Sample records for activates bmp-independent chondrogenesis

  1. Kaempferol induces chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells through activation of ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway.

    Nepal, Manoj; Li, Liang; Cho, Hyoung Kwon; Park, Jong Kun; Soh, Yunjo


    Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders.

  2. Master regulator for chondrogenesis, Sox9, regulates transcriptional activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer BBF2H7/CREB3L2 in chondrocytes.

    Hino, Kenta; Saito, Atsushi; Kido, Miori; Kanemoto, Soshi; Asada, Rie; Takai, Tomoko; Cui, Min; Cui, Xiang; Imaizumi, Kazunori


    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer, box B-binding factor 2 human homolog on chromosome 7 (BBF2H7), is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transmembrane transcription factor. This molecule is activated in response to ER stress during chondrogenesis. The activated BBF2H7 accelerates cartilage matrix protein secretion through the up-regulation of Sec23a, which is responsible for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus and is a target of BBF2H7. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanisms of the transcriptional activation of Bbf2h7 in chondrocytes. The transcription of Bbf2h7 is regulated by Sex determining region Y-related high-mobility group box 9 (Sox9), a critical factor for chondrocyte differentiation that facilitates the expression of one of the major cartilage matrix proteins Type II collagen (Col2), through binding to the Sox DNA-binding motif in the Bbf2h7 promoter. BBF2H7 is activated as a transcription factor in response to physiological ER stress caused by abundant synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins, and consequently regulates the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins. Taken together, our findings demonstrate novel regulatory mechanisms of Sox9 for controlling the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins through the activation of BBF2H7-Sec23a signaling during chondrogenesis.

  3. Thyroid hormones regulate fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling during chondrogenesis.

    Barnard, Joanna C; Williams, Allan J; Rabier, Bénédicte; Chassande, Olivier; Samarut, Jacques; Cheng, Sheue-Yann; Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R


    Childhood hypothyroidism causes growth arrest with delayed ossification and growth-plate dysgenesis, whereas thyrotoxicosis accelerates ossification and growth. Thyroid hormone (T(3)) regulates chondrocyte proliferation and is essential for hypertrophic differentiation. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are also important regulators of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, and activating mutations of FGF receptor-3 (FGFR3) cause achondroplasia. We investigated the hypothesis that T(3) regulates chondrogenesis via FGFR3 in ATDC5 cells, which undergo a defined program of chondrogenesis. ATDC5 cells expressed two FGFR1, four FGFR2, and one FGFR3 mRNA splice variants throughout chondrogenesis, and expression of each isoform was stimulated by T(3) during the first 6-12 d of culture, when T(3) inhibited proliferation by 50%. FGFR3 expression was also increased in cells treated with T(3) for 21 d, when T(3) induced an earlier onset of hypertrophic differentiation and collagen X expression. FGFR3 expression was reduced in growth plates from T(3) receptor alpha-null mice, which exhibit skeletal hypothyroidism, but was increased in T(3) receptor beta(PV/PV) mice, which display skeletal thyrotoxicosis. These findings indicate that FGFR3 is a T(3)-target gene in chondrocytes. In further experiments, T(3) enhanced FGF2 and FGF18 activation of the MAPK-signaling pathway but inhibited their activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1. FGF9 did not activate MAPK or signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 pathways in the absence or presence of T(3). Thus, T(3) exerted differing effects on FGFR activation during chondrogenesis depending on which FGF ligand stimulated the FGFR and which downstream signaling pathway was activated. These studies identify novel interactions between T(3) and FGFs that regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during chondrogenesis.

  4. Incorporation of hyaluronic acid into collagen scaffolds for the control of chondrocyte-mediated contraction and chondrogenesis

    Tang Shunqing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Spector, Myron [Tissue Engineering, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130 (United States)


    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a principal matrix molecule in many tissues, is present in high amounts in articular cartilage. HA contributes in unique ways to the physical behavior of the tissue, and has been shown to have beneficial effects on chondrocyte activity. The goal of this study was to incorporate graduated amounts of HA into type I collagen scaffolds for the control of chondrocyte-mediated contraction and chondrogenesis in vitro. The results demonstrated that the amount of contraction of HA/collagen scaffolds by adult canine articular chondrocytes increased with the HA content of the scaffolds. The greatest amount of chondrogenesis after two weeks was found in the scaffolds which had undergone the most contraction. HA can play a useful role in adjusting the mechanical behavior of tissue engineering scaffolds and chondrogenesis in chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds.

  5. Microenvironment is involved in cellular response to hydrostatic pressures during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Ye, Rui; Hao, Jin; Song, Jinlin; Zhao, Zhihe; Fang, Shanbao; Wang, Yating; Li, Juan


    Chondrocytes integrate numerous microenvironmental cues to mount physiologically relevant differentiation responses, and the regulation of mechanical signaling in chondrogenic differentiation is now coming into intensive focus. To facilitate tissue-engineered chondrogenesis by mechanical strategy, a thorough understanding about the interactional roles of chemical factors under mechanical stimuli in regulating chondrogenesis is in great need. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate the interaction of rat MSCs with their microenvironment by imposing dynamic and static hydrostatic pressure through modulating gaseous tension above the culture medium. Under dynamic pressure, chemical parameters (pH, pO2, and pCO2) were kept in homeostasis. In contrast, pH was remarkably reduced due to increased pCO2 under static pressure. MSCs under the dynamically pressured microenvironment exhibited a strong accumulation of GAG within and outside the alginate beads, while cells under the statically pressured environment lost newly synthesized GAG into the medium with a speed higher than its production. In addition, the synergic influence on expression of chondrogenic genes was more persistent under dynamic pressure than that under static pressure. This temporal contrast was similar to that of activation of endogenous TGF-β1. Taken altogether, it indicates that a loading strategy which can keep a homeostatic chemical microenvironment is preferred, since it might sustain the stimulatory effects of mechanical stimuli on chondrogenesis via activation of endogenous TGF-β1.

  6. MicroRNAs regulate osteogenesis and chondrogenesis

    Dong, Shiwu, E-mail: [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Bo; Guo, Hongfeng; Kang, Fei [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To focus on the role of miRNAs in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Involved in the regulation of miRNAs in osteoarthritis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To speculate some therapeutic targets for bone diseases. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecules and non-coding single strand RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to specific sequences within target genes. miRNAs have been recognized as important regulatory factors in organism development and disease expression. Some miRNAs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes, eventually influencing metabolism and bone formation. miRNAs are expected to provide potential gene therapy targets for the clinical treatment of metabolic bone diseases and bone injuries. Here, we review the recent research progress on the regulation of miRNAs in bone biology, with a particular focus on the miRNA-mediated control mechanisms of bone and cartilage formation.

  7. Extracellular matrix mediates epithelial effects on chondrogenesis in vitro.

    Solursh, M; Jensen, K L; Zanetti, N C; Linsenmayer, T F; Reiter, R S


    It has been previously observed that single chick embryonic limb mesenchymal cells can differentiate into chondrocytes without cell-cell interactions when cultured in collagen or agarose gels. In the present study, limb ectoderm, but not dermis, inhibits chondrogenesis when placed on such collagen gel cultures. The inhibitory influence can be transmitted extensive distances in the gel, even when the ectoderm is placed on a porous filter. Collagen gels, preconditioned with limb ectoderms, are also inhibitory to chondrogenesis. On the other hand, chondrogenesis is less inhibited by ectoderm when the mesenchymal cells are placed in agarose. These results suggest that the antichondrogenic effect of limb ectoderm is mediated through alterations of the collagenous extracellular matrix and support the idea that the extracellular matrix must be considered as an organized, functional unit capable of regulating cell differentiation.

  8. Gene Transfer Strategies to Promote Chondrogenesis and Cartilage Regeneration.

    Im, Gun-Il


    Gene transfer has been used experimentally to promote chondrogenesis and cartilage regeneration. While it is controversial to apply gene therapy for nonlethal conditions such as cartilage defect, there is a possibility that the transfer of therapeutic transgenes may dramatically increase the effectiveness of cell therapy and reduce the quantity of cells that are needed to regenerate cartilage. Single or combination of growth factors and transcription factors has been transferred to mesenchymal stem cells or articular chondrocytes using both nonviral and viral approaches. The current challenge for the clinical applications of genetically modified cells is ensuring the safety of gene therapy while guaranteeing effectiveness. Viral gene delivery methods have been mainstays currently with enhanced safety features being recently refined. On the other hand, efficiency has been greatly improved in nonviral delivery. This review summarizes the history and recent update on the gene transfer to enhance chondrogenesis from stem cells or articular chondrocytes.

  9. Induction of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis by polyacrylate substrates.

    Glennon-Alty, Laurence; Williams, Rachel; Dixon, Simon; Murray, Patricia


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can generate chondrocytes in vitro, but typically need to be cultured as aggregates in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), which makes scale-up difficult. Here we investigated if polyacrylate substrates modelled on the functional group composition and distribution of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding site could induce MSCs to undergo chondrogenesis in the absence of exogenous TGF-β. Within a few days of culture on the biomimetic polyacrylates, both mouse and human MSCs, and a mesenchymal-like mouse-kidney-derived stem cell line, began to form multi-layered aggregates and started to express the chondrocyte-specific markers, Sox9, collagen II and aggrecan. Moreover, collagen II tended to be expressed in the centre of the aggregates, similarly to developing limb buds in vivo. Surface analysis of the substrates indicated that those with the highest surface amine content were most effective at promoting MSC chondrogenesis. These results highlight the importance of surface group functionality and the distribution of those groups in the design of substrates to induce MSC chondrogenesis.

  10. Biomimetic alginate/polyacrylamide porous scaffold supports human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis

    Guo, Peng [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China); Yuan, Yasheng, E-mail: [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China); Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Chi, Fanglu [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China)


    We describe the development of alginate/polyacrylamide (ALG/PAAm) porous hydrogels based on interpenetrating polymer network structure for human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis. Three ALG/PAAm hydrogels at molar ratios of 10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 were prepared and characterized with enhanced elastic and rubbery mechanical properties, which are similar to native human cartilage tissues. Their elasticity and swelling properties were also studied under different physiological pH conditions. Finally, in vitro tests demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells could proliferate on the as-synthesized hydrogels with improved alkaline phosphatase activities. These results suggest that ALG/PAAm hydrogels may be a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • ALG/PAAm hydrogels were prepared at different molar ratios for cartilage tissue engineering. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels feature an interpenetrating polymer network structure. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels demonstrate strengthened elastic and rubbery mechanical properties. • hMSCs could be cultured on the ALG/PAAm hydrogels for proliferation and chondrogenesis.

  11. The immediate early gene product EGR1 and polycomb group proteins interact in epigenetic programming during chondrogenesis.

    Frank Spaapen

    Full Text Available Initiation of and progression through chondrogenesis is driven by changes in the cellular microenvironment. At the onset of chondrogenesis, resting mesenchymal stem cells are mobilized in vivo and a complex, step-wise chondrogenic differentiation program is initiated. Differentiation requires coordinated transcriptomic reprogramming and increased progenitor proliferation; both processes require chromatin remodeling. The nature of early molecular responses that relay differentiation signals to chromatin is poorly understood. We here show that immediate early genes are rapidly and transiently induced in response to differentiation stimuli in vitro. Functional ablation of the immediate early factor EGR1 severely deregulates expression of key chondrogenic control genes at the onset of differentiation. In addition, differentiating cells accumulate DNA damage, activate a DNA damage response and undergo a cell cycle arrest and prevent differentiation associated hyper-proliferation. Failed differentiation in the absence of EGR1 affects global acetylation and terminates in overall histone hypermethylation. We report novel molecular connections between EGR1 and Polycomb Group function: Polycomb associated histone H3 lysine27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 blocks chromatin access of EGR1. In addition, EGR1 ablation results in abnormal Ezh2 and Bmi1 expression. Consistent with this functional interaction, we identify a number of co-regulated targets genes in a chondrogenic gene network. We here describe an important role for EGR1 in early chondrogenic epigenetic programming to accommodate early gene-environment interactions in chondrogenesis.

  12. Regulating Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with a Retinoic Acid Receptor-Beta Inhibitor: Differential Sensitivity of Chondral Versus Osteochondral Development

    Solvig Diederichs


    Full Text Available Aim: Main objective was to investigate whether the synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR-β antagonist LE135 is able to drive in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs or improve differentiation by suppressing hypertrophic chondrocyte development. Methods: Chondrogenesis of human bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs was induced in micromass pellet culture for six weeks. Effects of LE135 alone and in combinatorial treatment with TGF-β on deposition of cartilaginous matrix including collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans, on deposition of non-hyaline cartilage collagens type I and X, and on hypertrophy markers including alkaline phosphatase (ALP, indian hedghehog (IHH and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 were assessed. Results: LE135 was no inducer of chondrogenesis and failed to stimulate deposition of collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans. Moreover, addition of LE135 to TGF-β-treated pellets inhibited cartilaginous matrix deposition and gene expression of COL2A1. In contrast, non-hyaline cartilage collagens were less sensitive to LE135 and hypertrophy markers remained unaffected. Conclusion: This demonstrates a differential sensitivity of chondral versus endochondral differentiation pathways to RARβ signaling; however, opposite to the desired direction. The relevance of trans-activating versus trans-repressing RAR signaling, including effects on activator protein (AP-1 is discussed and implications for overcoming current limits of hMSC chondrogenesis are considered.

  13. Enamel Matrix Derivative Stimulates Osteogenesis-and Chondrogenesis-related Transcription Factors in C3H10T1/2 Cells

    Masataka NARUKAWA; Naoto SUZUKI; Tadahiro TAKAYAMA; Yasuhiko YAMASHITA; Kichibee OTSUKA; Koichi ITO


    Our purpose was to determine how enamel matrix derivative (EMD) affects the expression of osteogenesis-and chondrogenesis-related transcription factors in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.C3H10T1/2 cell line, a typical pluripotential mesenchymal cell line, was cultured with or without EMD for up to 7 d. Expression of mRNAs encoding osteogenesis-and chondrogenesis-related transcription factors(Runx2, Osterix, AJ18, Dlx5, Msx2, Sox5, Sox9 and Zfp60) was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Runx2 and Sox9 protein expression and the presence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6-like molecules in EMD were determined by Western blotting. EMD substantially increased mRNA levels of osteogenesis-and chondrogenesis-related transcription factors. EMD also induced Runx2 and Sox9 protein expression. Western blotting analysis of EMD using anti-BMP-6 antibody revealed immunoreactive bands corresponding to about 14 kDa and 60 kDa. These results suggest that EMD stimulates osteogenesis-and chondrogenesis-related transcription factors, and these activities may be mediated, at least in part, by BMP-6in EMD.

  14. Hydrophilic polyurethane matrix promotes chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Nalluri, Sandeep M; Krishnan, G Rajesh; Cheah, Calvin; Arzumand, Ayesha; Yuan, Yuan; Richardson, Caley A; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan


    Segmental polyurethanes exhibit biphasic morphology and can control cell fate by providing distinct matrix guided signals to increase the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based hydrophilic polyurethanes can deliver differential signals to MSCs through their matrix phases where hard segments are cell-interactive domains and PEG based soft segments are minimally interactive with cells. These coordinated communications can modulate cell-matrix interactions to control cell shape and size for chondrogenesis. Biphasic character and hydrophilicity of polyurethanes with gel like architecture provide a synthetic matrix conducive for chondrogenesis of MSCs, as evidenced by deposition of cartilage-associated extracellular matrix. Compared to monophasic hydrogels, presence of cell interactive domains in hydrophilic polyurethanes gels can balance cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These results demonstrate the correlation between lineage commitment and the changes in cell shape, cell-matrix interaction, and cell-cell adhesion during chondrogenic differentiation which is regulated by polyurethane phase morphology, and thus, represent hydrophilic polyurethanes as promising synthetic matrices for cartilage regeneration.

  15. Ewing sarcoma ewsa protein regulates chondrogenesis of Meckel's cartilage through modulation of Sox9 in zebrafish.

    Chris Merkes

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is the second most common skeletal (bone and cartilage cancer in adolescents, and it is characterized by the expression of the aberrant chimeric fusion gene EWS/FLI1. Wild-type EWS has been proposed to play a role in mitosis, splicing and transcription. We have previously shown that EWS/FLI1 interacts with EWS, and it inhibits EWS activity in a dominant manner. Ewing sarcoma is a cancer that specifically develops in skeletal tissues, and although the above data suggests the significance of EWS, its role in chondrogenesis/skeletogenesis is not understood. To elucidate the function of EWS in skeletal development, we generated and analyzed a maternal zygotic (MZ ewsa/ewsa line because the ewsa/wt and ewsa/ewsa zebrafish appeared to be normal and fertile. Compared with wt/wt, the Meckel's cartilage of MZ ewsa/ewsa mutants had a higher number of craniofacial prehypertrophic chondrocytes that failed to mature into hypertrophic chondrocytes at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf. Ewsa interacted with Sox9, which is the master transcription factor for chondrogenesis. Sox9 target genes were either upregulated (ctgfa, ctgfb, col2a1a, and col2a1b or downregulated (sox5, nog1, nog2, and bmp4 in MZ ewsa/ewsa embryos compared with the wt/wt zebrafish embryos. Among these Sox9 target genes, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiment demonstrated that Ewsa directly binds to ctgfa and ctgfb loci. Consistently, immunohistochemistry showed that the Ctgf protein is upregulated in the Meckel's cartilage of MZ ewsa/ewsa mutants. Together, we propose that Ewsa promotes the differentiation from prehypertrophic chondrocytes to hypertrophic chondrocytes of Meckel's cartilage through inhibiting Sox9 binding site of the ctgf gene promoter. Because Ewing sarcoma specifically develops in skeletal tissue that is originating from chondrocytes, this new role of EWS may provide a potential molecular basis of its pathogenesis.

  16. Activity of protein kinase C during the differentiation of chick limb bud mesenchymal cells.

    Sonn, J K; Solursh, M


    To investigate the relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) and chondrogenesis, PKC activity was assayed in cultures of stage 23/24 chick limb bud mesenchymal cells under various conditions. PKC activities of cytosolic and particulate fractions were low in 1 day cultured cells. As chondrogenesis proceeds, cytosolic PKC activity increased more than twofold, while that of the particulate fraction increased only slightly. Three days' treatment of cultures with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, 5 x 10(-8) M) inhibited chondrogenesis judged by the accumulation of Alcian blue bound to the extracellular matrix and depressed PKC activity in cytosolic fraction. When cells were grown for 3 days in control medium after 3 days' treatment with PMA, chondrogenesis resumed and PKC activity recovered to normal values. PKC activity in cultures plated at low density (5 x 10(6) cells/ml) where chondrogenesis is reduced was as low as that in 1 day cultured cells plated at high density (2 x 10(7) cells/ml) or that in PMA treated cells. On the other hand, staurosporine promoted chondrogenesis without affecting PKC activity. Furthermore, reversal of PMA's inhibitory effect on chondrogenesis by staurosporine was not accompanied by recovery of PKC activity. These data indicate that increases in PKC activity is closely related to chondrogenesis and that PMA inhibits chondrogenesis by depressing PKC. However, staurosporine's enhancing effect on chondrogenesis is not related to PKC activity.

  17. Chemical modification of extracellular matrix by cold atmospheric plasma-generated reactive species affects chondrogenesis and bone formation.

