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Sample records for activates human lymphatic

  1. Antifilarial activity of gum from Moringa oleifera Lam. on human lymphatic filaria Brugia malayi

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    V Kushwaha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Currently available antifilarial drugs diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole and their combinations, are not able to control lymphatic filariasis. Therefore, a better antifilarial agent is urgently required for proper management of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antifilarial activity of gum extract of plant Moringa oleifera Lam. against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using adult worms and microfilariae (mf in two in vitro assays (motility and inhition in MTT reduction for viability and two animal models, primary (Meriones unguiculatus implanted with B. malayi adult worms in the peritoneal cavity and secondary (subcutaneous B. malayi infective larvae induced Mastomys coucha, the model closer to the natural human filarial infection screens. Results: The gum extract inhibited 100% motility (irreversible loss of motility of mf and inhibited more than 56% MTT reduction potential of the adult female worms. The extract was safe in cytotoxicity test using Vero cell line, therefore followed in vivo in primary and secondary screens. In primary screen, the extract (5×500 mg/kg caused 69% macrofilaricidal and 83% sterilization of female worms and 44% macrofilaricidal activity in secondary screen (5 × 1000 mg/kg by oral route. Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that the gum of the plant is macrofilaricidal in both in vitro and in vivo and may provide valuable leads for design and development of new antifilarial agents. This is the first ever report on the antifilarial efficacy of M. oleifera.

  2. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

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    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  3. IL-20 activates human lymphatic endothelial cells causing cell signalling and tube formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Troels; Tritsaris, Katerina; Hübschmann, Martin V

    2009-01-01

    IL-20 is an arteriogenic cytokine that remodels collateral networks in vivo, and plays a role in cellular organization. Here, we investigate its role in lymphangiogenesis using a lymphatic endothelial cell line, hTERT-HDLEC, which expresses the lymphatic markers LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Upon stimul...

  4. Acidic microenvironments induce lymphangiogenesis and IL-8 production via TRPV1 activation in human lymphatic endothelial cells

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    Nakanishi, Masako, E-mail: n-masako@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan); Morita, Yoshihiro [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Seichokai Hannan Municipal Hospital, Hannan, Osaka 599-0202 (Japan); Hata, Kenji [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Muragaki, Yasuteru, E-mail: ymuragak@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Local acidosis is one of the characteristic features of the cancer microenvironment. Many reports indicate that acidosis accelerates the proliferation and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, whether acidic conditions affect lymphatic metastasis is currently unknown. In the present study, we focused on the effects of acidosis on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) to assess the relationship between acidic microenvironments and lymph node metastasis. We demonstrated that normal human LECs express various acid receptors by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Acidic stimulation with low pH medium induced morphological changes in LECs to a spindle shape, and significantly promoted cellular growth and tube formation. Moreover, real-time PCR revealed that acidic conditions increased the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-8. Acidic stimulation increased IL-8 production in LECs, whereas a selective transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, 5′-iodoresiniferatoxin, decreased IL-8 production. IL-8 accelerated the proliferation of LECs, and inhibition of IL-8 diminished tube formation and cell migration. In addition, phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was induced by acidic conditions, and inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced acid-induced IL-8 expression. These results suggest that acidic microenvironments in tumors induce lymphangiogenesis via TRPV1 activation in LECs, which in turn may promote lymphatic metastasis. - Highlights: • Acidity accelerates the growth, migration, and tube formation of LECs. • Acidic condition induces IL-8 expression in LECs. • IL-8 is critical for the changes of LECs. • IL-8 expression is induced via TRPV1 activation.

  5. Lymphatic vessels in osteoarthritic human knees.

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    Walsh, D A; Verghese, P; Cook, G J; McWilliams, D F; Mapp, P I; Ashraf, S; Wilson, D

    2012-05-01

    The distribution and function of lymphatic vessels in normal and diseased human knees are understood incompletely. This study aimed to investigate whether lymphatic density is associated with clinical, histological or radiographic parameters in osteoarthritis (OA). Sections of synovium from 60 knees from patients with OA were compared with 60 post mortem control knees (from 37 individuals). Lymphatic vessels were identified using immunohistochemistry for podoplanin, and quantified as lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) fractional area. Effusion status was determined by clinical examination, radiographs were scored for OA changes, and inflammation grading used haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of synovium. Lymphatic vessels were present in synovia from both disease groups, but were not identified in subchondral bone. Synovial lymphatic densities were independent of radiological severity and age. Synovia from patients with OA displayed lower LVD (z=-3.4, P=0.001) and lower LEC fractional areas (z=-4.5, Plymphatics and OA/effusion appeared to be independent of other measured confounders. Lymphatic vessels are present in lower densities in OA synovia. Abnormalities of synovial fluid drainage may confound the value of effusion as a clinical sign of synovitis in OA. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary studies on human lymphatic filariasis transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies on human lymphatic filariasis transmission control trials using Insecticide Treated Bednet (ITBN) in parts of Imo State, Nigeria. ... Two cohorts were used; ITBN-full coverage/wide scale use and ITBN-vulnerable coverage/ selective use. Endophilic mosquitoes caught twice a month by pyrethrum spray ...

  7. Lymphatics in Human Lymphatic Filariasis: In Vitro Models of Parasite-Induced Lymphatic Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Thomas B Nutman

    2009-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis characterized by the dysfunction of the lymphatics can lead to severe (and often) irreversible lymphedema and elephantiasis. Decades of research in the field shows that the establishment of the adult parasites in the lymphatics triggers a cascade of events that ultimately results in tissue scarring and fibrosis. In this minireview, we focus on the studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the parasite-induced lymphatic dilatation that suggests parasite-induced lymphati...

  8. Lymphatics in human lymphatic filariasis: in vitro models of parasite-induced lymphatic remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2009-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis characterized by the dysfunction of the lymphatics can lead to severe (and often) irreversible lymphedema and elephantiasis. Decades of research in the field shows that the establishment of the adult parasites in the lymphatics triggers a cascade of events that ultimately results in tissue scarring and fibrosis. In this minireview, we focus on the studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the parasite-induced lymphatic dilatation that suggests parasite-induced lymphatic remodeling and lymphangiogenesis may be the prelude towards developing chronic and irreversible filarial pathology.

  9. Spontaneous activity in peripheral diaphragmatic lymphatic loops.

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    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    The spontaneous contractility of FITC-dextran-filled lymphatics at the periphery of the pleural diaphragm was documented for the first time "in vivo" in anesthetized Wistar rats. We found that lymphatic segments could be divided into four phenotypes: 1) active, displaying rhythmic spontaneous contractions (51.8% of 197 analyzed sites); 2) stretch-activated, whose contraction was triggered by passive distension of the vessel lumen (4.1%); 3) passive, which displayed a completely passive distension (4.5%); and 4) inert, whose diameter never changed over time (39.6%). Smooth muscle actin was detected by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in the vessel walls of active but also of inert sites, albeit with a very different structure within the vessel wall. Indeed, while in active segments, actin was arranged in a dense mesh completely surrounding the lumen, in inert segments actin decorated the vessels wall in sparse longitudinal strips. When located nearby along the same lymphatic loop, active, stretch-activated, and passive sites were always recruited in temporal sequence starting from the active contraction. The time delay was ∼0.35 s between active and stretch-activated and 0.54 s between stretch-activated and passive segments, promoting a uniform lymph flux of ∼150/200 pl/min. We conclude that, unlike more central diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels, loops located at the extreme diaphragmatic periphery do require an intrinsic pumping mechanism to propel lymph centripetally, and that such an active lymph propulsion is attained by means of a complex interplay among sites whose properties differ but are indeed able to organize lymph flux in an ordered fashion.

  10. Lymphotoxins Promote the Progression of Human Lymphatic Malformation by Enhancing Lymphatic Endothelial Cell Proliferation.

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    Yang, Jie-Gang; Sun, Yan-Fang; He, Ke-Fei; Ren, Jian-Gang; Liu, Zhuo-Jue; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2017-08-31

    Formation of inflammation-related tertiary lymphoid organs promotes human lymphatic malformation (LM) development. However, the role of lymphotoxins (LTs) and LT-related inducible ligand, the crucial mediators for tertiary lymphoid organ formation, is undetermined in LMs. Herein, we show that LTs and LT-related inducible ligand promote LM development by enhancing lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) proliferation via activating NF-κB pathways. The expression of LTs and their receptors was increased in LMs, especially the infected ones, when compared with normal skins. Nuclear translocation of p65, p52, and RelB in the LECs of LMs indicated the activation of classic and alternative NF-κB pathways. Pearson's correlation and cluster analysis suggested the close relationship between LEC proliferation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, in vitro data demonstrated LTs accelerated the proliferation of human dermal LECs (HdLECs) through activation of NF-κB. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) up-regulated LT receptor expression in HdLECs, leading to increased sensitivity to LTs. Suppression of LT receptors hampered LPS-enhanced HdLEC proliferation, indicating the crucial role of LT pathways in inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. Besides, evidence from the LM rat models demonstrated LTα and LPS enhanced LEC proliferation, therefore promoting LM development. Blocking LT pathways by neutralizing antibodies against LTα and LTβR may decelerate the growth of the disease. In summary, our present study demonstrated activation of LT signaling pathways in LECs contributed to the progression of LMs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lymphatic System: An Active Pathway for Immune Protection

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    Liao, Shan; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are well known to participate in the immune response by providing the structural and functional support for the delivery of antigens and antigen presenting cells to draining lymph nodes. Recent advances have improved our understanding of how the lymphatic system works and how it participates to the development of immune responses. New findings suggest that the lymphatic system may control the ultimate immune response through a number of ways which include guiding antigen/dendritic cells (DC) entry into initial lymphatics at the periphery; promoting antigen/DC trafficking through afferent lymphatic vessels by actively facilitating lymph and cell movement; enabling antigen presentation in lymph nodes via a network of lymphatic endothelial cells and lymph node stroma cell and finally by direct lymphocytes exit from lymph nodes. The same mechanisms are likely also important to maintain peripheral tolerance. In this review we will discuss how the morphology and gene expression profile of the lymphatic endothelial cells in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes provides a highly efficient pathway to initiate immune responses. The fundamental understanding of how lymphatic system participates in immune regulation will guide the research on lymphatic function in various diseases. PMID:25534659

  12. Vasa vasorum of superficial collecting lymphatics of human thigh.

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    Aglianò, M; Sacchi, G; Weber, E; Pucci, A M; Comparini, L

    1997-09-01

    Collecting lymphatics were obtained from human thigh fat for light microscopy and tridimensional reconstruction at time of operation for varicose veins. No patient had lymphedema and routine sections showed no inflammation or notable pathologic alteration of the surrounding soft tissue. Abundant vasa vasorum was observed around the musculature of superficial collecting lymphatics of human thigh. Within intervalvular portions of the lymphatic collectors where the muscle coat was thicker and more compact, the vasa vasorum penetrated between smooth muscle cells and was in contact with the endothelium. In valvular portions of the collecting lymphatics where the muscle layer was thinner and more fragmented, there were fewer vasa vasorum. Tri-dimensional reconstructions of the collecting lymphatic wall showed two communicating plexi of vasa vasorum--one outside and the other inside the muscle layer. Arteries and veins of similar size did not have such an abundant vasa vasorum. The explanation for this difference may relate to the fact that a relatively low oxygen and nutrient content of lymph is insufficient to nourish the collecting lymphatic. Moreover, diffusion of nutrients from the external plexus is likely also impeded by the thickness and density of the muscle layer. The vasa vasorum deep in the muscular layer and in the subendothelial space probably sustain adequate nutrition and oxygenation to the collecting lymphatic.

  13. The passive biomechanics of human pelvic collecting lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Dimitrios; Edgar, Lowell T; Jafarnejad, Mohammad; Nixon, Katherine; Duarte, Delfim; Hawkins, Edwin D; Jamalian, Samira; Cunnea, Paula; Lo Celso, Cristina; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Fotopoulou, Christina; Moore, James E

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic system has a major significance in the metastatic pathways in women's cancers. Lymphatic pumping depends on both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, and the mechanical behavior of lymphatic vessels regulates the function of the system. However, data on the mechanical properties and function of human lymphatics are lacking. Our aim is to characterize, for the first time, the passive biomechanical behavior of human collecting lymphatic vessels removed at pelvic lymph node dissection during primary debulking surgeries for epithelial ovarian cancer. Isolated vessels were cannulated and then pressurized at varying levels of applied axial stretch in a calcium-free Krebs buffer. Pressurized vessels were then imaged using multi-photon microscopy for collagen-elastin structural composition and fiber orientation. Both pressure-diameter and force-elongation responses were highly nonlinear, and axial stretching of the vessel served to decrease diameter at constant pressure. Pressure-diameter behavior for the human vessels is very similar to data from rat mesenteric vessels, though the human vessels were approximately 10× larger than those from rats. Multiphoton microscopy revealed the vessels to be composed of an inner layer of elastin with an outer layer of aligned collagen fibers. This is the first study that successfully described the passive biomechanical response and composition of human lymphatic vessels in patients with ovarian cancer. Future work should expand on this knowledge base with investigations of vessels from other anatomical locations, contractile behavior, and the implications on metastatic cell transport.

  14. Lymphatic vessels regulate immune microenvironments in human and murine melanoma.

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    Lund, Amanda W; Wagner, Marek; Fankhauser, Manuel; Steinskog, Eli S; Broggi, Maria A; Spranger, Stefani; Gajewski, Thomas F; Alitalo, Kari; Eikesdal, Hans P; Wiig, Helge; Swartz, Melody A

    2016-09-01

    Lymphatic remodeling in tumor microenvironments correlates with progression and metastasis, and local lymphatic vessels play complex and poorly understood roles in tumor immunity. Tumor lymphangiogenesis is associated with increased immune suppression, yet lymphatic vessels are required for fluid drainage and immune cell trafficking to lymph nodes, where adaptive immune responses are mounted. Here, we examined the contribution of lymphatic drainage to tumor inflammation and immunity using a mouse model that lacks dermal lymphatic vessels (K14-VEGFR3-Ig mice). Melanomas implanted in these mice grew robustly, but exhibited drastically reduced cytokine expression and leukocyte infiltration compared with those implanted in control animals. In the absence of local immune suppression, transferred cytotoxic T cells more effectively controlled tumors in K14-VEGFR3-Ig mice than in control mice. Furthermore, gene expression analysis of human melanoma samples revealed that patient immune parameters are markedly stratified by levels of lymphatic markers. This work suggests that the establishment of tumor-associated inflammation and immunity critically depends on lymphatic vessel remodeling and drainage. Moreover, these results have implications for immunotherapies, the efficacies of which are regulated by the tumor immune microenvironment.

  15. Lymphatic Stomata in the Adult Human Pulmonary Ligament.

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    Oshiro, Hisashi; Miura, Masahiro; Iobe, Hiroaki; Kudo, Tomoo; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Aoba, Takaaki; Okudela, Koji; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Yoshida, Maki; Nagao, Toshitaka; Nakaya, Takeo; Kurata, Atsushi; Ohtani, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    Lymphatic stomata are small lymphatic openings in the serosal membrane that communicate with the serosal cavity. Although these stomata have primarily been studied in experimental mammals, little is known concerning the presence and properties of lymphatic stomata in the adult human pleura. Thus, adult human pleurae were examined for the presence or absence of lymphatic stomata. A total of 26 pulmonary ligaments (13 left and 13 right) were obtained from 15 adult human autopsy cases and examined using electron and light microscopy. The microscopic studies revealed the presence of apertures fringed with D2-40-positive, CD31-positive, and cytokeratin-negative endothelial cells directly communicating with submesothelial lymphatics in all of the pulmonary ligaments. The apertures' sizes and densities varied from case to case according to the serial tissue section. The medians of these aperture sizes ranged from 2.25 to 8.75 μm in the left pulmonary ligaments and from 2.50 to 12.50 μm in the right pulmonary ligaments. The densities of the apertures ranged from 2 to 9 per mm(2) in the left pulmonary ligaments and from 2 to 18 per mm(2) in the right pulmonary ligaments. However, no significant differences were found regarding the aperture size (p=0.359) and density (p=0.438) between the left and the right pulmonary ligaments. Our study revealed that apertures exhibit structural adequacy as lymphatic stomata on the surface of the pulmonary ligament, thereby providing evidence that lymphatic stomata are present in the adult human pleura.

  16. Spontaneous and Evoked Contractility of Human Intestinal Lymphatic Vessels.

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    Telinius, Niklas; Majgaard, Jens; Mohanakumar, Sheyanth; Pahle, Einar; Nielsen, Jørn; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Aalkjær, Christian; Boedtkjer, Donna Briggs

    2017-03-01

    Mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLVs) from various animal species have been intensively studied. We aimed to establish the viability and basic contractile characteristics of human MLVs maintained in vitro and to determine the reactivity of MLVs with norepinephrine (NE) and substance P (SP) and to compare with the thoracic duct (TD). Isolated human lymphatic vessels were mounted on a wire myograph under isometric conditions and tension was recorded. The diameter-tension characteristics for MLVs were generated by stretching the vessels and stimulating with a 125 mM K+ solution containing 10 μM NE. The diameter-tension data generated for MLVs from two separate surgical patient groups were found to be similar: maximum active tension for MLVs occurred when the passive stretch corresponded to a transmural pressure of 22 mmHg. Subsequent experiments on human MLVs were performed by normalization with 22 mmHg as the equivalent target pressure. The majority of MLVs were responders (spontaneous activity and/or reactivity with 10 μM NE or 125 mM K+ solution). Nonresponders (16% of vessel segments) had significantly smaller inner diameters. MLVs responded consistently to NE (1 nM-10 μM) but the responsiveness of MLVs and TD to SP (0.1 nM-10 μM) was poor: TD reacted only with 10 μM SP, whereas MLVs were sensitive to nanomolar concentrations and the contractile response declined with higher concentrations. Under in vitro isometric conditions, human MLVs generate maximum tension when stretched to a passive level corresponding to 22 mmHg, and the majority of MLVs are responsive when normalized to this pressure. MLVs respond to NE and SP though NE produces a more consistent response in the concentration range tested.

  17. Immunolocalization of lymphatic vessels in human fetal knee joint tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, James; Little, Christopher B

    2010-08-01

    We immunolocalized lymphatic and vascular blood vessels in 12- and 14-week-old human fetal knee joint tissues using a polyclonal antibody to a lymphatic vascular endothelium specific hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and a monoclonal antibody to podoplanin (mAb D2-40). A number of lymphatic vessels were identified in the stratified connective tissues surrounding the cartilaginous knee joint femoral and tibial rudiments. These tissues also contained small vascular vessels with entrapped red blood cells which were imaged using Nomarsky DIC microscopy. Neither vascular nor lymphatic vessels were present in the knee joint cartilaginous rudiments. The menisci in 12-week-old fetal knees were incompletely demarcated from the adjacent tibial and femoral cartilaginous rudiments which was consistent with the ongoing joint cavitation process at the femoral-tibial junction. At 14 weeks of age the menisci were independent structural entities; they contained a major central blood vessel containing red blood cells and numerous communicating vessels at the base of the menisci but no lymphatic vessels. In contrast to the 12-week-old menisci, the 14-week meniscal rudiments contained abundant CD-31 and CD-34 positive but no lymphatic vessels. Isolated 14-week-old meniscal cells also were stained with the CD-31 and CD 34 antibodies; CD-68 +ve cells, also abundant in the 14-week-old menisci, were detectable to a far lesser degree in the 12-week menisci and were totally absent from the femoral and tibial rudiments. The distribution of lymphatic vessels and tissue macrophages in the fetal joint tissues was consistent with their roles in the clearance of metabolic waste and extracellular matrix breakdown products arising from the rapidly remodelling knee joint tissues.

  18. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the developing human sclera.

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    Schlereth, Simona L; Neuser, Barbara; Herwig, Martina C; Müller, Annette M; Koch, Konrad R; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Schrödl, Falk; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2014-08-01

    The adult sclera is free of lymphatic vessels, but contains a net of blood vessels. Whether and when this selectively lymphangiogenic privilege is achieved during embryologic development is not known yet. Therefore, we investigated the developing human sclera for blood- and lymphatic vessels in 34 abortions/stillborns (12-38 weeks of gestation). The probes were subdivided into three groups (group 1: 12-18 weeks of gestation, n = 10; group 2: 19-23 weeks of gestation, n = 13; group 3: 24-38 weeks of gestation, n = 11), and prepared for paraffin sections followed by immunohistochemistry against CD31 to detect blood vessels, and against lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE1)/podoplanin to detect lymphatic vessels. We could show, that in the human episclera distinct CD31 + blood vessels are present as early as week of gestation 13. Their amount increased during pregnancy, whereas stromal CD31 + blood vessels were elevated in early pregnancy and regressed with ongoing pregnancy. In the lamina fusca CD31 + blood vessels were absent at any time point investigated. Single LYVE1 + cells were identified primarily in the episclera; their amount decreased significantly with increasing gestational ages (group 1 compared to group 3: p lymphatic vessels were not detectable in the sclera at any gestational ages analyzed. In contrast to the conjunctiva where LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels were detectable as early as week 17, the amount of LYVE1 + cells in the sclera was highest in early pregnancy (group 1), with a significant decrease during continuing pregnancy (p < 0.001). These findings are the first evidence for a fetal lymphangiogenic privilege of the sclera and show, that the fetal human sclera contains CD31 + blood vessels, but is primarily alymphatic. Our findings suggest a strong expression of selectively antilymphangiogenic factors, making the developing sclera a potential model to discern antilymphangiogenic mechanisms

  19. In vivo lymphatic imaging of a human inflammatory breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) remains the most aggressive type of breast cancer with the greatest potential for metastasis and as a result, the highest mortality rate. IBC cells invade and metastasize through dermal lymphatic vessels; however, it is unknown how lymphatic drainage patterns change during IBC growth and metastasis. Herein, we non-invasively and longitudinally imaged lymphatics in an animal model of IBC using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. Mice were imaged in vivo prior to, and up to 11 weeks after subcutaneous or orthotopic inoculation of human IBC SUM149 cells, which were stably transfected with infrared fluorescence protein (iRFP) gene reporter (SUM149-iRFP), following intradermal (i.d.) injection of indocyanine green (ICG). Fluorescence images showed well-defined lymphatic vessels prior to SUM149-iRFP inoculation. However, altered lymphatic drainage patterns including rerouting of lymphatic drainage were detected in mice with SUM149-iRFP, due to lymphatic obstruction of normal lymphatic drainages caused by tumor growth. In addition, we observed tortuous lymphatic vessels and extravasation of ICG-laden lymph in mice with SUM149-iRFP. We also observed increased and dilated fluorescent lymphatic vessels in the tumor periphery, which was confirmed by ex vivo immunohistochemical staining of lymphatic vessels. Our pre-clinical studies demonstrate that non-invasive NIRF imaging can provide a method to assess changes in lymphatic drainage patterns during IBC growth and metastasis.

  20. Lymphatic vessels in human eyelids: an immunohistological study in dermatochalasis and chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglianó, M; Lorenzoni, P; Volpi, N; Massai, L; Carbotti, P; Fruschelli, M; Muscettola, M; Alessandrini, C; Grasso, G

    2008-03-01

    We investigated lymphatic morphology and expression of endothelin (ET-1) axis molecules in human eyelids affected by an inflammatory state (chalazion) and an age-related degenerative condition (dermatochalasis). Lymphatics were immunohistologically detected by D2-40/LYVE-1 staining. Absorbing lymphatic vessels were localized in papillary dermis and around skin appendages with distinctive morphology. In chalazion, D2-40 reactive flattened lymphatic profiles were compressed by inflammatory infiltrate; in dermatochalasis, large fully opened lymphatics were observed, with a significantly wider total area (lymphatic lumina/200x field; p < 0.05). The lymphatic density (number/200x field) in the two groups was within the same range. Lymphatic dilation is possibly dependent on reduction and fragmentation of the dermal elastic network as well as of oxytalanic fibers in the papillary dermis of dermatochalasis, as shown by Weigert's reaction. Multifunctional peptide ET-1, involved in vasomotion, inflammation and connective proliferation, was faintly and discontinuously localized on lymphatics, as was its type A receptor. In contrast, the consistent expression of type B receptor indicates that lymphatic endothelium is a physiological target for ET-1, whose effects are modulated by multiple pathophysiological conditions. Thus, vasoactive factors play a role in the physiology of richly vascularized eyelids, and therefore, morphofunctional characterization of lymphatic vessels may be useful in suggesting treatment options.

  1. Chemical constituents and antifilarial activity of Lantana camara against human lymphatic filariid Brugia malayi and rodent filariid Acanthocheilonema viteae maintained in rodent hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Namita; Sharma, Mithilesh; Raj, Kanwal; Dangi, Anil; Srivastava, Sudhir; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2007-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis continues to be a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. A macrofilaricidal agent capable of eliminating adult filarial parasites is urgently needed. In the present study, we report the antifilarial activity in the extract of stem portion of the plant Lantana camara. The crude extract at 1 g/kg for 5 days by oral route killed 43.05% of the adult Brugia malayi parasites and sterilized 76% of surviving female worms in the rodent model Mastomys coucha. A 34.5% adulticidal activity along with sterilization of 66% of female worms could be demonstrated in the chloroform fraction. Remarkable antifilarial activity was observed in the adult B. malayi transplanted gerbil model where up to 80% of the adult worms could be killed at the same dose and all the surviving female parasites were found sterilized. The extract was also found effective against a subcutaneous rodent filariid Acanthocheilonema viteae maintained in Mastomys coucha, where it exerted strong microfilaricidal (95.04%) and sterilization (60.66%) efficacy with mild macrofilaricidal action. Two compounds, oleanonic acid and oleanolic acid, isolated from hexane and chloroform fractions showed LC100 at 31.25 and 62.5 mug/ml, respectively, on B. malayi in vitro. This is the first ever report on the antifilarial efficacy of Lantana camara.

  2. The use of human mature cystic ovarian teratoma as a model to study the development of human lymphatics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jomard, Rashid; Amarin, Zouhair

    2017-01-01

    The angiogenic theory to the development of human lymphatics is not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of human lymphatics. Semi-thin and thin paraffin sections from human mature cystic ovarian teratoma tissues were studied using light and electron microscopy. Lymphatics were formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells that gradually acquired morphological features of endothelial cells. It is suggested that in human mature cystic ovarian teratoma the ...

  3. Smooth muscle–endothelial cell communication activates Reelin signaling and regulates lymphatic vessel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Sophie; Xie, Sherry; Tatin, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Active lymph transport relies on smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractions around collecting lymphatic vessels, yet regulation of lymphatic vessel wall assembly and lymphatic pumping are poorly understood. Here, we identify Reelin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein previously implicated in central nervous system development, as an important regulator of lymphatic vascular development. Reelin-deficient mice showed abnormal collecting lymphatic vessels, characterized by a reduced number of SMCs, abnormal expression of lymphatic capillary marker lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), and impaired function. Furthermore, we show that SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels stimulated release and proteolytic processing of endothelium-derived Reelin. Lymphatic endothelial cells in turn responded to Reelin by up-regulating monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) expression, which suggests an autocrine mechanism for Reelin-mediated control of endothelial factor expression upstream of SMC recruitment. These results uncover a mechanism by which Reelin signaling is activated by communication between the two cell types of the collecting lymphatic vessels—smooth muscle and endothelial cells—and highlight a hitherto unrecognized and important function for SMCs in lymphatic vessel morphogenesis and function. PMID:22665518

  4. Human and nonhuman primate meninges harbor lymphatic vessels that can be visualized noninvasively by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absinta, Martina; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Nair, Govind; Sati, Pascal; Luciano, Nicholas J; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Louveau, Antoine; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Kipnis, Jonathan; Reich, Daniel S

    2017-10-03

    Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The topography of these vessels, running alongside dural venous sinuses, recapitulates the meningeal lymphatic system of rodents. In primates, meningeal lymphatics display a typical panel of lymphatic endothelial markers by immunohistochemistry. This discovery holds promise for better understanding the normal physiology of lymphatic drainage from the central nervous system and potential aberrations in neurological diseases.

  5. Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D; Fuentes, Laurel F; Santiago, Shauna M; Allen, Breanna M; Cook, Douglas J; Steinberg, Gary K; Chang, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may have a role in AVM disease biology. We examined 40 human brain AVMs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qRT-PCR for the expression of COUP-TFII as well as other genes involved in venous and lymphatic development, maintenance, and signaling. We also examined proliferation and EC tube formation with human umbilical ECs (HUVEC) following COUP-TFII overexpression. We report that AVMs expressed COUP-TFII, SOX18, PROX1, NFATC1, FOXC2, TBX1, LYVE1, Podoplanin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, contained Ki67-positive cells and heterogeneously expressed genes involved in Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, and VEGF signaling pathways. Overexpression of COUP-TFII alone in vitro resulted in increased EC proliferation and dilated tubes in an EC tube formation assay in HUVEC. This suggests AVM ECs are further losing their arterial/venous specificity and acquiring a partial lymphatic molecular phenotype. There was significant correlation of gene expression with presence of clinical edema and acute hemorrhage. While the precise role of these genes in the formation, stabilization, growth and risk of hemorrhage of AVMs remains unclear, these findings have potentially important implications for patient management and treatment choice, and opens new avenues for future work on AVM disease mechanisms.

  6. Insights into the Pathogenesis of Disease in Human Lymphatic Filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas B Nutman

    2013-01-01

    Although two thirds of the 120 million people infected with lymph-dwelling filarial parasites have subclinical infections, ∼40 million have lymphedema and/or other pathologic manifestations including hydroceles (and other forms of urogenital disease), episodic adenolymphangitis, lymphedema, and (in its most severe form) elephantiasis. Adult filarial worms reside in the lymphatics and lymph nodes and induce lymphatic dilatation. Progressive lymphatic damage and pathology results primarily from...

  7. Insights into the pathogenesis of disease in human lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, Thomas B

    2013-09-01

    Although two thirds of the 120 million people infected with lymph-dwelling filarial parasites have subclinical infections, ∼40 million have lymphedema and/or other pathologic manifestations including hydroceles (and other forms of urogenital disease), episodic adenolymphangitis, lymphedema, and (in its most severe form) elephantiasis. Adult filarial worms reside in the lymphatics and lymph nodes and induce lymphatic dilatation. Progressive lymphatic damage and pathology results primarily from the host inflammatory response to the parasites but also perhaps from the host inflammatory response to the parasite's Wolbachia endosymbiont and as a consequence of superimposed bacterial or fungal infections. This review will attempt to shed light on disease pathogenesis in lymphatic filariasis.

  8. An Apparent Deficiency of Lymphatic Capillaries in the Islets of Langerhans in the Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgren, Erik; Korsgren, Olle

    2016-04-01

    The lymphatic system is crucial for efficient immune surveillance and for the maintenance of a physiological pressure in the interstitial space. Even so, almost no information is available concerning the lymph drainage of the islets of Langerhans in the human pancreas. Immunohistochemical staining allowed us to distinguish lymphatic capillaries from blood capillaries. Almost no lymphatic capillaries were found within the islets in pancreatic biopsy specimens from subjects without diabetes or from subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Lymphatic capillaries were, however, found at the islet-exocrine interface, frequently located along blood capillaries and other fibrotic structures within or close to the islet capsule. Lymphatic capillaries were regularly found in the exocrine pancreas, with small lymphatic vessels located close to and around acini. Larger collecting lymphatic vessels were located in fibrotic septa between the exocrine lobules and adjacent to the ductal system of the pancreas. In summary, we report a pronounced deficiency of lymphatic capillaries in human islets, a finding with implications for immune surveillance and the regulation of interstitial fluid transport in the endocrine pancreas as well as for the pathophysiology of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Voltage-gated sodium channels contribute to action potentials and spontaneous contractility in isolated human lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telinius, Niklas; Majgaard, Jens; Kim, Sukhan; Katballe, Niels; Pahle, Einar; Nielsen, Jørn; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Donna Briggs

    2015-07-15

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) play a key role for initiating action potentials (AP) in excitable cells. VGSC in human lymphatic vessels have not been investigated. In the present study, we report the electrical activity and APs of small human lymphatic collecting vessels, as well as mRNA expression and function of VGSC in small and large human lymphatic vessels. The VGSC blocker TTX inhibited spontaneous contractions in six of 10 spontaneously active vessels, whereas ranolazine, which has a narrower VGSC blocking profile, had no influence on spontaneous activity. TTX did not affect noradrenaline-induced contractions. The VGSC opener veratridine induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner (0.1-30 μm) eliciting a stable tonic contraction and membrane depolarization to -18 ± 0.6 mV. Veratridine-induced depolarizations and contractions were reversed ∼80% by TTX, and were dependent on Ca(2+) influx via L-type calcium channels and the sodium-calcium exchanger in reverse mode. Molecular analysis determined NaV 1.3 to be the predominantly expressed VGSC isoform. Electrophysiology of mesenteric lymphatics determined the resting membrane potential to be -45 ± 1.7 mV. Spontaneous APs were preceded by a slow depolarization of 5.3 ± 0.6 mV after which a spike was elicited that almost completely repolarized before immediately depolarizing again to plateau. Vessels transiently hyperpolarized prior to returning to the resting membrane potential. TTX application blocked APs. We have shown that VGSC are necessary for initiating and maintaining APs and spontaneous contractions in human lymphatic vessels and our data suggest the main contribution from comes NaV 1.3. We have also shown that activation of these channels augments the contractile activity of the vessels. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  10. Absence of lymphatic vessels in human dental pulp: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerli, Renato; Secciani, Ilaria; Sozio, Francesca; Rossi, Antonella; Weber, Elisabetta; Lorenzini, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Few and controversial data are available in the literature regarding the presence of lymphatic vessels in the human dental pulp. The present study was designed to examine morphologically the existence of a lymph drainage system in human dental pulp. Human dental pulp and skin sections were immunohistochemically stained with specific antibodies for lymphatic endothelium (D2-40, LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3], and Prox-1), with the pan-endothelial markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor (vWF), and with the blood-specific marker CD34. Several blood vessels were identified in human pulps and skin. Lymphatic vessels were found in all human skin samples but in none of the pulps examined. Western blotting performed on human dermis and on pulps treated with collagenase (to remove odontoblasts) confirmed these results. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that vessels which, by light microscopy, appeared to be initial lymphatic vessels had no anchoring filaments or discontinuous basement membrane, both of which are typical ultrastructural characteristics of lymphatic vessels. These results suggest that under normal conditions human dental pulp does not contain true lymphatic vessels. The various theories about dental pulp interstitial fluid circulation should be revised accordingly.

  11. Zinc effect on human lymphatic malformation cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Teresa Min-Jung; Lou, Man Si; Ma, Yupo

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LM) are clinically characterized by episodes of inflammatory episodes. Often, an upper respiratory illness or trauma will lead to painful swelling in the distribution of the LM. Zinc is an element involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism and is a common dietary supplement and cold remedy. We surmise that zinc may act as a therapeutic anti-inflammatory agent for lymphatic malformations and their cellular components. We investigate the apparent cytotoxic effect of zinc ion on lymphatic malformation cells in vitro. Fresh surgical lymphatic malformation specimens from 10 patients were collected and processed in a laboratory. Tissues were processed and lymphatic malformation cells were isolated and grown. Immunohistochemistry and cell morphology were used to confirm LM cells. HUVEC cells were used as controls. Zinc chloride solution was added to the cells and its effect observed. LM cells were isolated from five of the 10 specimens. Of these, the cells of only one specimen were able to be amplified to confluence. Five specimens were contaminated. Immunohistochemical staining (CD31, D2-40, and LYVE-1) and cell morphology of our specimens were consistent with lymphatic malformation while HUVEC control cells were negative. Zinc has a cytotoxic effect on BEL isolates in vitro with no obvious effect on cell morphology or growth rate of the control HUVEC cells. When compared with the published toxic zinc concentration for most cell types in the literature (100μM total zinc in vitro), our result indicates that LM cells may have a lower tolerance to zinc (10μM total zinc in vitro). Zinc has an apparent morphological effect on lymphatic malformation cells in vitro. Compared with other cell types, LM cells have a lower tolerance to zinc. While this result looks very promising for future therapeutic use of zinc in acute lymphangitis, further studies are necessary, such as finding the IC50 of zinc for lymphatic malformation in vitro and also in

  12. Isolation of human lymphatic malformation endothelial cells, their in vitro characterization and in vivo survival in a mouse xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokmic, Zerina; Mitchell, Geraldine M; Koh Wee Chong, Nicholas; Bastiaanse, Jacqueline; Gerrand, Yi-Wen; Zeng, Yiping; Williams, Elizabeth D; Penington, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Human lymphatic vascular malformations (LMs), also known as cystic hygromas or lymphangioma, consist of multiple lymphatic endothelial cell-lined lymph-containing cysts. No animal model of this disease exists. To develop a mouse xenograft model of human LM, CD34(Neg)CD31(Pos) LM lymphatic endothelial cells (LM-LEC) were isolated from surgical specimens and compared to foreskin CD34(Neg)CD31(Pos) lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Cells were implanted into a mouse tissue engineering model for 1, 2 and 4 weeks. In vitro LM-LECs showed increased proliferation and survival under starvation conditions (P lymphatic malformations.

  13. Lymphatic Filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs) Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ... microscopic, thread-like worms. The adult worms only live in the human lymph system. The lymph system maintains the body's fluid balance ...

  14. Human and nonhuman primate meninges harbor lymphatic vessels that can be visualized noninvasively by MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Absinta, Martina; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Nair, Govind; Sati, Pascal; Luciano, Nicholas J; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Louveau, Antoine; Zaghloul, Kareem A.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Kipnis, Jonathan; Reich, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The t...

  15. Quantitative Imaging In Vivo of Functioning Lymphatic Vessels Around Human Melanoma and Benign Nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhras, Victoria; Ramakrishnan, Rathi; Stanton, Anthony W B; Levick, John R; Cook, Martin G; Chong, Heung; Mortimer, Peter S

    2015-08-01

    The density of functioning human lymphatics in vivo and of immunohistochemically defined lymphatics was quantified around melanomas, benign nevi, and matched normal skin, to assess the current lymphangiogenesis paradigm. We investigated whether histological and functioning density increased around melanomas compared with benign nevi or matched skin; whether functioning and histological density increased similarly; and whether larger increases occurred around metastatic melanomas. Functioning density was quantified in vivo as the total amount of human dermal microlymphatics taking up fluorescent marker injected at the lesion margin. After tissue excision, perilesion histological density was quantified using podoplanin marker D2-40. Histological density was raised similarly around metastasising and non-metastasising melanomas compared with normal skin (+71%, p benign nevi (+17%, p = 0.03, n = 20). In contrast, functioning lymphatic density was substantially reduced around the margins of melanomas (both metastasising and non-metastasising) compared with benign nevi (by 65%, p = 0.02) or normal skin (by 53%, p = 0.0014). Raised perilesion histological lymphatic density is not unique to melanoma but occurs also around benign nevi. The findings indicated that the number of functioning lateral lymphatics around human melanomas in vivo but not benign nevi is reduced, despite histologically increased numbers of lymphatics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The morphology of the human lymphatic vessels in the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Ren; le Roux, Cara Michelle; Levy, Sidney M; Briggs, Christopher A

    2010-09-01

    Previously little has been written about the morphology of the human lymphatic vessels since Sappey (Sappey [1874] Anatomie, Physiologie, Pathologie des Vaisseaux Lymphatiques, Paris: Adrien Delahaye) over 100 years ago. There needs to be an accurate re-evaluation of scientific observations to aid clinical management. Forty-nine combinations of tissue from the head and neck of 20 unembalmed human cadavers were studied. Six percent hydrogen peroxide was used to find the vessels. They were injected with radio-opaque mixture, dissected, photographed, and radiographed. Final results were transferred to the computer for analysis. Different sized lymphatic valves were found in the precollecting and collecting lymph vessels, the lymphatic trunks, and ducts. The intervals between the valves were of various lengths. Diverse lymphatic ampullae and diverticula were seen in precollecting and collecting lymph vessels. Initial lymph vessels arose from the dermis, the galea, and the mucosal membrane. The vasculature of the direct and indirect precollecting and collecting lymph vessels, lymphatic trunks, and ducts was recorded. The morphology of the human lymphatic vessels in the head and neck has been described and recorded using radiographs and photographs.

  17. Effect of lidocaine with and without epinephrine on lymphatic contractile activity in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2016-12-01

    A local anesthetic, lidocaine, is known to affect cutaneous blood flow when injected into the skin. However, it is unknown if dermal lymphatic function can also be affected. Therefore, we characterized lymphatic function in response to administration of lidocaine with and without epinephrine. Non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) with intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) was used to characterize the lymphatic "pumping" function in mice after subcutaneous injection of 2 % lidocaine with and without 1:100,000 epinephrine or saline. NIRFI was performed for 10-20 min immediately after and 1, 3, and 5 h after these interventions. Lymphatic contraction frequencies significantly decreased 10 min after subcutaneous injection of lidocaine and remained plateaued for another 5 min, before returning to baseline. However, addition of 1:100,000 epinephrine to 2 % lidocaine rapidly increased lymphatic contraction frequencies at 5 min post-injection, which returned to baseline levels 15 min later. Injection of saline also increased lymphatic contraction frequency 5 min after injection, which returned to baseline 10 min post-injection. Although lidocaine administration showed a decrease in lymphatic function, the combination of epinephrine with lidocaine resulted in a predominant net effect of increased contractile activity.

  18. Modulation of mesenteric collecting lymphatic contractions by σ1-receptor activation and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Andrea N; Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier; Cha, Byeong Jake; Taylor-Clark, Thomas E; Breslin, Jerome W

    2017-10-01

    Recently, it has been reported that a σ-receptor antagonist could reduce inflammation-induced edema. Lymphatic vessels play an essential role in removing excess interstitial fluid. We tested the hypothesis that activation of σ-receptors would reduce or weaken collecting lymphatic contractions. We used isolated, cannulated rat mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels to study contractions in response to the σ-receptor agonist afobazole in the absence and presence of different σ-receptor antagonists. We used RT-PCR and Western blot analysis to investigate whether these vessels express the σ 1 -receptor and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to examine localization of the σ 1 -receptor in the collecting lymphatic wall. Using N -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) pretreatment before afobazole in isolated lymphatics, we tested the role of nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Finally, we used 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence as an indicator to test whether afobazole increases NO release in cultured lymphatic endothelial cells. Our results show that afobazole (50-150 µM) elevated end-systolic diameter and generally reduced pump efficiency and that this response could be partially blocked by the σ 1 -receptor antagonists BD 1047 and BD 1063 but not by the σ 2 -receptor antagonist SM-21. σ 1 -Receptor mRNA and protein were detected in lysates from isolated rat mesenteric collecting lymphatics. Confocal images with anti-σ 1 -receptor antibody labeling suggested localization in the lymphatic endothelium. Blockade of NO synthases with l-NAME inhibited the effects of afobazole. Finally, afobazole elicited increases in NO production from cultured lymphatic endothelial cells. Our findings suggest that the σ 1 -receptor limits collecting lymphatic pumping through a NO-dependent mechanism. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Relatively little is known about the mechanisms that govern contractions of lymphatic vessels. σ 1 -Receptor activation has been

  19. Mapping the distinctive populations of lymphatic endothelial cells in different zones of human lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Mul Park

    Full Text Available The lymphatic sinuses in human lymph nodes (LNs are crucial to LN function yet their structure remains poorly defined. Much of our current knowledge of lymphatic sinuses derives from rodent models, however human LNs differ substantially in their sinus structure, most notably due to the presence of trabeculae and trabecular lymphatic sinuses that rodent LNs lack. Lymphatic sinuses are bounded and traversed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. A better understanding of LECs in human LNs is likely to improve our understanding of the regulation of cell trafficking within LNs, now an important therapeutic target, as well as disease processes that involve lymphatic sinuses. We therefore sought to map all the LECs within human LNs using multicolor immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize the distribution of a range of putative markers. PROX1 was the only marker that uniquely identified the LECs lining and traversing all the sinuses in human LNs. In contrast, LYVE1 and STAB2 were only expressed by LECs in the paracortical and medullary sinuses in the vast majority of LNs studied, whilst the subcapsular and trabecular sinuses lacked these molecules. These data highlight the existence of at least two distinctive populations of LECs within human LNs. Of the other LEC markers, we confirmed VEGFR3 was not specific for LECs, and CD144 and CD31 stained both LECs and blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs; in contrast, CD59 and CD105 stained BECs but not LECs. We also showed that antigen-presenting cells (APCs in the sinuses could be clearly distinguished from LECs by their expression of CD169, and their lack of expression of PROX1 and STAB2, or endothelial markers such as CD144. However, both LECs and sinus APCs were stained with DCN46, an antibody commonly used to detect CD209.

  20. The presence and absence of lymphatic vessels in the adult human intervertebral disc: relation to disc pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliskey, Karolina; Williams, Kelly; Yu, J.; Urban, Jill; Athanasou, Nick [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); Jackson, David [Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Human Immunology Unit, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Although the normal adult human intervertebral disc is considered to be avascular, vascularised cellular fibrous tissue can be found in pathological conditions involving the disc such as disc herniation. Whether lymphatics vessels form a component of this reparative tissue is not known as the presence or absence of lymphatics in herniated and normal disc tissue is not known. We examined spinal tissues and discectomy specimens for the presence of lymphatics. The examination used immunohistochemistry to identify the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, podoplanin and LYVE1. Lymphatic vessels were not found in the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus of intact, non-herniated lumbar and thoracic discs but were present in the surrounding ligaments. Ingrowth of fibrous tissue was seen in 73% of herniated disc specimens of which 36% contained LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels were not seen in the sacrum and coccyx or biopsies of four sacrococcygeal chordomas, but they were noted in surrounding extra-osseous fat and fibrous tissue at the edge of the infiltrating tumour. Our findings indicate that lymphatic vessels are not present in the normal adult intervertebral disc but that, when there is extrusion of disc material into surrounding soft tissue, there is ingrowth of reparative fibrous tissue containing lymphatic vessels. Our findings also indicate that chordoma, a tumour of notochordal origin, spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics in para-spinal soft tissues. (orig.)

  1. Genetic removal of basal nitric oxide enhances contractile activity in isolated murine collecting lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallan, Joshua P; Davis, Michael J

    2013-04-15

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in regulating lymphatic contractile function and, consequently, lymph flow has been the subject of intense study. Despite this, the precise effects of NO on lymphatic contractile activity remain unclear. Recent hypotheses posit that basal levels of endogenous NO increase lymphatic contraction strength as a consequence of lowering frequency (i.e. positive lusitropy), whereas higher agonist-evoked concentrations of NO exert purely inhibitory effects on contractile function. We tested both hypotheses directly by isolating and cannulating collecting lymphatic vessels from genetically modified mice for ex vivo study. The effects of basal NO and agonist-evoked NO were evaluated, respectively, by exposing wild-type (WT), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)(-/-) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS)(-/-) lymphatic vessels to controlled pressure steps followed by ACh doses. To compare with pharmacological inhibition of eNOS, we repeated both tests in the presence of l-NAME. Surprisingly, genetic removal of basal NO enhanced contraction amplitude significantly without increasing contraction frequency. Higher levels of NO production stimulated by ACh evoked dilation, decreased tone, slowed contraction frequency and reduced fractional pump flow. We conclude that basal NO specifically depresses contraction amplitude, and that greater NO production then inhibits all other aspects of contractile function. Further, this work demonstrates definitively that mouse collecting lymphatic vessels exhibit autonomous, large-amplitude contractions that respond to pressure similarly to collecting lymphatics of other mammalian species. At least in the peripheral lymphatic vasculature, NO production depresses contractile function, which influences lymph flow needed for fluid regulation, humoral immunity and cancer metastasis.

  2. Lymphatic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood from the upper body into the heart. Lymphatic System: Helping Defend Against Infection The lymphatic system ... the neck, armpits, and groin. Disorders of the lymphatic system The lymphatic system may not carry out ...

  3. Lymphatic Vessels Balance Viral Dissemination and Immune Activation following Cutaneous Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Christopher P; Nelson, Nicholas A; Lane, Ryan S; Booth, Jamie L; Loprinzi Hardin, Sofia C; Thomas, Archana; Slifka, Mark K; Nolz, Jeffrey C; Lund, Amanda W

    2017-09-26

    Lymphatic vessels lie at the interface between peripheral sites of pathogen entry, adaptive immunity, and the systemic host. Though the paradigm is that their open structure allows for passive flow of infectious particles from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, virus applied to skin by scarification does not spread to draining lymph nodes. Using cutaneous infection by scarification, we analyzed the effect of viral infection on lymphatic transport and evaluated its role at the host-pathogen interface. We found that, in the absence of lymphatic vessels, canonical lymph-node-dependent immune induction was impaired, resulting in exacerbated pathology and compensatory, systemic priming. Furthermore, lymphatic vessels decouple fluid and cellular transport in an interferon-dependent manner, leading to viral sequestration while maintaining dendritic cell transport for immune induction. In conclusion, we found that lymphatic vessels balance immune activation and viral dissemination and act as an "innate-like" component of tissue host viral defense. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lymphatic anatomy and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Daniela; Moriondo, Andrea

    2011-06-15

    Lymph formation is driven by hydraulic pressure gradients developing between the interstitial tissue and the lumen of initial lymphatics. While in vessels equipped with lymphatic smooth muscle cells these gradients are determined by well-synchronized spontaneous contractions of vessel segments, initial lymphatics devoid of smooth muscles rely on tissue motion to form lymph and propel it along the network. Lymphatics supplying highly moving tissues, such as skeletal muscle, diaphragm or thoracic tissues, undergo cyclic compression and expansion of their lumen imposed by local stresses arising in the tissue as a consequence of cardiac and respiratory activities. Active muscle contraction and not passive tissue displacement is required to support an efficient lymphatic drainage, as suggested by the fact that the respiratory activity promotes lymph formation during spontaneous, but not mechanical ventilation. The mechanical properties of the lymphatic wall and of the surrounding tissue also play an important role in lymphatic function. Modelling of stress distribution in the lymphatic wall suggests that compliant vessels behave as reservoirs accommodating absorbed interstitial fluid, while lymphatics with stiffer walls, taking advantage of a more efficient transmission of tissue stresses to the lymphatic lumen, propel fluid through the lumen of the lymphatic circuit.

  5. A Case of Abnormal Lymphatic-Like Differentiation and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Activation in Neovascularization Associated with Hemi-Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Loukovaara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pathological vascular differentiation in retinal vein occlusion (RVO-related neovessel formation remains poorly characterized. The role of intraocular lymphatic-like differentiation or endothelial progenitor cell activity has not been studied in this disease. Methods: Vitrectomy was performed in an eye with hemi-RVO; the neovessel membrane located at the optic nerve head was removed and subjected to immunohistochemistry. Characterization of the neovascular tissue was performed using hematoxylin and eosin, α-smooth muscle actin, and the pan-endothelial cell (EC adhesion molecule CD31. The expression of lymphatic EC markers was studied by lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1, podoplanin (PDPN, and prospero-related homeobox protein 1 (Prox-1. Potential vascular stem/progenitor cells were identified by active cellular proliferation (Ki67 and expression of the stem cell marker CD117. Results: The specimen contained blood vessels lined by ECs and surrounded by pericytes. Immunoreactivity for LYVE-1 and Prox-1 was detected, with Prox-1 being more widely expressed in the active Ki67-positive lumen-lining cells. PDPN expression was instead found in the cells residing in the extravascular tissue. Expression of the stem cell markers CD117 and Ki67 suggested vascular endothelial progenitor cell activity. Conclusions: Intraocular lymphatic-like differentiation coupled with progenitor cell activation may be involved in the pathology of neovessel formation in ischemia-induced human hemi-RVO.

  6. PGE2 promotes breast cancer-associated lymphangiogenesis by activation of EP4 receptor on lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Pinki; Girish, Gannareddy V; Majumder, Mousumi; Xin, Xiping; Tutunea-Fatan, Elena; Lala, Peeyush K

    2017-01-05

    Lymphatic metastasis, facilitated by lymphangiogenesis is a common occurrence in breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms remaining incompletely understood. We had earlier shown that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression by human or murine breast cancer cells promoted lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis by upregulating VEGF-C/D production by tumor cells or tumor-associated macrophages primarily due to activation of the prostaglandin receptor EP4 by endogenous PGE2. It is not clear whether tumor or host-derived PGE2 has any direct effect on lymphangiogenesis, and if so, whether EP4 receptors on lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) play any role. Here, we address these questions employing in vitro studies with a COX-2-expressing and VEGF-C/D-producing murine breast cancer cell line C3L5 and a rat mesenteric (RM) LEC line and in vivo studies in nude mice. RMLEC responded to PGE2, an EP4 agonist PGE1OH, or C3L5 cell-conditioned media (C3L5-CM) by increased proliferation, migration and accelerated tube formation on growth factor reduced Matrigel. Native tube formation by RMLEC on Matrigel was abrogated in the presence of a selective COX-2 inhibitor or an EP4 antagonist. Addition of PGE2 or EP4 agonist, or C3L5-CM individually in the presence of COX-2 inhibitor, or EP4 antagonist, restored tube formation, reinforcing the role of EP4 on RMLEC in tubulogenesis. These results were partially duplicated with a human dermal LEC (HMVEC-dLyAd) and a COX-2 expressing human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Knocking down EP4 with shRNA in RMLEC abrogated their tube forming capacity on Matrigel in the absence or presence of PGE2, EP4 agonist, or C3L5-CM. RMLEC tubulogenesis following EP4 activation by agonist treatment was dependent on PI3K/Akt and Erk signaling pathways and VEGFR-3 stimulation. Finally in a directed in vivo lymphangiogenesis assay (DIVLA) we demonstrated the lymphangiogenic as well as angiogenic capacity of PGE2 and EP4 agonist in vivo. These results demonstrate

  7. Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D.; Fuentes, Laurel F; Santiago, Shauna M; Allen, Breanna M; Cook, Douglas J.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Chang, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may ...

  8. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in peripheral diaphragmatic lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Daniela; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Solari, Eleonora; Bossi, Elena; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Reguzzoni, Marcella; Moriondo, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Diaphragmatic lymphatic function is mainly sustained by pressure changes in the tissue and serosal cavities during cardiorespiratory cycles. The most peripheral diaphragmatic lymphatics are equipped with muscle cells (LMCs), which exhibit spontaneous contraction, whose molecular machinery is still undetermined. Hypothesizing that spontaneous contraction might involve hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels in lymphatic LMCs, diaphragmatic specimens, including spontaneously contracting lymphatics, were excised from 33 anesthetized rats, moved to a perfusion chamber containing HEPES-Tyrode's solution, and treated with HCN channels inhibitors cesium chloride (CsCl), ivabradine, and ZD-7288. Compared with control, exposure to 10 mM CsCl reduced (-65%, n = 13, P < 0.01) the contraction frequency (FL) and increased end-diastolic diameter (DL-d, +7.3%, P < 0.01) without changes in end-systolic diameter (DL-s). Ivabradine (300 μM) abolished contraction and increased DL-d (-14%, n = 10, P < 0.01) or caused an incomplete inhibition of FL (n = 3, P < 0.01), leaving DL-d and DL-s unaltered. ZD-7288 (200 μM) completely (n = 12, P < 0.01) abolished FL, while DL-d decreased to 90.9 ± 2.7% of control. HCN gene expression and immunostaining confirmed the presence of HCN1-4 channel isoforms, likely arranged in different configurations, in LMCs. Hence, all together, data suggest that HCN channels might play an important role in affecting contraction frequency of LMCs. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Lipoxygenase mediates invasion of intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and propagates lymph node metastasis of human mammary carcinoma xenografts in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Rudas, Margaretha; Sexl, Veronika; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Wolbank, Susanne; Bartel, Gregor; Krieger, Sigurd; Kalt, Romana; Hantusch, Brigitte; Keller, Thomas; Nagy-Bojarszky, Katalin; Huttary, Nicole; Raab, Ingrid; Lackner, Karin; Krautgasser, Katharina; Schachner, Helga; Kaserer, Klaus; Rezar, Sandra; Madlener, Sybille; Vonach, Caroline; Davidovits, Agnes; Nosaka, Hitonari; Hämmerle, Monika; Viola, Katharina; Dolznig, Helmut; Schreiber, Martin; Nader, Alexander; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Gnant, Michael; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Detmar, Michael; Alitalo, Kari; Nijman, Sebastian; Offner, Felix; Maier, Thorsten J; Steinhilber, Dieter; Krupitza, Georg

    2011-05-01

    In individuals with mammary carcinoma, the most relevant prognostic predictor of distant organ metastasis and clinical outcome is the status of axillary lymph node metastasis. Metastases form initially in axillary sentinel lymph nodes and progress via connecting lymphatic vessels into postsentinel lymph nodes. However, the mechanisms of consecutive lymph node colonization are unknown. Through the analysis of human mammary carcinomas and their matching axillary lymph nodes, we show here that intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and bulk tumor cell invasion into these vessels highly correlate with formation of postsentinel metastasis. In an in vitro model of tumor bulk invasion, human mammary carcinoma cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. These circular defects were highly reminiscent of defects of the lymphovascular walls at sites of tumor invasion in vivo and were primarily generated by the tumor-derived arachidonic acid metabolite 12S-HETE following 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15) catalysis. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition and shRNA knockdown of ALOX15 each repressed formation of circular defects in vitro. Importantly, ALOX15 knockdown antagonized formation of lymph node metastasis in xenografted tumors. Furthermore, expression of lipoxygenase in human sentinel lymph node metastases correlated inversely with metastasis-free survival. These results provide evidence that lipoxygenase serves as a mediator of tumor cell invasion into lymphatic vessels and formation of lymph node metastasis in ductal mammary carcinomas.

  10. Mechanobiology of lymphatic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance L

    2015-02-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for controlling tissue fluid pressure by facilitating flow of lymph (i.e. the plasma and cells that enter the lymphatic system). Because lymph contains cells of the immune system, its transport is not only important for fluid homeostasis, but also immune function. Lymph drainage can occur via passive flow or active pumping, and much research has identified the key biochemical and mechanical factors that affect output. Although many studies and reviews have addressed how tissue properties and fluid mechanics (i.e. pressure gradients) affect lymph transport [1-3] there is less known about lymphatic mechanobiology. As opposed to passive mechanical properties, mechanobiology describes the active coupling of mechanical signals and biochemical pathways. Lymphatic vasomotion is the result of a fascinating system affected by mechanical forces exerted by the flowing lymph, including pressure-induced vessel stretch and flow-induced shear stresses. These forces can trigger or modulate biochemical pathways important for controlling the lymphatic contractions. Here, I review the current understanding of lymphatic vessel function, focusing on vessel mechanobiology, and summarize the prospects for a comprehensive understanding that integrates the mechanical and biomechanical control mechanisms in the lymphatic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperglycemia- and hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance causes alterations in cellular bioenergetics and activation of inflammatory signaling in lymphatic muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang; Fluckey, James D; Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2017-07-01

    Insulin resistance is a well-known risk factor for obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and associated cardiovascular diseases, but its mechanisms are undefined in the lymphatics. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels from MetSyn or LPS-injected rats exhibited impaired intrinsic contractile activity and associated inflammatory changes. Hence, we hypothesized that insulin resistance in lymphatic muscle cells (LMCs) affects cell bioenergetics and signaling pathways that consequently alter contractility. LMCs were treated with different concentrations of insulin or glucose or both at various time points to determine insulin resistance. Onset of insulin resistance significantly impaired glucose uptake, mitochondrial function, oxygen consumption rates, glycolysis, lactic acid, and ATP production in LMCs. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia also impaired the PI3K/Akt while enhancing the ERK/p38MAPK/JNK pathways in LMCs. Increased NF-κB nuclear translocation and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and VCAM-1 levels in insulin-resistant LMCs indicated activation of inflammatory mechanisms. In addition, increased phosphorylation of myosin light chain-20, a key regulator of lymphatic muscle contraction, was observed in insulin-resistant LMCs. Therefore, our data elucidate the mechanisms of insulin resistance in LMCs and provide the first evidence that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia promote insulin resistance and impair lymphatic contractile status by reducing glucose uptake, altering cellular metabolic pathways, and activating inflammatory signaling cascades.-Lee, Y., Fluckey, J. D., Chakraborty, S., Muthuchamy, M. Hyperglycemia- and hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance causes alterations in cellular bioenergetics and activation of inflammatory signaling in lymphatic muscle. © FASEB.

