but not Zn, Fe, Pb and Cd levels, and (ii) annual mean temperature (AMT) only significantly influences Cu and Pb levels, while annual precipitation (AP) only significantly affects Fe, Cu and Mn levels. Given these differences, we suggest that the impacts of human activity modes and climate on heavy metal "spread" in groundwater are biased.

  2. The 2001 activities and the 3rd workshop of the human resources development project in FNCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project are two kinds of activity; In-workshop activity and Outside-of-workshop activity. The 3rd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on October 29 to November 1, at the Nuclear Training Center of KAERI. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Project is provided by the Nuclear Training Center of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop as In-Workshop Activity, a document of project review on Human Resources Development for the fourth Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March, 2002, a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries, and training materials of participating countries as Outside-Workshop Activity. (author)

  3. The Activity and Localization of 3β-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 Isomerase and Release of Androstenedione and Progesterone by Uterine Tissues During Early Pregnancy and the Estrous Cycle in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOJCIECHOWICZ, Bartosz; KOTWICA, Genowefa; KOLAKOWSKA, Justyna; FRANCZAK, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Steroid hormones are produced by the porcine uterus. We hypothesized that the uterus in pigs possesses active 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (3β-HSD) responsible for progesterone and androstenedione production, that uterine steroids may supplement the amount of steroid hormones produced by embryos and corpus luteum and that these steroids are necessary for maintenance of pregnancy. In this study, we examined 1) endometrial and myometrial expression of 3β-HSD mRNA, 2) uterine 3β-HSD protein activity and 3) in vitro production of A4 and P4 by uterine slices harvested from pigs on days 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. The expression of 3β-HSD and the presence and activity of 3β-HSD protein were different in the endometrium and the myometrium during the examined periods of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Production of A4 by the endometrium and myometrium was highest on days 12 to 13 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Endometrial secretion of P4 did not differ in the course of early pregnancy and on the respective days of the estrous cycle. The gravid myometrium was the highest source of P4 in pregnant pigs on days 12 to 13. The release of P4 by the cyclic myometrium rose during the examined days of the estrous cycle. The steroidogenic activity of the uterus, as described in this study, may support early pregnancy or the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in pigs. PMID:23095516

  4. The activity and localization of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase and release of androstenedione and progesterone by uterine tissues during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kotwica, Genowefa; Kolakowska, Justyna; Franczak, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones are produced by the porcine uterus. We hypothesized that the uterus in pigs possesses active 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3β-HSD) responsible for progesterone and androstenedione production, that uterine steroids may supplement the amount of steroid hormones produced by embryos and corpus luteum and that these steroids are necessary for maintenance of pregnancy. In this study, we examined 1) endometrial and myometrial expression of 3β-HSD mRNA, 2) uterine 3β-HSD protein activity and 3) in vitro production of A(4) and P(4) by uterine slices harvested from pigs on days 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. The expression of 3β-HSD and the presence and activity of 3β-HSD protein were different in the endometrium and the myometrium during the examined periods of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Production of A(4) by the endometrium and myometrium was highest on days 12 to 13 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Endometrial secretion of P(4) did not differ in the course of early pregnancy and on the respective days of the estrous cycle. The gravid myometrium was the highest source of P(4) in pregnant pigs on days 12 to 13. The release of P(4) by the cyclic myometrium rose during the examined days of the estrous cycle. The steroidogenic activity of the uterus, as described in this study, may support early pregnancy or the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in pigs.

  5. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection.

  6. Response of ESV to Climate Change and Human Activities in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusuli, Yusufujiang; Sidik, Halida; Gupur, Adila; Hong, Jiang; Kadir, Rayila

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem goods and services refer to the dependence of economic wealth and human well-being on natural systems. It is a common knowledge that the changing of structure and function of the ecosystem due to climate change and human activities. It is a priority issue to study on various spatiotemporal scales, the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate change and anthropogenic pressure in inland areas. In an effort to better understand the influence of climate change and human activities on ecosystem services, we evaluated the change in ESV of the Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang, China from 1973 to 2014 employing methods of MK, MK Sneyers, ESV and dynamic degree of LUCC. The Landsat images, digital elevation model (DEM) and metrological data were applied to assessing the ESV and its change. According to the degree of effects of the climate change and human activities, the research area was divided into two parts: the mountain area and the plain oasis area at a contour of 1400 m above sea level. According to type and affect, the land cover was classified as water, wetland, desert, fields, glacier, warm shrub grassland, cold meadow steppe and highland vegetation. We analyzed the relationship between the variation of ESV and precipitation, and evaporation and then quantitatively differentiated the influence of climate change and human activities on ESV. Results show that: (1) distinct change points of precipitation and evaporation in mountain and plain oasis of the Yanqi basin were detected by the MK-Sneyers test. The precipitation increased and the evaporation declined in mountain and plain oasis in the same way. Enlargement of agricultural areas to accommodate an increased population and socio-economic development was detected by conversion matrix of LUCC in oasis area. As a result, the variation of ESV was caused by climate change and human activities jointly; (2) the declining trend of ESV in the mountain area was mainly caused by shrinking of the glacier area; (3) ESV was

  7. Cortical activation associated with muscle synergies of the human male pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavasopon, Skulpan; Rana, Manku; Kirages, Daniel J; Yani, Moheb S; Fisher, Beth E; Hwang, Darryl H; Lohman, Everett B; Berk, Lee S; Kutch, Jason J

    2014-10-08

    Human pelvic floor muscles have been shown to operate synergistically with a wide variety of muscles, which has been suggested to be an important contributor to continence and pelvic stability during functional tasks. However, the neural mechanism of pelvic floor muscle synergies remains unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that activation in motor cortical regions associated with pelvic floor activation are part of the neural substrate for such synergies. We first use electromyographic recordings to extend previous findings and demonstrate that pelvic floor muscles activate synergistically during voluntary activation of gluteal muscles, but not during voluntary activation of finger muscles. We then show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that a region of the medial wall of the precentral gyrus consistently activates during both voluntary pelvic floor muscle activation and voluntary gluteal activation, but not during voluntary finger activation. We finally confirm, using transcranial magnetic stimulation, that the fMRI-identified medial wall region is likely to generate pelvic floor muscle activation. Thus, muscle synergies of the human male pelvic floor appear to involve activation of motor cortical areas associated with pelvic floor control.

  8. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K

    2013-01-01

    in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle maintenance......  The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture......) serine(307) compared to myocytes from active individuals. Despite equal lipid accumulation following palmitate treatment, myocytes from sedentary individuals exhibited delayed acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation compared to the active group. Myocytes from sedentary individuals had significantly...

  9. Multi-Agent System for Managing Human Activities in Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenkenghost, Debra; Bonasso, R. Peter

    2006-01-01

    In manned space operations today, the astronauts' activity schedules are preplanned and adjusted daily on Earth. We have developed the Distributed Collaboration and Interaction (DCI) multi-agent system to investigate automating aspects of human activity management. The DCI System assists (1) plan generation, (2) human activity tracking, (3) plan revision, and (4) mixed initiative interaction with the plan. We have deployed and evaluated the DCI system at JSC to assist control engineers in managing anomaly handling activities for automated life support systems. DCI operated round the clock for 20 months in the Water Research Facility at JSC. Using this software, we reduced anomaly response time by engineers from up to 10 hours in previous tests to under an hour. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that agent assistance for schedule management has potential to improve astronaut activity awareness and reduce response time in situations where crew are interrupted to handle anomalies.

  10. Glutathione peroxidase activity in cell cultures from differentregions of human epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enrique Castellón; Hernán Rioseco; Juan Rojas; Michel Royer; Eduardo Salas; Héctor Contreras; Christian Huidobro

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the secretory activity and androgen regulation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in epithelial cell cultures from human epididymis. Methods: Tissue was obtained from patients undergoing therapeutic orchidectomy for prostatic cancer. Epithelial cell cultures were obtained from the caput, corpus and cauda epididymides. Enzymatic activity was measured in conditioned media by colorimetric methods in absence or presence of 1, 10 or 100 nmol.L-1from corpus and cauda than caput epididymidis. The presence of different concentrations of testosterone increase enzyme activity in cell cultures from all epididymal regions. Addition of flutamide reverses the androgen dependent increase of GPx activity. Conclusion: GPx activity is secreted from human epididymal cells in a region dependent manner and is regulated by androgens.

  11. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Controls Neural Stem Cell Activation in Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinah Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs continuously produce new neurons within the adult mammalian hippocampus. NSCs are typically quiescent but activated to self-renew or differentiate into neural progenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms of NSC activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adult hippocampal NSCs express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 3 and its ligand VEGF-C, which activates quiescent NSCs to enter the cell cycle and generate progenitor cells. Hippocampal NSC activation and neurogenesis are impaired by conditional deletion of Vegfr3 in NSCs. Functionally, this is associated with compromised NSC activation in response to VEGF-C and physical activity. In NSCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, VEGF-C/VEGFR3 mediates intracellular activation of AKT and ERK pathways that control cell fate and proliferation. These findings identify VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling as a specific regulator of NSC activation and neurogenesis in mammals.

  12. Human Platelets Utilize Cycloxygenase-1 to Generate Dioxolane A3, a Neutrophil-activating Eicosanoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Christine; Aldrovandi, Maceler; Uhlson, Charis; Marnett, Lawrence J; Longhurst, Hilary J; Warner, Timothy D; Alam, Saydul; Slatter, David A; Lauder, Sarah N; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Collins, Peter W; Murphy, Robert C; Thomas, Christopher P; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2016-06-24

    Eicosanoids are important mediators of fever, pain, and inflammation that modulate cell signaling during acute and chronic disease. We show by using lipidomics that thrombin-activated human platelets generate a new type of eicosanoid that both stimulates and primes human neutrophil integrin (Mac-1) expression, in response to formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine. Detailed characterization proposes a dioxolane structure, 8-hydroxy-9,11-dioxolane eicosatetraenoic acid (dioxolane A3, DXA3). The lipid is generated in nanogram amounts by platelets from endogenous arachidonate during physiological activation, with inhibition by aspirin in vitro or in vivo, implicating cyclooxygenase-1 (COX). Pharmacological and genetic studies on human/murine platelets revealed that DXA3 formation requires protease-activated receptors 1 and 4, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), Src tyrosine kinases, p38 MAPK, phospholipase C, and intracellular calcium. From data generated by purified COX isoforms and chemical oxidation, we propose that DXA3 is generated by release of an intermediate from the active site followed by oxygenation at C8. In summary, a new neutrophil-activating platelet-derived lipid generated by COX-1 is presented that can activate or prime human neutrophils, suggesting a role in innate immunity and acute inflammation.