    Eisenhauer, Peter; Chernets, Natalie; Song, You; Dobrynin, Danil; Pleshko, Nancy; Steinbeck, Marla J; Freeman, Theresa A


    The goal of this study was to investigate whether cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) modifies extracellular matrices (ECM) to influence chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Replacement of cartilage by bone during endochondral ossification is essential in fetal skeletal development, bone growth and fracture healing. Regulation of this process by the ECM occurs through matrix remodelling, involving a variety of cell attachment molecules and growth factors, which influence cell morphology and protein expression. The commercially available ECM, Matrigel, was treated with microsecond or nanosecond pulsed (μsp or nsp, respectively) DBD frequencies conditions at the equivalent frequencies (1 kHz) or power (~1 W). Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was added and the mixture subcutaneously injected into mice to simulate ectopic endochondral ossification. Two weeks later, the masses were extracted and analysed by microcomputed tomography. A significant increase in bone formation was observed in Matrigel treated with μsp DBD compared with control, while a significant decrease in bone formation was observed for both nsp treatments. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis showed Matrigel treated with μsp plasma increased the number of invading cells, the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor and chondrogenesis while the opposite was true for Matrigel treated with nsp plasma. In support of the in vivo Matrigel study, 10 T1/2 cells cultured in vitro on μsp DBD-treated type I collagen showed increased expression of adhesion proteins and activation of survival pathways, which decreased with nsp plasma treatments. These results indicate DBD modification of ECM can influence cellular behaviours to accelerate or inhibit chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Differential co-expression of long and short form type IX collagen transcripts during avian limb chondrogenesis in ovo.

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M


    Using RNA blot analysis of developmentally staged avian limb buds, we demonstrate that transcripts of several cartilage marker genes appear in limb tissue prior to overt chondrogenesis. Type II collagen mRNA, cartilage proteoglycan core protein mRNA, alpha 2(IX) collagen mRNA, and transcripts of the short form alpha 1(IX) collagen chain derived from the downstream promoter are co-expressed in limb tissue approximately 24-36 hours before the appearance of the respective polypeptides in differentiating cartilagenous tissue. Transcripts of the long form alpha 1(IX) collagen chain derived from the upstream promoter appear somewhat later in development; nearly coincident with the immunolocalization of type IX collagen in the cartilage elements of the limb. The spatial distribution of type II and type IX collagen transcripts was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Type II collagen and the long form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts co-localized in the chondrogenic elements of the developing forelimb. In contrast, short form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts which lack the 5' region encoding the NC4 globular amino-terminal domain were distributed throughout the non-chondrogenic, non-myogenic mesenchymal regions of the limb and were not detectable above background levels in the limb chondrogenic elements. The precocious appearance of several cartilage marker gene transcripts prior to chondrogenesis suggests that multiple levels of gene regulation including alternative promoter use, alternative RNA splicing, alternative polyadenylation, and other post-transcriptional as well as translational mechanisms are active prior to, and during avian limb chondrogenesis.

  19. Optimizing a novel method for low intensity ultrasound in chondrogenesis induction

    Hajar Shafaei


    Conclusion: Using LIUS resulted in early chondrogenesis in comparison with terminally differentiated chondrocytes by TGFβ. Therefore, LIUS might provide an applicable, safe, efficient, and cheap tool for chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs in cartilage tissue engineering.

  20. Chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma : disentangling the neoplastic chondrogenesis of two rare cartilaginous tumours

    Romeo, Salvatore


    The scope of this study was to disentangle neoplastic chondrogenesis in two rare cartilaginous tumours: chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. It was addressed: 1 The spectrum of phenotypic differentiation in chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma, 2 The signalling pathways driving chondrobla

  1. Dual Monitoring of Secretion and ATP Levels during Chondrogenesis Using Perfusion Culture-Combined Bioluminescence Monitoring System

    Hyuck Joon Kwon


    Full Text Available Skeletal pattern formation in limb development depends on prechondrogenic condensation which prefigures the cartilage template. However, although morphogens such as TGF-βs and BMPs have been known to play essential roles in skeletal patterning, how the morphogens induce prechondrogenic cells to aggregate and determine patterns of cartilage elements has remained unclear. Our previous study reported that ATP oscillations are induced during chondrogenesis. This result suggests the possibility that ATP oscillations lead to the oscillatory secretion of morphogens, due to the fact that secretion process requires ATP. To examine the correlation between ATP oscillations and secretion levels of morphogens, we have developed perfusion culture-combined bioluminescence monitoring system to simultaneously monitor intracellular ATP levels and secretion levels. Using this system, we found that secretory activity oscillates in phase with ATP oscillations and that secretion levels of TGF-β1 and BMP2 oscillate during chondrogenesis. The oscillatory secretion of the morphogens would contribute to amplifying the fluctuation of the morphogens, underlie the spatial patterning of morphogens, and consequently lead to skeletal pattern formation.

  2. Dual Monitoring of Secretion and ATP Levels during Chondrogenesis Using Perfusion Culture-Combined Bioluminescence Monitoring System.

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Han, Youngbae


    Skeletal pattern formation in limb development depends on prechondrogenic condensation which prefigures the cartilage template. However, although morphogens such as TGF-βs and BMPs have been known to play essential roles in skeletal patterning, how the morphogens induce prechondrogenic cells to aggregate and determine patterns of cartilage elements has remained unclear. Our previous study reported that ATP oscillations are induced during chondrogenesis. This result suggests the possibility that ATP oscillations lead to the oscillatory secretion of morphogens, due to the fact that secretion process requires ATP. To examine the correlation between ATP oscillations and secretion levels of morphogens, we have developed perfusion culture-combined bioluminescence monitoring system to simultaneously monitor intracellular ATP levels and secretion levels. Using this system, we found that secretory activity oscillates in phase with ATP oscillations and that secretion levels of TGF-β1 and BMP2 oscillate during chondrogenesis. The oscillatory secretion of the morphogens would contribute to amplifying the fluctuation of the morphogens, underlie the spatial patterning of morphogens, and consequently lead to skeletal pattern formation.

  3. Role of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) in Growth Plate Chondrogenesis.

    De Luca, Francesco


    Abstract Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a group of seven transcription factors. Upon activation by a variety of stimuli, NF-κB translocates to the nucleus and modulates the expression of target genes involved in cell growth, survival, and death. Previous evidence indicates that NF-κB regulates bone growth and development. We have shown that the NF-κB p65 is expressed in the growth plate and facilitates longitudinal bone growth by inducing chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and by preventing apoptosis. Furthermore, we have demonstrated in rodents that NF-κB expressed in growth plate chondrocytes mediates the promoting effects of GH and IGF-1 on longitudinal bone growth and growth plate chondrogenesis. Lastly, functional studies carried out in two children with growth failure and GH insensitivity, and affected by two different mutations impairing NF-κB activation, indicate that NF-κB also mediates the growth-promoting effects of GH in humans.

  4. Roles of DMP1 processing in osteogenesis, dentinogenesis and chondrogenesis.

    Sun, Yao; Chen, Li; Ma, Su; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Hua; Feng, Jian Q; Qin, Chunlin


    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic protein that plays critical roles in osteogenesis and dentinogenesis. Protein chemistry studies have demonstrated that DMP1 primarily exists as processed NH₂⁻ and COOH-terminal fragments in the extracellular matrix of bone and dentin. Our earlier work showed that the substitution of Asp²¹³ (a residue at a cleavage site) by Ala²¹³ blocks the processing of mouse DMP1 in vitro. Recently, we generated transgenic mice expressing this mutant DMP1 (designated 'D213A-DMP1'). By crossbreeding these transgenic mice with Dmp1-knockout (Dmp1-KO) mice, we obtained mice expressing the D213A-DMP1 transgene in the Dmp1-null background (named 'Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg' mice). In this study, we analyzed the long bone, mandible, dentin, and cartilage of Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg mice in comparison with wild-type, Dmp1-KO, and Dmp1-KO mice expressing the normal DMP1 transgene (Dmp1-KO/normal-Tg). Our results showed that D213A-DMP1 was barely cleaved in the dentin matrix of Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg mice and the expression of D213A-DMP1 failed to rescue the developmental defects in Dmp1-null mice. Interestingly, enlarged growth plates and condylar cartilages were observed in Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg mice, indicating a potential role of the full-length form of DMP1 in chondrogenesis.

  5. Forkhead transcription factor foxe1 regulates chondrogenesis in zebrafish.

    Nakada, Chisako; Iida, Atsumi; Tabata, Yoko; Watanabe, Sumiko


    Forkhead transcription factor (Fox) e1 is a causative gene for Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, which is characterized by hypothyroidism and cleft palate. Applying degenerate polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the conserved forkhead domain, we identified zebrafish foxe1 (foxe1). Foxe1 is expressed in the thyroid, pharynx, and pharyngeal skeleton during development; strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in the brain, eye, and heart in adult zebrafish. A loss of function of foxe1 by morpholino antisense oligo (MO) exhibited abnormal craniofacial development, shortening of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyals, and suppressed chondrycytic proliferation. However, at 27 hr post fertilization, the foxe1 MO-injected embryos showed normal dlx2, hoxa2, and hoxb2 expression, suggesting that the initial steps of pharyngeal skeletal development, including neural crest migration and specification of the pharyngeal arch occurred normally. In contrast, at 2 dpf, a severe reduction in the expression of sox9a, colIIaI, and runx2b, which play roles in chondrocytic proliferation and differentiation, was observed. Interestingly, fgfr2 was strongly upregulated in the branchial arches of the foxe1 MO-injected embryos. Unlike Foxe1-null mice, normal thyroid development in terms of morphology and thyroid-specific marker expression was observed in foxe1 MO-injected zebrafish embryos. Taken together, our results indicate that Foxe1 plays an important role in chondrogenesis during development of the pharyngeal skeleton in zebrafish, probably through regulation of fgfr2 expression. Furthermore, the roles reported for FOXE1 in mammalian thyroid development may have been acquired during evolution.

  6. Cytomegalovirus induces abnormal chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during embryonic mandibular development

    Bringas Pablo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human clinical studies and mouse models clearly demonstrate that cytomegalovirus (CMV disrupts normal organ and tissue development. Although CMV is one of the most common causes of major birth defects in humans, little is presently known about the mechanism(s underlying CMV-induced congenital malformations. Our prior studies have demonstrated that CMV infection of first branchial arch derivatives (salivary glands and teeth induced severely abnormal phenotypes and that CMV has a particular tropism for neural crest-derived mesenchyme (NCM. Since early embryos are barely susceptible to CMV infection, and the extant evidence suggests that the differentiation program needs to be well underway for embryonic tissues to be susceptible to viral infection and viral-induced pathology, the aim of this study was to determine if first branchial arch NCM cells are susceptible to mCMV infection prior to differentiation of NCM derivatives. Results E11 mouse mandibular processes (MANs were infected with mouse CMV (mCMV for up to 16 days in vitro. mCMV infection of undifferentiated embryonic mouse MANs induced micrognathia consequent to decreased Meckel's cartilage chondrogenesis and mandibular osteogenesis. Specifically, mCMV infection resulted in aberrant stromal cellularity, a smaller, misshapen Meckel's cartilage, and mandibular bone and condylar dysmorphogenesis. Analysis of viral distribution indicates that mCMV primarily infects NCM cells and derivatives. Initial localization studies indicate that mCMV infection changed the cell-specific expression of FN, NF-κB2, RelA, RelB, and Shh and Smad7 proteins. Conclusion Our results indicate that mCMV dysregulation of key signaling pathways in primarily NCM cells and their derivatives severely disrupts mandibular morphogenesis and skeletogenesis. The pathogenesis appears to be centered around the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways, and there is unusual juxtaposition of abnormal stromal

  7. Quantitative transcriptional profiling of ATDC5 mouse progenitor cells during chondrogenesis

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Zhang, Xiao-Yan;


    During the differentiation of a mouse chondroprogenitor cell line, ATDC5, an analysis of the transcription cartilage-related genes was carried out using real-time RT-PCR in a semiquantitative fashion. A total number of 104 genes both previously linked to chondrogenesis and hitherto not associated...

  8. Hypoxic treatment inhibits insulin-induced chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells despite upregulation of DEC1

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Ebbesen, Peter;


    Chondrogenesis occurs in vivo in a hypoxic environment, in which the hypoxia inducible factor 1, HIF-1, plays a regulatory role, possibly mediated through the transcription factor DEC1. We have analyzed the effect of hypoxia (1% oxygen) alone and in combination with insulin on the chondrogenic di...

  9. Conditional expression of Wnt4 during chondrogenesis leads to dwarfism in mice.

    Hu-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available Wnts are expressed in the forming long bones, suggesting roles in skeletogenesis. To examine the action of Wnts in skeleton formation, we developed a genetic system to conditionally express Wnt4 in chondrogenic tissues of the mouse. A mouse Wnt4 cDNA was introduced into the ubiquitously expressed Rosa26 (R26 locus by gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES cells. The expression of Wnt4 from the R26 locus was blocked by a neomycin selection cassette flanked by loxP sites (floxneo that was positioned between the Rosa26 promoter and the Wnt4 cDNA, creating the allele designated R26(floxneoWnt4. Wnt4 expression was activated during chondrogenesis using Col2a1-Cre transgenic mice that express Cre recombinase in differentiating chondrocytes. R26(floxneoWnt4; Col2a1-Cre double heterozygous mice exhibited a growth deficiency, beginning approximately 7 to 10 days after birth, that resulted in dwarfism. In addition, they also had craniofacial abnormalities, and delayed ossification of the lumbar vertebrae and pelvic bones. Histological analysis revealed a disruption in the organization of the growth plates and a delay in the onset of the primary and secondary ossification centers. Molecular studies showed that Wnt4 overexpression caused decreased proliferation and altered maturation of chondrocytes. In addition, R26(floxneoWnt4; Col2a1-Cre mice had decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. These studies demonstrate that Wnt4 overexpression leads to dwarfism in mice. The data indicate that Wnt4 levels must be regulated in chondrocytes for normal growth plate development and skeletogenesis. Decreased VEGF expression suggests that defects in vascularization may contribute to the dwarf phenotype.

  10. 17{beta}-Estradiol inhibits chondrogenesis in the skull development of zebrafish embryos

    Fushimi, Shigeko, E-mail: [Department of Public Health, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Wada, Naoyuki, E-mail: [Department of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Nohno, Tsutomu, E-mail: [Department of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Tomita, Masafumi, E-mail: [Department of Medical Toxicology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Saijoh, Kiyofumi, E-mail: [Department of Hygiene, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1 Takaramachi, Kanazawa 920-8564 (Japan); Sunami, Shigeo, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Nutrition, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, 288 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0193 (Japan); Katsuyama, Hironobu, E-mail: [Department of Public Health, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan)


    17{beta}-Estradiol (E2) plays important roles in the development and differentiation of the gonad and central nervous systems, but little is known regarding the effects of exogenous E2 on chondrogenesis in skeletal development. In the present study, we found that treatment with E2 1-5 days post-fertilization (dpf) at concentrations above 1.5 x 10{sup -5} M increased the mortality rate in zebrafish embryos. Morphological analysis showed that treatment with E2 1-5 dpf caused abnormal cartilage formation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations above 5 x 10{sup -6} M. E2 1-5 dpf at 1.5 x 10{sup -5} M caused defects of the ethmoid plate, parallel cleft of the trabecular cartilage, and hypoplasia of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyal cartilage. The sensitivity of embryos to E2 depended on the developmental stage. In early chondrogenesis (1-2 dpf), the embryos were highly sensitive to E2, leading to hypoplasia of the cartilage. In situ hybridization studies showed that expression levels of patched1 (ptc1) and patched2 (ptc2) receptor mRNAs were markedly decreased by exposure to 2 x 10{sup -5} M E2 1-2 dpf. However, the expression levels of sonic hedgehog (shh) and tiggywinkle hedgehog (twhh) mRNAs were constant in the E2-treated embryos. In addition, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 did not completely abolish the effects of E2, suggesting that E2 may not inhibit chondrogenesis through its nuclear estrogen receptor. These results suggest that exposure to exogenous E2 possibly inhibits chondrogenesis via inhibition of the hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction system.

  11. The role of transforming growth factor alpha in rat craniofacial development and chondrogenesis.

    Huang, L; Solursh, M; Sandra, A


    To explore the possible role of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in craniofacial development, its expression in the craniofacial region of rat embryos from embryonic day (d) 9 to d 20 was examined by in situ hybridisation and immunostaining. The TGF-alpha transcripts were first detected in the neural fold of embryonic d 9 and 10 embryos. In the craniofacial region, the TGF-alpha transcripts were not detected until embryonic d 16 in mesenchyme surrounding the olfactory bulb, within the olfactory bulb, the nasal capsule, vomeronasal organ, and vibrissal follicle. In addition, TGF-alpha message was detected in mesenchyme in the vicinity of Meckel's cartilage, and in the dental epithelium and lamina. This expression pattern of TGF-alpha transcripts persisted until embryonic d 17 but disappeared by d 18. The presence of TGF-alpha protein largely coincided with TGF-alpha message although, unlike the message, it persisted throughout later embryogenesis in the craniofacial region. The possible function of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis was explored by employing the micromass culture technique. Cartilage nodule formation in mesenchymal cells cultured from rat mandibles in the presence of TGF-alpha was significantly inhibited. This inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis was reversed by addition of antibody against the EGF receptor, which crossreacts with the TGF-alpha receptor. The inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis in vitro was further confirmed by micromass culture using mesenchymal cells from rat embryonic limb bud. Taken together, these results demonstrate the involvement of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis during embryonic development, possibly by way of a specific inhibition of cartilage formation from mesenchymal precursor cells.

  12. Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 on Equine Synovial Fluid Chondroprogenitor Expansion and Chondrogenesis

    Marta Bianchessi


    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells have been identified in the synovial fluid of several species. This study was conducted to characterize chondroprogenitor (CP cells in equine synovial fluid (SF and to determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 on SF-CP monolayer proliferation and subsequent chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that FGF-2 would stimulate SF-CP proliferation and postexpansion chondrogenesis. SF aspirates were collected from adult equine joints. Colony-forming unit (CFU assays were performed during primary cultures. At first passage, SF-cells were seeded at low density, with or without FGF-2. Following monolayer expansion and serial immunophenotyping, cells were transferred to chondrogenic pellet cultures. Pellets were analyzed for chondrogenic mRNA expression and cartilage matrix secretion. There was a mean of 59.2 CFU/mL of SF. FGF-2 increased the number of population doublings during two monolayer passages and halved the population doubling times. FGF-2 did not alter the immunophenotype of SF-CPs during monolayer expansion, nor did FGF-2 compromise chondrogenesis. Hypertrophic phenotypic markers were not expressed in control or FGF-2 groups. FGF-2 did prevent the development of a “fibroblastic” cell layer around pellet periphery. FGF-2 significantly accelerates in vitro SF-CP expansion, the major hurdle to clinical application of this cell population, without detrimentally affecting subsequent chondrogenic capacity.

  13. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of limb ectoderm on in vitro chondrogenesis.

    Solursh, M; Reiter, R S


    Previous studies have indicated possible dual effects of the limb ectoderm in cartilage differentiation. On one hand, explants from early (stage 15) wing buds are dependent on contact with the limb ectoderm for cartilage differentiation (Gumpel-Pinot, J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 59:157-173, 1980). On the other hand, limb ectoderm from stage 23/24 wing buds inhibits cartilage differentiation by cultured limb mesenchyme cells even without direct contact (Solursh et al., Dev. Biol. 86:471-482, 1981). In the present study, ectoderms from both stage 15/16 and stage 23/24 wings are cultured under the same conditions, and ectoderms from each source are shown to have two effects. Each stimulates chondrogenesis in stage 15 wing bud mesenchyme, and each inhibits chondrogenesis in older wing mesenchyme. The results suggest that the limb ectoderm has at least dual effects on cartilage differentiation, depending on the stage of the mesenchyme. One effect involves an early mesenchymal dependence on the ectoderm. This effect requires contact between the ectoderm and mesoderm (Gumpel-Pinot, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 59:157-173, 1980) but also can be observed at a distance from the ectoderm. Later, the ectoderm can act without direct contact between the ectoderm and mesoderm to inhibit chondrogenesis over some distance.