  12. Transplantation of artificial human lymphatic vascular tissues fabricated using a cell-accumulation technique and their engraftment in mouse tissue with vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshiya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2017-09-06

    Transplantation of engineered tissues with microvascular structure is advancing towards therapeutic application to improve the flow of blood and/or lymphatic fluids. In lymphatic disorders, transplantation of tissue-engineered lymphatic grafts can be an ideal treatment for draining excessive lymphatic fluid. In this study, we examined the transplantation of three-dimensional artificial human lymphatic network tissue (AHLT) fabricated by the cell accumulation technique into the subcutaneous tissue and fascia of mice. At 2 weeks after transplantation, the AHLT showed engraftment of artificial lymphatic vessels immunopositive for human CD31 and human podoplanin. Notably, we also observed the generation of blood vessel-like structure comprising endothelial cells immunopositive for human CD34 and mural-like cells immunopositive for human CD90 and αSMA, which were considered as myofibroblasts. In the fabrication of AHLT in vitro, the sporadic emergence of human CD34-positive / Prox-1-negative sites was observed, followed by the formation of blood vessel-like structure in the graft within 7 days after transplantation. The fine structure of engrafted AHLT observed by transmission electron microscopy showed that the engrafted artificial lymphatic vessels possess the specific structures of native lymphatic capillaries such as loose inter-endothelial connections and anchoring filaments. In contrast, blood vessel-like structure showed tight inter-endothelial connections, thick basement membranes, and layers of mural-like cells, which resemble small blood vessels. These results suggested the remodeling of artificial lymphatic network to form blood vessel-like structure associated with mural-like cells along with AHLT fabrication and engraftment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Some variations in lymphatic drainage of selected bronchopulmonary segments in human lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, Mirosław; Masłoń, Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Interest in the role of the pulmonary lymphatic system in the pathophysiology of pulmonary and systemic diseases induced us to carry out anatomical research on the lung lymphatic system in the Polish population. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether lymphatic vessels respect bronchopulmonary segment borders and to determine how often lymphatic vessels run to nodes of another lymphatic region. A block of organs comprising the lungs with the trachea, larynx and tongue, the heart and esophagus was removed from the cadavers at autopsy. The research involved 96 lungs (48 left and 48 right), which were taken from 31 male and 17 female cadavers. The lymphatic vessels were visualized at the mediastinal and interlobar surface of the lung by visual inspection. These vessels were then cannulated and injected with drawing ink. Next, the course of a lymphatic vessel was checked to see whether it was compatible with the bronchopulmonary segments or lobar borders. The first lymph node to become ink-colored via injection was dissected and histologically examined. A total of 135 images of lymphatic vessels (63 in the left lungs and 72 in the right lung) running on the mediastinal or interlobar surface of the lung were evaluated. In all, 12 out of 135 vessels (8.9%) were observed to cross the border of the segment (6/12 vessels) or the border of the lobe (6/12 vessels). We found 10/135 vessels (7.4%) running to the lymph nodes of another lymphatic region. 2009 Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Mapping superficial lymphatic territories in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Suami, Hiroo; Chang, David W

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the anatomy of the lymphatic system in the rabbit with regard to relationships between the lymphatic vessel and lymph node. According to our previous studies in human cadavers and canines, the superficial lymphatic system could be divided into lymphatic territories. The aim of this study was to completely map the superficial lymphatic system in the rabbit. We used our microinjection technique and histological analysis for dissecting studies and recently developed indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography for demonstrating dynamic lymph flow in living rabbits. Real-time ICG fluorescent lymphography was performed in two living New Zealand White rabbits, and direct dye microinjection of the lymphatic vessels was performed in eight dead rabbits. To assess the relationships between the vascular and lymphatic systems in rabbits, we performed radiocontrast injection into arteries in two dead rabbits prior to the lymphatic injection. The ICG fluorescent lymphography revealed eight lymphatic territories in the preauricular, submandibular, root of the lateral neck, axillary, lumbar, inguinal, root of the tail, and popliteal regions. We injected blue acrylic dye into every lymphatic vessel 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. We then dissected and chased the stained lymphatic vessels proximally until the vessels connected to the first tier lymph node. This procedure was repeated throughout the body until all the relationships between the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes were defined. The lymphatic system of the rabbit could be defined as eight lymphatic territories, each with its own lymphatic vessels and lymph node. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Immunohistochemical Heterogeneity of the Endothelium of Blood and Lymphatic Vessels in the Developing Human Liver and in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Ivan; Todorović, Vera; Petrović, Aleksandar; Petrović, Vladimir; Jović, Marko; Vladičić, Jelena; Puškaš, Nela

    2017-01-01

    The endothelium of liver sinusoids in relation to the endothelium of other blood vessels has specific antigen expression similar to the endothelium of lymphatic vessels. Bearing in mind that there is no consensus as to the period or intensity of the expression of certain antigens in the endothelium of blood and lymphatic vessels in the liver, the aim of our study was to immunohistochemically investigate the dynamic patterns of the expression of CD31, CD34, D2-40, and LYVE-1 antigens during liver development and in adulthood on paraffin tissue sections of human livers of 4 embryos, 38 fetuses, 6 neonates, and 6 adults. The results show that, in a histologically immature liver at the end of the embryonic period, CD34 molecules are expressed only on vein endothelium localized in developing portal areas, whereby the difference between portal venous branches and CD34-negative central veins belongs to the collecting venous system. In the fetal period, with aging, expression of CD34 and CD31 molecules on the endothelium of central veins and blood vessels of the portal areas increases. Sinusoidal endothelium shows light and sporadic CD34 immunoreactivity in the late embryonic and fetal periods, and is lost in the neonatal and adult periods, unlike CD31 immunoreactivity, which is poorly expressed in the fetal and neonatal periods but is present in adults. The endothelium of sinusoids and lymphatic vessels express LYVE-1, and the endothelium of lymphatic vessels express LYVE-1 and D2-40 but not CD34. Similarity between the sinusoidal and lymphatic endothelium includes the fact that both types are LYVE-1 positive and CD34 negative. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Aberrant lymphatic endothelial progenitors in lymphatic malformation development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K Wu

    Full Text Available Lymphatic malformations (LMs are vascular anomalies thought to arise from dysregulated lymphangiogenesis. These lesions impose a significant burden of disease on affected individuals. LM pathobiology is poorly understood, hindering the development of effective treatments. In the present studies, immunostaining of LM tissues revealed that endothelial cells lining aberrant lymphatic vessels and cells in the surrounding stroma expressed the stem cell marker, CD133, and the lymphatic endothelial protein, podoplanin. Isolated patient-derived CD133+ LM cells expressed stem cell genes (NANOG, Oct4, circulating endothelial cell precursor proteins (CD90, CD146, c-Kit, VEGFR-2, and lymphatic endothelial proteins (podoplanin, VEGFR-3. Consistent with a progenitor cell identity, CD133+ LM cells were multipotent and could be differentiated into fat, bone, smooth muscle, and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro. CD133+ cells were compared to CD133- cells isolated from LM fluids. CD133- LM cells had lower expression of stem cell genes, but expressed circulating endothelial precursor proteins and high levels of lymphatic endothelial proteins, VE-cadherin, CD31, podoplanin, VEGFR-3 and Prox1. CD133- LM cells were not multipotent, consistent with a differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. In a mouse xenograft model, CD133+ LM cells differentiated into lymphatic endothelial cells that formed irregularly dilated lymphatic channels, phenocopying human LMs. In vivo, CD133+ LM cells acquired expression of differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell proteins, podoplanin, LYVE1, Prox1, and VEGFR-3, comparable to expression found in LM patient tissues. Taken together, these data identify a novel LM progenitor cell population that differentiates to form the abnormal lymphatic structures characteristic of these lesions, recapitulating the human LM phenotype. This LM progenitor cell population may contribute to the clinically refractory behavior of LMs.

  17. Aberrant lymphatic endothelial progenitors in lymphatic malformation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, June K; Kitajewski, Christopher; Reiley, Maia; Keung, Connie H; Monteagudo, Julie; Andrews, John P; Liou, Peter; Thirumoorthi, Arul; Wong, Alvin; Kandel, Jessica J; Shawber, Carrie J

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are vascular anomalies thought to arise from dysregulated lymphangiogenesis. These lesions impose a significant burden of disease on affected individuals. LM pathobiology is poorly understood, hindering the development of effective treatments. In the present studies, immunostaining of LM tissues revealed that endothelial cells lining aberrant lymphatic vessels and cells in the surrounding stroma expressed the stem cell marker, CD133, and the lymphatic endothelial protein, podoplanin. Isolated patient-derived CD133+ LM cells expressed stem cell genes (NANOG, Oct4), circulating endothelial cell precursor proteins (CD90, CD146, c-Kit, VEGFR-2), and lymphatic endothelial proteins (podoplanin, VEGFR-3). Consistent with a progenitor cell identity, CD133+ LM cells were multipotent and could be differentiated into fat, bone, smooth muscle, and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro. CD133+ cells were compared to CD133- cells isolated from LM fluids. CD133- LM cells had lower expression of stem cell genes, but expressed circulating endothelial precursor proteins and high levels of lymphatic endothelial proteins, VE-cadherin, CD31, podoplanin, VEGFR-3 and Prox1. CD133- LM cells were not multipotent, consistent with a differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. In a mouse xenograft model, CD133+ LM cells differentiated into lymphatic endothelial cells that formed irregularly dilated lymphatic channels, phenocopying human LMs. In vivo, CD133+ LM cells acquired expression of differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell proteins, podoplanin, LYVE1, Prox1, and VEGFR-3, comparable to expression found in LM patient tissues. Taken together, these data identify a novel LM progenitor cell population that differentiates to form the abnormal lymphatic structures characteristic of these lesions, recapitulating the human LM phenotype. This LM progenitor cell population may contribute to the clinically refractory behavior of LMs.

  18. Ligand-directed targeting of lymphatic vessels uncovers mechanistic insights in melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Dawn R; Dobroff, Andrey S; Proneth, Bettina; Zurita, Amado J; Salameh, Ahmad; Dondossola, Eleonora; Makino, Jun; Bologa, Cristian G; Smith, Tracey L; Yao, Virginia J; Calderone, Tiffany L; O'Connell, David J; Oprea, Tudor I; Kataoka, Kazunori; Cahill, Dolores J; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-02-24

    Metastasis is the most lethal step of cancer progression in patients with invasive melanoma. In most human cancers, including melanoma, tumor dissemination through the lymphatic vasculature provides a major route for tumor metastasis. Unfortunately, molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between melanoma cells and lymphatic vessels are unknown. Here, we developed an unbiased approach based on molecular mimicry to identify specific receptors that mediate lymphatic endothelial-melanoma cell interactions and metastasis. By screening combinatorial peptide libraries directly on afferent lymphatic vessels resected from melanoma patients during sentinel lymphatic mapping and lymph node biopsies, we identified a significant cohort of melanoma and lymphatic surface binding peptide sequences. The screening approach was designed so that lymphatic endothelium binding peptides mimic cell surface proteins on tumor cells. Therefore, relevant metastasis and lymphatic markers were biochemically identified, and a comprehensive molecular profile of the lymphatic endothelium during melanoma metastasis was generated. Our results identified expression of the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit A, α-isoform (PPP2R1A) on the cell surfaces of both melanoma cells and lymphatic endothelial cells. Validation experiments showed that PPP2R1A is expressed on the cell surfaces of both melanoma and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro as well as independent melanoma patient samples. More importantly, PPP2R1A-PPP2R1A homodimers occur at the cellular level to mediate cell-cell interactions at the lymphatic-tumor interface. Our results revealed that PPP2R1A is a new biomarker for melanoma metastasis and show, for the first time to our knowledge, an active interaction between the lymphatic vasculature and melanoma cells during tumor progression.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Interferons on Contractive Activity of Bovine Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels and Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unt, D V; Lobov, G I

    2017-12-01

    We studied the effect of IFNα-2b and IFNβ-1a on phasic and tonic contractions of isolated bovine mesenteric lymphatic vessels and nodes. IFNα-2b and IFNβ-1a in concentrations of 250-1000 U/ml produced dose-dependent negative chronotropic and inotropic effects on spontaneous phasic contractions and tonus of lymphatic vessels and nodes. In de-endothelialized lymphatic vessels and nodes, IFNα-2b and IFNβ-1a in the same concentrations had less pronounced inhibitory effect on spontaneous contraction and tonus. L-NAME (100 μM) and charybdotoxin (0.1 μM with 0.5 μM apamine) significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of IFNα-2b on phasic and tonic contractions of lymph nodes. L-NAME (100 μM) and indomethacin (10 μM) significantly reduced the IFNα-2b-induced inhibitory effect on phasic and tonic contractions of lymph node. These results indicate that IFNα-2b and IFNβ-1a have a pronounced inhibitory effect on the phasic and tonic contractions of bovine mesenteric lymphatic vessels and nodes. The responses are endothelium-dependent and are determined by production of NO and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor by endotheliocytes in lymphatic vessels and by production of NO and prostacyclin by endotheliocytes in the lymphatic nodes.

  20. Urban lymphatic filariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disabling and disfiguring disease resulting from a mosquito-borne parasitic infection. It is a major public health problem in many countries with a warm climate. Research and control activities have mainly focused on LF in rural areas where it also has its major...... impact. However, with rapid and unplanned growth of cities in the developing world, there is a need also to consider LF transmission and control in urban settings. Here, we review currently available knowledge on urban LF and the environmental and socio-economic basis for its occurrence. Among the three...... parasite species causing LF in humans, only Wuchereria bancrofti has been documented to have a significant potential for urban transmission. This is primarily because one of its vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus, thrives and proliferates excessively in crowded city areas with poor sanitary, sewerage...

  1. Lymphatic Vascularisation and Involvement of Lyve-1+ Macrophages in the Human Onchocerca Nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attout, Tarik; Hoerauf, Achim; Dénécé, Gaëlle; Debrah, Alexander Yaw; Marfo-Debrekyei, Yeboah; Boussinesq, Michel; Wanji, Samuel; Martinez, Valérie; Mand, Sabine; Adjei, Ohene; Bain, Odile

    2009-01-01

    Onchocerciasis, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a parasitic disease leading to debilitating skin disease and blindness, with major economic and social consequences. The pathology of onchocerciasis is principally considered to be a consequence of long-standing host inflammatory responses. In onchocerciasis a subcutaneous nodule is formed around the female worms, the core of which is a dense infiltrate of inflammatory cells in which microfilariae are released. It has been established that the formation of nodules is associated with angiogenesis. In this study, we show using specific markers of endothelium (CD31) and lymphatic endothelial cells (Lyve-1, Podoplanin) that not only angiogenesis but also lymphangiogenesis occurs within the nodule. 7% of the microfilariae could be found within the lymphatics, but none within blood vessels in these nodules, suggesting a possible route of migration for the larvae. The neovascularisation was associated with a particular pattern of angio/lymphangiogenic factors in nodules of onchocerciasis patients, characterized by the expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, VEGF-C, Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2. Interestingly, a proportion of macrophages were found to be positive for Lyve-1 and some were integrated into the endothelium of the lymphatic vessels, revealing their plasticity in the nodular micro-environment. These results indicate that lymphatic as well as blood vascularization is induced around O. volvulus worms, either by the parasite itself, e.g. by the release of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors, or by consecutive host immune responses. PMID:20011036

  2. Distinct roles of L- and T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in regulation of lymphatic vessel contractile activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stewart; Roizes, Simon; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2014-12-15

    Lymph drainage maintains tissue fluid homeostasis and facilitates immune response. It is promoted by phasic contractions of collecting lymphatic vessels through which lymph is propelled back into the blood circulation. This rhythmic contractile activity (i.e. lymphatic pumping) increases in rate with increase in luminal pressure and relies on activation of nifedipine-sensitive voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs). Despite their importance, these channels have not been characterized in lymphatic vessels. We used pressure- and wire-myography as well as intracellular microelectrode electrophysiology to characterize the pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of L-type and T-type VDCCs in rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels and evaluated their particular role in the regulation of lymphatic pumping by stretch. We complemented our study with PCR and confocal immunofluorescence imaging to investigate the expression and localization of these channels in lymphatic vessels. Our data suggest a delineating role of VDCCs in stretch-induced lymphatic vessel contractions, as the stretch-induced increase in force of lymphatic vessel contractions was significantly attenuated in the presence of L-type VDCC blockers nifedipine and diltiazem, while the stretch-induced increase in contraction frequency was significantly decreased by the T-type VDCC blockers mibefradil and nickel. The latter effect was correlated with a hyperpolarization. We propose that activation of T-type VDCCs depolarizes membrane potential, regulating the frequency of lymphatic contractions via opening of L-type VDCCs, which drive the strength of contractions. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  3. Interplay between Inflammatory Responses and Lymphatic Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kihyuk; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2014-08-01

    Lymphatic vessels are routes for leukocyte migration and fluid drainage. In addition to their passive roles in migration of leukocytes, increasing evidence indicates their active roles in immune regulation. Tissue inflammation rapidly induces lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and chemokine production, thereby resulting in lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, lymphatic endothelial cells induce T cell tolerance through various mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge on how inflammatory cytokines affect lymphangiogenesis and the roles of lymphatic vessels in modulating immune responses.

  4. Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial symbiont, has provided a novel drug treatment for filariasis with macrofilaricidal activity, although the current gold-standard, doxycycline, is unsuitable for use in mass drug administration (MDA. The anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL Consortium aims to identify novel anti-Wolbachia drugs, compounds or combinations that are suitable for use in MDA. Development of a Wolbachia cell-based assay has enabled the screening of the approved human drug-pharmacopoeia (∼2600 drugs for a potential repurposing. This screening strategy has revealed that approved drugs from various classes show significant bacterial load reduction equal to or superior to the gold-standard doxycycline, with 69 orally available hits from different drug categories being identified. Based on our defined hit criteria, 15 compounds were then selectively screened in a Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model, 4 of which were active. These came from the tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and rifamycin classes. This strategy of repurposing approved drugs is a promising development in the goal of finding a novel treatment against filariasis and could also be a strategy applicable for other neglected tropical diseases.

  5. Activated autologous T cells exert an anti-B-cell chronic lymphatic leukemia effect in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Mauro; Moretti, Lorenzo; Terenzi, Adelmo; Bazzucchi, Federico; Del Papa, Beatrice; Bazzucchi, Moira; Ciurnelli, Raffaella; Lucchesi, Alessandro; Sportoletti, Paolo; Rosati, Emanuela; Marconi, Pier Francesco; Falzetti, Franca; Tabilio, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The impact of chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) tumor burden on the autologous immune system has already been demonstrated. This study attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell immunologic deficiencies in CLL. Freshly isolated CD3(+) T cells from patients with a diagnosis of CLL and healthy donors were analyzed by gene expression profiling. Activated T cells from 20 patients with CLL were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity against mutated and unmutated autologous B cells and DAUDI, K562 and P815 cell lines. To investigate T-cell mediated cytotoxicity in vivo, we co-transplanted OKT3-activated T lymphocytes and autologous B-cell CLL (B-CLL) cells into NOD/SCID mice. Gene expression profiles of peripheral blood T cells from B-CLL patients showed 25 down-regulated, and 31 up-regulated, genes that were mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, apoptosis, cytoskeleton formation, vesicle trafficking and T-cell activation. After culture, the T-cell count remained unchanged, CD8 cells expanded more than CD4 and a cytotoxicity index >30% was present in 5/20 patients. Cytotoxicity against B autologous leukemic cells did not correlate with B-cell mutational status. Only activated T cells exerting cytotoxicity against autologous leukemic B cells prevented CLL in a human-mouse chimera. This study indicates that patients with CLL are affected by a partial immunologic defect that might be somewhat susceptible to repair. This study identifies the molecular pathways underlying T-cell deficiencies in CLL and shows that cytotoxic T-cell functions against autologous B-CLL can be rebuilt at least in part in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Human platelet lysate is a feasible candidate to replace fetal calf serum as medium supplement for blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Pablo; Riedl, Sabrina; Witzeneder, Karin; Hildner, Florian; Wolbank, Susanne; Groeger, Marion; Gabriel, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    As angiogenic and lymphangiogenic key players, endothelial cells (ECs) are promising candidates for vascular regenerative therapies. To culture ECs in vitro, fetal calf serum (FCS) is most often used. However, some critical aspects of FCS usage, such as possible internalization of xenogeneic proteins and prions, must be considered. Therefore, the aim of this project was to determine if human platelet lysate (hPL) is a suitable alternative to FCS as medium supplement for the culture of blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The usability of hPL was tested by analysis of endothelial surface marker expression, metabolic activity and vasculogenic potential of outgrowth ECs (OECs), human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), and lymphatic ECs (LECs). Expression of EC markers CD31, VEGFR2, VE-cadherin and CD146 did not differ significantly between the EC types cultured in FCS or hPL. In addition, OECs, HUVECs and LECs formed tube-like structures on Matrigel when cultured in hPL and FCS. With the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid assays, we found that the metabolic activity of OECs and LECs was slightly decreased when hPL was used. However, HUVECs and LECs did not show a significant decrease in metabolic activity, and HUVECs showed a slightly higher activity at low seeding densities. The use of hPL on different EC types did not reveal any substantial negative effects on EC behavior. Thus, hPL appears to be a favorable candidate to replace FCS as a medium supplement in the culture of ECs. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lymphatic System in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Robciuc, Marius R; Karaman, Sinem; Makinen, Taija; Alitalo, Kari

    2016-02-05

    The mammalian circulatory system comprises both the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. In contrast to the blood vascular circulation, the lymphatic system forms a unidirectional transit pathway from the extracellular space to the venous system. It actively regulates tissue fluid homeostasis, absorption of gastrointestinal lipids, and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes to lymphoid organs and on to the systemic circulation. The cardinal manifestation of lymphatic malfunction is lymphedema. Recent research has implicated the lymphatic system in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including obesity and metabolic disease, dyslipidemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Here, we review the most recent advances in the field of lymphatic vascular biology, with a focus on cardiovascular disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes in a canine: an animal model for investigation of postoperative lymphatic alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Suami

    Full Text Available Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition.Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs.Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog.Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

  9. Co-expression of α9β1 integrin and VEGF-D confers lymphatic metastatic ability to a human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468LN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Majumder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Lymphatic metastasis is a common occurrence in human breast cancer, mechanisms remaining poorly understood. MDA-MB-468LN (468LN, a variant of the MDA-MB-468GFP (468GFP human breast cancer cell line, produces extensive lymphatic metastasis in nude mice. 468LN cells differentially express α9β1 integrin, a receptor for lymphangiogenic factors VEGF-C/-D. We explored whether (1 differential production of VEGF-C/-D by 468LN cells provides an autocrine stimulus for cellular motility by interacting with α9β1 and a paracrine stimulus for lymphangiogenesis in vitro as measured with capillary-like tube formation by human lymphatic endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy; (2 differential expression of α9 also promotes cellular motility/invasiveness by interacting with macrophage derived factors; (3 stable knock-down of VEGF-D or α9 in 468LN cells abrogates lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in vivo in nude mice. RESULTS: A comparison of expression of cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2 (a VEGF-C/-D inducer, VEGF-C/-D and their receptors revealed little COX-2 expression by either cells. However, 468LN cells showed differential VEGF-D and α9β1 expression, VEGF-D secretion, proliferative, migratory/invasive capacities, latter functions being stimulated further with VEGF-D. The requirement of α9β1 for native and VEGF-D-stimulated proliferation, migration and Erk activation was demonstrated by treating with α9β1 blocking antibody or knock-down of α9. An autocrine role of VEGF-D in migration was shown by its impairment by silencing VEGF-D and restoration with VEGF-D. 468LN cells and their soluble products stimulated tube formation, migration/invasiveness of HMVEC-dLy cell in a VEGF-D dependent manner as indicated by the loss of stimulation by silencing VEGF-D in 468LN cells. Furthermore, 468LN cells showed α9-dependent stimulation of migration/invasiveness by macrophage products. Finally, capacity for intra-tumoral lymphangiogenesis and

  10. Lymphatic Education & Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic Education & Research Network Donate Now Become a Supporting Member X Living with LYMPHEDEMA AND Lymphatic Disease FAQs About ... December 8, 2017 11.08.2017 The Lymphatic Education & Research Network… Read More > ASRM LE&RN Combined ...

  11. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  12. Identification of a molecular marker for genotyping human lymphatic filarial nematode parasite Wuchereria bancrofti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, K P; Ramu, Thangadurai; Hoti, S L; Pragasam, G Siva; Das, P K

    2007-05-01

    In India, Mass Drug Administration is on going towards elimination of lymphatic filariasis in many areas, which might lead to intense selection pressure on the parasite populations and their genetic restructuring. This calls for molecular finger printing of Wuchereria bancrofti parasite populations at national level and monitoring genetic changes in the future. For this purpose a reliable, less expensive, rapid, and reproducible molecular tool is necessary, which is not available for W. bancrofti at this time. We identified robust molecular markers based on the comparison of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles and the genetic data generated from parasite populations collected from areas in Northern (Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh state), Southern (Kozhikode, Kerala State) and Central regions (Jagdalpur, Chattisgarh state) of India, where lymphatic filariasis is endemic for many decades. RAPD profiles for these parasite populations were generated using three different primers and the dendrograms constructed using the profiles were all different. In order to identify appropriate RAPD primer(s), we compared the results of RAPD with the fingerprint profile and genetic data obtained by the more reliable AFLP technique, using the parasite populations from the same areas. RAPD marker (OP8) primer produced phylogenetic data almost similar to that of AFLP analysis. The marker was able to reveal variations between the parasite populations collected from Varanasi, Kozhikode, and Jagdalpur. Most importantly, RAPD primer OP8 produced reproducible results, when tested in three different trials. In view of the limited availability of W. bancrofti parasite DNA, along with a lower cost and ease of performance, RAPD appears to be more suitable compared to AFLP at the present juncture, since complete genome information of this parasite is still not available. Thus, RAPD primer OP8 can be a very useful molecular maker for DNA

  13. Lymphatic Reprogramming by Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus Promotes the Oncogenic Activity of the Virus-Encoded G-protein Coupled Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Berenice; Choi, Inho; Choi, Dongwon; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Sunju; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Lee, Yong Suk; Maeng, Yong Sun; Lee, Ha Neul; Park, Eunkyung; Kim, Kyu Eui; Kim, Nam Yoon; Baik, Jae Myung; Jung, Jae U.; Koh, Chester J.; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS), the most common cancer in HIV-positive individuals, is caused by endothelial transformation mediated by the KS herpes virus (KSHV)-encoded G-protein coupled receptor (vGPCR). Infection of blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) by KSHV reactivates an otherwise silenced embryonic program of lymphatic differentiation. Thus, KS tumors express numerous lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-signature genes. A key unanswered question is how lymphatic reprogramming by the virus promotes tumorigenesis leading to KS formation. In this study, we present evidence that this process creates an environment needed to license the oncogenic activity of vGPCR. We found that the G-protein regulator RGS4 is an inhibitor of vGPCR that is expressed in BECs, but not in LECs. RGS4 was downregulated by the master regulator of LEC differentiation PROX1, which is upregulated by KSHV and directs KSHV-induced lymphatic reprogramming. Moreover, we found that KSHV upregulates the nuclear receptor LRH1, which physically interacts with PROX1 and synergizes with it to mediate repression of RGS4 expression. Mechanistic investigations revealed that RGS4 reduced vGPCR-enhanced cell proliferation, migration, VEGF expression and Akt activation and to suppress tumor formation induced by vGPCR. Our findings resolve long-standing questions about the pathological impact of KSHV-induced reprogramming of host cell identity, and they offer biological and mechanistic insights supporting the hypothesis that a lymphatic microenvironment is more favorable for KS tumorigenesis. PMID:22942256

  14. The importance of lymphatic drainage in physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    VINKLEROVÁ, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical part summarizes all the theoretical knowledge on the topic. I am presenting a brief history of the discovery of the lymphatic vessels and the lymphatic drainage, the lymphatic system anatomy and its functions in the human body. Next, I have defined the concept of lymphoedema and divided it by its origin to primary and secondary lymphedema. The work includes the diagnosis of lymphedema , both conservative and surgical treatment options, indications and contraindications of lymp...

  15. Lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic function in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggreen, E; Wiig, H

    2013-12-01

    Lymphatic vessels return extravasated fluid, proteins, and cells back into the circulation and are important in immune cell trafficking. In the gingiva, lymphatic vessels are located in the lamina propria and travel over the external surface of the alveolar bone. The gingival lymphatics are important for fluid drainage, since lack of lymphatics has been shown to increase interstitial fluid pressure and fluid volume. Maintenance of gingival lymphatic vessels requires continuous signaling by the growth factors VEGF-C and -D via their receptor VEGFR-3. The growth factors are expressed in the gingival epithelium and also in immune cells in the lamina propria. VEGF-C seems to be crucial for lymphangiogenesis induced during periodontal disease development. The lymphatic vessels protect against periodontitis in mice, probably by clearing bacteria and bacterial products and by promoting humoral immune responses. Down-regulation of CCL21, a ligand important for dendritic cell migration, has been demonstrated in lymphatics from patients with periodontitis. High enzymatic activity in the gingiva of these patients may also contribute to impaired lymphatic function, due to the loss of structural components in the interstitium influencing lymphatic function. So far, knowledge is limited in this field because of the dearth of studies on the role of lymphatic vessels in periodontal disease.

  16. Interplay between Inflammatory Responses and Lymphatic Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kihyuk; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are routes for leukocyte migration and fluid drainage. In addition to their passive roles in migration of leukocytes, increasing evidence indicates their active roles in immune regulation. Tissue inflammation rapidly induces lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and chemokine production, thereby resulting in lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, lymphatic endothelial cells induce T cell tolerance through various mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge on h...

  17. Impact of polystyrene beads as a mosquito control measure to supplement lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Socotra Island, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kubati, A S; Al Qubati, Y; Ismail, W; Laney, S J; El-Setouhy, M; Gad, A M; Ramzy, R M R

    2011-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for worldwide elimination. In Yemen, all mainland implementation units met the WHO criteria for stopping mass drug administration (MDA) after 5 rounds. However, in Socotra Island these criteria were not met. Our study evaluated the efficacy of applying expanded polystyrene beads (EPBs) on the Culex population and the effect on LF transmission. Human and mosquito surveys were conducted in 40 randomly selected households in Hadibo (capital of Socotra) before and after application of EPBs. The EPBs intervention resulted in a reduction in mosquito density of 80% and a 64.3% reduction in microfilaria prevalence. The majority of interviewed households (98%) thought EPBs considerably reduced the mosquito population. After the intervention all collected pools tested negative. Application of EPBs is an effective supplement to MDA for achieving the goal of LF elimination.

  18. Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark J; Hoerauf, Achim; Bockarie, Moses

    2010-10-02

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are parasitic helminth diseases that constitute a serious public health issue in tropical regions. The filarial nematodes that cause these diseases are transmitted by blood-feeding insects and produce chronic and long-term infection through suppression of host immunity. Disease pathogenesis is linked to host inflammation invoked by the death of the parasite, causing hydrocoele, lymphoedema, and elephantiasis in lymphatic filariasis, and skin disease and blindness in onchocerciasis. Most filarial species that infect people co-exist in mutualistic symbiosis with Wolbachia bacteria, which are essential for growth, development, and survival of their nematode hosts. These endosymbionts contribute to inflammatory disease pathogenesis and are a target for doxycycline therapy, which delivers macrofilaricidal activity, improves pathological outcomes, and is effective as monotherapy. Drugs to treat filariasis include diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin, and albendazole, which are used mostly in combination to reduce microfilariae in blood (lymphatic filariasis) and skin (onchocerciasis). Global programmes for control and elimination have been developed to provide sustained delivery of drugs to affected communities to interrupt transmission of disease and ultimately eliminate this burden on public health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lymphatic function and responses in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggreen, Ellen; Wiig, Helge

    2014-07-15

    Extravasated fluid, proteins and cells are returned into the circulation by lymphatic vessels that are also important in immune cell trafficking. Lymphatic vessels in gingiva are located in lamina propria, and traverse the external surface of the alveolar bone. Lack of gingival lymphatics has been shown to increase the interstitial fluid pressure and fluid volume, thus showing that lymphatics are important for fluid drainage also in this tissue. Gingival lymphatic vessels require continuous signaling by the growth factors VEGF-C and D via their receptor VEGFR-3 for their maintenance, factors that are expressed in the gingival epithelium and also in immune cells in lamina propria. VEGF-C seems to be of critical importance for lymphangiogeneses induced during periodontal disease development. Mice are protected against periodontitis by lymphatics clearing bacteria and bacterial products and promoting humoral immune responses. CCL21, a ligand important for dendritic cell migration, has been found to be downregulated in lymphatics from patients with periodontitis. Such patients may have impaired gingival lymphatic function due to high enzymatic activity and thus loss of structural components in the interstitium. At present there are few studies on the role of lymphatic vessels in periodontal disease making this a rather unexplored field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effects of oral cancer-associated fibroblasts on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation to human lymphatic endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyuan; Gao, Pan; Chang, Zheng; Xuan, Ming

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effects of oral cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) on lymphangiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were obtained from the tissues of patients with OSCC who did not receive radio-chemotherapy before operation. And the CAFs and NFs were isolated by method of tissue block and identified by immunohistochemical staining. The effects of CAFs (group A) and NFs (group B) to human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLEC) were detected by using a 24-multiwell transwell cell culture chamber. DMEM sugar medium was as blank control group. The number of proliferative, migratory, invasive and tubes of HLEC were counted under inverted phase contrast microscope. The proliferative number of HLEC of group A for 96, 144, 196 h was significantly higher than that of group B and blank control group, group B higher than blank control group (P<0.01). The migratory and invasive number of HLEC of group A for 96 h was significantly higher than that of group B and blank control group, group B higher than blank control group (P<0.01). The number of tube formation of HLEC of group A for 24 h was significantly higher than that of group B and blank control group, group B higher than blank control group (P<0.01). CAFs promote HLEC's proliferation, migration, invasion, tube formation, and these effects are stronger than NFs.

  1. The discovery of the synovial lymphatic stomata and lymphatic reabsorption in knee effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zepeng; Jiang, Tingting; Wang, Chong; Chen, Zhongyi; Chen, Zhongliang; Wang, Jiaxiong; Wang, Li; Wang, Beibei; Xu, Dandan; Liu, Changming; Li, Zhongjie; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    To illustrate the mechanism of lymphatic reabsorption in knee joint effusion. The current investigation employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques to reveal the ultrastructure of the knee synovial membrane in New Zealand rabbits and human. Ultrastructural changes of the synovial lymphatic stomata were observed by using trypan blue absorption and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) digestion methods, and the animal models of synovitis. New Zealand rabbits and human synovial membranes were composed of two types of synovial cells: type A and type B. No lymphatic stomata were found among type A synovial cells, whereas lymphatic stomata with the diameters ranging 0.74-3.26 µm were found in type B synovial cells, and some stomata were closed. After the NaOH digestion, a number of sieve pores, similar to lymphatic stomata in size and shape, were observed in the dense fibrous connective tissue underneath the type B synovial cells. After injecting trypan blue into the rabbit knee joint cavity, absorption of trypan blue through the lymphatic stomata was observed, suggesting the absorption function of the synovial lymphatic stomata. In the rabbit knee joint synovitis models, the synovial lymphatic stomata diameter enlarged. Some macrophages migrated from the lymphatic stomata, indicating that the synovial lymphatic stomata were involved in the joint effusion absorption and inflammatory response. Our study is the first to report the existence of synovial lymphatic stomata in the New Zealand rabbits and human knee joints. Lymphatic stomata may have an important role in the reabsorption of joint effusion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rapid Lymphatic Dissemination of Encapsulated Group A Streptococci via Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Receptor-1 Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola N Lynskey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The host lymphatic network represents an important conduit for pathogen dissemination. Indeed, the lethal human pathogen group A streptococcus has a predilection to induce pathology in the lymphatic system and draining lymph nodes, however the underlying basis and subsequent consequences for disease outcome are currently unknown. Here we report that the hyaluronan capsule of group A streptococci is a crucial virulence determinant for lymphatic tropism in vivo, and further, we identify the lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 as the critical host receptor for capsular hyaluronan in the lymphatic system. Interference with this interaction in vivo impeded bacterial dissemination to local draining lymph nodes and, in the case of a hyper-encapsulated M18 strain, redirected streptococcal entry into the blood circulation, suggesting a pivotal role in the manifestation of streptococcal infections. Our results reveal a novel function for bacterial capsular polysaccharide in directing lymphatic tropism, with potential implications for disease pathology.

  3. Spleen and Lymphatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stones Brain and Nervous System Spleen and Lymphatic System KidsHealth > For Teens > Spleen and Lymphatic System Print A A A What's in this article? ... El bazo y el sistema linfático The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep ...

  4. Lymphatic pumping: mechanics, mechanisms and malfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallan, Joshua P.; Zawieja, Scott D.; Castorena‐Gonzalez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A combination of extrinsic (passive) and intrinsic (active) forces move lymph against a hydrostatic pressure gradient in most regions of the body. The effectiveness of the lymph pump system impacts not only interstitial fluid balance but other aspects of overall homeostasis. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic, active contractions of collecting lymphatic vessels in relation to their ability to actively transport lymph. Lymph propulsion requires not only robust contractions of lymphatic muscle cells, but contraction waves that are synchronized over the length of a lymphangion as well as properly functioning intraluminal valves. Normal lymphatic pump function is determined by the intrinsic properties of lymphatic muscle and the regulation of pumping by lymphatic preload, afterload, spontaneous contraction rate, contractility and neural influences. Lymphatic contractile dysfunction, barrier dysfunction and valve defects are common themes among pathologies that directly involve the lymphatic system, such as inherited and acquired forms of lymphoedema, and pathologies that indirectly involve the lymphatic system, such as inflammation, obesity and metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27219461

  5. Prospective transcriptomic pathway analysis of human lymphatic vascular insufficiency: identification and validation of a circulating biomarker panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In our previous transcriptional profiling of a murine model, we have identified a remarkably small number of specific pathways with altered expression in lymphedema. In this investigation, we utilized microarray-based transcriptomics of human skin for an unbiased a priori prospective candidate identification, with subsequent validation of these candidates through direct serum assay. The resulting multi-analyte biomarker panel sensitively should sensitively discriminate human lymphedema subjects from normal individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled 63 lymphedema subjects and 27 normals in our attempt to discover protein analytes that can distinguish diseased individuals from controls. To minimize technical and biologically irrelevant variation, we first identified potential candidates by performing transcriptional microarray analysis on paired diseased and normal skin specimens sampled from the same individuals. We focused our attention on genes with corresponding protein products that are secreted and took these candidates forward to a protein multiplex assay applied to diseased and normal subjects. We developed a logistic regression-based model on an eventual group of six proteins and validated our system on a separate cohort of study subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated to be 0.87 (95% CI : 0.75 to 0.97. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed an accurate bioassay utilizing proteins representing four central pathogenetic modalities of the disease: lymphangiogenesis, inflammation, fibrosis, and lipid metabolism, suggesting that these proteins are directly related to the pathogenesis of the tissue pathology in lymphatic vascular insufficiency. Further studies are warranted to determine whether this newly-identified biomarker panel will possess utility as an instrument for in vitro diagnosis of early and latent disease; the ultimate applicability to risk stratification, quantitation of

  6. Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs) Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ... microscopic, thread-like worms. The adult worms only live in the human lymph system. The lymph system maintains the body's fluid balance ...

  7. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Extend Along Lymphatic Flow in the Pre-metastatic Lymph Nodes of Human Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Yukie; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Tokumoto, Mao; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Kubo, Naoshi; Muguruma, Kazuya; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-02-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) correlate with lymphangiogenesis in primary lesions and with lymph node (LN) metastasis of several cancers. However, the association of TAMs in regional LNs with lymphatic spread of cancer remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of TAMs in draining LNs and the impact of TAMs on the establishment of LN metastasis of gastric cancer. The number and distribution of TAMs in regional LNs that were obtained from 49 patients who underwent radical surgery for gastric cancer at Osaka City University Hospital in 2011 were assessed. TAMs were defined as immunohistochemically CD163 positive cells. The association of the TAM density with lymph node metastasis and the lymphatic drainage route of the stomach were investigated. A high density of TAMs was significantly associated with pathologically positive lymph nodes and pathological TNM stage. The density of TAMs was increased in LNs with micro metastasis compared with those without metastasis. There was a significant, positive correlation between TAM number and lymphatic vessel density in LNs. In nonmetastatic LNs, TAMs were likely to accumulate in the neighborhood of the primary lesion. In addition, the density of TAMs in distant LNs was significantly increased in patients in whom LN metastasis was observed in perigastric LNs. Accumulated TAMs may induce lymphangiogenesis and prepare an environment that facilitates cancer proliferation in LNs. Our findings might provide a conceptual framework for understanding the lymphatic spreading of cancer and for designing future therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  8. The VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling pathway contributes to resolving chronic skin inflammation by activating lymphatic vessel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagura, Asami; Asai, Jun; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Takenaka, Hideya; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Katoh, Norito

    2014-02-01

    The functions of lymphatic vessels are to drain the protein-rich lymph from the extracellular space, to maintain normal tissue pressure, and to mediate the immune response, particularly in inflammatory conditions. To evaluate the function of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 signaling pathway in chronic skin inflammation. We used adenovirus-mediated VEGF-C or VEGFR3-immunoglobulin (Ig) production and investigated the effects of VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling on the resolution of inflammation using the experimental chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reaction mouse model. VEGF-C gene transfer promoted significant reduction of ear swelling and ear weight in CHS reaction-induced skin inflammation. Although, there was no significant difference in the number of lymphatic vessels, the number of infiltrating CD11b-positive inflammatory cells was significantly reduced in the VEGF-C group, which suggested that VEGF-C upregulated the drainage of interstitial fluid and inflammatory cells via lymphatic vessels. Furthermore, blockade of VEGFR3 expression resulted in a significant delay in the recovery from CHS reaction-induced skin inflammation. Lymphatic vessel size was enlarged and a significant increase of infiltrating CD11b inflammatory cells was observed in mice with VEGFR3-Ig gene transfer compared to control mice. These results suggested that blockade of VEGFR3 inhibited the drainage function of the lymphatic system. This study provides evidence that VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling plays an important role in the resolution of skin inflammation; the regulation of lymphatic function may have a great therapeutic potential in inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F Donoghue

    Full Text Available Progestins provide safe, effective and cheap options for contraception as well as the treatment of a variety of gynaecological disorders. Episodes of irregular endometrial bleeding or breakthrough bleeding (BTB are a major unwanted side effect of progestin treatment, such that BTB is the leading cause for discontinued use of an otherwise effective and popular medication. The cellular mechanisms leading to BTB are poorly understood. In this study, we make the novel finding that the large, dilated, thin walled vessels characteristic of human progestin-treated endometrium include both blood and lymphatic vessels. Increased blood and lymphatic vessel diameter are features of VEGF-D action in other tissues and we show by immunolocalisation and Western blotting that stromal cell decidualisation results in a significant increase in VEGF-D protein production, particularly of the proteolytically processed 21 kD form. Using a NOD/scid mouse model with xenografted human endometrium we were able to show that progestin treatment causes decidualisation, VEGF-D production and endometrial vessel dilation. Our results lead to a novel hypothesis to explain BTB, with stromal cell decidualisation rather than progestin treatment per se being the proposed causative event, and VEGF-D being the proposed effector agent.

  10. Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the present report, we observed that high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H-RFP cells produced significantly larger subcutaneous tumors compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Extensive lymphatic trafficking by high-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells was also observed. High-metastatic MDA-MB-231 developed larger recurrent tumors 2 weeks after tumor resection compared with tumors that were not resected in orthotopic models. Surgical resection of the MDA-MB-231 high-metastatic variant primary tumor in orthotopic models also resulted in rapid and enhanced lymphatic trafficking of residual cancer cells and extensive lymph node and lung metastasis that did not occur in the non-surgical mice. These results suggest that surgical resection of high metastatic TNBC can greatly increase the malignancy of residual cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 559-569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lymphatic drainage of the external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Ren; le Roux, Cara Michelle; Levy, Sidney M; Briggs, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy reveals inconsistencies in our knowledge of the lymphatic anatomy of the external ear. Fifteen external ears from 9 unembalmed human cadavers were studied. Six percent hydrogen peroxide was used to find the lymphatic vessels using a surgical microscope. They were injected with a radio-opaque mixture, dissected, photographed, and radiographed to demonstrate lymphatic vessels in the tissue. Final results were transferred to the computer for analysis. Four groups of lymph collecting vessels were found. The anterior branch, in all specimens, drained directly or indirectly (having merged with a vessel descending from the scalp) into the preauricular lymph nodes. The superior, middle, and inferior (lobule) branches drained to their multiple first tier lymph nodes. An accurate lymphatic map of the external ear is described to upgrade our anatomic knowledge. It will be of benefit for the clinical management of malignancies in this region. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  12. Comparison of approaches for microscopic imaging of skin lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiufeng; Yu, Zheyuan; Liu, Ningfei

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of skin lymphatic vessels is of great significance in understanding their roles in many pathological conditions. Our aim was to identify the optimal approach for investigation of cutaneous lymphatic system. We performed comparative studies on skin lymphatic vessels using immunohistochemistry of tissue sections, computer graphic reconstruction method together with immunohistochemically stained serial sections and whole mount fluorescence in human lower limb. Lymphatic vessels were identified with podoplanin antibody. The relative merits and drawbacks of each method in evaluation of structure, spatial organization, and distribution of cutaneous lymphatic vessels were described. Immunohistology of tissue sections enabled the investigation of the structure and distribution of the whole cutaneous lymphatic system in two-dimensional slices, whereas three-dimensional morphology of only the most superficial lymph capillary network immediately under the epidermis could be evaluated with the whole mount technique. Meanwhile, only little segmentation of skin lymphatic vessel from five immunohistochemically stained serial sections was reconstructed and evaluated due to expense and special skills required using computer graphic three-dimensional reconstruction. Furthermore, a great number of artifacts and special skills required in its processes leaded to less accurate structure of skin lymphatic vessels. Our findings demonstrated that the use of either of the proposed techniques alone could not allow a comprehensive analysis of the skin lymphatic system due to their relative drawbacks. Combination of immunohistology of tissue sections and three-dimensional whole-mount preparations appears to be the best candidate for comprehensive evaluation of skin lymphatic system. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development of the larval lymphatic system in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Min; Castranova, Daniel; Swift, Matthew R; Pham, Van N; Venero Galanternik, Marina; Isogai, Sumio; Butler, Matthew G; Mulligan, Timothy S; Weinstein, Brant M

    2017-06-01

    The lymphatic vascular system is a hierarchically organized complex network essential for tissue fluid homeostasis, immune trafficking and absorption of dietary fats in the human body. Despite its importance, the assembly of the lymphatic network is still not fully understood. The zebrafish is a powerful model organism that enables study of lymphatic vessel development using high-resolution imaging and sophisticated genetic and experimental manipulation. Although several studies have described early lymphatic development in the fish, lymphatic development at later stages has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we generated a new Tg(mrc1a:egfp)(y251) transgenic zebrafish that uses a mannose receptor, C type 1 (mrc1a) promoter to drive strong EGFP expression in lymphatic vessels at all stages of development and in adult zebrafish. We used this line to describe the assembly of the major vessels of the trunk lymphatic vascular network, including the later-developing collateral cardinal, spinal, superficial lateral and superficial intersegmental lymphatics. Our results show that major trunk lymphatic vessels are conserved in the zebrafish, and provide a thorough and complete description of trunk lymphatic vessel assembly. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Inflammatory manifestations of experimental lymphatic insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Tabibiazar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustained lymph stagnation engenders a pathological response that is complex and not well characterized. Tissue inflammation in lymphedema may reflect either an active or passive consequence of impaired immune traffic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied an experimental model of acute post-surgical lymphedema in the tails of female hairless, immunocompetent SKH-1 mice. We performed in vivo imaging of impaired immune traffic in experimental, murine acquired lymphatic insufficiency. We demonstrated impaired mobilization of immunocompetent cells from the lymphedematous region. These findings correlated with histopathological alterations and large-scale transcriptional profiling results. We found intense inflammatory changes in the dermis and the subdermis. The molecular pattern in the RNA extracted from the whole tissue was dominated by the upregulation of genes related to acute inflammation, immune response, complement activation, wound healing, fibrosis, and oxidative stress response. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized a mouse model of acute, acquired lymphedema using in vivo functional imaging and histopathological correlation. The model closely simulates the volume response, histopathology, and lymphoscintigraphic characteristics of human acquired lymphedema, and the response is accompanied by an increase in the number and size of microlymphatic structures in the lymphedematous cutaneous tissues. Molecular characterization through clustering of genes with known functions provides insights into processes and signaling pathways that compose the acute tissue response to lymph stagnation. Further study of genes identified through this effort will continue to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and lead to potential therapeutic strategies for lymphatic vascular insufficiency.

  15. Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicenboim, J; Malkinson, G; Lupo, T; Asaf, L; Sela, Y; Mayseless, O; Gibbs-Bar, L; Senderovich, N; Hashimshony, T; Shin, M; Jerafi-Vider, A; Avraham-Davidi, I; Krupalnik, V; Hofi, R; Almog, G; Astin, J W; Golani, O; Ben-Dor, S; Crosier, P S; Herzog, W; Lawson, N D; Hanna, J H; Yanai, I; Yaniv, K

    2015-06-04

    How cells acquire their fate is a fundamental question in developmental and regenerative biology. Multipotent progenitors undergo cell-fate restriction in response to cues from the microenvironment, the nature of which is poorly understood. In the case of the lymphatic system, venous cells from the cardinal vein are thought to generate lymphatic vessels through trans-differentiation. Here we show that in zebrafish, lymphatic progenitors arise from a previously uncharacterized niche of specialized angioblasts within the cardinal vein, which also generates arterial and venous fates. We further identify Wnt5b as a novel lymphatic inductive signal and show that it also promotes the ‘angioblast-to-lymphatic’ transition in human embryonic stem cells, suggesting that this process is evolutionarily conserved. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of lymphatic specification, and provide the first characterization of the lymphatic inductive niche. More broadly, our findings highlight the cardinal vein as a heterogeneous structure, analogous to the haematopoietic niche in the aortic floor.

  16. Fluorescence imaging of lymphatic outflow of cerebrospinal fluid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Janssen, Christopher F; Velasquez, Fred Christian; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2017-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is known to be reabsorbed by the lymphatic vessels and drain into the lymph nodes (LNs) through peripheral lymphatic vessels. In the peripheral lymphatics, the contractile pumping action of lymphangions mediates lymph drainage; yet it is unknown whether lymphatic vessels draining cranial and spinal CSF show similar function. Herein, we used non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) to image (i) indocyanine green (ICG) distribution along the neuraxis and (ii) routes of ICG-laden CSF outflow into the lymphatics following intrathecal lumbar administration. We demonstrate lymphatic contractile function in peripheral lymphatics draining from the nasal lymphatics to the mandibular LNs. In addition, we observed afferent sciatic lymphatic vessels, which also show contractile activity and transport spinal CSF into the sciatic LNs. This drainage pattern was also visualized by NIRFI following intrathecal thoracic injection. In situ intravital imaging following intrathecal lumbar injection of blue dye shows similar distributions to that seen in vivo with ICG. NIRFI could be used as a tool to probe CSF pathology including neurological disorders by imaging CSF outflow dynamics to lymphatics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Minocycline as a re-purposed anti-Wolbachia macrofilaricide: superiority compared with doxycycline regimens in a murine infection model of human lymphatic filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raman; Jayoussi, Ghaith Al; Tyrer, Hayley E.; Gamble, Joanne; Hayward, Laura; Guimaraes, Ana F.; Davies, Jill; Waterhouse, David; Cook, Darren A. N.; Myhill, Laura J.; Clare, Rachel H.; Cassidy, Andrew; Steven, Andrew; Johnston, Kelly L.; Ford, Louise; Turner, Joseph D.; Ward, Stephen A.; Taylor, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are parasitic helminth diseases, which cause severe morbidities such as elephantiasis, skin disease and blindness, presenting a major public health burden in endemic communities. The anti-Wolbachia consortium (A·WOL: http://www.a-wol.com/) has identified a number of registered antibiotics that target the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia, delivering macrofilaricidal activity. Here we use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) analysis to rationally develop an anti-Wolbachia chemotherapy by linking drug exposure to pharmacological effect. We compare the pharmacokinetics and anti-Wolbachia efficacy in a murine Brugia malayi model of minocycline versus doxycycline. Doxycycline exhibits superior PK in comparison to minocycline resulting in a 3-fold greater exposure in SCID mice. Monte-Carlo simulations confirmed that a bi-daily 25–40 mg/Kg regimen is bioequivalent to a clinically effective 100–200 mg/day dose for these tetracyclines. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that minocycline depletes Wolbachia more effectively than doxycycline (99.51% vs. 90.35%) after 28 day 25 mg/Kg bid regimens with a more potent block in microfilarial production. PK/PD analysis predicts that minocycline would be expected to be 1.7 fold more effective than doxycycline in man despite lower exposure in our infection models. Our findings warrant onward clinical investigations to examine the clinical efficacy of minocycline treatment regimens against lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. PMID:26996237

  18. Assessing lymphatic response to treatments in head and neck cancer using near-infrared fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, I.-Chih; Karni, Ron J.; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-05-01

    Care for head and neck (HN) cancer could be improved with better mapping of lymphatic drainage pathways in HN region as well as understanding the effect of the cancer treatments on lymphatics. In this study, near-infrared fluorescence imaging is being used to visualize the lymphatics in human subjects diagnosed with HN cancer before and after treatments. Imaging results show the lymphatic architecture and contractile function in HN. Reformation of lymphatics during the course of cancer care was also seen in the longitudinal imaging. This allows us to better understand the lymphatics in HN cancer patients.

  19. Lymphatics and the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodes are distributed at specific locations throughout the body. There is also an extensive network of lymphatic vessels in every woman's breast tissue, which is important in regulating the local fluid balance as well as in filtering out harmful substances. ...

  20. Lamb congenital lymphatic malformation - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neria Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic malformations have been rarely reported in literature either in humans or in animals. However, in recent years, concern about these malformations in humans has increased. A five-month-old Rasa Aragonesa male lamb was received at the Ovine Clinical Service of the Veterinary Faculty of Zaragoza, Spain, with a history of cervical protuberances coming from birth. The lamb showed three round swollen lumps (5–12 cm in diameter parallel to the trachea on the left side of the neck. Clinical examination, haematology, ultrasonography, fluid examination and histopathology were performed. No abnormalities were found in blood samples and ultrasound confirmed a multicystic lesion with internal separations. Histological evaluation of the tissue revealed dilated lymphatic vessels and channels in the dermis and hypodermis; some lymphatic vessels were filled with amorphous proteinaceous material and occasional lymphocytes and macrophages. These protuberances were diagnosed as congenital lymphatic malformations. Most of the gross and microscopical lesions were very similar to those described in humans. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that a congenital lymphatic malformation is described in sheep.

  1. Mechanisms of VIP-induced inhibition of the lymphatic vessel pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Weid, Pierre-Yves; Rehal, Sonia; Dyrda, Peter; Lee, Stewart; Mathias, Ryan; Rahman, Mozibur; Roizes, Simon; Imtiaz, Mohammad S

    2012-06-01

    Lymphatic vessels serve as a route by which interstitial fluid, protein and other macromolecules are returned to the blood circulation and immune cells and antigens gain access to lymph nodes. Lymph flow is an active process promoted by rhythmical contraction-relaxation events occurring in the collecting lymphatic vessels. This lymphatic pumping is an intrinsic property of the lymphatic muscles in the vessel wall and consequent to action potentials. Compromised lymphatic pumping may affect lymph and immune cell transport, an action which could be particularly detrimental during inflammation. Importantly, many inflammatory mediators alter lymphatic pumping. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuro- and immuno-modulator thought to be released by nerve terminals and immune cells in close proximity to lymphatic vessels. We demonstrated the presence of the peptide in lymphatic vessels and in the lymph and examined the effects of VIP on mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels of the guinea pig using pharmacological bioassays, intracellular microelectrode electrophysiology, immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR. We showed that VIP alters lymphatic pumping by decreasing the frequency of lymphatic contractions and hyperpolarizing the lymphatic muscle membrane potential in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data further suggest that these effects are mainly mediated by stimulation of the VIP receptor VPAC2 located on the lymphatic muscle and the downstream involvement of protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP-sensitive K⁺ (KATP) channels. Inhibition of lymphatic pumping by VIP may compromise lymph drainage, oedema resolution and immune cell trafficking to the draining lymph nodes.

  2. Conserved signaling through vascular endothelial growth (VEGF) receptor family members in murine lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coso, Sanja; Zeng, Yiping; Sooraj, Dhanya; Williams, Elizabeth D

    2011-10-15

    Lymphatic vessels guide interstitial fluid, modulate immune responses by regulating leukocyte and antigen trafficking to lymph nodes, and in a cancer setting enable tumor cells to track to regional lymph nodes. The aim of the study was to determine whether primary murine lymphatic endothelial cells (mLECs) show conserved vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways with human LECs (hLECs). LECs were successfully isolated from murine dermis and prostate. Similar to hLECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands activated MAPK and pAkt intracellular signaling pathways in mLECs. We describe a robust protocol for isolation of mLECs which, by harnessing the power of transgenic and knockout mouse models, will be a useful tool to study how LEC phenotype contributes to alterations in lymphatic vessel formation and function. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Lymphatic Imaging to Reconsider Occlusion Pressure of Superficial Lymphatic Collectors in Upper Extremities of Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrado, Jean-Paul; Vandermeeren, Liesbeth; Vankerckhove, Sophie; Valsamis, Jean-Baptiste; Malloizel-Delaunay, Julie; Moraine, Jean-Jacques; Liebens, Fabienne

    2016-06-01

    There are very little scientific data on occlusion pressure for superficial lymphatic collectors. Given its importance in determining the transport capacity of lymphatic vessels, it is crucial to know its value. The novel method of near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging (NIRFLI) can be used to visualize lymphatic flow in real time. The goal of this study was to see if this method could be used to measure the lymphatic occlusion pressure. We observed and recorded lymph flow in the upper limb of healthy volunteers through a transparent cuff using near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging. After obtaining a baseline of the lymph flow without pressure inside the cuff, the cuff was inflated by increments of 10 mm Hg starting at 30 mm Hg. A NIRFLI guided manual lymphatic drainage technique named "Fill & Flush Drainage Method" was performed during the measurement to promote lymph flow. Lymphatic occlusion pressure was determined by observing when lymph flow stopped under the cuff. We measured the lymphatic occlusion pressure on 30 healthy volunteers (11 men and 19 women). Mean lymphatic occlusion pressure in the upper limb was 86 mm Hg (CI ±3.7 mm Hg, α = 0.5%). No significant differences were found between age groups (p = 0.18), gender (p = 0.12), or limb side (p = 0.85). NIRFLI, a transparent sphygmomanometer cuff and the "Fill and Flush" manual lymphatic drainage method were used to measure the lymphatic occlusion pressure in 30 healthy humans. That combination of these techniques allows the visualization of the lymph flow in real time, while ensuring the continuous filling of the lymph collectors during the measurement session, reducing false negative observations. The measured occlusion pressures are much higher than previously described in the medical literature.