  13. Human Platelets Utilize Cycloxygenase-1 to Generate Dioxolane A3, a Neutrophil-activating Eicosanoid*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Christine; Aldrovandi, Maceler; Uhlson, Charis; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Longhurst, Hilary J.; Warner, Timothy D.; Alam, Saydul; Slatter, David A.; Lauder, Sarah N.; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Collins, Peter W.; Murphy, Robert C.; Thomas, Christopher P.; O'Donnell, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important mediators of fever, pain, and inflammation that modulate cell signaling during acute and chronic disease. We show by using lipidomics that thrombin-activated human platelets generate a new type of eicosanoid that both stimulates and primes human neutrophil integrin (Mac-1) expression, in response to formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine. Detailed characterization proposes a dioxolane structure, 8-hydroxy-9,11-dioxolane eicosatetraenoic acid (dioxolane A3, DXA3). The lipid is generated in nanogram amounts by platelets from endogenous arachidonate during physiological activation, with inhibition by aspirin in vitro or in vivo, implicating cyclooxygenase-1 (COX). Pharmacological and genetic studies on human/murine platelets revealed that DXA3 formation requires protease-activated receptors 1 and 4, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), Src tyrosine kinases, p38 MAPK, phospholipase C, and intracellular calcium. From data generated by purified COX isoforms and chemical oxidation, we propose that DXA3 is generated by release of an intermediate from the active site followed by oxygenation at C8. In summary, a new neutrophil-activating platelet-derived lipid generated by COX-1 is presented that can activate or prime human neutrophils, suggesting a role in innate immunity and acute inflammation. PMID:27129261

  14. Activity-based computing: computational management of activities reflecting human intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob E; Jeuris, Steven; Houben, Steven

    2015-01-01

    paradigm that has been applied in personal information management applications as well as in ubiquitous, multidevice, and interactive surface computing. ABC has emerged as a response to the traditional application- and file-centered computing paradigm, which is oblivious to a notion of a user’s activity...... context spanning heterogeneous devices, multiple applications, services, and information sources. In this article, we present ABC as an approach to contextualize information, and present our research into designing activity-centric computing technologies.......An important research topic in artificial intelligence is automatic sensing and inferencing of contextual information, which is used to build computer models of the user’s activity. One approach to build such activity-aware systems is the notion of activity-based computing (ABC). ABC is a computing...

  15. Activity-based computing: computational management of activities reflecting human intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob E; Jeuris, Steven; Houben, Steven

    2015-01-01

    An important research topic in artificial intelligence is automatic sensing and inferencing of contextual information, which is used to build computer models of the user’s activity. One approach to build such activity-aware systems is the notion of activity-based computing (ABC). ABC is a computing...... paradigm that has been applied in personal information management applications as well as in ubiquitous, multidevice, and interactive surface computing. ABC has emerged as a response to the traditional application- and file-centered computing paradigm, which is oblivious to a notion of a user’s activity...... context spanning heterogeneous devices, multiple applications, services, and information sources. In this article, we present ABC as an approach to contextualize information, and present our research into designing activity-centric computing technologies....

  16. Discrepancy between direct and antibody-dependent cytotoxic activities of human LAK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapnev, M P; Garbuzenco, T S; Goncharova, N V; Zobnin, V D; Shadrin, O V; Bykovskaya, S N

    1994-06-01

    Human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells display cytotoxic activity against natural killer (NK)-resistant tumor cells in an antibody-independent and -dependent manner. We compared LAK cell-mediated antibody-independent cytotoxicity (LAK activity) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against untreated and antibody-coated Raji cells, respectively. Human lymphocytes showed drastically increased LAK activity after stimulation with interleukin-2 (IL-2) for 3 or 7 days when compared to non-activated cells. The level of ADCC was reduced for 3-day-generated LAK cells and augmented for 7-day-generated LAK cells as compared to non-activated cultured lymphocytes. Phenotypical analysis revealed IL-2-induced up-regulation of the proportion of CD11b+ (but not CD16+) lymphocyte subpopulation in 7-day-generated LAK cells. The data imply that human LAK cells exhibit antibody-dependent and -independent cytotoxic activities via distinct effector pathways at different stages of generation. These stages may be associated with changes in adhesion molecule (CD11b/CD18) expression on the surface of IL-2-activated lymphocytes.

  17. Assessment of physical activity of the human body considering the thermodynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Rauschenberger, Philipp; Weigand, Bernhard; Siebert, Tobias; Schmitt, Syn; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2016-01-01

    Correctly dosed physical activity is the basis of a vital and healthy life, but the measurement of physical activity is certainly rather empirical resulting in limited individual and custom activity recommendations. Certainly, very accurate three-dimensional models of the cardiovascular system exist, however, requiring the numeric solution of the Navier-Stokes equations of the flow in blood vessels. These models are suitable for the research of cardiac diseases, but computationally very expensive. Direct measurements are expensive and often not applicable outside laboratories. This paper offers a new approach to assess physical activity using thermodynamical systems and its leading quantity of entropy production which is a compromise between computation time and precise prediction of pressure, volume, and flow variables in blood vessels. Based on a simplified (one-dimensional) model of the cardiovascular system of the human body, we develop and evaluate a setup calculating entropy production of the heart to determine the intensity of human physical activity in a more precise way than previous parameters, e.g. frequently used energy considerations. The knowledge resulting from the precise real-time physical activity provides the basis for an intelligent human-technology interaction allowing to steadily adjust the degree of physical activity according to the actual individual performance level and thus to improve training and activity recommendations.

  18. Measurement of factor v activity in human plasma using a microplate coagulation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Derek; Levit, Irina; Samis, John A

    2012-09-09

    In response to injury, blood coagulation is activated and results in generation of the clotting protease, thrombin. Thrombin cleaves fibrinogen to fibrin which forms an insoluble clot that stops hemorrhage. Factor V (FV) in its activated form, FVa, is a critical cofactor for the protease FXa and accelerator of thrombin generation during fibrin clot formation as part of prothrombinase (1, 2). Manual FV assays have been described (3, 4), but they are time consuming and subjective. Automated FV assays have been reported (5-7), but the analyzer and reagents are expensive and generally provide only the clot time, not the rate and extent of fibrin formation. The microplate platform is preferred for measuring enzyme-catalyzed events because of convenience, time, cost, small volume, continuous monitoring, and high-throughput (8, 9). Microplate assays have been reported for clot lysis (10), platelet aggregation (11), and coagulation Factors (12), but not for FV activity in human plasma. The goal of the method was to develop a microplate assay that measures FV activity during fibrin formation in human plasma. This novel microplate method outlines a simple, inexpensive, and rapid assay of FV activity in human plasma. The assay utilizes a kinetic microplate reader to monitor the absorbance change at 405 nm during fibrin formation in human plasma (Figure 1) (13). The assay accurately measures the time, initial rate, and extent of fibrin clot formation. It requires only μl quantities of plasma, is complete in 6 min, has high-throughput, is sensitive to 24-80 pM FV, and measures the amount of unintentionally activated (1-stage activity) and thrombin-activated FV (2-stage activity) to obtain a complete assessment of its total functional activity (2-stage activity - 1-stage activity). Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired coagulopathy that most often develops from pre-existing infections (14). DIC is associated with a poor prognosis and increases mortality

  19. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Carolyn J.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, cellular redox environment gained significant attention as a critical regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress. Cellular redox environment is a balance between production of reactive oxygen species and their removal by antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activity regulates radioresistance in human pancreatic cancer cells. Vector-control and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpressing human pancreatic c...

  20. The activity of etoposide (VP16) in combination chemotherapy against human bladder cancer cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The activity of Etoposide (VP16) in combination chemotherapy against four human transitional cell carcinoma cell lines of bladder (TCCaB) was determined by in vitro colony formation assay. Four anti-tumor agents (methotrexate: MTX, vinblastine: VBL, adriamycin: ADM, cisplatin: DDP) were used for combination chemotherapy with VP16. The ADM + VP16 combination exhibited a strong synergistic antitumor effect against the human TCCaBs compared with other combinations in this study. The combination ...

  1. Nutrient dynamics and metabolism in Mediterranean streams affected by nutrient inputs from human activities

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A full understanding of nutrient cycling in lotic ecosystems is crucial given the increasing influence of human activities on the eutrophication of streams and rivers. However, existing knowledge about nutrient cycling in human-altered streams (i.e., receiving point and diffuse sources) is still limited. The general objective of this dissertation was to examine point source effects on stream functional attributes, such as nutrient retention, denitrification and metabolism rates. We also quant...

  2. Human platelets utilize cycloxygenase-1 to generate dioxolane A3, a neutrophil activating eicosanoid

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Christine; Aldrovandi, MacEler; Alam, Saydul; Slatter, David; Lauder, Sarah Nicol; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Collins, Peter William; Thomas, Christopher P.; O'Donnell, Valerie Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important mediators of fever, pain, and inflammation that modulate cell signaling during acute and chronic disease. We show by using lipidomics that thrombin-activated human platelets generate a new type of eicosanoid that both stimulates and primes human neutrophil integrin (Mac-1) expression, in response to formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine. Detailed characterization proposes a dioxolane structure, 8-hydroxy-9,11-dioxolane eicosatetraenoic acid (dioxolane A3, DXA3). The lip...

  3. Demonstration of Motor Imagery- and Phantom-Movement Related Neuronal Activity in Human Thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, William S.; Weiss, Nirit; Lawson, Herman Christopher; Ohara, Shinji; Rowland, Lance; Lenz, Frederick A.

    2011-01-01

    Functional imaging studies demonstrate that motor imagery activates multiple structures in the human forebrain. We now show that phantom movements in an amputee and imagined movements in intact subjects elicit responses from neurons in several human thalamic nuclei. These include the somatic sensory nucleus receiving input from the periphery (ventral caudal – Vc), and the motor nuclei receiving input from the cerebellum (ventral intermediate -Vim) and the basal ganglia (ventral oral posterior...