  14. Differential effects of dexamethasone on the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells: Influence of microenvironment, tissue origin and growth factor

    N Shintani


    Full Text Available nchymal stromal cells (MSCs, which reside within various tissues, are utilized in the engineering of cartilage tissue. Dexamethasone (DEX – a synthetic glucocorticoid – is almost invariably applied to potentiate the growth-factor-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro, albeit that this effect has been experimentally demonstrated only for transforming-growth-factor-beta (TGF-β-stimulated bone-marrow-derived MSCs. Clinically, systemic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with untoward side effects (e.g., bone loss and increased susceptibility to infection. Hence, the use of these agents should be avoided or limited. We hypothesize that the influence of DEX on the chondrogenesis of MSCs depends upon their tissue origin and microenvironment [absence or presence of an extracellular matrix (ECM], as well as upon the nature of the growth factor. We investigated its effects upon the TGF-β1- and bone-morphogenetic-protein 2 (BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs as a function of tissue source (bone marrow vs. synovium and microenvironment [cell aggregates (no ECM vs. explants (presence of a natural ECM]. In aggregates of bone-marrow-derived MSCs, DEX enhanced TGF-β1-induced chondrogenesis by an up-regulation of cartilaginous genes, but had little influence on the BMP-2-induced response. In aggregates of synovial MSCs, DEX exerted no remarkable effect on either TGF-β1- or BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis. In synovial explants, DEX inhibited BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis almost completely, but had little impact on the TGF-β1-induced response. Our data reveal that steroids are not indispensable for the chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro. Their influence is context dependent (tissue source of the MSCs, their microenvironment and the nature of the growth-factor. This finding has important implications for MSC based approaches to cartilage repair.

  15. Fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid hybrid scaffold promotes early chondrogenesis of articular chondrocytes: an in vitro study

    Idrus Ruszymah BH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic- and naturally derived- biodegradable polymers have been widely used to construct scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA are bioresorbable and biocompatible, rendering them as a promising tool for clinical application. To minimize cells lost during the seeding procedure, we used the natural polymer fibrin to immobilize cells and to provide homogenous cells distribution in PLGA scaffolds. We evaluated in vitro chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in PLGA scaffolds using fibrin as cell transplantation matrix. Methods PLGA scaffolds were soaked in chondrocytes-fibrin suspension (1 × 106cells/scaffold and polymerized by dropping thrombin-calcium chloride (CaCl2 solution. PLGA-seeded chondrocytes was used as control. All constructs were cultured for a maximum of 21 days. Cell proliferation activity was measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in vitro using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl-2-, 5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT assay. Morphological observation, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC, gene expression and sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG analyses were performed at each time point of 1, 2 and 3 weeks to elucidate in vitro cartilage development and deposition of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM. Results Cell proliferation activity was gradually increased from day-1 until day-14 and declined by day-21. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was detected as early as 2-week in fibrin/PLGA hybrid construct as confirmed by the presence of cartilage-isolated cells and lacunae embedded within basophilic ECM. Cartilage formation was remarkably evidenced after 3 weeks. Presence of cartilage-specific proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs were confirmed by positive Safranin O and Alcian Blue staining. Collagen type II exhibited intense immunopositivity at the pericellular matrix. Chondrogenic properties were further

  16. Proteome analysis during chondrocyte differentiation in a new chondrogenesis model using human umbilical cord stroma mesenchymal stem cells.

    De la Fuente, Alexandre; Mateos, Jesús; Lesende-Rodríguez, Iván; Calamia, Valentina; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; de Toro, Francisco J; Arufe, Maria C; Blanco, Francisco J


    Umbilical cord stroma mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated toward chondrocyte-like cells using a new in vitro model that consists of the random formation of spheroids in a medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum on a nonadherent surface. The medium was changed after 2 days to one specific for the induction of chondrocyte differentiation. We assessed this model using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and secretome analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine which proteins were differentially expressed during chondrogenesis. Differential gel electrophoresis analysis was performed, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry protein identification. A total of 97 spots were modulated during the chondrogenesis process, 54 of these spots were identified as 39 different proteins and 15 were isoforms. Of the 39 different proteins identified 15 were down-regulated, 21 were up-regulated, and 3 were up- and down-regulated during the chondrogenesis process. Using Pathway Studio 7.0 software, our results showed that the major cell functions modulated during chondrogenesis were cellular differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Five proteins involved in cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism found during the differential gel electrophoresis study were confirmed using Western blot. The results indicate that our in vitro chondrogenesis model is an efficient and rapid technique for obtaining cells similar to chondrocytes that express proteins characteristic of the cartilage extracellular matrix. These chondrocyte-like cells could prove useful for future cell therapy treatment of cartilage pathologies.

  17. Proteome Analysis During Chondrocyte Differentiation in a New Chondrogenesis Model Using Human Umbilical Cord Stroma Mesenchymal Stem Cells*

    De la Fuente, Alexandre; Mateos, Jesús; Lesende-Rodríguez, Iván; Calamia, Valentina; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; de Toro, Francisco J.; Arufe, Maria C.; Blanco, Francisco J.


    Umbilical cord stroma mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated toward chondrocyte-like cells using a new in vitro model that consists of the random formation of spheroids in a medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum on a nonadherent surface. The medium was changed after 2 days to one specific for the induction of chondrocyte differentiation. We assessed this model using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and secretome analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine which proteins were differentially expressed during chondrogenesis. Differential gel electrophoresis analysis was performed, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry protein identification. A total of 97 spots were modulated during the chondrogenesis process, 54 of these spots were identified as 39 different proteins and 15 were isoforms. Of the 39 different proteins identified 15 were down-regulated, 21 were up-regulated, and 3 were up- and down-regulated during the chondrogenesis process. Using Pathway Studio 7.0 software, our results showed that the major cell functions modulated during chondrogenesis were cellular differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Five proteins involved in cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism found during the differential gel electrophoresis study were confirmed using Western blot. The results indicate that our in vitro chondrogenesis model is an efficient and rapid technique for obtaining cells similar to chondrocytes that express proteins characteristic of the cartilage extracellular matrix. These chondrocyte-like cells could prove useful for future cell therapy treatment of cartilage pathologies. PMID:22008206

  18. Optimized chondrogenesis of ATCD5 cells through sequential regulation of oxygen conditions

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Ebbesen, Peter;


    , chondrocyte-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) production was monitored. Furthermore, the transcription of collagen II, an early-phase marker, and collagen X, a marker of hypertrophic conversion, was followed by real-time RT-PCR. Low oxygen concentrations between 1 and 9% inhibited chondrogenic conversion......, as evidenced by reduced glycosaminoglycan deposition in the ECM in a manner proportional to the degree of hypoxia. Cells cultured at oxygen concentrations of 12 and 15% underwent a faster and higher degree of early-phase chondrogenesis when compared to control cells cultured at ambient air (21% O2...

  19. Cell-based semiquantitative assay for sulfated glycosaminoglycans facilitating the identification of chondrogenesis.

    Yen, Ching-Yu; Wu, Yu-Wei; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Yeh, Min-I; Lin, Yi-Ming; Lee, Sheng-Yang


    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), in particular chondroitin sulfate, are an accepted marker of chondrogenic cells. In this study, a cell-based sulfated GAG assay for identifying the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells was developed. Based on fluorescent staining using safranin O and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), this method was highly sensitive. The results were both qualitative and quantitative. The method is suitable for identifying the chondrogenic process and also for screening compounds. The method may be helpful for discovering novel bioactive compounds for cartilage regeneration.

  20. 3, 3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine Increases In Vitro Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Human Umbilical Cord Stroma Through SRC2.

    Fernández-Pernas, Pablo; Fafián-Labora, Juan; Lesende-Rodriguez, Iván; Mateos, Jesús; De la Fuente, Alexandre; Fuentes, Isaac; De Toro Santos, Javier; Blanco García, Fco; Arufe, María C


    Our group focuses on the study of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human umbilical cord stroma or Warthońs jelly and their directed differentiation toward chondrocyte-like cells capable of regenerating damaged cartilage when transplanted into an injured joint. This study aimed to determine whether lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) or 3, 3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the active thyroid hormone, modulates chondrogenesis in our in vitro model of directed chondrogenic differentiation, and whether Wnt signalling is involved in this modulation. MSCs from human umbilical cord stroma underwent directed differentiation toward chondrocyte-like cells by spheroid formation. The addition of T3 to the chondrogenic medium increased the expression of genes linked to chondrogenesis like collagen type 2, integrin alpha 10 beta 1, and Sox9 measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Levels of collagen type 2 and aggrecane analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and staining by Safranin O were increased after 14 days in spheroid culture with T3 compared to those without T3 or only with PRL. B-catenin, Frizzled, and GSK-3β gene expressions were significantly higher in spheroids cultured with chondrogenic medium (CM) plus T3 compared to CM alone after 14 days in culture. The increase of chondrogenic differentiation was inhibited when the cells were treated with T3 plus ML151, an inhibitor of the T3 steroid receptor. This work demonstrates, for first time, that T3 promotes differentiation towards chondrocytes-like cells in our in vitro model, that this differentiation is mediated by steroid receptor co-activator 2 (SRC2) and does not induce hypertrophy. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2097-2108, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Chondrogenesis of infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells in 3D printed chitosan scaffold.

    Ken Ye

    Full Text Available Infrapatellar fat pad adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASCs have been shown to harbor chondrogenic potential. When combined with 3D polymeric structures, the stem cells provide a source of stem cells to engineer 3D tissues for cartilage repair. In this study, we have shown human IPFP-ASCs seeded onto 3D printed chitosan scaffolds can undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6. By week 4, a pearlescent, cartilage-like matrix had formed that penetrated the top layers of the chitosan scaffold forming a 'cap' on the scaffold. Chondrocytic morphology showed typical cells encased in extracellular matrix which stained positively with toluidine blue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive staining for collagen type II and cartilage proteoglycans, as well as collagen type I. Real time PCR analysis showed up-regulation of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9 genes when IPFP-ASCs were stimulated by TGFβ3 and BMP6. Thus, IPFP-ASCs can successfully undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6 and the cartilage-like tissue that forms on the surface of 3D-printed chitosan scaffold may prove useful as an osteochondral graft.

  2. In vitro chondrogenesis with lysozyme susceptible bacterial cellulose as a scaffold.

    Yadav, Vikas; Sun, Lin; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L


    A current focus of tissue engineering is the use of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as an alternative to autologous chondrocytes for cartilage repair. Several natural and synthetic polymers (including cellulose) have been explored as a biomaterial scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. While bacterial cellulose (BC) has been used in tissue engineering, its lack of degradability in vivo and high crystallinity restricts widespread applications in the field. Recently we reported the formation of a novel bacterial cellulose that is lysozyme-susceptible and -degradable in vivo from metabolically engineered Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Here we report the use of this modified bacterial cellulose (MBC) for cartilage tissue engineering using hMSCs. MBC's glucosaminoglycan-like chemistry, combined with in vivo degradability, suggested opportunities to exploit this novel polymer in cartilage tissue engineering. We have observed that, like BC, MBC scaffolds support cell attachment and proliferation. Chondrogenesis of hMSCs in the MBC scaffolds was demonstrated by real-time RT-PCR analysis for cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) markers (collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9) as well as histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of cartilage-specific ECM markers. Further, the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of hMSCs in MBC showed unique characteristics. For example, after 4 weeks of cultivation, the spatial cell arrangement and collagen type-II and ACAN distribution resembled those in native articular cartilage tissue, suggesting promise for these novel in vivo degradable scaffolds for chondrogenesis.

  3. Increase in levels of cyclic AMP during avian limb chondrogenesis in vitro.

    Solursh, M; Reiter, R; Ahrens, P B; Pratt, R M


    In the present study the level of cAMP was measured during in vitro chondrogenesis of wing mesenchyme of stage 24 chick embryos and was found to increase significantly from 6.3 pmol/mg protein at the end of the first day of culture to 9.7 pmol/mg protein on the second day, when chondrogenic expression is first detected by the appearance of an Alcian blue staining extracellular matrix. Nonchondrogenic cultures derived from wings of stage 19 embryos had a lower level of cAMP (4.4 +/- 0.07 pmol/mg protein). The level of cAMP in intact wings was 4.5 +/- 0.4 pmol/mg protein and did not change between stages 19 through 25. The correlatin between increased levels of cAMP and the onset of chondrogenesis is consistent with a role of cAMP in the expression of differentiated functions in chondrocytes, as well as in some other cell types.

  4. The Cross-talk Between TGF-β1 and Dlk1 Mediates Early Chondrogenesis During Embryonic Endochondral Ossification

    Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; M, Linda; Chen, Li


    Dlkl/Pref-1/FA1 (delta like-1/preadipocyte factor-1/Fetal Antigen-1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. However, mechanisms mediating control of its expression during chondrogenesis...

  5. Chondrogenesis of periodontal ligament stem cells by transforming growth factor-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a normal healthy impacted third molar

    Sunyoung Choi; Tae-Jun Cho; Soon-Keun Kwon; Gene Lee; Jaejin Cho


    The periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cell is regarded as a source of adult stem cells due to its multipotency. However, the proof of chondrogenic potential of the cells is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6. After isolation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from human periodontal ligament, the cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A mechanical force initiated chondrogenic differentiation of the cells. For chondrogenic differentiation, 10 μg ·L-1 TGF-β3 or 100 μg ·L-1 BMP-6 and the combination treating group for synergistic effect of the growth factors. We analyzed the PDLSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and chondrogenesis were evaluated by glycosaminoglycans assay, histology, immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell properties proved by FACS analysis. Glycosaminoglycans contents were increased 217% by TGF-β3 and 220% by BMP-6. The synergetic effect of TGF-β3 and BMP-6 were shown up to 281% compared to control. The combination treatment increased Sox9, aggrecan and collagen II expression compared with not only controls, but also TGF-β3 or BMP-6 single treatment dramatically. The histological analysis also indicated the chondrogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in our conditions. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential of the dental stem cell as a valuable cell source for chondrogenesis, which may be applicable for regeneration of cartilage and bone fracture in the field of cell therapy.

  6. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    Kabiri, Azadeh, E-mail: [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandiari, Ebrahim, E-mail: [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemibeni, Batool, E-mail: [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Mohammad, E-mail: [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mardani, Mohammad, E-mail: [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: [Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  7. Gene Modification of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Articular Chondrocytes to Enhance Chondrogenesis

    Saliya Gurusinghe


    Full Text Available Current cell based treatment for articular cartilage and osteochondral defects are hampered by issues such as cellular dedifferentiation and hypertrophy of the resident or transplanted cells. The reduced expression of chondrogenic signalling molecules and transcription factors is a major contributing factor to changes in cell phenotype. Gene modification of chondrocytes may be one approach to redirect cells to their primary phenotype and recent advances in nonviral and viral gene delivery technologies have enabled the expression of these lost factors at high efficiency and specificity to regain chondrocyte function. This review focuses on the various candidate genes that encode signalling molecules and transcription factors that are specific for the enhancement of the chondrogenic phenotype and also how epigenetic regulators of chondrogenesis in the form of microRNA may also play an important role.

  8. In Vivo Chondrogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Human Cell-laden Hydrogel Constructs

    Möller, Thomas; Hägg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; Kölby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul


    Background: The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Methods: Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- × 5- × 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/alginate construct in a subcutaneous pocket. Four groups of printed constructs were used: (1) human (male) nasal chondrocytes (hNCs), (2) human (female) bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), (3) coculture of hNCs and hBMSCs in a 20/80 ratio, and (4) Cell-free scaffolds (blank). After 14, 30, and 60 days, the scaffolds were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical analysis. Results: The constructs had good mechanical properties and keep their structural integrity after 60 days of implantation. For both the hNC constructs and the cocultured constructs, a gradual increase of glycosaminoglycan production and hNC proliferation was observed. However, the cocultured group showed a more pronounced cell proliferation and enhanced deposition of human collagen II demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusions: In vivo chondrogenesis in a 3D bioprinted human cell-laden hydrogel construct has been demonstrated. The trophic role of the hBMSCs in stimulating hNC proliferation and matrix deposition in the coculture group suggests the potential of 3D bioprinting of human cartilage for future application in reconstructive surgery. PMID:28280669

  9. Feasibility of arthroscopic placement of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis grafts in the cadaver hip joint

    Fritz Thorey


    Full Text Available An assortment of clinical trials have been done presenting the effectiveness of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC for the regeneration of chondral leasions. The purpose of the study was to underline the accessability of the acetabulum and the femoral head through the known portals and prove i the feasibility of placing the AMIC in the different zones of the hip joint and ii check for dislocation after joint movement. Six human cadavers underwent hip arthroscopy on both hips. Two chondral lesions were set on each femoral head and two in the acetabulum to evaluate a total of 48 defects. After microfracturing an autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis graft was placed on these lesions arthroscopically. After repeated joint movement the dislocation of the graft was checked. It was possible to place the AMIC graft in all 48 chondral lesions. The time needed for placing the graft was 8±2.9 minutes. A trend of time reduction could be detected throughout this study as the surgeon gained more experience. For the femoral head, after twenty cycles of joint movement 18/24 spots showed no displacement, 4/24 showed minor displacement (<3 mm and 2/24 showed major displacement (>3 mm. None showed total displacement. For the acetabulum 22/24 spots showed no displacement and 2/24 showed minor displacement. A combined microfracturing and placing of an AMIC graft of focal chondral lesions of the hip joint can be done arthroscopically. Prospective randomized in vivo studies should compare the results of arthroscopilally placed AMIC grafts with microfracturing and microfracturing alone.

  10. Small Molecule-BIO Accelerates and Enhances Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Vitro Chondrogenesis

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad


    Full Text Available Background: Hyaline cartilage defects exhibit a major challenge in the field of orthopedic surgery owing to its limited repair capacity. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are regarded as potent cells with a property of cartilage regeneration. We aimed to optimize marrow-derived MSC chondrogenic culture using a small bioactive molecule referred to as BIO. Methods: MSCs from the marrow of NMRI mice were extracted, culture-expanded, and characterized. Micro-mass culture was then established for chondrogenic differentiation (control group. The cultures of MSC in chondrogenic medium supplemented with 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 1 µM BIO were taken as the experimental groups. Cartilage differentiation was examined by both histological sections and real-time PCR for Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen II at different time points. Moreover, the involvement of the Wnt pathway was investigated. Results: Based on histological sections, there was seemingly more intense metachromatic matrix produced in the cultures with 0.01 µM BIO. In this experimental group, cartilage-specific genes tended to be upregulated at day 14 compared to day 21 of the control group, indicating the accelerating effect of BIO on cartilage differentiation. Overall, there was statistically a significant increase (P=0.01 in the expression level of cartilage-specific genes in cultures with 0.01 µM BIO (enhancing effects. These upregulations appeared to be mediated through the Wnt pathway evident from the significant upregulation of T-cell factor and beta-catenin molecules (P=0.01. Conclusion: Taken together, BIO at 0.01 µM could accelerate and enhance in vitro chondrogenesis of mouse marrow-derived MSCs. Please cite this article as: Baghaban Eslaminejad MR, Fallah N. Small Molecule-BIO Accelerates and Enhances Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Vitro Chondrogenesis. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:107-116.

  11. Midkine-deficiency delays chondrogenesis during the early phase of fracture healing in mice.

    Melanie Haffner-Luntzer

    Full Text Available The growth and differentiation factor midkine (Mdk plays an important role in bone development and remodeling. Mdk-deficient mice display a high bone mass phenotype when aged 12 and 18 months. Furthermore, Mdk has been identified as a negative regulator of mechanically induced bone formation and it induces pro-chondrogenic, pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory effects. Together with the finding that Mdk is expressed in chondrocytes during fracture healing, we hypothesized that Mdk could play a complex role in endochondral ossification during the bone healing process. Femoral osteotomies stabilized using an external fixator were created in wildtype and Mdk-deficient mice. Fracture healing was evaluated 4, 10, 21 and 28 days after surgery using 3-point-bending, micro-computed tomography, histology and immunohistology. We demonstrated that Mdk-deficient mice displayed delayed chondrogenesis during the early phase of fracture healing as well as significantly decreased flexural rigidity and moment of inertia of the fracture callus 21 days after fracture. Mdk-deficiency diminished beta-catenin expression in chondrocytes and delayed presence of macrophages during early fracture healing. We also investigated the impact of Mdk knockdown using siRNA on ATDC5 chondroprogenitor cells in vitro. Knockdown of Mdk expression resulted in a decrease of beta-catenin and chondrogenic differentiation-related matrix proteins, suggesting that delayed chondrogenesis during fracture healing in Mdk-deficient mice may be due to a cell-autonomous mechanism involving reduced beta-catenin signaling. Our results demonstrated that Mdk plays a crucial role in the early inflammation phase and during the development of cartilaginous callus in the fracture healing process.