  4. Lymphatic endothelial cells are a replicative niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Thomas R.; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R.G.; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R.; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes. PMID:26901813

  5. Interleukin-7 is produced by afferent lymphatic vessels and supports lymphatic drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolyeva, Maria; Aebischer, David; Proulx, Steven T; Willrodt, Ann-Helen; Ecoiffier, Tatiana; Häner, Simone; Bouchaud, Grégory; Krieg, Carsten; Onder, Lucas; Ludewig, Burkhard; Santambrogio, Laura; Boyman, Onur; Chen, Lu; Finke, Daniela; Halin, Cornelia

    2013-09-26

    The cytokine interleukin (IL)-7 exerts essential roles in lymph node (LN) organogenesis and lymphocyte development and homeostasis. Recent studies have identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) as a major source of IL-7 in LNs. Here, we report that LECs not only produce IL-7, but also express the IL-7 receptor chains IL-7Rα and CD132. Stimulation with recombinant IL-7 enhanced LEC in vitro activity and induced lymphangiogenesis in the cornea of wild-type (WT) mice. Whereas in IL-7Rα(-/-) mice, dermal lymphatic vessels (LVs) were abnormally organized and lymphatic drainage was compromised, transgenic overexpression of IL-7 in mice resulted in an expanded dermal LV network with increased drainage function. Moreover, systemic treatment with recombinant IL-7 enhanced lymphatic drainage in the skin of WT mice and of mice devoid of lymphocytes. Experiments in IL-7Rα(-/-) bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that the drainage-enhancing activity of IL-7 was exclusively dependent on IL-7Rα expression in stromal but not in hematopoietic cells. Finally, near-infrared in vivo imaging performed in IL-7Rα(-/-) mice revealed that the pumping activity of collecting vessels was normal but fluid uptake into lymphatic capillaries was defective. Overall, our data point toward an unexpected new role for IL-7 as a potential autocrine mediator of lymphatic drainage.

  6. Acral hemosideric lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2013-07-01

    Cutaneous lymphatic malformations represent a group of heterogeneous diseases caused by developmental defects of lymphatic system. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a distinctive lymphatic malformation. Twelve patients with similar clinical and histopathological features were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining of CD31, D2-40, Prox1 and Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1) were performed on all lesions. All cases were either congenital lesions or developed during the first 2 years of life. All presented as red to brown papules or nodules on acral sites. Histopathologically, the lesions consisted of a dermal proliferation of flat or slit-like vessels lined with a single layer of endothelial cells. Hemosiderin or extravascular red blood cells were present in all cases. The constituent vessels expressed CD31, D2-40 and Prox1 and lacked expression of WT-1. On the basis of the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, our cases represent a unique type of lymphatic malformation that we believe is distinct from previously reported vascular proliferations. We propose the name of acral hemosideric lymphatic malformation for this entity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The position- and lymphatic lumen-controlled tissue chambers to study live lymphatic vessels and surrounding tissues ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Daisuke; Nagai, Takashi; Bridenbaugh, Eric A; Cromer, Walter E; Gashev, Anatoliy A

    2014-09-01

    Until now, there has been no tool available to provide lymphatic researchers the ability to perform experiments in tissue explants containing lymphatic vessels under tissue position- and lymphatic lumen-controlled conditions. In this article we provide technical details and description of the method of using the newly developed and implemented the position- and lymphatic lumen-controlled tissue chambers to study live lymphatic vessels and surrounding tissues ex vivo. In this study, we, for the first time, performed detailed comparative analysis of the contractile and pumping activity of rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLVs) situated within tissue explants mounted in new tissue chambers and isolated, cannulated, and pressurized rat MLVs maintained in isolated vessel setups. We found no significant differences of the effects of both transmural pressure- and wall shear stress sensitivities of MLVs in tissue chambers and isolated MLVs. We conclude that this new experimental tool, a position- and lymphatic lumen-controlled tissue chamber, allows precise investigation of lymphatic function of MLVs interacting with elements of the tissue microenvironment. This method provides an important new set of experimental tools to investigate lymphatic function.

  8. What Is the Lymphatic System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 NLN International Conference What is the Lymphatic System? To better understand lymphedema , we first must understand the normal lymphatic system (see diagram) . This system functions parallel to the ...

  9. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L

    2012-06-01

    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

  10. Distinct alkaline phosphatase in serum of patients with lymphatic leukemia and infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.; Moran, E.M.; Russell, R.M.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1974-10-11

    A distinct alkaline phosphatase (phosphatase N) was demonstrated in the serum of patients with acute lymphatic leukemia, chronic lymphatic leukemia, and infectious mononucleosis. This enzyme closely resembles that extracted from the thymus of mice with lymphoma or lymphatic leukemia, both in its electrophoretic mobility and its substrate specificity. The phosphatase N activity was related to the clinical state of patients with lymphatic leukemia and disappeared with recovery from infectious mononucleosis.

  11. Aged Lymphatic Vessels and Mast Cells in Perilymphatic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sarit; Meininger, Cynthia J; Gashev, Anatoliy A

    2017-05-03

    This review provides a comprehensive summary of research on aging-associated alterations in lymphatic vessels and mast cells in perilymphatic tissues. Aging alters structure (by increasing the size of zones with low muscle cell investiture), ultrastructure (through loss of the glycocalyx), and proteome composition with a concomitant increase in permeability of aged lymphatic vessels. The contractile function of aged lymphatic vessels is depleted with the abolished role of nitric oxide and an increased role of lymphatic-born histamine in flow-dependent regulation of lymphatic phasic contractions and tone. In addition, aging induces oxidative stress in lymphatic vessels and facilitates the spread of pathogens from these vessels into perilymphatic tissues. Aging causes the basal activation of perilymphatic mast cells, which, in turn, restricts recruitment/activation of immune cells in perilymphatic tissues. This aging-associated basal activation of mast cells limits proper functioning of the mast cell/histamine/NF-κB axis that is essential for the regulation of lymphatic vessel transport and barrier functions as well as for both the interaction and trafficking of immune cells near and within lymphatic collecting vessels. Cumulatively, these changes play important roles in the pathogenesis of alterations in inflammation and immunity associated with aging.

  12. Lymphatic vessels: new targets for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Lothar C; Seidel, Catharina D; Detmar, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in the physiological control of the tissue fluid balance and in the initiation of immune responses. Recent studies have shown that lymphangiogenesis, the growth of new lymphatic vessels and/or the expansion of existing lymphatic vessels, is a characteristic feature of acute inflammatory reactions and of chronic inflammatory diseases. In these conditions, lymphatic vessel expansion occurs at the tissue level but also within the draining lymph nodes. Surprisingly, activation of lymphatic vessel function by delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor-C exerts anti-inflammatory effects in several models of cutaneous and joint inflammation. These effects are likely mediated by enhanced drainage of extravasated fluid and inflammatory cells, but also by lymphatic vessel-mediated modulation of immune responses. Although some of the underlying mechanisms are just beginning to be identified, lymphatic vessels have emerged as important targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat inflammatory conditions. In this context, it is of great interest that some of the currently used anti-inflammatory drugs also potently activate lymphatic vessels.

  13. Lymphatic Leukaemia* In Acute

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report of a patient who developed fatal pneumo- cystis pneumonia while in remission from acute lymphatic ... Chagas and CariniY This rare and usually fatal disease occurs in young babies;" or in individuals whose ... was then a month since his illness had started. On admission to our clinic we found the following: ...

  14. Pleural function and lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, D; Moriondo, A

    2013-02-01

    The pleural space plays an important role in respiratory function as the negative intrapleural pressure regimen ensures lung expansion and in the mean time maintains the tight mechanical coupling between the lung and the chest wall. The efficiency of the lung-chest wall coupling depends upon pleural liquid volume, which in turn reflects the balance between the filtration of fluid into and its egress out of the cavity. While filtration occurs through a single mechanism passively driving fluid from the interstitium of the parietal pleura into the cavity, several mechanisms may co-operate to remove pleural fluid. Among these, the pleural lymphatic system emerges as the most important one in quantitative terms and the only one able to cope with variable pleural fluid volume and drainage requirements. In this review, we present a detailed account of the actual knowledge on: (a) the complex morphology of the pleural lymphatic system, (b) the mechanism supporting pleural lymph formation and propulsion, (c) the dependence of pleural lymphatic function upon local tissue mechanics and (d) the effect of lymphatic inefficiency in the development of clinically severe pleural and, more in general, respiratory pathologies. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  15. Mesenchymal status of lymphatic endothelial cell: enlightening treatment of lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Gang; Li, Rui-Fang; Sun, Yan-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to blood capillaries, lymphatic capillaries in peripheral tissues are composed of a single-cell layer of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) without a covering of mural cells. However, in lymphatic malformations, the enlarged lymphatic vessels were covered with mural cells. This study aimed to understand the molecular mechanism of differences between human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to determine the changes of LECs in the pathological condition of lymphatic malformation. Results showed that HDLECs exhibited lower expression of endothelial proteins, including VE-cadherin and CD31, than HUVECs; HDLECs also showed higher expression of mesenchymal proteins, including α-SMA, SM22α, calponin, and epithelial mesenchymal transition-related transcription factor Slug, than HUVECs. Likewise, HDLECs displayed higher permeability and weaker recruitment of SMCs than HUVECs; HDLECs also exhibited low PDGF-BB expression. TGF-β2 treatment and FGF2 depletion enhanced mesenchymal marker expression with increased permeability and reduced SMC recruitment. By contrast, Slug depletion in HDLECs enhanced VE-cadherin expression, inhibited α-SMA expression, decreased permeability, and enhanced PDGF-BB expression. These results suggested that HDLECs were in a mesenchymal status, which contributed to their functions and might determine their identities. Our data also revealed that miR143/145 was implicated in the mesenchymal status of HDLECs. In lymphatic malformations (LMs) treated with OK-432 sclerotherapy, immunohistochemistry results showed that Prox1 expression was reduced and mural cell investment was increased; these results indicated that LECs lost their mesenchymal status after OK-432 treatment was administered. The decreased mesenchymal status of LECs in LMs may induce dilated vessel constriction, which could be the mechanism of OK-432 sclerotherapy.

  16. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scholars and scientists in the history of the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Bocci, Guido; Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-09-01

    The discovery of the lymphatic system has a long and fascinating history. The interest in anatomy and physiology of this system paralleled that of the blood cardiocirculatory system and has been maybe obscured by the latter. Paradoxically, if the closed blood system appeared open in Galen's anatomy and physiology, and took a very long time to be correctly described in terms of pulmonary and general circulation by ibn Al-Nafis/Michael Servetus/Realdo Colombo and William Harvey, respectively, the open lymphatic system was incorrectly described as a closed circuit connected with arteries and veins. In ancient times only macroscopic components of the lymphatic system have been described, although misinterpreted, including lymph nodes and lacteals, the latter being easily identified because of their milk-like content. For about 15 centuries the dogmatic acceptance of Galen's notions did not allow a significant progress in medicine. After Vesalius' revolution in anatomical studies, new knowledge was accumulated, and the 17th century was the golden age for the investigation of the lymphatic system with several discoveries: gut lacteals (Gaspare Aselli), cloacal bursa (Hieronimus Fabricius of Acquapendente), reservoir of the chyle (Jean Pecquet), extra-intestinal lymphatic vessels (Thomas Bartholin and Olaus Rudbeck dispute), hepatic lymph circulation (Francis Glisson). In the Enlightenment century Frederik Ruysch described the function of lymphatic valves, and Paolo Mascagni provided a magnificent iconography of the lymphatic network in humans. In recent times, Leonetto Comparini realized three-dimensional reconstructions of the liver lymphatic vessels, and Kari Alitalo discovered the lymphatic growth factor/receptor system. Far from a complete understanding of its anatomy and function, the lymphatic system still needs to be profoundly examined. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  18. Embryonic development and malformation of lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Jörg; Buttler, Kerstin; Rössler, Jochen; Norgall, Susanne; Schweigerer, Lothar; Weich, Herbert A; Papoutsi, Maria

    2007-01-01

    In the human, malformations of lymphatic vessels can be observed as lymphangiectasia, lymphangioma and lymphangiomatosis, with a prevalence of 1.2-2.8 per thousand. Their aetiology is unknown and a causal therapy does not exist. We investigated the origin of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in avian and murine embryos, and compared the molecular profile of LECs from normal and malformed lymphatics of children. In avian embryos, Prox1+ lymphangioblasts are located in the confluence of the cranial and caudal cardinal veins, where the jugular lymph sac (JLS) forms. Cell lineage studies show that the JLS is of venous origin. In contrast, the lymphatics of the dermis are derived from mesenchymal lymphangioblasts located in the dermatomes, suggesting a dual origin of LECs in avian embryos. The same may hold true for murine embryos, where Lyve1+ LEC precursors are found in the cardinal veins, and in the mesenchyme. The mesenchymal cells express the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, indicating a cell type with lymphendothelial and leukocyte characteristics. In the human, such cells might give rise to Kaposi's sarcoma. Microarray analyses of LECs from lymphangiomas of children show a large number of regulated genes, such as VEGFR3. Our studies show that lymphvasculogenesis and lymphangiogenesis occur simultaneously in the embryo, and suggest a function for VEGFR3 in lymphangiomas.

  19. Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Cheng Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs. Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs. Several molecules, e.g., S1P, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21, CXCL12/CXCR4, IL-7, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and integrin α4β1 play an important role in controlling the activity of LN stromal cells including LECs, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs and follicular dendritic cells (DCs. The functional stromal cells are critical for reconstruction and remodeling of the LN that creates a unique microenvironment of tumor cells and LECs for cancer metastasis. LN metastasis is a major determinant for the prognosis of most human cancers and clinical management. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LN lymphatic sinuses will provide insight into cancer development mechanisms and improve therapeutic approaches for human malignancy.

  20. Quantifying filariasis and malaria control activities in relation to lymphatic filariasis elimination: a multiple intervention score map (MISM) for Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michelle C; Mkwanda, Square; Mzilahowa, Themba; Bockarie, Moses J; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-02-01

    To quantify the geographical extent of filariasis and malaria control interventions impacting lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Malawi and to produce a multiple intervention score map (MISM) for prioritising surveillance and intervention strategies. Interventions included mass drug administration (MDA) for LF and onchocerciasis, and bed nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria. District and subdistrict-level data were obtained from the Ministry of Health in Malawi, the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and President's Malaria Initiative reports. Single intervention scores were calculated for each variable based on population coverage thresholds, and these were combined in a weighted sum to form a multiple intervention score, which was then used to produce maps, that is MISMs. Districts were further classified into four groups based on the combination of their baseline LF prevalence and multiple intervention score. The district- and subdistrict-level MISMs highlighted specific areas that have received high and low coverage of LF-impacting interventions. High coverage areas included the LF-onchocerciasis endemic areas in the southern region of the country and areas along the shores of Lake Malawi, where malaria vector control had been prioritised. Three districts with high baseline LF prevalence measures but low coverage of multiple interventions were identified and considered to be most at risk of ongoing transmission or re-emergence. These maps and district classifications will be used by LF programme managers to identify and target high-risk areas that may not have received adequate LF-impacting interventions to interrupt the transmission of the disease.

  1. Abdominal lymphatic malformation: Spectrum of imaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    Anupam Lal; Pankaj Gupta; Manphool Singhal; Saroj K Sinha; Sadhana Lal; Surinder Rana; Niranjan Khandelwal

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations are congenital vascular malformations with lymphatic differentiation. Although the most common locations for lymphatic malformation are the neck and axilla, they can occur at several locations in the body including the abdomen. The abdominal location is rather rare and accounts for approximately 5% of all lymphatic malformation. Abdominal lymphatic malformation can arise from mesentery, omentum, gastrointestinal tract, and retroperitoneum. Clinical presentation include...

  2. Aberrant Lymphatic Endothelial Progenitors in Lymphatic Malformation Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, June K.; Christopher Kitajewski; Maia Reiley; Keung, Connie H.; Julie Monteagudo; Andrews, John P.; Peter Liou; Arul Thirumoorthi; Alvin Wong; Kandel, Jessica J; Shawber, Carrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are vascular anomalies thought to arise from dysregulated lymphangiogenesis. These lesions impose a significant burden of disease on affected individuals. LM pathobiology is poorly understood, hindering the development of effective treatments. In the present studies, immunostaining of LM tissues revealed that endothelial cells lining aberrant lymphatic vessels and cells in the surrounding stroma expressed the stem cell marker, CD133, and the lymphatic endothelial...

  3. Malformation lymphatic abdominal

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião Ribeiro do Carmo Filho; Poliana de Paula Vieira Borges dos Reis Soares; Fabiano Souza Soares; Erivanea Garcia Ribeiro; Willy Pereira da Silva Filho; Rafael Naves Tomás; Yara Rocha Ximenes

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal lymphangiomas are benign malformations of the lymphatic system. The diagnosis is established due to patient's clinical manifestations associated with imaging. The clinical presentation of cystic lymphangiomas is much variable and depends on the symptoms, mostly caused by the abdominal mass, it´s size and location. It is accepted that the incidence of mesenteric cysts in the american population is somehow between 1:100.000 and 1:250.000, causing hospital admissions. Surgical treatmen...

  4. Lipopolysaccharide modulates neutrophil recruitment and macrophage polarization on lymphatic vessels and impairs lymphatic function in rat mesentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Zawieja, Scott D; Wang, Wei; Lee, Yang; Wang, Yuan J; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves; Zawieja, David C; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2015-12-15

    Impairment of the lymphatic system is apparent in multiple inflammatory pathologies connected to elevated endotoxins such as LPS. However, the direct mechanisms by which LPS influences the lymphatic contractility are not well understood. We hypothesized that a dynamic modulation of innate immune cell populations in mesentery under inflammatory conditions perturbs tissue cytokine/chemokine homeostasis and subsequently influences lymphatic function. We used rats that were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (10 mg/kg) to determine the changes in the profiles of innate immune cells in the mesentery and in the stretch-mediated contractile responses of isolated lymphatic preparations. Results demonstrated a reduction in the phasic contractile activity of mesenteric lymphatic vessels from LPS-injected rats and a severe impairment of lymphatic pump function and flow. There was a significant reduction in the number of neutrophils and an increase in monocytes/macrophages present on the lymphatic vessels and in the clear mesentery of the LPS group. This population of monocytes and macrophages established a robust M2 phenotype, with the majority showing high expression of CD163 and CD206. Several cytokines and chemoattractants for neutrophils and macrophages were significantly changed in the mesentery of LPS-injected rats. Treatment of lymphatic muscle cells (LMCs) with LPS showed significant changes in the expression of adhesion molecules, VCAM1, ICAM1, CXCR2, and galectin-9. LPS-TLR4-mediated regulation of pAKT, pERK pI-κB, and pMLC20 in LMCs promoted both contractile and inflammatory pathways. Thus, our data provide the first evidence connecting the dynamic changes in innate immune cells on or near the lymphatics and complex cytokine milieu during inflammation with lymphatic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Mechanosensing in developing lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Lammert, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is responsible for fluid homeostasis, transport of immune cells, inflammatory molecules, and dietary lipids. It is composed of a network of lymphatic capillaries that drain into collecting lymphatic vessels and ultimately bring fluid back to the blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) that line lymphatic capillaries present loose overlapping intercellular junctions and anchoring filaments that support fluid drainage. When interstitial fluid accumulates within tissues, the extracellular matrix (ECM) swells and pulls the anchoring filaments. This results in opening of the LEC junctions and permits interstitial fluid uptake. The absorbed fluid is then transported within collecting lymphatic vessels, which exhibit intraluminal valves that prevent lymph backflow and smooth muscle cells that sequentially contract to propel lymph.Mechanotransduction involves translation of mechanical stimuli into biological responses. LECs have been shown to sense and respond to changes in ECM stiffness, fluid pressure-induced cell stretch, and fluid flow-induced shear stress. How these signals influence LEC function and lymphatic vessel growth can be investigated by using different mechanotransduction assays in vitro and to some extent in vivo.In this chapter, we will focus on the mechanical forces that regulate lymphatic vessel expansion during embryonic development and possibly secondary lymphedema. In mouse embryos, it has been recently shown that the amount of interstitial fluid determines the extent of lymphatic vessel expansion via a mechanosensory complex formed by β1 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3). This model might as well apply to secondary lymphedema.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging of lymphatic pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Alex; Heinmiller, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.

    2017-10-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking and has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer metastasis. Despite its importance, the lack of suitable in vivo imaging techniques has hampered our understanding of the lymphatic system. This is, in part, due to the limited contrast of lymphatic fluids and structures. Photoacoustic imaging, in combination with optically absorbing dyes or nanoparticles, has great potential for noninvasively visualizing the lymphatic vessels deep in tissues. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging is capable of separating the components; however, the slow wavelength switching speed of most laser systems is inadequate for imaging lymphatic pumping without motion artifacts being introduced into the processed images. We investigate two approaches for visualizing lymphatic processes in vivo. First, single-wavelength differential photoacoustic imaging is used to visualize lymphatic pumping in the hindlimb of a mouse in real time. Second, a fast-switching multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging system was used to assess the propulsion profile of dyes through the lymphatics in real time. These approaches may have profound impacts in noninvasively characterizing and investigating the lymphatic system.

  7. Lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic remodeling induced by filarial parasites: implications for pathogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasisekhar Bennuru; Thomas B Nutman

    2009-01-01

    Even in the absence of an adaptive immune system in murine models, lymphatic dilatation and dysfunction occur in filarial infections, although severe irreversible lymphedema and elephantiasis appears to require an intact adaptive immune response in human infections. To address how filarial parasites and their antigens influence the lymphatics directly, human lymphatic endothelial cells were exposed to filarial antigens, live parasites, or infected patient serum. Live filarial parasites or fil...

  8. Primary and secondary lymphatic valve development: molecular, functional and mechanical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazigou, Eleni; Wilson, John T; Moore, James E

    2014-11-01

    Fluid homeostasis in vertebrates critically relies on the lymphatic system forming a hierarchical network of lymphatic capillaries and collecting lymphatics, for the efficient drainage and transport of extravasated fluid back to the cardiovascular system. Blind-ended lymphatic capillaries employ specialized junctions and anchoring filaments to encourage a unidirectional flow of the interstitial fluid into the initial lymphatic vessels, whereas collecting lymphatics are responsible for the active propulsion of the lymph to the venous circulation via the combined action of lymphatic muscle cells and intraluminal valves. Here we describe recent findings on molecular and physical factors regulating the development and maturation of these two types of valves and examine their role in tissue-fluid homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emerging lymphatic imaging technologies for mouse and man

    OpenAIRE

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Kwon, Sunkuk; Rasmussen, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic circulatory system has diverse functions in lipid absorption, fluid homeostasis, and immune surveillance and responds dynamically when presented with infection, inflammation, altered hemodynamics, and cancer. Visualization of these dynamic processes in human disease and animal models of disease is key to understanding the contributory role of the lymphatic circulatory system in disease and to devising effective therapeutic strategies. Longitudinal, non-destructive, and repeated ...

  10. I. THE PERMEABILITY OF THE WALL OF THE LYMPHATIC CAPILLARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudack, S; McMaster, P D

    1932-07-31

    A technique has been developed for the demonstration of lymphatic capillaries in the ear of the mouse by means of vital dyes and for tests of their permeability under normal and pathological conditions. The lymphatics become visible as closed channels from which the dyes escape secondarily into the tissue. Some of them, cross-connections, with extremely narrow lumen, would seem ordinarily not to be utilized. There is active flow along the lymphatics of the mouse ear under ordinary circumstances. The movement of dye was always toward the main collecting system. The valves of the lymphatics as well as fluid flow prevented distal spread. There was in addition slow migration, apparently interstitial in character, but in the same general direction, of dots of color produced by the local injection of dye. The normal permeability of the lymphatics was studied with dyes of graded diffusibility. Their walls proved readily permeable for those highly diffusible pigments that the blood capillaries let through easily, but retained those that the latter retained. Finely particulate matter (India ink, "Hydrokollag"), they did not let pass. No gradient of permeability was observed to exist along them such as exists along the blood capillaries of certain organs. The observed phenomena of lymphatic permeability, like those of the permeability of the blood capillaries, can be explained on the assumption that the lymphatic wall behaves like a semipermeable membrane.

  11. Malformation lymphatic abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Ribeiro do Carmo Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal lymphangiomas are benign malformations of the lymphatic system. The diagnosis is established due to patient's clinical manifestations associated with imaging. The clinical presentation of cystic lymphangiomas is much variable and depends on the symptoms, mostly caused by the abdominal mass, it´s size and location. It is accepted that the incidence of mesenteric cysts in the american population is somehow between 1:100.000 and 1:250.000, causing hospital admissions. Surgical treatment, in most cases, has good prognosis. This procedure is followed by the necessary resection, biopsy and cytology of the mass.

  12. Lymphatic Filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.

    2010-01-01

    In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. Here we present the first detailed study on the effect of 3 repeated MDAs...... with this drug combination, as implemented by the Tanzanian National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (NLFEP)....

  13. Lymphoscintigraphic evaluation of manual lymphatic therapy: the Godoy & Godoy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; Santana, Kleber Roberto; Godoy, Maria de Fátima Guerreiro

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the transport of radiotracers in lymphatic collectors during manual lymphatic therapy. The legs of four male and two female patients with leg lymphedema were assessed using lymphoscintigraphy before, during and after manual lymphatic therapy. The ages of the patients, treated in Hospital de Base in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, ranged from 42 to 64 years with a mean age of 51.2 years. Consecutive patients with grade II leg lymphedema were enrolled in this study. Patients with lymphedema secondary to lymphadenectomy, active infections and weight greater than 130  kg were excluded. Patients were submitted to manual lymphatic therapy, which consists of the collapsing of capillaries using manual compression which is then slid along the skin in a stroking action in the direction of the lymph flow within lymphatic vessels towards the lymph nodes. Two dynamic studies were performed; the first was over 40 minutes (3 images every 10 minutes) which was immediately followed by an entire body scan. A second dynamic evaluation was performed taking images at 10-second intervals over 2 minutes during manual lymphatic therapy. To evaluate the displacement of radiotracers, the path of lymphatic collectors from the knee to a lymph node in the upper thigh was divided into five similarly sized regions of interest. The concentration of radiotracer was quantified in each of the regions of interest. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (p value Manual lymphatic therapy improves the transport of radiotracers in lymphatic collectors. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Lymphatic Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most challenging human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is characterized by its insidious symptoms, low rate of surgical resection, high risk of local invasion, metastasis and recurrence, and overall dismal prognosis. Lymphatic metastasis, above all, is recognized as an early adverse event in progression of pancreatic cancer and has been described to be an independent poor prognostic factor. It should be noted that the occurrence of lymphatic metastasis is not a casual or stochastic but an ineluctable and designed event. Increasing evidences suggest that metastasis-initiating cells (MICs and the microenvironments may act as a double-reed style in this crime. However, the exact mechanisms on how they function synergistically for this dismal clinical course remain largely elusive. Therefore, a better understanding of its molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic lymphatic metastasis is urgently required. In this review, we will summarize the latest advances on lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  15. Lymphatic vessels: an emerging actor in atherosclerotic plaque development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkut, Issa; Meens, Merlijn J; McKee, Thomas A; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Kwak, Brenda R

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large- to medium-sized arteries and is the main underlying cause of death worldwide. The lymphatic vasculature is critical for processes that are intimately linked to atherogenesis such as the immune response and cholesterol metabolism. However, whether lymphatic vessels truly contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is less clear despite increasing research efforts in this field. PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases were searched. In addition, key review articles were screened for relevant original publications. Current knowledge about lymphatic vessels in the arterial wall came from studies that examined the presence and location of such vessels in human atherosclerotic plaque specimens, as well as in a variety of arteries in animal models for atherosclerosis (e.g. rabbits, dogs, rats and mice). Generally, three experimental approaches have been used to investigate the functional role of plaque-associated lymphatic vessels; experimental lymphostasis was used to investigate lymphatic drainage of the arterial wall, and more recently, studies with genetic interventions and/or surgical transplantation have been performed. Lymphatic vessels seem to be mostly present in the adventitial layer of the arterial walls of animals and humans. They are involved in reverse cholesterol transport from atherosclerotic lesions, and arteries with a dense lymphatic network seem naturally protected against atherosclerosis. Lymphangiogenesis is a process that is an important part of the inflammatory loop in atherosclerosis. However, how augmenting or impeding the distribution of lymphatic vessels impacts disease progression remains to be investigated in future studies. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  16. [The macrophage contribution for maintaining lymphatic vessel in cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kazuichi

    2014-11-01

    The presence of antigen-presenting cells and hem- and lymphangiogenesis in the cornea are risk factors for the rejection of corneal transplants. We previously reported that antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages (MPs) play an important role in the induction of lymphatic endothelial cells during inflammation. This prompted us to inquire whether the existence of lymphatic vessels in the cornea is associated with the activation of MPs during inflammation. To investigate this question, we performed suture placement on the cornea to induce inflammation. We found that a large number of MPs were recruited and that lymphatic vessels were formed in response. Next, as C57BL/6 mice have a higher rejection rate after corneal transplantation than BALB/c mice, we compared the corneas of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice under normal and inflamed conditions. We found that the number of spontaneously formed lymphatic vessels in the C57BL/6 corneas was significantly greater than in the BALB/c corneas, and that there were more activated MPs in the C57BL/6 corneas than in the BALB/c corneas. Additionally, to confirm that activated MPs induced and maintained lymphatic vessels in the cornea, we depleted the number of MPs in C57BL/6 mice via clodronate liposomes. We found that MP depletion reduced the spontaneous formation of lymphatic vessels and reduced inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis relative to control mice. Finally, we found that mice deficient in MP markers had fewer spontaneously formed lymphatic vessels and less lymphangiogenesis than control C57BL/6 mice. The evidence gathered in this study leads us to conclude that activated MPs appear to play an important role in the formation of new lymphatic vessels and in their maintenance.

  17. Foot skin depots of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose do not enable PET/CT lymphography of the lower extremity lymphatic system in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Radmer; Simonsen, Lene; Lonsdale, Markus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In mice, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) lymphography enables detailed imaging of the lymphatic system and quantification of lymph node function. If this applies to humans, it may improve staging of several malignancies. The aim...... of this study was to elucidate whether foot skin depots of 18F-FDG make PET/CT imaging of the lower extremity lymphatic system possible in man. FINDINGS: In four healthy volunteers, 18F-FDG depots (5 MBq in 0.1-mL isotonic saline) were injected intradermally in one foot and subcutaneously in the other. Activity...... consecutive PET scans of the same region.Blood activity increased faster and to a greater extent in the great saphenous veins compared to the medial cubital vein. PET/CT images showed activity in the superficial and deep veins of the lower extremities. No lymphatic collectors or nodes were visualized...

  18. [Lymphatics in non-tumoral pulmonary diseases. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouchner, M; Bernaudin, J-F

    2013-06-01

    Whereas lymphatics in pulmonary non-tumoral diseases have been less studied than blood microcirculation, they clearly play a significant role. This review is a short update on lymphatics in various non-tumoral pulmonary diseases, from asthma to interstitial pneumonitis, excluding lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A lymphatic remodelling has been evidenced in asthma as well as in acute or chronic (UIP as NSIP) interstitial lung diseases. Such a remodelling can be explained as a side effect of local changes in fluidics but could also be an active player in the fibrosing process. Moreover the association of juxta-alveloar lymphatics and granulomas provides new insights in the emergence of these lesions in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Alex L. C.; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang, Zhexue; Yücel, Yeni H.

    2011-10-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  20. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H, E-mail: yucely@smh.ca [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, M5T 2S8 (Canada)

    2011-10-21

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  1. Photodynamic ablation of lymphatic vessels and intralymphatic cancer cells prevents metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammela, Tuomas; Saaristo, Anne; Holopainen, Tanja; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Andersson, Leif C; Virolainen, Susanna; Immonen, Ilkka; Alitalo, Kari

    2011-02-09

    The dissemination of tumor cells to sites far from the primary tumor (metastasis) is the principal cause of death in cancer patients. Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels are a key conduit for metastatic tumor cells, which typically first colonize the lymph nodes. Although the primary tumor and affected lymph nodes can be removed during surgery, tumor cells inside lymphatic vessels are left behind. Here, we show that in-transit tumor cells inside lymphatic vessels in mice bearing mouse melanomas or human lung tumors give rise to metastases. Using photodynamic therapy with the benzoporphyrin derivative verteporfin, we selectively destroyed lymphatic vessels in mice and pigs. Destruction of tumor-associated lymphatic vessels also eradicated intralymphatic tumor cells and prevented metastasis of mouse melanoma cells and subsequent relapse. Photodynamic therapy, when combined with anti-lymphangiogenic therapy, prevented further tumor invasion of lymphatic vessels. These findings highlight the potential of targeting in-transit tumor cells in patients.

  2. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Julie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lymphatics form a second circulatory system that drains the extracellular fluid and proteins from the tumor microenvironment, and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells interact and respond to foreign antigen. Both cancer and inflammation are known to induce lymphangiogenesis. However, little is known about bladder lymphatic vessels and their involvement in cancer formation and progression. Methods A double transgenic mouse model was generated by crossing a bladder cancer-induced transgenic, in which SV40 large T antigen was under the control of uroplakin II promoter, with another transgenic mouse harboring a lacZ reporter gene under the control of an NF-κB-responsive promoter (κB-lacZ exhibiting constitutive activity of β-galactosidase in lymphatic endothelial cells. In this new mouse model (SV40-lacZ, we examined the lymphatic vessel density (LVD and function (LVF during bladder cancer progression. LVD was performed in bladder whole mounts and cross-sections by fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC using LYVE-1 antibody. LVF was assessed by real-time in vivo imaging techniques using a contrast agent (biotin-BSA-Gd-DTPA-Cy5.5; Gd-Cy5.5 suitable for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF. In addition, IHC of Cy5.5 was used for time-course analysis of co-localization of Gd-Cy5.5 with LYVE-1-positive lymphatics and CD31-positive blood vessels. Results SV40-lacZ mice develop bladder cancer and permitted visualization of lymphatics. A significant increase in LVD was found concomitantly with bladder cancer progression. Double labeling of the bladder cross-sections with LYVE-1 and Ki-67 antibodies indicated cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis. MRI detected mouse bladder cancer, as early as 4 months, and permitted to follow tumor sizes during cancer progression. Using Gd-Cy5.5 as a contrast agent for MRI-guided lymphangiography, we determined a possible reduction of lymphatic

  3. Lymphatic Filariasis Disseminating to the Upper Extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Maldjian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is the most common cause of acquired lymphedema worldwide (Szuba and Rockson, 1998. It is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions, and its effects are devastating. With over 100 million infected persons, it ranks second only to leprosy as the leading cause of permanent and long-term disability. Wuchereria bancrofti is the etiologic agent in 90% of cases. There is a dearth of published MRI findings with pathologically proven active infections, making this entity even more of a diagnostic dilemma. Imaging may provide the first clue that one is dealing with a parasite and may facilitate proper treatment and containment of this disease. This is the first report of pathologic correlation with MRI findings in the extremity in active filariasis. The magnetic resonance images demonstrate an enhancing, infiltrative, mass-like appearance with partial encasement of vasculature that has not been previously described in filariasis. Low signal strands in T2-hyperintense dilated lymphatic channels are seen and may depict live adult worms. We hypothesize that the low signal strands correspond to the collagen rich acellular cuticle. This, in combination with the surrounding hyperintense T2 signal, corresponding to a dilated lymphatic channel, may provide more specific MRI findings for active nematodal infection, which can prompt early biopsy, pathological correlation, and diagnosis.

  4. LYMPHATIC VESSELS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Cristina T.; Liao, Shan; Munn, Lance L.; Padera, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature plays vital roles in tissue fluid balance, immune defense, metabolism and cancer metastasis. In adults, lymphatic vessel formation and remodeling occurs primarily during inflammation, development of the corpus luteum, wound healing, and tumor growth. Unlike the blood circulation, where unidirectional flow is sustained by the pumping actions of the heart, pumping actions intrinsic to the lymphatic vessels themselves are important drivers of lymphatic flow. This review summarizes critical components that control lymphatic physiology. PMID:23209022

  5. Immunology of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S; Nutman, T B

    2014-08-01

    The immune responses to filarial parasites encompass a complex network of innate and adaptive cells whose interaction with the parasite underlies a spectrum of clinical manifestations. The predominant immunological feature of lymphatic filariasis is an antigen-specific Th2 response and an expansion of IL-10 producing CD4(+) T cells that is accompanied by a muted Th1 response. This antigen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness appears to be crucial for the maintenance of the sustained, long-standing infection often with high parasite densities. While the correlates of protective immunity to lymphatic filariasis are still incompletely understood, primarily due to the lack of suitable animal models to study susceptibility, it is clear that T cells and to a certain extent B cells are required for protective immunity. Host immune responses, especially CD4(+) T-cell responses clearly play a role in mediating pathological manifestations of LF, including lymphedema, hydrocele and elephantiasis. The main underlying defect in the development of clinical pathology appears to be a failure to induce T-cell hyporesponsiveness in the face of antigenic stimulation. Finally, another intriguing feature of filarial infections is their propensity to induce bystander effects on a variety of immune responses, including responses to vaccinations, allergens and to other infectious agents. The complexity of the immune response to filarial infection therefore provides an important gateway to understanding the regulation of immune responses to chronic infections, in general. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Bioengineering dermo-epidermal skin grafts with blood and lymphatic capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Daniela; Luginbühl, Joachim; Scola, Simonetta; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2014-01-29

    The first bioengineered, autologous, dermo-epidermal skin grafts are presently undergoing clinical trials; hence, it is reasonable to envisage the next clinical step at the forefront of plastic and burn surgery, which is the generation of autologous skin grafts that contain vascular plexuses, preformed in vitro. As the importance of the blood, and particularly the lymphatic vascular system, is increasingly recognized, it is attractive to engineer both human blood and lymphatic vessels in one tissue or organ graft. We show here that functional lymphatic capillaries can be generated using three-dimensional hydrogels. Like normal lymphatics, these capillaries branch, form lumen, and take up fluid in vitro and in vivo after transplantation onto immunocompromised rodents. Formation of lymphatic capillaries could be modulated by both lymphangiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic stimuli, demonstrating the potential usefulness of this system for in vitro testing. Blood and lymphatic endothelial cells never intermixed during vessel development, nor did blood and lymphatic capillaries anastomose under the described circumstances. After transplantation of the engineered grafts, the human lymphatic capillaries anastomosed to the nude rat's lymphatic plexus and supported fluid drainage. Successful preclinical results suggest that these skin grafts could be applied on patients suffering from severe skin defects.

  7. Pathological manifestations in lymphatic filariasis correlate with lack of inhibitory properties of IgG4 antibodies on IgE-activated granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodjinotho, Ulrich F; von Horn, Charlotte; Debrah, Alex Y; Batsa Debrah, Linda; Albers, Anna; Layland, Laura E; Hoerauf, Achim; Adjobimey, Tomabu

    2017-07-01

    Helminth parasites are known to be efficient modulators of their host's immune system. To guarantee their own survival, they induce alongside the classical Th2 a strong regulatory response with high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines and elevated plasma levels of IgG4. This particular antibody was shown in different models to exhibit immunosuppressive properties. How IgG4 affects the etiopathology of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is however not well characterized. Here we investigate the impact of plasma and affinity-purified IgG/IgG4 fractions from endemic normals (EN) and LF infected pathology patients (CP), asymptomatic microfilaraemic (Mf+) and amicrofilaraemic (Mf-) individuals on IgE/IL3 activated granulocytes. The activation and degranulation states were investigated by monitoring the expression of CD63/HLADR and the release of granule contents (neutrophil elastase (NE), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and histamine) respectively by flow cytometry and ELISA. We could show that the activation of granulocytes was inhibited in the presence of plasma from EN and Mf+ individuals whereas those of Mf- and CP presented no effect. This inhibitory capacity was impaired upon depletion of IgG in Mf+ individuals but persisted in IgG-depleted plasma from EN, where it strongly correlated with the expression of IgA. In addition, IgA-depleted fractions failed to suppress granulocyte activation. Strikingly, affinity-purified IgG4 antibodies from EN, Mf+ and Mf- individuals bound granulocytes and inhibited activation and the release of ECP, NE and histamine. In contrast, IgG4 from CP could not bind granulocytes and presented no suppressive capacity. Reduction of both the affinity to, and the suppressive properties of anti-inflammatory IgG4 on granulocytes was reached only when FcγRI and II were blocked simultaneously. These data indicate that IgG4 antibodies from Mf+, Mf- and EN, in contrast to those of CP, natively exhibit FcγRI/II-dependent suppressive properties on

  8. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. We present findings from a detailed study on the effect of six rounds of MDA...... with this drug combination as implemented by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (NLFEP) in a highly endemic rural area of north-eastern Tanzania....

  9. A Tale of Two Models: Mouse and Zebrafish as Complementary Models for Lymphatic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Dae; Jin, Suk-Won

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels provide essential roles in maintaining fluid homeostasis and lipid absorption. Dysfunctions of the lymphatic vessels lead to debilitating pathological conditions, collectively known as lymphedema. In addition, lymphatic vessels are a critical moderator for the onset and progression of diverse human diseases including metastatic cancer and obesity. Despite their clinical importance, there is no currently effective pharmacological therapy to regulate functions of lymphatic vessels. Recent efforts to manipulate the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (VEGFC) pathway, which is arguably the most important signaling pathway regulating lymphatic endothelial cells, to alleviate lymphedema yielded largely mixed results, necessitating identification of new targetable signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention for lymphedema. Zebrafish, a relatively new model system to investigate lymphatic biology, appears to be an ideal model to identify novel therapeutic targets for lymphatic biology. In this review, we will provide an overview of our current understanding of the lymphatic vessels in vertebrates, and discuss zebrafish as a promising in vivo model to study lymphatic vessels. PMID:24854860

  10. Postnatal Deletion of Podoplanin in Lymphatic Endothelium Results in Blood Filling of the Lymphatic System and Impairs Dendritic Cell Migration to Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Roberta; Russo, Erica; Bachmann, Samia B; Proulx, Steven T; Sesartic, Marko; Smaadahl, Nora; Watson, Steve P; Buckley, Christopher D; Halin, Cornelia; Detmar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic vascular system exerts major physiological functions in the transport of interstitial fluid from peripheral tissues back to the blood circulation and in the trafficking of immune cells to lymph nodes. Previous studies in global constitutive knockout mice for the lymphatic transmembrane molecule podoplanin reported perinatal lethality and a complex phenotype with lung abnormalities, cardiac defects, lymphedema, blood-filled lymphatic vessels, and lack of lymph node organization, reflecting the importance of podoplanin expression not only by the lymphatic endothelium but also by a variety of nonendothelial cell types. Therefore, we aimed to dissect the specific role of podoplanin expressed by adult lymphatic vessels. We generated an inducible, lymphatic-specific podoplanin knockout mouse model (Pdpn(ΔLEC)) and induced gene deletion postnatally. Pdpn(ΔLEC) mice were viable, and their lymphatic vessels appeared morphologically normal with unaltered fluid drainage function. Intriguingly, Pdpn(ΔLEC) mice had blood-filled lymph nodes and vessels, most frequently in the neck and axillary region, and displayed a blood-filled thoracic duct, suggestive of retrograde filling of blood from the blood circulation into the lymphatic system. Histological and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses revealed normal lymph node organization with the presence of erythrocytes within lymph node lymphatic vessels but not surrounding high endothelial venules. Moreover, fluorescein isothiocyanate painting experiments revealed reduced dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes in Pdpn(ΔLEC) mice. These results reveal an important role of podoplanin expressed by lymphatic vessels in preventing postnatal blood filling of the lymphatic vascular system and in contributing to efficient dendritic cell migration to the lymph nodes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. AKT hyper-phosphorylation associated with PI3K mutations in lymphatic endothelial cells from a patient with lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, Elisa; Coma, Silvia; Luks, Valerie L; Greene, Arin K; Klagsbrun, Michael; Warman, Matthew L; Bischoff, Joyce

    2015-04-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LM) are characterized by abnormal formation of lymphatic vessels and tissue overgrowth. The lymphatic vessels present in LM lesions may become blocked and enlarged as lymphatic fluid collects, forming a mass or cyst. Lesions are typically diagnosed during childhood and are often disfiguring and life threatening. Available treatments consist of sclerotherapy, surgical removal and therapies to diminish complications. We isolated lymphatic endothelial cells (LM-LEC) from a surgically removed microcystic LM lesion. LM-LEC and normal human dermal-LEC (HD-LEC) expressed endothelial (CD31, VE-Cadherin) as well as lymphatic endothelial (Podoplanin, PROX1, LYVE1)-specific markers. Targeted gene sequencing analysis in patient-derived LM-LEC revealed the presence of two mutations in class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) genes. One is an inherited, premature stop codon in the PI3K regulatory subunit PIK3R3. The second is a somatic missense mutation in the PI3K catalytic subunit PIK3CA; this mutation has been found in association with overgrowth syndromes and cancer growth. LM-LEC exhibited angiogenic properties: both cellular proliferation and sprouting in collagen were significantly increased compared with HD-LEC. AKT-Thr308 was constitutively hyper-phosphorylated in LM-LEC. Treatment of LM-LEC with PI3-Kinase inhibitors Wortmannin and LY294 decreased cellular proliferation and prevented the phosphorylation of AKT-Thr308 in both HD-LEC and LM-LEC. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin also diminished cellular proliferation, sprouting and AKT phosphorylation, but only in LM-LEC. Our results implicate disrupted PI3K-AKT signaling in LEC isolated from a human lymphatic malformation lesion.

  12. Is tuberculosis a lymphatic disease with a pulmonary portal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Marcel A; Waters, W Ray

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis most commonly presents as a pulmonary disease, in which infection, persistence, and induction of transmissible pathology all occur in the lungs. If viewed as a pulmonary disease, enlarged lymph nodes represent reactive adenitis, and extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (including lymphatic tuberculosis) are not transmissible, hence representing an evolutionary dead-end for the pathogen. In an alternative theory, Mycobacterium tuberculosis passes asymptomatically through the lungs and rapidly establishes a chronic lymphatic infection. After a period of weeks to decades secondary lung pathology develops, ultimately allowing transmission to occur. Evidence that supports this lymphatic model includes historical descriptions of human tuberculosis from the preantibiotic era, analogy with other mycobacterial infections, observations of tuberculosis in non-human hosts, and experimental models of tuberculosis disease. At a fundamental level, a lymphocentric model proposes that spread of organisms outside the lung parenchyma is essential to induce adaptive immunity, which is crucial for the generation of transmissible pathology. Furthermore, a lymphatic model could explain why the lesion associated with primary infection (Ghon focus) is anatomically separated from the most common site of reactivation disease (the apex). More practically, an alternative perspective that classes tuberculosis as a lymphatic disease might affect strategies for preclinical and clinical assessment of novel diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mastering Lymphatic Microsurgery: A New Training Model in Living Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Corrado Cesare; Jiga, Lucian P; Ryan, Melissa; di Summa, Pietro G; Campisi, Corradino; Ionac, Mihai

    2017-09-01

    Advanced microsurgical techniques have emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of lymphedema, but achieving international standards is limited by a scarcity of adequate training models. The purpose of this report is to describe our in vivo porcine training model for microsurgery. Five female common-breed pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) weighing 20 to 28 kg were placed under general anesthesia, and blue patent violet dye was injected to highlight lymphatic structures and prepare the pigs for anatomical exploration and microsurgery. The number and type of patent anastomoses achieved and lymph node flaps created and any anatomical differences between porcine and human vessels were noted, in light of evaluating the use of pigs as a training model for microsurgery in living tissue. Multiple lymphatic-venous anastomoses were created at the site of a single incision made at the subinguinal region, running medial and parallel to the saphenous vessels. Ten multiple lymphatic-venous anastomoses were created in total, and all were demonstrated to be patent. Four lymph node flaps were prepared for lymph node transfer. The superficial lymphatic collector system in the caudal limb of the pig was identified and described with particular reference to the superficial, medial (dominant), and lateral branches along the saphenous vein and its accessory. The authors present a safe and adaptable in vivo experimental microsurgical porcine model that provides the opportunity to practice several advanced lymphatic microsurgical techniques in the same animal. The ideal lymph node transfer training model can be developed from this anatomical detail, giving the opportunity to use it for artery-to-artery anastomoses, vein-to-vein anastomoses, and lymphatic-to-lymphatic anastomoses.

  14. New model of macrophage acquisition of the lymphatic endothelial phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Hall

    Full Text Available Macrophage-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECPs contribute to new lymphatic vessel formation, but the mechanisms regulating their differentiation, recruitment, and function are poorly understood. Detailed characterization of M-LECPs is limited by low frequency in vivo and lack of model systems allowing in-depth molecular analyses in vitro. Our goal was to establish a cell culture model to characterize inflammation-induced macrophage-to-LECP differentiation under controlled conditions.Time-course analysis of diaphragms from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated mice revealed rapid mobilization of bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages to the proximity of lymphatic vessels followed by widespread (∼50% incorporation of M-LECPs into the inflamed lymphatic vasculature. A differentiation shift toward the lymphatic phenotype was found in three LPS-induced subsets of activated macrophages that were positive for VEGFR-3 and many other lymphatic-specific markers. VEGFR-3 was strongly elevated in the early stage of macrophage transition to LECPs but undetectable in M-LECPs prior to vascular integration. Similar transient pattern of VEGFR-3 expression was found in RAW264.7 macrophages activated by LPS in vitro. Activated RAW264.7 cells co-expressed VEGF-C that induced an autocrine signaling loop as indicated by VEGFR-3 phosphorylation inhibited by a soluble receptor. LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages also showed a 68% overlap with endogenous CD11b(+/VEGFR-3(+ LECPs in the expression of lymphatic-specific genes. Moreover, when injected into LPS- but not saline-treated mice, GFP-tagged RAW264.7 cells massively infiltrated the inflamed diaphragm followed by integration into 18% of lymphatic vessels.We present a new model for macrophage-LECP differentiation based on LPS activation of cultured RAW264.7 cells. This system designated here as the "RAW model" mimics fundamental features of endogenous M-LECPs. Unlike native LECPs, this model

  15. Mechanisms of lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is the chronic swelling of an extremity that occurs commonly after lymph node resection for cancer treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that transfer of healthy tissues can be used as a means of bypassing damaged lymphatics and ameliorating lymphedema. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the mechanisms that regulate lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.Nude mice (recipients underwent 2-mm tail skin excisions that were either left open or repaired with full-thickness skin grafts harvested from donor transgenic mice that expressed green fluorescent protein in all tissues or from LYVE-1 knockout mice. Lymphatic regeneration, expression of VEGF-C, macrophage infiltration, and potential for skin grafting to bypass damaged lymphatics were assessed.Skin grafts healed rapidly and restored lymphatic flow. Lymphatic regeneration occurred beginning at the peripheral edges of the graft, primarily from ingrowth of new lymphatic vessels originating from the recipient mouse. In addition, donor lymphatic vessels appeared to spontaneously re-anastomose with recipient vessels. Patterns of VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration were temporally and spatially associated with lymphatic regeneration. When compared to mice treated with excision only, there was a 4-fold decrease in tail volumes, 2.5-fold increase in lymphatic transport by lymphoscintigraphy, 40% decrease in dermal thickness, and 54% decrease in scar index in skin-grafted animals, indicating that tissue transfer could bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration.Our studies suggest that lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer occurs by ingrowth of lymphatic vessels and spontaneous re-connection of existing lymphatics. This process is temporally and spatially associated with VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration. Finally, tissue transfer can be used to bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration.

  16. Lymphatic transport of exosomes as a rapid route of information dissemination to the lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Swetha; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Dixon, J Brandon

    2016-04-18

    It is well documented that cells secrete exosomes, which can transfer biomolecules that impact recipient cells' functionality in a variety of physiologic and disease processes. The role of lymphatic drainage and transport of exosomes is as yet unknown, although the lymphatics play critical roles in immunity and exosomes are in the ideal size-range for lymphatic transport. Through in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging we have shown that exosomes are rapidly transported within minutes from the periphery to the lymph node by lymphatics. Using an in vitro model of lymphatic uptake, we have shown that lymphatic endothelial cells actively enhanced lymphatic uptake and transport of exosomes to the luminal side of the vessel. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a differential distribution of exosomes in the draining lymph nodes that is dependent on the lymphatic flow. Lastly, through endpoint analysis of cellular distribution of exosomes in the node, we identified macrophages and B-cells as key players in exosome uptake. Together these results suggest that exosome transfer by lymphatic flow from the periphery to the lymph node could provide a mechanism for rapid exchange of infection-specific information that precedes the arrival of migrating cells, thus priming the node for a more effective immune response.

  17. Radiological analysis of disorder combined with lymphatic stasis: Part 1. Lymphatic stasis due to malignant metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, T. S.; Suh, J. S.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, G. E.; Park, C. Y.; Park, C. K. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    The analysis of 35 cases who revealed lymphatic obstruction and lymphatic stasis due to malignant metastasis on bipedal lymphangiography, to evaluate the various radiological patterns of lymphatic obstruction and pathophysiologic mechanisms due to lymphatic obstruction, from Oct. 1975 to Apr. 1982 at YUMC Hospital was undertaken and the following results were obtained. 1. Of these, 12 had complete lymphatic obstruction and 22 partial lymphatic obstruction on lymphangiography. There was lymphatic collateral circulation in 14, extravasation of contrast media in 12, lymphatic dilatation in 9, dermal backflow in 6, and only lymphatic stasis in 10. 2. According to the level or location of lymphatic obstruction, there were 17 at external iliac lymph nodes, 10 below the inguinal lymph nodes, and 8 above the common iliac lymph nodes. 3. Lymphatic collateral circulation was developed mainly by neoformation of subcutaneous lymphatics below the inguinal lymph nodes obstruction, collateral flow into the internal iliac lymphatics at external iliac lymph nodes obstruction, collateral flow into the mesenteric and mediastinal lymphatics above the common iliac lymph nodes obstruction. 4. Pulmonary oil embolism was developed in 12 of 175 (7%) in control group, but in 14 of 35 (40%) in lymphatic obstruction group. Finally, the dynamic evaluation of lymphatic flow on lymphangiography is more important than the morphologic evaluation of lymph nodes in advanced malignant disease.

  18. Fluid-solid modeling of lymphatic valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulk, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The lymphatic system performs important physiological functions such as the return of interstitial fluid to the bloodstream to maintain tissue fluid balance, as well as the transport of immune cells in the body. It utilizes contractile lymphatic vessels, which contain valves that open and close to allow flow in only one direction, to directionally pump lymph against a pressure gradient. We develop a fluid-solid model of geometrically representative lymphatic valves. Our model uses a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring method to capture fluid-solid interactions with two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a lymphatic vessel. We use this model to investigate the opening and closing of lymphatic valves, and its effect on lymphatic pumping. This helps to broaden our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the lymphatic system.

  19. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to mesenteric venous hypertension by becoming weaker pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongaonkar, R M; Nguyen, T L; Quick, C M; Heaps, C L; Hardy, J; Laine, G A; Wilson, E; Stewart, R H

    2015-03-01

    Lymphangions, the segments of lymphatic vessels between two adjacent lymphatic valves, actively pump lymph. Acute changes in transmural pressure and lymph flow have profound effects on lymphatic pump function in vitro. Chronic changes in pressure and flow in vivo have also been reported to lead to significant changes in lymphangion function. Because changes in pressure and flow are both cause and effect of adaptive processes, characterizing adaptation requires a more fundamental analysis of lymphatic muscle properties. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to use an intact lymphangion isovolumetric preparation to evaluate changes in mesenteric lymphatic muscle mechanical properties and the intracellular Ca(2+) in response to sustained mesenteric venous hypertension. Bovine mesenteric veins were surgically occluded to create mesenteric venous hypertension. Postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels from mesenteric venous hypertension (MVH; n = 6) and sham surgery (Sham; n = 6) animals were isolated and evaluated 3 days after the surgery. Spontaneously contracting MVH vessels generated end-systolic active tension and end-diastolic active tension lower than the Sham vessels. Furthermore, steady-state active tension and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration levels in response to KCl stimulation were also significantly lower in MVH vessels compared with those of the Sham vessels. There was no significant difference in passive tension in lymphatic vessels from the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that following 3 days of mesenteric venous hypertension, postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to become weaker pumps with decreased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Surgical anatomy of gastric lymphatic drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Lirosi, Maria Carmen; Biondi, Alberto; Ricci, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic system of the stomach is a multidirectional and complex network composed of lymphatic nodes and vessels. Lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in curable gastric cancer and lymph node dissection is one of the main areas of surgical research in gastric cancer. Therefore the anatomical classification and embryological development of the gastric lymphatic system have been well described in the literature. The current description of the gastric lymphatic syst...

  1. Acute neonatal presentation of a lymphatic malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chee Yan; Van Wijnen, M; van Sambeeck, S J; Halbertsma, F J J

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal lymphatic malformations usually present with a mass either at birth or in the first 2 years of life. Rarely, lymphatic malformations present with extremely progressive respiratory problems shortly after birth, and usually occur in cases which have remained undetected in the absence of antenatal ultrasound. We report the case of a newborn that required tracheostomy and gastrostomy due to a rapidly expansive lymphatic malformation. MRI showed multilocular microcystic lymphatic mal...

  2. Preferential lymphatic growth in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in sustained lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluk, Peter; Adams, Alicia; Phillips, Keeley; Feng, Jennifer; Hong, Young-Kwon; Brown, Mary B; McDonald, Donald M

    2014-05-01

    Lymphatics proliferate, become enlarged, or regress in multiple inflammatory lung diseases in humans. Lymphatic growth and remodeling is known to occur in the mouse trachea in sustained inflammation, but whether intrapulmonary lymphatics exhibit similar plasticity is unknown. We examined the time course, distribution, and dependence on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2/VEGFR-3 signaling of lung lymphatics in sustained inflammation. Lymphatics in mouse lungs were examined under baseline conditions and 3 to 28 days after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection, using prospero heomeobox 1-enhanced green fluorescence protein and VEGFR-3 as markers. Sprouting lymphangiogenesis was evident at 7 days. Lymphatic growth was restricted to regions of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), where VEGF-C-producing cells were scattered in T-cell zones. Expansion of lung lymphatics after infection was reduced 68% by blocking VEGFR-2, 83% by blocking VEGFR-3, and 99% by blocking both receptors. Inhibition of VEGFR-2/VEGFR-3 did not prevent the formation of BALT. Treatment of established infection with oxytetracycline caused BALT, but not the lymphatics, to regress. We conclude that robust lymphangiogenesis occurs in mouse lungs after M. pulmonis infection through a mechanism involving signaling of both VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. Expansion of the lymphatic network is restricted to regions of BALT, but lymphatics do not regress when BALT regresses after antibiotic treatment. The lung lymphatic network can thus expand in sustained inflammation, but the expansion is not as reversible as the accompanying inflammation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging lymphatic imaging technologies for mouse and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Kwon, Sunkuk; Rasmussen, John C

    2014-03-01

    The lymphatic circulatory system has diverse functions in lipid absorption, fluid homeostasis, and immune surveillance and responds dynamically when presented with infection, inflammation, altered hemodynamics, and cancer. Visualization of these dynamic processes in human disease and animal models of disease is key to understanding the contributory role of the lymphatic circulatory system in disease and to devising effective therapeutic strategies. Longitudinal, non-destructive, and repeated imaging is necessary to expand our understanding of disease progression and regression in basic science and clinical investigations. Herein we summarize recent advances in in vivo lymphatic imaging employing magnetic resonance, computed tomography, lymphoscintigraphy, and emerging optical techniques with respect to their contributory roles in both basic science and clinical research investigations.

  4. Lymphatic drainage from the eye: A new target for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Yeni; Gupta, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) has been central to glaucoma care for over a century. In order to prevent sight loss from disease, there has been considerable focus on medical and surgical methods to improve fluid drainage from the eye. In spite of this, our understanding of exactly how aqueous humor leaves the eye is not complete. Recently, lymphatic vessels have been discovered in the human uvea, with studies showing lymphatic fluid outflow in several models, in addition to evidence for their pharmacological enhancement. The presence of a lymphatic outflow system points to an exciting, expanded understanding of how fluid and particulate materials such as proteins move out of the eye, and how IOP may be regulated. We coin the term "uveolymphatic pathway"-to reflect a comprehensive and compelling new target for glaucoma and an exciting opportunity for future investigations to better understand the eye in health and disease. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  6. [Methods and advances in the research of lymphatics in the head and neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, R; Tian, J; Jia, Y; He, P F; Jin, R X; Guo, J; Wang, B Q

    2017-11-07

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in human health and disease. In addition to a role in the immune response, the lymphatics can also serve as a pathway for cancer metastasis.Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers.In the case where the primary focus has been controlled, cervical lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors affecting the prognosis of head and neck cancer.Thus, understanding the anatomy of the lymphatic system is of paramount importance in predicting cancer metastasis and to perform proper lymph node dissection in cancer patients.The objective of this review is to summarize current imaging approaches that facilitate both basic science and clinical investigations of lymphatic vasculature.Mutation analysis of the laryngeal lymphatic system may provide a theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of HNSCC.