  4. Human rights and transnational legal activism. Strategies of ngos in Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Antonio López Pacheco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the transnational legal activism of human rights ngos in Colombia and Mexico. From a comparative methodology argue that successful transnational pressure on human rights has a determining factor in the coordination strategies of collective actors at the national level. We identified two distinct patterns of action: first, a concentration-coordination strategy of demands in the Colombian case, second a segmentation-fragmentation strategy of demands in the Mexican case.

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the insulin-induced activation of the nitric oxide synthase in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Ingrid; Schulz, Christian; Fichtlscherer, Birgit; Kemp, Bruce E; Fisslthaler, Beate; Busse, Rudi

    2003-11-01

    Little is known about the signaling cascades that eventually regulate the activity of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in platelets. Here, we investigated the effects of insulin on the phosphorylation and activation of eNOS in washed human platelets and in endothelial cells. Insulin activated the protein kinase Akt in cultured endothelial cells and increased the phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser(1177) but failed to increase endothelial cyclic GMP levels or to elicit the relaxation of endothelium-intact porcine coronary arteries. In platelets, insulin also elicited the activation of Akt as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS and initiated NO production which was associated with increased cyclic GMP levels and the inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation. The insulin-induced inhibition of aggregation was accompanied by a decreased Ca(2+) response to thrombin and was also prevented by N(omega) nitro-L-arginine. In platelets, but not in endothelial cells, insulin induced the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic stress-sensing kinase which was sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin and the AMPK inhibitor iodotubercidin. Moreover, the insulin-mediated inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation was prevented by iodotubercidin. Insulin-independent activation of the AMPK using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, increased platelet eNOS phosphorylation, increased cyclic GMP levels and attenuated platelet aggregation. These results highlight the differences in the signal transduction cascade activated by insulin in endothelial cells and platelets, and demonstrate that insulin stimulates the formation of NO in human platelets, in the absence of an increase in Ca(2+), by acti-vating PI3-K and AMPK which phosphorylates eNOS on Ser(1177).

  6. Further evidence for a human B cell activating factor distinct from IL-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, A; Février, M; Mollier, P; Charron, D; Banchereau, J; Reinherz, E L; Thèze, J

    1990-01-01

    Supernatants from activated human T cell clones were previously shown to contain B cell-activating factor (BCAF), an activity which results in polyclonal resting B cell stimulation. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between this activity and human interleukin-4 which was also shown to act on resting B cells. The supernatant of the T cell clone TT9 contains IL-4 but anti-IL-4 antiserum does not affect the response of B cells as measured by thymidine uptake or cell volume increase. Furthermore, IL-4 induces Fc epsilon-receptor (CD23) expression on 30% of unstimulated human B cells, whereas BCAF-containing supernatants from clone P2, that do not contain detectable amounts of IL-4, promote B cell proliferation without inducing CD23 expression. Our results therefore establish that IL-4 and BCAF are distinct activities and suggest that they trigger different activation pathways in human B cells. In addition, culture of B cells with T cell supernatants for 72 hr induces a three- to fourfold increase in the expression of HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ antigens in 50% of B cells. The addition of inhibiting concentrations of anti-IFN-gamma, LT, or IL-4 antisera to the cultures does not change these results. Finally, 30% of B cells cultured with T cell supernatants leave the G1 phase of the cell cycle and 20% reach mitosis. Taken together, our findings further support the existence of a B cell-activating factor responsible for the activation of resting human B cells.

  7. Pregnane X receptor activation and silencing promote steatosis of human hepatic cells by distinct lipogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Andreas; Rümmele, Petra; Klein, Kathrin; Kandel, Benjamin A; Rieger, Jessica K; Nüssler, Andreas K; Zanger, Ulrich M; Trauner, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the regulation of drug metabolism and transport by xenobiotics, pregnane X receptor (PXR) critically impacts on lipid homeostasis. In mice, both ligand-dependent activation and knockout of PXR were previously shown to promote hepatic steatosis. To elucidate the respective pathways in human liver, we generated clones of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exhibiting different PXR protein levels, and analyzed effects of PXR activation and knockdown on steatosis and expression of lipogenic genes. Ligand-dependent activation as well as knockdown of PXR resulted in increased steatosis in HepG2 cells. Activation of PXR induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1-dependent lipogenic pathway via PXR-dependent induction of SREBP1a, which was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibiting SREBP1 activity by blocking the cleavage-dependent maturation of SREBP1 protein impaired the induction of lipogenic SREBP1 target genes and triglyceride accumulation by PXR activation. On the other hand, PXR knockdown resulted in up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, which enhanced the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-catalyzed reaction step of de novo lipogenesis. In a cohort of human liver samples histologically classified for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AKR1B10, SREBP1a and SREBP1 lipogenic target genes proved to be up-regulated in steatohepatitis, while PXR protein was reduced. In summary, our data suggest that activation and knockdown of PXR in human hepatic cells promote de novo lipogenesis and steatosis by induction of the SREBP1 pathway and AKR1B10-mediated increase of ACC activity, respectively, thus providing mechanistic explanations for a putative dual role of PXR in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis.

  8. Effects of refrigeration on the bactericidal activity of human milk: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Costa, Cecilia; Silvestre, María Dolores; López, María Carmen; Plaza, Auxiliadora; Miranda, María; Guijarro, Raquel

    2007-08-01

    This study analyzed the bactericidal activity of human milk and how it is influenced by refrigerated storage. Nine samples of mature human milk were collected and divided into 3 aliquots. One was analyzed immediately, and the other 2 were refrigerated at 4 degrees C to 6 degrees C for 48 and 72 hours, respectively. All of the fresh samples exhibited bactericidal activity with an average value of 83.47% +/- 18.37%. Refrigeration for 48 hours did not cause significant modifications, whereas storage beyond 72 hours significantly lowered the degree of bacteriolysis versus fresh milk. In conclusion, human milk possesses bactericidal activity that remains stable during the first 48 hours of refrigerated storage, but it is significantly reduced beyond 72 hours.

  9. The human ARF tumor suppressor senses blastema activity and suppresses epimorphic tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Robert G; Kouklis, Gayle K; Ahituv, Nadav; Pomerantz, Jason H

    2015-11-17

    The control of proliferation and differentiation by tumor suppressor genes suggests that evolution of divergent tumor suppressor repertoires could influence species' regenerative capacity. To directly test that premise, we humanized the zebrafish p53 pathway by introducing regulatory and coding sequences of the human tumor suppressor ARF into the zebrafish genome. ARF was dormant during development, in uninjured adult fins, and during wound healing, but was highly expressed in the blastema during epimorphic fin regeneration after amputation. Regenerative, but not developmental signals resulted in binding of zebrafish E2f to the human ARF promoter and activated conserved ARF-dependent Tp53 functions. The context-dependent activation of ARF did not affect growth and development but inhibited regeneration, an unexpected distinct tumor suppressor response to regenerative versus developmental environments. The antagonistic pleiotropic characteristics of ARF as both tumor and regeneration suppressor imply that inducing epimorphic regeneration clinically would require modulation of ARF -p53 axis activation.

  10. Chymase activities and survival in endotoxin-induced human chymase transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Kazi; Fan, Yu-Yan; Sherajee, Shamshad J; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Matsuura, Junji; Hase, Naoki; Mori, Hirohito; Nakano, Daisuke; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Urata, Hidenori; Nishiyama, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of overexpressed human chymase on survival and activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. Human chymase transgenic (Tg) and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice were treated with LPS (0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/day; intraperitoneal) for 2 weeks. Treatment with 0.03 mg LPS did not affect survival in either WT or Tg mice. WT mice were not affected by 0.1 mg/day of LPS, whereas 25% of Tg mice died. Survival of mice treated with 0.3 mg/day of LPS was 87.5% and 0% in WT and Tg, respectively. LPS-induced increases in chymase activity in the heart and skin were significantly greater in Tg than WT mice. These data suggest a possible contribution of human chymase activation to LPS-induced mortality.

  11. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Activity Status in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) was launched by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. The Initiative aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities, creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications, and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has conducted a series of outreach activities and expert meetings bringing together participants from around the world. HSTI will also be implementing science and educational activities in relevant areas to raise the capacities, particularly in developing countries, in pursuit of the development goals of the United Nations, thus contributing to promoting the peaceful uses of outer space.

  12. Human endogenous retrovirus W family envelope gene activates the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel in human neuroblastoma cells through CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Liu, Z C; Yin, S J; Chen, Y T; Yu, H L; Zeng, J; Zhang, Q; Zhu, F

    2013-09-05

    Numerous studies have shown that human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope gene (env) is related to various diseases but the underlying mechanism has remained poorly understood. Our previous study showed that there was abnormal expression of HERV-W env in sera of patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, we reported that overexpression of the HERV-W env elevated the levels of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel protein 3 (SK3) in human neuroblastoma cells. Using a luciferase reporter system and RNA interference method, we found that functional cAMP response element site was required for the expression of SK3 triggered by HERV-W env. In addition, it was also found that the SK3 channel was activated by HERV-W env. Further study indicated that cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was required for the activation of the SK3 channel. Thus, a novel signaling mechanism of how HERV-W env influences neuronal activity and contributes to mental illnesses such as schizophrenia was proposed.

  13. Antagonistic activity of antibiotic producing Streptomyces sp. against fish and human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to isolate Streptomyces sp. from soil samples of two different regions of Bangladesh and evaluate their antagonistic activity against fish and human pathogenic bacteria. A total of 10 isolates were identified as Streptomyces sp. based on several morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. Cross streak method was used to observe the antagonistic activity of the Streptomyces sp. isolates against different fish pathogens belonging to the genus Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Edwardsiella and human clinical isolates belonging to the genus Klebsiella, Salmonella and Streptococcus. Seven Streptomyces sp. isolates showed antagonism against both fish and human pathogenic bacteria. Four isolates viz., N24, N26, N28 and N47 showed broad spectrum of antagonistic activity (80-100% against all genera of fish and human pathogenic bacteria. The isolate N49 exhibited highest spectrum of antagonism against all fish pathogens (90-100% but comparatively lower degree of antagonism against human pathogens (50-60%. Rest of the two isolates (N21 and N23 showed variability in their antagonism. Results showed that broad spectrum antibiotic(s could be developed from the isolates N24, N26, N28 and N47against several human and fish pathogens. The isolate N49 could be a potential source of antibiotic, especially for fish pathogenic bacteria.