  12. Non-destructive label-free continuous monitoring of in vitro chondrogenesis via electrical conductivity and its anisotropy.

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Changhwan; Karki, Bishal; Son, Youngsook; Lee, EunAh; Woo, Eung Je


    Non-destructive label-free continuous monitoring of in vitro tissue culture is an unmet demand in tissue engineering. Noting that different compositions of cartilage lead to different electrical tissue properties, we propose a new method to measure the electrical conductivity and its anisotropy during in vitro chondrogenesis. We used a conductivity tensor probe with 17 electrodes and a bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) device to measure the conductivity values and the anisotropy ratios at the bottom and top surfaces of the tissue samples during the culture period of 6 weeks. Clearly distinguishing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), collagen, and also various mixtures of them, the measured conductivity value and the estimated tissue anisotropy provide diagnostic information of the depth-dependent tissue structure and compositions. Continuously monitoring the individual tissue during the entire chondrogenesis process without any adverse effect, the proposed method may significantly increase the productivity of cartilage tissue engineering.

  13. Molecular Study of a Hoxa2 Gain-of-Function in Chondrogenesis: A Model of Idiopathic Proportionate Short Stature.

    Catherine Nyssen-Behets; René Rezsöhazy; Lengelé, Benoît G.; Deprez, Pierre M L; Nichane, Miloud G


    In a previous study using transgenic mice ectopically expressing Hoxa2 during chondrogenesis, we associated the animal phenotype to human idiopathic proportionate short stature. Our analysis showed that this overall size reduction was correlated with a negative influence of Hoxa2 at the first step of endochondral ossification. However, the molecular pathways leading to such phenotype are still unknown. Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to cont...

  14. Cdc42 is required for chondrogenesis and interdigital programmed cell death during limb development.

    Aizawa, Ryo; Yamada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Dai; Iimura, Tadahiro; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Harada, Takeshi; Tsukasaki, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Gou; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Nakao, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Yamaguchi, Akira; Aiba, Atsu; Kamijo, Ryutaro


    Cdc42, a member of the Rho subfamily of small GTPases, is known to be a regulator of multiple cellular functions, including cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, its tissue-specific roles, especially in mammalian limb development, remain unclear. To investigate the physiological function of Cdc42 during limb development, we generated limb bud mesenchyme-specific inactivated Cdc42 (Cdc42(fl/fl); Prx1-Cre) mice. Cdc42(fl/fl); Prx1-Cre mice demonstrated short limbs and body, abnormal calcification of the cranium, cleft palate, disruption of the xiphoid process, and syndactyly. Severe defects were also found in long bone growth plate cartilage, characterized by loss of columnar organization of chondrocytes, and thickening and massive accumulation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with reduced bone growth. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that expressions of Col10 and Mmp13 were reduced in non-resorbed hypertrophic cartilage, indicating that deletion of Cdc42 inhibited their terminal differentiation. Syndactyly in Cdc42(fl/fl); Prx1-Cre mice was caused by fusion of metacarpals and a failure of interdigital programmed cell death (ID-PCD). Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of limb buds showed that the expression patterns of Sox9 were ectopic, while those of Bmp2, Msx1, and Msx2, known to promote apoptosis in the interdigital mesenchyme, were down-regulated. These results demonstrate that Cdc42 is essential for chondrogenesis and ID-PCD during limb development.

  15. Alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and structure integrity in chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Hung, Shih-Chieh; Kuo, Pei-Yin; Chang, Ching-Fang; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Ho, Larry Low-Tone


    The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) during chondrogenesis was investigated by the use of pellet culture. Undifferentiated hMSCs expressed low but detectable amounts of SMA and the addition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) to the culture medium increased SMA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Differentiation in pellet culture was rapidly induced in the presence of TGF-beta1 and was accompanied by the development of annular layers at the surface of the pellet. These peripheral layers lacked expression of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen during early differentiation. Progress in differentiation increased the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen and the expression of SMA in these layers. Double-staining for type II collagen and SMA by immunofluorescence demonstrated the differentiation of hMSCs into cells positive for these two proteins. The addition of cytochalasin D, a potent inhibitor of the polymerization of actin microfilaments, caused damage to the structural integrity and surface smoothness of the chondrogenic pellets. The SMA-positive cells in the peripheral layers of the chondrogenic pellets mimic those within the superficial layer of articular cartilage and are speculated to play a major role in cartilage development and maintenance.

  16. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contribute to Chondrogenesis in Coculture with Chondrocytes

    Xingfu Li


    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs have been shown as the most potential stem cell source for articular cartilage repair. In this study, we aimed to develop a method for long-term coculture of human articular chondrocytes (hACs and hUCB-MSCs at low density in vitro to determine if the low density of hACs could enhance the hUCB-MSC chondrogenic differentiation as well as to determine the optimal ratio of the two cell types. Also, we compared the difference between direct coculture and indirect coculture at low density. Monolayer cultures of hUCB-MSCs and hACs were investigated at different ratios, at direct cell-cell contact groups for 21 days. Compared to direct coculture, hUCB-MSCs and hACs indirect contact culture significantly increased type II collagen (COL2 and decreased type I collagen (COL1 protein expression levels. SRY-box 9 (SOX9 mRNA levels and protein expression were highest in indirect coculture. Overall, these results indicate that low density direct coculture induces fibrocartilage. However, indirect coculture in conditioned chondrocyte cell culture medium can increase expression of chondrogenic markers and induce hUCB-MSCs differentiation into mature chondrocytes. This work demonstrates that it is possible to promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs in combination with hACs, further supporting the concept of novel coculture strategies for tissue engineering.

  17. Effects of the mesonephros and insulin-like growth factor I on chondrogenesis of limb explants.

    Geduspan, J S; Solursh, M


    The mesonephros has been shown to have a growth-promoting influence in vivo on limb outgrowth. This influence has been studied in detail using an organ culture system. The results show that in the presence of the mesonephros limb explants formed larger cartilages than cultures without mesonephros. Furthermore, with mesonephros, morphology of the cartilages is comparable to that of skeletal elements in vivo while cartilages formed in cultures lacking mesonephros were amorphous. The mesonephric influence also promoted the formation of a well-organized extracellular matrix in the cartilage while cartilage in cultures without mesonephros formed an abnormal appearing matrix. Cartilage matrices in cultures with or without mesonephros were immunoreactive to type IX and type II collagens, cartilage proteoglycan PGH, and link protein although cultures lacking mesonephros had a very restricted distribution of type IX collagen immunoreactivity. Despite the different distribution of type IX collagen, long-form-type IX collagen transcripts appeared similar in both types of culture based on in situ hybridization. The mesonephric effect on limb explants could be partially duplicated by the addition of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to cultures without mesonephros. Furthermore, the mesonephric influence on cartilage growth and morphological differentiation could be blocked by the addition of a blocking antibody to IGF-I to cultures with mesonephros. The results support the hypothesis that IGF-I is one of the growth factors produced by the mesonephros which may play a role in early limb development and chondrogenesis.

  18. High Field Sodium MRI Assessment of Stem Cell Chondrogenesis in a Tissue-Engineered Matrix.

    Majumdar, Shreyan; Pothirajan, Padmabharathi; Dorcemus, Deborah; Nukavarapu, Syam; Kotecha, Mrignayani


    The development of non-invasive assessment techniques in vitro and in vivo is essential for monitoring and evaluating the growth of engineered cartilage tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the leading non-invasive imaging modality used for assessing engineered cartilage. Typical MRI uses water proton relaxation times (T1 and T2) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to assess tissue growth. These techniques, while excellent in providing the first assurance of tissue growth, are unspecific to monitor the progress of engineered cartilage extracellular matrix components. In the current article, we present high field (11.7 T, (1)H freq. = 500 MHz) sodium MRI assessment of tissue-engineered cartilage at the early stage of tissue growth in vitro. We observed the chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived stromal cells seeded in a gradient polymer-hydrogel matrix made out of poly(85 lactide-co-15 glycolide)--PuraMatrix™ for 4 weeks. We calculated the sodium concentration in the engineered constructs using a model of sodium MRI voxels that takes into account scaffold volume, cell density and amount of glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sodium concentration was then converted to the fixed charge density (FCD) and compared with FCD derived from biochemical GAG analysis. Despite the small amount of GAG present in the engineered constructs, the sodium MRI derived FCD is found to be correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient R = 0.79) with the FCD derived from biochemical analysis. We conclude that sodium MRI could prove to be an invaluable tool in assessing engineered cartilage quantitatively during the repair or regeneration of cartilage defects.

  19. Chondrogenesis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in highly porous alginate-foams supplemented with chondroitin sulfate

    Huang, Zhao [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Nooeaid, Patcharakamon [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Kohl, Benjamin [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Roether, Judith A.; Schubert, Dirk W. [Institute of Polymer Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Meier, Carola [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Boccaccini, Aldo R. [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Godkin, Owen; Ertel, Wolfgang; Arens, Stephan [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula, E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg (Germany)


    To overcome the limited intrinsic cartilage repair, autologous chondrocyte or bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) was implanted into cartilage defects. For this purpose suitable biocompatible scaffolds are needed to provide cell retention, chondrogenesis and initial mechanical stability. The present study should indicate whether a recently developed highly porous alginate (Alg) foam scaffold supplemented with chondroitin sulfate (CS) allows the attachment, survival and chondrogenesis of BM-MSCs and articular chondrocytes. The foams were prepared using a freeze-drying method; some of them were supplemented with CS and subsequently characterized for porosity, biodegradation and mechanical profile. BM-MSCs were cultured for 1–2 weeks on the scaffold either under chondrogenic or maintenance conditions. Cell vitality assays, histology, glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) assay, and type II and I collagen immunolabelings were performed to monitor cell growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in the scaffolds. Scaffolds had a high porosity ~ 93–95% with a mean pore sizes of 237 ± 48 μm (Alg) and 197 ± 61 μm (Alg/CS). Incorporation of CS increased mechanical strength of the foams providing gradually CS release over 7 days. Most of the cells survived in the scaffolds. BM-MSCs and articular chondrocytes formed rounded clusters within the scaffold pores. The BM-MSCs, irrespective of whether cultured under non/chondrogenic conditions and chondrocytes produced an ECM containing sGAGs, and types II and I collagen. Total collagen and sGAG contents were higher in differentiated BM-MSC cultures supplemented with CS than in CS-free foams after 14 days. The cell cluster formation induced by the scaffolds might stimulate chondrogenesis via initial intense cell–cell contacts. - Highlights: • Alginate foam scaffolds revealed a high porosity and mean pore size of 197–237 μm. • Chondroitin sulfate was released over 14 days by the scaffolds. • Chondrocytes

  20. The Influence of IL-10 and TNFα on Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Three-Dimensional Cultures

    Michal Jagielski


    Full Text Available Chondrogenic differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are a promising cell source for articular cartilage repair. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of two three-dimensional (3D culture systems for chondrogenic MSC differentiation in comparison to primary chondrocytes and to assess the effect of Interleukin (IL-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNFα on chondrogenesis by MSCs in 3D high-density (H-D culture. MSCs were isolated from femur spongiosa, characterized using a set of typical markers and introduced in scaffold-free H-D cultures or non-woven polyglycolic acid (PGA scaffolds for chondrogenic differentiation. H-D cultures were stimulated with recombinant IL-10, TNFα, TNFα + IL-10 or remained untreated. Gene and protein expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, sox9 and TNFα were examined. MSCs expressed typical cell surface markers and revealed multipotency. Chondrogenic differentiated cells expressed cartilage-specific markers in both culture systems but to a lower extent when compared with articular chondrocytes. Chondrogenesis was more pronounced in PGA compared with H-D culture. IL-10 and/or TNFα did not impair the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Moreover, in most of the investigated samples, despite not reaching significance level, IL-10 had a stimulatory effect on the type II collagen, aggrecan and TNFα expression when compared with the respective controls.

  1. Silk fibroin/gelatin–chondroitin sulfate–hyaluronic acid effectively enhances in vitro chondrogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Sawatjui, Nopporn [Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Damrongrungruang, Teerasak [Department of Oral Diagnosis, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat [Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation Research Group, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); School of Microbiology, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Jearanaikoon, Patcharee [Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hongeng, Suradej [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Limpaiboon, Temduang, E-mail: [Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)


    Tissue engineering is becoming promising for cartilage repair due to the limited self-repair capacity of cartilage tissue. We previously fabricated and characterized a three-dimensional silk fibroin/gelatin–chondroitin sulfate–hyaluronic acid (SF–GCH) scaffold and showed that it could promote proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). This study aimed to evaluate its biological performance as a new biomimetic material for chondrogenic induction of BM-MSCs in comparison to an SF scaffold and conventional pellet culture. We found that the SF–GCH scaffold significantly enhanced the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs compared to the SF scaffold and pellet culture in which the production of sulfated glycoaminoglycan was increased in concordance with the up-regulation of chondrogenic-specific gene markers. Our findings indicate the significant role of SF–GCH by providing a supportive structure and the mimetic cartilage environment for chondrogenesis which enables cartilage regeneration. Thus, our fabricated SF–GCH scaffold may serve as a potential biomimetic material for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SF–GCH scaffold enhances proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. • SF–GCH acts as a supportive and biomimetic material for BM-MSC chondrogenesis. • SF–GCH is a potential biomimetic scaffold suitable for cartilage tissue engineering.

  2. Three-dimensional scaffold-free fusion culture: the way to enhance chondrogenesis of in vitro propagated human articular chondrocytes

    M. Lehmann


    Full Text Available Cartilage regeneration based on isolated and culture-expanded chondrocytes has been studied in various in vitro models, but the quality varies with respect to the morphology and the physiology of the synthesized tissues. The aim of our study was to promote in vitro chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes using a novel three-dimensional (3-D cultivation system in combination with the chondrogenic differentiation factors transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-b2 and L-ascorbic acid. Articular chondrocytes isolated from six elderly patients were expanded in monolayer culture. A single-cell suspension of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes was then added to agar-coated dishes without using any scaffold material, in the presence, or absence of TGF-b2 and/or L-ascorbic acid. Three-dimensional cartilage-like constructs, called single spheroids, and microtissues consisting of several spheroids fused together, named as fusions, were formed. Generated tissues were mainly characterized using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The morphology of the in vitro tissues shared some similarities to native hyaline cartilage in regard to differentiated S100-positive chondrocytes within a cartilaginous matrix, with strong collagen type II expression and increased synthesis of proteoglycans. Finally, our innovative scaffold-free fusion culture technique supported enhanced chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes in vitro. These 3-D hyaline cartilage-like microtissues will be useful for in vitro studies of cartilage differentiation and regeneration, enabling optimization of functional tissue engineering and possibly contributing to the development of new approaches to treat traumatic cartilage defects or osteoarthritis.

  3. Hedgehog signaling is required for cranial neural crest morphogenesis and chondrogenesis at the midline in the zebrafish skull.

    Wada, Naoyuki; Javidan, Yashar; Nelson, Sarah; Carney, Thomas J; Kelsh, Robert N; Schilling, Thomas F


    Neural crest cells that form the vertebrate head skeleton migrate and interact with surrounding tissues to shape the skull, and defects in these processes underlie many human craniofacial syndromes. Signals at the midline play a crucial role in the development of the anterior neurocranium, which forms the ventral braincase and palate, and here we explore the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in this process. Using sox10:egfp transgenics to follow neural crest cell movements in the living embryo, and vital dye labeling to generate a fate map, we show that distinct populations of neural crest form the two main cartilage elements of the larval anterior neurocranium: the paired trabeculae and the midline ethmoid. By analyzing zebrafish mutants that disrupt sonic hedgehog (shh) expression, we demonstrate that shh is required to specify the movements of progenitors of these elements at the midline, and to induce them to form cartilage. Treatments with cyclopamine, to block Hh signaling at different stages, suggest that although requirements in morphogenesis occur during neural crest migration beneath the brain, requirements in chondrogenesis occur later, as cells form separate trabecular and ethmoid condensations. Cell transplantations indicate that these also reflect different sources of Shh, one from the ventral neural tube that controls trabecular morphogenesis and one from the oral ectoderm that promotes chondrogenesis. Our results suggest a novel role for Shh in the movements of neural crest cells at the midline, as well as in their differentiation into cartilage, and help to explain why both skeletal fusions and palatal clefting are associated with the loss of Hh signaling in holoprosencephalic humans.

  4. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Lei, Youying [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan, Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)


    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  5. Gpr177, a novel locus for bone mineral density and osteoporosis, regulates osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in skeletal development.

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jiang, Ming; Hsu, Wei


    Human genetic analysis has recently identified Gpr177 as a susceptibility locus for bone mineral density and osteoporosis. Determining the unknown function of this gene is therefore extremely important to furthering our knowledge base of skeletal development and disease. The protein encoded by Gpr177 exhibits an ability to modulate the trafficking of Wnt, similar to the Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt. Because it plays a critical role in Wnt regulation, Gpr177 might be required for several key steps of skeletogenesis. To overcome the early lethality associated with the inactivation of Gpr177 in mice, conditional gene deletion is used to assess its functionality. Here we report the generation of four different mouse models with Gpr177 deficiency in various skeletogenic cell types. The loss of Gpr177 severely impairs development of the craniofacial and body skeletons, demonstrating its requirement for intramembranous and endochondral ossifications, respectively. Defects in the expansion of skeletal precursors and their differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes suggest that Wnt production and signaling mediated by Gpr177 cannot be substituted. Because the Gpr177 ablation impairs Wnt secretion, we therefore identify the sources of Wnt proteins essential for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. The intercross of Wnt signaling between distinct cell types is carefully orchestrated and necessary for skeletogenesis. Our findings lead to a proposed mechanism by which Gpr177 controls skeletal development through modulation of autocrine and paracrine Wnt signals in a lineage-specific fashion.

  6. All-Arthroscopic Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis for the Treatment of Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus

    Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Laura; Grassi, Miriam; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Boga, Michele


    Several surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of talar chondral lesions. Among them, microfracture is well established. Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC), using microfracture and biomaterials, has shown promising results for the treatment of knee osteochondral lesions and has been proposed for the ankle as an open technique. We describe an all-arthroscopic AMIC technique. The benefits of an all-arthroscopic procedure include smaller incisions with less soft-tissue dissection, better visualization of the joint, and a quicker recovery compared with open surgery. The use of matrix to support cartilage regeneration promotes good-quality cartilage tissue with satisfactory long-term outcomes. Our all-arthroscopic AMIC technique uses a type I–type III porcine collagen matrix (Chondro-Gide; Geistlich Pharma, Wolhusen, Switzerland) and is characterized by 2 different arthroscopic surgical phases. First, adequate exposure is achieved through use of a Hintermann spreader (Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, NJ) with sufficient joint distraction and wet lesion preparation. The second surgical step is performed dry, involving matrix placement and fixation. The all-arthroscopic AMIC technique for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus allows a very precise reconstruction in the case of cartilage defects and avoids the need for a more invasive operation associated with higher morbidity and a longer surgical time. PMID:26258040

  7. Molecular Study of a Hoxa2 Gain-of-Function in Chondrogenesis: A Model of Idiopathic Proportionate Short Stature

    Catherine Nyssen-Behets


    Full Text Available In a previous study using transgenic mice ectopically expressing Hoxa2 during chondrogenesis, we associated the animal phenotype to human idiopathic proportionate short stature. Our analysis showed that this overall size reduction was correlated with a negative influence of Hoxa2 at the first step of endochondral ossification. However, the molecular pathways leading to such phenotype are still unknown. Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to controls, we show here that the persistent expression of Hoxa2 in chondrogenic territories provokes a general down-regulation of the main factors controlling the differentiation cascade, such as Bapx1, Bmp7, Bmpr1a, Ihh, Msx1, Pax9, Sox6, Sox9 and Wnt5a. These data confirm the impairment of chondrogenic differentiation by Hoxa2 overexpression. They also show a selective effect of Hoxa2 on endochondral ossification processes since Gdf5 and Gdf10, and Bmp4 or PthrP were up-regulated and unmodified, respectively. Since Hoxa2 deregulation in mice induces a proportionate short stature phenotype mimicking human idiopathic conditions, our results give an insight into understanding proportionate short stature pathogenesis by highlighting molecular factors whose combined deregulation may be involved in such a disease.