  7. Myeloid Wnt ligands are required for normal development of dermal lymphatic vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Muley

    Full Text Available Resident tissue myeloid cells play a role in many aspects of physiology including development of the vascular systems. In the blood vasculature, myeloid cells use VEGFC to promote angiogenesis and can use Wnt ligands to control vascular branching and to promote vascular regression. Here we show that myeloid cells also regulate development of the dermal lymphatic vasculature using Wnt ligands. Using myeloid-specific deletion of the WNT transporter Wntless we show that myeloid Wnt ligands are active at two distinct stages of development of the dermal lymphatics. As lymphatic progenitors are emigrating from the cardinal vein and intersomitic vessels, myeloid Wnt ligands regulate both their numbers and migration distance. Later in lymphatic development, myeloid Wnt ligands regulate proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC and thus control lymphatic vessel caliber. Myeloid-specific deletion of WNT co-receptor Lrp5 or Wnt5a gain-of-function also produce elevated caliber in dermal lymphatic capillaries. These data thus suggest that myeloid cells produce Wnt ligands to regulate lymphatic development and use Wnt pathway co-receptors to regulate the balance of Wnt ligand activity during the macrophage-LEC interaction.

  8. Inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shan; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic system is intimately linked to tissue fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking. These functions are paramount in the establishment and development of an inflammatory response. In the past decade, an increasing number of reports has revealed that marked changes, such as lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic contractile dysfunction occur in both vascular and nodal parts of the lymphatic system during inflammation, as well as other disease processes. This review provides a critical update on the role of the lymphatic system in disease process such as chronic inflammation and cancer and examines the changes in lymphatic functions the diseases cause and the influence these changes have on the progression of the diseases. PMID:24449090

  9. Immunopathogenesis of lymphatic filarial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Subash; Nutman, Thomas B

    2012-11-01

    Although two thirds of the 120 million people infected with lymph-dwelling filarial parasites have subclinical infections, ~40 million have lymphedema and/or other pathologic manifestations including hydroceles (and other forms of urogenital disease), episodic adenolymphangitis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, lymphedema, and (in its most severe form) elephantiasis. Adult filarial worms reside in the lymphatics and lymph nodes and induce changes that result in dilatation of lymphatics and thickening of the lymphatic vessel walls. Progressive lymphatic damage and pathology results from the summation of the effect of tissue alterations induced by both living and nonliving adult parasites, the host inflammatory response to the parasites and their secreted antigens, the host inflammatory response to the endosymbiont Wolbachia, and those seen as a consequence of secondary bacterial or fungal infections. Inflammatory damage induced by filarial parasites appears to be multifactorial, with endogenous parasite products, Wolbachia, and host immunity all playing important roles. This review will initially examine the prototypical immune responses engendered by the parasite and delineate the regulatory mechanisms elicited to prevent immune-mediated pathology. This will be followed by a discussion of the proposed mechanisms underlying pathogenesis, with the central theme being that pathogenesis is a two-step process-the first initiated by the parasite and host innate immune system and the second propagated mainly by the host's adaptive immune system and by other factors (including secondary infections).

  10. Functional imaging in tumor-associated lymphatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-03-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in cancer cell dissemination; however whether lymphatic drainage pathways and function change during tumor progression and metastasis remains to be elucidated. In this report, we employed a non-invasive, dynamic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging technique for functional lymphatic imaging. Indocyanine green (ICG) was intradermally injected into tumor-free mice and mice bearing C6/LacZ rat glioma tumors in the tail or hindlimb. Our imaging data showed abnormal lymphatic drainage pathways and reduction/loss of lymphatic contractile function in mice with lymph node (LN) metastasis, indicating that cancer metastasis to the draining LNs is accompanied by transient changes of the lymphatic architectural network and its function. Therefore, functional lymphatic imaging may provide a role in the clinical staging of cancer.

  11. Abdominal lymphatic malformation: Spectrum of imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Lal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic malformations are congenital vascular malformations with lymphatic differentiation. Although the most common locations for lymphatic malformation are the neck and axilla, they can occur at several locations in the body including the abdomen. The abdominal location is rather rare and accounts for approximately 5% of all lymphatic malformation. Abdominal lymphatic malformation can arise from mesentery, omentum, gastrointestinal tract, and retroperitoneum. Clinical presentation includes an abdominal lump, vague abdominal discomfort, and secondary complications including intestinal obstruction, volvulus, ischemia, and bleeding. There is a broad spectrum of radiological manifestation. In the present review, we discuss the imaging appearance of abdominal lymphatic malformation. The diagnosis of lymphatic malformation in our series was based on the histopathological examination (in cases who underwent surgery and fine needle aspiration cytology.

  12. Abdominal lymphatic malformation: Spectrum of imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Anupam; Gupta, Pankaj; Singhal, Manphool; Sinha, Saroj K; Lal, Sadhana; Rana, Surinder; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations are congenital vascular malformations with lymphatic differentiation. Although the most common locations for lymphatic malformation are the neck and axilla, they can occur at several locations in the body including the abdomen. The abdominal location is rather rare and accounts for approximately 5% of all lymphatic malformation. Abdominal lymphatic malformation can arise from mesentery, omentum, gastrointestinal tract, and retroperitoneum. Clinical presentation includes an abdominal lump, vague abdominal discomfort, and secondary complications including intestinal obstruction, volvulus, ischemia, and bleeding. There is a broad spectrum of radiological manifestation. In the present review, we discuss the imaging appearance of abdominal lymphatic malformation. The diagnosis of lymphatic malformation in our series was based on the histopathological examination (in cases who underwent surgery) and fine needle aspiration cytology.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Lymphangiography and Lymphatic Embolization in the Treatment of Pulmonary Complication of Lymphatic Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Maxim

    2017-09-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs; especially those involving the central conducting lymphatic channels) are characterized by dysplastic and incompetent lymphatic channels in multiple tissues and organs. The major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with thoracic LM is deterioration of pulmonary function due to chronic chylous effusions and progressive interstitial lung disease. The etiology of these pulmonary processes is unknown, although lymphatic involvement is certain. Understanding of the changes in the lymphatic anatomy in patients with LM has been hindered by difficulty of imaging of the lymphatic system. Recently developed dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography (DCMRL) allows dynamic MR imaging of the lymphatic system by injecting gadolinium contrast agent in the groin lymph nodes. Using this technique, pathological lymphatic flow from the central lymphatic system and/or retroperitoneal and mediastinal masses into lung parenchyma ("pulmonary lymphatic perfusion syndrome") has been demonstrated in patients with LM. This abnormal lymphatic perfusion overflows pulmonary parenchyma and results in deterioration of pulmonary function due to interstitial process and/or compression effect of chylous effusions. Percutaneous thoracic duct embolization or lymphatic interstitial embolization of the lymphatic masses results in cessation of the pulmonary lymphatic overflow and significant improvement in pulmonary symptoms in these patients.

  14. Integrin-alpha IIb identifies murine lymph node lymphatic endothelial cells responsive to RANKL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.G. Cordeiro (Olga G.); M. Chypre (Mélanie); N. Brouard (Nathalie); S. Rauber (Simon); F. Alloush (Farouk); M. Romera-Hernandez (Monica); C. Bénézech (Cécile); Z. Li (Zhi); A. Eckly (Anita); M. Coles (Mark); A. Rot (Antal); H. Yagita (Hideo); C. Léon (Catherine); B. Ludewig (Burkhard); T. Cupedo (Tom); F. Lanza (François); C.G. Mueller (Christopher G.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMicroenvironment and activation signals likely imprint heterogeneity in the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) population. Particularly LECs of secondary lymphoid organs are exposed to different cell types and immune stimuli. However, our understanding of the nature of LEC activation

  15. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired

  16. Efficacy of B cell depletion therapy for murine joint arthritis flare is associated with increased lymphatic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Ju, Yawen; Bouta, Echoe M; Xing, Lianping; Wood, Ronald W; Kuzin, Igor; Bottaro, Andrea; Ritchlin, Christopher T; Schwarz, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    B cell depletion therapy ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Arthritis flare in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-transgenic mice is associated with efferent lymph node (LN) "collapse," triggered by B cell translocation into lymphatic spaces and decreased lymphatic drainage. The aim of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of B cell depletion therapy is associated with restoration of lymphatic drainage due to removal of obstructing nodal B cells. We used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, indocyanine green near-infrared imaging, and intravital immunofluorescence imaging to longitudinally assess synovitis, lymphatic flow, and cell migration in lymphatic vessels in TNF-transgenic mice. We conducted tests to determine whether the efficacy of B cell depletion therapy is associated with restoration of lymphatic draining and cell egress from arthritic joints. Unlike active lymphatics to normal and prearthritic knees, afferent lymphatic vessels to collapsed LNs in inflamed knees do not pulse. Intravital immunofluorescence imaging demonstrated that CD11b+ monocyte/macrophages in lymphatic vessels afferent to expanding LNs travel at high velocity (mean±SD 186±37 μm/second), while these cells are stationary in lymphatic vessels afferent to collapsed popliteal LNs. B cell depletion therapy for arthritis flares in TNF-transgenic mice significantly decreased knee synovium volume (by 50% from the baseline level) and significantly increased lymphatic clearance compared with placebo (Plymphatic drainage restored macrophage egress from inflamed joints without recovery of the lymphatic pulse. These results support a novel mechanism in which B cell depletion therapy for joint arthritis flares lessens inflammation by increasing lymphatic drainage and subsequent migration of cells and cytokines from the synovial space. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Downregulation of FoxC2 Increased Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: Influence of Lymphatic Drainage Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Felix; Potepalov, Sergey; Shehzahdi, Romana; Bernas, Michael; Witte, Marlys; Abreo, Fleurette; Traylor, James; Orr, Wayne A.; Tsunoda, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although inflammation-induced expansion of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature (lymphangiogenesis) is known to be a crucial event in limiting inflammatory processes, through clearance of interstitial fluid and immune cells, considerably less is known about the impact of an impaired lymphatic clearance function (as seen in inflammatory bowel diseases) on this cascade. We aimed to investigate whether the impaired intestinal lymphatic drainage function observed in FoxC2(+/−) mice would influence the course of disease in a model of experimental colitis. Methods: Acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in wild-type and haploinsufficient FoxC2(+/−) mice, and survival, disease activity, colonic histopathological injury, neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. Functional and structural changes in the intestinal lymphatic vessel network were analyzed, including submucosal edema, vessel morphology, and lymphatic vessel density. Results: We found that FoxC2 downregulation in FoxC2(+/−) mice significantly increased the severity and susceptibility to experimental colitis, as displayed by lower survival rates, increased disease activity, greater histopathological injury, and elevated colonic neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration. These findings were accompanied by structural (dilated torturous lymphatic vessels) and functional (greater submucosal edema, higher immune cell burden) changes in the intestinal lymphatic vasculature. Conclusions: These results indicate that sufficient lymphatic clearance plays a crucial role in limiting the initiation and perpetuation of experimental colitis and those disturbances in the integrity of the intestinal lymphatic vessel network could intensify intestinal inflammation. Future therapies might be able to exploit these processes to restore and maintain adequate lymphatic clearance function in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25822012

  18. Downregulation of FoxC2 Increased Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: Influence of Lymphatic Drainage Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Felix; Potepalov, Sergey; Shehzahdi, Romana; Bernas, Michael; Witte, Marlys; Abreo, Fleurette; Traylor, James; Orr, Wayne A; Tsunoda, Ikuo; Alexander, Jonathan Steven

    2015-06-01

    Although inflammation-induced expansion of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature (lymphangiogenesis) is known to be a crucial event in limiting inflammatory processes, through clearance of interstitial fluid and immune cells, considerably less is known about the impact of an impaired lymphatic clearance function (as seen in inflammatory bowel diseases) on this cascade. We aimed to investigate whether the impaired intestinal lymphatic drainage function observed in FoxC2 mice would influence the course of disease in a model of experimental colitis. Acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in wild-type and haploinsufficient FoxC2 mice, and survival, disease activity, colonic histopathological injury, neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. Functional and structural changes in the intestinal lymphatic vessel network were analyzed, including submucosal edema, vessel morphology, and lymphatic vessel density. We found that FoxC2 downregulation in FoxC2 mice significantly increased the severity and susceptibility to experimental colitis, as displayed by lower survival rates, increased disease activity, greater histopathological injury, and elevated colonic neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration. These findings were accompanied by structural (dilated torturous lymphatic vessels) and functional (greater submucosal edema, higher immune cell burden) changes in the intestinal lymphatic vasculature. These results indicate that sufficient lymphatic clearance plays a crucial role in limiting the initiation and perpetuation of experimental colitis and those disturbances in the integrity of the intestinal lymphatic vessel network could intensify intestinal inflammation. Future therapies might be able to exploit these processes to restore and maintain adequate lymphatic clearance function in inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Human Activity Recognition using Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Rasekh, Amin; Chen, Chien-An; Lu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Human activity recognition has wide applications in medical research and human survey system. In this project, we design a robust activity recognition system based on a smartphone. The system uses a 3-dimentional smartphone accelerometer as the only sensor to collect time series signals, from which 31 features are generated in both time and frequency domain. Activities are classified using 4 different passive learning methods, i.e., quadratic classifier, k-nearest neighbor algorithm, support ...

  20. Lymphatic drainage of the brain and the pathophysiology of neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Roy O; Djuanda, Effie; Yow, Hong-Yeen; Carare, Roxana O

    2009-01-01

    There are no conventional lymphatics in the brain but physiological studies have revealed a substantial and immunologically significant lymphatic drainage from brain to cervical lymph nodes. Cerebrospinal fluid drains via the cribriform plate and nasal mucosa to cervical lymph nodes in rats and sheep and to a lesser extent in humans. More significant for a range of human neurological disorders is the lymphatic drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and solutes from brain parenchyma along capillary and artery walls. Tracers injected into grey matter, drain out of the brain along basement membranes in the walls of capillaries and cerebral arteries. Lymphatic drainage of antigens from the brain by this route may play a significant role in the immune response in virus infections, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Neither antigen-presenting cells nor lymphocytes drain to lymph nodes by the perivascular route and this may be a factor in immunological privilege of the brain. Vessel pulsations appear to be the driving force for the lymphatic drainage along artery walls, and as vessels stiffen with age, amyloid peptides deposit in the drainage pathways as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Blockage of lymphatic drainage of ISF and solutes from the brain by CAA may result in loss of homeostasis of the neuronal environment that may contribute to neuronal malfunction and dementia. Facilitating perivascular lymphatic drainage of amyloid-beta (Abeta) in the elderly may prevent the accumulation of Abeta in the brain, maintain homeostasis and provide a therapeutic strategy to help avert cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Temperature-dependent modulation of regional lymphatic contraction frequency and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela; Moriondo, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Lymph drainage and propulsion are sustained by an extrinsic mechanism, based on mechanical forces acting from the surrounding tissues against the wall of lymphatic vessels, and by an intrinsic mechanism attributable to active spontaneous contractions of the lymphatic vessel muscle. Despite being heterogeneous, the mechanisms underlying the generation of spontaneous contractions share a common biochemical nature and are thus modulated by temperature. In this study, we challenged excised tissues from rat diaphragm and hindpaw, endowed with spontaneously contracting lymphatic vessels, to temperatures from 24°C (hindpaw) or 33°C (diaphragmatic vessels) to 40°C while measuring lymphatic contraction frequency (fc) and amplitude. Both vessel populations displayed a sigmoidal relationship between fc and temperature, each centered around the average temperature of surrounding tissue (36.7 diaphragmatic and 32.1 hindpaw lymphatics). Although the slope factor of the sigmoidal fit to the fc change of hindpaw vessels was 2.3°C·cycles-1·min-1, a value within the normal range displayed by simple biochemical reactions, the slope factor of the diaphragmatic lymphatics was 0.62°C·cycles-1·min-1, suggesting the added involvement of temperature-sensing mechanisms. Lymph flow calculated as a function of temperature confirmed the relationship observed on fc data alone and showed that none of the two lymphatic vessel populations would be able to adapt to the optimal working temperature of the other tissue district. This poses a novel question whether lymphatic vessels might not adapt their function to accommodate the change if exposed to a surrounding temperature, which is different from their normal condition.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates to what extent lymphatic vessel intrinsic contractility and lymph flow are modulated by temperature and that this modulation is dependent on the body district that the vessels belong to, suggesting a possible functional misbehavior

  2. Interleukin-7 is produced by afferent lymphatic vessels and supports lymphatic drainage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iolyeva, Maria; Aebischer, David; Proulx, Steven T; Willrodt, Ann-Helen; Ecoiffier, Tatiana; Häner, Simone; Bouchaud, Grégory; Krieg, Carsten; Onder, Lucas; Ludewig, Burkhard; Santambrogio, Laura; Boyman, Onur; Chen, Lu; Finke, Daniela; Halin, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    ...(-/-) mice, dermal lymphatic vessels (LVs) were abnormally organized and lymphatic drainage was compromised, transgenic overexpression of IL-7 in mice resulted in an expanded dermal LV network with increased drainage function...

  3. GIANT CYSTIC CERVICAL LYMPHATIC MALFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    N. Danila; D. Andronic; Luca Beatrice; Popa, E.; A. Nistor; D. Ferariu

    2006-01-01

    The lymphatic malformations of the neck (LMN) are rare diseases, which increase progressively until very large size. The clinical symptoms are pressure signs, due to the compression to the respiratory, digestive and vascular structures of the neck. The authors are presenting the clinical case of a 77 yo male patient with history of simple diffuse goiter. During the evolution, the cervical mass increases progressively its sizes, but in the last 2-3 months before the admission in our clinic t...

  4. Novel role of immature myeloid cells in formation of new lymphatic vessels associated with inflammation and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Sophia; Wilber, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Inflammation triggers an immune cell-driven program committed to restoring homeostasis to injured tissue. Central to this process is vasculature restoration, which includes both blood and lymphatic networks. Generation of new vessels or remodeling of existing vessels are also important steps in metastasis-the major cause of death for cancer patients. Although roles of the lymphatic system in regulation of inflammation and cancer metastasis are firmly established, the mechanisms underlying the formation of new lymphatic vessels remain a subject of debate. Until recently, generation of new lymphatics in adults was thought to occur exclusively through sprouting of existing vessels without help from recruited progenitors. However, emerging findings from clinical and experimental studies show that lymphoendothelial progenitors, particularly those derived from immature myeloid cells, play an important role in this process. This review summarizes current evidence for the existence and significant roles of myeloid-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECPs) in generation of new lymphatics. We describe specific markers of M-LECPs and discuss their biologic behavior in culture and in vivo, as well as currently known molecular mechanisms of myeloid-lymphatic transition (MLT). We also discuss the implications of M-LECPs for promoting adaptive immunity, as well as cancer metastasis. We conclude that improved mechanistic understanding of M-LECP differentiation and its role in adult lymphangiogenesis may lead to new therapeutic approaches for correcting lymphatic insufficiency or excessive formation of lymphatic vessels in human disorders. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  5. Novel Mechanisms of Compromised Lymphatic Endothelial Cell Homeostasis in Obesity: The Role of Leptin in Lymphatic Endothelial Cell Tube Formation and Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Sato

    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose tissue that regulates various physiological processes. Recent studies have shown that the level of circulating leptin is elevated in obese patients and have suggested a relationship between obesity and postoperative lymphedema. However, the mechanisms by which postoperative lymphedema develops in obese patients and the mechanisms by which leptin regulates lymphatic endothelial cell homeostasis such as tube formation and cell proliferation remain unknown. Here we report that leptin regulates tube formation and cell proliferation in human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs by activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, which is downstream signaling of the leptin receptor. Additionally, we found that upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 underlies the mechanisms by which a high dose of leptin inhibits cell proliferation and tube formation. Leptin also enhanced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in HDLECs. Interestingly, IL-6 rescues the compromised cell proliferation and tube formation caused by treatment with a high dose of leptin in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which compromised HDLECs maintain their homeostasis during inflammation mediated by leptin and IL-6. Thus, regulating the level of leptin or IL-6 may be a viable strategy to reduce the incidence of postoperative lymphedema.

  6. Lymphatics and cancer : VEGF-C and nitric oxide in lymphatic function, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    The lymphatics are a primary route for cancer metastasis and lymph node metastasis is an important clinical prognostic factor. The process of lymphatic metastasis is, however, not well understood. This thesis examines the function of lymphatic vessels in relation to cancer progression and

  7. Invasion of lymphatic vessels into the eye after open globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Julia M; Hofmann-Rummelt, Carmen; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2012-06-20

    We analyzed whether lymphatic vessels can be detected in eyes enucleated after an open globe injury. The presence of lymphatic vessels was analyzed immunohistochemically using podoplanin as a specific lymphatic endothelial marker in 21 globes that had been enucleated after open globe injury. The localization of pathologic lymphatic vessels (within the eye wall or inside the eye) was correlated with the mechanism of trauma, anatomic site of perforation or rupture, and time interval between trauma and enucleation. Pathologic lymphatic vessels were detected in 15 of 21 eyes (71%) enucleated after an open globe injury. In 5 globes (24%) they were found within the eye, located in retrocorneal membranes, underneath the sclera, and adjacent to uveal tissue (ciliary body, iris). No significant association was observed between the presence of pathologic lymphatic vessels and the mechanism of trauma (P = 0.598), anatomic site of perforation or rupture (P = 0.303), and time interval between trauma and enucleation (P = 0.145). The human eye can be invaded secondarily by lymphatic vessels if the eye wall is opened by trauma. This mechanism could be important for wound healing, immunologic defense against intruding microorganisms, and autoimmune reactions against intraocular antigens.

  8. Development and Characterization of A Novel Prox1-EGFP Lymphatic and Schlemm's Canal Reporter Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunson; Gardner, Daniel; Choi, Dongwon; Park, Eunkyung; Jin Seong, Young; Yang, Sara; Castorena-Gonzalez, Jorge; Louveau, Antoine; Zhou, Zhao; Lee, Gene K; Perrault, David P; Lee, Sunju; Johnson, Maxwell; Daghlian, George; Lee, Maria; Jin Hong, Yeo; Kato, Yukinari; Kipnis, Jonathan; Davis, Michael J; Wong, Alex K; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2017-07-17

    The lymphatic system plays a key role in tissue fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and fat absorption. We previously reported a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based lymphatic reporter mouse, where EGFP is expressed under the regulation of the Prox1 promoter. This reporter line has been widely used to conveniently visualize lymphatic vessels and other Prox1-expressing tissues such as Schlemm's canal. However, mice have a number of experimental limitations due to small body size. By comparison, laboratory rats are larger in size and more closely model the metabolic, physiological, and surgical aspects of humans. Here, we report development of a novel lymphatic reporter rat using the mouse Prox1-EGFP BAC. Despite the species mismatch, the mouse Prox1-EGFP BAC enabled a reliable expression of EGFP in Prox1-expressing cells of the transgenic rats and allowed a convenient visualization of all lymphatic vessels, including those in the central nervous system, and Schlemm's canal. To demonstrate the utility of this new reporter rat, we studied the contractile properties and valvular functions of mesenteric lymphatics, developed a surgical model for vascularized lymph node transplantation, and confirmed Prox1 expression in venous valves. Together, Prox1-EGFP rat model will contribute to the advancement of lymphatic research as a valuable experimental resource.

  9. Lymphatic dysregulation in intestinal inflammation: new insights into inflammatory bowel disease pathomechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F; Yi, P; Al-Kofahi, M; Ganta, V C; Morris, J; Alexander, J S

    2014-03-01

    Alterations in the intestinal lymphatic network are well-established features of human and experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Such lymphangiogenic expansion might enhance classic intestinal lymphatic transport, eliminating excess accumulations of fluid, inflammatory cells and mediators, and could therefore be interpreted as an 'adaptive' response to acute and chronic inflammatory processes. However, whether these new lymphatic vessels are functional, unregulated or immature (and what factors may promote 'maturation' of these vessels) is currently an area under intense investigation. It is still controversial whether impaired lymphatic function in IBD is a direct consequence of the intestinal inflammation, or a preceding lymphangitis-like event. Current research has uncovered novel regulatory factors as well as new roles for familiar signaling pathways, which appear to be linked to inflammation-induced lymphatic alterations. The current review summarizes mechanisms amplifying lymphatic dysregulation and remodeling in intestinal inflammation at the organ, cell and molecular levels and discusses the influence of lymphangiogenesis and intestinal lymphatic transport function as they relate to IBD pathophysiology.

  10. Divergent lymphatic drainage routes from the heel to the inguinal region: anatomic study and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Ren; Levy, Sidney M; Wang, De-Guang

    2014-09-01

    To determine routes of lymphatic drainage from the heel to the inguinal lymph nodes to assist in the clinical management of lower limb lymphatic disorders. Six lower limbs from three unembalmed human cadavers were studied. Under a surgical microscope, 6% hydrogen peroxide was used to detect lymphatic vessels on the medial and lateral sides of the heel. The lymphatic vessel on either side was then injected with a radio-opaque mixture. The lymphatic vessels were traced, photographed, and radiographed to demonstrate the lymphatic pathways from the heel to the inguinal lymph nodes. The final results were transferred to computer for digital image analysis. Two groups of lymph collecting vessels were identified. The medial group, arising from the skin between the medial malleolus and the Achilles tendon, coursed along the medial side of the leg and thigh to the inguinal lymph nodes. The lateral group, arising from the skin between the lateral malleolus and the Achilles tendon, coursed along the postero-lateral side of the leg to the popliteal fossa. Alternative routes were then identified from the popliteal fossa to the inguinal lymph nodes. The number, size, type, and distribution of lymph vessels and nodes were variable from person to person. Two different lymphatic routes from the heel to the inguinal lymph nodes have been described. This information upgrades current anatomical knowledge and the results will be of benefit for the clinical management of lower limb trauma and malignancy.

  11. Lymphatics and Lymphangiogenesis in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Nakao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic is a prerequisite for the maintenance of tissue fluid balance and immunity in the body. A body of evidence also shows that lymphangiogenesis plays important roles in the pathogenesis of diseases such as tumor metastasis and inflammation. The eye was thought to lack lymphatic vessels except for the conjunctiva; however, advances in the field, including the identification of lymphatic endothelial markers (e.g., LYVE-1 or podoplanin and lymphangiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-C, have revealed the exsitence and possible roles of lymphatics and lymphangiogenesis in the eye. Recent studies have shown that corneal limbus, ciliary body, lacrimal gland, orbital meninges, and extraocular muscles contain lymphatic vessels and that the choroid might have a lymphatic-like system. There is no known lymphatic outflow from the eye. However, several lymphatic channels including uveolymphatic pathway might serve the ocular fluid homeostasis. Furthermore, lymphangiogenesis plays important roles in pathological conditions in the eye including corneal transplant rejection and ocular tumor progression. Yet, the role of lymphangiogenesis in most eye diseases, especially inflammatory disease or edema, remains unknown. A better understanding of lymphatic and lymphangiogenesis in the eye will open new therapeutic opportunities to prevent vision loss in ocular diseases.

  12. Acute neonatal presentation of a lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chee Yan; Wijnen, M; Sambeeck van, S J; Halbertsma, F J J

    2013-08-01

    Oropharyngeal lymphatic malformations usually present with a mass either at birth or in the first 2 years of life. Rarely, lymphatic malformations present with extremely progressive respiratory problems shortly after birth, and usually occur in cases which have remained undetected in the absence of antenatal ultrasound. We report the case of a newborn that required tracheostomy and gastrostomy due to a rapidly expansive lymphatic malformation. MRI showed multilocular microcystic lymphatic malformation. Intralesional bleomycin injections proved to be successful in this patient. A short review of epidemiology, clinical manifestation and treatment is given.

  13. Ex vivo and in vivo label-free imaging of lymphatic vessels using OCT lymphangiography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Karnowski, Karol; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M.; Yu, Dao-Yi; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    2017-02-01

    We have been developing an automated method to image lymphatic vessels both ex vivo and in vivo with optical coherence tomography (OCT), using their optical transparency. Our method compensates for the OCT signal attenuation for each A-scan in combination with the correction of the confocal function and sensitivity fall-off, enabling reliable thresholding of lymphatic vessels from the OCT scans. Morphological image processing with a segment-joining algorithm is also incorporated into the method to mitigate partial-volume artifacts, which are particularly evident with small lymphatic vessels. Our method is demonstrated for two different clinical application goals: the monitoring of conjunctival lymphatics for surgical guidance and assessment of glaucoma treatment; and the longitudinal monitoring of human burn scars undergoing laser ablation treatment. We present examples of OCT lymphangiography ex vivo on porcine conjunctivas and in vivo on human burn scars, showing the visualization of the lymphatic vessel network and their longitudinal changes due to treatment.

  14. Finding an optimal method for imaging lymphatic vessels of the upper limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Mahony, Susan; Purushotham, Arnie D. [Cambridge Breast Unit, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Rose, Sarah L.; Chilvers, Alison J.; Ballinger, James R.; Solanki, Chandra K.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, A. Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, CB2 2QQ, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mortimer, Peter S. [Department of Medicine, St George' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy involves interstitial injection of radiolabelled particulate materials or radioproteins. Although several variations in the technique have been described, their place in clinical practice remains controversial. Traditional diagnostic criteria are based primarily on lymph node appearances but in situations such as breast cancer, where lymph nodes may have been excised, these criteria are of limited use. In these circumstances, lymphatic vessel morphology takes on greater importance as a clinical endpoint, so a method that gives good definition of lymphatic vessels would be useful. In patients with breast cancer, for example, such a method, used before and after lymph node resection, may assist in predicting the development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. The aim of this study was to optimise a method for the visualisation of lymphatic vessels. Subcutaneous (sc) and intradermal (id) injection sites were compared, and technetium-99m nanocolloid, a particulate material, was compared with {sup 99m}Tc-human immunoglobulin (HIG), which is a soluble macromolecule. Twelve normal volunteers were each studied on two occasions. In three subjects, id {sup 99m}Tc-HIG was compared with sc {sup 99m}Tc-HIG, in three id {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid was compared with sc {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, in three id {sup 99m}Tc-HIG was compared with id {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid and in three sc {sup 99m}Tc-HIG was compared with sc {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid. Endpoints were quality of lymphatic vessel definition, the time after injection at which vessels were most clearly visualised, the rate constant of depot disappearance (k) and the systemic blood accumulation rate as measured by gamma camera imaging over the liver or cardiac blood pool. Excellent definition of lymphatic vessels was obtained following id injection of either radiopharmaceutical, an injection route that was clearly superior to sc. Differences between radiopharmaceuticals were less clear, although after id

  15. Potential tumor spread of lateral pelvic lymphatic flow in low rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Kimihiko; Koike, Junichi; Shiokawa, Hiroyuki; Ushigome, Mitsunori; Matsuda, Satoshi; Kagami, Satoru; Koda, Takamaru; Kurihara, Akiharu; Shimada, Hideaki; Kaneko, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    In Japan lateral pelvic lymph node dissection has been actively performed with total mesorectal excision for low rectal cancer. However, its definitive efficacy remains unclear. This study is to evaluate clinical significance of lateral pelvic lymphatic drainage in low rectal cancer patients by 99mTc-Sn colloid radioactive tracers. Intraoperatively detecting rectal lymphatic drainage using 99mTc-Sn colloid radioactive tracer in 39 low rectal cancer patients, we performed lateral pelvic lymph node dissection in lateral pelvic lymphatic flow-positive patients. Lateral pelvic lymphatic flow was detected in 11 patients (28%). In four (36%) of 11 patients, tumor cells were histologically identified in lateral pelvic lymph nodes. A median size of metastatic lateral pelvic lymph nodes was 7.5 (range, 2-150) mm, and all but one overlooked patient could not be detected by routine preoperative imaging scans retrospectively. The five-year disease-free survival rate of lateral pelvic lymphatic flow-positive patients was significantly poorer (45% vs. 75%, p = 0.0044). Tumor cells potentially extended beyond the fascia propria recti in low rectal cancer with lateral pelvic lymphatic flow. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy and adjuvant therapy are considered to be reasonable to improve a poor prognosis of low rectal cancer patients with lateral pelvic lymphatic flow.

  16. Platelets mediate lymphovenous hemostasis to maintain blood-lymphatic separation throughout life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul R.; Rawnsley, David R.; Jakus, Zoltán; Yang, Yiqing; Sweet, Daniel T.; Fu, Jianxin; Herzog, Brett; Lu, MinMin; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Oliver, Guillermo; Makinen, Taija; Xia, Lijun; Kahn, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Mammals transport blood through a high-pressure, closed vascular network and lymph through a low-pressure, open vascular network. These vascular networks connect at the lymphovenous (LV) junction, where lymph drains into blood and an LV valve (LVV) prevents backflow of blood into lymphatic vessels. Here we describe an essential role for platelets in preventing blood from entering the lymphatic system at the LV junction. Loss of CLEC2, a receptor that activates platelets in response to lymphatic endothelial cells, resulted in backfilling of the lymphatic network with blood from the thoracic duct (TD) in both neonatal and mature mice. Fibrin-containing platelet thrombi were observed at the LVV and in the terminal TD in wild-type mice, but not Clec2-deficient mice. Analysis of mice lacking LVVs or lymphatic valves revealed that platelet-mediated thrombus formation limits LV backflow under conditions of impaired valve function. Examination of mice lacking integrin-mediated platelet aggregation indicated that platelet aggregation stabilizes thrombi that form in the lymphatic vascular environment to prevent retrograde blood flow. Collectively, these studies unveil a newly recognized form of hemostasis that functions with the LVV to safeguard the lymphatic vascular network throughout life. PMID:24292710

  17. Dendritic Cell Interactions with Lymphatic Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Erica; Nitschké, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Afferent lymphatic vessels fulfill essential immune functions by transporting leukocytes and lymph-borne antigen to draining lymph nodes (dLNs). An important cell type migrating through lymphatic vessels are dendritic cells (DCs). DCs reside in peripheral tissues like the skin, where they take up antigen and transport it via the lymphatic vascular network to dLNs for subsequent presentation to T cells. As such, DCs play a key role in the induction of adaptive immune responses during infection and vaccination, but also for the maintenance of tolerance. Although the migratory pattern of DCs has been known for long time, interactions between DCs and lymphatic vessels are only now starting to be unraveled at the cellular level. In particular, new tools for visualizing lymphatic vessels in combination with time-lapse microscopy have recently generated valuable insights into the process of DC migration to dLNs. In this review we summarize and discuss current approaches for visualizing DCs and lymphatic vessels in tissues for imaging applications. Furthermore, we review the current state of knowledge about DC migration towards, into and within lymphatic vessels, particularly focusing on the cellular interactions that take place between DCs and the lymphatic endothelium. PMID:24044757

  18. Lymphatic imaging in unsedated infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Balaguru, Duraisamy; Douglas, William I.; Breinholt, John P.; Greives, Matthew R.; Aldrich, Melissa B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-02-01

    Primary lymphedema and lymphatic malformations in the pediatric population remains poorly diagnosed and misunderstood due to a lack of information on the underlying anatomy and function of the lymphatic system. Diagnostics for the lymphatic vasculature are limited, consisting of lymphoscintigraphy or invasive lymphangiography, both of which require sedation that can restrict use in infants and children. As a result, therapeutic protocols for pediatric patients with lymphatic disorders remain sparse and with little evidence to support them. Because near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging enables image acquisition on the order of tenths of seconds with trace administration of fluorescent dye, sedation is not necessary. The lack of harmful radiation and radioactive contrast agents further facilitates imaging. Herein we summarize our experiences in imaging infants and children who are suspected to have disorders of the lymphatic vascular system using indocyanine green (ICG) and who have developed chylothorax following surgery for congenital heart defects. The results show both anatomical as well as functional lymphatic deficits in children with congenital disease. In the future, NIRF lymphatic imaging could provide new opportunities to tailor effective therapies and monitor responses. The opportunity to use expand NIRF imaging for pediatric diagnostics beyond the lymphatic vasculature is also afforded by the rapid acquisition following trace administration of NIRF contrast agent.

  19. Acute neonatal presentation of a lymphatic malformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, C.Y.; Wijnen, M.H.; Sambeeck, S.J. van; Halbertsma, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal lymphatic malformations usually present with a mass either at birth or in the first 2 years of life. Rarely, lymphatic malformations present with extremely progressive respiratory problems shortly after birth, and usually occur in cases which have remained undetected in the absence of

  20. Immunohistochemical investigation of lymphatic vessel formation control in mouse tooth development: lymphatic vessel-forming factors and receptors in tooth development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Ambe, K; Kon, H; Takada, S; Ohno, T; Watanabe, H

    2012-06-01

    The presence of lymphatic vessels in dental pulp has recently been controversial, and no conclusion has been reached. In this study, we investigated the control of lymphangiogenesis with dental pulp development in the mouse mandibular molar using VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3 as indices of lymphatic vessel-controlling factors. In addition, to distinguish blood and lymphatic vascular epithelial cells, we performed immunohistochemical analysis using von Willebrand factor (vWF) and statistical analysis. In dental papilla in the bell-stage non-calcified period, mesenchymal cells positive for VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3 increased and lumen-forming endothelial cells were noted, but vWF was negative, suggesting that these were actively forming lymphatic vessels. Positive undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, an increase in endothelial cells in dental pulp, and lumen expansion were noted early after birth. Positivity was also detected in the odontoblast layer and sheath of Hertwig after birth, suggesting that these factors also play important roles in odontoblast differentiation and maturation and periodontal ligament and tooth root formation. We embryologically clarified lymphatic vessel formation in dental pulp and a process of lymphatic vessel formation from blood vessels, suggesting involvement of the surrounding tissue, odontoblasts, and sheath of Hertwig in vessel formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A reproducible in-vivo model of lymphatic malformation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Jia, J; Zhang, W; Liu, B; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Y

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible rat model of lymphatic malformation. Different types of adjuvant, with and without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, was injected into the neck and floor of the mouth of rats. The rats were killed 2 months after the injection. Injected rats developed cystic lesions in the neck and floor of the mouth. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the cysts were lined by endothelium, which expressed the lymphatic endothelial markers LYVE-1 and VEGF receptor-3. Raman spectra of the liquid contents of the cysts were similar in all injected rats. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the endothelial cells had no basement membrane or surrounding pericytes. The cystic lesions were consistent with human lymphatic malformation. This animal model could be used to investigate pathogenesis of lymphatic malformation and its responses to candidate therapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic remodeling induced by filarial parasites: implications for pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2009-12-01

    Even in the absence of an adaptive immune system in murine models, lymphatic dilatation and dysfunction occur in filarial infections, although severe irreversible lymphedema and elephantiasis appears to require an intact adaptive immune response in human infections. To address how filarial parasites and their antigens influence the lymphatics directly, human lymphatic endothelial cells were exposed to filarial antigens, live parasites, or infected patient serum. Live filarial parasites or filarial antigens induced both significant LEC proliferation and differentiation into tube-like structures in vitro. Moreover, serum from patently infected (microfilaria positive) patients and those with longstanding chronic lymphatic obstruction induced significantly increased LEC proliferation compared to sera from uninfected individuals. Differentiation of LEC into tube-like networks was found to be associated with significantly increased levels of matrix metalloproteases and inhibition of their TIMP inhibitors (Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases). Comparison of global gene expression induced by live parasites in LEC to parasite-unexposed LEC demonstrated that filarial parasites altered the expression of those genes involved in cellular organization and development as well as those associated with junction adherence pathways that in turn decreased trans-endothelial transport as assessed by FITC-Dextran. The data suggest that filarial parasites directly induce lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic differentiation and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the pathology seen in lymphatic filariasis.

  3. Lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic remodeling induced by filarial parasites: implications for pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of an adaptive immune system in murine models, lymphatic dilatation and dysfunction occur in filarial infections, although severe irreversible lymphedema and elephantiasis appears to require an intact adaptive immune response in human infections. To address how filarial parasites and their antigens influence the lymphatics directly, human lymphatic endothelial cells were exposed to filarial antigens, live parasites, or infected patient serum. Live filarial parasites or filarial antigens induced both significant LEC proliferation and differentiation into tube-like structures in vitro. Moreover, serum from patently infected (microfilaria positive patients and those with longstanding chronic lymphatic obstruction induced significantly increased LEC proliferation compared to sera from uninfected individuals. Differentiation of LEC into tube-like networks was found to be associated with significantly increased levels of matrix metalloproteases and inhibition of their TIMP inhibitors (Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases. Comparison of global gene expression induced by live parasites in LEC to parasite-unexposed LEC demonstrated that filarial parasites altered the expression of those genes involved in cellular organization and development as well as those associated with junction adherence pathways that in turn decreased trans-endothelial transport as assessed by FITC-Dextran. The data suggest that filarial parasites directly induce lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic differentiation and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the pathology seen in lymphatic filariasis.

  4. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mężyk-Kopeć

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC. When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i single-cell motility, (ii cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

  5. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Wyroba, Barbara; Stalińska, Krystyna; Próchnicki, Tomasz; Wiatrowska, Karolina; Kilarski, Witold W; Swartz, Melody A; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i) single-cell motility, (ii) cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii) their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

  6. [Morphogenesis, structure and properties of lymphatic vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajska, Anna; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Flaht, Aleksandra; Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota

    2012-11-19

    In this paper, we present literature results related to structure and various manners of lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development and in pathological events, such as tumorigenesis, wound healing, and other diseases. The functions of the lymphatic system include the collection of fluids that enter tissues from the circulation, absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins from the intestine and their subsequent transport, participation in antigen, dendritic cell, and lymphocyte migration. The lymphatic system is also a route for tumor cell and inflammatory cell transport. Native lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries by having an irregular lumen, a discontinuous basement membrane, absence of pericytes, and a strong anchorage of their endothelial cells to the extracellular matrix via microfibrils built of emilin and fibrillin. Lymphatic endothelial cells express surface antigens such as Lyve-1, podoplanin, VEGFR3 (Flk4) and transcription factor Prox-1, as well as molecules which are common for blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (CD31, CD34, Flk-1, Tie-1, Tie-2, neuropilin 2). Lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development starts with the occurrence of lymphatic sacs sprouting from systemic jugular veins and/or by co-option of lymphangioblasts or hematopoietic-derived cells. It can also proceed by dedifferentiation of venous endothelial cells after their detachment from the venous system, migration to the target places within the body and assembly in the lymphatic lumen. Mechanisms of lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development and in pathological conditions, such as tumorigenesis, wound healing, and metastasis, is regulated by a plethora of growth factors and molecules, among which the most important are VEGF-C, VEGF-D, HGF, FGF, retinoic acid, IL-3, and IL-7. Macrophages and cells bearing CD45 phenotype seem to take part in the formation of lymphatics. Macrophages might act as a source of growth

  7. Purification of porcine aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen from lymph and use for lymphatic clearance studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Risteli, J; Nielsen, M D

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the lymphatic transport of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) we established a thoracic duct-venous shunt in 6 pigs. Porcine PIIINP was purified, characterised, and compared with human PIIINP to ensure the suitability of the radioimmunoassay of human PIIINP...... did not differ during the light and dark periods. Serum PIIINP remained unchanged over the 24 h. The lymphatic clearance of total PIIINP immunoreactive components was 6.2 ml serum/min and the lymphatic clearance of intact PIIINP was 9.1 ml serum/min, equal to 7 and 10 times the plasma volume/24 h...

  8. A human lymph node in vitro--challenges and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Christoph; Demmler, Christian D; Ammer, Richard; Hartmann, Stefan; Lubitz, Annika; Miller, Lilja; Müller, Riccarda; Marx, Uwe

    2006-10-01

    Extracorporeal human lymphatic organs are expected to be excellent tools in the study of human molecular and cellular bases of the immunologic balance and tissue harmony. A rational approach and process to design a device and a procedure to recreate the human lymph node environment in vitro is described with emphasis on T-cell activation. Based on this approach, a bioreactor and a process supporting self-assembly of human lymphatic tissues due to proper emulation of human architecture and homeostasis could be developed.

  9. Population migration: implications for lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K D Ramaiah

    Full Text Available Human population migration is a common phenomenon in developing countries. Four categories of migration-endemic to nonendemic areas, rural to urban areas, non-MDA areas to areas that achieved lymphatic filariasis (LF control/elimination, and across borders-are relevant to LF elimination efforts. In many situations, migrants from endemic areas may not be able to establish active transmission foci and cause infection in local people in known nonendemic areas or countries. Urban areas are at risk of a steady inflow of LF-infected people from rural areas, necessitating prolonged intervention measures or leading to a prolonged "residual microfilaraemia phase." Migration-facilitated reestablishment of transmission in areas that achieved significant control or elimination of LF appears to be difficult, but such risk can not be excluded, particularly in areas with efficient vector-parasite combination. Transborder migration poses significant problems in some countries. Listing of destinations, in endemic and nonendemic regions/countries, and formulation of guidelines for monitoring the settlements and the infection status of migrants can strengthen the LF elimination efforts.

  10. Lymphatic anatomy of the inguinal region in aid of vascularized lymph node flap harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglioni, Mario F; Suami, Hiroo

    2015-03-01

    Vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) has shown promise as a treatment for breast cancer-related lymphedema, a common and debilitating condition among breast cancer survivors. In VLNT, the most popular lymph node flap donor site is the inguinal region; however, concerns about the possibility of iatrogenic lymphedema hamper the widespread adoption of VLNT. A better understanding of the anatomy of the lymphatic system in the inguinal region is essential to preserving lymph drainage in the leg and avoiding iatrogenic lymphedema. Five human cadaver hind-quarter specimens were used for this study. First, the specimens were scanned with indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography to map the lymphatic vessels. A dual injection technique using different radiocontrast media was then applied to delineate arteries and lymphatic vessels on radiographs. Finally, radiological analysis and meticulous dissection were used to investigate relationships between the arteries and lymphatic vessels. By chasing the lymphatic vessels retrogradely from their corresponding lymph nodes, we were able to divide the superficial inguinal lymph nodes into three subgroups: the abdominal, medial thigh, and lateral thigh nodes. We found no connections between the superficial and deep lymphatic system in the inguinal region. The dominant lymph nodes draining the leg were in the lower part of the inguinal triangle, and their efferent lymphatic vessels ran medial to the common femoral artery. Preserving the sentinel nodes of the lower leg in the medial thigh and their efferent lymphatic vessels is crucial to avoid iatrogenic lymphedema in limbs with donor sites for VLNT. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lymphoid Aggregates Remodel Lymphatic Collecting Vessels that Serve Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Crohn Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Bala, Shashi; Rahier, Jean-François; Johnson, Michael W; Wang, Peter L; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Chau, Amélie; Pariente, Benjamin; Kartheuser, Alex; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Early pathological descriptions of Crohn disease (CD) argued for a potential defect in lymph transport; however, this concept has not been thoroughly investigated. In mice, poor healing in response to infection-induced tissue damage can cause hyperpermeable lymphatic collecting vessels in mesenteric adipose tissue that impair antigen and immune cell access to mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which normally sustain appropriate immunity. To investigate whether analogous changes might occur in human intestinal disease, we established a three-dimensional imaging approach to characterize the lymphatic vasculature in mesenteric tissue from controls or patients with CD. In CD specimens, B-cell-rich aggregates resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) impinged on lymphatic collecting vessels that enter and exit LNs. In areas of creeping fat, which characterizes inflammation-affected areas of the bowel in CD, we observed B cells and apparent innate lymphoid cells that had invaded the lymphatic vessel wall, suggesting these cells may be mediators of lymphatic remodeling. Although TLOs have been described in many chronic inflammatory states, their anatomical relationship to preestablished LNs has never been revealed. Our data indicate that, at least in the CD-affected mesentery, TLOs are positioned along collecting lymphatic vessels in a manner expected to affect delivery of lymph to LNs. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasensitive in vivo detection of primary gastric tumor and lymphatic metastasis using upconversion nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ruirui; Liu, Changhao; Liu, Muhan; Hu, Hao; Liu, Chunyan; Hou, Yi; Wu, Kaichun; Lin, Yenan; Liang, Jimin; Gao, Mingyuan

    2015-02-24

    Lymphatic metastasis is an important prognostic factor regarding long-term survival rate of gastric cancer (GC) patients. Pretreatment knowledge of lymph node status is extremely helpful for planning treatment and prognosis. However, to date, no imaging method has been demonstrated to be effective for detecting lymphatic metastasis in GC. Molecular imaging probes based on upconversion nanoparticles with unique optical and magnetic properties have provided great hope for early tumor detection. Herein we report highly sensitive detection of lymphatic spread using core@shell structured NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4 upconversion nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). A GC-specific probe was constructed through "click" reaction between the maleimide moiety of PEG ligand and the thiol group from partly reduced antigastric cancer antibody MGb2. The primary tumor and adjacent lymphatic metastasis site were clearly differentiated by upconversion luminescence imaging after the GC-specific probe was delivered through tail vein injection into tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, lymphatic metastases smaller than 1 mm were successfully detected, owing to the ultralow background under 980 nm excitation. It has been demonstrated that both primary and lymphatic metastatic sites in an orthotopic mouse model of human gastric cancer can be optically detected by using GC-specific upconversion luminescence nanoprobes. The current studies may therefore provide a highly effective approach for GC diagnosis.

  13. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  14. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2009-01-01

    and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO...

  15. Scarpa Fascia Preservation in Abdominoplasty: Does It Preserve the Lymphatics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    The course of the cutaneous lymphatic collectors of the abdominal wall in relation to the Scarpa fascia is unclear in the literature. Preserving the Scarpa fascia in the lower abdomen to reduce the seroma rate following abdominoplasty has been suggested based on the assumption that the lower abdominal lymphatics run deep to this layer along their entire course. Using the previously described technique, the superficial lymphatic drainage of eight hemiabdomen specimens from four fresh human cadavers was investigated. The upper and lower abdominal collectors originated at the umbilical and midline watershed areas in a subdermal plane by the union of precollectors draining the dermis. In the lower abdomen, the depth of the collectors gradually increased in the subcutaneous fat as they coursed toward the groin. They eventually pierced the Scarpa fascia before draining into the superficial inguinal nodes located deep to this layer. The transition from the supra- to the infra-Scarpa fascia plane occurred within 2 to 3 cm of the inguinal ligament in 95 percent of the collectors. In the four cadavers studied, preserving the Scarpa fascia during abdominoplasty would not preserve the lower abdominal collectors.

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Lymphatic Vascular Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rockson, Stanley G

    2008-01-01

    ... it. The most readily recognizable attribute of lymphatic vascular incompetence is the presence of the characteristic swelling of tissues, called lymphedema, which arises as a consequence of insufficient lymph transport...

  17. Prenatally-detected giant lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sværdborg, Mille; Keller, Johnny; Schrøder, Henrik; Petersen, Olav B; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine

    2011-12-01

    We present a case of a giant lymphatic malformation of the chest and abdominal wall that was diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy. It was treated by one stage excision with good functional and cosmetic outcomes.

  18. Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in Acute Lymphatic Leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report of a patient who developed fatal pneumocystis pneumonia while in remission from acute lymphatic leukaemia is presented. Clinical and aetiological aspects of this rare infection are discussed. Attention is drawn to diagnostic pitfalls encountered in leukaemia.

  19. Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , this study employed the use of lymphatic filariasis–related clinical signs as rapid diagnostic features, immunochromatographic card test (ICT) to detect circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and questionnaire to investigate community perceptions ...

  20. Immunopathogenesis of lymphatic filarial disease1

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Subash; Thomas B Nutman

    2012-01-01

    Although two-thirds of the 120 million people infected with lymph-dwelling filarial parasites have subclinical infections, ~ 40 million have lymphedema and/or other pathologic manifestations including hydroceles (and other forms of urogenital disease), episodic adenolymphangitis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, lymphedema, and (in its most severe form) elephantiasis. Adult filarial worms reside in the lymphatics and lymph nodes and induce changes that result in dilatation of lymphatics and t...

  1. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajska, A.; Gula, G.; Flaht-Zabost, A.; Czarnowska, E.; Ciszek, B.; Jankowska-Steifer, E.; Niderla-Bielinska, J.; Radomska-Lesniewska, D.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting) vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells. PMID:24592145

  2. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  3. Novel characterization of lymphatic valve formation during corneal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Truong

    Full Text Available Lymphatic research has progressed rapidly in recent years. Though lymphatic dysfunction has been found in a wide array of disorders from transplant rejection to cancer metastasis, to date, there is still little effective treatment for lymphatic diseases. The cornea offers an optimal site for lymphatic research due to its accessible location, transparent nature, and lymphatic-free but inducible features. However, it still remains unknown whether lymphatic valves exist in newly formed lymphatic vessels in the cornea, and how this relates to an inflammatory response. In this study, we provide the first evidence showing that lymphatic valves were formed in mouse cornea during suture-induced inflammation with the up-regulation of integrin alpha 9. The number of corneal valves increased with the progression of inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. Moreover, we have detected lymphatic valves at various developmental stages, from incomplete to more developed ones. In addition to defining the average diameter of lymphatic vessels equipped with lymphatic valves, we also report that lymphatic valves were more often located near the branching points. Taken together, these novel findings not only provide new insights into corneal lymphatic formation and maturation, but also identify a new model for future investigation on lymphatic valve formation and possibly therapeutic intervention.

  4. Studies of lymphatic drainage from testes by lymphoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, S.D.J.; Morse, M.J.; Grando, R.; Kleinert, E.L.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Severe lymphedema of lower extremity may cause functional disability and foster recurrent lymphangitis. Surgical transportation of the testis to the thigh offers the possibility of enhancing lymphatic drainage from the leg via spermatic cord lymphatics. Testicular lymphoscintigraphy was employed to assess the quality of testicular lymphatic drainage prior to testis transposition. Images of abdomen and measurement of testis radioactivity were made serially after injection of Au 198 colloid into the testis of dogs before and after litigation of the spermatic cord. In the intact dogs, the residual radioactivities in the testis (5 dogs) were 53.5 +- 13.25, 41.6 +- 7.80 and 26.3 +- 5.66% at 2, 4 and 24 hours post injection. After ligation of spermatic cord, the residual activities in the testis were 95.0 +- 3.33, 86.4 +- 6.49 and 74.2 +- 6.28% at corresponding intervals post injection. Paraaortic nodes and liver were visualized in the abdominal images 1 hour after injection in the intact animals but only poorly seen in dogs following ligation. /sup 99m/Tc antimony colloid was used similarly in 5 patients who had severe lymphedema and abnormal pelvic lymphoscintigraphy following bipedal injection. With intratesticular injection, paraaortic lymph nodes and liver were visualized in 7 studies between 3 to 5 hours. Poor visualization was noted in two studies in patients who had previous radiation to the abdomen. The findings suggest that this simple technic can aid in the assessment of testicular lymphatic drainage and help to select patients for appropriate surgical intervention.

  5. Lymphatic endothelial cancerization in papillary thyroid carcinoma: hidden evidence of lymphatic invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Kien T; Truong, Luan D; Ball, Christopher G; Olberg, Bernhard; Lai, Chi K; Purgina, Bibianna

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesize that cystic structures in metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) develop along the framework of lymphatic channels. To investigate this phenomenon, different categories of PTC were immunostained for D2-40 and TTF1. In this study, reactivity for D2-40 was considered as positive when there is membranous staining as often seen in lymphatic endothelial cells. Thirty cases of PTC with lymph node metastasis or with potential for lymphatic invasion and 20 cases metastatic PTC in lymph nodes were reviewed and found to show double/mosaic immunoreactivity for TTF1/D2-40 in 40-100% of cases. PTC metastasis in lymph nodes with cysts and some branching lymphatic-like channels lined by follicular cells with or without nuclear features of PTC were diffusely reactive to TTF1, and focally to D2-40. For primary and metastatic PTC, focal membranous D2-40 reactivity was also demonstrated in cysts or cleft linings. For25 thyroid neoplasms with no known potential for lymphatic invasion, there was no such immunoreactivity. The mosaic or double immunoreactivity for TTF1/D2-40 suggests lymphatic cancerization and possible endothelial mimicry of follicular cells. Mosaic/double immunoreactivity is helpful to detect the hidden pattern of lymphatic invasion masquerading as 'benign-appearing' follicles and supports our hypothesis of malignant cells developing along the lymphatic framework. © 2015 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Differential antibody isotype reactivity to specific antigens in human lymphatic filariasis: gp15/400 preferentially induces immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG4, and IgG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, M; Paxton, W A; Brandenburg, A; Van Ree, R; Lens, M; Partono, F; Maizels, R M; Selkirk, M E

    1995-01-01

    Lymphatic filarial infection in humans is associated with a strong skewing of the immune response towards the TH2 arm, with prominent interleukin 4-producing cells and elevated levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgE antibodies in peripheral blood. To determine how such a generalized TH2 imbalance governs responses to individual parasite antigens, the profiles of isotypes of antibodies to two recombinant proteins of Brugia spp. were studied. One molecule was the C-terminal portion of the filarial heat shock protein 70 (Bpa-26), representative of a cytoplasmic protein, and the second antigen was a single unit of the tandem repeats of a Brugia polypeptide (BpL-4), a secreted product which is prominently exposed to the immune system. Serum samples from 146 individuals resident in areas in which brugian filariasis is endemic were used, and it was found that whereas the levels of IgG1 and IgG3 responses to both Bpa-26 and BpL-4 were high, IgG4 and IgE antibodies to only BpL-4, not to Bpa-26, were prominent. Thus, an antigen which is chronically exposed to the immune system elicited a TH2-dependent isotype switch, as manifested by increased IgG4 and IgE responses. Moreover, IgG4 and IgE responses to BpL-4 showed a strong negative association, suggesting that mediators other than interleukin 4 must be responsible for such differential regulation of these two isotypes. When the data were analyzed as a function of clinical status, a striking association between elevated levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 and manifestation of chronic obstructive disease was found; elephantiasis patients showed significantly higher levels of IgG3 antibodies to Bpa-26 than microfilaremics and asymptomatic amicrofilaremics. This indicates that an imbalance of isotypes of antibodies to particular filarial antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic disease. PMID:7558279

  7. Telomerase activity in human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, J.

    2000-10-01

    The overall goal of this collaborative project was to investigate the role in malignant cells of both chromosome telomeres, and telomerase, the enzyme that replicates telomeres. Telomeres are highly conserved nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of eucaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length in somatic cells is reduced by 40--50 nucleotide pairs with every cell division due to incomplete replication of terminal DNA sequences and the absence of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein that adds telomere DNA to chromosome ends. Although telomerase is active in cells with extended proliferative capacities, including more than 85% of tumors, work performed under this contract demonstrated that the telomeres of human cancer cells are shorter than those of paired normal cells, and that the length of the telomeres is characteristic of particular types of cancers. The extent of telomere shortening ostensibly is related to the number of cell divisions the tumor has undergone. It is believed that ongoing cell proliferation leads to the accumulation and fixation of new mutations in tumor cell lineages.Therefore, it is not unreasonable to assume that the degree of phenotypic variability is related to the proliferative history of the tumor, and therefore to telomere length, implying a correlation with prognosis. In some human tumors, short telomeres are also correlated with genomic instabilities, including interstitial chromosome translocation, loss of heterozygosity, and aneuoploidy. Moreover, unprotected chromosome ends are highly recombinogenic and telomere shortening in cultured human cells correlates with the formation of dicentric chromosomes, suggesting that critically short telomeres not only identify, but also predispose, cells to genomic instability, again implying a correlation with prognosis. Therefore, telomere length or content could be an important predictor of metastatic potential or responsiveness to various therapeutic modalities.