  14. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  15. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R A; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Caldas-Junior, A F; Souza, E H A; Coelho-Junior, L G T M; Campello, R I C; Almeida, A C; Farias, R C A P; Vasconcellos, A

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) (on two skeletons), and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  16. Methodologic basis for the radioimmunoassay of endogenous LH-like activity in human prostatic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorobek, W.; Misiorowski, W.; Niewiadomska, A.; Baranowska, B.; Zgliczynski, S.; Kuzaka, B.; Krzeski, T.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the radioimmunological determination of the activity of LH-like substances in the human prostate. The material comprised 19 specimens of prostatic tissue obtained during transbladder extirpation in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tissues of human testes and human skeletal muscle were used as controls. The method adopted for LH extraction from the membrane fraction of human prostatic tissue appeared to be sufficiently specific, accurate and sensitive for routine laboratory investigations. The concentrations of the LH-like immunoreactivity in human testicular tissue was found to be 57, 46 and 70 mU per g of the membrane fraction while those of the prostatic gland tissues ranged from 34 to 155 mU per g of the membrane fraction. However such LH-like substance was not found in human skeletal muscle tissue. It seems that the LH-type activity is an indirect proof for the existence of LH receptors in the human prostate.

  17. Differential transforming activity of the retroviral Tax oncoproteins in human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong eRen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1 and -2 are two closely related retroviruses. HTLV-1 causes adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma, whereas HTLV-2 infection is not etiologically linked to human disease. The viral genomes of HTLV-1 and -2 encode highly homologous transforming proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, respectively. Tax-1 is thought to play a central role in transforming CD4+ T lymphocytes. Expression of Tax-1 is crucial for promoting survival and proliferation of virally infected human T lymphocytes and is necessary for initiating HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. In transgenic mice and humanized mouse model, Tax-1 has proven to be leukemogenic. Although Tax-1 is able to efficiently transform rodent fibroblasts and to induce lymphoma in mouse model, it rarely transforms primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes. In contrast, Tax-2 efficiently immortalizes human CD4+ T cells though it exhibits a lower transforming activity in rodent cells as compared to Tax-1. We here discuss our recent observation and views on the differential transforming activity of Tax-1 and Tax-2 in human T cells.

  18. Human activity response and prevention strategies on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yiping; CHEN Guojie

    2003-01-01

    Ten major factors have been selected to judge the degree of disturbance from human activity and the corresponding relationship of the impact on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province. Correlation analysis has demonstrated that stock-carrying capacity, percentage of land reclamation, population density, GDP per capita, mineral modulus and percentage of forest coverage are the 6 most relevant human activity factors. The analysis on the degree of disturbance has shown that population pressure, excessive or unreasonable activities in development of resources and destructive behavior of humans are the main causes of soil and water loss. Consequently, solving the various problems in the negative activity of humans and regulating human behavior are the first tasks that should be tackled in the conservation of water and soil. In the new era, the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss are measures based on the foundation of the ecosystem, which is a kind of management strategy for sustainable development. The foundation of this method is made up of the system innovations and breakthroughs in terms of aims, philosophy, measures, and aspects of the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss, simultaneous advance from the conceptual, policy, spatial, technical and mode levels and system integration on the treatment strategies.

  19. Intein-mediated Rapid Purification of Recombinant Human Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-jie YU; An HONG; Yun DAI; Yuan GAO

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain the recombinant human PACAP efficiently by intein-mediated single column purification, a gene encoding human PACAP was synthesized and cloned into Escherichia coli expression vector pKYB. The recombinant vector pKY-PAC was transferred into E. coli ER2566 cells and the target protein was over-expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of a self-cleavable affinity tag. After the PACAPintein-CBD fusion protein was purified by chitin-affinity chromatography, the self-cleavage activity of the intein was induced by DTT and the rhPACAP was released from the chitin-bound intein tag. The activity of the rhPACAP to stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation was detected using the human pancreas carcinoma cells SW1990. Twenty-two milligrams of rhPACAP with the purity over 98% was obtained by single column purification from 1 liter of induced culture. The preliminary biological assay indicated that the rhPACAP, which has an extra Met at its N-terminus compared with the native human PACAP, had the similar activity of stimulating cAMP accumulation with the standard PACAP38 in the SW1990 cells. A new efficient production procedure of the active recombinant human PACAP was established.

  20. Centrifugal force induces human ligamentum flavum fibroblasts inflammation through activation of JNK and p38 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuan-Hung; Tsuang, Yang-Hwei; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Sun, Man-Ger; Chen, Ming-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation has been proposed to be an important causative factor in ligamentum flavum hypertrophy. However, the mechanisms of mechanical load on inflammation of ligamentum flavum remain unclear. In this study, we used an in vitro model of human ligamentum flavum fibroblasts subjected to centrifugal force to elucidate the effects of mechanical load on cultured human ligamentum flavum fibroblasts; we further studied its molecular and biochemical mechanisms. Human ligamentum flavum fibroblasts were obtained from six patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Monolayer cultures of human ligamentum flavum fibroblasts were subjected to different magnitudes of centrifugal forces. Cell viability, cell death, biochemical response, and molecular response to centrifugal forces were analyzed. It was found that centrifugal stress significantly suppressed cell viability without inducing cell death. Centrifugal force at 67.1 g/cm(2) for 60 min significantly increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide as well as gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β and IL-6, showed that centrifugal force-dependent induction of cyclooxygense-2 and inducible NO synthase required JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not ERK 1/2 activities. This study suggested that centrifugal force does induce inflammatory responses in human ligamentum flavum fibroblasts. The activation of both JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mechanotransduction cascades is a crucial intracellular mechanism that mediates cyclooxygense-2/prostaglandin E2 and inducible NO synthase/nitric oxide production.

  1. Human-robot interaction: kinematics and muscle activity inside a powered compliant knee exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Beyl, Pieter; Duerinck, Saartje; Hagman, Friso; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    Until today it is not entirely clear how humans interact with automated gait rehabilitation devices and how we can, based on that interaction, maximize the effectiveness of these exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to gain knowledge on the human-robot interaction, in terms of kinematics and muscle activity, between a healthy human motor system and a powered knee exoskeleton (i.e., KNEXO). Therefore, temporal and spatial gait parameters, human joint kinematics, exoskeleton kinetics and muscle activity during four different walking trials in 10 healthy male subjects were studied. Healthy subjects can walk with KNEXO in patient-in-charge mode with some slight constraints in kinematics and muscle activity primarily due to inertia of the device. Yet, during robot-in-charge walking the muscular constraints are reversed by adding positive power to the leg swing, compensating in part this inertia. Next to that, KNEXO accurately records and replays the right knee kinematics meaning that subject-specific trajectories can be implemented as a target trajectory during assisted walking. No significant differences in the human response to the interaction with KNEXO in low and high compliant assistance could be pointed out. This is in contradiction with our hypothesis that muscle activity would decrease with increasing assistance. It seems that the differences between the parameter settings of low and high compliant control might not be sufficient to observe clear effects in healthy subjects. Moreover, we should take into account that KNEXO is a unilateral, 1 degree-of-freedom device.

  2. The relationship between human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase activity and muscle aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Lorenzo K; LeBlanc, Paul J; Inglis, J Greig; Bradley, Nicolette S; Choptiany, Jon; Heigenhauser, George J F; Peters, Sandra J

    2011-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for regulating the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for use in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. PDH is regulated through phosphorylation and inactivation by PDH kinase (PDK) and dephosphorylation and activation by PDH phosphatase (PDP). The effect of endurance training on PDK in humans has been investigated; however, to date no study has examined the effect of endurance training on PDP in humans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in PDP activity and PDP1 protein content in human skeletal muscle across a range of muscle aerobic capacities. This association is important as higher PDP activity and protein content will allow for increased activation of PDH, and carbohydrate oxidation. The main findings of this study were that 1) PDP activity (r(2) = 0.399, P = 0.001) and PDP1 protein expression (r(2) = 0.153, P = 0.039) were positively correlated with citrate synthase (CS) activity as a marker for muscle aerobic capacity; 2) E1α (r(2) = 0.310, P = 0.002) and PDK2 protein (r(2) = 0.229, P =0.012) are positively correlated with muscle CS activity; and 3) although it is the most abundant isoform, PDP1 protein content only explained ∼ 18% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.184, P = 0.033). In addition, PDP1 in combination with E1α explained ∼ 38% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.383, P = 0.005), suggesting that there may be alternative regulatory mechanisms of this enzyme other than protein content. These data suggest that with higher muscle aerobic capacity (CS activity) there is a greater capacity for carbohydrate oxidation (E1α), in concert with higher potential for PDH activation (PDP activity).

  3. Hepatic cytochrome P450 activity, abundance, and expression throughout human development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Smith, Jordan N.; Corley, Richard A.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450s are Phase I metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes can vary considerably throughout human development, especially when comparing fetal development to neonates, children, and adults. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 expression and activity we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. To quantify the functional activity of individual P450s we employ activity-based protein profiling, which uses modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s as chemical probes, in tandem with proteomic analyses to quantify activity. Our results reveal life-stage-dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. The results were used to distribute P450s into three general classes based upon developmental stage of expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that our ontogeny results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics.

  4. Oral glucose ingestion attenuates exercise-induced activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard

    2006-01-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a 'metabolic master switch' regulating various aspects of muscle glucose and fat metabolism. In isolated rat skeletal muscle, glucose suppresses the activity of AMPK and in human muscle glycogen loading decreases exercise-induced AMPK...... activation. We hypothesized that oral glucose ingestion during exercise would attenuate muscle AMPK activation. Nine male subjects performed two bouts of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 60% of maximal workload. The subjects were randomly assigned to either consume a glucose containing drink or a placebo...... drink during the two trials. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 2 h of exercise. Plasma glucose was higher (6.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.1 mmol L-1, P

  5. Eugenol--the active principle from cloves inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene-C4 in human PMNL cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavenra, H; Diwakr, B T; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K A

    2006-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play an important role in the modulation of inflammatory conditions in humans. PMNL cells recruited at the site of inflammation, release inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes, proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species. Among these, leukotrienes are implicated in pathophysiology of allergic and inflammatory disorders like asthma, allergic rhinitis, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis. 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme in biosynthetic pathway of leukotrienes. Our earlier studies showed that spice phenolic active principles significantly inhibit 5-LO enzyme in human PMNLs. In this study we have further characterized the inhibitory mechanism of eugenol, the active principle of spice-clove on 5-LO enzyme and also its effect on leukotriene C((4)) (LTC(4)). Substrate dependent enzyme kinetics showed that the inhibitory effect of eugenol on 5-LO was of a non-competitive nature. Further, eugenol was found to significantly inhibit the formation of LTC(4) in calcium ionophore A23187 and arachidonic acid (AA) stimulated PMNL cells. These data clearly suggest that eugenol inhibits 5-LO by non-competitive mechanism and also inhibits formation of LTC(4) in human PMNL cells and thus may have beneficial role in modulating 5-LO pathway in human PMNL cells.