  8. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in in vitro and in vivo chondrogenesis: relating tissue engineering using adult mesenchymal stem cells to embryonic development.

    Hellingman, Catharine A; Koevoet, Wendy; Kops, Nicole; Farrell, Eric; Jahr, Holger; Liu, Wei; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Frenz, Dorothy A; van Osch, Gerjo J V M


    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered promising candidate cells for therapeutic cartilage and bone regeneration. Because tissue regeneration and embryonic development may involve similar pathways, understanding common pathways may lead to advances in regenerative medicine. In embryonic limb development, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play a role in chondrogenic differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare FGFR expression in in vivo embryonic limb development and in vitro chondrogenesis of MSCs. Our study showed that in in vitro chondrogenesis of MSCs three sequential stages can be found, as in embryonic limb development. A mesenchymal condensation (indicated by N-cadherin) is followed by chondrogenic differentiation (indicated by collagen II), and hypertrophy (indicated by collagen X). FGFR1-3 are expressed in a stage-dependent pattern during in vitro differentiation and in vivo embryonic limb development. In both models FGFR2 is clearly expressed by cells in the condensation phase. No FGFR expression was observed in differentiating and mature hyaline chondrocytes, whereas hypertrophic chondrocytes stained strongly for all FGFRs. To evaluate whether stage-specific modulation of chondrogenic differentiation in MSCs is possible with different subtypes of FGF, FGF2 and FGF9 were added to the chondrogenic medium during different stages in the culture process (early or late). FGF2 and FGF9 differentially affected the amount of cartilage formed by MSCs depending on the stage in which they were added. These results will help us understand the role of FGF signaling in chondrogenesis and find new tools to monitor and control chondrogenic differentiation.

  9. Study of Carbon Nano-Tubes Effects on the Chondrogenesis of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells in Alginate Scaffold

    Ali Valiani


    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in middle-aged populations in the World and could become the fourth principal cause of disability by the year 2020. One of the critical properties for cartilage tissue engineering (TE is the ability of scaffolds to closely mimic the extracellular matrix and bond to the host tissue. Therefore, TE has been presented as a technique to introduce the best combination of cells and biomaterial scaffold and to stimulate growth factors to produce a cartilage tissue resembling natural articular cartilage. The aim of study is to improve differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs into chondrocytes in order to provide a safe and modern treatment for patients suffering from cartilage damages. Methods: After functionalization, dispersions and sterilizing carbon nano-tubes (CNTs, a new type of nanocomposite gel was prepared from water-soluble CNTs and alginate. ADSCs seeded in 1.5% alginate scaffold and cultured in chondrogenic media with and without transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 for 7 and 14 days. The genes expression of sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, types II and X collagens was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and the amount of aggrecan (AGC and type I collagen was measured by ELISA. Results: Our findings showed that the expression of essential cartilage markers, SOX9, type II collagen and AGC, in differentiated ADSCs at the concentration of 1 μg/ml CNTs in the presence of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001. Meanwhile, type X collagen expression and also type I collagen production were significantly decreased (P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results showed that utilized three-dimensional scaffold had a brilliant effect in promoting gene expression of chondrogenesis.

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 promotes transforming growth factor β3-induced chondrogenesis of human osteoarthritic synovium-derived stem cells

    RUI Yun-feng; DU Lin; WANG You; WANG Yang; LUI Pauline po-yee; TANG Ting-ting; CHAN Kai-ming; DAI Ke-rong


    Background Synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) with higher chondrogenic potential are attracting considerable attention as a cell source for cartilage regeneration. We investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) on transforming growth factor beta3 (TGF-β3)-induced chondrogenesis of SDSCs isolated from human osteoarthritic synovium in a pellet culture system. Methods The clonogenicity, stem cell marker expression and multi-differentiation potential of isolated SDSCs were determined by colony forming unit assay, flow cytometry and specific staining including alizarin red S, Oil red O and alcian blue staining, respectively. SDSCs pellet was cultured in chondrogenic medium with or without TGF-β3 or/and BMP-2. At day 21, the diameter and the weight of the pellets were measured. Chondrogenic differentiation of SDSCs was evaluated by Safranin O staining, immunohistochemical staining of collagen type Ⅱ, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) synthesis and mRNA expression of collagen type Ⅱ, aggrecan, SOX9, link-protein, collagen type X and BMP receptor Ⅱ. Results Cells isolated under the optimized culturing density (104/60 cm2) showed clonogenicity and multi-differentiation potential. These cells were positive (>99%) for CD44, CD90, CD105 and negative (<10%) for CD34 and CD71. SDSCs differentiated to a chondrocytic phenotype in chondrogenic medium containing TGF-β3 with or without BMP-2. Safranin O staining of the extracellular matrix was positive and the expression of collagen type Ⅱ was detected. Cell pellets treated with TGF-β3 and BMP-2 were larger in diameter and weight, produced more sGAGs, and expressed higher levels of collagen type Ⅱ and other chondrogenic markers, except COL10A1, than medium with TGF-β3 alone. Conclusions SDSCs could be isolated from human osteoarthritic synovium. Supplementation with BMP-2 significantly promoted the in vitro TGF-β3-induced chondrogenic differentiation of SDSCs.

  11. Genipin-crosslinked cartilage-derived matrix as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cell chondrogenesis.

    Cheng, Nai-Chen; Estes, Bradley T; Young, Tai-Horng; Guilak, Farshid


    Autologous cell-based tissue engineering using three-dimensional scaffolds holds much promise for the repair of cartilage defects. Previously, we reported on the development of a porous scaffold derived solely from native articular cartilage, which can induce human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to differentiate into a chondrogenic phenotype without exogenous growth factors. However, this ASC-seeded cartilage-derived matrix (CDM) contracts over time in culture, which may limit certain clinical applications. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of chemical crosslinking using a natural biologic crosslinker, genipin, to prevent scaffold contraction while preserving the chondrogenic potential of CDM. CDM scaffolds were crosslinked in various genipin concentrations, seeded with ASCs, and then cultured for 4 weeks to evaluate the influence of chemical crosslinking on scaffold contraction and ASC chondrogenesis. At the highest crosslinking degree of 89%, most cells failed to attach to the scaffolds and resulted in poor formation of a new extracellular matrix. Scaffolds with a low crosslinking density of 4% experienced cell-mediated contraction similar to our original report on noncrosslinked CDM. Using a 0.05% genipin solution, a crosslinking degree of 50% was achieved, and the ASC-seeded constructs exhibited no significant contraction during the culture period. Moreover, expression of cartilage-specific genes, synthesis, and accumulation of cartilage-related macromolecules and the development of mechanical properties were comparable to the original CDM. These findings support the potential use of a moderately (i.e., approximately one-half of the available lysine or hydroxylysine residues being crosslinked) crosslinked CDM as a contraction-free biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering.

  12. The effect of estrogen on the expression of cartilage-specific genes in the chondrogenesis process of adipose-derived stem cells

    Farzaneh Sadeghi


    Full Text Available Background: During adolescence, sex hormones play an important role in regulating proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and the scheduled death of chondrocytes. Although some studies have reported the regulatory role of estrogen in the development and progression of cartilage, some of the mechanisms still remain unclear, including the role of estrogen in the expression of cartilage-specific genes in chondrogenesis process, which we cover in this study. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we used adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs to differentiate into cartilage. Differentiated cartilage cells were used in the control (without estrogen E2 in the culture medium and experimental (with estrogen in the culture medium groups to evaluate the expression of type II collagen and aggrecan as chondrogenic genes markers, with -real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: Our results indicated that estrogen leads to inhibition of type II collagen gene expression and reduction of aggrecan gene expression. Conclusion: Therefore, estrogen probably has negative effects on chondrogenesis process of ADSCs.

  13. TGF-ß1 enhances the BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis of bovine synovial explants and arrests downstream differentiation at an early stage of hypertrophy.

    Nahoko Shintani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synovial explants furnish an in-situ population of mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of articular cartilage. Although bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 induces the chondrogenesis of bovine synovial explants, the cartilage formed is neither homogeneously distributed nor of an exclusively hyaline type. Furthermore, the downstream differentiation of chondrocytes proceeds to the stage of terminal hypertrophy, which is inextricably coupled with undesired matrix mineralization. With a view to optimizing BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis, the modulating influences of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1 were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Explants of bovine calf metacarpal synovium were exposed to BMP-2 (200 ng/ml for 4 (or 6 weeks. FGF-2 (10 ng/ml or TGF-ß1 (10 ng/ml was introduced at the onset of incubation and was present either during the first week of culturing alone or throughout its entire course. FGF-2 enhanced the BMP-2-induced increase in metachromatic staining for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs only when it was present during the first week of culturing alone. TGF-ß1 enhanced not only the BMP-2-induced increase in metachromasia (to a greater degree than FGF-2, but also the biochemically-assayed accumulation of GAGs, when it was present throughout the entire culturing period; in addition, it arrested the downstream differentiation of cells at an early stage of hypertrophy. These findings were corroborated by an analysis of the gene- and protein-expression levels of key cartilaginous markers and by an estimation of individual cell volume. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TGF-ß1 enhances the BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis of bovine synovial explants, improves the hyaline-like properties of the neocartilage, and arrests the downstream differentiation of cells at an early stage of hypertrophy. With the prospect of engineering a mature, truly articular type of cartilage in the context of

  14. Treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus with autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis: clinical and magnetic resonance evaluation at one-year follow-up



    Purpose the aim of this study is to report the clinical and imaging results recorded by a series of patients in whom osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) were repaired using the autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis (ACIC) technique with a completely arthroscopic approach. Methods nine patients (mean age 37.4±10 years) affected by OLTs (lesion size 2.1±0.9 cm2) were treated with the ACIC technique. The patients were evaluated clinically both preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS) and a visual analog scale (VAS). For morphological evaluation, the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used. Results the AOFAS score improved from 51.4±11.6 preoperatively to 71.8±20.6 postoperatively, while the VAS value decreased from 6.9±1.8 to 3.2±1.9. The mean MOCART score was 51.7±16.6 at 12 months of follow-up; these scores did not directly correlate with the clinical results. Conclusion use of the ACIC technique for arthroscopic repair of OLTs allowed satisfactory clinical results to be obtained in most of the patients as soon as one year after surgery, with no major complications or delayed revision surgery. ACIC is a valid and low-invasive surgical technique for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects of the talus. Level of evidence therapeutic case series, level IV. PMID:27602347

  15. The Role of Cyclic AMP and Its Relationship to Parathyroid Hormone Response in an In Vitro Model of Chondrogenesis.


    meaningful and complete information. When a report is prepared in more than one volume , repeat the primary title, add volume number, and include al. (1990) found human PTH (hPTH) 1-34 inhibited ALPase activity and stimulated mitogenesis in mandibular condylar cartilage in vitro. of cartilage cells in vivo. Copray et al. (1988) observed prominent differences in the response to PTH by rat secondary mandibular condylar and

  16. Designer Nodal/BMP2 Chimeras Mimic Nodal Signaling, Promote Chondrogenesis, and Reveal a BMP2-like Structure

    Esquivies, Luis; Blackler, Alissa; Peran, Macarena; Rodriguez-Esteban, Concepcion; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Booker, Evan; Gray, Peter C.; Ahn, Chihoon; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Choe, Senyon


    Nodal, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, plays an important role in vertebrate and invertebrate early development. The biochemical study of Nodal and its signaling pathway has been a challenge, mainly because of difficulties in producing the protein in sufficient quantities. We have developed a library of stable, chemically refoldable Nodal/BMP2 chimeric ligands (NB2 library). Three chimeras, named NB250, NB260, and NB264, show Nodal-like signaling properties including dependence on the co-receptor Cripto and activation of the Smad2 pathway. NB250, like Nodal, alters heart looping during the establishment of embryonic left-right asymmetry, and both NB250 and NB260, as well as Nodal, induce chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. This Nodal-induced differentiation is shown to be more efficient than BPM2-induced differentiation. Interestingly, the crystal structure of NB250 shows a backbone scaffold similar to that of BMP2. Our results show that these chimeric ligands may have therapeutic implications in cartilage injuries. PMID:24311780

  17. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the HMG domain of the chondrogenesis master regulator Sox9 in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified DNA element.

    Vivekanandan, Saravanan; Moovarkumudalvan, Balasubramanian; Lescar, Julien; Kolatkar, Prasanna R


    Sox9 is a fundamental sex-determining gene and the master regulator of chondrogenesis, and is involved in the development of various vital organs such as testes, kidney, heart and brain, and in skeletal development. Similar to other known Sox transcription factors, Sox9 recognizes and binds DNA with the consensus sequence C(T/A)TTG(T/A)(T/A) through the highly conserved HMG domain. Nonetheless, the molecular basis of the functional specificity of Sox9 in key developmental processes is still unclear. As an initial step towards a mechanistic understanding of Sox9 transcriptional regulation, the current work describes the details of the purification of the mouse Sox9 HMG domain (mSox9HMG), its crystallization in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified FOXP2 promoter DNA element and the X-ray diffraction data analysis of this complex. The mSox9HMG-FOXP2 promoter DNA complex was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20% PEG 3350 in 200 mM sodium/potassium phosphate with 100 mM bis-tris propane at pH 8.5. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and the complex crystallized in the tetragonal space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 99.49, c = 45.89 Å. Crystal-packing parameters revealed that asymmetric unit contained one mSox9HMG-FOXP2 promoter DNA complex with an estimated solvent content of 64%.

  18. Hedgehog信号调控骨髓间充质干细胞成软骨细胞分化:调控方式及其串话机制尚待研究%Hedgehog signal regulates the chondrogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells:controlling methods and cross-talking relationship with other signals need further studies

    刘宽; 吴兴


    背景:Hedgehog 信号通路在骨髓间充质干细胞成软骨细胞分化过程中发挥重要的调控作用,但具体的调控机制,以及与其他信号通路的串话机制仍需进一步的研究,是近来研究的热点。目的:介绍hedgehog信号在调控骨髓间充质干细胞成软骨分化过程中信号转导机制的研究现状与发展趋势,以及与其他信号通路的相互串话。方法:通过搜索CNKI,PubMed及Google Scholar等数据库,以“hedgehog,骨髓间充质干细胞,软骨形成,软骨细胞”和“hedgehog,IHH,SHH,bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel ,chondrogenesis, cartilage, chondrocyte”为检索词,查阅有关hedgehog信号与骨髓间充质干细胞分化相关的文献,最终共纳入36篇文献进行综述。结果与结论:骨髓间充质干细胞是目前公认的组织工程种子细胞来源,hedgehog信号通路是运动系统发育过程中重要的信号分子。Hedgehog信号蛋白IHH和SHH参与调控骨髓间充质干细胞的增殖与成软骨分化,以及软骨形成后的表型维持,且与其他信号通路发挥协同作用。然而,具体的调控方式以及与其他信号的串话机制,仍需进一步的研究,是这一领域未来研究的方向。%BACKGROUND:The hedgehog pathway has paid an important role in the progress of chondrogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the definite signal transduction pathway and cross-talking relationship with other common signal pathways are stil poorly understood and the researches related to this field is to continue as a hotspot in the future study. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the research progress of hedgehog signal pathway on the regulation of the chondrogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the relationship between hedgehog and other signal pathways in the process. METHODS:A computer-based online search in CNKI, PubMed and Google Scholar databases was performed using key words

  19. Histone Acetylation Influences the Activity of Sox9-related Transcriptional Complex



    Full Text Available Chondrocyte differentiation is the fundamental process in skeletal development. From the mesenchymal condensation of chondroprogenitors to the hypertrophic maturation of chondrocytes, chondrogenesis is sequentially regulated by cross-talk among transcription factors, growth factors, and chromatin structure. The master transcription factor Sry-type HMG box (Sox 9 has an essential role in the expression of chondrogenic genes through the association with Sox9-binding sites on its target genes. Several transcription factors and coactivators, such as Scleraxis/E47 and p300, cooperatively modulate the Sox9-dependent transcription by interacting with Sox9. The Sox9-related transcriptional apparatus activates its target gene expression through p300-mediated histone acetylation on chromatin. The transforming growth factor (TGF-β superfamily also plays a key role in chondrocyte differentiation. The TGF-β-regulated Smad3/4 complex activates Sox9-dependent transcription on chromatin by associating with Sox9 itself, and by recruiting p300 onto Sox9. These findings suggest that the epigenetic status including histone modification and chromatin structure, directly influences Sox9-regulated chondrocyte differentiation. In this article, we review the regulators of Sox9 expression itself, modulators of posttranslational Sox9 function, and Sox9-associating factors in the Sox9-dependent epigenetic regulation during chondrogenesis.

  20. Side population cells isolated from porcine dental pulp tissue with self-renewal and multipotency for dentinogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, and neurogenesis.

    Iohara, Koichiro; Zheng, Li; Ito, Masataka; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako


    Dental pulp has the potential to form dentin as a regenerative response to caries. This regeneration is mediated by stem/progenitor cells. Thus, stem cell therapy might be of potential utility in induction of reparative dentin. We isolated side population (SP) cells from dental pulp based on the exclusion of the DNA binding dye Hoechst 33342 by flow cytometry and compared its self-renewal capacities and multipotency with non-SP cells and primary pulp cells. The cumulative cell number of the SP cells was greater than the non-SP cells and primary pulp cells. Bmi1 was continuously expressed in SP cells, suggesting longer proliferative lifespan and self-renewal capacity of SP cells. Next, the maintenance of the multilineage differentiation potential of pulp SP cells was investigated. Expression of type II collagen and aggrecan confirmed chondrogenic conversion (30%) of SP cells. SP cells expressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adaptor protein 2, showing adipogenic conversion. Expression of mRNA and proteins of neurofilament and neuromodulin confirmed neurogenic conversion (90%). These results demonstrate that pulp SP cells maintain multilineage differentiation potential. We further examined whether bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) could induce differentiation of pulp SP cells into odontoblasts. BMP2 stimulated the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) and enamelysin in three-dimensional pellet cultures. Autogenous transplantation of the Bmp2-supplemented SP cells on the amputated pulp stimulated the reparative dentin formation. Thus, adult pulp contains SP cells, which are enriched for stem cell properties and useful for cell therapy with BMP2 for dentin regeneration.

  1. Cartilage tissue engineering application of injectable gelatin hydrogel with in situ visible-light-activated gelation capability in both air and aqueous solution.

    Lin, Hang; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Alexander, Peter G; Beck, Angela M; Tuan, Rocky S


    Chondroprogenitor cells encapsulated in a chondrogenically supportive, three-dimensional hydrogel scaffold represents a promising, regenerative approach to articular cartilage repair. In this study, we have developed an injectable, biodegradable methacrylated gelatin (mGL)-based hydrogel capable of rapid gelation via visible light (VL)-activated crosslinking in air or aqueous solution. The mild photocrosslinking conditions permitted the incorporation of cells during the gelation process. Encapsulated human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) showed high, long-term viability (up to 90 days) throughout the scaffold. To assess the applicability of the mGL hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering, we have evaluated the efficacy of chondrogenesis of the encapsulated hBMSCs, using hBMSCs seeded in agarose as control. The ability of hBMSC-laden mGL constructs to integrate with host tissues after implantation was further investigated utilizing an in vitro cartilage repair model. The results showed that the mGL hydrogel, which could be photopolymerized in air and aqueous solution, supports hBMSC growth and TGF-β3-induced chondrogenesis. Compared with agarose, mGL constructs laden with hBMSCs are mechanically stronger with time, and integrate well with native cartilage tissue upon implantation based on push-out mechanical testing. VL-photocrosslinked mGL scaffold thus represents a promising scaffold for cell-based repair and resurfacing of articular cartilage defects.