  8. Lymphatic Vessels: The Next Frontier in Lung Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ye; Liu, Kaifeng; Lamattina, Anthony Mark; Visner, Gary; El-Chemaly, Souheil

    2017-09-01

    Lymphatic vessels are essential for the uptake of fluid, immune cells, macromolecules, and lipids from the interstitial space. During lung transplant surgery, the pulmonary lymphatic vessel continuum is completely disrupted, and, as a result, lymphatic drainage function is severely compromised. After transplantation, the regeneration of an effective lymphatic drainage system plays a crucial role in maintaining interstitial fluid balance in the lung allograft. In the meantime, these newly formed lymphatic vessels are commonly held responsible for the development of immune responses leading to graft rejection, because they are potentially capable of transporting antigen-presenting cells loaded with allogeneic antigens to the draining lymph nodes. However, despite remarkable progress in the understanding of lymphatic biology, there is still a paucity of consistent evidence that demonstrates the exact impacts of lymphatic vessels on lung graft function. In this review, we examine the current literature related to roles of lymphatic vessels in the pathogenesis of lung transplant rejection.

  9. Lymphatic Vascular Regeneration : The Next Step in Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huethorst, Eline; Krebber, Merle M; Fledderus, Joost O; Gremmels, Hendrik; Xu, Yan Juan; Pei, Jiayi; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays a crucial role in interstitial fluid drainage, lipid absorption, and immunological defense. Lymphatic dysfunction results in lymphedema, fluid accumulation, and swelling of soft tissues, as well as a potentially impaired immune response. Lymphedema significantly reduces

  10. Understanding Lymphatic Drainage Pathways of the Ovaries to Predict Sites for Sentinel Nodes in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppe, Marjolein; Kraima, Anne C; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Van Gorp, Toon; Smit, Noeska N; van Munsteren, Jacoba C; DeRuiter, Marco C

    2015-10-01

    In ovarian cancer, detection of sentinel nodes is an upcoming procedure. Perioperative determination of the patient's sentinel node(s) might prevent a radical lymphadenectomy and associated morbidity. It is essential to understand the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries, which are surprisingly up till now poorly investigated, to predict the anatomical regions where sentinel nodes can be found. We aimed to describe the lymphatic drainage pathways of the human ovaries including their compartmental fascia borders. A series of 3 human female fetuses and tissues samples from 1 human cadaveric specimen were studied. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded transverse sections (8 or 10 μm) using antibodies against Lyve-1, S100, and α-smooth muscle actin to identify the lymphatic endothelium, Schwann, and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created. Two major and 1 minor lymphatic drainage pathways from the ovaries were detected. One pathway drained via the proper ligament of the ovaries (ovarian ligament) toward the lymph nodes in the obturator fossa and the internal iliac artery. Another pathway drained the ovaries via the suspensory ligament (infundibulopelvic ligament) toward the para-aortic and paracaval lymph nodes. A third minor pathway drained the ovaries via the round ligament to the inguinal lymph nodes. Lymph vessels draining the fallopian tube all followed the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries. The lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries invariably run via the suspensory ligament (infundibulopelvic ligament) and the proper ligament of the ovaries (ovarian ligament), as well as through the round ligament of the uterus. Because ovarian cancer might spread lymphogenously via these routes, the sentinel node can be detected in the para-aortic and paracaval regions, obturator fossa and surrounding internal iliac arteries, and inguinal regions. These findings support the strategy of

  11. Interaction between the extracellular matrix and lymphatics - consequences for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Helge; Keskin, Doruk; Kalluri, Raghu

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic system is important for body fluid balance as well as immunological surveillance. Due to the identification of new molecular markers during the last decade, there has been a recent dramatic increase in our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in lymphatic vessel growth (lymphangiogenesis) and lymphatic function. Here we review data showing that although it is often overlooked, the extracellular matrix plays an important role in the generation of new lymphatic vessels as a response to physiological and pathological stimuli. Extracellular matrix-lymphatic interactions as well as biophysical characteristics of the stroma have consequences for tumor formation, growth and metastasis. During the recent years, anti-lymphangiogenesis has emerged as an additional therapeutic modality to the clinically applied anti-angiogenesis strategy. Oppositely, enhancement of lymphangiogenesis in situations of lymph accumulation is seen as a promising strategy to a set of conditions where few therapeutic avenues are available. Knowledge on the interaction between the extracellular matrix and the lymphatics may enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and may ultimately lead to better therapies for conditions where reduced or increased lymphatic function is the therapeutic target PMID:20727409

  12. Increase in podoplanin-expressing intestinal lymphatic vessels in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleff, Silvana; Schoppmann, Sebastian F; Oberhuber, Georg

    2003-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are two presentations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Whereas the inflammation in UC is confined to the mucosa/submucosa, CD is considered a transmural disease with characteristic lymphoid aggregates with or without epithelioid granulomas in the subserosa. Here we examined and quantified the distribution of lymphatic capillaries in small- and large-bowel resection specimens (non-IBD n=8; CD n=20 and UC n=13) using immunohistochemical staining with anti-human podoplanin antibody, an established marker for lymphatic endothelium. In normal small intestine, the lymphatic network originated in the capillaries beneath the surface epithelial cells, whereas it started in the lower third of the mucosa of the large intestine. Lymphatic microvessel counts revealed a statistically highly significant increase ( Pintestine. Numerical differences between CD and UC samples were not significant. Prominence of lymphatic capillaries could also be observed in areas where fibrosis replaced chronic inflammation. These findings suggested that lymph-vessel proliferation in IBDs may be triggered by chronic inflammation irrespective of its organization and is maintained in fibrotic end-stage disease.

  13. Multiscale modeling of lymphatic drainage from tissues using homogenization theory

    OpenAIRE

    Roose Tiina; Swartz Melody A.

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic capillary drainage of interstitial fluid under both steady state and inflammatory conditions is important for tissue fluid balance cancer metastasis and immunity. Lymphatic drainage function is critically coupled to the fluid mechanical properties of the interstitium yet this coupling is poorly understood. Here we sought to effectively model the lymphatic interstitial fluid coupling and ask why the lymphatic capillary network often appears with roughly a hexagonal architecture. We u...

  14. Lymphatic recovery of exogenous oleic acid in rats on long chain or specific structured triacylglycerol diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid), rapidly deliver energy and long-chain fatty acids to the body and are used for longer periods in human enteral feeding. In the present study rats were fed diets of 10 wt% MLM or LLL (L = oleic acid...... structure and composition (P = 0.07). This study demonstrated that with a diet containing specific structured triacylglycerol, the lymphatic recovery of 18:1 n-9 after a single bolus of fat was dependent on the triacylglycerol structure of the bolus. This indicates that the lymphatic recovery of long...

  15. Nonimmune idiopathic hydrops fetalis and congenital lymphatic dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellini, Carlo; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Boccardo, Francesco; Campisi, Corradino; Serra, Giovanni; Bonioli, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    Six newborns that presented at birth with nonimmune hydrops fetalis and for whom no cause could be found were investigated for the presence of lymphatic dysplasia. Careful analysis led to findings of some degree of lymphatic dysplasia in all patients. This suggests that lymphatic dysplasia may

  16. Evaluation of lymphatic regeneration in rat incisional wound healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevine M.F. El Deeb

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... Abstract Objective: During the wound healing process, lymphatic regeneration in the injured skin has not been fully ... Material and methods: We studied the regeneration of lymphatic vessels in the rat skin incisional wounds (sutured ... lymphatic vessels sprouting in experimental rabbit ear wounds.9The ...

  17. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enala T Mwase

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored.Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels.LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia.

  18. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T; Simonsen, Paul E

    2014-02-01

    Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia.

  19. Pitfalls in Cutaneous Melanoma Lymphatic Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, Silviu; Sandru, Angela; Gherghe, Mirela

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard in staging of cutaneous melanoma. As skin lymphatic drainage is complex, preoperative empirical assessment of SN localization is virtually impossible. Therefore in order to identify all regional lymphatic basins corresponding to a specific primary tumor is mandatory to carry out preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. In this paper we present a clinical case that highlights the importance of identifying, biopsy and histological analysis of all SN in order to achieve a correct staging of the patient, followed by appropriate treatment according to the real clinical stage of the disease. Celsius.

  20. An investigation of the topography of the lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). 1. The superficial lymphatic system.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopwood, P R

    1988-01-01

    The superficial lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus is described. The description is based on dissections of 130 eastern grey kangaroos. The most significant difference found between the superficial lymphatic drainage pattern of kangaroos and that of the domestic species was the existence of large inguino-axillary lymphatic trunks in the kangaroo. Thus in the kangaroo, instead of lymph passing from the inguinal lymphocentre to the lumbar lymphatic trunks as is the situat...

  1. Distribution and organization of lymphatic vessels in the mouse gingiva: An immunohistochemical study with LYVE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Natsumi; Inoue, Kiichiro; Domon, Takanori; Yoshida, Shigemitsu

    2008-07-01

    This study introduced the usefulness of LYVE-1 immunoreactivity for identification of lymphatic vessels in decalcified tissues, and demonstrated the fine distribution and organization of these vessels in mouse gingiva. After confirming the specificity of anti-mouse LYVE-1, frozen sections of mouse decalcified gingiva were immunostained with the antibody. The LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels were clearly found in the connective tissue under the gingival epithelium; these vessels appeared to pass through the lamina propria of the gingiva toward the alveolar crest and run along the external surface of the alveolar bone. The lymphatic vessels were sparse and apart from the oral gingival and sulcular epithelia, while they were dense adjacent to the junctional epithelium. The dense network of the lymphatic vessels adjacent to the junctional epithelium, which is apparently exposed to foreign antigens, may act as an efficient drainage pathway of the excessive interstitial fluid and immune cells, and play an active role in the immune defense of the gingiva. The present study also revealed the absence of lymphatic connection between gingiva and periodontal ligament.

  2. ACE Inhibitor in the treatment of cutaneous and lymphatic sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaura, Vinod; Kaura, Samantha H; Kaura, Claire S

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme is used as a marker for sarcoid activity. We describe a case of remission of cutaneous and lymphatic sarcoidosis in a patient treated with an ACE inhibitor for congestive heart failure and hypertension; the remission has continued over 4 years of follow-up. Because this is a report of only one case, there is a possibility of sampling error. Whether the patient's remission in this case was a serendipitous spontaneous remission that happened to occur during ACE inhibitor therapy or whether ACE inhibitor therapy can play a role in the treatment of sarcoidosis needs to be determined in a large clinical trial.

  3. [Lymphatic vascular pathologies: contribution of lympho-fluoroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomson, Didier; Lessert, Claudia; Luthi, Irène; Mazzolai, Lucia; Depairon, Michèle

    2015-02-04

    If clinical examination has an essential importance in lymphology disorders and requires experimented practitioners, lymphoscintigraphy and more recently green indocyanine lympho-fluoroscopy constitute precious complementary investigations in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of lymphatic vascular pathologies. The lymphoscintigraphy interest lies in qualitative and quantitative analysis of macromolecules migration within lymphatic vessels and the deep lymphatic network. The lympho-fluoroscopy distinguishes itself from lymphoscintigraphy allowing real time superficial lymphatic vessels detailed mapping, gathering important information on their contractility, and the presence of compensatory derivations to be favored during manual lymphatic drainage to angiologist and physiotherapist.

  4. Characterization of biosynthesis and modes of action of prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehal, Sonia; Blanckaert, Pauline; Roizes, Simon; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2009-12-01

    Rhythmical transient constrictions of the lymphatic vessels provide the means for efficient lymph drainage and interstitial tissue fluid balance. This activity is critical during inflammation, to avoid or limit oedema resulting from increased vascular permeability, mediated by the release of various inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and prostacyclin modulate lymphatic contractility in isolated guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of mRNA for enzymes and receptors involved in the production and action of PGE(2) and prostacyclin in mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels. Frequency and amplitude of lymphatic vessel constriction were measured in the presence of these prostaglandins and the role of their respective EP and IP receptors assessed. Prostaglandin E(2) and prostacyclin decreased concentration-dependently the frequency, without affecting the amplitude, of lymphatic constriction. Data obtained in the presence of the EP(4) receptor antagonists, GW627368x (1 microM) and AH23848B (30 microM) and the IP receptor antagonist CAY10441 (0.1 microM) suggest that PGE(2) predominantly activates EP(4), whereas prostacyclin mainly stimulates IP receptors. Inhibition of responses to either prostaglandin with H89 (10 microM) or glibenclamide (1 microM) suggested a role for the activation of protein kinase A and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Our findings characterized the inhibition of lymphatic pumping induced by PGE(2) or prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatics. This action is likely to impair oedema resolution and to contribute to the pro-inflammatory actions of these prostaglandins.

  5. Lymphatic muscle cells in rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels of various ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridenbaugh, Eric A; Nizamutdinova, Irina Tsoy; Jupiter, Daniel; Nagai, Takashi; Thangaswamy, Sangeetha; Chatterjee, Victor; Gashev, Anatoliy A

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies on aging-associated changes in mesenteric lymph flow in situ demonstrated predominance of the severe negative chronotropic effect of aging on the contractility of aged mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLV). At the same time, contraction amplitude of the aged vessels was only slightly diminished by aging and can be rapidly stimulated within 5-15 minutes. However, the detailed quantitative evaluation of potential aging-associated changes in muscle cells investiture in MLV has never been performed. In this study we, for the first time, performed detailed evaluation of muscle cells investiture in MLV in reference to the position of lymphatic valve in different zones of lymphangion within various age groups (3-mo, 9-mo and 24-mo Fischer-344 rats). Using visual and quantitative analyses of the images of MLV immunohistochemically labeled for actin, we confirmed that the zones located close upstream (pre-valve zones) and above lymphatic valves (valve zones) possess the lowest investiture of lymphatic muscle cells. Most of the high muscle cells investiture zones exist downstream to the lymphatic valve (post-valve zones). The muscle cells investiture of these zones is not affected by aging, while pre-valve and valve zones demonstrate significant aging-associated decrease in muscle cells investiture. The low muscle cells investiture zones in lymphatic vessels consist of predominantly longitudinally oriented muscle cells which are positioned in pre-valve and valve zones and connect adjacent lymphangions. These cells may provide important functional impact on the biomechanics of the lymphatic valve gating and electrical coupling between lymphangions, while their aging-associated changes may delimit adaptive reserves of aged lymphatic vessels.

  6. Potential Applications of Using 68Ga-Evans Blue PET/CT in the Evaluation of Lymphatic Disorder: Preliminary Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Peilin; Li, Fang; Tong, Guansheng; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Zhaohui

    2016-04-01

    Potentials of 68Ga-NEB as a PET tracer in the evaluation of a variety of lymphatic drainage disorders were analyzed. 68Ga-NEB was injected subcutaneously, and the PET/CT images were acquired in 13 patients with different suspected lymphatic drainage abnormality. The 68Ga-NEB PET/CT findings were compared with Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy. 68Ga-NEB activity could be clearly observed in the lymphatic route on the PET/CT images from all the patients. In 5 (38.5%) of 13 patients tested, 68Ga-NEB PET/CT provided more information than the Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy. 68Ga-NEB PET/CT can be used as an alternative of Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy in the evaluation of lymphatic disorders, which enables fast results and might be more accurate than the conventional Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy.

  7. Lymphatic malformations: a proposed management algorithm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oosthuizen, J C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a management algorithm for cervicofacial lymphatic malformations, based on the authors\\' experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature on the subject. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of all the patients treated for lymphatic malformations at our institution during a 10-year period (1998-2008) was performed. DATA COLLECTED: age at diagnosis, location and type of lesion, radiologic investigation performed, presenting symptoms, treatment modality used, complications and results achieved. RESULTS: 14 patients were identified. Eight (57%) male and six (43%) female. There was an equal distribution between the left and right sides. The majority (71%) of cases were diagnosed within the first year of life. The majority of lesions were located in the suprahyoid region. The predominant reason for referral was an asymptomatic mass in 7 cases (50%) followed by airway compromise (36%) and dysphagia (14%). Management options employed included: observation, OK-432 injection, surgical excision and laser therapy. In 5 cases (36%) a combination of these were used. CONCLUSION: Historically surgical excision has been the management option of choice for lymphatic malformations. However due to the morbidity and high complication rate associated this is increasingly being questioned. Recent advances in sclerotherapy e.g. OK-432 injection have also shown significant promise. Based on experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature the authors of this paper have developed an algorithm for the management of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

  8. Sentinel surveillance of Lymphatic filariasis, Schistosomiasis, Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Baseline prevalence and knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) survey is a prerequisite for mass drug administration for the control of Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and other neglected tropical diseases. Methods: In preparation for the first mass drug administration for LF elimination, a baseline survey was ...

  9. Immunopathogenesis of lymphatic filarial disease1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Subash; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Although two-thirds of the 120 million people infected with lymph-dwelling filarial parasites have subclinical infections, ~ 40 million have lymphedema and/or other pathologic manifestations including hydroceles (and other forms of urogenital disease), episodic adenolymphangitis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, lymphedema, and (in its most severe form) elephantiasis. Adult filarial worms reside in the lymphatics and lymph nodes and induce changes that result in dilatation of lymphatics and thickening of the lymphatic vessel walls. Progressive lymphatic damage and pathology results from the summation of the effect of tissue alterations induced by both living and nonliving adult parasites, the host inflammatory response to the parasites and their secreted antigens, the host inflammatory response to the endosymbiont Wolbachia, and those seen as a consequence of secondary bacterial or fungal infections. Inflammatory damage induced by filarial parasites appears to be multifactorial, with endogenous parasite products, Wolbachia, and host immunity all playing important roles. This review will initially examine the prototypical immune responses engendered by the parasite and delineate the regulatory mechanisms elicited to prevent immune-mediated pathology. This will be followed by a discussion of the proposed mechanisms underlying pathogenesis, with the central theme being that pathogenesis is a two-step process - the first initiated by the parasite and host innate immune system and the second propagated mainly by the host’s adaptive immune system and by other factors (including secondary infections). PMID:23053393

  10. Modelling Lymphatic Filariasis: Transmission and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Swaminathan

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito borne parasitic disease of the tropics. Of the three species of parasites causing the disease, W. bancrofti transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus is the most widely prevalent. Infection can lead to disabling chronic manifestations: lymphoedema,

  11. Prevalence of lymphatic complications due to onchocerciasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of lymphatic complications due to onchocerciasis infection in 38 endemic rural communities in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. Using standard parasitological and clinical methods of diagnosis, 7,144 consenting individuals aged 5 years and above were examined for ...

  12. Ivermectin-Albendazole Combination Therapy in Lymphatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest manifestation of lymphatic filariasis is lymphoedema, which on progression leads on to elephantiasis. Even though lower limbs are commonly affected, upper limbs involvement is rarely reported in West Africa especially in females. In the present report a 19 year old female (BMI 20.49 kg/m2) in the ...

  13. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...

  14. Multiscale modeling of lymphatic drainage from tissues using homogenization theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, Tiina; Swartz, Melody A

    2012-01-03

    Lymphatic capillary drainage of interstitial fluid under both steady-state and inflammatory conditions is important for tissue fluid balance, cancer metastasis, and immunity. Lymphatic drainage function is critically coupled to the fluid mechanical properties of the interstitium, yet this coupling is poorly understood. Here we sought to effectively model the lymphatic-interstitial fluid coupling and ask why the lymphatic capillary network often appears with roughly a hexagonal architecture. We use homogenization method, which allows tissue-scale lymph flow to be integrated with the microstructural details of the lymphatic capillaries, thus gaining insight into the functionality of lymphatic anatomy. We first describe flow in lymphatic capillaries using the Navier-Stokes equations and flow through the interstitium using Darcy's law. We then use multiscale homogenization to derive macroscale equations describing lymphatic drainage, with the mouse tail skin as a basis. We find that the limiting resistance for fluid drainage is that from the interstitium into the capillaries rather than within the capillaries. We also find that between hexagonal, square, and parallel tube configurations of lymphatic capillary networks, the hexagonal structure is the most efficient architecture for coupled interstitial and capillary fluid transport; that is, it clears the most interstitial fluid for a given network density and baseline interstitial fluid pressure. Thus, using homogenization theory, one can assess how vessel microstructure influences the macroscale fluid drainage by the lymphatics and demonstrate why the hexagonal network of dermal lymphatic capillaries is optimal for interstitial tissue fluid clearance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hobnail hemangioma reclassified as superficial lymphatic malformation: a study of 52 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Felicidade; Kutzner, Heinz; Tellechea, Óscar; Requena, Luis; Colmenero, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Hobnail hemangioma (HH) is currently classified as a benign vascular tumor, although it is not well understood whether this lesion differentiates toward blood or lymphatic endothelial cells. Immunostaining with the endothelial marker Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) helps distinguish between vascular neoplasms and malformations, being positive in the former and negative in the latter. We sought to investigate WT1, human herpesvirus 8 latent nuclear antigen, D2-40, and Ki-67 immunoprofile in HH, to gain further insight into its histogenesis. We evaluated 52 HHs collected in Dermatohistopathologische Gemeinschaftslabor, Friedrichshafen, Germany. Immunohistochemical expression of WT1 was performed in all cases. Ten of 52 lesions were also studied for D2-40 and Ki-67 staining and 12 lesions were stained for human herpesvirus 8 latent nuclear antigen. All 52 HHs were completely negative for WT1 immunostaining. Immunohistochemistry performed in 10 HHs showed diffuse and strong positive staining for D2-40 in 8 lesions and focal positivity in two. All cases tested showed negative staining for Ki-67 and human herpesvirus 8 latent nuclear antigen. There are no limitations. Although the exact histogenesis of HH is unknown, most of the performed immunohistochemical studies support a lymphatic line of differentiation. However, on the basis of the WT1 negativity, we believe that HH is better considered as a lymphatic malformation rather than a lymphatic neoplasm. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in The Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Sambou, Sana Malang; Thomas, Brent; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Jaye, Momodou C.; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Escalada, Alba Gonzalez; Molyneux, David H.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti, which causes lymphatic filariasis (LF) in The Gambia was among the highest in Africa in the 1950s. However, surveys conducted in 1975 and 1976 revealed a dramatic decline in LF endemicity in the absence of mass drug administration (MDA). The decline in prevalence was partly attributed to a significant reduction in mosquito density through the widespread use of insecticidal nets. Based on findings elsewhere that vector control alone can interrupt LF, we asked the question in 2013 whether the rapid scale up in the use of insecticidal nets in The Gambia had interrupted LF transmission. Methodology/Principal Finding We present here the results of three independently designed filariasis surveys conducted over a period of 17 years (1997–2013), and involving over 6000 subjects in 21 districts across all administrative divisions in The Gambia. An immunochromatographic (ICT) test was used to detect W. bancrofti antigen during all three surveys. In 2001, tests performed on stored samples collected between 1997 and 2000, in three divisions, failed to show positive individuals from two divisions that were previously highly endemic for LF, suggesting a decline towards extinction in some areas. Results of the second survey conducted in 2003 showed that LF was no longer endemic in 16 of 21 districts surveyed. The 2013 survey used a WHO recommended LF transmission verification tool involving 3180 6–7 year-olds attending 60 schools across the country. We demonstrated that transmission of W. bancrofti has been interrupted in all 21 districts. Conclusions We conclude that LF transmission may have been interrupted in The Gambia through the extensive use of insecticidal nets for malaria control for decades. The growing evidence for the impact of malaria vector control activities on parasite transmission has been endorsed by WHO through a position statement in 2011 on integrated vector management to control malaria and LF. PMID

  17. Lymphatic drainage pathways from the cervix uteri: implications for radical hysterectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraima, A C; Derks, M; Smit, N N; Van Munsteren, J C; Van der Velden, J; Kenter, G G; DeRuiter, M C

    2014-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the treatment of choice for early-stage cervical cancer. Wertheim's original technique has been often modified, mainly in the extent of parametrectomy. Okabayashi's technique is considered as the most radical variant regarding removal of the ventral parametrium and paracolpal tissues. Surgical outcome concerning recurrence and survival is good, but morbidity is high due to autonomic nerve damage. While the autonomic network has been studied extensively, the lymphatic system is less understood. This study describes the lymphatic drainage pathways of the cervix uteri and specifically the presence of lymphatics in the vesico-uterine ligament (VUL). A developmental series of 10 human female fetal pelves was studied. Paraffin embedded blocks were sliced in transverse sections of 8 or 10 μm. Analysis was performed by staining with antibodies against LYVE-1 (lymphatic endothelium), S100 (Schwann cells), alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (smooth muscle cells) and CD68 (macrophages). The results were three-dimensionally represented. Two major pathways drained the cervix uteri: a supra-ureteral pathway, running in the cardinal ligament superior to the ureter, and a dorsal pathway, running in the utero-sacral ligament towards the rectal pillars. No lymph vessels draining the cervix uteri were detected in the VUL. In the paracolpal parametrium lymph vessels draining the upper vagina fused with those from the bladder. The VUL does not contain lymphatics from the cervix uteri. Hence, the favorable survival outcomes of the Okabayashi technique cannot be explained by radical removal of lymphatic pathways in the ventrocaudal parametrium. © 2013.

  18. Concentration of indocyanine green does not significantly influence lymphatic function as assessed by near-infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, M B; Davies-Venn, C; Angermiller, B; Robinson, H; Chan, W; Kwon, S; Sevick-Muraca, E M

    2012-03-01

    Absorbance of near-infrared (600-800 nm) light by the tissue components water, melanin, and hemoglobin is minimal. This property allows the use of near-infrared-emitting fluorophores for noninvasive, in vivo, real-time imaging of tissue, without the interference of autofluorescence experienced with imaging in other wavelength ranges. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has been used to noninvasively image lymphatic architecture and pumping function in animals, as well as in humans. The effects of different doses of a NIR dye, indocyanine green (ICG), on lymphatic function have been questioned. This study aims to address these concerns in the context of a mouse inguinal-to-axillary lymphatic imaging model. We measured lymph propulsive velocity and frequency using an imaging system composed of a laser diode for excitation of the dye, an image intensifier, and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera to capture real-time images. At 0.32, 0.645, and 1.3 mM ICG, no significant differences in lymphatic propulsive velocity or frequency were observed. Additionally, the use of other NIR imaging agents did not result in significant differences. The use of different concentrations of ICG and the use of other near-infrared fluorophores for optical imaging of lymphatics does not significantly affect lymphatic propulsive velocity or frequency.

  19. Local inhibition of elastase reduces EMILIN1 cleavage reactivating lymphatic vessel function in a mouse lymphoedema model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Eliana; Wassermann, Bruna; Del Bel Belluz, Lisa; Danussi, Carla; Modica, Teresa Maria Elisa; Maiorani, Orlando; Bosisio, Giulia; Boccardo, Francesco; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Colombatti, Alfonso; Spessotto, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic vasculature critically depends on the connections of lymphatic endothelial cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM), which are mediated by anchoring filaments (AFs). The ECM protein EMILIN1 is a component of AFs and is involved in the regulation of lymphatic vessel functions: accordingly, Emilin1(-/-) mice display lymphatic vascular morphological alterations, leading to functional defects such as mild lymphoedema, lymph leakage and compromised lymph drainage. In the present study, using a mouse post-surgical tail lymphoedema model, we show that the acute phase of acquired lymphoedema correlates with EMILIN1 degradation due to neutrophil elastase (NE) released by infiltrating neutrophils. As a consequence, the intercellular junctions of lymphatic endothelial cells are weakened and drainage to regional lymph nodes is severely affected. The local administration of sivelestat, a specific NE inhibitor, prevents EMILIN1 degradation and reduces lymphoedema, restoring a normal lymphatic functionality. The finding that, in human secondary lymphoedema samples, we also detected cleaved EMILIN1 with the typical bands of an NE-dependent pattern of fragmentation establishes a rationale for a powerful strategy that targets NE inhibition. In conclusion, the attempts to block EMILIN1 degradation locally represent the basis for a novel 'ECM' pharmacological approach to assessing new lymphoedema treatments. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Short time effects of radiotherapy on lymphatic vessels and restorative lymphatic pathways: experimental approaches ina mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastouret, F; Lievens, P; Leduc, O; Bourgeois, P; Tournel, K; Lamote, J; Zirak, C; Leduc, A

    2014-06-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an important component in the therapeutic approach to oncologic conditions. This study presents the investigative results on the impact of RT on lymphatic vessels and on the regenerative response of the lymphatic system in a mouse model. We first irradiated 3 groups of ten mice using brachytherapy in a single treatment of 20 Gy. We then performed morphological examination of the irradiated lymphatic vessels using an in vivo microscopic transillumination technique at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Next we evaluated lymphatic flow using lymphoscintigraphy and in vivo microscopy at 6 to 11 weeks in: 10 additional mice following irradiation as above (IR), in 10 mice following incision of a lymphatic vessel (I), and in a non-treated control group of 10 mice (N). Intact lymphatic vessels were observed in all mice at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following the single dose of radiotherapy in the first group of mice and normal lymphatic flow was fully restored in the irradiated (IR) and incised (I) mice indicating that the reparative substitution lymphatic pathways are functioning normally. We found that following irradiation with one dose of 20 Gy, lymphatic vessels were not visibly damaged and also that lymphatic flow was consistently restored and substitutive lymphatic pathways formed.

  1. Human rights education (HRE) and transnational activism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.; Schmitz, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Transnational human rights activism occupies today a significant place in the practice and scholarship of current global affairs. This article reviews the past successes and limits of this activism and suggests Human Rights Education (HRE) as a strategic tool currently underutilized by activists and

  2. Lymph flow pattern in pleural diaphragmatic lymphatics during intrinsic and extrinsic isotonic contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral rat diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels, endowed with intrinsic spontaneous contractility, were in vivo filled with fluorescent dextrans and microspheres and subsequently studied ex vivo in excised diaphragmatic samples. Changes in diameter and lymph velocity were detected, in a vessel segment, during spontaneous lymphatic smooth muscle contraction and upon activation, through electrical whole-field stimulation, of diaphragmatic skeletal muscle fibers. During intrinsic contraction lymph flowed both forward and backward, with a net forward propulsion of 14.1 ± 2.9 μm at an average net forward speed of 18.0 ± 3.6 μm/s. Each skeletal muscle contraction sustained a net forward-lymph displacement of 441.9 ± 159.2 μm at an average velocity of 339.9 ± 122.7 μm/s, values significantly higher than those documented during spontaneous contraction. The flow velocity profile was parabolic during both spontaneous and skeletal muscle contraction, and the shear stress calculated at the vessel wall at the highest instantaneous velocity never exceeded 0.25 dyne/cm(2). Therefore, we propose that the synchronous contraction of diaphragmatic skeletal muscle fibers recruited at every inspiratory act dramatically enhances diaphragmatic lymph propulsion, whereas the spontaneous lymphatic contractility might, at least in the diaphragm, be essential in organizing the pattern of flow redistribution within the diaphragmatic lymphatic circuit. Moreover, the very low shear stress values observed in diaphragmatic lymphatics suggest that, in contrast with other contractile lymphatic networks, a likely interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms be based on a mechanical and/or electrical connection rather than on nitric oxide release. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Nano-sized drug delivery systems for lymphatic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays important roles for immune responses, spreading cancer cells or viruses and disseminating infections. Thus, targeting drugs, such as anticancer, immunotherapeutic and lymphoid contrast agents, to both tumors and the lymphatics, has several advantages such as reduced systemic side effects and increased efficacy. For these reasons, much interest has been focused on the nature of the lymphatics and various studies on the lymphatic delivery of drugs have been carried out. Because the lymphatics consist of a single layer endothelium and have higher permeability compared with that of blood capillaries, studies using nano-sized carriers have been performed. Polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, and lipid-based vehicles have been adopted as lymphatic delivery carriers. This review will focus on the clinical use of such nano-sized carriers that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymphatic system. Lymphatic delivery of drugs, such as anticancer, immunotherapeutic and lymphoid contrast agents, using nano-sized carriers has much more improved ability compared with that of conventional dosage forms, but it has not shown the specific lymphatic targeting ability yet. Finally, the challenges for the future are suggested in terms of the mechanisms governing the lymphatic delivery of nano-sized carriers.

  4. The lymphatic vascular system of the mouse head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrberg, Melanie; Wilting, Jörg

    2016-12-01

    Histological studies of the lymphatic vascular system in adult mice are hampered because bones cannot be sectioned properly. Here, we decalcified the heads of 14-day-old mice, embedded them in paraffin and stained resultant serial sections with the lymphendothelial-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. We show that the tissues with the highest lymphatic vascular density are the dermis and the oral mucous membranes. In contrast, the nasal mucous membrane is devoid of lymphatics, except for its most basal parts below the vomeronasal organ. The inferior nasal turbinate contains numerous lymphatics and is connected to the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), which is ensheathed by a dense network of lymphatics. The lymphatics of the eye lids and conjunctiva are connected to those of the inferior nasal turbinate. We suggest that cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can drain via the optic nerve and NLD lymphatics, whereas CSF drained via the Fila olfactoria into the nasal mucous membrane is used for moisturization of the respiratory air. Tongue, palatine and buccal mucous membranes possess numerous lymphatics, whereas the dental pulp has none. Lymphatics are present in the maxillary gland and close to the temporomandibular joint, suggesting the augmentation of lymph flow by chewing and yawning. Lymphatics can also be found in the dura mater and in the dural septae entering into deeper parts of the brain. Our findings are discussed with regard to CSF drainage and potential routes for ocular tumor dissemination.

  5. Program requirements for fellowship education in venous and lymphatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerota, Anthony J; Min, Robert J; Rathbun, Suman W; Khilnani, Neil; Rooke, Thom; Wakefield, Thomas W; Carman, Teresa L; Lurie, Fedor; Vedantham, Suresh; Zimmet, Steven E

    2017-08-01

    Background In every field of medicine, comprehensive education should be delivered at the graduate level. Currently, no single specialty routinely provides a standardized comprehensive curriculum in venous and lymphatic disease. Method The American Board of Venous & Lymphatic Medicine formed a task force, made up of experts from the specialties of dermatology, family practice, interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, phlebology, vascular medicine, and vascular surgery, to develop a consensus document describing the program requirements for fellowship medical education in venous and lymphatic medicine. Result The Program Requirements for Fellowship Education in Venous and Lymphatic Medicine identify the knowledge and skills that physicians must master through the course of fellowship training in venous and lymphatic medicine. They also specify the requirements for venous and lymphatic training programs. The document is based on the Core Content for Training in Venous and Lymphatic Medicine and follows the ACGME format that all subspecialties in the United States use to specify the requirements for training program accreditation. The American Board of Venous & Lymphatic Medicine Board of Directors approved this document in May 2016. Conclusion The pathway to a vein practice is diverse, and there is no standardized format available for physician education and training. The Program Requirements for Fellowship Education in Venous and Lymphatic Medicine establishes educational standards for teaching programs in venous and lymphatic medicine and will facilitate graduation of physicians who have had comprehensive training in the field.

  6. Obesity-induced lymphatic dysfunction is reversible with weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Matthew D; Hespe, Geoffrey E; Kataru, Raghu P; García Nores, Gabriela D; Savetsky, Ira L; Torrisi, Jeremy S; Gardenier, Jason C; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Mehrara, Babak J

    2016-12-01

    Obesity induces lymphatic leakiness, decreases initial lymphatic vessel density, impairs collecting vessel pumping and decreases transport of macromolecules. Obesity results in perilymphatic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and accumulation of T cells and macrophages. Deleterious effects of obesity on the lymphatic system correlate with weight gain. Weight loss restores lymphatic function in obese animals and decreases perilymphatic iNOS and inflammatory cell accumulation. Although clinical and experimental studies have shown that obesity results in lymphatic dysfunction, it remains unknown whether these changes are permanent or reversible with weight loss. In the current study, we used a mouse model of diet-induced obesity to identify putative cellular mechanisms of obesity-induced lymphatic dysfunction, determine whether there is a correlation between these deleterious effects and increasing weight gain, and finally examine whether lymphatic dysfunction is reversible with diet-induced weight loss. We report that obesity is negatively correlated with cutaneous lymphatic collecting vessel pumping rate (r = -0.9812, P weight gain and accumulation of perilymphatic inflammatory cells (r = 0.9872, P Weight loss resulting from conversion to a normal chow diet for 8 weeks resulted in more than a 25% decrease in body weight and normalized cutaneous lymphatic collecting vessel pumping rate, lymphatic vessel density, lymphatic leakiness, and lymphatic macromolecule clearance (all P weight loss markedly decreased perilymphatic inflammation and iNOS expression. Taken together, our findings show that obesity is linearly correlated with lymphatic dysfunction, perilymphatic inflammation and iNOS expression, and that weight loss via dietary modification effectively reverses these deleterious effects. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  7. Lymphatic endothelium forms integrin-engaging 3D structures during DC transit across inflamed lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teijeira, Alvaro; Garasa, Saray; Peláez, Rafael; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, Carmen; Marré, Diego; Rodrigues, Magda; Alfaro, Carlos; Aubá, Cristina; Valitutti, Salvatore; Melero, Ignacio; Rouzaut, Ana

    2013-09-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) transmigration across the lymphatic endothelium is critical for the initiation and sustenance of immune responses. Under noninflammatory conditions, DC transit across the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) has been shown to be integrin independent. In contrast, there is increasing evidence for the participation of integrins and their ligands in DC transit across lymphatic endothelium under inflammation. In this sense, we describe the formation of ICAM-1 (CD54)-enriched three-dimensional structures on LEC/DC contacts, as these DCs adhere to inflamed skin lymphatic vessels and transmigrate into them. In vitro imaging revealed that under inflammation ICAM-1 accumulated on microvilli projections surrounding 60% of adhered DCs. In contrast, these structures were scarcely formed in noninflammatory conditions. Furthermore, ICAM-1-enriched microvilli were important in promoting DC transendothelial migration and DC crawling over the LEC surface. Microvilli formation was dependent on the presence of β-integrins on the DC side and on integrin conformational affinity to ligand. Finally, we observed that LEC microvilli structures appeared in close vicinity of CCL21 depots and that their assembly was partially inhibited by CCL21-neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, under inflammatory conditions, integrin ligands form three-dimensional membrane projections around DCs. These structures offer docking sites for DC transit from the tissue toward the lymphatic vessel lumen.

  8. Could MRI visualize the invisible? An Italian single center study comparing magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL), super microsurgery and histology in the identification of lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, P; Borghini, A; Chisci, G; Mazzei, F G; Weber, E; Tedone Clemente, E; Guerrini, S; Gentili, F; Gabriele, G; Ungari, C; Mazzei, M A

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of limb magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) to differentiate lymphatic vessels from pathological veins, collect a specimen of the identified lymphatic vessel during operations of super microsurgical lymphatic-venular anastomosis (s-LVA) and perform immunohistochemical stainings to confirm the nature of the collected vessels. Twenty patients presenting lymphedema were enrolled in this study. Five patients reported lower limb lymphedema and 15 patients reported upper limb lymphedema. All patients had the indication for s-LVA and underwent preoperative MRL imaging of the affected limb. A total of 57 lymphatic vessels were identified by MRL and used to guide s-LVA: all these vessels have also been used to perform an intraoperative biopsy for immunohistochemical evaluation. A total of 53/57 vascular structures resulted compatible with lymphatic vessels at the immunohistochemical study performed with D2-40 antibody; 3/57 specimen showed the absence of the D2-40 antibody. A significant association was found between preoperative MRL and immunohistochemical marker D2-40 on collected specimen. Most of the articles in the international literature report the concomitant presence of both lymphatic and venous vessels at MRL. However, no one in literature describes the possibility to differentiate venous vessels from lymphatic vessels, and this is a crucial issue for the correct evaluation of the lymphatic system in patients with limb lymphedema undergoing a future surgical correction. In the present study, MRL allowed to identify active lymphatic vessels. MRL was predictive to determine preoperatory lymphatic vessels and to perform successful s-LVA in lymphedema patients. This is the first study to prove the nature of the vessels identified at the preoperative MRL with immunohistochemical stainings.

  9. Lymphatic opacification in the prosthetic hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, R.A.; Gheorghiu, D. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Radiology); Krausz, Y. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 52 patients with hip pain following total hip replacement was made. Each of them was evaluated by plain radiographs, technetium 99m pyrophosphate scans, arthrography with plain film substraction technique, and culture of joint fluid. In 30 cases there was evidence of prosthetic loosening, and in 21 of these lymphangeal opacification during arthrography was seen. In 15 cases with lymphongeal opacification the daignosis of prosthetic loosening was subsequently confirmed by prosthetic revision. In none of the 22 cases in which no evidence of prosthetic loosening was seen was there lymphatic opacification. It is concluded that lymphatic opacification during arthrography for pain following total hip prosthesis is a valuable ancillary sign of loosening. (orig.).

  10. Lymphatic injury at sacrocolpopexy: an unusual complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Michael W H; Geoffrion, Roxana

    2014-04-01

    Lymphorrhea is a rare condition with a paucity of reports in the gynaecologic literature. The most frequent causes are invasive procedures and surgical interventions. A multiparous woman underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with prophylactic bilateral salpingectomy and abdominal sacrocolpopexy for pelvic organ prolapse. During retroperitoneal dissection, clear fluid discharge was encountered. Ureteric injury was subsequently ruled out. A sample of the fluid was taken to confirm lymphatic injury. Ligation suture and closing the peritoneum slowed fluid drainage. To our knowledge, this is the first reported lymphatic injury in association with a urogynaecologic procedure. Gynaecologists should be aware of this potential complication and should have an approach to diagnosis and management. This case highlights the importance of intraoperative consultation.

  11. Aberrant mural cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels and impaired lymphatic drainage in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinecke, Anna-Katharina; Nagy, Nadine; Lago, Gabriela D'Amico; Kirmse, Santina; Klose, Ralph; Schrödter, Katrin; Zimmermann, Annika; Helfrich, Iris; Rundqvist, Helene; Theegarten, Dirk; Anhenn, Olaf; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique; Johnson, Randall S; Alitalo, Kari; Fischer, Jens W; Fandrey, Joachim; Stockmann, Christian

    2012-06-14

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease with unknown etiology that is characterized by extensive remodeling of the lung parenchyma, ultimately resulting in respiratory failure. Lymphatic vessels have been implicated with the development of pulmonary fibrosis, but the role of the lymphatic vasculature in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis remains enigmatic. Here we show in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis that lymphatic vessels exhibit ectopic mural coverage and that this occurs early during the disease. The abnormal lymphatic vascular patterning in fibrotic lungs was driven by expression of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) in lymphatic endothelial cells and signaling through platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-β in associated mural cells. Because of impaired lymphatic drainage, aberrant mural cell coverage fostered the accumulation of fibrogenic molecules and the attraction of fibroblasts to the perilymphatic space. Pharmacologic inhibition of the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β signaling axis disrupted the association of mural cells and lymphatic vessels, improved lymphatic drainage of the lung, and prevented the attraction of fibroblasts to the perilymphatic space. Our results implicate aberrant mural cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and that the drainage capacity of pulmonary lymphatics is a critical mediator of fibroproliferative changes.

  12. Non-endemic cases of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T

    2014-11-01

    Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development and plasticity of meningeal lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Salli; Karaman, Sinem; Nurmi, Harri; Airavaara, Mikko; Voutilainen, Merja H; Mathivet, Thomas; Chilov, Dmitri; Li, Zhilin; Koppinen, Tapani; Park, Jun-Hee; Fang, Shentong; Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Saarma, Mart; Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Alitalo, Kari

    2017-11-15

    The recent discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels (LVs) has raised interest in their possible involvement in neuropathological processes, yet little is known about their development or maintenance. We show here that meningeal LVs develop postnatally, appearing first around the foramina in the basal parts of the skull and spinal canal, sprouting along the blood vessels and cranial and spinal nerves to various parts of the meninges surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). VEGF-C, expressed mainly in vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGFR3 in lymphatic endothelial cells were essential for their development, whereas VEGF-D deletion had no effect. Surprisingly, in adult mice, the LVs showed regression after VEGF-C or VEGFR3 deletion, administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib, or expression of VEGF-C/D trap, which also compromised the lymphatic drainage function. Conversely, an excess of VEGF-C induced meningeal lymphangiogenesis. The plasticity and regenerative potential of meningeal LVs should allow manipulation of cerebrospinal fluid drainage and neuropathological processes in the CNS. © 2017 Antila et al.

  14. [Mixed facial lymphatic malformation: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovic I, Carmen Gloria; Vidal T, Claudia; Leiva V, Noemí; Véliz M, Sebastián

    2014-12-01

    Lymphangiomas are a common form of vascular malformation of the lymphatic vessels, mainly in the head and neck region. Most cases are progressive evolution and require a multidisciplinary approach. Currently, the first therapeutic option is sclerotherapy, leaving surgery for the treatment of remaining lesions. To present a case of facial lymphatic malformation (LM) treated with sclerotherapy, surgery and orthodontics in a 15-year follow up. A one-year-old female patient who consulted health professionals due to a progressive volume increase of the soft parts of her right cheek. The imaging study confirmed the diagnosis of microcystic lymphatic malformation. It was managed with OK-432 sclerotherapy and Bleomycin. At 2 years of age, the patient response was considered adequate; an intralesional submandibular surgical excision was then performed, with partial resection of the lesion. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of microcystic LM. Six months after, a re-resection was planned using the same approach and removing the remaining lesion, with favorable development until the age of 9 years when the patient required surgery and orthodontic management due to intraoral recurrence. No major developments until the age of 13 when a new orthodontic surgery and handling are planned to perform right oral commissure suspension. LM management by sclerotherapy, surgery, and orthodontics has shown the advantages of a multidisciplinary long-term treatment in this case.

  15. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, Stefan; van Schaick, Jeroen; de Bois, Peter; de Haan, Remco

    2009-01-01

    THE ENHANCEMENT OF GPS TECHNOLOGY ENABLES THE USE OF GPS DEVICES NOT ONLY AS NAVIGATION AND ORIENTATION TOOLS, BUT ALSO AS INSTRUMENTS USED TO CAPTURE TRAVELLED ROUTES: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands) for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as 'sensor technology' measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research.

  16. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, Stefan; van Schaick, Jeroen; de Bois, Peter; de Haan, Remco

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands) for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ‘sensor technology’ measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research. PMID:22574061

  17. Development of a unique mouse model for pancreatic cancer lymphatic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiang; Luo, Guopei; Liu, Chen; Cui, Xiaobo; Satoh, Kei; Xiao, Zhiwen; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Jin; Ni, Quanxing; Li, Min; Yu, Xianjun

    2012-11-01

    Lymphatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer is a predictor of poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, thus, making the development of appropriate cell lines and experimental models critically important for future investigations. The purpose of the present study was to establish a 'pancreatic cancer cell and mouse model with high lymphatic metastasis potential' for in-depth study of the underlying mechanisms. The BxPC-3-LN subline, derived from the BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cell line, was established through serial passages in nude mice via footpad injections. The subline was able to develop notable lymphatic metastases in 100% of the recipient mice 8 weeks after tumor cell implantation. Compared with the parental BxPC-3 cells, BxPC-3-LN cells were more aggressive, displaying invasive ultrastructure, increased migration and invasion ability, and chemoresistance. Metastasis-related gene alteration including upregulation of MMP14, MMP24, MIF and ADRM1, and downregulation of TGFB2 and ROBO1 were also observed in BxPC-3-LN cells by cDNA microarrays. Thus, the newly selected BxPC-3-LN subline can serve as a unique model for further study of lymphatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

  18. Superficial lymphatic drainage of the lower extremity: anatomical study and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Ren; Wang, De-Guang; Levy, Sidney M; Chen, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the lymphatic anatomy in the lower extremity is inadequate. A reevaluation is needed to assist in guiding clinical management. A total of five lower extremities from three unembalmed human cadavers were studied. Under a surgical microscope, 6% hydrogen peroxide was used to detect the lymphatic vessels commencing from the foot, the leg, and the thigh. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a radiopaque lead oxide mixture. The vessels were traced, photographed, and radiographed to demonstrate the superficial lymphatic pathways of the lower extremity. The final results were transferred to the computer for image analysis. Numerous lymph collecting vessels were identified in the subcutaneous tissue and the superficial femoral vascular bundle of the lower extremity. They originated beneath the dermis of each side of the toes, the foot, and the lateral side of the thigh. The diameters of the vessels varied from 0.2 to 2.2 mm. The vessels traveled in the subcutaneous tissue of the lower limb toward the popliteal, femoral, superficial, and deep inguinal lymph nodes. During their tortuous course, some vessels branched, diverged, and converged; sometimes, they anastomosed with neighboring vessels or crossed them. Most vessels converged to form larger collectors and then diverged into small branches before entering the lymph nodes. Accurate lymphatic distribution within the lower extremity has been described. This information upgrades our anatomical knowledge, and the results will be of benefit for clinical management.

  19. Cutaneous lymphatic malformation characterized by swelling of digits: a report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous lymphatic malformations represent a group of heterogeneous diseases. In clinical practice, some cases of cutaneous lymphatic malformation have been found to differ from the well-characterized entities, and are difficult to classify. To report the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of six cases of lymphatic malformation characterized by swelling of the digits. Six patients with swelling of the digits were included in this study. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining of CD31, D2-40, Prox1, Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1) and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) were performed for all cases. All cases were congenital lesions and presented as swelling of single or multiple digits. Histopathologically, the lesions showed proliferation of small-to-medium-sized vessels in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. These abnormal vessels were positive for CD31, D2-40 and Prox1, and negative for WT-1 and HHV-8. The six cases reported herein represent a specific cutaneous lymphatic malformation different from previously reported entities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Corneal Lymphatic Valve Formation in Relation to Lymphangiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Tan; Huang, Eric; Yuen, Don; Chen, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We have recently provided evidence showing that luminal lymphatic valves are formed right after the onset of corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis (LG). The purpose of this study was to further characterize the long-term time course, spatial distribution, directional orientation, and functional implications of the valve formation in relation to corneal LG. Methods. Corneal LG was induced in normal adult BALB/c mice by a modified suture placement model with equal distribution in the nasal and temporal side. Whole-mount corneas were harvested every 2 weeks for up to 8 weeks post suturing for immunofluorescent microscopic assays. Quantitative analysis on both lymphatic vessels and valves was performed by using National Institutes of Health ImageJ software. Corneal lymphatic live imaging was performed to show functional drainage of the valves. Results. Lymphatic vessel invasion areas at 4, 6, and 8 weeks were significantly less than the peak at 2 weeks post corneal suturing. In contrast, the ratio of lymphatic valves to vessel invasion area was at its lowest at 2 weeks with a peak approximately at 6 weeks post suturing. Lymphatic valves were more localized in the nasal quadrant at all time points studied, and most of the well-formed valves were directionally oriented toward the limbus. The lymphatic valves function to guide lymphatic drainage outside the cornea. Conclusions. This study presents new insights into corneal lymphatic valve formation and function in inflammatory LG. Further investigation on lymphatic valves may provide novel strategies to interfere with lymphatic maturation and function and to treat lymphatic-related disorders. PMID:24595382

  1. Functional lymphatic imaging in tumor-bearing mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Eva M. Sevick-Muraca

    2010-01-01

    The lymphatic system provides a route for dissemination of metastatic cancer cells. Yet to date transient changes in lymphatic drainage pathways and function as a result of tumor growth and metastasis has not been completely elucidated. Herein, we non-invasively imaged functional and architectural lymphatic changes in mice with regional, palpable lymph node (LN) involvement using dynamic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging with intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) to both tum...

  2. Corneal lymphatic valve formation in relation to lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Tan; Huang, Eric; Yuen, Don; Chen, Lu

    2014-03-25

    We have recently provided evidence showing that luminal lymphatic valves are formed right after the onset of corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis (LG). The purpose of this study was to further characterize the long-term time course, spatial distribution, directional orientation, and functional implications of the valve formation in relation to corneal LG. Corneal LG was induced in normal adult BALB/c mice by a modified suture placement model with equal distribution in the nasal and temporal side. Whole-mount corneas were harvested every 2 weeks for up to 8 weeks post suturing for immunofluorescent microscopic assays. Quantitative analysis on both lymphatic vessels and valves was performed by using National Institutes of Health ImageJ software. Corneal lymphatic live imaging was performed to show functional drainage of the valves. Lymphatic vessel invasion areas at 4, 6, and 8 weeks were significantly less than the peak at 2 weeks post corneal suturing. In contrast, the ratio of lymphatic valves to vessel invasion area was at its lowest at 2 weeks with a peak approximately at 6 weeks post suturing. Lymphatic valves were more localized in the nasal quadrant at all time points studied, and most of the well-formed valves were directionally oriented toward the limbus. The lymphatic valves function to guide lymphatic drainage outside the cornea. This study presents new insights into corneal lymphatic valve formation and function in inflammatory LG. Further investigation on lymphatic valves may provide novel strategies to interfere with lymphatic maturation and function and to treat lymphatic-related disorders.

  3. The lymphatic vascular system of the mouse head

    OpenAIRE

    Lohrberg, Melanie; Wilting, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Histological studies of the lymphatic vascular system in adult mice are hampered because bones cannot be sectioned properly. Here, we decalcified the heads of 14-day-old mice, embedded them in paraffin and stained resultant serial sections with the lymphendothelial-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. We show that the tissues with the highest lymphatic vascular density are the dermis and the oral mucous membranes. In contrast, the nasal mucous membrane is devoid of lymphatics, except fo...

  4. Lymphatic malformations: A dilemma in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramashankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck, also known as lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas, are a diverse group of lesions. Lymphangiomas represent benign hamartomatous tumors of lymphatic vessels with a marked predilection for the head, neck and oral cavity. These lesions, like most of the swellings occurring in the neck, frequently pose a dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. This is a case report of a lymphatic malformation which presented as a painless mass in the lower border of mandible.

  5. A case of lymphatic malformation/lymphangioma of the scrotum

    OpenAIRE

    Gensuke Akaike; Taiki Nozaki; Akari Makidono; Yukihisa Saida; Takeshi Hirabayashi; Koyu Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic malformation/lymphangioma of the scrotum is rare. It is caused by lymphatic abnormalities and the most common sites are the neck and axilla. The scrotum is one of the most uncommon sites. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with pathologically confirmed cystic lymphangioma/lymphatic malformation in the scrotum. The diagnosis was suspected from ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The most common cause of a cystic mass in the scrotum is scrotal hydrocele, but cystic ly...

  6. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA as well as industry and academia fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the preliminary Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: physiological and performance capabilities; suit design parameters; EVA human health and performance modeling; EVA tasks and concepts of operations; EVA informatics; human-suit sensors; suit

  7. Involvement of neurons and retinoic acid in lymphatic development: new insights in increased nuchal translucency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, N.B.; Stuurman, K.E.; Kok, E.; Konijn, T.; Schooneman, D.; Niederreither, K.; Coles, M.; Agace, W.W.; Christoffels, V.M.; Mebius, R.E.; Pavert, S.A. van de; Bekker, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased nuchal translucency originates from disturbed lymphatic development. Abnormal neural crest cell (NCC) migration may be involved in lymphatic development. Because both neuronal and lymphatic development share retinoic acid (RA) as a common factor, this study investigated the

  8. A model for fluid drainage by the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppell, Charles; Richardson, Giles; Roose, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the fluid flow through tissues where lymphatic drainage occurs. Lymphatic drainage requires the use of two valve systems, primary and secondary. Primary valves are located in the initial lymphatics. Overlapping endothelial cells around the circumferential lining of lymphatic capillaries are presumed to act as a unidirectional valve system. Secondary valves are located in the lumen of the collecting lymphatics and act as another unidirectional valve system; these are well studied in contrast to primary valves. We propose a model for the drainage of fluid by the lymphatic system that includes the primary valve system. The analysis in this work incorporates the mechanics of the primary lymphatic valves as well as the fluid flow through the interstitium and that through the walls of the blood capillaries. The model predicts a piecewise linear relation between the drainage flux and the pressure difference between the blood and lymphatic capillaries. The model describes a permeable membrane around a blood capillary, an elastic primary lymphatic valve and the interstitium lying between the two.

  9. A case of lymphatic malformation/lymphangioma of the scrotum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gensuke Akaike

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic malformation/lymphangioma of the scrotum is rare. It is caused by lymphatic abnormalities and the most common sites are the neck and axilla. The scrotum is one of the most uncommon sites. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with pathologically confirmed cystic lymphangioma/lymphatic malformation in the scrotum. The diagnosis was suspected from ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The most common cause of a cystic mass in the scrotum is scrotal hydrocele, but cystic lymphangioma/lymphatic malformation should be considered as a differential diagnosis for multicystic scrotal mass.

  10. A case of lymphatic malformation/lymphangioma of the scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Gensuke; Nozaki, Taiki; Makidono, Akari; Saida, Yukihisa; Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Koyu

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic malformation/lymphangioma of the scrotum is rare. It is caused by lymphatic abnormalities and the most common sites are the neck and axilla. The scrotum is one of the most uncommon sites. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with pathologically confirmed cystic lymphangioma/lymphatic malformation in the scrotum. The diagnosis was suspected from ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The most common cause of a cystic mass in the scrotum is scrotal hydrocele, but cystic lymphangioma/lymphatic malformation should be considered as a differential diagnosis for multicystic scrotal mass.

  11. Percutaneous Lymphatic Embolization of Abnormal Pulmonary Lymphatic Flow as Treatment of Plastic Bronchitis in Patients With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yoav; Keller, Marc S; Rome, Jonathan J; Gillespie, Matthew J; Glatz, Andrew C; Dodds, Kathryn; Goldberg, David J; Goldfarb, Samuel; Rychik, Jack; Itkin, Maxim

    2016-03-22

    Plastic bronchitis is a potentially fatal disorder occurring in children with single-ventricle physiology, and other diseases, as well, such as asthma. In this study, we report findings of abnormal pulmonary lymphatic flow, demonstrated by MRI lymphatic imaging, in patients with plastic bronchitis and percutaneous lymphatic intervention as a treatment for these patients. This is a retrospective case series of 18 patients with surgically corrected congenital heart disease and plastic bronchitis who presented for lymphatic imaging and intervention. Lymphatic imaging included heavy T2-weighted MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiogram. All patients underwent bilateral intranodal lymphangiogram, and most patients underwent percutaneous lymphatic intervention. In 16 of 18 patients, MRI or lymphangiogram or both demonstrated retrograde lymphatic flow from the thoracic duct toward lung parenchyma. Intranodal lymphangiogram and thoracic duct catheterization was successful in all patients. Seventeen of 18 patients underwent either lymphatic embolization procedures or thoracic duct stenting with covered stents to exclude retrograde flow into the lungs. One of the 2 patients who did not have retrograde lymphatic flow did not undergo a lymphatic interventional procedure. A total of 15 of 17(88%) patients who underwent an intervention had significant symptomatic improvement at a median follow-up of 315 days (range, 45-770 days). The most common complication observed was nonspecific transient abdominal pain and transient hypotension. In this study, we demonstrated abnormal pulmonary lymphatic perfusion in most patients with plastic bronchitis. Interruption of the lymphatic flow resulted in significant improvement of symptoms in these patients and, in some cases, at least temporary resolution of cast formation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Vegfc Regulates Bipotential Precursor Division and Prox1 Expression to Promote Lymphatic Identity in Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koltowska, Katarzyna; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels arise chiefly from preexisting embryonic veins. Genetic regulators of lymphatic fate are known, but how dynamic cellular changes contribute during the acquisition of lymphatic identity is not understood. We report the visualization of zebrafish lymphatic precursor cell dynamics...... cell becomes lymphatic and progressively upregulates Prox1, and the other downregulates Prox1 and remains in the vein. Vegfc drives cell division and Prox1 expression in lymphatic daughter cells, coupling signaling dynamics with daughter cell fate restriction and precursor division....