  6. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  7. Human movement activity classification approaches that use wearable sensors and mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghyan, Sahak; Sarukhanyan, Hakob; Akopian, David

    2013-03-01

    Cell phones and other mobile devices become part of human culture and change activity and lifestyle patterns. Mobile phone technology continuously evolves and incorporates more and more sensors for enabling advanced applications. Latest generations of smart phones incorporate GPS and WLAN location finding modules, vision cameras, microphones, accelerometers, temperature sensors etc. The availability of these sensors in mass-market communication devices creates exciting new opportunities for data mining applications. Particularly healthcare applications exploiting build-in sensors are very promising. This paper reviews different approaches of human activity recognition.

  8. Screening of Fungi from Chinese Medical Plants for Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to isolate anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents from natural products, 97 ethanolic extracts of 90 fungi were tested for their inhibitory activity on HIV-1. Most of the extracts tested were relatively non-toxic to human lymphocytic MT-4 cells, but extracts of some fungi exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in an in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay with a selectivity index greater than 3. Most fungi were isolated from Dendrobium sp. and Taxus sp.

  9. Human myeloperoxidase activity is inhibited in vitro by quercetin. Comparison with three related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemail, J; Deby, C; Thirion, A; de Bruyn-Dister, M; Goutier, R

    1988-05-15

    Quercetin is an effective inhibitor of human myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, both with purified enzyme (IC50 = 3.5 microM) and in a system using stimulated human neutrophils. Quercetin is significantly more potent than three other related compounds (rutin, rutin sulfate and troxerutin) and than methimazole, a previously-known myeloperoxidase inhibitor. The inhibitory activity of quercetin is of the competitive type. Moreover, quercetin is directly able to scavenge hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a chlorinated species generated by the MPO/H2O2/Cl- system.

  10. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  11. Cytotoxic activity of phenolic constituents from Echinochloa crus-galli against four human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Gad El Molla; Amira Abdel Motaal; Hala El Hefnawy; Ahlam El Fishawy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Poaceae, grains are used as a feed for birds and millet for humans. The sulforhodamine B assay was used to assess its cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines. The ethanolic extract (70%) proved to be most active against HCT-116 and HELA cell lines (IC50 = 11.2 ± 0.11 and 12.0 ± 0.11 µg/ml, respectively). On the other hand, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited their highest activities against HCT-116 cell lines. The chlo...

  12. Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara

    2012-07-01

    Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles.

  13. Galangin potentiates human breast cancer to apoptosis induced by TRAIL through activating AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Yan, Chong-Yang; Zhou, Qian-Qian; Zhen, Lin-Lin

    2017-03-06

    Breast cancer is reported as the most frequent tumor with limited treatments among the female worldwide. Galangin, a natural active compound 3, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone, is a type of bioflavonoid isolated from the Alpinia galangal root and suggested to induce apoptosis in various cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an effective anti-tumor agent for human breast cancer. Promoted expression of CHOP, a down-streaming transcription factor for endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), enhanced death factor 4 (DR4) activity and accelerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as cell death. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is crucial for various cancers mortality. In the present study, galangin regulated ER stress to augment CHOP and DR4 expression levels, sensitizing TRAIL activity, leading to human breast cancer cell apoptosis through Caspase-3 activation, which was associated with AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, AMPK inhibition and silence reduced anti-cancer activity of galangin and TRAIL in combinational treatment. Hence, our study indicated that galangin could effectively stimulate human breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through TRAIL/Caspase-3/AMPK signaling pathway. AMPK signaling pathway activation by galangin might be of benefit for promoting the effects of TRAIL-regulated anti-tumor therapeutic strategy.

  14. Tracking a Subset of Skeleton Joints: An Effective Approach towards Complex Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Latif Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a robust algorithm for complex human activity recognition for natural human-robot interaction. The algorithm is based on tracking the position of selected joints in human skeleton. For any given activity, only a few skeleton joints are involved in performing the activity, so a subset of joints contributing the most towards the activity is selected. Our approach of tracking a subset of skeleton joints (instead of tracking the whole skeleton is computationally efficient and provides better recognition accuracy. We have developed both manual and automatic approaches for the selection of these joints. The position of the selected joints is tracked for the duration of the activity and is used to construct feature vectors for each activity. Once the feature vectors have been constructed, we use a Support Vector Machines (SVM multiclass classifier for training and testing the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a purposely built dataset of depth videos recorded using Kinect camera. The dataset consists of 250 videos of 10 different activities being performed by different users. Experimental results show classification accuracy of 83% when tracking all skeleton joints, 95% when using manual selection of subset joints, and 89% when using automatic selection of subset joints.

  15. DMEM enhances tyrosinase activity in B16 mouse melanoma cells and human melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpen Diawpanich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Media components may affect the activities of cultured cells. In this study, tyrosinase activity was evaluated by using B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell lines (B16-F10 and primary human melanocytes cultured in different media. An optical density measurement and a L-dopa reaction assay were used as the determination of the tyrosinase activity. The study of B16-F10 found the optical density to be 2010, 2246 and 2961 in cells cultured in RPMI Medium 1640 (RPMI1640,Minimum Essential Medium (MEM and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM, respectively. Moreover, compared to RPMI 1640 and MEM, DMEM showed the darkest color of melanin formation in culture media and in cells after the L-dopa reaction assay. Addition of kojic acid showed a significant inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in all media.Whereas MCDB153 showed no significant effect on human melanocytes, DMEM caused a dramatic increase in tyrosinase activity after 4 days of cultivation. Addition of kojic acid showed a significant tyrosinase inhibitory effect in DMEM only. Furthermore, an active ingredient in green tea, epigallocathechin gallate (EGCG could inhibit tyrosinase activity in both B16-F10 and human melanocytes cultured in DMEM. In summary, these results suggest that DMEM is a suitable medium that provides high detection sensitivity in a tyrosinase inhibition assay.

  16. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash S Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF, human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor, while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen, and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai. This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds

  17. Activation of calcineurin in human failing heart ventricle by endothelin-1, angiotensin II and urotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Joan; Wang, Jianchun; Russell, Fraser D; Molenaar, Peter

    2005-06-01

    1 The calcineurin (CaN) enzyme-transcriptional pathway is critically involved in hypertrophy of heart muscle in some animal models. Currently there is no information concerning the regulation of CaN activation by endogenous agonists in human heart. 2 Human right ventricular trabeculae from explanted human (14 male/2 female) failing hearts were set up in a tissue bath and electrically paced at 1 Hz and incubated with or without 100 nM endothelin-1 (ET-1), 10 M, angiotensin-II (Ang II) or 20 nM human urotensin-II (hUII) for 30 min. Tissues from four patients were incubated with 200 nM tacrolimus (FK506) for 30 min and then incubated in the presence or absence of ET-1 for a further 30 min. 3 ET-1 increased contractile force in all 13 patients (P0.1). FK506 had no effect on contractile force (P=0.12). 4 ET-1, Ang II and hUII increased calcineurin activity by 32, 71 and 15%, respectively, while FK506 reduced activity by 34%. ET-1 in the presence of FK506 did not restore calcineurin activity (P=0.1). 5 There was no relationship between basal CaN activity and expression levels in the right ventricle. Increased levels of free phosphate were detected in ventricular homogenates that were incubated with PKC(epsilon) compared to samples incubated without PKC(epsilon). 6 Endogenous cardiostimulants which activate G(alpha)q-coupled receptors increase the activity of calcineurin in human heart following acute (30 min) exposure. PKC may contribute to this effect by increasing levels of phosphorylated calcineurin substrate.

  18. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Phlorofucofuroeckol A via Upregulation of Activating Transcription Factor 3 against Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Eo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlorofucofuroeckol A (PFF-A, one of the phlorotannins found in brown algae, has been reported to exert anti-cancer property. However, the molecular mechanism for the anti-cancer effect of PFF-A has not been known. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 has been reported to be associated with apoptosis in colorectal cancer. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which PFF-A stimulates ATF3 expression and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. PFF-A decreased cell viability through apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells. PFF-A increased ATF3 expression through regulating transcriptional activity. The responsible cis-element for ATF3 transcriptional activation by PFF-A was cAMP response element binding protein (CREB, located between positions −147 and −85 of the ATF3 promoter. Inhibition of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK 3β, and IκB kinase (IKK-α blocked PFF-A-mediated ATF3 expression. ATF3 knockdown by ATF3 siRNA attenuated the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP by PFF-A, while ATF3 overexpression increased PFF-A-mediated cleaved PARP. These results suggest that PFF-A may exert anti-cancer property through inducing apoptosis via the ATF3-mediated pathway in human colorectal cancer cells.

  19. Influence of organophosphorus pesticides on peroxidase and chlorination activity of human myeloperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara; Momić, Tatjana; Radojević, Miloš M; Vasić, Vesna

    2013-09-01

    Inhibitory effects of five organophosphorus pesticides (diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl and phorate) and their oxo-analogs on human myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were investigated. While inspecting separately peroxidase and chlorination activity, it was observed that investigated OPs affect peroxidase activity, but not chlorination activity. Among investigated pesticides, malathion and malaoxon have showed the highest power to inhibit MPO peroxidase activity with IC50 values of the order of 3×10(-7) and 5×10(-9) M, respectively. It was proposed that inhibition trend is rendered by molecular structure which invokes steric hindrance for OPs interaction with MPO active center responsible for peroxidase activity. In addition, it was concluded that physiological function of MPO is not affected by any of the investigated OPs.