  2. Ectopic chondrogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with platelet-rich fibrin in vivo%骨髓间充质干细胞复合富血小板纤维蛋白异位成软骨的实验研究

    李轶杰; 陈慧; 刘鹏; 张旻; 陈永进


    AIM: To explore the ectopic chondrogenesis effects of double membrane transplant constructed by homologous rabbit platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheet in cartilage microenvironment in vivo. METHODS: BMSCs was obtained from New Zealand rabbits by density gradient centrifuga-tion. The cells were identified by flow cytomety, osteogenic and adipogenic induction assays and then used to form BMSC sheet cultured by standard medium with Vitamin C. PRF membrane was prepared by centrifuging the whole blood from the rabbit auricle arterial and then squeezing out the serum from the clot. The PRF membrane was co-cultured with BMSC sheet. Afterwards, the BMSCs/PRF compound membranes enwraping auricle cartilage fragments were implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous area of 15 nude mice. Only BMSC sheets enwraping auricle cartilage fragments were implanted into another 15 nude mice as the controls. 4, 8 and 12 weeks after implantation, cartilage formation was observed by HE staining and toluidine blue staining. IPP 6.0 was used for image analysis and SPSS 13.0 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: HE staining showed chondrogenesis in ectopic sites 2, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation in experimental group. In contrast, only a few chondrocytes were observed in control group at 8 weeks. IPP data analy- sis showed the average optical density value of experimental group increased gradually and was significantly higher than that of the control at the same time points (P <0. 05). CONCLUSION: The new autotransplant constructed by the BMSC sheet and PRF can provide an effective way for chondrogenesis.%目的:探讨富血小板纤维蛋白(platelet-rich fibrin,PRF)复合兔骨髓间充质干细胞膜片在软骨微环境下异位成软骨的可行性.方法:取3~4月龄雄性新西兰兔骨髓,体外分离、培养骨髓间充质干细胞;经来源鉴定后,取第3代细胞诱导培养形成细胞膜片;抽取同一只兔动脉血制备PRF后与

  3. Chondrogenesis of synovial mesenchymal stem cells co-cultured with chondrocytes on the three-dimensional scaffold%滑膜间充质干细胞与软骨细胞三维条件下混合培养向软骨细胞的分化

    宁晓婷; 胡露露; 邵博; 龚忠诚; 刘慧; 凌彬; 克热木•阿巴斯; 林兆全; 杨萌; 尹小朋


    BACKGROUND:Articular chondrocytes with the ability of autocrine and paracrine can provide the growth factors and microenvironment for synovial mesenchymal stem cels differentiating into the chondrocyte. The three-dimensional scaffold could provide space for cels adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of chondrogenesis by co-culturing synovial mesenchymal stem cels and chondrocytes under the three-dimensional condition. METHODS:The synovial membrane and articular cartilage were harvested from rat knee joint. The synovial mesenchymal stem cels and chondrocytes were obtained through the method of enzyme digestion. The passage 3 synovial mesenchymal stem cels and passage 2 chondrocytes were co-cultured in the chitosan/I colagen composite scaffolds at the ratio of 1:2. Then, the cels/scaffold composite was harvested to be examined morphologicaly, histologicaly and immunohistochemicaly after being cultured 21 days. The confocal laser was also employed to detect the cels distribution in the scaffold. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After being cultured 72 hours, it could be observed from the cels/scaffold composite examined through the scanning electron microscope that the cels adhered on the surface of the scaffold and extracelular matrix surrounding the cels was seen on the scaffold. After being cultured 21 days, it could be found through the confocal laser scanning that the cels were wel-distributed on the scaffold, and cels decreased gradualy. Type II colagen was positive in the extracelular matrix immunohistochamicaly. It suggested from this study that the synovial mesenchymal stem cels could be co-cultured with chondrocytes in the chitosan/I colagen composite scaffolds and have the ability of chondrogenesis differentiation.%背景:软骨细胞通过自分泌及旁分泌的作用可以为滑膜间充质干细胞向软骨细胞分化提供所需的生长因子及微环境,三维条件下更有利于细胞的黏附增殖与分化

  4. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

    Tamás Juhász


    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.


    蔡震; 潘博; 林琳; 蒋海越; 庄洪兴; 游晓波; 傅荣


    Objective To investigate the effects of the misshapen auricular chondrocytes from microtia in inducing chondrogenesis of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro. Methods Human ADSCs at passage 3 and misshapen auricular chondrocytes at passage 2 were harvested and mixed at a ratio of 7 '. 3 as experimental group (group A, 1.0 ×106 mixed cells). Misshapen auricular chondrocytes or ADSCs at the same cell number served as control groups (groups B and C, respectively). All samples were incubated in the centrifuge tubes. At 28 days after incubation, the morphological examination was done and the wet weight was measured; the content of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was detected by Alcian blue colorimetry; the expressions of collagen type Ⅱ and Aggrecan were determined with RT-PCR; and HE staining, toluidine blue staining, Safranin O staining of GAG, and collagen type Ⅱ immunohistochemical staining were used for histological and immunohistochemical observations. Results At 28 days after incubation, all specimens formed disc tissue that was translucent and white with smooth surface and good elasticity in groups A and B; the specimens shrank into yellow spherical tissue without elasticity in group C. The wet weight and GAG content of specimens in groups A and B were significantly higher than those in group C (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between groups A and B in the wet weight (t=1.820 3, P=0.068 7) and in GAG content (t= 1.861 4, P=0.062 7). In groups A and B, obvious expressions of collagen type Ⅱ and Aggrecan mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR, but no obvious expressions were observed in group C; the expressions in groups A and B were significantly higher than those in group C (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between groups A and B in collagen type Ⅱ mRNA expression (t=1.457 6, P=0.144 9) and Aggrecan mRNA expression (t=1.519 5, P=0.128 6). Mature cartilage lacunas and different degrees of dyeing for the extracellular

  6. PTH stimulated growth and decreased Col-X deposition are phosphotidylinositol-3,4,5 triphosphate kinase and mitogen activating protein kinase dependent in avian sterna.

    Harrington, Erik Kern; Coon, David J; Kern, Matthew F; Svoboda, Kathy K H


    Type X collagen (Col-X) deposition is a marker of terminal differentiation during chondrogenesis, in addition to appositional growth and apoptosis. The parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTH/PTHrP) receptor, or PPR, is a G-Protein coupled receptor (GPCR), which activates several downstream pathways, moderating chondrocyte differentiation, including suppression of Col-X deposition. An Avian sterna model was used to analyze the PPR GPCR downstream kinase role in growth rate and extracellular matrix (ECM) including Col-II, IX, and X. Phosphatidylinositol kinase (PI3K), mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) were inhibited with specific established inhibitors LY294002, PD98059, and H89, respectively to test the hypothesis that they could reverse/inhibit the PTH/PTHrP pathway. Excised E14 chick sterna were PTH treated with or without an inhibitor and compared to controls. Sternal length was measured every 24 hr. Cultured sterna were immuno-stained using specific antibodies for Col-II, IX, or X and examined via confocal microscopy. Increased growth in PTH-treated sterna was MAPK, PI3K, and PKA dose dependent, suggesting growth was regulated through multiple pathways. Col-X deposition was rescued in PTH-treated sterna in the presence of PI3K or MAPK inhibitors, but not with the PKA inhibitor. All three inhibitors moderately disrupted Col-II and Col-IX deposition. These results suggest that PTH can activate multiple pathways during chondrocyte differentiation.

  7. Periosteal BMP2 activity drives bone graft healing.

    Chappuis, Vivianne; Gamer, Laura; Cox, Karen; Lowery, Jonathan W; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Rosen, Vicki


    Bone graft incorporation depends on the orchestrated activation of numerous growth factors and cytokines in both the host and the graft. Prominent in this signaling cascade is BMP2. Although BMP2 is dispensable for bone formation, it is required for the initiation of bone repair; thus understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying bone regeneration driven by BMP2 is essential for improving bone graft therapies. In the present study, we assessed the role of Bmp2 in bone graft incorporation using mice in which Bmp2 has been removed from the limb prior to skeletal formation (Bmp2(cKO)). When autograft transplantations were performed in Bmp2cKO mice, callus formation and bone healing were absent. Transplantation of either a vital wild type (WT) bone graft into a Bmp2(cKO) host or a vital Bmp2(cKO) graft into a WT host also resulted in the inhibition of bone graft incorporation. Histological analyses of these transplants show that in the absence of BMP2, periosteal progenitors remain quiescent and healing is not initiated. When we analyzed the expression of Sox9, a marker of chondrogenesis, on the graft surface, we found it significantly reduced when BMP2 was absent in either the graft itself or the host, suggesting that local BMP2 levels drive periosteal cell condensation and subsequent callus cell differentiation. The lack of integrated healing in the absence of BMP2 was not due to the inability of periosteal cells to respond to BMP2. Healing was achieved when grafts were pre-soaked in rhBMP2 protein, indicating that periosteal progenitors remain responsive in the absence of BMP2. In contrast to the requirement for BMP2 in periosteal progenitor activation in vital bone grafts, we found that bone matrix-derived BMP2 does not significantly enhance bone graft incorporation. Taken together, our data show that BMP2 signaling is not essential for the maintenance of periosteal progenitors, but is required for the activation of these progenitors and their subsequent

  8. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;


    staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion: We here report...

  9. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.


    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  10. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    Lu, Z.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Huang, C.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.


    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  11. Identification of SCAN domain zinc-finger gene ZNF449 as a novel factor of chondrogenesis.

    Keita Okada

    Full Text Available Transcription factors SOX9, SOX5 and SOX6 are indispensable for generation and differentiation of chondrocytes. However, molecular mechanisms to induce the SOX genes are poorly understood. To address this issue, we previously determined the human embryonic enhancer of SOX6 by 5'RACE analysis, and identified the 46-bp core enhancer region (CES6. We initially performed yeast one-hybrid assay for screening other chondrogenic factors using CES6 as bait, and identified a zinc finger protein ZNF449. ZNF449 and Zfp449, a counterpart in mouse, transactivated enhancers or promoters of SOX6, SOX9 and COL2A1. Zfp449 was expressed in mesenchyme-derived tissues including cartilage, calvaria, muscle and tendon, as well as in other tissues including brain, lung and kidney. In limb cartilage of mouse embryo, Zfp449 protein was abundantly located in periarticular chondrocytes, and decreased in accordance with the differentiation. Zfp449 protein was also detected in articular cartilage of an adult mouse. During chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, ZNF449 was increased at an early stage, and its overexpression enhanced SOX9 and SOX6 only at the initial stage of the differentiation. We further generated Zfp449 knockout mice to examine the in vivo roles; however, no obvious abnormality was observed in skeletal development or articular cartilage homeostasis. ZNF449 may regulate chondrogenic differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells, although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown.

  12. Chondrogenesis of adipose-derived adult stem cells in a poly-lactide-co-glycolide scaffold

    Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Zwingmann, Jorn; Finkenzeller, Guenter


    combined immunodeficiency mice and harvested after 8 weeks. Chondrospecific messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Corresponding extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis was demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining. Chondrospecific marker...... implantation in a subcutaneous pocket of nude mice. Human ASCs were seeded into PLGA (polylactic acid:polyglycolic acid = 90:10) scaffolds and cultured in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1)-containing medium for 3 weeks in vitro. Then specimens were implanted into a subcutaneous pocket of severe...

  13. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Shafiee, Abbas [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Peyman [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Soleimani, Masoud [Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers.

  14. Catabolic factors and osteoarthritis-conditioned medium inhibit chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Heldens, G.T.H.; Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Vitters, E.L.; Schreurs, B.W.; Piek, E.; Berg, W.B. van den; Kraan, P.M. van der


    Articular cartilage has a very limited intrinsic repair capacity leading to progressive joint damage. Therapies involving tissue engineering depend on chondrogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. This chondrogenic differentiation will have to survive in a diseased joint. We postulate that catab

  15. Autologous Membrane Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC) for the treatment of acetabular chondral defect

    Fontana, Andrea


    Summary Background Acetabular chondral defect are very frequently associated to FAI. Treatment options are still questionable. Methods Between 2008 and 2014, 201 patients over 583 have been arthroscopically treated with the AMIC procedure for grade III and/or IV acetabular chondral lesions. Patients age was between 18 and 50 years; acetabular chondral lesion size was between 2 and 4 cm2; radiological Tönnis degree of osteoarthritis was ≤ 2. Results The mean follow up of the entire group of 201 patients was 5 years (from 8 to 2). Significant improvement, as measured by the mHHS, was observed at 6 months in comparison to preoperative levels (80.3 ± 8.3) (prepair medium-sized chondral defects on the acetabular side of the hip found during treatment of FAI and lead to long-term favourable outcomes. Level of evidence IV. PMID:28066742

  16. The role of transforming growth factor alpha in rat craniofacial development and chondrogenesis.

    Huang, L; Solursh, M; Sandra, A


    To explore the possible role of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in craniofacial development, its expression in the craniofacial region of rat embryos from embryonic day (d) 9 to d 20 was examined by in situ hybridisation and immunostaining. The TGF-alpha transcripts were first detected in the neural fold of embryonic d 9 and 10 embryos. In the craniofacial region, the TGF-alpha transcripts were not detected until embryonic d 16 in mesenchyme surrounding the olfactory bulb, within...

  17. A combinatorial approach towards the design of nanofibrous scaffolds for chondrogenesis

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Ramos, Tiago André Da Silva; Damanik, Febriyani; Quang Le, Bach; Wieringa, Paul; Bennink, Martin; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional (3D) structure composed of proteinaceous fibres that provide physical and biological cues to direct cell behaviour. Here, we build a library of hybrid collagen-polymer fibrous scaffolds with nanoscale dimensions and screen them for their ability to grow chondrocytes for cartilage repair. Poly(lactic acid) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) at two different monomer ratios (85:15 and 50:50) were incrementally blended with collagen. Physical properties (wettability and stiffness) of the scaffolds were characterized and related to biological performance (proliferation, ECM production, and gene expression) and structure-function relationships were developed. We found that soft scaffolds with an intermediate wettability composed of the highly biodegradable PLGA50:50 and collagen, in two ratios (40:60 and 60:40), were optimal for chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells as determined by increased ECM production and enhanced cartilage specific gene expression. Long-term cultures indicated a stable phenotype with minimal de-differentiation or hypertrophy. The combinatorial methodology applied herein is a promising approach for the design and development of scaffolds for regenerative medicine.

  18. Effect of Collagen Type I or Type II on Chondrogenesis by Cultured Human Articular Chondrocytes

    Rutgers, M.; Saris, D.B.F.; Vonk, L.A.; Rijen, van M.H.P.; Akrum, V.; Langeveld, D.; Boxtel, van A.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.


    Introduction: Current cartilage repair procedures using autologous chondrocytes rely on a variety of carriers for implantation. Collagen types I and II are frequently used and valuable properties of both were shown earlier in vitro, although a preference for either was not demonstrated. Recently, ho

  19. Physical activity

    ... this page: // Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  20. Activated Charcoal

    Activated Carbon, Animal Charcoal, Carbo Vegetabilis, Carbon, Carbón Activado, Charbon Actif, Charbon Activé, Charbon Animal, Charbon Médicinal, Charbon Végétal, Charbon Végétal Activé, Charcoal, Gas Black, Lamp Black, Medicinal Charcoal, Noir de Gaz, ...

  1. Flavonoid Compound Icariin Activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Chondrocytes and Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Pengzhen Wang

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has poor capability for repair following trauma or degenerative pathology due to avascular property, low cell density and migratory ability. Discovery of novel therapeutic approaches for articular cartilage repair remains a significant clinical need. Hypoxia is a hallmark for cartilage development and pathology. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α has been identified as a key mediator for chondrocytes to response to fluctuations of oxygen availability during cartilage development or repair. This suggests that HIF-1α may serve as a target for modulating chondrocyte functions. In this study, using phenotypic cellular screen assays, we identify that Icariin, an active flavonoid component from Herba Epimedii, activates HIF-1α expression in chondrocytes. We performed systemic in vitro and in vivo analysis to determine the roles of Icariin in regulation of chondrogenesis. Our results show that Icariin significantly increases hypoxia responsive element luciferase reporter activity, which is accompanied by increased accumulation and nuclear translocation of HIF-1α in murine chondrocytes. The phenotype is associated with inhibiting PHD activity through interaction between Icariin and iron ions. The upregulation of HIF-1α mRNA levels in chondrocytes persists during chondrogenic differentiation for 7 and 14 days. Icariin (10-6 M increases the proliferation of chondrocytes or chondroprogenitors examined by MTT, BrdU incorporation or colony formation assays. Icariin enhances chondrogenic marker expression in a micromass culture including Sox9, collagen type 2 (Col2α1 and aggrecan as determined by real-time PCR and promotes extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis indicated by Alcian blue staining. ELISA assays show dramatically increased production of aggrecan and hydroxyproline in Icariin-treated cultures at day 14 of chondrogenic differentiation as compared with the controls. Meanwhile, the expression of chondrocyte catabolic

  2. Physical Activity

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik


    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  3. Activity Theory.

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.


    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  4. Identifying Activity

    Lewis, Adrian S


    Identification of active constraints in constrained optimization is of interest from both practical and theoretical viewpoints, as it holds the promise of reducing an inequality-constrained problem to an equality-constrained problem, in a neighborhood of a solution. We study this issue in the more general setting of composite nonsmooth minimization, in which the objective is a composition of a smooth vector function c with a lower semicontinuous function h, typically nonsmooth but structured. In this setting, the graph of the generalized gradient of h can often be decomposed into a union (nondisjoint) of simpler subsets. "Identification" amounts to deciding which subsets of the graph are "active" in the criticality conditions at a given solution. We give conditions under which any convergent sequence of approximate critical points finitely identifies the activity. Prominent among these properties is a condition akin to the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, which ensures boundedness of the set of...

  5. Activating schoolyards

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf;


    BACKGROUND: The aim of the Activating Schoolyards Study is to develop, implement, document and assess a comprehensive schoolyard intervention to promote physical activity (PA) during school recess for primary school children (grade 4-8). The intervention is designed to implement organizational...... to objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements...... as well as quantitative methods can be seen as a strength, as the different types of data complement each other and results of one part of the study informed the following parts. A unique aspect of our study is the use of accelerometers in combination with GPS and GIS in the effect evaluation...

  6. Active house

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj


    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  7. Get Active

    ... Have fun with your family. If you have children, you can be a role model for making healthy choices. Encourage your whole family to get active outside . Go for a hike or organize a family soccer game. If someone you know has trouble making ...

  8. Differential expression pattern of extracellular matrix molecules during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue

    Mehlhorn, A T; Niemeyer, P; Kaiser, S;


    Adipose-derived adult stem cells (ADASCs) or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are considered as alternative cell sources for cell-based cartilage repair due to their ability to produce cartilage-specific matrix. This article addresses the differential expression pattern of extra......Adipose-derived adult stem cells (ADASCs) or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are considered as alternative cell sources for cell-based cartilage repair due to their ability to produce cartilage-specific matrix. This article addresses the differential expression pattern...... mRNA was monitored via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Corresponding ECM synthesis was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. After chondroinduction, expression of collagen type II, type X, COMP and aggrecan mRNA was 3-15-fold higher than in ADASCs. The type IIA splicing...... form of alpha(1)-procollagen type II was expressed in both populations, and the type IIB splicing form was exclusively detected in BMSCs. In response to TGF-beta, collagen type II and X were secreted more strongly by BMSCs than by ADASCs. BMSCs express a more mature phenotype than ADASCs after...

  9. Effect of a synthetic folic acid analogue, 9-methyl-pteroylglutamic acid, on fetal chondrogenesis: ultrastructural observations.

    Schmidt, R R; Slobodian, S A; Chepenik, K P; Cotler, J M


    Maternally administered folic acid antagonists (x-methyl-PGA and 9-methyl-PGA) are known to produce various skeletal malformations in the neonate. These defects are thought to be due in part to abnormal metabolism and/or deposition of various extracellular matrix components, i.e., collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Experimental reduction of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis in vitro has been shown previously to alter the spatial orientation and normal pattern of collagen fibrillogenesis. Furthermore, dietary withdrawal of folic acid concomitant with maternal administration of 9-methyl-PGA has been shown to result in abnormal collagen, uronic acid, and hexosamine metabolism by fetal limbs. In the present study pregnant rats were exposed to a transitory folic acid deficiency from day 11 to 14 of gestation and fetal tibias (mid-diaphyseal region) were examined with the electron microscope on day 18 of gestation. Although we were unable to ascertain any aberrant patterns of fibrillogenesis and orientation with respect to collagen, this particular teratogenic regimen resulted in an altered pattern of chondrocyte development when observed at the ultrastructural level.