  13. Effect of Physical Methods of Lymphatic Drainage on Postexercise Recovery of Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, Aleksandra; Trybulski, Robert; Roczniok, Robert; Marcol, Wieslaw

    2017-08-16

    Physical methods are reported to be important for accelerating skeletal muscle regeneration, decreasing muscle soreness, and shortening of the recovery time. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the physical methods of lymphatic drainage (PMLD) such as manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), the Bodyflow (BF) therapy, and lymphatic drainage by deep oscillation (DO) on postexercise regeneration of the forearm muscles of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. Eighty MMA athletes aged 27.5 ± 6.4 years were allocated to 4 groups: MLD, the BF device, DO therapy, and the control group. Blood flow velocity in the cephalic vein was measured with the ultrasound Doppler velocity meter. Maximal strength of the forearm muscles (Fmax), muscle tissue tension, pain threshold, blood lactate concentration (LA), and activity of creatine kinase were measured in all groups at rest, after the muscle fatigue test (post-ex) and then 20 minutes, 24, and 48 hours after the application of PMLD. The muscle fatigue test reduced Fmax in all subjects, but in the groups receiving MLD, DO, and BF significantly higher Fmax was observed at recovery compared with post-ex values. The application of MDL reduced the postexercise blood LA and postexercise muscle tension. The lymphatic drainage methods, whether manual or using electro-stimulation and DO, improve postexercise regeneration of the forearm muscles of MMA athletes. The methods can be an important element of therapeutic management focused on optimizing training effects and reducing the risk of injuries of the combat sports athletes.

  14. Ginsenoside Rg1 enhances lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica via VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling in silicotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Mao, Lijun; Guan, Li; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2016-03-25

    Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted mainly from Panax ginseng, has been shown to exert strong pro-angiogenic activities in vivo. But it is unclear whether ginsenoside Rg1 could promote lung lymphangiogenesis to improve lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica in silicotic rats. Here we investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica during experimental silicosis, and found that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment significantly raised the silicon content in tracheobronchial lymph nodes and serum to reduce the silicon level in lung interstitium, meanwhile increased pulmonary lymphatic vessel density by enhancing the protein and mRNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). The stimulative effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica was actively correlated with its pro-lymphangiogenic identity. And VEGFR-3 inhibitor SAR131675 blocked these above effects of ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 exhibits good protective effect against lung burden of silica during experimental silicosis through improving lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica, which is potentially associated with the activation of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A human activity approach to User Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    the work situations in which computer-based artifacts are used: The framework deals with the role of the user interface in purposeful human work. Human activity theory is used in this analysis. The purpose of this article is to make the reader curious and hopefully open his or her eyes to a somewhat...... different way of thinking about the user interface. The article applies examples of real-life interfaces to support this process, but it does not include a systematic presentation of empirical results. I focus on the role of the computer application in use. Thus, it is necessary to consider human-computer...... interaction and other related work conditions. I deal with human experience and competence as being rooted in the practice of the group that conducts the specific work activity. The main conclusions are: The user interface cannot be seen independently of the use activity (i.e., the professional, socially...

  16. Effects of fatty acid synthase inhibitors on lymphatic vessels: an in vitro and in vivo study in a melanoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Débora C; Paupert, Jenny; Maillard, Catherine; Seguin, Fabiana; Carvalho, Marco A; Agostini, Michelle; Coletta, Ricardo D; Noël, Agnès; Graner, Edgard

    2017-02-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous production of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. Its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in human cancers including melanomas. Our group has previously shown that the inhibition of FASN with orlistat reduces spontaneous lymphatic metastasis in experimental B16-F10 melanomas, which is a consequence, at least in part, of the reduction of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of pharmacological FASN inhibition on lymphatic vessels by using cell culture and mouse models. The effects of FASN inhibitors cerulenin and orlistat on the proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of human lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLEC) were evaluated with in vitro models. The lymphatic outgrowth was evaluated by using a murine ex vivo assay. B16-F10 melanomas and surgical wounds were produced in the ears of C57Bl/6 and Balb-C mice, respectively, and their peripheral lymphatic vessels evaluated by fluorescent microlymphangiography. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor C and D (VEGF-C and -D) by melanoma cells was evaluated by ELISA and conditioned media used to study in vitro lymphangiogenesis. Here, we show that cerulenin and orlistat decrease the viability, proliferation, and migration of HDLEC cells. The volume of lymph node metastases from B16-F10 experimental melanomas was reduced by 39% in orlistat-treated animals as well as the expression of VEGF-C in these tissues. In addition, lymphatic vessels from orlistat-treated mice drained more efficiently the injected FITC-dextran. Orlistat and cerulenin reduced VEGF-C secretion and, increase production of VEGF-D by B16-F10 and SK-Mel-25 melanoma cells. Finally, reduced lymphatic cell extensions, were observed following the treatment with conditioned medium from cerulenin- and orlistat-treated B16-F10 cells. Altogether, our results show that FASN inhibitors have anti-metastatic effects by acting on

  17. Effect of pneumatic compression therapy on lymph movement in lymphedema-affected extremities, as assessed by near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B. Aldrich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown cost effectiveness and quality-of-life benefit of pneumatic compression therapy (PCT for lymphedema (LE. Insurers, such as the Centers for Medicare/Medicaid (CMS, however, desire visual proof that PCT moves lymph. Near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging (NIRFLI was used to visualize lymphatic anatomy and function in four subjects with primary and cancer treatment-related LE of the lower extremities before, during, and after PCT. Optically transparent and windowed PCT garments allowed visualization of lymph movement during single, 1h PCT treatment sessions. Visualization revealed significant extravascular and lymphatic vascular movement of intradermally injected dye in all subjects. In one subject with sufficient patent lymphatic vessels to allow quantification of lymph pumping velocities and frequencies, these values were significantly increased during and after PCT as compared to pre-treatment values. Lymphatic contractile activity in patent lymphatic vessels occurred in concert with the sequential cycling of PCT. Direct visualization revealed increased lymphatic function, during and after PCT therapy, in all LE-affected extremities. Further studies are warranted to assess the effects of PCT pressure and sequences on lymph uptake and movement.

  18. Increased migration of antigen presenting cells to newly-formed lymphatic vessels in transplanted kidneys by glycol-split heparin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditmer T Talsma

    Full Text Available Chronic renal transplant dysfunction is characterized by loss of renal function and tissue remodeling, including chronic inflammation and lymph vessel formation. Proteoglycans are known for their chemokine presenting capacity. We hypothesize that interruption of the lymphatic chemokine-proteoglycan interaction interferes with the lymphatic outflow of leukocytes from the renal graft and might decrease the anti-graft allo-immune response.In a rat renal chronic transplant dysfunction model (female Dark-Agouti to male Wistar Furth, chemokines were profiled by qRT-PCR in microdissected tubulo-interstitial tissue. Disruption of lymphatic chemokine-proteoglycan interaction was studied by (non-anticoagulant heparin-derived polysaccharides in vitro and in renal allografts. The renal allograft function was assessed by rise in plasma creatinine and urea.Within newly-formed lymph vessels of transplanted kidneys, numerous CD45+ leukocytes were found, mainly MHCII+, ED-1-, IDO-, HIS14-, CD103- antigen presenting cells, most likely representing a subset of dendritic cells. Treatment of transplanted rats with regular heparin and two different (non-anticoagulant heparin derivatives revealed worsening of kidney function only in the glycol-split heparin treated group despite a two-fold reduction of tubulo-interstitial leukocytes (p<0.02. Quantitative digital image analysis however revealed increased numbers of intra-lymphatic antigen-presenting cells only in the glycol-split heparin group (p<0.01. The number of intra-lymphatic leukocytes significantly correlates with plasma creatinine and urea, and inversely with creatinine clearance.Treatment of transplanted rats with glycol-split heparin significantly increases the number of intra-lymphatic antigen presenting cells, by increased renal diffusion of lymphatic chemokines, thereby increasing the activation and recruitment of antigen presenting cells towards the lymph vessel. This effect is unwanted in the

  19. Lymphatic drainage of heart and lungs: comparison between pig and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, M; Souilamas, R; Hubsch, J P; Brière, J; Colomer, S; Hidden, G

    2000-01-01

    In its anatomy and physiology the pig is comparable with humans and its organs can be considered for xenotransplantation. We have studied the lymphatic drainage of the heart and lungs in 15 pigs. A coloured mass was injected into the myocardium and/or beneath the visceral pleura. The first nodes coloured were directly injected again. No lymph node was observed inside the heart and lungs. The first lymph nodes coloured were the peritracheobronchial nodes. There was no node in front of the thoracic trachea (Barety's compartment in man). Left suprabronchial nodes were connected with the thoracic duct in the mediastinum. The lymphatics of the heart and lungs in the pig are similar to those of human. Phylogenesis explains "skipping" metastases and the significance of N1 disease in lung cancer, as well as chylothorax occurring after heart and lung surgery.

  20. hCG stimulates angiogenic signals in lymphatic endothelial and circulating angiogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Andrea; Lukosz, Margarete; Hess, Alexandra P; Baston-Büst, Dunja M; Krüssel, Jan S; Heiss, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has long been associated with the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, where angiogenesis plays an important role. However, the function of hCG in angiogenesis and the recruitment of vascular active cells are not fully understood. In this study, the role of hCG and its receptor in circulating angiogenic and human endothelial cells, including lymphatic, uterine microvascular, and umbilical vein endothelial cells, was examined. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were used to detect LH/hCG receptor expression and the expression of hCG-induced angiogenic molecules. HIF-1α was determined via ELISA and downstream molecules, such as CXCL12 and CXCR4, via real-time PCR. Chemotaxis was analyzed using Boyden chambers. Our results show that the LH/hCG receptor was present in all tested cells. Furthermore, hCG was able to stimulate LH/hCG-receptor-specific migration in a dose-dependent fashion and induce key angiogenic molecules, including HIF-1α, CXCL12, and CXCR4. In conclusion, our findings underscore the importance of hCG as one of the first angiogenic molecules produced by the conceptus. hCG itself alters endothelial motility, recruitment, and expression of pro-angiogenic molecules and may therefore play an important role in vascular adaption during implantation and early placental formation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNA Expression of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells in Response to Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence has indicated that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, but nothing is known about lncRNA expression changes of lymphatic endothelial cells in response to type 2 diabetes. Methods: The GSE38396 dataset was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and the probe sets of Human Gnome U133 Plus2.0 microarray were annotated for lncRNA. Differentially expressed lncRNAs between diabetic and non-diabetic lymphatic endothelial cells were calculated. Results: Compared with lymphatic endothelial cells in non-diabetic patients, 31 lncRNAs were down-regulated and 79 lncRNAs were up-regualted in lymphatic endothelial cells of type 2 diabetic patients. Several known lncRNAs were found, such as H19, GAS5, UCA1, CRNDE, GAS5, and LINC00312. Co-expression network of differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were constructed. Based on genomic regions of these lncRNAs, we found that binding sites of MAF and TCF3 were enriched and these lncRNAs may be related to insulin reporter signaling pathway and response to insulin stimulus. Conclusions: In a word, we found a set of lncRNAs were differentially expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells in response to type 2 diabetes and these lncRNAs may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes-related complications.

  2. Lymphatic Leak Occurring After Surgical Lymph Node Dissection: A Preliminary Study Assessing the Feasibility and Outcome of Lymphatic Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Yoolim; Won, Je Hwan [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ajou University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Tae-Wook; Paek, Jiheum; Chang, Suk-Joon; Ryu, Hee-Sug [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gynecologic Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinoo, E-mail: jinoomail@gmail.com [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ajou University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeTo analyze imaging findings of lymphatic leakage associated with surgical lymph node dissection on lymphangiography and assess the outcome of lymphatic embolization.Materials and MethodsThis retrospective study comprised 21 consecutive patients who were referred for lymphatic intervention between March 2014 and April 2015 due to postsurgical lymphatic leaks. Lymphangiography was performed through inguinal lymph nodes to identify the leak. When a leak was found, lymphatic embolization was performed by fine-needle injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into the site of leakage or into an inflow lymphatic vessel or into a pelvic lymph node located below the leakage. Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed to assess the outcome.ResultLymphangiography revealed single or multiple leaks in all but one patient. Lymphatic embolization was performed in 20 patients with leaks. Including the patient who did not undergo embolization, 17 patients (81.0 %) showed initial response to treatment. Three patients underwent repeated embolization with successful results. The overall success rate was 95.2 %. The mean duration of hospitalization after lymphatic intervention was 5.9 days. During a mean follow-up period of 11 months, two patients developed localized swelling in the groin following lipiodol injection. There were no complications related to lymphatic embolization. Three patients were found to have developed small, asymptomatic lymphoceles on CT or MRI that did not require further treatment.ConclusionLymphangiography is useful for detecting lymphatic leakage occurring after lymph node dissection. Furthermore, lymphatic embolization is feasible, effective, and safe for managing leaks demonstrated on lymphangiography.

  3. Divergence of zebrafish and mouse lymphatic cell fate specification pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Impel, Andreas; Zhao, Zhonghua; Hermkens, Dorien M A; Roukens, M Guy; Fischer, Johanna C; Peterson-Maduro, Josi; Duckers, Henricus; Ober, Elke A; Ingham, Philip W; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    In mammals, the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 acts as the central regulator of lymphatic cell fate. Its restricted expression in a subset of cardinal vein cells leads to a switch towards lymphatic specification and hence represents a prerequisite for the initiation of lymphangiogenesis.

  4. Zebrafish provides a novel model for lymphatic vascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpanen, T.; Schulte-Merker, S.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian lymphatic vasculature has an important function in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis, absorption of dietary lipids, and immune surveillance. The lymphatic vessels are also recruited by many tumors as primary routes for metastasis and mediate immune responses in inflammatory

  5. Lymphatic vascular morphogenesis in development, physiology, and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Sabine, Amelie; Petrova, Tatiana V.

    2011-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature constitutes a highly specialized part of the vascular system that is essential for the maintenance of interstitial fluid balance, uptake of dietary fat, and immune response. Recently, there has been an increased awareness of the importance of lymphatic vessels in many

  6. Evaluation of lymphatic regeneration in rat incisional wound healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: During the wound healing process, lymphatic regeneration in the injured skin has not been fully investigated. This work was designed to study the regeneration of lymphatic vessels in rat incisional wounds in relation to the duration after the wound infliction. Material and methods: We studied the regeneration of ...

  7. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Lymphatic Imaging in Lymphangiomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C; Fife, Caroline E; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2015-09-01

    Lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder of the lymphatic system that can impact the dermis, soft tissue, bone, and viscera and can be characterized by lymphangiomas, swelling, and chylous discharge. Whether disordered lymphangiogenesis in lymphangiomatosis affects the function and anatomy of the entire systemic lymphatic circulation or is localized to specific sites is not fully known. A 35-year-old Caucasian female diagnosed with whole-body lymphangiomatosis at 2 months of age and who continues to present with progressive disease was imaged with near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging. While the peripheral lymphatics in the extremities appeared largely normal compared to prior studies, we observed tortuous lymphatic vessels, fluorescence drainage from the peripheral lymphatics into lymphangiomas, and extensive dermal lymphatics in the left thigh and inguinal regions where the subject had previously had surgical assaults, potentially indicating defective systemic lymphangiogenesis. Further research into anatomical and functional lymphatic changes associated with the progression and treatment of lymphangiomatosis could aid in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease as well as point to treatment strategies.

  8. Understanding human dynamics in microblog posting activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Hui; Li, Pei

    2013-02-01

    Human activity patterns are an important issue in behavior dynamics research. Empirical evidence indicates that human activity patterns can be characterized by a heavy-tailed inter-event time distribution. However, most researchers give an understanding by only modeling the power-law feature of the inter-event time distribution, and those overlooked non-power-law features are likely to be nontrivial. In this work, we propose a behavior dynamics model, called the finite memory model, in which humans adaptively change their activity rates based on a finite memory of recent activities, which is driven by inherent individual interest. Theoretical analysis shows a finite memory model can properly explain various heavy-tailed inter-event time distributions, including a regular power law and some non-power-law deviations. To validate the model, we carry out an empirical study based on microblogging activity from thousands of microbloggers in the Celebrity Hall of the Sina microblog. The results show further that the model is reasonably effective. We conclude that finite memory is an effective dynamics element to describe the heavy-tailed human activity pattern.

  9. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-10-25

    We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep Human Parsing with Active Template Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaodan; Liu, Si; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Liu, Luoqi; Dong, Jian; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the human parsing task, namely decomposing a human image into semantic fashion/body regions, is formulated as an active template regression (ATR) problem, where the normalized mask of each fashion/body item is expressed as the linear combination of the learned mask templates, and then morphed to a more precise mask with the active shape parameters, including position, scale and visibility of each semantic region. The mask template coefficients and the active shape parameters together can generate the human parsing results, and are thus called the structure outputs for human parsing. The deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is utilized to build the end-to-end relation between the input human image and the structure outputs for human parsing. More specifically, the structure outputs are predicted by two separate networks. The first CNN network is with max-pooling, and designed to predict the template coefficients for each label mask, while the second CNN network is without max-pooling to preserve sensitivity to label mask position and accurately predict the active shape parameters. For a new image, the structure outputs of the two networks are fused to generate the probability of each label for each pixel, and super-pixel smoothing is finally used to refine the human parsing result. Comprehensive evaluations on a large dataset well demonstrate the significant superiority of the ATR framework over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F1-score reaches 64.38 percent by our ATR framework, significantly higher than 44.76 percent based on the state-of-the-art algorithm [28].

  11. Structure of active dimeric human telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwald, Anselm; Sandin, Sara; Cristofari, Gaël; Scheres, Sjors H W; Lingner, Joachim; Rhodes, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Telomerase contains a large RNA subunit, TER, and a protein catalytic subunit, TERT. Whether telomerase functions as a monomer or dimer has been a matter of debate. Here we report biochemical and labeling data that show that in vivo-assembled human telomerase contains two TERT subunits and binds two telomeric DNA substrates. Notably, catalytic activity requires both TERT active sites to be functional, which demonstrates that human telomerase functions as a dimer. We also present the three-dimensional structure of the active full-length human telomerase dimer, determined by single-particle EM in negative stain. Telomerase has a bilobal architecture with the two monomers linked by a flexible interface. The monomer reconstruction at 23-Å resolution and fitting of the atomic structure of the TERT subunit from beetle Tribolium castaneum into the EM density reveals the spatial relationship between RNA and protein subunits, providing insights into telomerase architecture.

  12. Cardiac Lymphatic Vessels, Transport, and Healing of the Infarcted Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hao Huang, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic vasculature plays a key role in regulating tissue fluid homeostasis, lipid transport, and immune surveillance throughout the body. Although it has been appreciated that the heart relies on lymphatic vessels to maintain fluid balance and that such balance must be tightly maintained to allow for normal cardiac output, it has only recently come to light that the lymphatic vasculature may serve as a therapeutic target with which to promote optimal healing following myocardial ischemia and infarction. This article reviews the subject of cardiac lymphatic vessels and highlights studies that imply targeting of lymphatic vessel development or transport using vascular endothelial growth factor-C therapy may serve as a promising avenue for future clinical application in the context of ischemic injury.

  13. Imaging the lymphatic system: possibilities and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Olivier [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 20 rue Leblanc, 75908, Paris Cedex 15 (France); Luciani, Alain [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France)

    2004-08-01

    The lymphatic system is anatomically complex and difficult to image. Lymph ducts are responsible for the drainage of part of the body's interstitial fluid. Lymph nodes account for the enrichment of lymph fluid, and can be involved in a large variety of diseases, especially cancer. For a long time, lymphatic imaging was limited to the sole use of conventional lymphography involving invasive procedures and patient discomfort. New contrast agents and techniques in ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and MR imaging are now available for imaging of both the lymphatic vessels and the lymph nodes. The objective of this review is to discuss the different imaging modalities of the lymphatic system, with a special focus on the new possibilities of lymphatic imaging including enhanced MR lymphography, sentinel node and positron emission tomography imaging, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. (orig.)

  14. The Glymphatic-Lymphatic Continuum: Opportunities for Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitscherich, Kyle; Smith, Kyle; Cuoco, Joshua A; Ruvolo, Kathryn E; Mancini, Jayme D; Leheste, Joerg R; Torres, German

    2016-03-01

    The brain has long been thought to lack a lymphatic drainage system. Recent studies, however, show the presence of a brain-wide paravascular system appropriately named the glymphatic system based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in function and its dependence on astroglial water flux. Besides the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid, the glymphatic system also facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes such as amyloid-β and tau from the brain. As cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid are cleared through the glymphatic system, eventually draining into the lymphatic vessels of the neck, this continuous fluid circuit offers a paradigm shift in osteopathic manipulative medicine. For instance, manipulation of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum could be used to promote experimental initiatives for nonpharmacologic, noninvasive management of neurologic disorders. In the present review, the authors describe what is known about the glymphatic system and identify several osteopathic experimental strategies rooted in a mechanistic understanding of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum.

  15. Aggressive giant cystic lymphatic malformation in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calış, Mert; Konaş, Ersoy; Takcı, Şahin; Yurdakök, Murat; Tunçbilek, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations are uncommon, benign and congenital malformations of the lymphatic system exhibiting lack of development of communication between the lymphatic and venous circulation. We report the unusual case of rapidly expanding giant lymphatic malformation of the torso, bilateral axillae and left upper extremity of a newborn. As the first-line treatment, aspiration and sclerotherapy with bleomycin were performed. The sclerotherapy failed to cause regression of the mass, and rapid expansion of the malformation necessitated surgery. Partial resection of the mass was performed. Clinical symptoms of respiratory distress resolved in the early postoperative period, and the patient became hemodynamically stable. However, intrathoracic invasion of the mass developed, leading to restriction of thoracic expansion, ending in death. In conclusion, surgical treatment of giant lymphatic malformations remains challenging.

  16. Osteopathic lymphatic pump techniques to enhance immunity and treat pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While antibiotics are generally effective for the treatment of infection, the emergence of resistant strains of bacteria threatens their success. The osteopathic medical profession has designed a set of manipulative techniques called lymphatic pump techniques (LPT), to enhance the flow of lymph through the lymphatic system. Clinically, LPT is used to treat infection and oedemaand might be an effective adjuvant therapy in patients with pneumonia.The immune system uses the lymphatic and blood systems to survey to rid the body of pathogens; however, only recently have the effects of LPT on the lymphatic and immune systems been investigated. This short review highlightsclinical and basic science research studies that support the use of LPT to enhance the lymphatic and immune systems and treat pneumonia, and discusses the potential mechanisms by which LPT benefits patients with pneumonia. PMID:22977459

  17. Tissue contribution to the mechanical features of diaphragmatic initial lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Boschetti, Federica; Bianchin, Francesca; Lattanzio, Simone; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2010-10-15

    The role of the mechanical properties of the initial lymphatic wall and of the surrounding tissue in supporting lymph formation and/or progression was studied in six anaesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked and mechanically ventilated rats. After mid-sternal thoracotomy, submesothelial initial lymphatics were identified on the pleural diaphragmatic surface through stereomicroscopy. An 'in vivo' lymphatic segment was prepared by securing two surgical threads around the vessel at a distance of ∼2.5 mm leaving the vessel in place. Two glass micropipettes were inserted into the lumen, one for intraluminar injections of 4.6 nl saline boluses and one for hydraulic pressure (Plymph) recording. The compliance of the vessel wall (Clymph) was calculated as the slope of the plot describing the change in segment volume as a function of the post-injection Plymph changes. Two superficial lymphatic vessel populations with a significantly different Clymph (6.7 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.4 nl mmHg−1 (mean ± S.E.M.), P < 0.001) were identified. In seven additional rats, the average elastic modulus of diaphragmatic tissue strips was determined by uniaxial tension tests to be 1.7 ± 0.3 MPa. Clymph calculated for an initial lymphatic completely surrounded by isotropic tissue was 0.068 nl mmHg−1, i.e. two orders of magnitude lower than in submesothelial lymphatics. Modelling of stress distribution in the lymphatic wall suggests that compliant vessels may act as reservoirs accommodating large absorbed fluid volumes, while lymphatics with stiffer walls serve to propel fluid through the lumen of the lymphatic vessel by taking advantage of the more efficient mechanical transmission of tissue stresses to the lymphatic lumen.

  18. [Study on distribution and drainage of lymphatic vessels of tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin-guang; Li, Jin-rong; Pi, Xin

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the distribution and drainage of lymphatic vessels of tongue, and to provide anatomical evidence for treatment of tongue cancer. Indirect lymphatic injection was employed, combined with clearing method with winter green oil and corrosive cast technique, to study the distribution of lymphatic vessels of tongue. Anatomical methods were used to detect the sentinel lymph nodes in different region of tongue. The lymphatic vessels of dorsal mucosa composed of lymphocapillary vessels and anstomosing side branches were present by superficial and deep capillary networks. The distribution of lymphatic networks extend from tip to base and from one board to another, and was not influenced by the sulcus tenninalis and median lingual sulcus. Lymphatic vessels in the muscular portion communicated with lymphocapillary network of dorsal and ventral mucosa, which made the lymphatic vessels of tongue to be an integrity network structure. These characters of distribution influenced the lymphatic drainage of tongue. The results showed principal sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) for anterior part of tongue were submental lymph nodes, submandibular lymph nodes and juguloomohyoid lymph nodes, for lateral part and middle part of tongue were submandibular lymph nodes, jugulodigastric lymph nodes and thyroid lymph nodes, and for root part of tongue were jugulodigastric lymph nodes. SLNs for every injection region were all presented at bilatral neck, but the frequency of stained SLNs at homolateral neck was more than that at contralateral neck. The lymphatic vessels of tongue arranged like a network, which made the lymphatic drainage at various ways and made the distribution of sentinel lymph nodes to be bilateral and dispersive.

  19. Zebrafish prox1b Mutants Develop a Lymphatic Vasculature, and prox1b Does Not Specifically Mark Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, S.; de Witte, M.; Bryson-Richardson, R.J.; Currie, P.D.; Hogan, B.M.; Schulte-Merker, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expression of the Prospero homeodomain transcription factor (Prox1) in a subset of cardinal venous cells specifies the lymphatic lineage in mice. Prox1 is also indispensible for the maintenance of lymphatic cell fate, and is therefore considered a master control gene for

  20. Zebrafish prox1b Mutants Develop a Lymphatic Vasculature, and prox1b Does Not Specifically Mark Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, S.J.; Witte, M.; Bryson-Richardson, R.J.; Currie, P.D.; Hogan, B.M.; Schulte-Merker, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The expression of the Prospero homeodomain transcription factor (Prox1) in a subset of cardinal venous cells specifies the lymphatic lineage in mice. Prox1 is also indispensible for the maintenance of lymphatic cell fate, and is therefore considered a master control gene for

  1. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping techniques for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, Valerio; Cirronis, Maria Giuseppina; Piras, Bruno; Silvetti, Enrico; Cossu, Ester; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2011-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in developed countries. The primary treatment for women with endometrial cancer is surgical, as well as the staging of the pathological spread pattern of this carcinoma outside of the uterus. A complete surgical staging should include both pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of endometrial cancers are diagnosed at a very early stage owing to the early presentation as abnormal uterine bleeding. In women with early-stage endometrial cancer the systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy may produce additional morbidity without the benefit of appropriate surgical staging. The procedure of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy after lymphatic mapping has been introduced for patients with cancers of various organs in an effort to avoid complete systematic lymphadenectomy whenever possible. In the case of gynecological malignancies, the reliability of the SLN detection procedure has been extensively investigated in vulvar and cervical cancer. This article focuses on the peculiar aspects of intraoperative lymphatic mapping techniques and SLN procedures in endometrial cancer.

  2. The Lymphatic Malformation Function (LMF) Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Erin M; Edwards, Todd C; Weaver, Edward M; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2015-10-01

    The Lymphatic Malformation Function (LMF) instrument is a preliminary parent-report assessment designed to measure outcomes in children with cervicofacial lymphatic malformation (LM). This study aimed to assess the measurement properties of the LMF, refine it, test criterion validity, and evaluate the test-retest reliability. Cross-sectional. Two pediatric tertiary referral centers. Parents of 60 children from 6 months to 15 years old with cervicofacial LM. Parents were recruited via mail and online. The LMF was administered on paper or online initially and again within 21 days. Response distributions and interitem correlations were examined for item reduction. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on retained items. Cronbach's α, Spearman correlation, and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients were calculated to test internal consistency, criterion validity (compared to stage), and test-retest reliability, respectively. One item was removed due to a floor effect. The response scale was collapsed from a 5-point scale to a 3-point scale due to skewness. Six items were discarded due to redundancy (interitem correlations >0.7); 2 items were discarded due to factor loadings 0.80 and <0.90), significant association with stage (P < .05), and good overall test-retest reliability (ICC, 0.82). The LMF has been refined into a 12-item, 2-domain instrument measuring LM-specific signs and impacts with internal consistency, criterion validity, and test-retest reliability. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  3. Cutaneous Nocardiosis Simulating Cutaneous Lymphatic Sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchin, Pedro; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Fernandes, Larissa Araujo; Barreiros, Glória; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is the subcutaneous mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix genus. With worldwide occurrence, the State of Rio de Janeiro is presently undergoing a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic. The form of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis is rare, being caused especially by Nocardia brasiliensis. It appears as a nodular or ulcerated lesion, with multiple painful erythematous nodules or satellite pustules distributed along the lymphatic tract, similar to the lymphocutaneous variant of sporotrichosis. We present a 61-year-old man who, after an insect bite in the left leg, developed an ulcerated lesion associated with ascending lymphangitis, nonresponsive to previous antibiotic therapies. The patient was admitted for investigation, based on the main diagnostic hypothesis of lymphatic cutaneous sporotrichosis entailed by the highly suggestive morphology, associated with the epidemiologic information that he is a resident of the city of Rio de Janeiro. While culture results were being awaited, the patient was medicated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim to cover CA-MRSA and evolved with total healing of the lesions. After hospital discharge, using an ulcer fragment, an Actinomyces sp. was cultivated and N. brasiliensis was identified by molecular biology. The objective of this report is to demonstrate a case of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis after a probable insect bite. Despite the patient being a resident of the State of Rio de Janeiro (endemic region for sporotrichosis), it is highlighted that it is necessary to be aware of the differential diagnoses of an ulcerated lesion with lymphangitis, favoring an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the illness.

  4. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  5. LINE-1 Retrotransposition Activity in Human Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christine R.; Collier, Pamela; Macfarlane, Catriona; Malig, Maika; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Eichler, Evan E.; Badge, Richard M.; Moran, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Long Interspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) sequences comprise the bulk of retrotransposition activity in the human genome; however, the abundance of highly active or ‘hot’ L1s in the human population remains largely unexplored. Here, we used a fosmid-based, paired-end DNA sequencing strategy to identify 68 full-length L1s which are differentially present among individuals but are absent from the human genome reference sequence. The majority of these L1s were highly active in a cultured cell retrotransposition assay. Genotyping 26 elements revealed that two L1s are only found in Africa and that two more are absent from the H952 subset of the Human Genome Diversity Panel. Therefore, these results suggest that ‘hot’ L1s are more abundant in the human population than previously appreciated, and that ongoing L1 retrotransposition continues to be a major source of inter-individual genetic variation. PMID:20602998

  6. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  7. Human Relations. Discussion Topics and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marilyn; And Others

    Designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, this document provides discussion topics, poetry, and activities to help students: (1) recognize the uniqueness of themselves and others; (2) become aware of their uniqueness as members of the human family; (3) become aware of individual differences, emotions, and feelings; (4) recognize…

  8. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop processes for effective isolation and purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) from transgenic rabbit milk. Methods: Immunoaffinity chromatography was selected and improved by a special polyol-responsive monoclonal antibody (PR-mAb). Alteplase was used as immunogen ...

  9. Brain activation during human male ejaculation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Van der Graaf, Ferdinand H. C. E.; Paans, Anne M. J.; Kortekaas, Rudie

    2007-01-01

    In a prior [O-15]-H2O positron emission tomographic study we reported brain regions involved in human male ejaculation. Here, we used another, more recently acquired data set to evaluate the methodological approach of this previous study, and discovered that part of the reported activation pattern

  10. The emerging story of disability associated with lymphatic filariasis: a critical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Michelle Zeldenryk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 40 million people live with the chronic effects of lymphatic filariasis (LF, making it the second leading cause of disability in the world. Despite this, there is limited research into the experiences of people living with the disease. This review summarises the research on the experiences of people living with LF disability. The review highlights the widespread social stigma and oppressive psychological issues that face most people living with LF-related disability. Physical manifestations of LF make daily activities and participation in community life difficult. The findings confirm the need for the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF to support morbidity management activities that address the complex biopsychosocial issues that people living with LF-related disability face.

  11. Periportal low-attenuation: a CT sign of lymphatic obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chong Soo; Yang, Doo Hyun; Lee, Sang Yong; Lee, Young Whan; Chung, Gyung Ho; Han, Young Min; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    Periportal low attenuation, defined as a low attenuation rim around the portal vein and its branches which is seen on contrast material-enhanced CT scans, has been described in a variety of conditions. We tried to document that lymphatic obstruction is one of the major cause of periportal low attenuation. We retrospectively analyzed 57 cases of periportal low attenuation of abdominal CT scans and also reviewed the surgical records in 32 cases. Lymph node enlargement in the hepatoduodenal ligament which is a main lymphatic channel from the liver were analyzed the calculated the ratio of the transeverse diameter between the inferior vena cava and the aorta at the level of right adrenal gland. After complete surgical interruption of the lymphatic drainage from the liver in a dog, follow up CT scans were obtained and correlated with pathologic findings. Fifty patients (88%) had underlying disease which could cause impairment of lymphatic drainage. Periportal low attenuation was identified in several clinical conditions, including surgical lymph node dissection, lymphadenopathy in the hepatoduodenal ligament, blunt trauma. In animal model, CT scan showed prominent periportal low attenuation at 5 days after surgery. Histologic examination revealed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels and a marked lymphedema in the connective tissues surrounding the portal vein and its major branches. One of the major cause of periportal low attenuation was impaired lymphatic drainage and periportal low attenuation corresponding to the numerous dilated lymphatic vessels and a marked lymphedema in the connective tissues surrounding the portal vein and its major branches.

  12. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at 900 μm from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. A Model for Interstitial Drainage Through a Sliding Lymphatic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppell, Charles; Roose, Tiina; Richardson, Giles

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates fluid flow and elastic deformation in tissues that are drained by the primary lymphatic system. A model is formulated based on the Rossi hypothesis that states that the primary lymphatic valves, which are formed by overlapping endothelial cells around the circumferential lining of lymphatic capillaries, open in response to swelling of the surrounding tissue. Tissue deformation and interstitial fluid flow through the tissue are treated using the Biot equations of poroelasticity and, the fluid flux (into the interstitium) across the walls of the blood capillaries, is assumed to be linearly related to the pressure difference across the walls via a constant of proportionality (the vascular permeability). The resulting model is solved in a periodic domain containing one blood capillary and one lymphatic capillary starting from a configuration in which the tissue is undeformed. On imposition of a constant pressure difference between blood and lymphatic capillaries, the solutions are found to settle to a steady state. Given that the magnitude of pressure fluctuations in the lymphatic system is much smaller than this pressure difference between blood and lymph, it is postulated that the resulting steady-state solution gives a good representation of the state of the tissue under physiological conditions. The effects of changes to the Young's modulus of the tissue, the blood-lymphatic pressure difference, vascular permeability and valve dimensions on the steady state are investigated and discussed in terms of their effects on oedema in the context of age- and pregnancy-related changes to the body.

  14. Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia and its Association With Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria María Díaz Marugán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymph is a fluid originating in the interstitial spaces of the body that contains cells, proteins, particles, chylomicrons, and sometimes bacteria. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL results from a disruption of lymphatic circulation, thus corresponding to a secondary rather than a primary event in the context of generalized lymphatic anomaly. Materials and Methods: In this case series and record review, an analysis of intestinal lymphatic involvement was performed on patients diagnosed with PIL between 1965 and 2013. Of the 21 patients included in the study, 10 had been diagnosed before 5 years of age (1 prenatal, 8 between 5 and 18 years of age, and 3 while older than 18 years of age. The follow-up period varied between 1 and 34 years. Clinical data, blood and fecal parameters, imaging studies, endoscopy results, biopsy analyses, treatment details, and outcome information were collected from medical records. Endoscopy, histological studies, magnetic resonance imaging, and lymphoscintigraphy were performed on all patients. Dynamic intranodal lymphangiography was performed on 8 patients. Results: Central lymphatic channel obstruction was identified in 12 patients (57%. Associated lymphatic malformation (LM was present in 16, diarrhea in 10, chylothorax in 11, chylous ascites in 10, pericardial effusion in 6, coagulopathy in 3, and osteolysis in 7. Conclusions: We consider intestinal lymphangiectasia not as an entity in itself, but as a consequence of lymphatic flow impairment in the thoracic duct, producing chylous reflux into the intestinal lymphatics.

  15. Pump function curve shape for a model lymphatic vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, C D; Macaskill, C; Moore, J E

    2016-07-01

    The transport capacity of a contractile segment of lymphatic vessel is defined by its pump function curve relating mean flow-rate and adverse pressure difference. Numerous system characteristics affect curve shape and the magnitude of the generated flow-rates and pressures. Some cannot be varied experimentally, but their separate and interacting effects can be systematically revealed numerically. This paper explores variations in the rate of change of active tension and the form of the relation between active tension and muscle length, factors not known from experiment to functional precision. Whether the pump function curve bends toward or away from the origin depends partly on the curvature of the passive pressure-diameter relation near zero transmural pressure, but rather more on the form of the relation between active tension and muscle length. A pump function curve bending away from the origin defines a well-performing pump by maximum steady output power. This behaviour is favoured by a length/active-tension relationship which sustains tension at smaller lengths. Such a relationship also favours high peak mechanical efficiency, defined as output power divided by the input power obtained from the lymphangion diameter changes and active-tension time-course. The results highlight the need to pin down experimentally the form of the length/active-tension relationship. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of the lymphatic vessels in the prostatic fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Hideo; Takenaka, Atsushi; Murakami, Gen; Haraguchi, Takahiro; Miyake, Hideaki; Tanaka, Kazushi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2011-09-01

    The prostatic fascia-preserving procedure is effective for the early recovery of erectile function after radical prostatectomy; however, the long-term influence of on cancer control was unknown. This study clarified the distribution of lymphatic vessels in the prostatic fascia. The lymphatic vessels were analyzed in 10 prostates obtained from fixed Japanese cadavers (aged, 71-90 years old). Specimens were taken from the apex, the middle part, and the base of the right-hand side of the prostate. Lymphatic vessels were detected by immunohistochemical stain using an antibody specific for the lymphatic endothelial cells (clone D2-40). The lymphatic vessels were counted in the prostate capsule and the prostatic fascia of each section by light microscopy at low power (100×). The median number of lymphatic vessels in the prostatic capsule per prostatic half was 21.0, 14.0, and 21.0 in the apex, middle, and base part of the prostate, respectively. In the prostatic facia the median number of lymphatic vessels per prostatic half was 8.0, 3.0, and 13.0 in the apex, middle, and the base part of the prostate, respectively. In the apex and the middle part the lymphatic vessels in the prostatic fascia were fewer than those in the prostatic capsule. However, in the base part the number of lymphatic vessels in the prostatic fascia was similar to that in the prostatic capsule. The present study suggested the surgeon to pay more attention for the dissection of the fascia at the base of the prostate. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Facial nerve anatomy, dissection and preservation in lymphatic malformation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi Soo; Perkins, Jonathan A; Oliaei, Sepehr; Manning, Scott C

    2008-06-01

    To describe facial nerve anatomy and surgical techniques used for safe lymphatic malformation resection of malformation involving the facial nerve. retrospective case series. tertiary pediatric hospital. record review of lymphatic malformation patients after facial nerve dissection, from 1996 to 2005. Data collected included: facial nerve function, relationship of lymphatic malformation to facial nerve, facial nerve anatomy, dissection extent and clinical outcome. Sixteen patients who met inclusion criteria underwent a total of 21 facial nerve dissections. Mean age at dissection was 48 months (range 1-72 months). Mean follow-up was 38 months (range 8-144 months). Pre-operative lymphatic malformation stage by patient: II=7/16, III=4/16, IV=2/16 and V=3/16. Higher stage lymphatic malformations required more extensive dissections (p=0.026). Pre-operative facial nerve function was House-Brackmann grade (HBG)-1 in 20, and HBG-6 in 1. Eight months postoperatively, facial nerve function was HBG-1 in 18, HBG-2 in 1, and HBG-6 in 2. The facial nerve was surrounded by lymphatic malformation in 10/21, deep to the lymphatic malformation in 5/21, superficial to the lymphatic malformation in 4/21, and not identified in 2/21. Imaging studies predicted facial nerve position in 15/21 procedures. Antegrade nerve dissection was performed in 10/21, retrograde in 7/21 and not done in 2/21. Abnormally elongated facial nerve was identified in 11/21 cases and required more extensive dissection (p=0.040). Facial nerve monitoring was used in 15/21 dissections. Clinical outcomes were felt to be good in 19/21 dissections. In lymphatic malformation surgery, the facial nerve is often abnormally elongated and encompassed by malformation. Pre-operative imaging, facial nerve identification and dissection allow excellent postoperative facial nerve function.

  18. Laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Valeria; Mullassery, Dhanya; Lansdale, Nick; Jesudason, Edwin C

    2011-02-01

    Abdominal lymphatic malformations may be challenging to eradicate. Retroperitoneal lesions may more difficult to resect than mesenteric ones; however, the latter may predispose to intestinal volvulus, leading to calls for their prompt excision. Such lesions identified perinatally may pose particular challenges: in one case, respiratory failure caused by abdominal distension required emergency drainage followed by later laparoscopic excision; laparoscopy has also been used promptly to diagnose and resect neonatal mesenteric lymphatic malformations with their inherent volvulus risk. We illustrate that even if neonatal laparoscopy identifies a retroperitoneal rather than mesenteric lymphatic malformation, curative endosurgical excision remains feasible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An investigation of the topography of the lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). 1. The superficial lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, P R

    1988-04-01

    The superficial lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus is described. The description is based on dissections of 130 eastern grey kangaroos. The most significant difference found between the superficial lymphatic drainage pattern of kangaroos and that of the domestic species was the existence of large inguino-axillary lymphatic trunks in the kangaroo. Thus in the kangaroo, instead of lymph passing from the inguinal lymphocentre to the lumbar lymphatic trunks as is the situation in the domestic animals, lymph passes from the inguinal lymphocentre to the axillary lymphocentre. Apart from the lymph draining from the head and ventral neck (which passes to the superficial cervical lymphocentre) and lymph which may pass from the superficial lymphatic vessels to deeper lymphatic vessels, all the superficial lymphatic drainage of the kangaroo passes through the axillary lymphocentre. From the viewpoint of the meat inspection of the carcasses of kangaroos taken as game meat animals, pathology of the axillary lymphocentre may reflect disease in a much wider range of body regions than it would in a domestic animal.

  20. Cutaneous Nocardiosis Simulating Cutaneous Lymphatic Sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Secchin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is the subcutaneous mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix genus. With worldwide occurrence, the State of Rio de Janeiro is presently undergoing a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic. The form of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis is rare, being caused especially by Nocardia brasiliensis. It appears as a nodular or ulcerated lesion, with multiple painful erythematous nodules or satellite pustules distributed along the lymphatic tract, similar to the lymphocutaneous variant of sporotrichosis. We present a 61-year-old man who, after an insect bite in the left leg, developed an ulcerated lesion associated with ascending lymphangitis, nonresponsive to previous antibiotic therapies. The patient was admitted for investigation, based on the main diagnostic hypothesis of lymphatic cutaneous sporotrichosis entailed by the highly suggestive morphology, associated with the epidemiologic information that he is a resident of the city of Rio de Janeiro. While culture results were being awaited, the patient was medicated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim to cover CA-MRSA and evolved with total healing of the lesions. After hospital discharge, using an ulcer fragment, an Actinomyces sp. was cultivated and N. brasiliensis was identified by molecular biology. The objective of this report is to demonstrate a case of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis after a probable insect bite. Despite the patient being a resident of the State of Rio de Janeiro (endemic region for sporotrichosis, it is highlighted that it is necessary to be aware of the differential diagnoses of an ulcerated lesion with lymphangitis, favoring an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the illness.

  1. Inhibition of cytokine gene expression and induction of chemokine genes in non-lymphatic cells infected with SARS coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Friedemann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV is the etiologic agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. SARS-CoV mainly infects tissues of non-lymphatic origin, and the cytokine profile of those cells can determine the course of disease. Here, we investigated the cytokine response of two human non-lymphatic cell lines, Caco-2 and HEK 293, which are fully permissive for SARS-CoV. Results A comparison with established cytokine-inducing viruses revealed that SARS-CoV only weakly triggered a cytokine response. In particular, SARS-CoV did not activate significant transcription of the interferons IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2/3, as well as of the interferon-induced antiviral genes ISG56 and MxA, the chemokine RANTES and the interleukine IL-6. Interestingly, however, SARS-CoV strongly induced the chemokines IP-10 and IL-8 in the colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, but not in the embryonic kidney cell line 293. Conclusion Our data indicate that SARS-CoV suppresses the antiviral cytokine system of non-immune cells to a large extent, thus buying time for dissemination in the host. However, synthesis of IP-10 and IL-8, which are established markers for acute-stage SARS, escapes the virus-induced silencing at least in some cell types. Therefore, the progressive infiltration of immune cells into the infected lungs observed in SARS patients could be due to the production of these chemokines by the infected tissue cells.

  2. Lymphatic compensation during the postoperative period after breast cancer treatment with axillary dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maia Freire de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer causes physical and psychological morbidity and compromises quality of life. The objective of this literature review was to study lymphatic compensation after surgery for breast cancer and the factors that influence this process, with a view to understanding the etiopathogenesis of lymphedema. Articles indexed on Pubmed published from 1985 to 2012 were reviewed. According to the literature, lymphangiogenesis reduces damage to lymph vessels; there is little evidence that Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is elevated in women with lymphedema; lymphovenous communications can be observed 60 days after surgery; women without lymphedema have acquired alternative mechanisms for removal of proteins from the interstitial space; and active exercise stimulates lymphatic and venous pumping. Health professionals should teach these patients about the risk factors for lymphedema. The effects of lymphangiogenesis, proteolysis and lymphovenous communications on development of lymphedema should be studied, since these events are intimately related.

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 signaling negatively modulates lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunworth, William P; Cardona-Costa, Jose; Bozkulak, Esra Cagavi

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: The emergence of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) seems to be highly regulated during development. Although several factors that promote the differentiation of LECs in embryonic development have been identified, those that negatively regulate this process are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE...... signaling in zebrafish embryos and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies substantially decrease the emergence of LECs. Mechanistically, BMP2 signaling induces expression of miR-31 and miR-181a in a SMAD-dependent mechanism, which in turn results in attenuated expression of prospero homeobox......: Our aim was to delineate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 signaling in lymphatic development. METHODS AND RESULTS: BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs. Developing LECs lack any detectable BMP signaling activity in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, and excess BMP2...

  4. Role of activity in human dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Kiet, H. A. T.; Kim, B. J.; Wang, B.-H.; Holme, P.

    2008-04-01

    The human society is a very complex system; still, there are several non-trivial, general features. One type of them is the presence of power-law-distributed quantities in temporal statistics. In this letter, we focus on the origin of power laws in rating of movies. We present a systematic empirical exploration of the time between two consecutive ratings of movies (the interevent time). At an aggregate level, we find a monotonous relation between the activity of individuals and the power law exponent of the interevent time distribution. At an individual level, we observe a heavy-tailed distribution for each user, as well as a negative correlation between the activity and the width of the distribution. We support these findings by a similar data set from mobile phone text-message communication. Our results demonstrate a significant role of the activity of individuals on the society-level patterns of human behavior. We believe this is a common character in the interest-driven human dynamics, corresponding to (but different from) the universality classes of task-driven dynamics.

  5. Elevated CSF outflow resistance associated with impaired lymphatic CSF absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently reported a lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption deficit in a kaolin model of communicating hydrocephalus in rats with ventricular expansion correlating negatively with the magnitude of the impediment to lymphatic function. However, it is possible that CSF drainage was not significantly altered if absorption at other sites compensated for the lymphatic defect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the lymphatic absorption deficit on global CSF absorption (CSF outflow resistance. Methods Kaolin was injected into the basal cisterns of Sprague Dawley rats. The development of hydrocephalus was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In one group of animals at about 3 weeks after injection, the movement of intraventricularly injected iodinated human serum albumin (125I-HSA into the olfactory turbinates provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics (n = 18. Control animals received saline in place of kaolin (n = 10. In a second group at about 3.5 weeks after kaolin injection, intraventricular pressure was measured continuously during infusion of saline into the spinal subarachnoid space at various flow rates (n = 9. CSF outflow resistance was calculated as the slope of the steady-state pressure versus flow rate. Control animals for this group either received no injections (intact: n = 11 or received saline in place of kaolin (n = 8. Results Compared to saline injected controls, lateral ventricular volume in the kaolin group was significantly greater (0.087 ± 0.013 ml, n = 27 versus 0.015 ± 0.001 ml, n = 17 and lymphatic function was significantly less (2.14 ± 0.72% injected/g, n = 18 versus 6.38 ± 0.60% injected/g, n = 10. Additionally, the CSF outflow resistance was significantly greater in the kaolin group (0.46 ± 0.04 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 9 than in saline injected (0.28 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 8 or intact animals (0.18 ± 0

  6. Mechanisms of Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Modulation of Cyclic Mobilization of [Ca²⁺] in Rat Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M; Kerut, Edmund K; Breslin, Jerome W; Molina, Patricia E

    2015-06-01

    We have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) increases the magnitude of Ca(2+) transients in pumping lymphatic vessels. We tested the contribution of extracellular Ca(2+) via L-type Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to the AAI-induced increase in Ca(2+) transients. AAI was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to conscious, unrestrained rats; isovolumic administration of water served as the control. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels were isolated, cannulated, and loaded with Fura-2 AM to measure changes in intracellular Ca(2+). Measurements were made at intraluminal pressures of 2, 6, and 10 cm H2O. L-type Ca(2+) channels were blocked with nifedipine; IP-3 receptors were inhibited with xestospongin C; and SR Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) pool (Ca(2+) free APSS) were achieved using caffeine. Nifedipine reduced lymphatic Ca(2+) transient magnitude in both AAI and control groups at all pressures tested, but reduced lymphatic contraction frequency only in the control group. Xestospongin C did not significantly change any of the Ca(2+) parameters in either group; however, fractional shortening increased in the controls at low transmural pressure. RyR (ryanodine receptor) activation with caffeine resulted in a single contraction with a greater Ca(2+) transient in lymphatics from AAI than those from controls. SR Ca(2+) pool was also greater in lymphatics isolated from AAI- than from control animals. These data suggest that 1) L-type Ca(2+) channels contribute to the AAI-induced increase in lymphatic Ca(2+) transient, 2) blockage of IP-3 receptors could increase calcium sensitivity, and 3) AAI increases Ca(2+) storage in the SR in lymphatic vessels.

  7. Pkd1 regulates lymphatic vascular morphogenesis during development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coxam, Baptiste; Sabine, Amélie; Bower, Neil I; Smith, Kelly A; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy; Skoczylas, Renae; Astin, Jonathan W; Frampton, Emmanuelle; Jaquet, Muriel; Crosier, Philip S; Parton, Robert G; Harvey, Natasha L; Petrova, Tatiana V; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Francois, Mathias; Hogan, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels arise during development through sprouting of precursor cells from veins, which is regulated by known signaling and transcriptional mechanisms. The ongoing elaboration of vessels to form a network is less well understood. This involves cell polarization, coordinated migration,

  8. Update on osteopathic medical concepts and the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, B F; Kuchera, M L

    1996-02-01

    The osteopathic medical profession has long recognized the importance of the lymphatic system in maintaining health. A review of scientific studies shows much information on the mechanisms and importance of lymph circulation. Many osteopathic manipulative techniques designed to treat patients with tissue congestion are based on early research recognizing that lymph flow is influenced by myofascial compression. Osteopathic manipulative treatment of the diaphragm was substantiated when pressure differentials created by the thoracic diaphragm were shown to influence lymph flow. Current research demonstrates that autonomically mediated, intrinsic lymphatic contractility plays a significant role in lymph propulsion, supporting the use of osteopathic manipulative techniques directed at influencing the autonomic nervous system to improve lymphatic circulation. Although research provides an explanation of how osteopathic manipulative techniques influence the lymphatic system, experimentation to test the direct influence of manipulation on lymph circulation is needed. Clinical outcomes studies are also necessary to substantiate the clinical efficacy of osteopathic manipulative techniques.

  9. Lymph node biophysical remodeling is associated with melanoma lymphatic drainage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohner, Nathan Andrew; McClain, Jacob; Tuell, Sara Lydia; Warner, Alex; Smith, Blair; Yun, Youngho; Mohan, Abhinav; Sushnitha, Manuela; Thomas, Susan Napier

    2015-01-01

    ...) draining the tumor interstitium. Here, we show that lymphatic drainage from murine B16 melanomas in syngeneic, immune-competent C57Bl/6 mice is associated with LN enlargement as well as nonuniform increases in bulk tissue elasticity...

  10. Mesenteric lymphatic malformation associated with acute appendicitis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Mesenteric lymphatic malformations are rare, benign tumors that are most commonly found in children. The presentation of these tumors is variable and may either be innocuous or life threatening. It has been suggested that mesenteric lymphatic malformations are congenital; however, there is evidence that their growth may be stimulated by local trauma. Case presentation We describe the first case of a mesenteric lymphatic malformation associated with acute appendicitis in a 13-year-old Caucasian boy. The patient is well six months after surgical excision of the tumor. Conclusion The reader should be aware that growth and/or development of mesenteric lymphatic malformations may be associated with trauma and other pro-inflammatory processes. PMID:19918284

  11. Rare lymphatic malformation in an extreme premature infant: answer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronica Mugarab Samedi; Adel Elsharkawy

    2017-01-01

    .... No other anomalies were detected, genetic screening for infant was normal. Despite of size of lymphatic malformation at birth, it was an isolated finding with minimal vascularity, thus the prognosis for self-resolution was very good...

  12. Mesenteric lymphatic malformation associated with acute appendicitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mesenteric lymphatic malformations are rare, benign tumors that are most commonly found in children. The presentation of these tumors is variable and may either be innocuous or life threatening. It has been suggested that mesenteric lymphatic malformations are congenital; however, there is evidence that their growth may be stimulated by local trauma. Case presentation We describe the first case of a mesenteric lymphatic malformation associated with acute appendicitis in a 13-year-old Caucasian boy. The patient is well six months after surgical excision of the tumor. Conclusion The reader should be aware that growth and/or development of mesenteric lymphatic malformations may be associated with trauma and other pro-inflammatory processes.

  13. Functional arrangement of rat diaphragmatic initial lymphatic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Annalisa; Moriondo, Andrea; Sciacca, Laura; Guidali, Maria Luisa; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Negrini, Daniela

    2006-08-01

    Fluid and solute flux between the pleural and peritoneal cavities, although never documented under physiological conditions, might play a relevant role in pathological conditions associated with the development of ascitis and pleural effusion and/or in the processes of tumor dissemination. To verify whether a pleuroperitoneal flux might take place through the diaphragmatic lymphatic network, the transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient (Delta P(TD)) was measured in five spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats. Delta P(TD) was -1.93 cmH2O (SD 0.59) and -3.1 cmH2O (SD 0.82) at end expiration and at end inspiration, respectively, indicating the existence of a pressure gradient directed from the abdominal to the pleural cavity. Morphometrical analysis of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network was performed in the excised diaphragm of three additional rats euthanized with an anesthesia overdose. Optical and electron microscopy revealed that lymphatic submesothelial lacunae and lymphatic capillaries among the skeletal muscles fibers show the ultrastructural features of the so-called initial lymphatic vessels, namely, a discontinuous basal lamina and anchoring filaments linking the outer surface of the endothelial cells to connective tissue or to muscle fibers. Primary unidirectional valves in the wall of the initial lymphatics allow entrance of serosal fluid into the lymphatic network preventing fluid backflow, while unidirectional intraluminar valves in the transverse vessels convey lymph centripetally toward central collecting ducts. The complexity and anatomical arrangement of the two valves system suggests that, despite the existence of a favorable Delta P(TD), in the physiological condition no fluid bulk flow takes place between the pleural and peritoneal cavity through the diaphragmatic lymphatic network.

  14. Lymphangioma Circumscriptum (Microcystic Lymphatic Malformation): Palliative Coagulation Using Radiofrequency Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omprakash HM; Rajendran SC

    2008-01-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC, microcystic lymphatic malformation), a hamartomatous lymphatic malformation, is a difficult condition to treat. Different treatments such as surgical excision, lasers, sclerotherapy etc have all been tried with varying success. We report here the efficacy of a radiofrequency current in two patients with lymphangioma circumscriptum. The radiofrequency technique is a safe, economical, and commonly available technique for the treatment of LC; the surgical safety and outcome were satisfactory in our patients. PMID:20300350

  15. Lymphatic Malformation in Adult Patient: A Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, G. H.; M. D. Deshpande

    2010-01-01

    Lymphatic malformation is an uncommon anomaly that commonly occurs in the posterior triangles of infants. The case presented here was an adult male patient with swelling in submental region. This site often leads to misdiagnosis of other common pathology including plunging ranula or lipoma. However, USG and MRI were done for diagnosis of the lesion by which final diagnosis of lymphatic malformation was made. Surgical excision was carried out and histopathology confirmed the primary diagnosis....

  16. Lymphangioma Circumscriptum (Microcystic Lymphatic Malformation): Palliative Coagulation Using Radiofrequency Current

    OpenAIRE

    Omprakash HM,; Rajendran SC,

    2008-01-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC, microcystic lymphatic malformation), a hamartomatous lymphatic malformation, is a difficult condition to treat. Different treatments such as surgical excision, lasers, sclerotherapy etc have all been tried with varying success. We report here the efficacy of a radiofrequency current in two patients with lymphangioma circumscriptum. The radiofrequency technique is a safe, economical, and commonly available technique for the treatment of LC; the surgical safety ...

  17. The association of adult Onchocerca volvulus with lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C D; Huntington, M K; Wanji, S; Lovato, R V; Eversole, R R; Geary, T G

    2010-02-01

    Immunocytochemical examination of onchocercal nodule tissues containing adult Onchocerca volvulus using immuno-markers for blood and lymphatic vessels (vWF, D2-40, podoplanin, Prox-1, and Lyve1) shows a distinct pattern of distribution of these vessels within nodules. Blood vessels were commonly seen associated with organized lymphoid cellular aggregates in the both the outer and inner areas of the nodules. In contrast, the majority of the lymphatic vessel positivity was seen in the central zone in close apposition to the adult parasites, and the remainder usually associated with microfilariae in the outer areas of the nodule. These findings suggest an intimate relationship between adult O. volvulus and lymphatic vessels, including the likely proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells (lymphangectasia) akin to that seen with other filariae. These findings indicate that adult O. volvulus may migrate via the lymphatic system, and that clinical manifestations of this disease that involve tissue edema may be the result of the location of these worms in the lymphatic system.

  18. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-06-01

    Near-infrared imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, yet the imaging capabilities of this approach have yet to be quantitatively characterized. We seek to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic disease. Imaging is performed in a tissue phantom for sensitivity analysis and in hairless rats for in vivo testing. To demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging approach to quantifying immediate functional changes in lymphatics, we investigate the effects of a topically applied nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being 150 μg/mL ICG and 60 g/L albumin. ICG fluorescence can be detected at a concentration of 150 μg/mL as deep as 6 mm with our system, but spatial resolution deteriorates below 3 mm, skewing measurements of vessel geometry. NO treatment slows lymphatic transport, which is reflected in increased transport time, reduced packet frequency, reduced packet velocity, and reduced effective contraction length. NIR imaging may be an alternative to invasive procedures measuring lymphatic function in vivo in real time.