  20. EVALUATION OF HUMAN RELIABILITY IN SELECTED ACTIVITIES IN THE RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika SUJOVÁ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on evaluation of human reliability in the human – machine system in the railway industry. Based on a survey of a train dispatcher and of selected activities, we have identified risk factors affecting the dispatcher‘s work and the evaluated risk level of their influence on the reliability and safety of preformed activities. The research took place at the authors‘ work place between 2012-2013. A survey method was used. With its help, authors were able to identify selected work activities of train dispatcher’s risk factors that affect his/her work and the evaluated seriousness of its in-fluence on the reliability and safety of performed activities. Amongst the most important finding fall expressions of un-clear and complicated internal regulations and work processes, a feeling of being overworked, fear for one’s safety at small, insufficiently protected stations.

  1. Rifaximin is a gut-specific human pregnane X receptor activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochao; Shah, Yatrik M; Guo, Grace L; Wang, Ting; Krausz, Kristopher W; Idle, Jeffrey R; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2007-07-01

    Rifaximin, a rifamycin analog approved for the treatment of travelers' diarrhea, is also beneficial in the treatment of multiple chronic gastrointestinal disorders. However, the mechanisms contributing to the effects of rifaximin on chronic gastrointestinal disorders are not fully understood. In the current study, rifaximin was investigated for its role in activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic and limited endobiotic deposition and detoxication. PXR-humanized (hPXR), Pxr-null, and wild-type mice were treated orally with rifaximin, and rifampicin, a well characterized human PXR ligand. Rifaximin was highly concentrated in the intestinal tract compared with rifampicin. Rifaximin treatment resulted in significant induction of PXR target genes in the intestine of hPXR mice, but not in wild-type and Pxr-null mice. However, rifaximin treatment demonstrated no significant effect on hepatic PXR target genes in wild-type, Pxr-null, and hPXR mice. Consistent with the in vivo data, cell-based reporter gene assay revealed rifaximin-mediated activation of human PXR, but not the other xenobiotic nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARgamma, and farnesoid X receptor. Pretreatment with rifaximin did not affect the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam, but it increased the C(max) and decreased T(max) of 1'-hydroxymidazolam. Collectively, the current study identified rifaximin as a gut-specific human PXR ligand, and it provided further evidence for the utility of hPXR mice as a critical tool for the study of human PXR activators. Further human studies are suggested to assess the potential role of rifaximin-mediated gut PXR activation in therapeutics of chronic gastrointestinal disorders.

  2. Activation of human natural killer cells by the soluble form of cellular prion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Yeon-Jae [Laboratory of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hafis Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Pil Soo; Jang, Young-Soon; Choi, Young Joon [Laboratory of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bum-Chan [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su-Hyung [Laboratory of Translational Immunology and Vaccinology, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Woo [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Eui-Cheol, E-mail: ecshin@kaist.ac.kr [Laboratory of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) is widely expressed in various cell types, including cells of the immune system. However, the specific roles of PrP{sup C} in the immune system have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C} protein on human natural killer (NK) cells. Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} protein was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with the Fc portion of human IgG{sub 1} (PrP{sup C}-Fc). PrP{sup C}-Fc binds to the surface of human NK cells, particularly to CD56{sup dim} NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced the production of cytokines and chemokines and the degranulation of granzyme B from NK cells. In addition, PrP{sup C}-Fc facilitated the IL-15-induced proliferation of NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK in NK cells, and inhibitors of the ERK or the JNK pathways abrogated PrP{sup C}-Fc-induced cytokine production in NK cells. In conclusion, the soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} (PrP{sup C}-Fc) was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with IgG1 Fc portion. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein induces the production of cytokines and degranulation from human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein enhances the IL-15-induced proliferation of human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

  3. Activation of human colon mast cells through proteinase activated receptor-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Heng He; Yong-Song He; Hua Xie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of agonists of PAR-2 to rtimulate release of tryptase and histamine from human colon mast cells and the potential mechanisms.METHODS: Enzymatically dispersed cells from human colons were challenged with tc-LIGRLO, tc-OLRGIL, SLIGKV,VKGILS, trypsin, anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187, and the cell supernatante after challenge were collected. Tryptase release was determined with a sandwich ELISA procedure and histamine release was measured using a glass fibrebased fluorometric assay.RESULTS: Both PAR-2 agonists tc-LIGRLO-NH2 and SLIGKVNH2 were able to induce dose dependent release of tryptase and histamine from colon mast cells. More than 2.5 fold increase in both tryptase and histamine release was provoked by 100 μmol/mL tc-LIGRLO-NH2, in compariSon with only 2.0 fold increase being stimulated by SLIGKV-NH2. The reverse peptides tc-OLRGIL-NH2 and VKGILS -NH2 at the concentrations tested had no effect on the release of these two mediators. The maximum tryptase release elicited by tc-LIGRLO-NH2 was similar to that induced by anti-IgE(10 μg/mL) or calcium ionophore (1 μg/mL), though the latter was a more potent stimulus for histamine release. Both histamine and tryptase release in response to tc-LIGRLONH2 were completed within 3 min. Trypsin at concentrations from 1.0 to 100 μg/mL was capable of provoking a dose dependent release of tryptase as well as histamine with a maximum of 16 ng/mL tryptase and 14 ng/mL histamine release being achieved. An approximately 80% and 70% inhibition of trypsin induced release of tryptase and histamine were observed with SBTI, respectively. Pretreatment of cells with metabolic inhibitors or pertussis toxin abolished the actions of tc-LIGRLO-NH2, SLIGKV-NH2 and trypsin.CONCLUSION: The agonists of PAR-2 and trypsin are potent secretagogues of human colon mast cells, which are likely to contribute to the development of inflammatory disorders in human gut.

  4. Activation of resting human B cells by helper T-cell clone supernatant: characterization of a human B-cell-activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, A; Gougeon, M L; Moreau, J L; Reinherz, E L; Thèze, J

    1987-12-01

    The effects of helper T-cell clone supernatants on resting human B cells were investigated. Four different helper T-cell clones (two T4+ and two T8+) were stimulated by anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies on Sepharose beads or anti-T11(2) plus anti-T11(3) monoclonal antibodies. The supernatants from these activated clones induced the proliferation of highly purified resting B lymphocytes from the peripheral blood. The B cells exhibited a cell size and a surface-antigen pattern (4F2 antigen and transferrin receptor) of phase G0 B cells, and they were functionally resting. In response to T-cell supernatants a large fraction of the B cells enlarged and expressed 4F2 antigens and transferrin receptors. In gel filtration, the corresponding activity migrated with an apparent Mr of 12,000-15,000. Our findings strongly support the existence of a human B-cell-activating factor acting on resting B cells and causing them to enter phase G1 of the cell cycle.

  5. PAR-2 activation, PGE2, and COX-2 in human asthmatic and nonasthmatic airway smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, Linda S.; Black, Judith L.; Ge, Qi; Carlin, Stephen M.; Au, Wendy W.; Poniris, Maree; Thompson, Joanne; Johnson, Peter R.; Burgess, Janette K.

    2003-01-01

    The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is present on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and can be activated by mast cell tryptase, trypsin, or an activating peptide (AP). Trypsin induced significant increases in PGE 2 release from human ASM cells after 6 and 24 h and also induced cyclooxygen

  6. PAR-2 activation, PGE2, and COX-2 in human asthmatic and nonasthmatic airway smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, Linda S; Black, Judith L; Ge, Qi; Carlin, Stephen M; Au, Wendy W; Poniris, Maree; Thompson, Joanne; Johnson, Peter R; Burgess, Janette K

    2003-01-01

    The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is present on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and can be activated by mast cell tryptase, trypsin, or an activating peptide (AP). Trypsin induced significant increases in PGE2 release from human ASM cells after 6 and 24 h and also induced cyclooxygena

  7. Time-invariant person-specific frequency templates in human brain activity

    CERN Document Server

    Doron, I; Baruchi, I; Towle, V L; Ben-Jacob, E; Doron, Itai; Hulata, Eyal; Baruchi, Itay; Towle, Vernon L.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2006-01-01

    The various human brain tasks are performed at different locations and time scales. Yet, we discovered the existence of time-invariant (above an essential time scale) partitioning of the brain activity into person-specific frequency bands. For that, we perform temporal and ensemble averaging of best wavelet packet bases from multi-electrode EEG recordings. These personal frequency-bands provide new templates for quantitative analyses of brain function, e.g., normal vs. epileptic activity.

  8. A Deep Structured Model with Radius-Margin Bound for 3D Human Activity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Liang; Wang, Keze; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Meng; Luo, Jiebo; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding human activity is very challenging even with the recently developed 3D/depth sensors. To solve this problem, this work investigates a novel deep structured model, which adaptively decomposes an activity instance into temporal parts using the convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our model advances the traditional deep learning approaches in two aspects. First, { we incorporate latent temporal structure into the deep model, accounting for large temporal variations of diverse huma...

  9. A semi-supervised approach uncovers thousands of intragenic enhancers differentially activated in human cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcriptional enhancers are generally known to regulate gene transcription from afar. Their activation involves a series of changes in chromatin marks and recruitment of protein factors. These enhancers may also occur inside genes, but how many may be active in human cells and their effects on the regulation of the host gene remains unclear. Results We describe a novel semi-supervised method based on the relative enrichment of chromatin signals between 2 conditions to predict act...

  10. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus), Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Ye-Ming Lee; Kuo-Hsien Hsieh; Wan-Jung Lu; Hsiu-Chu Chou; Duen-Suey Chou; Li-Ming Lien; Joen-Rong Sheu; Kuan-Hung Lin

    2012-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.). Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation...

  11. Estrogenic activity of natural and synthetic estrogens in human breast cancer cells in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Zava, D T; Blen, M; Duwe, G

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the estrogenic activity of various environmental pollutants (xenobiotics), in particular the xenoestrogen o,p-DDT, and compared their effects with those of endogenous estrogens, phytoestrogens, and mycoestrogens on estrogen receptor binding capacity, induction of estrogen end products, and activation of cell proliferation in estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells in monolayer culture. We also quantified the levels of phytoestrogens in extracts of some common foods, herbs...