  10. Chondrogenesis of Precartilaginous Stem Cells in KLD-12 Self-assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffold Loading TGF-β3 Gene

    YOU Hongbo; CHEN Anmin; SUN Kai; LIU Tie


    The effect of culture in KLD-12 self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold containing TGF-β3 gene on differentiation of precartilaginous stem cells(PSCs)into chondrocytes was studied.KLD-12 was synthesized by solid-state method.After TGF-β3 plasmid was loaded into KLD-12 self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold,DNA release ability was investigated.PSCs and hTGF-β3 gene were loaded into KLD-12 3-D scaffold,and MTT assay was performed to investigate the cell proliferation,and ELASA assay was used to investigate the expression of TGF-β3.Specific cartilage matrix was examined by quantitative real-time PCR,immunohistochemistry and Alcian Blue staining.Compared with control group,DNA synthesis level of PSCs reached the peak within 3 days when PSCs were cultured in self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold loading TGF-β3 plasmid,and maintained this high level within 2 weeks.MTT results showed that the proliferation ability of experimental group was statistically higher than that in control group(P<0.05).Quantitative realtime PCR suggested that the percentage of TGF-β3 positive PSCs in experimental group was higher than that in control group(P<0.01).ELISA assay showed that the TGF-β3 protein level increased in supernatant of experimental group's PSCs,reached the peak after 72 h and then declined a little to the plateau phase.Compared with the control group,the specific gene of chondrocyte typical extracellular matrix significantly up-regulated (P<0.01).The results showed that PSCs differentiated into chondrocytes in self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold loading TGF-β3 plasmid,which provided a flesh approach to cartilage tissue engineering.

  11. Gpr177, a novel locus for bone-mineral-density and osteoporosis, regulates osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in skeletal development

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jiang, Ming; Hsu, Wei


    Human genetic analysis has recently identified Gpr177 as a susceptibility locus for bone-mineral-density and osteoporosis. Determining the unknown function of this gene is therefore extremely important to further our knowledge base of skeletal development and disease. The protein encoded by Gpr177 exhibits an ability to modulate the trafficking of Wnt similar to the Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt. Because of a critical role in Wnt regulation, Gpr177 might be required for several key steps of skeletog...

  12. Transcriptional signature of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) preconditioned for chondrogenesis in hypoxic conditions

    Pilgaard, L.; Lund, P.; Duroux, M. [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Lockstone, H.; Taylor, J. [Bioinformatics and Statistical Genetics, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Emmersen, J.; Fink, T. [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Ragoussis, J. [Genomics, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Zachar, V., E-mail: [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark)


    Hypoxia is an important factor involved in the control of stem cells. To obtain a better insight into the phenotypical changes brought about by hypoxic preconditioning prior to chondrogenic differentiation; we have investigated growth, colony-forming and chondrogenic capacity, and global transcriptional responses of six adipose tissue-derived stem cell lines expanded at oxygen concentrations ranging from ambient to 1%. The assessment of cell proliferation and colony-forming potential revealed that the hypoxic conditions corresponding to 1% oxygen played a major role. The chondrogenic inducibility, examined by high-density pellet model, however, did not improve on hypoxic preconditioning. While the microarray analysis revealed a distinctive inter-donor variability, the exposure to 1% hypoxia superseded the biological variability and produced a specific expression profile with 2581 significantly regulated genes and substantial functional enrichment in the pathways of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, exposure to 1% oxygen resulted in upregulation of factors related to angiogenesis and cell growth. In particular, leptin (LEP), the key regulator of body weight and food intake was found to be highly upregulated. In conclusion, the results of this investigation demonstrate the significance of donor demographics and the importance of further studies into the use of regulated oxygen tension as a tool for preparation of ASCs in order to exploit their full potential.

  13. Composite poly(l-lactic-acid)/silk fibroin scaffold prepared by electrospinning promotes chondrogenesis for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Li, Zhengqiang; Liu, Peng; Yang, Ting; Sun, Ying; You, Qi; Li, Jiale; Wang, Zilin; Han, Bing


    Nanofibrous materials produced by electrospinning have attracted considerable attention from researchers in regenerative medicine. A combination of nanofibrous scaffold and chondrocytes is considered promising for repair of cartilage defect or damage. In the present study, we fabricated a poly(l-lactic-acid) (PLLA)/silk fibroin (SF) nanofibrous scaffold by electrospinning and evaluated its chondrogenic potential. The PLLA/SF nanofibers were characterized for diameter, surface wettability, swelling ratio, and tensile strength. Throughin vitroexperiments, PLLA/SF scaffold-chondrocyte interactions were investigated relative to the unmodified PLLA scaffold with regard to cellular adhesion, spreading, and proliferation by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and through analyses of DNA, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-nuclear fast red staining were used to observe growth of chondrocytes, and secretion and distribution of cartilage-specific extracellular matrices in the scaffolds. Expressions of cartilage-related genes (collagen II, aggrecan, sox9, collagen I, and collagen X) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The PLLA/SF scaffold had better hydrophilicity, and could support chondrocytes adhesion and spreading more effectively than the unmodified PLLA scaffold. Chondrocytes secreted more cartilage-specific extracellular matrices and maintained their phenotype on the PLLA/SF scaffold. So it is concluded that the PLLA/SF scaffold is more conducive toin vitroformation of cartilage-like new tissues than the unmodified PLLA scaffold, and may be a promising material in cartilage tissue engineering.

  14. Effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure magnitude on the chondrogenesis of MSCs without biochemical agents under 3D co-culture.

    Jeong, Jae Young; Park, So Hee; Shin, Ji Won; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Han, Ki-Ho; Shin, Jung-Woog


    Without using biochemical agents, in this study, we sought to investigate the potential of controlling the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into a specific cell type through the use of 3D co-culturing and mechanical stimuli. MSCs and primary cultured chondrocytes were separately encapsulated into alginate beads, and the two types of beads were separated by a membrane. For the investigation a computer-controllable bioreactor was designed and used to engage intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP). Five different magnitudes (0.20, 0.10, 0.05, 0.02 MPa and no stimulation) of IHP were applied. The stimulation pattern was the same for all groups: 2 h/day for 7 days starting at 24 h after seeding; 2 and 15 min cycles of stimulating and resting, respectively. Biochemical (DNA and GAG contents), histological (Alcian blue), and RT-PCR (Col II, SOX9, AGC) analyses were performed on days 1, 5, 10, and 20. The results from these analyses showed that stimulation with higher magnitudes of IHP (≥0.10 MPa) were more effective on the proliferation and differentiation of co-cultured MSCs. Together, these data demonstrate the potential of using mechanical stimulation and co-culturing for the proliferation and differentiation of MSCs, even without biochemical agents.

  15. Active particles

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan


    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  16. Laboratory Activities

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey


    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  17. Antimicrobial Activity.


    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  18. Fumarase activity

    Nielsen, Per Mose; Eldirdiri, Abubakr; Bertelsen, Lotte Bonde


    ]fumarate conversion to [1,4-(13)C2]malate by fumarase has been proposed as a measure of necrosis in rat tumor models and in chemically induced AKI rats. Here we show that the degradation of cell membranes in connection with necrosis leads to elevated fumarase activity in plasma and urine and secondly...... that hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]malate production 24 h after reperfusion correlates with renal necrosis in a 40-min unilateral ischemic rat model. Fumarase activity screening on bio-fluids can detect injury severity, in bilateral as well as unilateral AKI models, differentiating moderate and severe AKI as well...... as short- and long-term AKI. Furthermore after verification of renal injury by bio-fluid analysis the precise injury location can be monitored by in vivo measurements of the fumarase activity non-invasively by hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C]fumarate MR imaging. The combined in vitro and in vivo biomarker of AKI...

  19. Glucokinase activators.

    Filipski, Kevin J; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Stevens, Benjamin D


    In this review we highlight recently disclosed progress in the field of small-molecule activators of the human glucokinase enzyme. Several of the reported chemotypes possess structural features that diverge from known leads; some of these modifications appear to be specifically designed to modulate tissue selectivity or discrete parameters of enzyme function (e.g., S0.5 v Vmax). This review will inform the reader of the extent of continued effort being directed toward discovery of a first-in-class drug for Type II diabetes mellitus that functions through this target. Patents were selected from those published in December 2009 up to November 2011; foreign filings were translated where possible to understand the claims and biological techniques utilized to characterize the reported glucokinase activators. Overall, there appears to be a recent trend leading to reduced patent filings for small-molecule glucokinase activators. There are many possible explanations for this trend; however, it is likely that the field has reached maturity and that the downturn of new disclosures represents the transition of many of these programs to the clinic.

  20. Active instruments

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams


    themselves. We draw on two multi-year field studies of India and Denmark to investigate how national reforms and developments within the ranking industry interact in often surprising ways. Rankings do not always do what policy makers expect. We (1) highlight the activity of rankers in these two countries, (2......) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  1. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe


    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  2. BAM! Physical Activity

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Xpert Opinion Activity Calendar Activity Cards Ballet Baseball ... Disaster - Are You at Risk? Disaster - Helping Hands Physical Activity - Questions Physical Activity - Active or Not, Here it ...

  3. Intangible activities

    Hermansen, Jonathan


    ‘Informal helping’ is often associated with other types of prosocial behaviour such as formal voluntary work. Therefore, one could jump to the conclusion that it would be the same factors driving both types of activities. This article demonstrates that this is not the case. The study relies...... on a population survey on informal helping and volunteering in Denmark. The two contributions of this article are as follows: (1) it demonstrates that the sociodemographic indicators that are closely linked to formal volunteering are not related to informal helping in the same manner and (2) it demonstrates...... that it is necessary to separate the decision to help and the amount of hours that people help, a distinction that previous empirical studies on this topic fail to include. The results show that informal helping may not simply be compared to other instances of prosocial behaviour. In particular, the socio...

  4. Active sharing


    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  5. DAVIC activities

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi


    DAVIC (Digital Audio Visual Council) is the defacto standardization organization established in Mar. 1994, based on international consensus for digital audio visual services. After completion of MPEG2 standardization, the broadcasting industry, the communication industry, the computer industry, and consumer electronics industry have started development of concrete services and products. Especially the interactive digital audio visual services, such as Video On Demand (VOD) or Near Video On Demand (NVOD), have become hot topics all over the world. Such interactive digital audio visual services are combined technologies of multi-media coding, digital transmission and computer networking. Therefore more than 150 organizations from all industry sectors have participated in DAVIC and are contributing from their own industrial contexts. DAVIC's basic policy is to use the available technologies specified by the other standards bodies as much as possible. So DAVIC's standardization activities have close relationship with ISO IEC/JTC1/SC29, ITU-T SG 9, ATM-Forum, IETF, IMA, DVB, etc. DAVIC is trying to specify Applications, Reference Models, Security, Usage Information Control, and the interfaces and protocols among the Content Provider, the Server, the core network, the access network, and the Set Top Unit. DAVIC's first goal is to specify DAVIC1.0 based on CFP1 (Call for Proposal) and CFP2 by Dec. 1995, and the next direction is under preparation for further progress based on CFP3 and CFP4.

  6. IASS Activity

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.


    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  7. Activation Energy

    Gadeken, Owen


    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  8. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    ... Examples of muscle-strengthening activities include lifting weights, yoga, push-ups, and sit-ups. A “repetition” is one complete movement of an activity. To get health benefits, do muscle-strengthening activities until it is hard ...

  9. Physical Activity Assessment

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  10. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    ... Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Page Content Article Body Pediatricians can ...

  11. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport.

    Richards, Rosalina; Murdoch, Linda; Reeder, Anthony I; Amun, Qa-t-a


    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  12. Criminalisation of Activism

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  13. Active commuting to school

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  14. Physical Activity During School

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  15. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary


    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  16. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  17. ACS Community Activities Contests

    Burgener, Marisa


    The Committee on Community Activities and the Office of Community Activities announce the winners of the Illustrated Haiku Contest, Earth Day 2007 and the Poster Contest, National Chemistry Week 2006.

  18. Active Marine Station Metadata

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  19. USAID Activity Locatons

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  20. Active magnetic regenerator

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.


    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  1. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    ... page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) ...

  2. Guide to Physical Activity

    ... minutes Stairwalking for 15 minutes Sporting Activities Playing volleyball for 45–60 minutes Playing touch football for ... strenuous activities. Competitive sports, such as tennis and volleyball, can provide an enjoyable form of exercise for ...

  3. Italian active volcanoes

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi


    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  4. Facts about Physical Activity

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: ...

  5. Family Activities for Fitness

    Grosse, Susan J.


    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  6. Activity Theory and Ontology

    Peim, Nick


    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  7. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.


    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  8. Ras activation by SOS

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen;


    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  9. Proteolytic activities in yeast.

    Saheki, T; Holzer, H


    Studies on the mechanism and time course of the activation of proteinases A (EC, B (EC and C (EC 3.4.12.--) in crude yeast extracts at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C showed that the increase in proteinase B activity is paralleled with the disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor. Addition of purified proteinase A to fresh crude extracts accelerates the inactivation of the proteinase B inhibitor and the appearance of maximal activities of proteinases B and C. The decrease of proteinase B inhibitor activity and the increase of proteinase B activity are markedly retarded by the addition of pepstatin. Because 10-minus 7 M pepstatin completely inhibits proteinase A without affecting proteinase B activity, this is another indication for the role of proteinase A during the activation of proteinase B. Whereas extracts of yeast grown on minimal medium reached maximal activation of proteinases B and C after 20 h of incubation at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C, extracts of yeast grown on complete medium had to be incubated for about 100 h. In the latter case, the addition of proteinas A results in maximal activation of proteinases B and C and disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor activity only after 10--20 h of incubation. With the optimal conditions, the maximal activities of proteinases A, B and C, as well as of the proteinase B inhibitor, were determined in crude extracts of yeast that had been grown batchwise for different lengths of time either on minimal or on complete medium. Upon incubation, all three proteinases were activated by several times their initial activity. This reflects the existence of proteolytically degradable inhibitors of the three proteinases and together with the above mentioned observations it demonstrates that the "activation" of yeast proteinases A, B and C upon incubation results from the proteolytic digestion of inhibitors rather than from activation of inactive zymogens by limited proteolysis.

  10. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Jamrozy M.


    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  11. Active ageing technologies

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... ‘sites of active aging’ in Denmark. By presenting three technologies of active aging (billiards at an activity center for elderly persons, dancing tiles for rehabilitation after falls and an online fitness community for elderly persons) the paper suggests that active aging is more than regimes...

  12. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    Næss, Petter


    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...

  13. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  14. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E


    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly...

  15. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    Krasowska, Anna


    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  16. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  17. CDBG Housing Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  18. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  19. Diminished Chondrogenesis and Enhanced Osteoclastogenesis in Leptin-Deficient Diabetic Mice (ob/ob) Impair Pathologic, Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn; Li, John; Brownley, Cameron; Peterson, Jonathan R.; Oluwatobi, Eboda; Drake, James; Cholok, David; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Sung, Hsiao Hsin; Goulet, James; Li, Shuli


    Diabetic trauma patients exhibit delayed postsurgical wound, bony healing, and dysregulated bone development. However, the impact of diabetes on the pathologic development of ectopic bone or heterotopic ossification (HO) following trauma is unknown. In this study, we use leptin-deficient mice as a model for type 2 diabetes to understand how post-traumatic HO development may be affected by this disease process. Male leptin-deficient (ob/ob) or wild-type (C57BL/6 background) mice aged 6–8 weeks underwent 30% total body surface area burn injury with left hind limb Achilles tenotomy. Micro-CT (μCT) imaging showed significantly lower HO volumes in diabetic mice compared with wild-type controls (0.70 vs. 7.02 mm3, P < 0.01) 9 weeks after trauma. Ob/ob mice showed evidence of HO resorption between weeks 5 and 9. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated high Vegfa levels in ob/ob mice, which was followed by disorganized vessel growth at 7 weeks. We noted diminished chondrogenic gene expression (SOX9) and diminished cartilage formation at 5 days and 3 weeks, respectively. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase stain showed increased osteoclast presence in normal native bone and pathologic ectopic bone in ob/ob mice. Our findings suggest that early diminished HO in ob/ob mice is related to diminished chondrogenic differentiation, while later bone resorption is related to osteoclast presence. PMID:26413838

  20. A Simplified Method for the Aspiration of Bone Marrow from Patients Undergoing Hip and Knee Joint Replacement for Isolating Mesenchymal Stem Cells and In Vitro Chondrogenesis

    Subhash C. Juneja


    Full Text Available The procedure for aspiration of bone marrow from the femur of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA or total hip arthroplasty (THA may vary from an OR (operating room to OR based on the surgeon’s skill and may lead to varied extent of clotting of the marrow and this, in turn, presents difficulty in the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from such clotted bone marrow. We present a simple detailed protocol for aspirating bone marrow from such patients, isolation, and characterization of MSCs from the aspirated bone marrow specimens and show that the bone marrow presented no clotting or exhibited minimal clotting. This represents an economical source and convenient source of MSCs from bone marrow for use in regenerative medicine. Also, we presented the detailed protocol and showed that the MSCs derived from such bone marrow specimens exhibited MSCs characteristics and generated micromass cartilages, the recipe for regenerative medicine for osteoarthritis. The protocols we presented can be used as standard operating procedures (SOPs by researchers and clinicians.

  1. A Simplified Method for the Aspiration of Bone Marrow from Patients Undergoing Hip and Knee Joint Replacement for Isolating Mesenchymal Stem Cells and In Vitro Chondrogenesis.

    Juneja, Subhash C; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Ganguly, Milan; Veillette, Christian


    The procedure for aspiration of bone marrow from the femur of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) may vary from an OR (operating room) to OR based on the surgeon's skill and may lead to varied extent of clotting of the marrow and this, in turn, presents difficulty in the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from such clotted bone marrow. We present a simple detailed protocol for aspirating bone marrow from such patients, isolation, and characterization of MSCs from the aspirated bone marrow specimens and show that the bone marrow presented no clotting or exhibited minimal clotting. This represents an economical source and convenient source of MSCs from bone marrow for use in regenerative medicine. Also, we presented the detailed protocol and showed that the MSCs derived from such bone marrow specimens exhibited MSCs characteristics and generated micromass cartilages, the recipe for regenerative medicine for osteoarthritis. The protocols we presented can be used as standard operating procedures (SOPs) by researchers and clinicians.

  2. Feasibility and limitations of the round robin test for assessment of in vitro chondrogenesis evaluation protocol in a tissue-engineered medical product.

    Yokoi, Masako; Hattori, Koji; Narikawa, Koichi; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tadokoro, Mika; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Myoui, Akira; Nanno, Katsuhiko; Kato, Yukio; Kanawa, Masami; Sugawara, Katsura; Kobo, Tomoko; Ushida, Takashi


    Tissue-engineered medical products (TEMPs) should be evaluated before implantation. Therefore, it is indispensable to establish evaluation protocols in regenerative medicine. Whether or not such evaluation protocols are reasonable is generally verified through a 'round robin' test. However, the round robin test for TEMPs intrinsically includes a deficiency, because 'identical' specimens can not be prepared for TEMPs. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and limitations of the round robin test for TEMPs by using a prepared evaluation protocol. We adopted tissue-engineered cartilage constructs as delivered specimens and a protocol of measuring sGAG content as an evaluation protocol proposed to ISO TC150/SC7, which is an invasive, but usually applied, method, although non-invasive methods are keenly required in evaluating TEMPs. The results showed that: (a) the coefficient of variation (CV) of the measured sGAG contents in intralaboratory tests was ~5% at most; (b) the CV of sGAG content in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured different constructs was comparable with that in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured one half of a construct along with the organizing laboratory; (c) the CV caused by factors other than the specimen was ~15%, comparable to that in reproducible experiments in biomedical fields. Based on these results, the study concludes that a round robin test for a TEMP could be valuable, under the condition that the delivered TEMPs are sufficiently reproducible so that the CV of the measured values is < 5% in the organizing laboratory.