  20. The surgical anatomy of the lymphatic system of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Malefant, Jason; Patel, Swetal D; Du Plessis, Maira; Renna, Sarah; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-05-01

    The lymphatic system of the pancreas is a complex, intricate network of lymphatic vessels and nodes responsible for the drainage of the head, neck, body, and tail of the pancreas. Its anatomical divisions and embryological development have been well described in the literature with emphasis on its clinical relevance in regards to pancreatic pathologies. A thorough knowledge and understanding of the lymphatic system surrounding the pancreas is critical for physicians in providing diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis and is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a surgeon may try to predict the routes for metastasis for pancreatic cancer, the complexity of this system presents difficulty due to variable drainage patterns. Pancreatitis also presents as another severe disease which has been shown to have an association with the lymphatics. The aim of this article is to review the literature on the lymphatics of the pancreas, pancreatic pathologies, and the available imaging methodologies used to study the pancreatic lymphatics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Acute activation, desensitization and smoldering activation of human acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campling, Barbara G; Kuryatov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral effects of nicotine and other nicotinic agonists are mediated by AChRs in the brain. The relative contribution of acute activation versus chronic desensitization of AChRs is unknown. Sustained "smoldering activation" occurs over a range of agonist concentrations at which activated and desensitized AChRs are present in equilibrium. We used a fluorescent dye sensitive to changes in membrane potential to examine the effects of acute activation and chronic desensitization by nicotinic AChR agonists on cell lines expressing human α4β2, α3β4 and α7 AChRs. We examined the effects of acute and prolonged application of nicotine and the partial agonists varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A on these AChRs. The range of concentrations over which nicotine causes smoldering activation of α4β2 AChRs was centered at 0.13 µM, a level found in smokers. However, nicotine produced smoldering activation of α3β4 and α7 AChRs at concentrations well above levels found in smokers. The α4β2 expressing cell line contains a mixture of two stoichiometries, namely (α4β2)2β2 and (α4β2)2α4. The (α4β2)2β2 stoichiometry is more sensitive to activation by nicotine. Sazetidine-A activates and desensitizes only this stoichiometry. Varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A were partial agonists on this mixture of α4β2 AChRs, but full agonists on α3β4 and α7 AChRs. It has been reported that cytisine and varenicline are most efficacious on the (α4β2)2α4 stoichiometry. In this study, we distinguish the dual effects of activation and desensitization of AChRs by these nicotinic agonists and define the range of concentrations over which smoldering activation can be sustained.

  2. Acute activation, desensitization and smoldering activation of human acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara G Campling

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of nicotine and other nicotinic agonists are mediated by AChRs in the brain. The relative contribution of acute activation versus chronic desensitization of AChRs is unknown. Sustained "smoldering activation" occurs over a range of agonist concentrations at which activated and desensitized AChRs are present in equilibrium. We used a fluorescent dye sensitive to changes in membrane potential to examine the effects of acute activation and chronic desensitization by nicotinic AChR agonists on cell lines expressing human α4β2, α3β4 and α7 AChRs. We examined the effects of acute and prolonged application of nicotine and the partial agonists varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A on these AChRs. The range of concentrations over which nicotine causes smoldering activation of α4β2 AChRs was centered at 0.13 µM, a level found in smokers. However, nicotine produced smoldering activation of α3β4 and α7 AChRs at concentrations well above levels found in smokers. The α4β2 expressing cell line contains a mixture of two stoichiometries, namely (α4β22β2 and (α4β22α4. The (α4β22β2 stoichiometry is more sensitive to activation by nicotine. Sazetidine-A activates and desensitizes only this stoichiometry. Varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A were partial agonists on this mixture of α4β2 AChRs, but full agonists on α3β4 and α7 AChRs. It has been reported that cytisine and varenicline are most efficacious on the (α4β22α4 stoichiometry. In this study, we distinguish the dual effects of activation and desensitization of AChRs by these nicotinic agonists and define the range of concentrations over which smoldering activation can be sustained.

  3. Percutaneous Lymphatic Embolization of Abnormal Pulmonary Lymphatic Flow as Treatment of Plastic Bronchitis in Patients With Congenital Heart Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dori, Yoav; Keller, Marc S; Rome, Jonathan J; Gillespie, Matthew J; Glatz, Andrew C; Dodds, Kathryn; Goldberg, David J; Goldfarb, Samuel; Rychik, Jack; Itkin, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    ... as a treatment for these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS—This is a retrospective case series of 18 patients with surgically corrected congenital heart disease and plastic bronchitis who presented for lymphatic imaging and intervention...

  4. Understanding Usability Work as a Human Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie

    Three core themes are explored in eight papers: Usability work as a human activity, usability practice and methods, and persuasiveness of evaluation results and feedback. We explore how usability work is much more than methods and work procedures, and argue that maturing our understanding...... of usability work to include a human perspective, is crucial to downstream utility—how usability work impacts the on-going development process. Our work shows that cross-professional collaboration is subject to challenges that arise from stakeholders having conflicting priorities, procedures and personalities....... Such challenges include evaluation results lacking relevance, poor timing of evaluation results, little respect for other disciplines, and difficulties sharing important information about a design. The studies of practical usability work suggest that user researchers working with computer games and task oriented...

  5. Tie1 is required for lymphatic valve and collecting vessel development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xianghu; Zhou, Bin; Baldwin, H. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Tie1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase with broad expression in embryonic endothelium. Reduction of Tie1 levels in mouse embryos with a hypomorphic Tie1 allele resulted in abnormal lymphatic patterning and architecture, decreased lymphatic draining efficiency, and ultimately, embryonic demise. Here we report that Tie1 is present uniformly throughout the lymphatics and from late embryonic/early postnatal stages, becomes more restricted to lymphatic valve regions. To investigate later events of lymphatic development, we employed Cre-loxP recombination utilizing a floxed Tie1 allele and an Nfatc1Cre line, to provide loxP excision predominantly in lymphatic endothelium and developing valves. Interestingly, unlike the early prenatal defects previously described by ubiquitous endothelial deletion, excision of Tie1 with Nfatc1Cre resulted in abnormal lymphatic defects in postnatal mice and was characterized by agenesis of lymphatic valves and a deficiency of collecting lymphatic vessels. Attenuation of Tie1 signaling in lymphatic endothelium prevented initiation of lymphatic valve specification by Prox1 high expression lymphatic endothelial cells that is associated with the onset of turbulent flow in the lymphatic circulation. Our findings reveal a fundamental role for Tie signaling during lymphatic vessel remodeling and valve morphogenesis and implicate it as a candidate gene involved in primary lymphedema. PMID:25576926

  6. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Takenori, E-mail: takenori@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Burford, James L. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Hong, Young-Kwon [Department of Surgery and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Mori, Nozomu [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Peti-Peterdi, Janos [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane.

  7. Physical Human Activity Recognition Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Attal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of different classification techniques used to recognize human activities from wearable inertial sensor data. Three inertial sensor units were used in this study and were worn by healthy subjects at key points of upper/lower body limbs (chest, right thigh and left ankle. Three main steps describe the activity recognition process: sensors’ placement, data pre-processing and data classification. Four supervised classification techniques namely, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, and Random Forest (RF as well as three unsupervised classification techniques namely, k-Means, Gaussian mixture models (GMM and Hidden Markov Model (HMM, are compared in terms of correct classification rate, F-measure, recall, precision, and specificity. Raw data and extracted features are used separately as inputs of each classifier. The feature selection is performed using a wrapper approach based on the RF algorithm. Based on our experiments, the results obtained show that the k-NN classifier provides the best performance compared to other supervised classification algorithms, whereas the HMM classifier is the one that gives the best results among unsupervised classification algorithms. This comparison highlights which approach gives better performance in both supervised and unsupervised contexts. It should be noted that the obtained results are limited to the context of this study, which concerns the classification of the main daily living human activities using three wearable accelerometers placed at the chest, right shank and left ankle of the subject.

  8. Physical Human Activity Recognition Using Wearable Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, Ferhat; Mohammed, Samer; Dedabrishvili, Mariam; Chamroukhi, Faicel; Oukhellou, Latifa; Amirat, Yacine

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of different classification techniques used to recognize human activities from wearable inertial sensor data. Three inertial sensor units were used in this study and were worn by healthy subjects at key points of upper/lower body limbs (chest, right thigh and left ankle). Three main steps describe the activity recognition process: sensors’ placement, data pre-processing and data classification. Four supervised classification techniques namely, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM), and Random Forest (RF) as well as three unsupervised classification techniques namely, k-Means, Gaussian mixture models (GMM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM), are compared in terms of correct classification rate, F-measure, recall, precision, and specificity. Raw data and extracted features are used separately as inputs of each classifier. The feature selection is performed using a wrapper approach based on the RF algorithm. Based on our experiments, the results obtained show that the k-NN classifier provides the best performance compared to other supervised classification algorithms, whereas the HMM classifier is the one that gives the best results among unsupervised classification algorithms. This comparison highlights which approach gives better performance in both supervised and unsupervised contexts. It should be noted that the obtained results are limited to the context of this study, which concerns the classification of the main daily living human activities using three wearable accelerometers placed at the chest, right shank and left ankle of the subject. PMID:26690450

  9. Transmural pressure in rat initial subpleural lymphatics during spontaneous or mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Mukenge, Sylvain; Negrini, Daniela

    2005-07-01

    The role played by the mechanical tissue stress in supporting lymph formation and propulsion in thoracic tissues was studied in deeply anesthetized rats (n = 13) during spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation. After arterial and venous catheterization and insertion of an intratracheal cannula, fluorescent dextrans were injected intrapleurally to serve as lymphatic markers. After 2 h, the fluorescent intercostal lymphatics were identified, and the hydraulic pressure in lymphatic vessels (P lymph) and adjacent interstitial space (P int) was measured using micropuncture. During spontaneous breathing, end-expiratory P lymph and corresponding P int were -2.5 +/- 1.1 (SE) and 3.1 +/- 0.7 mmHg (P < 0.01), which dropped to -21.1 +/- 1.3 and -12.2 +/- 1.3 mmHg, respectively, at end inspiration. During mechanical ventilation with air at zero end-expiratory alveolar pressure, P lymph and P int were essentially unchanged at end expiration, but, at variance with spontaneous breathing, they increased at end inspiration to 28.1 +/- 7.9 and 28.2 +/- 6.3 mmHg, respectively. The hydraulic transmural pressure gradient (DeltaP tm = P lymph - P int) was in favor of lymph formation throughout the whole respiratory cycle (DeltaP tm = -6.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg) during spontaneous breathing but not during mechanical ventilation (DeltaP tm = -1.1 +/- 1.8 mmHg). Therefore, data suggest that local tissue stress associated with the active contraction of respiratory muscles is required to support an efficient lymphatic drainage from the thoracic tissues.

  10. Regional recruitment of rat diaphragmatic lymphatics in response to increased pleural or peritoneal fluid load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Sciacca, Laura; Guidali, Maria Luisa; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2007-03-15

    The specific role of the diaphragmatic tendinous and muscular tissues in sustaining lymph formation and propulsion in the diaphragm was studied in 24 anaesthetized spontaneously breathing supine rats. Three experimental protocols were used: (a) control; (b) peritoneal ascitis, induced through an intraperitoneal injection of 100 ml kg(-1) of iso-oncotic saline; and (c) pleural effusion, induced through an intrapleural injection of 6.6 ml kg(-1) saline solution. A group of animals (n = 12) was instrumented to measure the hydraulic transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient between the pleural and peritoneal cavities in the three protocols. In the other group (n = 12), the injected iso-oncotic saline was enriched with 2% fluorescent dextrans (molecular mass = 70 kDa); at 30 min from the injections these animals were suppressed and their diaphragm excised and processed for confocal microscopy analysis. In control conditions, in spite of a favourable peritoneal-to-pleural pressure gradient, the majority of the tracer absorbed into the diaphragmatic lymphatic system converges towards the deeper collecting lymphatic ducts. This suggests that diaphragmatic lymph formation mostly depends upon pressure gradients developing between the serosal cavities and the lymphatic vessel lumen. In addition, the tracer distributes to lymph vessels located in the muscular diaphragmatic tissue, suggesting that active muscle contraction, rather than passive tendon stretch, more efficiently enhances local diaphragmatic lymph flow. Vice versa, a prevailing recruitment of the lymphatics of the tendinous diaphragmatic regions was observed in peritoneal ascitis and pleural effusion, suggesting a functional adaptation of the diaphragmatic network to increased draining requirements.

  11. Variations in lung lymphatic drainage into the inferior tracheobronchial lymph nodes junction: Applications in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Assane; Dimarino, Vincent; Ndiaye, Aïnina; Gaye, Magaye; Ba, Papa Salmane; Nazarian, Serge

    2016-10-01

    The group of inferior tracheobronchial lymph nodes (ITB) is a lymphatic junction through which the lymph from both lungs is carried. Lymphatic activity in this area can be used to assess the lymphatic spreading of lung cancers. Our aim was to quantify lymph drainage from the lung segments towards the ITB group and to determine the direction of the lymph flow into other mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. We injected dye directly into the subpleural lymphatic vessels in 100 lung segments of 25 fresh cadaver subjects; the cadavers were then dissected. Thirty-eight segments (38%) drained into the ITB group in 18 subjects. The drainage into the ITB group involved 15.6% of the upper lobe segments, 87.5% of the middle lobe segments, and 70.6% of the lower lobe segments in the right lung. On the left, 6.9% of the upper lobe segments and 83.3% of the lower lobe segments were drained into the ITB group. For three subjects, the dye did not pass beyond the ITB group. The efferent vessels of the ITB group drained towards the right paratracheal and tracheoesophageal chains in 12 subjects and through the left ascending recurrent chain in five subjects. For six subjects, the efferent channels reached the abdominal lymph nodes. A contralateral drainage involved 14 segments (36%). The size and variety of the segments that drain into the ITB group, coupled with the efferent contralateral mediastinal and abdominal pathways, account for the severity of metastasis to this area. Clin. Anat. 29:955-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Transcellular Pathways in Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Regulate Changes in Solute Transport by Fluid Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triacca, Valentina; Güç, Esra; Kilarski, Witold W; Pisano, Marco; Swartz, Melody A

    2017-04-28

    The transport of interstitial fluid and solutes into lymphatic vessels is important for maintaining interstitial homeostasis and delivering antigens and soluble factors to the lymph node for immune surveillance. Transendothelial transport across lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) is commonly considered to occur paracellularly, or between cell-cell junctions, and driven by local pressure and concentration gradients. However, emerging evidence suggests that LECs also play active roles in regulating interstitial solute balance and can scavenge and store antigens, raising the possibility that vesicular or transcellular pathways may be important in lymphatic solute transport. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of transcellular (vesicular) versus paracellular transport pathways by LECs and how mechanical stress (ie, fluid flow conditioning) alters either pathway. We demonstrate that transcellular transport mechanisms substantially contribute to lymphatic solute transport and that solute uptake occurs in both caveolae- and clathrin-coated vesicles. In vivo, intracelluar uptake of fluorescently labeled albumin after intradermal injection by LECs was similar to that of dermal dendritic cells. In vitro, we developed a method to differentially quantify intracellular solute uptake versus transendothelial transport by LECs. LECs preconditioned to 1 µm/s transmural flow demonstrated increased uptake and basal-to-apical solute transport, which could be substantially reversed by blocking dynamin-dependent vesicle formation. These findings reveal the importance of intracellular transport in steady-state lymph formation and suggest that LECs use transcellular mechanisms in parallel to the well-described paracellular route to modulate solute transport from the interstitium according to biomechanical cues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vergara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx. The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%–78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50 and PLA2 activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with 67Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming.

  14. Pathological fractures in a patient with chronic lymphatic leucaemia without disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenberg, Jasper C M; Bosman, Willem-Maarten; van den Bremer, Jephta; Ritchie, Ewan D

    2015-02-25

    We describe a case of a 59-year-old woman with a medical history of upper leg pain and chronic lymphatic leucaemia (CLL), with known diffuse bone marrow infiltration and without signs of lymphatic or extra-lymphatic disease activity on positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT). She presented with multiple fractures of the pelvis, sacrum and left proximal femur as a result of a low energy fall. During admission, she sustained a non-traumatic fracture of the right proximal femur. Pathological fractures in patients with CLL are usually based on Richter's transformation or multiple myeloma. However, in the current case, a PET-CT and a bone marrow biopsy showed no signs of this. We did see a normoparathyroid hypercalcaemia in our patient, most likely caused by a CLL-based release of local osteoclast stimulating factors. A combination of fludarabine/cyclofosfamide/rituximab was started as treatment in combination with allopurinol and sodium bicarbonate to prevent further osteolysis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Challenges in mass drug administration for treating lymphatic filariasis in Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhullar Navneet

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis relies on mass drug administration (MDA of two drugs annually for 4 to 6 years. The goal is to reduce the reservoir of microfilariae in the blood to a level insufficient to maintain transmission by the mosquito vector. In 2008, the international medical aid organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF performed the first round of a MDA in the high-burden area of Asmat district, in Papua, Indonesia. We report the challenges faced in this MDA on a remote Indonesian island and propose solutions to overcome these hurdles in similar future contexts. Results During the MDA, we encountered difficult challenges in accessing as well as persuading the patient population to take the antifilarial drugs. Health promotion activities supporting treatment need to be adapted and repetitive, with adequate time and resources allocated for accessing and communicating with local, seminomadic populations. Distribution of bednets resulted in an increase in MDA coverage, but it was still below the 80-85% target. Conclusions MDA for lymphatic filariasis is how the WHO has planned to eliminate the disease from endemic areas. Our programmatic experience will hopefully help inform future campaign planning in difficult-to-access, high-burden areas of the world to achieve target MDA coverage for elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

  16. Challenges in mass drug administration for treating lymphatic filariasis in Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Navneet; Maikere, Jacob

    2010-08-11

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis relies on mass drug administration (MDA) of two drugs annually for 4 to 6 years. The goal is to reduce the reservoir of microfilariae in the blood to a level insufficient to maintain transmission by the mosquito vector. In 2008, the international medical aid organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) performed the first round of a MDA in the high-burden area of Asmat district, in Papua, Indonesia. We report the challenges faced in this MDA on a remote Indonesian island and propose solutions to overcome these hurdles in similar future contexts. During the MDA, we encountered difficult challenges in accessing as well as persuading the patient population to take the antifilarial drugs. Health promotion activities supporting treatment need to be adapted and repetitive, with adequate time and resources allocated for accessing and communicating with local, seminomadic populations. Distribution of bednets resulted in an increase in MDA coverage, but it was still below the 80-85% target. MDA for lymphatic filariasis is how the WHO has planned to eliminate the disease from endemic areas. Our programmatic experience will hopefully help inform future campaign planning in difficult-to-access, high-burden areas of the world to achieve target MDA coverage for elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

  17. A truncation allele in vascular endothelial growth factor c reveals distinct modes of signaling during lymphatic and vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villefranc, Jacques A; Nicoli, Stefania; Bentley, Katie; Jeltsch, Michael; Zarkada, Georgia; Moore, John C; Gerhardt, Holger; Alitalo, Kari; Lawson, Nathan D

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor C (Vegfc) is a secreted protein that guides lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos. However, its role during developmental angiogenesis is not well characterized. Here, we identify a mutation in zebrafish vegfc that severely affects lymphatic development and leads to angiogenesis defects on sensitized genetic backgrounds. The um18 mutation prematurely truncated Vegfc, blocking its secretion and paracrine activity but not its ability to activate its receptor Flt4. When expressed in endothelial cells, vegfc(um18) could not rescue lymphatic defects in mutant embryos, but induced ectopic blood vessel branching. Furthermore, vegfc-deficient endothelial cells did not efficiently contribute to tip cell positions in developing sprouts. Computational modeling together with assessment of endothelial cell dynamics by time-lapse analysis suggested that an autocrine Vegfc/Flt4 loop plays an important role in migratory persistence and filopodia stability during sprouting. Our results suggest that Vegfc acts in two distinct modes during development: as a paracrine factor secreted from arteries to guide closely associated lymphatic vasculature and as an autocrine factor to drive migratory persistence during angiogenesis.

  18. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bangs

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The accomplishments and progress that have occurred over the past 20 years in collaborative filariasis research between NAMRU-2 detachment staff, National Institute of Health, Research and Development (NIHRD, and Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environmental Health (CDC&EH, University of Indonesia, and other health institutions have produced an impressive array of important contributions to the study of human lymphatic filarial disease. Over this time, no less than 62 publications specifically addressing filariasis studies have come about as a direct result of close cooperation between interorganizational investigators (Figs. 1,2. Beginning in 1972 with observations on diethylcarbamazine (DEC provocation for diurnal diagnosis of W. bancrofti, publications have covered a wide range of different disciplines all with the common goal of understanding and ultimately controlling this disease. Numerous biomedical and filariasis surveys have been recorded over this period, adding greatly to our knowledge of the diverse epidemiology and disease distribution across the archipelago. The following is an attempt to highlight the major milestones among selected categories that have made significant contributions and have provided insights into filariasis research.

  19. Veins and Lymphatics is taking its first steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ricci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Veins represent an important field of medicine. They are frequently involved in several diseases with a very wide range of severity. At one end of the spectrum, we have thrombosis and post-thrombotic syndrome, while at the other we have telangectasias, and a vast number of other conditions lie between these two extremes. Varicose veins are not always severe, but they affect an enormous number of people, with a consequent social and economic burden to society. Lymphology is also an important subject. Lymphatics play a role in many human diseases but lymphedema is a sort of Cinderella disease, neglected by patients, doctors and health care administrators. The name itself shows how little we know; a description of the clinical manifestation has been transformed into the name of the disease. Lymphedema is usually considered to be an inevitable event, be it congenital or secondary. Its incidence is thought to be growing each year, especially in poorer countries and in the field of oncology. Lymphedema treatment is mostly unsatisfactory and costs are high, while patient adherence to treatment is low...

  20. Extravillous trophoblast invasion of venous as well as lymphatic vessels is altered in idiopathic, recurrent, spontaneous abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsperger, Karin; Dekan, Sabine; Pils, Sophie; Golletz, Carsten; Kunihs, Victoria; Fiala, Christian; Kristiansen, Glen; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Do extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade non-arterial decidual vessels in healthy and pathological pregnancies? Our results reveal that trophoblast invasion of venous and lymphatic vessels is a frequent event during the first trimester of pregnancy and is compromised in  recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In addition, the present data suggest that EVTs populate regional lymph nodes during pregnancy. Human trophoblasts remodel and invade decidual spiral arteries. In addition, a recent report demonstrates that trophoblasts contact and invade decidual veins. Tissue samples of human first trimester deciduae basalis (n = 54, 6th-13th weeks of gestation) obtained from elective pregnancy terminations were used to study trophoblast invasion into veins and lymphatics, in comparison to arteries. Age-matched cases of idiopathic, recurrent spontaneous abortions tissue samples (n = 23) were assessed for cell numbers of EVTs in these decidual vessels. In addition, lymph nodes of four pregnant women were analysed for the presence of EVTs. Localization, frequency and EVT-mediated targeting and invasion of arterial, venous as well as lymphatic vessels were determined in first trimester decidua basalis tissue sections using immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against CD31, CD34, ephrin B2 (EFNB2), ephrin receptor B4 (EPHB4), HLA-G, podoplanin, prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox-1), alpha-smooth muscle actin 2 (ATCTA2), von willebrand factor (vWF) and proteoglycan 2 (PRG2). Arterial, venous and lymphatic-associated EVTs were further characterized according to their position in the vascular structure and classified as intramural (im) or intraluminal (il). EVTs, specifically expressing PRG2, target and invade veins and lymphatics in first trimester decidua basalis since HLA-G+ trophoblast were detected in the vascular wall (intramural EVT, imEVTs) and in the lumen of these vessels (intraluminal EVT, ilEVTs). In total, 276 arteries, 793 veins and 113 lymphatics were

  1. Does solar activity affect human happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the direct influence of solar activity (represented by sunspot numbers) on human happiness (represented by the Twitter-based Happiness Index). We construct four models controlling for various statistical and dynamic effects of the analyzed series. The final model gives promising results. First, there is a statistically significant negative influence of solar activity on happiness which holds even after controlling for the other factors. Second, the final model, which is still rather simple, explains around 75% of variance of the Happiness Index. Third, our control variables contribute significantly as well: happiness is higher in no sunspots days, happiness is strongly persistent, there are strong intra-week cycles and happiness peaks during holidays. Our results strongly contribute to the topical literature and they provide evidence of unique utility of the online data.

  2. The spatial structure of transnational human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Emanuel

    2016-09-01

    Starting from conflictive predictions of hitherto disconnected debates in the natural and social sciences, this article examines the spatial structure of transnational human activity (THA) worldwide (a) across eight types of mobility and communication and (b) in its development over time. It is shown that the spatial structure of THA is similar to that of animal displacements and local-scale human motion in that it can be approximated by Lévy flights with heavy tails that obey power laws. Scaling exponent and power-law fit differ by type of THA, being highest in refuge-seeking and tourism and lowest in student exchange. Variance in the availability of resources and opportunities for satisfying associated needs appears to explain these differences. Over time (1960-2010), the Lévy-flight pattern remains intact and remarkably stable, contradicting the popular notion that socio-technological trends lead to a "death of distance." Humans have not become more "global" over time, they rather became more mobile in general, i.e. they move and communicate more at all distances. Hence, it would be more adequate to speak of "mobilization" than of "globalization." Longitudinal change occurs only in some types of THA and predominantly at short distances, indicating regional rather than global shifts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovato James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22. Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88 after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

  4. [Abdominal lymphatic malformation (ALM). Our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López López, A J; Gómez Farpón, A; Vega Mata, N; Montalvo Avalos, C; Oviedo Gutiérrez, M; Granell Suárez, C; Alvarez Muñoz, V; Alvarez Zapico, J A

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations are congenital lesions usually placed in the head and neck, the abdominal location is infrequent. Analyze our experience in ALM management. Retrospective study of pediatric patients with ALM from 1996 to 2011. It is a descriptive analysis of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features. 10 patients with ALM were treated (6 girls: 4 boys), with a median age of 4.03 years (3 days-13 years). Acute abdomen was the most common presenting feature (40%). Ultrasound was carried out in all these cases, completing the study with CT (9 cases), MRI (1) or both (1). Treatment was surgical, excepting one case that presented infection of the ALM. The approach by laparotomy allowed total resection in all cases, involving bowel resection in 6. The mass was located in small bowel mesentery (6), mesocolon (1), liver (1), and in retroperitoneum (1). The final pathologic diagnosis showed an error in diagnostic imaging of 60%.The mean follow-up was 18 months (SD: 12.8), with not recurrences. ALM often manifests in a non-specific form and it may remain silent. Imaging studies guide the diagnosis, but only the histology provides a definitive result. Total resection is the best option to prevent recurrences and minimize complications.

  5. Prevalence of Telomerase Activity in Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hau Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity has been measured in a wide variety of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue types, and the vast majority of clinical studies have shown a direct correlation between it and the presence of cancerous cells. Telomerase plays a key role in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Telomerase is activated in 80–90% of human carcinomas, but not in normal somatic cells, therefore, its detection holds promise as a diagnostic marker for cancer. Measurable levels of telomerase have been detected in malignant cells from various samples: tissue from gestational trophoblastic neoplasms; squamous carcinoma cells from oral rinses; lung carcinoma cells from bronchial washings; colorectal carcinoma cells from colonic luminal washings; bladder carcinoma cells from urine or bladder washings; and breast carcinoma or thyroid cancer cells from fine needle aspirations. Such clinical tests for telomerase can be useful as non-invasive and cost-effective methods for early detection and monitoring of cancer. In addition, telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with poor clinical outcome in late-stage diseases such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and soft tissue sarcomas. In such cases, testing for telomerase activity can be used to identify patients with a poor prognosis and to select those who might benefit from adjuvant treatment. Our review of the latest medical advances in this field reveals that telomerase holds great promise as a biomarker for early cancer detection and monitoring, and has considerable potential as the basis for developing new anticancer therapies.

  6. Temporal and Spatial Regulation of Epsin Abundance and VEGFR3 Signaling are Required for Lymphatic Valve Formation and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaolei; Pasula, Satish; Song, Hoogeun; Tessneer, Kandice L.; Dong, Yunzhou; Hahn, Scott; Yago, Tadayuki; Brophy, Megan; Chang, Baojun; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wu, Hao; McManus, John; Ichise, Hirotake; Georgescu, Constantin; Wren, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic valves prevent the backflow of the lymph fluid and ensure proper lymphatic drainage throughout the body. Local accumulation of lymphatic fluid in tissues, a condition called lymphedema, is common in individuals with malformed lymphatic valves. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) is required for the development of lymphatic vascular system. The abundance of VEGFR3 in collecting lymphatic trunks is high before valve formation and, except at valve regions, decrea...

  7. Activation of human peroxisome-activated receptor-gamma ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity in children has become an epidemic and recent research suggests a possible contribution from exposure to environmental chemicals. Several chemicals, such as phthalates, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated chemicals, are common in house dust on floors where children play and are suspected obesogens. Obesogens can act via a mechanism that involves activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARy). A previous study found that dust collected from children’s homes binds to PPARy. Here, we investigated the ability of house dust to activate PPARy in a transiently transfected cell assay. Dust samples were collected in 2012 from carpeted and hardwood floors in children’s homes using thimbles fitted into a vacuum cleaner hose (“TEO” samples), or from homes in an adult cohort NIEHS study. Dust was extracted with 50:50 hexane:acetone, sonicated, centrifuged, and the organic layer collected. This was repeated 2X. The extracts were filtered to remove particulates, dried with purified nitrogen, and reconstituted in DMS0 at 200 ug/ul. COS-1 cells were transfected for 24 hrs with a human PPARy vector containing a luciferase reporter, and exposed for 24 hrs to negative controls water or DMSO (0.1%), positive controls Troglitazone (3 uM in water) or Rosiglitazone (100 nM in DMSO), or dust extracts serially diluted in DMEM at 50, 100, and 200 ug/ml in 0.1% DMSO. Cells were lysed and luciferase activity was measured. Data were log-tra

  8. Linguistic threat activates the human amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, N.; Silbersweig, D.; Engelien, A.; Emmerich, S.; Malavade, K.; Beattie, B.; Leon, A. C.; Stern, E.

    1999-01-01

    Studies in animals demonstrate a crucial role for the amygdala in emotional and social behavior, especially as related to fear and aggression. Whereas lesion and functional-imaging studies in humans indicate the amygdala’s participation in assessing the significance of nonverbal as well as paralinguistic cues, direct evidence for its role in the emotional processing of linguistic cues is lacking. In this study, we use a modified Stroop task along with a high-sensitivity neuroimaging technique to target the neural substrate engaged specifically when processing linguistic threat. Healthy volunteer subjects were instructed to name the color of words of either threat or neutral valence, presented in different color fonts, while neural activity was measured by using H215O positron-emission tomography. Bilateral amygdalar activation was significantly greater during color naming of threat words than during color naming of neutral words. Associated activations were also noted in sensory-evaluative and motor-planning areas of the brain. Thus, our results demonstrate the amygdala’s role in the processing of danger elicited by language. In addition, the results reinforce the amygdala’s role in the modulation of the perception of, and response to, emotionally salient stimuli. The current study further suggests conservation of phylogenetically older mechanisms of emotional evaluation in the context of more recently evolved linguistic function. PMID:10468630

  9. Timing of nurses activities: human resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hosein Poor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Costs of human resources include a high percentage of hospital’s costs; therefore, determination of number of real and optimal employees needed for organizations is very important. In the meantime, the optimal organization of nurses, as the biggest human resource in health care organizations, is of great importance. The present study aimed to assess the distribution of nurses’ activities in shifts and the results of productivity in human resources management in Imam Khomeini hospital in Shirvan. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016. All nurses, working in three shifts of morning, afternoon, and evening in emergency unit and general units of Imam Khomeini hospital, Shirvan, were enrolled into the study through census methods. The instrument, used in this study, was the checklist of timing activities and patients’ satisfaction from nurses. The statistical software SPSS was used for analysis. Mean age of employees in these two units/wards was 31 years and mean duration of work experience was 5.24 years, The difference was significant between the two wards. necessity of the work, especially in emergency unit, are issues that need more assessment and need to be adjusted. Given the high volume of non-care matters of nursing staff, including writing services, including completing paper records and work with HIS (Hospital Information System, which has been emphasized in several studies, new definition of service and use of artificial intelligence with high efficacy is proposed. The status of the available equipment, availability, and efficiency of digital equipment and hoteling state of wards and hospitals also play an important factor in the distribution of time of nursing care activities. Employment of nurses to perform non-nursing duties, because of the shortage of other classes or lack of their permanent presence and based on Although there were differences in standard time of direct and indirect care in emergency unit and

  10. Lymphatic invasion and the Shields index in predicting melanoma metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirić, Zorica; Erić, Mirela; Eri, Živka

    2017-11-01

    Findings of the prognostic significance of lymphatic invasion are contradictory. To determine an as efficient cutaneous melanoma metastasis predictor as possible, Shields et al. created a new prognostic index. This study aimed to examine whether the lymphatic invasion analysis and the Shields index calculation can be used in predicting lymph node status in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Lymphatic invasion of 100 melanoma specimens was detected by dual immunohistochemistry staining for the lymphatic endothelial marker D2-40 and melanoma cell S-100 protein. The Shields index was calculated as a logarithm by multiplying the melanoma thickness, square of peritumoural lymphatic vessel density and the number "2" for the present lymphatic invasion. No statistically significant difference was observed between lymph node metastatic and nonmetastatic melanomas regarding the lymphatic invasion. Metastatic melanomas showed a significantly higher Shields index value than nonmetastatic melanomas (p = 0.00). Area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) proved that the Shields index (AUC = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.93, p = 0.00) was the most accurate predictor of lymph node status, followed by the melanoma thickness (AUC = 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.86, p = 0.00) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging (AUC = 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.85, p = 0.00), while lymphatic invasion was not successful in predicting (AUC = 0.56, 95% CI 0.45-0.67, p = 0.31). The Shields index achieved 81.3% sensitivity and 75% specificity (cut-off mean value). Our findings show that D2-40/S-100 immunohistochemical analysis of lymphatic invasion cannot be used for predicting the lymph node status, while the Shields index calculation predicts disease outcome more accurately than the melanoma thickness and AJCC staging. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. A model to measure lymphatic drainage from the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhui; Johnston, Miles G; Gupta, Neeru; Moore, Sara; Yücel, Yeni H

    2011-11-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for glaucoma development and progression. Most anti-glaucoma treatments aim to lower IOP by enhancing aqueous humor drainage from the eye. Aqueous humor drainage occurs via well-characterized trabecular meshwork (TM) and uveoscleral (UVS) pathways, and recently described ciliary body lymphatics. The relative contribution of the lymphatic pathway to aqueous drainage is not known. We developed a sheep model to quantitatively assess lymphatic drainage along with TM and UVS outflows. This study describes that model and presents our initial findings. Following intracameral injection of (125)I-bovine serum albumin (BSA), lymph was continuously collected via cannulated cervical lymphatic vessels and the thoracic lymphatic duct over either a 3-h or 5-h time period. In the same animals, blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein every 15 min. Lymphatic and TM drainage were quantitatively assessed by measuring (125)I-BSA in lymph and plasma, respectively. Radioactive tracer levels were also measured in UVS and "other" ocular tissue, as well as periocular tissue harvested 3 and 5 h post-injection. Tracer recovered from UVS tissue was used to estimate UVS drainage. The amount of (125)I-BSA recovered from different fluid and tissue compartments was expressed as a percentage of total recovered tracer. Three hours after tracer injection, percentage of tracer recovered in lymph and plasma was 1.64% ± 0.89% and 68.86% ± 9.27%, respectively (n = 8). The percentage of tracer in UVS, other ocular and periocular tissues was 19.87% ± 5.59%, 4.30% ± 3.31% and 5.32% ± 2.46%, respectively. At 5 h (n = 2), lymphatic drainage was increased (6.40% and 4.96% vs. 1.64%). On the other hand, the percentage of tracer recovered from UVS and other ocular tissue had decreased, and the percentage from periocular tissue showed no change. Lymphatic drainage increased steadily over the 3 h post-injection period, while TM

  12. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  13. Head and neck lymphatic malformation treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary Theresa; Saltzman, Babette; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2012-10-01

    To systematically review literature pertaining to head and neck lymphatic malformation treatment and to use individual-level data presented in qualifying case series to describe the reported efficacy, complications, and functional impact of surgery and sclerotherapy. The authors evaluated whether treatment modalities differ by lymphatic malformation stage. The terms lymphangioendothelioma, lymphangioma, cystic hygroma, and malformation were used to perform an Ovid literature search yielding 6292 references. The authors excluded references that did not involve head and neck lymphatic malformation treatment, include at least 5 patients, follow patients 1 year, define treatment modality, and state complications. The authors summarized data from 1205 patients reported in 41 articles. Individual-level data, in the 29 articles reporting these data, were pooled and tabulated. The absence of within-study comparisons of treatment success, as well as the range of reporting methods, precluded a formal meta-analysis. Most reports were case series (37; 90%). The primary treatment modality was sclerotherapy in 17 (41%), surgery in 16 (39%), or surgery combined with other modalities in 9 (20%). Individual-level data were captured for 283 patients. No treatment modality clearly resulted in superior treatment outcome. Complications were more frequent in surgical series but were reported inconsistently in sclerotherapy studies. There is evidence that lymphatic malformation treatment can be done effectively with surgery or sclerotherapy, but further study is necessary to determine which is superior. Standardized guidelines for reporting lymphatic malformation case series do not currently exist, making comparison of treatment outcomes of differing treatment modalities difficult.

  14. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J.; Eccles, Jacob D.; Rouhani, Sherin J.; Peske, J. David; Derecki, Noel C.; Castle, David; Mandell, James W.; Kevin, S. Lee; Harris, Tajie H.; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    One of the characteristics of the CNS is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the CNS undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment1–3, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the CNS remain poorly understood4–6. In searching for T cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the CSF, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the CNS. The discovery of the CNS lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and shed new light on the etiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction. PMID:26030524

  15. Lymphocytopenia in children with lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempero, Richard M; Hannibal, Mark; Finn, Laura S; Manning, Scott C; Cunningham, Michael L; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether an immunologic abnormality exists in patients with lymphatic malformation (LM). Retrospective case series. Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Twenty-one consecutive patients (11 male and 10 female) undergoing LM treatment. Clinical data (ie, age, clinical LM stage, radiographic appearance, and histologic findings) were correlated with complete blood cell count and detailed lymphocyte differential. Complete blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets were measured in 21 and 18 patients, respectively. The average age at the time of testing was 67 months (range, 1-231 months). The patients were categorized according to LM stage, including 4 (19%) with stage 1, 4 (19%) with stage 2, 4 (19%) with stage 3, 7 (33%) with stage 4, and 2 (10%) with stage 5 disease. Radiographic LM appearance was macrocystic in 6 patients (29%), mixed macrocystic and microcystic in 8 (38%), and microcystic in 7 (33%). Complete blood cell count data demonstrated lymphocytopenia in 6 patients (29%). The results of the lymphocyte subset tests showed concomitant T-, B-, and natural killer (NK)-cell deficiency in 6 (33%) of 18 patients. All 6 patients with T-cell lymphocytopenia had normal neutrophil and platelet counts. Spearman rank and chi(2) analyses showed that LM stage 4 or 5 and microcystic LM were significantly associated with lymphocytopenia (P = .002 and P = .008, respectively). Histologic analysis did not demonstrate increased lymphocytes in any LM specimens. We found T, B, and NK lymphocytopenia in patients with large bilateral or microcystic LM. Although the relationship between lymphocytopenia and infection was not addressed in this study, the recognition of lymphocytopenia in patients with LM may have important clinical and prognostic implications.

  16. Nanoradioliposomes molecularly modulated to study the lung deep lymphatic drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Rabaça Roque Botelho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung deep lymphatic drainage (LDLD plays an important role in the removal of foreign materials from lungs being alveolar macrophages the first line of phagocytic defence with high affinity for pathogenic microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis is a well-known genome- decoded saprophyte of the human respiratory tract used in research and in the biotechnology industry.Lung deep lymphatic chains (LDLC constitute one of the first sites of lung tumours’ dissemination. In this work we intended to develop and validate a non-invasive method for assessing LDLC by nanoradioliposomes aerosolised modulated on the Bacillus subtilis spore wall. The final goal was to produce a nanoradioliposome formulation that can mimics the dynamics of preferential removal of spores by LDLD and present the ideal properties as a tracer for molecular imaging studies.Seven different liposomal formulations were tested, and the formulation-F demonstrated physicochemical and radiopharmaceutical properties that make it an ideal candidate as an in vivo probe for molecular imaging studies of the LDLC.Nanoradioliposomes of the formulation-F after labelling with 99mTc-HMPAO were administered as aerosols to 20 Sus scrofa. Hilar and interpulmonary communications were visualized in first 5 minutes post-inhalation, infradiaphragmatic chains between 10 and 20 minutes, the ganglia of the aortic chain at 20 minutes and those of the renal hilar region at 30 minutes. Conclusion: the proposed method enables visualization of deep lymphatic lung network and lymph nodes. Besides, this technique involving the modulation of nanoradioliposomes targeting specific organs or tissues may be an important tool for diagnostic or even for therapeutic purposes. Resumo: A drenagem linfática pulmonar profunda (DLPP desempenha um papel importante na remoção de materiais estranhos, constituindo os macrófagos alveolares a primeira linha de defesa fagocitária, dada a grande afinidade para

  17. Autophagic activity and aging in human odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couve, E; Schmachtenberg, O

    2011-04-01

    Odontoblasts are long-lived post-mitotic cells in the dental pulp, whose function is to form and maintain dentin. The survival mechanisms that preserve the viability of terminally differentiated odontoblasts during the life of a healthy tooth have not been described. In the present study, we characterized the autophagic-lysosomal system of human odontoblasts with transmission electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, to analyze the mechanisms that maintain the functional viability of these dentinogenic cells. Odontoblasts were found to develop an autophagic-lysosomal system organized mainly by large autophagic vacuoles that are acid-phosphatase-positive to various degrees. These vacuoles expressed the autophagosomal and lysosomal markers LC3 and LAMP2, respectively, in an age-related pattern indicating the organization of a dynamic autophagic machinery. Progressive accumulation of lipofuscin within lysosomes indicates reduced lysosomal activity as a function of odontoblast aging. Our results suggest that autophagic activity in odontoblasts is a fundamental mechanism to ensure turnover and degradation of subcellular components. A reduction in the efficacy of this system might compromise cell viability and dentinogenic secretory capacity. In adult teeth, this condition is described as an 'old odontoblast' stage.

  18. Human serum albumin nanotubes with esterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Teruyuki; Sato, Takaaki; Boettcher, Christoph

    2012-01-02

    A nanocylindrical wall structure was obtained by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of poly-L-arginine (PLA) and human serum albumin (HSA) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning force microscopy (SFM), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). SEM and SFM measurements of a lyophilized powder of (PLA/HSA)(3) nanotubes yielded images of round, chimney-like architectures with approximately 100 nm wall thickness. Cryo-TEM images of the hydrated sample revealed that the tube walls are composed of densely packed HSA molecules. Moreover, when small-angle X-ray scattering was used to characterize the individual PLA and HSA components in aqueous solutions, maximum diameters of approximately 28 nm and 8 nm were obtained, respectively. These values indicate the minimum thickness of wall layers consisting of PLA and HSA. It can also be concluded from SEM as well as from cryo-TEM images that the protein cylinders are considerably swollen in the presence of water. Furthermore, HSA retains esterase activity if assembled in nanotubes, as indicated by measurements of para-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis under semi-physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 22 °C). The enzyme activity parameters (Michaelis constant, K(m), and catalytic constant, k(cat)) were comparable to those of free HSA. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Supramicrosurgical lymphatic-venous anastomosis for postsurgical subcutaneous lymphocele treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentileschi, Stefano; Servillo, Maria; Salgarello, Marzia

    2015-10-01

    Postsurgical subcutaneous lymphocele is caused by accidental lesion of a lymphatic vessel that keeps on flowing lymph under the scar. Traditional treatments include aspiration and compression, with probable recurrence, and sclerotherapy which destroys both lymphatic cyst and vessel, creating risk of lymphedema. We describe the case of a postsurgical subcutaneous lymphocele of the left leg that was treated by supramicrosurgical lympatic-venous anastomosis. A single anastomosis was performed end-to-end, between one lymphatic vessel, individuated through indocyanine green lymphography, and one subcutaneous vein, distally to the lymphocele, under sedation and local anesthesia. Postoperative course was uneventful; the lymphocele completely resolved and never recurred during the nine months followup. This technique may heal the lymphocele with no impairing of lymph drainage function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Successful Treatment of Macroglossia Due to Lymphatic Malformation With Sirolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, Sule; Bozkurt, Ceyhun; Tanyildiz, Hikmet Gülsah; Tekgunduz, Sibel Akpinar; Candir, Mehmet Onur; Toprak, Sule; Sahin, Gurses

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of sirolimus therapy in a child with macroglossia due to lymphatic malformation. Sirolimus treatment was applied to the patient with an initial dosing of 0.8 mg/m2 per dose, administered orally, twice daily at approximately 12-hour intervals. After 9 months of sirolimus therapy, there was a nearly complete resolution of lymphatic malformation. The last evaluation was performed 6 months after withdrawal of treatment, and the lesion had almost completely resolved. This article presents a novel approach to the treatment of lymphatic malformation of the tongue using sirolimus, which appears to be safe and effective for the management of complex cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Increased migration of antigen presenting cells to newly-formed lymphatic vessels in transplanted kidneys by glycol-split heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Ditmer T; Katta, Kirankumar; Boersema, Miriam; Adepu, Saritha; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo; Stegeman, Coen; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Yazdani, Saleh; van den Born, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Chronic renal transplant dysfunction is characterized by loss of renal function and tissue remodeling, including chronic inflammation and lymph vessel formation. Proteoglycans are known for their chemokine presenting capacity. We hypothesize that interruption of the lymphatic chemokine-proteoglycan interaction interferes with the lymphatic outflow of leukocytes from the renal graft and might decrease the anti-graft allo-immune response. In a rat renal chronic transplant dysfunction model (female Dark-Agouti to male Wistar Furth), chemokines were profiled by qRT-PCR in microdissected tubulo-interstitial tissue. Disruption of lymphatic chemokine-proteoglycan interaction was studied by (non-anticoagulant) heparin-derived polysaccharides in vitro and in renal allografts. The renal allograft function was assessed by rise in plasma creatinine and urea. Within newly-formed lymph vessels of transplanted kidneys, numerous CD45+ leukocytes were found, mainly MHCII+, ED-1-, IDO-, HIS14-, CD103- antigen presenting cells, most likely representing a subset of dendritic cells. Treatment of transplanted rats with regular heparin and two different (non-)anticoagulant heparin derivatives revealed worsening of kidney function only in the glycol-split heparin treated group despite a two-fold reduction of tubulo-interstitial leukocytes (plymphatic antigen-presenting cells only in the glycol-split heparin group (plymphatic leukocytes significantly correlates with plasma creatinine and urea, and inversely with creatinine clearance. Treatment of transplanted rats with glycol-split heparin significantly increases the number of intra-lymphatic antigen presenting cells, by increased renal diffusion of lymphatic chemokines, thereby increasing the activation and recruitment of antigen presenting cells towards the lymph vessel. This effect is unwanted in the transplantation setting, but might be advantageous in e.g., dendritic cell vaccination.

  2. Presence of lymphatics in a rat tendon lesion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempfer, Herbert; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Korntner, Stefanie; Lehner, Christine; Kunkel, Nadja; Traweger, Andreas; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Bruckner, Daniela; Krefft, Karolina; Heindl, Ludwig M; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Schrödl, Falk

    2015-04-01

    Tendons lack sufficient blood supply and represent a bradytroph tissue with prolonged healing time under pathological conditions. While the role of lymphatics in wound/defect healing in tissues with regular blood supply is well investigated, its involvement in tendon defects is not clear. We here try to identify the role of the lymphatic system in a tendon lesion model with morphological methods. A rat Achilles tendon lesion model (n = 5) was created via surgical intervention. Two weeks after surgery, animals were killed and lesioned site removed and prepared for polarization microscopy (picrosirius red) and immunohistochemistry using the lymphatic markers PROX1, VEGFR3, CCL21, LYVE-1, PDPN, and the vascular marker CD31. Additionally, DAPI was applied. Untreated tendons served as controls, confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation. At the lesion site, polarization microscopy revealed a structural reintegration while immunohistochemistry detected band-like profiles immunoreactive for PDPN, VEGFR3, CCL21, LYVE1, and CD31, surrounding DAPI-positive nuclei. PROX1-positive nuclei were detected within the lesion forming lines and opposed to each other. These PROX1-positive nuclei were surrounded by LYVE-1- or VEGFR3-positive surfaces. Few CD31-positive profiles contained PROX1-positive nuclei, while the majority of CD31-positive profiles lacked PROX1-positive nuclei. VEGFR3-, PDPN-, and LYVE-1-positive profiles were numerous within the lesion site, but absent in control tissue. Within 2 weeks, a structural rearrangement takes place in this lesion model, with dense lymphatic supply. The role of lymphatics in tendon wound healing is unclear, and proposed model represents a good possibility to study healing dynamics and lymphangiogenesis in a tissue almost completely lacking lymphatics in physiological conditions.

  3. Heterogeneous characteristics of lymphatic microvasculatures associated with pulmonary sarcoid granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masahiro; Mouri, Takashi; Niisato, Miyuki; Kowada, Kouko; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Chiba, Ryoji; Satoh, Takashi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Sawai, Takashi; Takahashi, Tohru; Yamauchi, Kohei

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary sarcoidosis is a disorder characterized by noncaseating epithelioid granulomas that are anatomically distributed along lymphogenous routes. Currently, limited information is available about lymphangiogenesis in pulmonary sarcoidosis. To clarify the characteristics of lymphangiogenesis in pulmonary sarcoidosis. The concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-C, and VEGF-D in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 65 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, 10 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and 29 healthy volunteers were measured by ELISA. Paraffin-embedded lung tissues obtained from 19 patients were used for immunohistochemical analyses, using primary antibodies against VEGF, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, podoplanin, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, VEGFR-3, and CD73. The serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of VEGF and VEGF-C were significantly increased in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that VEGF and VEGF-C were expressed in sarcoid granulomas. Immunostaining with anti-podoplanin antibody for the detection of lymphatic vasculatures showed the presence of usual lymphatics and atypical tubular structures around sarcoid granulomas. Atypical tubular structures were characterized by a thin membrane, with weak expression of podoplanin and a membrane deficit in a part of the borderline. The structures were observed in around 58.6% of the total of 193 granulomas, whereas usual lymphatics were limited in 15.6%. Atypical tubular structures were coexpressed with VEGFR-2, but not VEGFR-3, whereas VEGFR-3 was expressed in usual lymphatics. Part of the tubular structures was connected to CD73(+) afferent lymphatics. These results indicate the presence and the importance of heterogeneous lymphatic microvasculature around sarcoid granulomas in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  4. Lymphangiogenic growth factor responsiveness is modulated by postnatal lymphatic vessel maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpanen, Terhi; Wirzenius, Maria; Mäkinen, Taija; Veikkola, Tanja; Haisma, Hidde J; Achen, Marc G; Stacker, Steven A; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Alitalo, Kari

    Lymphatic vessel plasticity and stability are of considerable importance when attempting to treat diseases associated with the lymphatic vasculature. Development of lymphatic vessels during embryogenesis is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C but not VEGF-D. Using a recombinant

  5. Sphingosine-1-phosphate in the lymphatic fluid determined by novel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Nagahashi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In agreement with the previous theory, our results confirm “S1P gradient” among blood, lymphatic fluid and peripheral lymphatic tissues. Convenient methods for collection and measurement of sphingolipids in lymphatic fluid are expected to provide new insights on functions of sphingolipids.

  6. The lymphatic drainage of the cranial part of the sheep's uterus and its possible functional significance.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Rahim, S E; Bland, K P

    1985-01-01

    The lymphatic drainage of the cranial part of the uterus is described. Some of the uterine lymphatic vessels are closely associated with the ovarian arterial supply. It is proposed that the uterine lymphatics form part of the local pathway for the transfer of uterine prostaglandin F2 alpha to the ovary for luteolysis.

  7. Lysophosphatidic acid enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-En Lin

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence suggests that lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis are important processes during the progression of prostate cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C was shown to be a key regulator in these processes. Our previous studies demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, a low-molecular-weight lipid growth factor, enhances VEGF-C expression in human endothelial cells. We previously demonstrated that the LPA receptor plays an important role in lymphatic development in zebrafish embryos. However, the effects of LPA on VEGF-C expression in prostate cancer are not known. Herein, we demonstrate that LPA up-regulated VEGF-C expression in three different human prostate cancer cell lines. In PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, the enhancing effects of LPA were mediated through both LPA1 and LPA3. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS production and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF expression were involved in LPA(1/3-dependent VEGF-C expression. Furthermore, autotaxin (ATX, an enzyme responsible for LPA synthesis, also participates in regulating VEGF-C expression. By interrupting LPA(1/3 of PC-3, conditioned medium (CM -induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC lymphatic markers expression was also blocked. In summary, we found that LPA enhances VEGF-C expression through activating LPA(1/3-, ROS-, and LEDGF-dependent pathways. These novel findings could potentially shed light on developing new strategies for preventing lymphatic metastasis of prostate cancer.

  8. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after...... the lymphatic system in obese subjects. Furthermore, they suggest that postprandial changes in ATLD taking place in lean subjects are not observed in obese subjects. This may have a role in the development of obesity-related inflammation in hypertrophic adipose tissue.International Journal of Obesity advance...

  9. Protein Phosphatase 2A in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Murine Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fan Chuang

    Full Text Available The lymphatic endothelium plays an important role in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. It also participates in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which lymphatic endothelial cell responds to inflammatory stimuli. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in murine lymphatic endothelial cells (SV-LECs. LPS caused increases in cox-2 mRNA and protein levels, as well as in COX-2 promoter luciferase activity in SV-LECs. These actions were associated with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, JNK1/2 and p38MAPK activation, and NF-κB subunit p65 and C/EBPβ phosphorylation. PP2A-ASK1 signaling blockade reduced LPS-induced JNK1/2, p38MAPK, p65 and C/EBPβ phosphorylation. Transfection with PP2A siRNA reduced LPS's effects on p65 and C/EBPβ binding to the COX-2 promoter region. Transfected with the NF-κB or C/EBPβ site deletion of COX-2 reporter construct also abrogated LPS's enhancing effect on COX-2 promoter luciferase activity in SV-LECs. Taken together, the induction of COX-2 in SV-LECs exposed to LPS may involve PP2A-ASK1-JNK and/or p38MAPK-NF-κB and/or C/EBPβ cascade.

  10. Activation of Human T Cells in Hypertension: Studies of Humanized Mice and Hypertensive Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Hana A; McMaster, William G; Saleh, Mohamed A; Nazarewicz, Rafal R; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz P; Kaszuba, Anna M; Konior, Anna; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Norlander, Allison E; Chen, Wei; Bonami, Rachel H; Marshall, Andrew F; Poffenberger, Greg; Weyand, Cornelia M; Madhur, Meena S; Moore, Daniel J; Harrison, David G; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2016-07-01

    Emerging evidence supports an important role for T cells in the genesis of hypertension. Because this work has predominantly been performed in experimental animals, we sought to determine whether human T cells are activated in hypertension. We used a humanized mouse model in which the murine immune system is replaced by the human immune system. Angiotensin II increased systolic pressure to 162 versus 116 mm Hg for sham-treated animals. Flow cytometry of thoracic lymph nodes, thoracic aorta, and kidney revealed increased infiltration of human leukocytes (CD45(+)) and T lymphocytes (CD3(+) and CD4(+)) in response to angiotensin II infusion. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the memory T cells (CD3(+)/CD45RO(+)) in the aortas and lymph nodes. Prevention of hypertension using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide prevented the accumulation of T cells in these tissues. Studies of isolated human T cells and monocytes indicated that angiotensin II had no direct effect on cytokine production by T cells or the ability of dendritic cells to drive T-cell proliferation. We also observed an increase in circulating interleukin-17A producing CD4(+) T cells and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that produce interferon-γ in hypertensive compared with normotensive humans. Thus, human T cells become activated and invade critical end-organ tissues in response to hypertension in a humanized mouse model. This response likely reflects the hypertensive milieu encountered in vivo and is not a direct effect of the hormone angiotensin II. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Lymphatic Transport and Lymphocyte Targeting of a Triglyceride Mimetic Prodrug Is Enhanced in a Large Animal Model: Studies in Greyhound Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sifei; Hu, Luojuan; Gracia; Quach, Tim; Simpson, Jamie S; Edwards, Glenn A; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Porter, Christopher J H

    2016-10-03

    In previous studies, a triglyceride (TG) mimetic prodrug of the model immunomodulator mycophenolic acid (MPA) was shown to significantly enhance lymphatic transport of MPA-related species in the rat. The rat gastrointestinal tract, however, is somewhat different from that in higher order species such as dogs and humans and may underestimate lymphatic transport. Here the effectiveness of the prodrug strategy has been examined in conscious greyhound dogs, the GI physiology of which is more representative of that in humans. The bioavailability and lymphatic transport of free MPA and total MPA related materials were examined following oral administration of the parent drug (MPA) and the prodrug (2-MPA-TG) to both thoracic lymph duct cannulated and intact (noncannulated) greyhound dogs. The enrichment of free MPA in lymph nodes and lymph-derived lymphocytes was also determined to examine the efficiency of drug targeting to potential sites of action within the lymph. Via biochemical integration into a series of site-specific metabolic processes, the prodrug markedly increased (288-fold) lymphatic transport of total MPA related material (present as re-esterified 2-MPA-TG) when compared to the parent MPA and the extent of lymphatic transport was significantly greater in the dog (36.4% of the dose recovered in lymph) when compared to the previous data in the rat (13.4% of the dose). Conversion from 2-MPA-TG derivatives to parent MPA occurred in vivo, resulting in a marked increase in MPA concentrations in lymph nodes (5-6-fold) and lymph lymphocytes (21-fold), when compared to animals administered the parent drug. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the TG prodrug of MPA facilitates efficient delivery of MPA to the lymphatic system in dogs and suggest that the TG prodrug strategy may more effectively facilitate targeted delivery in large animals than in rats.

  12. Structural snapshots of actively translating human ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Budkevich, Tatyana V; Yamamoto, Kaori; Schmidt, Andrea; Penczek, Pawel A; Vos, Matthijn R; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Scheerer, Patrick; Spahn, Christian M T

    2015-05-07

    Macromolecular machines, such as the ribosome, undergo large-scale conformational changes during their functional cycles. Although their mode of action is often compared to that of mechanical machines, a crucial difference is that, at the molecular dimension, thermodynamic effects dominate functional cycles, with proteins fluctuating stochastically between functional states defined by energetic minima on an energy landscape. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to image ex-vivo-derived human polysomes as a source of actively translating ribosomes. Multiparticle refinement and 3D variability analysis allowed us to visualize a variety of native translation intermediates. Significantly populated states include not only elongation cycle intermediates in pre- and post-translocational states, but also eEF1A-containing decoding and termination/recycling complexes. Focusing on the post-translocational state, we extended this assessment to the single-residue level, uncovering striking details of ribosome-ligand interactions and identifying both static and functionally important dynamic elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  14. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  15. Lymphatic Expression of CLEVER-1 in Breast Cancer and Its Relationship with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aula Ammar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanisms regulating breast cancer lymph node metastasis are unclear. Staining of CLEVER-1 (common lymphatic endothelial and vascular endothelial receptor-1 in human breast tumors was used, along with in vitro techniques, to assess involvement in the metastatic process. Methods: 148 sections of primary invasive breast cancers, with 10 yr follow-up, were stained with anti-CLEVER-1. Leukocyte infiltration was assessed, along with involvement of specific subpopulations by staining with CD83 (mature dendritic cells, mDC, CD209 (immature DC, iDC and CD68 (macrophage, M&phis;. in vitro expression of CLEVER-1 on lymphatic (LEC and blood endothelial cells (BEC was examined by flow cytometry. Results: in vitro results showed that although both endothelial cell types express CLEVER-1, surface expression was only evident on LEC. In tumour sections CLEVER-1 was expressed in blood vessels (BV, 61.4% of samples, lymphatic vessels (LV, 18.2% of samples and in M&phis;/DCs (82.4% of samples. However, only CLEVER-1 expression in LV was associated with LN metastasis (p = 0.027 and with M&phis; indices (p = 0.021. Although LV CLEVER-1 was associated with LN positivity there was no significant correlation with recurrence or overall survival, BV CLEVER-1 expression was, however, associated with increased risk of recurrence (p = 0.049. The density of inflammatory infiltrate correlated with CLEVER-1 expression in BV (p < 0.001 and LV (p = 0.004. Conclusions: The associations between CLEVER-1 expression on endothelial vessels and macrophage/leukocyte infiltration is suggestive of its regulation by inflammatory conditions in breast cancer, most likely by macrophage-associated cytokines. Its upregulation on LV, related surface expression, and association with LN metastasis suggest that it may be an important mediator of tumor cell metastasis to LN.