  12. Neutrophil activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and repair in mice and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David; Bajt, Mary Lynn [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Sharpe, Matthew R. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); McGill, Mitchell R. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, St. David' s North Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX 78756 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose there is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of cellular contents from necrotic hepatocytes into the systemic circulation which initiates the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils do not contribute to APAP-induced liver injury, but their role and the role of NADPH oxidase in injury resolution are controversial. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to APAP overdose and neutrophil activation status was determined during liver injury and liver regeneration. Additionally, human APAP overdose patients (ALT: > 800 U/L) had serial blood draws during the injury and recovery phases for the determination of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice showed an increasing activation status (CD11b expression and ROS priming) during and after the peak of injury but returned to baseline levels prior to complete injury resolution. Hepatic sequestered neutrophils showed an increased and sustained CD11b expression, but no ROS priming was observed. Confirming that NADPH oxidase is not critical to injury resolution, gp91{sup phox}−/− mice following APAP overdose displayed no alteration in injury resolution. Peripheral blood from APAP overdose patients also showed increased neutrophil activation status after the peak of liver injury and remained elevated until discharge from the hospital. In mice and humans, markers of activation, like ROS priming, were increased and sustained well after active liver injury had subsided. The similar findings between surviving patients and mice indicate that neutrophil activation may be a critical event for host defense or injury resolution following APAP overdose, but not a contributing factor to APAP-induced injury. - Highlights: • Neutrophil (PMN) function increases during liver repair after acetaminophen overdose. • Liver repair after acetaminophen (APAP)-overdose is not dependent on NADPH oxidase. • Human PMNs do not appear

  13. Human Daily Activities Indexing in Videos from Wearable Cameras for Monitoring of Patients with Dementia Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Svebor; Mégret, Rémi; Dovgalecs, Vladislavs; Dartigues, Jean-François; Gaëstel, Yann

    2010-01-01

    Our research focuses on analysing human activities according to a known behaviorist scenario, in case of noisy and high dimensional collected data. The data come from the monitoring of patients with dementia diseases by wearable cameras. We define a structural model of video recordings based on a Hidden Markov Model. New spatio-temporal features, color features and localization features are proposed as observations. First results in recognition of activities are promising.

  14. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  15. Isolation of lignans from Schisandra chinensis with anti-proliferative activity in human colorectal carcinoma: Structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnabre, John; Unlu, Irem; Chang, Tso-Cheng; Lisseck, Paul; Bourne, Bryan; Scolnik, Ryan; Jacobsen, Neil E; Bates, Robert; Huang, Ru Chih

    2010-10-15

    Separate benzocyclooctadiene lignans were isolated from the berries of Schisandra chinensis in milligram quantities on analytical reverse phase (RP) HPLC by an automated repeat-injection method and shown to have anti-proliferative activity against human colorectal cancer cells. Structures of the compounds were determined by a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry. Stereospecific NMR assignments for gomisin-N and deoxyschisandrin, gave more complete and accurate data than previously reported, based on 600MHz 2D HSQC, DQF-COSY and HMBC data. Comparison of coupling constants and HMBC crosspeak intensities with calculated and X-ray crystal structures confirmed their stereochemistry and conformation. Analysis of structure-activity relationships revealed the importance of key structural determinants. The S-biphenyl configuration of gomisin N, the most active lignan, correlated with increased anti-proliferative activity, while the presence of a hydroxyl group at the C7 position reduced or abolished this activity. Increased activity was also observed when a methylenedioxy group was present between C12 and C13. The percent yield of the most active compounds relative to the starting plant materials was 0.0156% for deoxyschisandrin and 0.0173% for gomisin N. The results of these studies indicate that automated repeat-injection method of analytical HPLC may provide a superior alternative to the standard semi-preparative HPLC techniques for separation of complex mixtures.

  16. Transcranial alternating current stimulation enhances individual alpha activity in human EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Zaehle

    Full Text Available Non-invasive electrical stimulation of the human cortex by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been instrumental in a number of important discoveries in the field of human cortical function and has become a well-established method for evaluating brain function in healthy human participants. Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS has been introduced to directly modulate the ongoing rhythmic brain activity by the application of oscillatory currents on the human scalp. Until now the efficiency of tACS in modulating rhythmic brain activity has been indicated only by inference from perceptual and behavioural consequences of electrical stimulation. No direct electrophysiological evidence of tACS has been reported. We delivered tACS over the occipital cortex of 10 healthy participants to entrain the neuronal oscillatory activity in their individual alpha frequency range and compared results with those from a separate group of participants receiving sham stimulation. The tACS but not the sham stimulation elevated the endogenous alpha power in parieto-central electrodes of the electroencephalogram. Additionally, in a network of spiking neurons, we simulated how tACS can be affected even after the end of stimulation. The results show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP selectively modulates synapses depending on the resonance frequencies of the neural circuits that they belong to. Thus, tACS influences STDP which in turn results in aftereffects upon neural activity.The present findings are the first direct electrophysiological evidence of an interaction of tACS and ongoing oscillatory activity in the human cortex. The data demonstrate the ability of tACS to specifically modulate oscillatory brain activity and show its potential both at fostering knowledge on the functional significance of brain oscillations and for therapeutic application.

  17. The smelling of Hedione results in sex-differentiated human brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallrabenstein, I; Gerber, J; Rasche, S; Croy, I; Kurtenbach, S; Hummel, T; Hatt, H

    2015-06-01

    A large family of vomeronasal receptors recognizes pheromone cues in many animals including most amphibia, reptiles, rhodents, and other mammals. Humans possess five vomeronasal-type 1 receptor genes (VN1R1-VN1R5), which code for proteins that are functional in recombinant expression systems. We used two different recombinant expression systems and identified Hedione as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor VN1R1 expressed in the human olfactory mucosa. Following the ligand identification, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy volunteers to characterize the in vivo action of the VN1R1 ligand Hedione. In comparison to a common floral odor (phenylethyl alcohol), Hedione exhibited significantly enhanced activation in limbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus) and elicited a sex-differentiated response in a hypothalamic region that is associated with hormonal release. Utilizing a novel combination of methods, our results indicate that the putative human pheromone receptor VN1R1 is involved in extra-olfactory neuronal activations induced by the odorous substance Hedione. The activation of VN1R1 might play a role in gender-specific modulation of hormonal secretion in humans.

  18. The Effects of Context and Attention on Spiking Activity in Human Early Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithler, Joel; Goebel, Rainer; Ris, Peterjan; Jeurissen, Danique; Reddy, Leila; Claus, Steven; Baayen, Johannes C.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first quantitative analysis of spiking activity in human early visual cortex. We recorded multi-unit activity from two electrodes in area V2/V3 of a human patient implanted with depth electrodes as part of her treatment for epilepsy. We observed well-localized multi-unit receptive fields with tunings for contrast, orientation, spatial frequency, and size, similar to those reported in the macaque. We also observed pronounced gamma oscillations in the local-field potential that could be used to estimate the underlying spiking response properties. Spiking responses were modulated by visual context and attention. We observed orientation-tuned surround suppression: responses were suppressed by image regions with a uniform orientation and enhanced by orientation contrast. Additionally, responses were enhanced on regions that perceptually segregated from the background, indicating that neurons in the human visual cortex are sensitive to figure-ground structure. Spiking responses were also modulated by object-based attention. When the patient mentally traced a curve through the neurons’ receptive fields, the accompanying shift of attention enhanced neuronal activity. These results demonstrate that the tuning properties of cells in the human early visual cortex are similar to those in the macaque and that responses can be modulated by both contextual factors and behavioral relevance. Our results, therefore, imply that the macaque visual system is an excellent model for the human visual cortex. PMID:27015604

  19. Human and Drosophila cryptochromes are light activated by flavin photoreduction in living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Hoang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes are a class of flavoprotein blue-light signaling receptors found in plants, animals, and humans that control plant development and the entrainment of circadian rhythms. In plant cryptochromes, light activation is proposed to result from photoreduction of a protein-bound flavin chromophore through intramolecular electron transfer. However, although similar in structure to plant cryptochromes, the light-response mechanism of animal cryptochromes remains entirely unknown. To complicate matters further, there is currently a debate on whether mammalian cryptochromes respond to light at all or are instead activated by non-light-dependent mechanisms. To resolve these questions, we have expressed both human and Drosophila cryptochrome proteins to high levels in living Sf21 insect cells using a baculovirus-derived expression system. Intact cells are irradiated with blue light, and the resulting cryptochrome photoconversion is monitored by fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. We demonstrate that light induces a change in the redox state of flavin bound to the receptor in both human and Drosophila cryptochromes. Photoreduction from oxidized flavin and subsequent accumulation of a semiquinone intermediate signaling state occurs by a conserved mechanism that has been previously identified for plant cryptochromes. These results provide the first evidence of how animal-type cryptochromes are activated by light in living cells. Furthermore, human cryptochrome is also shown to undergo this light response. Therefore, human cryptochromes in exposed peripheral and/or visual tissues may have novel light-sensing roles that remain to be elucidated.

  20. Intra-urban human mobility and activity transition: evidence from social media check-in data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Wu

    Full Text Available Most existing human mobility literature focuses on exterior characteristics of movements but neglects activities, the driving force that underlies human movements. In this research, we combine activity-based analysis with a movement-based approach to model the intra-urban human mobility observed from about 15 million check-in records during a yearlong period in Shanghai, China. The proposed model is activity-based and includes two parts: the transition of travel demands during a specific time period and the movement between locations. For the first part, we find the transition probability between activities varies over time, and then we construct a temporal transition probability matrix to represent the transition probability of travel demands during a time interval. For the second part, we suggest that the travel demands can be divided into two classes, locationally mandatory activity (LMA and locationally stochastic activity (LSA, according to whether the demand is associated with fixed location or not. By judging the combination of predecessor activity type and successor activity type we determine three trip patterns, each associated with a different decay parameter. To validate the model, we adopt the mechanism of an agent-based model and compare the simulated results with the observed pattern from the displacement distance distribution, the spatio-temporal distribution of activities, and the temporal distribution of travel demand transitions. The results show that the simulated patterns fit the observed data well, indicating that these findings open new directions for combining activity-based analysis with a movement-based approach using social media check-in data.