  16. Oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity reduces lymphatic drainage but enhances the induction of adaptive immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aebischer

    Full Text Available Contact hypersensitivity (CHS induced by topical application of haptens is a commonly used model to study dermal inflammatory responses in mice. Several recent studies have indicated that CHS-induced skin inflammation triggers lymphangiogenesis but may negatively impact the immune-function of lymphatic vessels, namely fluid drainage and dendritic cell (DC migration to draining lymph nodes (dLNs. On the other hand, haptens have been shown to exert immune-stimulatory activity by inducing DC maturation. In this study we investigated how the presence of pre-established CHS-induced skin inflammation affects the induction of adaptive immunity in dLNs. Using a mouse model of oxazolone-induced skin inflammation we observed that lymphatic drainage was reduced and DC migration from skin to dLNs was partially compromised. At the same time, a significantly stronger adaptive immune response towards ovalbumin (OVA was induced when immunization had occurred in CHS-inflamed skin as compared to uninflamed control skin. In fact, immunization with sterile OVA in CHS-inflamed skin evoked a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response comparable to the one induced by conventional immunization with OVA and adjuvant in uninflamed skin. Striking phenotypic and functional differences were observed when comparing DCs from LNs draining uninflamed or CHS-inflamed skin. DCs from LNs draining CHS-inflamed skin expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory molecules and MHC molecules, produced higher levels of the interleukin-12/23 p40 subunit (IL-12/23-p40 and more potently induced T cell activation in vitro. Immunization experiments revealed that blockade of IL-12/23-p40 during the priming phase partially reverted the CHS-induced enhancement of the adaptive immune response. Collectively, our findings indicate that CHS-induced skin inflammation generates an overall immune-stimulatory milieu, which outweighs the potentially suppressive effect of reduced lymphatic vessel function.

  17. Scintigraphic localization of lymphatic leakage site after oral administration of iodine-123-IPPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, B I; Aurisch, R; Rückert, J C; Sandrock, D; Munz, D L

    1998-12-01

    Chylothorax can occur secondary to traumatic lesions of the thoracic duct caused by chest injuries, surgical procedures involving the pleural space, neoplasms or malformations of the lymphatics. Lymphatic leakage sites were localized by scintigraphy after oral administration of the 123I-labeled long-chain fatty acid derivative iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (IPPA). We report on three patients with different lymphatic leakage sites and on one normal control subject. IPPA scintigraphy localized the lymphatic leakage site correctly in all three patients. In two of them, the method even guided the successful surgical treatment of the leakage. This approach is suitable for detecting lymphatic leakages of intestinal origin.

  18. Bleomycin sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformation after unsuccessful surgical excision: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovic, A; Gazikalovic, A; Adjic, O

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are benign cystic masses resulting from the abnormal development of lymphatic channels. Lymphatic malformations occur primarily in the head and neck region. Surgical excision of lymphatic malformation is followed by high rate of recurrence and a high risk of complications. Bleomycin is an established antineoplastic drug. It can be used as a sclerosing agent in vascular anomalies. We present a child who was unsuccessfully treated with four surgical resections, with peripheral palsy of facial nerve as complication. The lymphatic malformation was successfully treated in our institution with intralesional administration of bleomycin.

  19. Audio visual information fusion for human activity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thagadur Shivappa, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Human activity analysis in unconstrained environments using far-field sensors is a challenging task. The fusion of audio and visual cues enables us to build robust and efficient human activity analysis systems. Traditional fusion schemes including feature-level, classifier-level and decision-level fusion have been explored in task- specific contexts to provide robustness to sensor and environmental noise. However, human activity analysis involves the extraction of information from audio and v...

  20. Clarifications Regarding the Topographical Location of the Vascular, Lymphatic and Nervous Formations from the Thorax Aperture in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Our studies are intended to bring some clarification on the topographic situation of lymphatic vascular and nerve formations in the thoracic aperture to the dog. Data from the literature are less relevant because the other factions by surprise earlier in the mediastinum without to make a correlation between them [6, 7, 8]. The study was performed on 20 corpses of dog different breeds, ages and gender. Vascular formations were injected with a mixture prepare the laboratory of anatomy of the discipline. Photographic paper presents several models dissected setting with as much precision topographic situation of the anatomical formations and has a highly application in human medicine, bringing clarification on topography thoracic duct lymph in the large vessels transport underlying heart. Lymphatic ducts is attached the entire length of the front right mediastinal aorta. That is opening in cranial vena cava without having a secundar channel.

  1. Progression of Inflammatory Bowel Disease to Cancer: Is the Patient Better Off without Lymphatic Vessels or Nodes (or Angiopoietin 2)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    various theories of progression have remained elusive. We proposed that a reduced number of functioning lymphatic vessels and impaired lymph drainage ...having a reduced number of functioning lymphatic vessels and impaired lymph drainage ( lymphatic vascular insufficiency) in the colon actually protects... Lymphatic Vessels or Nodes (or Angiopoietin 2)? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marlys H. Witte, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Arizona, Tucson

  2. Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis among Adults in Ofumbongha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work assesses the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in the rural Ofumbongha communities (IIV), in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. The study population consisted of both sexes 16 years of age and above. Blood sampling was from the thumb. Giemsa Staining Technique was employed in ...

  3. Utility of a microwave surgical instrument in sealing lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, Katsushi; Shiomi, Hisanori; Naka, Shigeyuki; Murayama, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Koichiro; Akabori, Hiroya; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Murata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kurumi, Yoshimasa; Tani, Tohru

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed the ability of a novel microwave coagulation surgical instrument (MWCX) to seal lymphatic vessels when compared with LigaSure (Valleylab, Boulder, CO), the Harmonic Scalpel (HS; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, OH), and electric cautery. The burst pressure of pig inguinal lymphatic vessels was assessed after the sealing of vessels with each surgical instrument. The rate of lymphorrhea from pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels was also investigated using indocyanine green and visualized with the Photodynamic Eye system (Hamamatsu Hotoniks, Hamamatsu, Japan). Burst pressures were higher with MWCX (average, 300 mm Hg), LigaSure (average, 290 mm Hg), and HS (average, 253 mm Hg) when compared with electric cautery (average, 152.3 mm Hg; vs MWCX: P = .002, vs LigaSure: P = .002, vs HS: P = .004). The rate of lymphorrhea was significantly lower with LigaSure (13.3%), HS (18.8%), and MWCX (13.3%) when compared with electric cautery (77.3%; vs LigaSure: P lymphatic vessels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative study of chronic lymphatic filariasis-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity of socio-cultural data and a lack of understanding and documentation of lymphatic filariasis. socio-economic consequences have led to a gross underestimation of its impact in Nigeria. However, to increase the success of elimination strategies, the socio-cultural understandings of affected community groups are ...

  5. Study of chronic lymphatic filariasis Related Knowledge, Attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity of socio-cultural data and a lack of understanding and documentation of Lymphatic filariasis' socio-economic consequences have led to gross underestimation of its impact in Nigeria. However, to increase the success of elimination strategies, the socio-cultural understandings of affected community groups are ...

  6. Perception, practices and health-seeking behaviour of lymphatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative and qualitative studies to investigate lymphatic-filariasis-related perceptions, practices and health-seeking behaviour of patients was conducted in Benue State, Nigeria. Questionnaires, key informant, interviews and Matrix Ranking Exercises were employed to collect data. A total of 113 questionnaires ...

  7. Transmural pressure during cardiogenic oscillations in rodent diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Daniela; Moriondo, Andrea; Mukenge, Sylvain

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of initial lymphatic filling and the role of cardiogenic tissue motion in promoting lymph formation and propulsion are at present still controversial issues, in particular when considering interstitial tissues whose fluid pressure is well below atmospheric. To elucidate these aspects, the micropuncture technique was used to record interstitial (P(int)) and intralymphatic pressure (P(lymph)) simultaneously in the diaphragmatic lymphatic plexus draining the pleural cavity. The diaphragmatic lymphatic network was identified in anesthetized rabbits and rats through fluorescent dextrans injected intrapleurally. All P(lymph) and P(int) traces were pulsatile, oscillating either in-phase (33% of traces) or out-of-phase (67%) during cardiogenic swings. P(lymph) swept between -4.1 +/- 0.9 (SE) mmHg and 3.5 +/- 1.1 mmHg in rabbits, and between -5.1 +/- 1.0 mmHg and -2.7 +/- 1.1 mmHg in rats. P(int) oscillated between -0.8 +/- 0.7 mmHg and 4.9 +/- 0.7 mmHg in rabbits, and between -0.6 +/- 0.8 mmHg and 0.9 +/- 0.7 mmHg in rats. The data revealed a great functional complexity of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network and suggested that cardiogenic oscillations may play an important role in promoting lymph formation and propulsion from interstitial tissues with subatmospheric tissue pressure.

  8. Research Note: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) Aedes albopictus : A new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphatic filariasis, an ancient disease is a major global problem infecting more than 120 million men, women and children. Vectors for the causative ... This is no good news considering the health implications and bearing in mind that Aedes albopictus is a competent vector for at least 22 arboviruses. The finding of W.

  9. Dermal lymphatic dilation in a mouse model of alopecia areata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, John P.; Pratt, C. Herbert; Silva, Kathleen A.; Kennedy, Victoria E.; Stearns, Timothy; Sundberg, Beth A.; King, Lloyd E.; HogenEsch, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models of various types of inflammatory skin disease are often accompanied by increased dermal angiogenesis. The C3H/HeJ inbred strain spontaneously develops alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated autoimmune disorder that can be controllably expanded using full thickness skin grafts to young unaffected mice. This provides a reproducible and progressive model for AA in which the vascularization of the skin can be examined. Mice receiving skin grafts from AA or normal mice were evaluated at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks after engraftment. Lymphatics are often overlooked as they are small slit-like structures above the hair follicle that resemble artifact-like separation of collagen bundles with some fixatives. Lymphatics are easily detected using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1) by immunohistochemistry to label their endothelial cells. Using LYVE1, there were no changes in distribution or numbers of lymphatics although they were more prominent (dilated) in the mice with AA. Lyve1 transcripts were not significantly upregulated except at 10 weeks after skin grafting when clinical signs of AA first become apparent. Other genes involved with vascular growth and dilation or movement of immune cells were dysregulated, mostly upregulated. These findings emphasize aspects of AA not commonly considered and provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26960166

  10. Integrated morbidity management for lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Biruck; Tamiru, Mossie; Mengistu, Belete; Kebede, Fikreab; Martindale, Sarah; Sime, Heven; Mulugeta, Abate; Kebede, Biruk; Sileshi, Mesfin; Mengiste, Asrat; McPherson, Scott; Fentaye, Amha

    2017-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis are the major causes of tropical lymphoedema in Ethiopia. The diseases require a similar provision of care, but until recently the Ethiopian health system did not integrate the morbidity management. To establish health-care services for integrated lymphoedema morbidity management, the health ministry and partners used existing governmental structures. Integrated disease mapping was done in 659 out of the 817 districts, to identify endemic districts. To inform resource allocation, trained health extension workers carried out integrated disease burden assessments in 56 districts with a high clinical burden. To ensure standard provision of care, the health ministry developed an integrated lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis morbidity management guideline, containing a treatment algorithm and a defined package of care. Experienced professionals on lymphoedema management trained government-employed health workers on integrated morbidity management. To monitor the integration, an indicator on the number of lymphoedema-treated patients was included in the national health management information system. In 2014, only 24% (87) of the 363 health facilities surveyed provided lymphatic filariasis services, while 12% (44) provided podoconiosis services. To date, 542 health workers from 53 health centres in 24 districts have been trained on integrated morbidity management. Between July 2013 and June 2016, the national health management information system has recorded 46 487 treated patients from 189 districts. In Ethiopia, an integrated approach for lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis morbidity management was feasible. The processes used could be applicable in other settings where these diseases are co-endemic.

  11. Research Note: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) Aedes albopictus : A new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphatic filariasis, an ancient disease is a major global problem infecting more than 120 million men, women and children. Vectors for the causative agent Wuchereria bancrofti were investigated in Abia State, Nigeria. Of all the mosquito vectors encountered using sweep net, test tube and Pyrethrum Knockdown Count ...

  12. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...... methods for use with commercially available quantum dots and discuss common difficulties....

  13. Migration and lymphatic spread of calcified paraffinomas after breast augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, G.C.; Peh, W.C.G.; Ip, M. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong)

    1996-11-01

    A 62 year old Chinese woman presented 25 years after having both breasts augmented with paraffin injections. Development of paraffinomas and multiple episodes of paraffin-related mastitis eventually resulted in bilateral mastectomies. The unusual distribution of migrated calcified paraffinomas in the thoracic wall and its lymphatic system is documented on computed tomography. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  14. The National Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Belete; Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Fikreab; Martindale, Sarah; Hassan, Mohammed; Sime, Heven; Mackenzie, Charles; Mulugeta, Abate; Tamiru, Mossie; Sileshi, Mesfin; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre, Teshome; Fentaye, Amha; Kebede, Biruck

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring diseases common in Ethiopia and is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Mapping for LF has shown that 70 woredas (districts) are endemic and 5.9 million people are estimated to be at risk. The national government's LF elimination programme commenced in 2009 in 5 districts integrated with the onchocerciasis programme. The programme developed gradually and has shown significant progress over the past 6 years, reaching 100% geographical coverage for mass drug administration (MDA) by 2016. To comply with the global LF elimination goals an integrated morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) guideline and a burden assessment programme has also been developed; MMDP protocols and a hydrocoele surgical handbook produced for country-wide use. In Ethiopia, almost all LF endemic districts are co-endemic with malaria and vector control aspects of the activities are conducted in the context of malaria programme as the vectors for both diseases are mosquitoes. In order to monitor the elimination, 11 sentinel and spot-check sites have been established and baseline information has been collected. Although significant achievements have been achieved in the scale up of the LF elimination programme, there is still a need to strengthen operational research to generate programme-relevant evidence, to increase access to morbidity management services, and to improve monitoring and evaluation of the LF programme. However, the current status of implementation of the LF national programme indicates that Ethiopia is poised to achieve the 2020 goal of elimination of LF. Nevertheless, to achieve this goal, high and sustained treatment coverage and strong monitoring and evaluation of the programme are essential.

  15. Baseline drivers of lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michelle C; Molyneux, David H; Kyelem, Dominique; Bougma, Roland W; Koudou, Benjamin G; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2013-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease that is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa, infecting approximately 40 million people. In Burkina Faso, mass drug administration (MDA) for LF with ivermectin and albendazole has been ongoing since 2001, and by 2006 all endemic health districts were receiving MDA with a therapeutic coverage of at least 65%. As MDA activities scale down, the focus is now on targeting areas where LF transmission persists with alternative elimination strategies. This study explored the relationship between village-level, baseline LF prevalence data collected in 2000 with publicly available meteorological, environmental and demographic variables in order to determine the factors that influence the geographical distribution of the disease. A fitted multiple logistic regression model indicated that the length of the rainy season, variability in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and population density were significantly positively associated with LF prevalence, whereas total annual rainfall, average June-September temperature, mean NDVI, elevation and the area of cotton crops were significantly negatively associated. This model was used to produce a baseline LF risk map for Burkina Faso. An extended model which incorporated potential socio-demographic risk factors also indicated a significant positive relationship between LF prevalence and wealth. In overlaying the baseline LF risk map with the number of MDA rounds, plus an insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership measure, the central southern area of the country was highlighted as an area where baseline LF prevalence was high and ITN coverage relatively low (<50%), while at least 10 rounds of MDA had been undertaken, suggesting that more concentrated efforts will be needed to eliminate the disease in these areas.

  16. Baseline drivers of lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stanton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a parasitic disease that is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa, infecting approximately 40 million people. In Burkina Faso, mass drug administration (MDA for LF with ivermectin and albendazole has been ongoing since 2001, and by 2006 all endemic health districts were receiving MDA with a therapeutic coverage of at least 65%. As MDA activities scale down, the focus is now on targeting areas where LF transmission persists with alternative elimination strategies. This study explored the relationship between village-level, baseline LF prevalence data collected in 2000 with publicly available meteorological, environmental and demographic variables in order to determine the factors that influence the geographical distribution of the disease. A fitted multiple logistic regression model indicated that the length of the rainy season, variability in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and population density were significantly positively associated with LF prevalence, whereas total annual rainfall, average June-September temperature, mean NDVI, elevation and the area of cotton crops were significantly negatively associated. This model was used to produce a baseline LF risk map for Burkina Faso. An extended model which incorporated potential socio-demographic risk factors also indicated a significant positive relationship between LF prevalence and wealth. In overlaying the baseline LF risk map with the number of MDA rounds, plus an insecticide-treated net (ITN ownership measure, the central southern area of the country was highlighted as an area where baseline LF prevalence was high and ITN coverage relatively low (<50%, while at least 10 rounds of MDA had been undertaken, suggesting that more concentrated efforts will be needed to eliminate the disease in these areas.

  17. Sibling species of the Anopheles funestus group, and their infection with malaria and lymphatic filarial parasites, in archived and newly collected specimens from northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A; Alifrangis, Michael; Magesa, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    -parasite dynamics in the area, and to allow for appropriate adjustment of control activities, the present study examined the composition, and malaria and lymphatic filarial infection, of sibling species of the Anopheles funestus group. Similar to the An. gambiae complex, the An. funestus group contains important...... vectors of both malaria and lymphatic filariasis. METHODS: Archived (from 2005-2012) and newly collected (from 2014) specimens of the An. funestus group collected indoors using CDC light traps in villages in northeastern Tanzania were analysed. They were identified to sibling species by PCR based...

  18. cKit Lineage Hemogenic Endothelium-Derived Cells Contribute to Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Stanczuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathological lymphatic diseases mostly affect vessels in specific tissues, yet little is known about organ-specific regulation of the lymphatic vasculature. Here, we show that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3/p110α PI3-kinase signaling pathway is selectively required for the formation of mesenteric lymphatic vasculature. Using genetic lineage tracing, we demonstrate that part of the mesenteric lymphatic vasculature develops from cKit lineage cells of hemogenic endothelial origin through a process we define as lymphvasculogenesis. This is contrary to the current dogma that all mammalian lymphatic vessels form by sprouting from veins. Our results reveal vascular-bed-specific differences in the origin and mechanisms of vessel formation, which may critically underlie organ-specific manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction in disease. The progenitor cells identified in this study may be exploited to restore lymphatic function following cancer surgery, lymphedema, or tissue trauma.

  19. Efficient Assessment of Developmental, Surgical and Pathological Lymphangiogenesis Using a Lymphatic Reporter Mouse and Its Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wonhyuek; Seong, Young Jin; Park, Eunkyung; Bramos, Athanasios; Kim, Kyu Eui; Lee, Sunju; Daghlian, George; Seo, Jung In; Choi, Inho; Choi, In-Seon; Koh, Chester J.; Kobielak, Agnieszka; Ying, Qi-Long; Johnson, Maxwell; Gardner, Daniel; Wong, Alex K.; Choi, Dongwon; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Several lymphatic reporter mouse lines have recently been developed to significantly improve imaging of lymphatic vessels. Nonetheless, the usage of direct visualization of lymphatic vessels has not been fully explored and documented. Here, we characterized a new Prox1-tdTomato transgenic lymphatic reporter mouse line, and demonstrated how this animal tool enables the researchers to efficiently assess developmental, surgical and pathological lymphangiogenesis by direct visualization of lymphatic vessels. Moreover, we have derived embryonic stem cells from this reporter line, and successfully differentiated them into lymphatic vessels in vivo. In conclusion, these experimental tools and techniques will help advance lymphatic research. PMID:27280889

  20. Doxycycline sclerotherapy in children with head and neck lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    This is a systematic review of the literature describing doxycycline sclerotherapy (DS) to treat pediatric head and neck lymphatic malformations and examine patient factors associated with treatment success. PubMed, EMBASE, and Ovid. A query of PubMed, EMBASE, and Ovid search engines (1995-2014) for studies examining outcomes for doxycycline sclerotherapy (DS) as primary treatment strategy for children with head and neck lymphatic malformations was undertaken. Successful outcome was defined as clinical resolution of symptoms or greater than 50% reduction in radiographic involvement. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. All were retrospective case series reports with high risk of bias. The dose of doxycycline used in all but one of the studies was 10mg/mL, and the highest concentration administered was 20mg/mL. Thirty-eight children met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Thirty-two (84.2%) children were successfully treated with DS, with 23 (60.5%) utilizing only one treatment session. Average follow-up was 9.7months. Age, gender, de Serres stage 1, and type of lymphatic malformation were not related to successful treatment outcome (p=0.23, 1, 1, and 0.13, respectively). DS is very effective for treatment of macrocystic and mixed head and neck lymphatic malformations in children. Overall success with DS treatment in children with lymphatic malformation of the head and neck was 84.2%. DS has distinct advantages over other sclerotherapy agents including that it is inexpensive and widely available, and has minimal side effects. No associated patient characteristics were found to predict improved success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lymphatic Malformation Architecture: Implications for Treatment With OK-432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malic, Claudia C; Guilfoyle, Regan; Courtemanche, Rebecca J M; Arneja, Jugpal S; Heran, Manraj K S; Courtemanche, Douglas J

    2017-10-01

    Herein, the authors aim to describe their findings of novel architectural types of lymphatic malformations (LM) and explain the relationship between these architectures and OK-432 treatment outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients diagnosed with a LM treated with OK-432 at the Vascular Anomalies Clinic at BC Children's Hospital from December 2002 to January 2012. Twenty-seven patients were included in the study. Sixty percent of lesions were present by 2 years of age with the majority located in the head and neck (59%). The average number of sclerotherapy procedures was 1.4 per patient. Treatment under fluoroscopic guidance revealed 3 new LM architectures: open-cell microcystic, closed-cell microcystic, and lymphatic channel. Response to treatment was complete or good for 14/19 macrocystic and for 1/2 mixed lesions. Open-cell microcystic LMs gave a complete or good response for 3/3, which was attributed to OK-432 freely communicating between cysts. Closed-cell microcystic LM had localized cysts that did not allow OK-432 to freely communicate and were associated with partial responses, 2/2. The lymphatic channel had a partial response. There were 2 minor complications and 1 instance of recurrence. The identification of 3 new LM architectures expands the current accepted classification to include: open-cell microcystic, closed-cell microcystic, and lymphatic channels. The majority of complete responses to OK-432 were found with macrocystic lesions. Open-cell microcystic lesions respond better to OK-432 than closed-cell microcystic lesions, and lymphatic channels may respond to OK-432. These key architecture-response relationships have direct clinical implications for treatment with OK-432 sclerotherapy.

  2. Will mass drug administration eliminate lymphatic filariasis? Evidence from northern coastal Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Allen, Tim

    2013-07-01

    This article documents understandings and responses to mass drug administration (MDA) for the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis among adults and children in northern coastal Tanzania from 2004 to 2011. Assessment of village-level distribution registers, combined with self-reported drug uptake surveys of adults, participant observation and interviews, revealed that at study sites in Pangani and Muheza districts the uptake of drugs was persistently low. The majority of people living at these highly endemic locations either did not receive or actively rejected free treatment. A combination of social, economic and political reasons explain the low uptake of drugs. These include a fear of treatment (attributable, in part, to a lack of trust in international aid and a questioning of the motives behind the distribution); divergence between biomedical and local understandings of lymphatic filariasis; and limited and ineffective communication about the rationale for mass treatment. Other contributory factors are the reliance upon volunteers for distribution within villages and, in some locations, strained relationships between different groups of people within villages as well as between local leaders and government officials. The article also highlights a disjuncture between self-reported uptake of drugs by adults at a village level and the higher uptake of drugs recorded in official reports. The latter informs claims that elimination will be a possibility by 2020. This gives voice to a broader problem: there is considerable pressure for those implementing MDA to report positive results. The very real challenges of making MDA work are pushed to one side - adding to a rhetoric of success at the expense of engaging with local realities. It is vital to address the kind of issues raised in this article if current attempts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in mainland coastal Tanzania are to achieve their goal.

  3. Moose Alces alces behaviour related to human activity

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Wiebke

    2009-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of human activity requires a better understanding of the ecological effects on wildlife. This thesis focuses on the behavioural response of a harvested species, moose (Alces alces), to dynamic human activities e.g. hunting and recreation, and to static influences like roads, using experimental and descriptive approaches. Potentially lethal (hunting) and non-lethal (hiking, snowmobiling) activities provoked short-lived increases in moose movement activity and caused...

  4. Supermicrosurgical deep lymphatic vessel-to-venous anastomosis for a breast cancer-related arm lymphedema with severe sclerosis of superficial lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Yamamoto, Nana; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Koshima, Isao

    2017-02-01

    Lymphatic supermicrosurgery or supermicrosurgical lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA) is becoming popular for the treatment of compression-refractory upper extremity lymphedema (UEL) with its effectiveness and minimally invasiveness. In conventional LVA, superficial lymphatic vessels are used for anastomosis, but its treatment efficacy would be minimum when superficial lymphatic vessels are severely sclerotic. Theoretically, deep lymphatic vessels can be used for LVA, but no clinical case has been reported regarding deep lymphatic vessel-to-venous anastomosis (D-LVA). We report a breast cancer-related UEL case treated with D-LVA, in which a less-sclerotic deep lymphatic vessel was useful for anastomosis but superficial lymphatic vessels were not due to severe sclerosis. A 62-year-old female suffered from an 18-year history of compression-refractory right UEL after right breast cancer treatments, and underwent LVA under local infiltration anesthesia. Because superficial lymphatic vessels found in surgical fields were all severely sclerotic, a deep lymphatic vessel was dissected at the cubital fossa. A 0.50-mm deep lymphatic vessel running along the brachial artery was supermicrosurgically anastomosed to a nearby 0.40-mm vein. At postoperative 12 months, her right UEL index decreased from 134 to 118, and she could reduce compression frequency from every day to 1-2 days per week to maintain the reduced lymphedematous volume. D-LVA may be a useful option for the treatment of compression-refractory UEL, when superficial lymphatic vessels are severely sclerotic. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 37:156-159, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. VEGFR-3 blocking deteriorates inflammation with impaired lymphatic function and different changes in lymphatic vessels in acute and chronic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Jing; Qin, Li; Cao, Jing-Li

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) pathway has a close relationship with chronic intestinal inflammation, and antilymphatic signaling pathways may repress IAL. However, whether the biologic function of lymphatic vessel is the same in severe acute intestinal inflammation still remain unknown. C57BL/6 mice were administered with 5% of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to establish severe acute colitis (SAC) model. Chronic colitis (CC) model was established by three cycles of 2% DSS for 5 days following water for 5 days. Mice were treated with VEGFR-3 antibody once daily in SAC group, or once every 3 days in CC group. The colon inflammation, submucosal edema, lymphatic vessel (LV) density, LV size, lymph flow, cytokines and immune cells infiltration were detected. Both acute and chronic colitis resulted in a significant aggravation of colon inflammation in anti-VEGFR-3-treated mice, compared with PBS-treated colitis mice. Meanwhile, this was accompanied with decreased lymph drainage, increased submucosal edema, inflammatory cells infiltration and cytokines levels. In acute intestinal inflammation, significantly distorted and enlarged lymphatics were found but the LV number remained unchanged; not only significantly distorted and enlarged lymphatics but reduced LV number were found in chronic colitis. Blocking VEGFR-3 in acute and chronic colitis leads to deterioration of colon inflammation with impaired lymphatic function and different changes in LVs. In the therapy targeting VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway for lymphangiogenesis, the phrase and severity of intestinal inflammation should be taken into account.

  6. Nature's rheologists: Lymphatic endothelial cells control migration in response to shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Gerald; Dunn, Alex; Surya, Vinay

    2015-03-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) line the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels and are sensitive to fluid flow as part of their physiological function. EC organization, migration and vessel development are profoundly influenced by shear stresses, with important implications in cardiovascular disease and tumor metastasis. How ECs sense fluid flow is a central and unanswered question in cardiovascular biology. We developed a high-throughput live-cell flow chamber that models the gradients in wall shear stress experienced by ECs in vivo. Live-cell imaging allows us to probe cellular responses to flow, most notably EC migration, which has a key role in vessel remodeling. We find that most EC subtypes, including ECs from the venous, arterial, and microvascular systems, migrate in the flow direction. In contrast, human lymphatic microvascular ECs (hLMVECs) migrate against flow and up spatial gradients in wall shear stress. Further experiments reveal that hLMVECs are sensitive to the magnitude, direction, and the local spatial gradients in wall shear stress. Lastly, recent efforts have aimed to link this directional migration to spatial gradients in cell-mediated small molecule emission that may be linked to the gradient in wall shear stress.

  7. Anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy with ketoprofen ameliorates experimental lymphatic vascular insufficiency in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disruption of the lymphatic vasculature causes edema, inflammation, and end-tissue destruction. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of systemic anti-inflammatory therapy in this disease, we examined the impact of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, ketoprofen, and of a soluble TNF-alpha receptor (sTNF-R1 upon tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha activity in a mouse model of acquired lymphedema. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Lymphedema was induced by microsurgical ablation of major lymphatic conduits in the murine tail. Untreated control mice with lymphedema developed significant edema and extensive histopathological inflammation compared to sham surgical controls. Short-term ketoprofen treatment reduced tail edema and normalized the histopathology while paradoxically increasing TNF-alpha gene expression and cytokine levels. Conversely, sTNF-R1 treatment increased tail volume, exacerbated the histopathology, and decreased TNF-alpha gene expression. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C, which stimulates lymphangiogenesis, closely correlated with TNF-alpha expression. CONCLUSIONS: Ketoprofen therapy reduces experimental post-surgical lymphedema, yet direct TNF-alpha inhibition does not. Reducing inflammation while preserving TNF-alpha activity appears to optimize the repair response. It is possible that the observed favorable responses, at least in part, are mediated through enhanced VEGF-C signaling.

  8. Collecting lymphatic vessel permeability facilitates adipose tissue inflammation and distribution of antigen to lymph node-homing adipose tissue DCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Emma L.; Ivanov, Stoyan; Bridenbaugh, Eric A.; Victora, Gabriel; Wang, Wei; Childs, Ed W.; Platt, Andrew M.; Jakubzick, Claudia V.; Mason, Robert J.; Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Nussenzweig, Michel; Swartz, Melody A.; Dustin, Michael L.; Zawieja, David C.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Collecting lymphatic vessels (CLVs), surrounded by fat and endowed with contractile muscle and valves, transport lymph from tissues after it is absorbed into lymphatic capillaries. CLVs are not known to participate in immune responses. Here, we observed that the inherent permeability of CLVs allowed broad distribution of lymph components within surrounding fat for uptake by adjacent macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that actively interacted with CLVs. Endocytosis of lymph-derived antigens by these cells supported recall T cell responses in the fat and also generated antigen-bearing DCs for emigration into adjacent lymph nodes. Enhanced recruitment of DCs to inflammation-reactive lymph nodes significantly relied on adipose tissue DCs to maintain sufficient numbers of antigen-bearing DCs as the lymph node expanded. Thus, CLVs coordinate inflammation and immunity within adipose depots and foster the generation of an unexpected pool of APCs for antigen transport into the adjacent lymph node. PMID:25917096

  9. Progressive loss of lymphatic vessels in skin of patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetti, Mirko; Milia, Anna Franca; Guiducci, Serena; Romano, Eloisa; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia

    2011-02-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by microvascular and fibrotic changes in the skin and internal organs. The role of blood vessel dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SSc has been extensively investigated, but few studies have addressed the involvement of the lymphatic vascular system. Our aim was to evaluate dermal lymphatic vessels in patients with SSc according to different phases of skin involvement. Skin biopsies were obtained from the forearm of 25 SSc patients (10 early/15 late-stage disease) and 13 healthy controls. Skin sections were immunostained for podoplanin (D2-40), which is selectively expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells, and examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lymphatic vessels were counted in the papillary and reticular dermis. Data were analyzed using Student's t test. The number of lymphatic vessels was significantly reduced in the papillary and reticular dermis of SSc patients compared with controls. In early SSc, lymphatic vessel counts were not different from controls in the papillary dermis, and showed a trend toward a reduction in the reticular dermis. In late SSc, a significant reduction in lymphatic vessels compared with controls was found in both the papillary and reticular dermis. The number of lymphatic vessels in the papillary dermis of late SSc was significantly lower than in early SSc. In SSc, lymphatic microangiopathy is linked to the progression of skin involvement. The progressive disappearance of lymphatic vessels may have a critical pathogenetic role in the progression of SSc from an early edematous phase to overt fibrosis.

  10. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject’s body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD data are presented.

  11. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  12. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN SERA AGAINST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... Individuals of blood group O are likely to be more susceptible to infections caused by Salmonella typhi and paratyphi A,B,C. INTRODUCTION. Human serum is considered an important host defence mechanism against invasive diseases caused by Gram- negative bacteria(1-3). The bactericidal and ...

  13. Human-induced Soil Degradation Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baren, van J.H.V.; Oldeman, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Soil degradation is occurring over vast areas. The GLASOD and ASSOD projects reflect the present status of human-induced soil degradation and its impact on food productivity related to productivity changes observed in the recent past. However, there is a great need for well-documented, reliable soil

  14. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  15. Tumour marker expression in blood and lymphatic vessels of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of tumours cannot be effectively assessed on histological tissue sections only, hence, specific bi-ological markers were used to predict tumour behaviour. The biological markers at the same time must provide prognostic information, necessary for the treatment of patients. The immunostaining of antibodies ...

  16. BMP-SMAD signalling output is highly regionalized in cardiovascular and lymphatic endothelial networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Karen; Staring, Michael W; Criem, Nathan; Maas, Elke; Schellinx, Niels; de Sousa Lopes, Susana M Chuva; Umans, Lieve; Zwijsen, An

    2016-10-10

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. To better understand the in vivo context-dependency of BMP-SMAD signalling, we investigated differences in BMP-SMAD transcriptional activity in different vascular beds during mouse embryonic and postnatal stages. For this, we used the BRE::gfp BMP signalling reporter mouse in which the BMP response element (BRE) from the ID1-promotor, a SMAD1/5/9 target gene, drives the expression of GFP. A mosaic pattern of GFP was present in various angiogenic sprouting plexuses and in endocardium of cardiac cushions and trabeculae in the heart. High calibre veins seemed to be more BRE::gfp transcriptionally active than arteries, and ubiquitous activity was present in embryonic lymphatic vasculature. Postnatal lymphatic vessels showed however only discrete micro-domains of transcriptional activity. Dynamic shifts in transcriptional activity were also observed in the endocardium of the developing heart, with a general decrease in activity over time. Surprisingly, proliferative endothelial cells were almost never GFP-positive. Patches of transcriptional activity seemed to correlate with vasculature undergoing hemodynamic alterations. The BRE::gfp mouse allows to investigate selective context-dependent aspects of BMP-SMAD signalling. Our data reveals the highly dynamic nature of BMP-SMAD mediated transcriptional regulation in time and space throughout the vascular tree, supporting that BMP-SMAD signalling can be a source of phenotypic diversity in some, but not all, healthy endothelium. This knowledge can provide insight in vascular bed or organ-specific diseases and phenotypic heterogeneity within an

  17. Measurement of lymphatic function with technetium-99m-labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, W. [Dept. of Imaging, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]|[Dept. of Radiology, Ealing Hospital, Southall (United Kingdom); Glass, D.M.; Bradley, D.; Peters, A.M. [Dept. of Imaging, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    A reliable method for measuring lymph flow in physiological units would be valuable, especially in conditions in which it is uncertain whether lymph flow is increased or decreased. The requirements of a radiopharmaceutical for such measurement include stable radionuclide labelling and rapid access to lymphatic vessels following tissue injection but no access to blood vessels. A soluble macromolecule is likely to come closest to meeting these requirements. Technetium-99m- labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) was therefore investigated firstly in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in patients undergoing routine lymphoscintigraphy and secondly with respect to injection site in a group of volunteers with post-mastectomy oedema (PMO). Subcutaneous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HIG into the web space of a distal extremity gave images in which lymphatic vessels were more clearly defined compared with images obtained after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HSA. Lymph nodes were also more clearly defined, suggesting specific retention of HIG, possibly through Fc-mediated binding. Peripheral blood sampling showed a delayed arrival in blood of radioactivity after {sup 99m}Tc-HIG compared with {sup 99m}Tc-HSA, although ultimately, the blood recovery of {sup 99m}Tc-HIG was significantly higher (P <0.05) than that of {sup 99m}Tc-HSA. Clearance rates of radioactivity from the injection site were not sinificantly different, however, between the two agents. In patients with PMO, web space injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HIG gave excellent images of normal lymphatic vessels, of lymph nodes and of abnormal lymph drainage such as dermal backflow in swollen arms. In contrast, neither lymphatic vessels nor lymph nodes were visualised after injection into the skin of the dorsum of the distal forearm. Although there was no difference in clearance rates from the injection sites between normal and swollen arms with either agent in PMO, clearance was significantly faster

  18. Effects of lymphatic drainage on cellulitis assessed by magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Patricia Froes; Martins, Nara Mendes; Martins, Flavia Mendes; Monteiro, Rosimary Araujo; Mendonca, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of magnetic resonance as a new method for evaluating the manual lymphatic drainage technique in treating cellulitis. Cellulitis is one of the main esthetic problems that lead women toward seeking guidance and specific treatments. There are various therapeutic approaches, owing to the multifactorial nature of its pathogen, although the effectiveness of most of these has not been definitively proven, given that the assessment methods used are mostly subjective or do not provide enough information on subcutaneous tissue. The introduction of magnetic resonance as a means of assessing a lymphatic drainage technique in cellulitis treatment makes the evaluation more accurate, since it enables a detailed study of subcutaneous architecture. (author)

  19. Rare lymphatic malformation in an extreme premature infant: answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Mugarab Samedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of massive cystic lymph­angioma in an extreme preterm infant, which was initially diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound and confirmed by fetal MRI. Physical examination and postnatal ultrasound confirmed diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma. No other anomalies were detected, genetic screening for infant was normal. Despite of size of lymphatic malformation at birth, it was an isolated finding with minimal vascularity, thus the prognosis for self-resolution was very good. No surgical intervention was required other than skin care. The lesion started to decrease in size from day 5, and showed signs of gradual involution from the 2nd week of life.At 37 weeks of corrected gestational age lymphatic malformation underwent full resolution, with minimal pigmen­tation and scarring on the site of lesion.

  20. Giant mesenteric lymphatic malformation presenting as small bowel volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Christy E; Spencer, Philip J; Sagar, Pallavi; Goldstein, Allan M

    2013-09-20

    Abdominal pain with bilious emesis is an ominous clinical presentation with many possible causes. We describe a previously healthy 4-year-old boy who presented with these symptoms and ultrasound findings of fluid throughout most of the abdominal cavity. Computed tomography imaging revealed a large cystic mass (21-by-13 cm) associated with a small bowel obstruction due to volvulus. A laparoscopic exploration was undertaken, revealing a large mass arising from the small intestinal mesentery and causing a segmental volvulus of the small bowel. Conversion to mini-laparotomy allowed reduction of the volvulus and segmental resection of the small bowel associated with a giant mesenteric lymphatic malformation. This case describes a rare cause of intestinal volvulus due to a mesenteric lymphatic malformation. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.

  1. Core content for training in venous and lymphatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmet, Steven E; Min, Robert J; Comerota, Anthony J; Meissner, Mark H; Carman, Teresa L; Rathbun, Suman W; Jaff, Michael R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Feied, Craig F

    2014-10-01

    The major venous societies in the United States share a common mission to improve the standards of medical practitioners, the educational goals for teaching and training programs in venous disease, and the quality of patient care related to the treatment of venous disorders. With these important goals in mind, a task force made up of experts from the specialties of dermatology, interventional radiology, phlebology, vascular medicine, and vascular surgery was formed to develop a consensus document describing the Core Content for venous and lymphatic medicine and to develop a core educational content outline for training. This outline describes the areas of knowledge considered essential for practice in the field, which encompasses the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with acute and chronic venous and lymphatic disorders. The American Venous Forum and the American College of Phlebology have endorsed the Core Content. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Human immunodeficiency syndromes affecting human natural killer cell cytolytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Denis Billadeau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that secrete cytokines upon activation and mediate the killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells, especially those that escape the adaptive T-cell response caused by the down regulation of MHC-I. The induction of cytotoxicity requires that NK cells contact target cells through adhesion receptors, and initiate activation signaling leading to increased adhesion and accumulation of F-actin at the NK cell cytotoxic synapse. Concurrently, lytic granules undergo minus-end directed movement and accumulate at the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC through the interaction with microtubule motor proteins, followed by polarization of the lethal cargo toward the target cell. Ultimately, myosin-dependent movement of the lytic granules toward the NK cell plasma membrane through F-actin channels, along with SNARE-dependent fusion promotes lytic granule release into the cleft between the NK cell and target cell resulting in target cell killing. Herein, we will discuss several disease-causing mutations in primary immunodeficiency syndromes and how they impact NK cell-mediated killing by disrupting distinct steps of this tightly regulated process.

  3. Atherosclerosis and transit of HDL through the lymphatic vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Catherine; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Key components of atherosclerotic plaque known to drive disease progression are macrophages and cholesterol. It has been widely understood, and bolstered by recent evidence, that the efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells quells disease progression or even to promote regression. Following macrophage cholesterol efflux, cholesterol loaded onto HDL must be removed from the plaque environment. Here, we focus on recent evidence that the lymphatic vasculature is critical for the removal ...

  4. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  5. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieweg, O.E.; Jansen, L.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R. [Netherlands Cancer Inst./Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, K.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst./Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Peterse, J.L. [Netherlands Cancer Inst./Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Pathology

    1999-04-01

    Lymphatic mapping with selective lymphadenectomy is an attractive approach in breast-cancer patients. It uses existing technology to exploit logical anatomic and physiological principles to identify occult regional lymph-node metastases. The lymphatic flow is visualized and the first (sentinel) lymph node on a direct drainage pathway from the primary tumour is identified. This is the node at greatest risk of harbouring metastatic deposits. Retrieving this node requires a concerted effort from the nuclear medicine physician, surgeon and pathologist. Lymphoscintigraphy can indicate the number of sentinel nodes and their location. The surgeon can use two techniques to find the node. A vital dye injected at the tumour site will stain the lymphatic duct as well as the sentinel node and allow their visual identification. Alternatively, a lymph-node-seeking radiopharmaceutical will also migrate from the tumour site to the sentinel node and will enable its retrieval with the use of a gamma detection probe. The pathologist has a number of techniques to identify tumour deposits in the lymph node. A review of the literature shows that the sentinel node can be found in more than 90% of the patients. With experience, the false-negative rate can be kept down to about 5%. This novel approach of lymphatic mapping with selective lymphadenectomy may lead to a substantial reduction in the need for axillary node dissection in patients with breast cancer without compromising survival and regional control, and without loss of prognostic and staging information. This development will translate into a great reduction in patient morbidity and medical expenses. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 39 refs.

  6. Clinical features of mesenteric lymphatic malformation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Young; Lee, Cheol; Min, Hye Sook; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-04-01

    Mesenteric lymphatic malformations (MLs) are a heterogeneous group of benign diseases of the lymphatic system that present with cystic dilated lymphatics of the mesentery. MLs are rare and represent less than 5% of all lymphatic malformations. The aims of this study were to analyze the characteristics of MLs in children and to suggest a modified classification. We investigated 25 patients who underwent ML surgery. The clinical data and pathological findings were reviewed retrospectively. We divided the patients into 4 groups according to the operative findings. Group 1 included patients with MLs involving the intestinal walls. Group 2 included patients with pedicle-type MLs with no relationship to the mesenteric vessels. Group 3 patients presented with MLs located in the mesenteric boundaries near the mesenteric vessels. Group 4 patients had multicentric and diffusely infiltrated MLs. The male-to-female ratio was 11:14, and the median age at diagnosis was 5years of age. The most common symptom was abdominal pain. The jejunal mesentery was the most frequently involved site in this study. Five patients showed the macrocystic type and 20 patients showed the mixed cystic type. With the exception of one patient with a large mixed cystic-type ML who underwent incomplete mass excision, 24 patients underwent complete mass excision. The group 1 patients (n=14) underwent mass excision performed with segmental resection of the bowel. The group 2 patients (n=3) only underwent mass excision surgery. The patients in group 3 (n=7) underwent mass excision with segmental resection of the intestine because ML excision altered the blood supply of the adjacent intestines. The group 4 patients (n=1) presented with MLs involving the entire mesentery and underwent incomplete excision. The relationships between MLs and the neighboring organs determine the surgical strategy, and the size and location of MLs affect the operative methods. The modified classification based on these findings

  7. ActivityNet: A Large-Scale Video Benchmark for Human Activity Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2015-06-02

    In spite of many dataset efforts for human action recognition, current computer vision algorithms are still severely limited in terms of the variability and complexity of the actions that they can recognize. This is in part due to the simplicity of current benchmarks, which mostly focus on simple actions and movements occurring on manually trimmed videos. In this paper we introduce ActivityNet, a new largescale video benchmark for human activity understanding. Our benchmark aims at covering a wide range of complex human activities that are of interest to people in their daily living. In its current version, ActivityNet provides samples from 203 activity classes with an average of 137 untrimmed videos per class and 1.41 activity instances per video, for a total of 849 video hours. We illustrate three scenarios in which ActivityNet can be used to compare algorithms for human activity understanding: untrimmed video classification, trimmed activity classification and activity detection.

  8. Spectral contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography for improved detection of tumor microvasculature and functional imaging of lymphatic drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoRelle, Elliott D.; Liba, Orly; Sen, Debasish; de la Zerda, Adam

    2017-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is well-suited to study in vivo dynamics of blood circulation and lymphatic flow because of the technique's combination of rapid image acquisition, micron spatial resolution, and penetration depth in turbid tissues. However, OCT has been historically constrained by a dearth of contrast agents that are readily distinguished from the strong scattering intrinsic to biological tissues. In this study, we demonstrate large gold nanorods (LGNRs) as optimized contrast agents for OCT. LGNRs produce 32-fold greater backscattering than GNRs previously tested for contrast-enhanced OCT. Furthermore, LGNRs exhibit 110-fold stronger spectral signal than conventional GNRs when coupled with custom spectral detection algorithms. This signal enhancement enables picomolar OCT detection sensitivity in vivo and single-particle detection against optically-clear backgrounds. Moreover, the ability to synthesize LGNRs with tunable spectral peaks provides a viable platform for multiplexed imaging studies. To explore the advantages of LGNRs as OCT contrast agents, we implemented them for noninvasive 3D imaging of tumor blood supply and active lymphatic drainage in mice. Spectral detection of LGNRs enabled 100% improvement in imaging depth for detecting microvasculature (vessels 20 μm in diameter) in U87MG glioblastoma xenografts in mice pinnae. We also demonstrated our approach's ability to map the spatial dependence of lymph drainage and flow directionality within lymphatic capillaries. Using LGNRs with distinct spectra, we further identified the functional states of individual lymphatic valves in vivo. Thus, this approach provides a powerful new platform for functional imaging that may be extended for future molecular imaging studies with OCT.

  9. A brief perspective on the diverging theories of lymphatic targeting with colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siram, Karthik; Marslin, Gregory; Raghavan, Chellan Vijaya; Balakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Rahman, Habibur; Franklin, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    For targeted delivery of colloids to the lymphatic system, the colloids should efficiently reach and remain in the lymphatics for a considerable period of time. As per the current knowledge, diffusion and phagocytosis are the two mechanisms through which colloids reach the lymphatic system. Several parameters including particle size and charge have been shown to affect the direct uptake of colloids by the lymphatic system. Although many researchers attached ligands on the surface of colloids to promote phagocytosis-mediated lymphatic delivery, another school of thought suggests avoidance of phagocytosis by use of carriers like polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated colloids to impart stealth attributes and evade phagocytosis. In this perspective, we weigh up the paradoxical theories and approaches available in the literature to draw conclusions on the conditions favorable for achieving efficient lymphatic targeting of colloids. PMID:27366065

  10. A brief perspective on the diverging theories of lymphatic targeting with colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siram, Karthik; Marslin, Gregory; Raghavan, Chellan Vijaya; Balakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Rahman, Habibur; Franklin, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    For targeted delivery of colloids to the lymphatic system, the colloids should efficiently reach and remain in the lymphatics for a considerable period of time. As per the current knowledge, diffusion and phagocytosis are the two mechanisms through which colloids reach the lymphatic system. Several parameters including particle size and charge have been shown to affect the direct uptake of colloids by the lymphatic system. Although many researchers attached ligands on the surface of colloids to promote phagocytosis-mediated lymphatic delivery, another school of thought suggests avoidance of phagocytosis by use of carriers like polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated colloids to impart stealth attributes and evade phagocytosis. In this perspective, we weigh up the paradoxical theories and approaches available in the literature to draw conclusions on the conditions favorable for achieving efficient lymphatic targeting of colloids.

  11. Fluorescein sodium fluorescence microscope-integrated lymphangiography for lymphatic supermicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayestaray, Benoit; Bekara, Farid

    2015-07-01

    Microscope-integrated lymphangiography is a useful method in the field of lymphatic supermicrosurgery. Fluorescence based on indocyanine green (ICG) is the most commonly used. Fluorescein sodium is a fluorescent tracer used for retinal and neurosurgical angiography but not yet for lymphatic supermicrosurgery. In this report, we present a case in which the fluorescein sodium fluorescence microscope-integrated lymphangiography was used for assessment of lymphatic drainage pathway and patency in a patient treated for secondary lymphedema by lymphaticovenular anastomoses. Fluorescein sodium fluorescence microscope-integrated lymphangiography was evaluated in a 67-year-old female presented for a Campisi clinical stage IV lymphedema of the upper limb. Transcutaneous guidance and vascular fluorescence were assessed. A comparison with ICG fluorescence was made intraoperatively. Two lymphaticovenular anastomoses were performed and their patency were checked by lymphangiography. Transcutaneous signal was found higher with fluorescein sodium fluorescence. Intraluminal visualization was possible with fluorescein sodium coloration during lymphaticovenular anastomoses. No adverse reaction occurred. The circumferential differential reduction rate of affected limb was 8.1% 3 months after lymphaticovenular anastomoses. The use of fluorescence microscope-integrated lymphangiography with fluorescein sodium may be superior to ICG fluorescence in assistance of lymphaticovenular anastomoses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Synchronization and Random Triggering of Lymphatic Vessel Contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Baish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is responsible for transporting interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream, but unlike the cardiovascular system, lacks a centralized pump-the heart-to drive flow. Instead, each collecting lymphatic vessel can individually contract and dilate producing unidirectional flow enforced by intraluminal check valves. Due to the large number and spatial distribution of such pumps, high-level coordination would be unwieldy. This leads to the question of how each segment of lymphatic vessel responds to local signals that can contribute to the coordination of pumping on a network basis. Beginning with elementary fluid mechanics and known cellular behaviors, we show that two complementary oscillators emerge from i mechanical stretch with calcium ion transport and ii fluid shear stress induced nitric oxide production (NO. Using numerical simulation and linear stability analysis we show that the newly identified shear-NO oscillator shares similarities with the well-known Van der Pol oscillator, but has unique characteristics. Depending on the operating conditions, the shear-NO process may i be inherently stable, ii oscillate spontaneously in response to random disturbances or iii synchronize with weak periodic stimuli. When the complementary shear-driven and stretch-driven oscillators interact, either may dominate, producing a rich family of behaviors similar to those observed in vivo.

  13. NETWORK ACTIVATION DURING BIMANUAL MOVEMENTS IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, RR; Small, SL; Chen, EE; Solodkin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The coordination of movement between the upper limbs is a function highly distributed across the animal kingdom. How the central nervous system generates such bilateral, synchronous movements, and how this differs from the generation of unilateral movements, remains uncertain. Electrophysiologic and functional imaging studies support that the activity of many brain regions during bimanual and unimanual movement are quite similar. Thus, the same brain regions (and indeed the same neurons) respond similarly during unimanual and bimanual movements as measured by electrophysiological responses. How then are different motor behaviors generated? To address this question, we studied unimanual and bimanual movements using fMRI and constructed networks of activation using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Our results suggest that (1) the dominant hemisphere appears to initiate activity responsible for bimanual movement; (2) activation during bimanual movement does not reflect the sum of right and left unimanual activation; (3) production of unimanual movement involves a network that is distinct from, and not a mirror of, the network for contralateral unimanual movement; and (4) using SEM, it is possible to obtain robust group networks representative of a population and to identify individual networks which can be used to detect subtle differences both between subjects as well as within a single subject over time. In summary, these results highlight a differential role for the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres during bimanual movements, further elaborating the concept of handedness and dominance. This knowledge increases our understanding of cortical motor physiology in health and after neurological damage. PMID:18718872

  14. Multilevel depth and image fusion for human activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bingbing; Pei, Yong; Moulin, Pierre; Yan, Shuicheng

    2013-10-01

    Recognizing complex human activities usually requires the detection and modeling of individual visual features and the interactions between them. Current methods only rely on the visual features extracted from 2-D images, and therefore often lead to unreliable salient visual feature detection and inaccurate modeling of the interaction context between individual features. In this paper, we show that these problems can be addressed by combining data from a conventional camera and a depth sensor (e.g., Microsoft Kinect). We propose a novel complex activity recognition and localization framework that effectively fuses information from both grayscale and depth image channels at multiple levels of the video processing pipeline. In the individual visual feature detection level, depth-based filters are applied to the detected human/object rectangles to remove false detections. In the next level of interaction modeling, 3-D spatial and temporal contexts among human subjects or objects are extracted by integrating information from both grayscale and depth images. Depth information is also utilized to distinguish different types of indoor scenes. Finally, a latent structural model is developed to integrate the information from multiple levels of video processing for an activity detection. Extensive experiments on two activity recognition benchmarks (one with depth information) and a challenging grayscale + depth human activity database that contains complex interactions between human-human, human-object, and human-surroundings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multilevel grayscale + depth fusion scheme. Higher recognition and localization accuracies are obtained relative to the previous methods.

  15. [Progress in diagnosis of and therapy for idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus--Lymphatic drainage of CSF and ISF from the brain: recent concept and hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains via the cribriform plate and nasal mucosa to cervical lymph nodes. There are no conventional lymphatics in the brain but physiological studies have revealed a substantial and immunologically significant lymphatic drainage from brain to cervical lymph nodes. Interstitial fluid (ISF) and solutes from brain parenchyma drain along capillary and perivascular space of artery, and path through the skull base, then reach to the cervical lymph nodes. CSF and ISF appear to drain by separate routes from the brain, especially in humans. However, there are interrelationships between the two fluid compartments that become more significant when drainage of CSF or ISF is impaired by disease processes. Vessel pulsations appear to be the driving force for the perivascular lymphatic drainage along artery walls, and as vessels stiffen with age, amyloid peptides (Aβ) deposit in the drainage pathways as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Blockage of lymphatic drainage of ISF and solutes from the brain by CAA may result in loss of homeostasis of the neuronal environment that may contribute to neuronal malfunction and dementia. Such failure of perivascular drainage may associated with the pathoetiology of Alzheimer's disease, cerebral small artery disease and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).

  16. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA: A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ukpong, Iniodu George; John, Davison Mbere-obong

    2016-01-01

    Effective control efforts on Lymphatic filariasis (LF) are hindered by paucity of reliable data on spatial distribution of the disease. Aim: This study was aimed at mapping and describing the transmission pattern of lymphatic filariasis in order to identify high risk zones of infection in Cross River State (CRS), to guide intervention programmes. Method: An 8-year case record (2006-2013) of Lymphatic filariasis in the 18 local government areas (LGAs) of CRS was mapped using geographical infor...

  17. Characterization of plasminogen activator in human cervical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Plasminogen activator activity was detected in human gynecologic specimens using a synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate assay and confirmed by an /sup 125/I-labeled fibrin plate assay. Epithelial cells in these samples contain enzymatic activity that biochemically resembles both the well-characterized plasminogen activator, urokinase, and the less-specific plasminogen activator, trypsin. Inhibition of the cervical cell activity by diisopropylfluorophosphate and p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidinobenzoate demonstrates that, like urokinase and trypsin, this plasminogen activator is also a serine protease. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of plasminogen that had been incubated with cervical cells indicated the same mechanism of plasminogen activation as exhibited by urokinase. An attempt was made to correlate plasminogen activator activity of each sample with cytomorphologic diagnosis. Three of the four dysplastic samples analyzed showed higher plasminogen activator activity than did the normal samples.

  18. Increased lymphatic vessels in patients with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaginuma, Tatsuhiro; Yamamoto, Izumi; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Mitome, Jun; Tanno, Yudo; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Hayashi, Takenori; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Michiaki; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Hosoya, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    The angiogenic response is partly involved in the progression of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS). However, the details of the angiogenic response, especially for lymphatic vessels in patients with EPS, remain unclear. In addition, because of technical limitations, morphology studies reported to date have examined only the parietal peritoneum. The morphologies of parietal and visceral lymphatic vessels in patients with EPS both need to be analyzed. We examined peritoneal samples from 18 patients with EPS who underwent enterolysis of the visceral peritoneum and compared them with samples from 17 autopsy cases (controls). To examine the angiogenic response, we performed immunohistochemistry for the endothelial markers CD34 (blood vessels) and podoplanin (lymphatic vessels) and for the cell proliferation marker Ki-67. Immunogold electron microscopy analysis for podoplanin was also performed. In 7 of 18 cases, we compared differences in the angiogenic response of the parietal and visceral peritoneal membranes. Angiogenic responses were more frequent in the compact zone than in regenerated layers. The number of capillaries positive for anti-CD34 and anti-podoplanin monoclonal antibodies per unit area of visceral peritoneal tissue was, respectively, 41.1 ± 29.3/mm(2) in EPS patients and 2.7 ± 4.4/mm(2) in controls (p ≤ 0.01) and 48.1 ± 43.9/mm(2) in EPS patients and 4.1 ± 5.4/mm(2) in controls (p ≤ 0.01). The percentage of capillaries positive for anti-Ki-67, CD34, and podoplanin was 4.6% in EPS patients (p ≤ 0.01) and 0.8% in controls (p = 0.09). The immunogold electron microscopy analysis revealed that podoplanin was localized to endothelial cells with anchoring filaments, a specific feature of lymphatic vessels. Furthermore, compared with parietal peritoneal membrane, visceral peritoneal membrane had a more prominent podoplanin-positive capillary profile, but not a prominent CD34-positive capillary profile. In addition, fibroblast-like cells double

  19. Human blood platelets lack nitric oxide synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, Anke; Gambaryan, Stepan; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Reports on expression and functionality of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in human blood platelets and erythrocytes are contradictory. We used a specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect NOS activity in human platelets. The method measures simultaneously [(15)N]nitrite and [(15)N]nitrate formed from oxidized (15)N-labeled nitric oxide ((15)NO) upon its NOS-catalyzed formation from the substrate l-[guanidino-(15)N2]-arginine. Using this GC-MS assay, we did not detect functional NOS in non-stimulated platelets and in intact platelets activated by various agonists (adenosine diphosphate, collagen, thrombin, or von Willebrand factor) or lysed platelets. l-[guanidino-nitro]-Arginine-inhibitable NOS activity was measured after addition of recombinant human endothelial NOS to lysed platelets. Previous and recent studies from our group challenge expression and functionality of NOS in human platelets and erythrocytes.

  20. Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting landscapes in Lushoto District, Tanzania. Proches Hieronimo, Hubert Gulinck, Didas N. Kimaro, Loth S. Mulungu, Nganga I. Kihupi, Balthazar M. Msanya, Herwig Leirs, Jozef A. Deckers ...