  1. Redox regulation of human OGG1 activity in response to cellular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravard, Anne; Vacher, Monique; Gouget, Barbara; Coutant, Alexandre; de Boisferon, Florence Hillairet; Marsin, Stéphanie; Chevillard, Sylvie; Radicella, J Pablo

    2006-10-01

    8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a common and mutagenic form of oxidized guanine in DNA, is eliminated mainly through base excision repair. In human cells its repair is initiated by human OGG1 (hOGG1), an 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase. We investigated the effects of an acute cadmium exposure of human lymphoblastoid cells on the activity of hOGG1. We show that coinciding with alteration of the redox cellular status, the 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase activity of hOGG1 was nearly completely inhibited. However, the hOGG1 activity returned to normal levels once the redox cellular status was normalized. In vitro, the activity of purified hOGG1 was abolished by cadmium and could not be recovered by EDTA. In cells, however, the reversible inactivation of OGG1 activity by cadmium was strictly associated with reversible oxidation of the protein. Moreover, the 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase activity of purified OGG1 and that from crude extracts were modulated by cysteine-modifying agents. Oxidation of OGG1 by the thiol oxidant diamide led to inhibition of the activity and a protein migration pattern similar to that seen in cadmium-treated cells. These results suggest that cadmium inhibits hOGG1 activity mainly by indirect oxidation of critical cysteine residues and that excretion of the metal from the cells leads to normalization of the redox cell status and restoration of an active hOGG1. The results presented here unveil a novel redox-dependent mechanism for the regulation of OGG1 activity.

  2. Explosive vocal activity for attracting human attention is related to domestication in silver fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoleva, Svetlana S; Volodin, Ilya A; Volodina, Elena V; Kharlamova, Anastasia V; Trut, Lyudmila N

    2011-02-01

    Domestication affects behavioral and vocal responses, involved in communication with humans; in particular, those that attract human attention. In this study, we found that silver foxes of Tame strain, experimentally domesticated for a few tenses of generation, displayed bursts of vocal activity during the first minute after appearance of an unfamiliar human, that faded quickly during the remaining time of the test, when the experimenter stayed passively before the cage. Distinctively, foxes of Aggressive strain, artificially selected for tenses of generation for aggressive behavior toward humans, and the control group of Unselected for behavior silver foxes kept steady levels of vocal activity for the duration of the tests. We found also that Aggressive foxes vocalized for a larger proportion of time than Unselected foxes for all 5 min of the test. We discuss the obtained data in relation to proposal effects of domestication on mechanisms directed to involving people into human-animal interactions and structural similarity between human laughter and vocalization of Tame foxes.

  3. A Flexible Approach for Human Activity Recognition Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Ponce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity recognition based on sensors is a growing area of interest given the great advances in wearable sensors. Applications in various domains are taking advantage of the ease of obtaining data to monitor personal activities and behavior in order to deliver proactive and personalized services. Although many activity recognition systems have been developed for more than two decades, there are still open issues to be tackled with new techniques. We address in this paper one of the main challenges of human activity recognition: Flexibility. Our goal in this work is to present artificial hydrocarbon networks as a novel flexible approach in a human activity recognition system. In order to evaluate the performance of artificial hydrocarbon networks based classifier, experimentation was designed for user-independent, and also for user-dependent case scenarios. Our results demonstrate that artificial hydrocarbon networks classifier is flexible enough to be used when building a human activity recognition system with either user-dependent or user-independent approaches.

  4. Multiview human activity recognition system based on spatiotemporal template for video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Alok Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2015-09-01

    An efficient view invariant framework for the recognition of human activities from an input video sequence is presented. The proposed framework is composed of three consecutive modules: (i) detect and locate people by background subtraction, (ii) view invariant spatiotemporal template creation for different activities, (iii) and finally, template matching is performed for view invariant activity recognition. The foreground objects present in a scene are extracted using change detection and background modeling. The view invariant templates are constructed using the motion history images and object shape information for different human activities in a video sequence. For matching the spatiotemporal templates for various activities, the moment invariants and Mahalanobis distance are used. The proposed approach is tested successfully on our own viewpoint dataset, KTH action recognition dataset, i3DPost multiview dataset, MSR viewpoint action dataset, VideoWeb multiview dataset, and WVU multiview human action recognition dataset. From the experimental results and analysis over the chosen datasets, it is observed that the proposed framework is robust, flexible, and efficient with respect to multiple views activity recognition, scale, and phase variations.

  5. A Flexible Approach for Human Activity Recognition Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Hiram; Miralles-Pechuán, Luis; Martínez-Villaseñor, María de Lourdes

    2016-10-25

    Physical activity recognition based on sensors is a growing area of interest given the great advances in wearable sensors. Applications in various domains are taking advantage of the ease of obtaining data to monitor personal activities and behavior in order to deliver proactive and personalized services. Although many activity recognition systems have been developed for more than two decades, there are still open issues to be tackled with new techniques. We address in this paper one of the main challenges of human activity recognition: Flexibility. Our goal in this work is to present artificial hydrocarbon networks as a novel flexible approach in a human activity recognition system. In order to evaluate the performance of artificial hydrocarbon networks based classifier, experimentation was designed for user-independent, and also for user-dependent case scenarios. Our results demonstrate that artificial hydrocarbon networks classifier is flexible enough to be used when building a human activity recognition system with either user-dependent or user-independent approaches.

  6. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  7. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Sandra C. [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gauthier, Marie-Soleil [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02140 (United States); Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dole, William P., E-mail: bill.dole@novartis.com [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). {yields} ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. {yields} ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. {yields} Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNF{alpha}) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and

  8. Active site similarity between human and Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterases: considerations for antimalarial drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brittany L.; Thompson, Philip E.; Manallack, David T.

    2011-08-01

    The similarity between Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterase enzymes ( PfPDEs) and their human counterparts have been examined and human PDE9A was found to be a suitable template for the construction of homology models for each of the four PfPDE isoforms. In contrast, the architecture of the active sites of each model was most similar to human PDE1. Molecular docking was able to model cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) substrate binding in each case but a docking mode supporting cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binding could not be found. Anticipating the potential of PfPDE inhibitors as anti-malarial drugs, a range of reported PDE inhibitors including zaprinast and sildenafil were docked into the model of PfPDEα. The results were consistent with their reported biological activities, and the potential of PDE1/9 inhibitor analogues was also supported by docking.

  9. Identification of a genetic cluster influencing memory performance and hippocampal activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2006-03-14

    Experimental work in animals has shown that memory formation depends on a cascade of molecular events. Here we show that variability of human memory performance is related to variability in genes encoding proteins of this signaling cascade, including the NMDA and metabotrobic glutamate receptors, adenylyl cyclase, CAMKII, PKA, and PKC. The individual profile of genetic variability in these signaling molecules correlated significantly with episodic memory performance (P < 0.00001). Moreover, functional MRI during memory formation revealed that this genetic profile correlated with activations in memory-related brain regions, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The present study indicates that genetic variability in the human homologues of memory-related signaling molecules contributes to interindividual differences in human memory performance and memory-related brain activations.

  10. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  11. Antiviral activity of human lactoferrin : Inhibition of alphavirus interaction with heparan sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waarts, Barry-Lee; Aneke, Onwuchekwa J.C.; Smit, Jolanda; Kimata, Koji; Bittman, Robert; Meijer, Dirk K.F.; Wilschut, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Human lactoferrin is a component of the non-specific immune system with distinct antiviral properties. We used alphaviruses, adapted to interaction with heparan sulfate (HS), as a tool to investigate the mechanism of lactoferrin's antiviral activity. Lactoferrin inhibited infection of BHK-21 cells b

  12. Secretion and apparent activation of human hepatic lipase requires proper oligosaccharide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); B.P. Neve (Bernadette); H. Jansen (Hans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractHuman hepatic lipase (HL) is a glycoprotein with four N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. The importance of glycosylation for the secretion of catalytically active HL was studied in HepG2 cells by using inhibitors of intracellular trafficking, N-glycosylat

  13. Afferent contribution to locomotor muscle activity during unconstrained overground human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klint, Richard Albin Ivar af; Cronin, Neil Joseph; Ishikawa, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Plantar flexor series elasticity can be used to dissociate muscle fascicle and muscle tendon behaviour and, therefore, afferent feedback during human walking. We used electromyography (EMG) and high speed ultrasonography concomitantly to monitor muscle activity and muscle fascicle behaviour in ni...

  14. Oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in human erythrocytes exposed to clomazone (in vitro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Adriana; Menezes, Charlene; Duarte, Marta Maria F; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Lópes, Thais; Loro, Vania L

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clomazone herbicide on oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in human erythrocytes in in vitro conditions. The activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as well as the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in human erythrocytes exposed (in vitro) to clomazone at varying concentrations in the range of 0, 100, 250 and 500 µg/L for 1 h at 37 °C.TBARS levels were significantly higher in erythrocytes incubated with clomazone at 100, 250 and 500 µg/L. However, erythrocyte CAT and AChE activities were decreased at all concentrations tested. SOD activity was increased only at 100 µg/L of clomazone. GSH levels did not change with clomazone exposure. These results clearly showed clomazone to induce oxidative stress and AChE inhibition in human erythrocytes (in vitro). We, thus, suggest a possible role of ROS on toxicity mechanism induced by clomazone in humans.

  15. Assessment of the relative role of climate change and human activities in desertification:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Duanyang; LI Chunlei; ZHUANG Dafang; PAN Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and human activities are the two kinds of driving forces in desertification,and assessing their relative role in desertification is of great significance to deeply understanding the driving mechanisms and preventing desertification expansion.This paper has systematically reviewed the progress of the researches on assessing the relative role of climate change and human activities in desertification from qualitative,semi-quantitative and quantitative aspects respectively.The authors found that there were still some problems in the previous researches.For example,the subjectivity in assessment was obvious,the assessment cannot be easily repeated,and the assessment and its results were always based on administrative regions and less taken and expressed in a continuous space.According to the progress of previous researches and the works conducted by the authors recently,we put forward a quantitative approach by selecting NPP as a common indicator to measure the relative role of climate change and human activities in desertification and dividing the ecological process of “driving force effect-dynamic response of desertified land” into several scenarios.Meanwhile,validation and scale of assessment should be taken into account when quantitative assessment of the relative role of climate change and human activities in desertification are carried out.

  16. Predominant alpha2/beta2/gamma3 AMPK activation during exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jesper Bratz; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and is regulated in muscle during exercise. We have previously established that only three of 12 possible AMPK a/ß/¿-heterotrimers are present in human skeletal muscle. Previous studies describe discrepancies between ...

  17. Active controlled muscles in numerical model of human arm for movement in two degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budziszewski, P.; Nunen, E. van; Mordaka, J.K.; Kȩdzior, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of numerical model of human upper extremity able to perform movements and stabilization tasks in two degrees of freedom as a result of muscle activation controlled by a PID-based controller. These tasks are defined by functions of specified angle for every degree

  18. Implementation and Evaluation of a Values Clarification Activity for a Large Undergraduate Human Sexuality