  3. Ascorbate-dependent impact on cell-derived matrix in modulation of stiffness and rejuvenation of infrapatellar fat derived stem cells toward chondrogenesis.

    Pizzute, Tyler; Zhang, Ying; He, Fan; Pei, Ming


    Developing an in vitro microenvironment using cell-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) is a promising approach to efficiently expand adult stem cells for cartilage engineering and regeneration. Ascorbic acid serves as a critical stimulus for cells to synthesize collagens, which constitute the major component of dECM. In this study, we hypothesized that optimization of ascorbate treatment would maximize the rejuvenation effect of dECM on expanded stem cells from human infrapatellar fat pad in both proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. In the duration regimen study, we found that dECM without L-ascorbic acid phosphate (AA) treatment, exhibiting lower stiffness measured by atomic force microscopy, yielded expanded cells with higher proliferation capacity but lower chondrogenic potential when compared to those with varied durations of AA treatment. dECM with 250 µM of AA treatment for 10 d had better rejuvenation in chondrogenic capacity if the deposited cells were from passage 2 rather than passage 5, despite no significant difference in matrix stiffness. In the dose regimen study, we found that dECMs deposited by varied concentrations of AA yielded expanded cells with higher proliferation capacity despite lower expression levels of stem cell related surface markers. Compared to cells expanded on tissue culture polystyrene, those on dECM exhibited greater chondrogenic potential, particularly for the dECMs with 50 µM and 250 µM of AA treatment. With the supplementation of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), an inhibitor targeting procollagen synthesis, the dECM with 50 µM of AA treatment exhibited a dramatic decrease in the rejuvenation effect of expanded cell chondrogenic potential at both mRNA and protein levels despite no significant difference in matrix stiffness. Defined AA treatments during matrix preparation will benefit dECM-mediated stem cell engineering and future treatments for cartilage defects.

  4. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    Learning, 1992


    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  5. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Bakhurst, David


    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  6. The Activity of Play

    Pichlmair, Martin


    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  7. Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Kostencka Alicja


    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS, according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.

  8. Active and Healthy Schools

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather


    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  9. Activating Event Knowledge

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken


    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  10. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka


    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  11. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  12. Activities of the ILO.

    Labour Education, 1984


    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  13. Choreography of AMPK activation.

    Langendorf, Christopher G; Kemp, Bruce E


    A recent study published in Cell Research by Li and colleagues reports a detailed biophysical and structural study of AMPK's intra-molecular interactions during activation. By employing subunit tagging and proximity analysis with the aid of AlphaScreen instrumentation, Li et al. add to our understanding of the choreography of activation of AMPK by both nucleotides and phosphorylation.

  14. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  15. Active at Any Size

    ... go to the gym all the time to benefit from being active. To make physical activity more fun, try something you enjoy doing, such as dancing to the radio or taking a yoga class with friends. Many people find they start ...

  16. Global physical activity levels

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C


    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  17. Biomedical activity of biosurfactants

    Anna Krasowska


    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of k...

  18. Activity-based design

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh


    : what you can do depends upon where you are. Finally, human and automatic machinery alternate in filling certain roles in the activity: sometime the officer maintains the course, sometimes the autopilot. Such activities require us to rethink the traditional oppositions between communication...

  19. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William


    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  20. Intracellular light-activation of riboswitch activity.

    Walsh, Steven; Gardner, Laura; Deiters, Alexander; Williams, Gavin J


    By combining a riboswitch with a cell-permeable photocaged small-molecule ligand, an optochemical gene control element was constructed that enabled spatial and temporal control of gene expression in bacterial cells. The simplicity of this strategy, coupled with the ability to create synthetic riboswitches with tailored ligand specificities and output in a variety of microorganisms, plants, and fungi might afford a general strategy to photocontrol gene expression in vivo. The ability to activate riboswitches by using light enables the interrogation and manipulation of a wide range of biological processes with high precision, and will have broad utility in the regulation of artificial genetic circuits.

  1. Biological activities of alginate.

    Ueno, Mikinori; Oda, Tatsuya


    To gain insight into the structure-activity relationship of alginate, we examined the effect of alginates with varying molecular weights and M/G ratio on murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells in terms of induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion. Among the alginates tested, alginate with the highest molecular weight (MW 38,000, M/G 2.24) showed the most potent TNF-α-inducing activity. Alginates having higher M/G ratio tended to show higher activity. These results suggest that molecular size and M/G ratio are important structural parameters influencing the TNF-α-inducing activity. Interestingly, enzymatic depolymerization of alginate with bacterial alginate lyase resulted in dramatic increase in the TNF-α-inducing activity. The higher activity of enzymatically digested alginate oligomers to induce nitric oxide production from RAW264.7 cells than alginate polymer was also observed. On the other hand, alginate polymer and oligomer showed nearly equal hydroxyl radical scavenging activities.

  2. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka


    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  3. Active optical zoom system

    Wick, David V.


    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  4. A universe of activities

    Armentia, J.; Jáuregui, F.; Gordón, N.; Manzanal, R.

    Since its opening back in november 1993 the Planetarium of Pamplona has gone a long way creating activities related to teaching and communicating Astronomy, Science and other areas of what we call Culture. In this poster we present a summary of some of the most relevant activities that have had an special relevance throughout these years. We will refer to our “School of Stars” in which more than 400 000 students have already been involved and other activities that have been very appreciated by our visitors.

  5. Physics of solar activity

    Sturrock, Peter A.


    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  6. China's Space Activities

    China National Space Administration


    @@ Currently, space activities are very active around the world. Space technologies continuously expand to various areas of human activities, and space technology and applications are becoming an indispensable part of modern information society,while the development of space science brings a brand-new view to the development of science and technology. The development of space law is not only an important approach to improving people' s quality of lives, expanding the living space of human being, and exploiting new resources, but also an important symbol of the comprehensive strength and civilization of a nation.

  7. Active Directory cookbook

    Hunter, Laura


    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  8. Creative activity and inclusion

    Shemanov A.Yu.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  9. Active Packaging Coatings

    Luis J. Bastarrachea


    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  10. Creating Art Appreciation Activities.

    Heidt, Ann H.


    The experiences of college students enrolled as majors in elementary education in designing art appreciation activities for use in elementary classrooms are described. The college students had no art background. (RM)

  11. Active flows on trees

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn


    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

  12. Tanzania - Kigoma Solar Activity

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the Kigoma solar activity was designed to answer questions about the implementation of the program and about outcomes that may have...

  13. Physical activity: genes & health


    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  14. Homebuyer Activities Report

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  15. Math Lab Activities

    Brumbaugh, Douglas K.; Hynes, Michael C.


    The goals, objects, materials and grade levels are specified in this description of a laboratory activity involving analytic geometry concepts. Students mark out bicycle gymkhana courses in which directions to participants are given by Cartesian coordinates. (JP)

  16. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  17. Habitats, activities, and signs

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin


    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational, ......, and pragmatic, 2) proposes a notation, and 3) sketches a method and exemplifies areas of application using authentic cases from hospital work, primary school education, the maritime domain, and other areas......Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational...

  18. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  19. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  20. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    Webbon, Bruce W.


    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.


    Loewe, S


    Cannabinol, generally believed to be an inert component of hemp oil, is shown to have marihuana activity. The significance of this observation with regard to the relationship between structure and mamactivity in the class of cannabinols is discussed.

  2. OTI Activity Database

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  3. Vessel Activity Record

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Activity Record is a bi-weekly spreadsheet that shows the status of fishing vessels. It records whether fishing vessels are fishing without an observer...

  4. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  5. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  6. TPR And TPR Activities



    This paper presents the definition of Total Physical Response(TPR),elaborates the process and the principles of it 80 that more and more TPR activities can be created according to them.The use of TPR shows us an interesting and effective way of teaching and learning English.TPR activities are interesting,challenging and motivating that almost all the students enjoy them.

  7. Toroidal optical activity

    Raybould, T A; Papasimakis, N; Kuprov, I; Youngs, I; Chen, W T; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I


    Optical activity is ubiquitous across natural and artificial media and is conventionally understood in terms of scattering from electric and magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate experimentally and confirm numerically a type of optical activity that cannot be attributed to electric and magnetic multipoles. We show that our observations can only be accounted for by the inclusion of the toroidal dipole moment, the first term of the recently established peculiar family of toroidal multipoles.

  8. Phytase activity in lichens.

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D


    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J


    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  10. Hypoglycemic Activity of Jatrorrhizine


    The hypoglycemic activity and its mechanism of Jatrorrhizine (Jat) were studied. The normal mice and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice were given with different doses of Jat. Blood glucose and liver glycogen levels were determined by spectrophotometry with glucose-oxidase and iodine reagents respectively. The levels of blood lactic acid (LC) and liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were measured to explore the effect of Jat on anaerobic glycolysis. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in liver was measured to evaluate the effect of Jat on aerobic glycolysis in liver. It was found that Jat (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) could significantly decrease blood glucose level in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both normal and alloxan-diabetic mice, increase the activity of SDH, but had no significant effects on the LC level and LDH activity. Jat could significantly reduce the content of liver glycogen in normal mice. Moreover, Jat could inhibit the platelet aggregation in rabbits in vitro in a dose-effect relationship. It was concluded that Jat induced the pronounced decrease in blood glucose in normal and hyperglycemic mice. The hypoglycemic activity of Jat may be attributed to the enhancement of aerobic glycolysis.

  11. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Jitka Kopřivová


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  12. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint.

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H


    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).


    LI Xiang; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; LUO Lingai


    Three kinds of commercial activated carbons, such as Norit RB1, Monolith and Chemviron activated carbons, were used as adsorbents for adsorption of dibenzofuran. The average pore size and specific surface area of these activated carbons were measured. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons, and then the activation energy for desorption of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons was estimated. The results showed that the Chemviron and the Norit RB1 activated carbon maintained higher specific surface area and larger micropore pore volume in comparison with the Monolith activated carbon, and the activation energy for the desorption of dibenzofuran on these two activated carbons was higher than that on the Monolith activated carbon. The smaller the pore of the activated carbon was, the higher the activated energy of dibenzofuran desorption was.

  14. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D


    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  15. Active flows on trees

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn


    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

  16. Active noise control primer

    Snyder, Scott D


    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  17. Software Activation Using Multithreading

    Jianrui Zhang


    Full Text Available Software activation is an anti-piracy technology designed to verify that software products have been legitimately licensed. Activation should be quick and simple while simultaneously being secure and protecting customer privacy. The most common form of software activation is for the user to enter a legitimate product serial number. However, software activation based on serial numbers appears to be weak, since cracks for many programs are readily available on the Internet. Users can employ such cracks to bypass software activation.Serial number verification logic usually executes sequentially in a single thread. Such an approach is relatively easy to break since attackers can trace the code to understand how the logic works. In this paper, we develop a practical multi-threaded verification design. Our results show that by proper use of multi-threading, the amount of traceable code in a debugger can be reduced to a low percentage of the total and the traceable code in each run can differ as well. This makes it significantly more difficult for an attacker to reverse engineer the code as a means of bypassing a security check. Finally, we attempt to quantify the increased effort needed to break our verification logic.

  18. Chromatin as active matter

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.


    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  19. [Inflammasome: activation mechanisms].

    Suárez, Raibel; Buelvas, Neudo


    Inflammation is a rapid biologic response of the immune system in vascular tissues, directed to eliminate stimuli capable of causing damage and begin the process of repair. The macromolecular complexes known as "inflammasomes" are formed by a receptor, either NOD (NLR) or ALR, the receptor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). In addition, the inflammasome is formed by the speck-like protein associated to apoptosis (ASC) and procaspase-1, that may be activated by variations in the ionic and intracellular and extracellular ATP concentrations; and the loss of stabilization of the fagolisosomme by internalization of insoluble crystals and redox mechanisms. As a result, there is activation of the molecular platform and the processing of inflammatory prointerleukins to their active forms. There are two modalities of activation of the inflammasome: canonical and non-canonical, both capable of generating effector responses. Recent data associate NLRP 3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia, gout, malaria and hypertension. The inflammasome cascade is emerging as a new chemotherapeutic target in these diseases. In this review we shall discuss the mechanisms of activation and regulation of the inflammasome that stimulate, modulate and resolve inflammation.

  20. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue


    of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings......The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control...

  1. IHY activities in Brazil

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (, hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  2. Lesion activity assessment

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;


    . The literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  3. Active Elbow Orthosis

    Tomas Ripel


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the design of a motorized rehabilitation device – active elbow orthosis (AEO – inspired by the principles of robotic exoskeletons. The device is currently designed for the elbow joint, but can be easily modified for other joints as well. AEO determines the motion activity of the patient using a strain gauge and utilizes this measurement to control the actuator that drives the forearm part of the orthosis. Patient activity level is related to a free arm measurement obtained via a calibration procedure prior to the exercise. A high-level control module offers several types of exercises mimicking the physiotherapist. The device was successfully verified by tests on a number of patients, resulting in extended range of elbow-joint motion.

  4. Adapted Active Appearance Models

    Renaud Séguier


    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  5. Correlates of physical activity

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F


    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  6. General human activity patterns

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim


    We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  7. SCOR announces new activities

    Urban, Edward R., Jr.

    Roger Revelle had many good ideas during his long and productive career. One of them came to fruition in 1957 in the form of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), which the International Council for Science created as its first interdisciplinary body, to promote international activities in oceanography. Revelle served as SCOR's first president from 1957 to 1960. SCOR offers opportunities for scientists from different countries to cooperate in planning and executing international programs in ocean sciences. Over its 44 years in existence, SCOR has sponsored 120 working groups and has actively participated in many of the major international oceanographic projects. Thirty-six nations presently participate as SCOR members.

  8. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.


    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively-coupled...

  9. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.


    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively coupled (AC) waveguides can act as a stationary or integrate-and-fire comparator sensitive to tiny differences in their input powers.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Grepafloxacin

    B Wiedemann


    Full Text Available Grepafloxin has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Its activity against Gram-positive bacteria exceeds that of currently available quinolones. Grepafloxacin-resistant mutants seem to occur less frequently than ciprofloxacin - or ofloxacin-resistant mutants, and the increase in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against the former mutants is less than that of the latter. This applies only to the relative differences (in dilution steps; the absolute values are similar. Grepafloxacin kills Gram-positive bacteria at concentrations little above the MIC. Its pharmacodynamic profile against pneumococci is promising, favouring use of this drug for respiratory tract infections.

  11. Measuring children's physical activity

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen


    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles...

  12. Antifungal activity of diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Allerberger, F; Reisinger, E C; Söldner, B; Dierich, M P


    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) was evaluated for its ability to combat four different species of fungi in vitro. Using a microtiter-broth-dilution method we were able to demonstrate an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor mucedo in doses achievable by intravenous administration in man.

  13. Atherosclerosis and Physical Activity

    Al-Mamari, Ali


    Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease have been considered as major health problem worldwide. Abnormalities in lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and impairment of endothelial function have been implicated as the main contributing factors in atherosclerosis and its progression. Physical activity has been recognized as a preventive measure for atherosclerosis.

  14. Bonus Activity Book.

    Learning, 1993


    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  15. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    Bonanno, A; Karoff, C


    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by ...

  16. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P


    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  17. Activation force splines

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    dimensional 2D/3D deformable model. Our activation splines are easy to set up and can be used for physics based animation of deformable models such as snake motion and locomotion of characters. Our approach generalises easily to both 2D and 3D simulations and is applicable in physics based games or animations...

  18. Mechanism of charity activity

    Roman B. Golovkin


    Full Text Available Objective to establish the essential properties of the mechanism of charitable activities and to formulate the concept of quotmechanism of charitable activityquot. Methods the objective of the study is achieved using the complex of methods which are based on the interaction of dialectical and metaphysical analysis the epistemological properties of which allowed to reveal various aspects of the charitable activities mechanism functioning taking into account the principles of comprehensiveness complexity specificity and objectivity of the research. Results the rules are stated of using the term quotmechanismquot to characterize actions of state and law the essence of the charity mechanism is defined the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activity quot is formulated. Scientific novelty for the first time at theoretical level in legal science the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activityquot is formulated and its essential properties are set. Practical significance the research will contribute to improving the legal regulation in the field of philanthropy as well as to improving the efficiency and quality of charitable activity in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  19. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)


    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  20. Low activity aluminum blanket

    Benenati, R.; Tichler, P.; Powell, J.R.


    The basic design of the breeding blanket consists of cylindrical aluminium canisters filled with a ceramic bed of moderating, shielding, and breeding materials all suitably cooled. A technical analysis of the blanket for an EPR design is given. Activation studies are presented. The effect of pulsed magnetic fields on module structure is investigated. (MOW)

  1. Seismology of active stars

    Hekker, S.; García, R.A.


    In this review we will discuss the current standing and open questions of seismology in active stars. With the longer photometric time series data that are, and will become, available from space-missions such as Kepler we foresee significant progress in our understanding of stellar internal structur

  2. 'Active' Thin Sections

    De Rooij, M.R.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.


    Optical microscopy using thin sections has become more and more important over the last decade to study concrete. Unfortunately, this technique is not capable of studying actually hydrating cement paste. At Delft University of Technology a new technique has been developed using 'active' thin section

  3. Sexual activity and aging.

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne


    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients.

  4. Elusive active galactic nuclei

    Maiolino, R; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Nagar, NM; Bianchi, S; Boker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M


    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically 'elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtai

  5. Activated Sludge Rheology

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank


    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...

  6. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures affecting…

  7. Active Math Learning

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...

  8. Marketing coprovided activities.

    Dickerson, Pamela S


    Coproviding is a wonderful way for two or more organizations to work together to provide continuing nursing education. To be transparent to the learners, marketing materials identify the parties involved and prominently note the name of the organization accountable for developing the activity and awarding the contact hours.

  9. An electrochemical active valve

    Neagu, C.R.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Elwenspoek, M.; Kelly, J.J.


    A novel electrochemical microactuator was developed, which operates as an active valve. The microactuator consists of an electrochemical cell and a membrane that deflects because of the pressure of oxygen gas generated by electrolysis. Relatively large pressures (up to tens of bars) can be reached w

  10. Access and Fishing Activities

    Høst, Jeppe Engset


    In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  11. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  12. CMMs Development Activities

    HU Jun; HU Yefa; HUANG Anyi


    The coordinate measuring machine (CMM) has been an important role in the digital manufacturing. This paper reviews CMM early stage development history and current activities. The authors provide some ideas about the areas that academic research can help to the CMMs development.

  13. Shark Tagging Activities.

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998


    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  14. Antimalarial activity of cedronin.

    Moretti, C; Deharo, E; Sauvain, M; Jardel, C; David, P T; Gasquet, M


    Cedronin was isolated from Simaba cedron Planchon (Simaroubaceae), a species popularly believed in South America to have antimalarial properties. It was examined for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activities and for cytotoxicity against KB cells. Experimental results showed that cedronin was active against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strain, with an IC50 of 0.25 micrograms/ml (0.65 mumol/ml). It was also found to be active in vivo against Plasmodium vinkei with an IC50 of 1.8 mg/kg (4.7 nM/kg) in the classic 4-day test. Cedronin belongs to the small group of quassinoids with a C19 basic skeleton and shows a rather low cytotoxicity against KB cells (IC50 = 4 micrograms/ml, 10.4 microM) as compared with C20 biologically active quassinoids; however its toxic/therapeutic ratio (10/1.8) remains lower than chloroquine (10/0.5).

  15. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios


    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities ( Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (, (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (, Rosetta update (, The Solar System (, Ambition the film ( in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (, and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science ( and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  16. Activities. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning.

    O'Daffer, Phares G.; And Others


    Provided are the activity sheets for students and the teaching guide for this middle school geometry activity. Materials, prerequisites, objectives, and procedures are listed. Extension activities are suggested. An answer key is included. (CW)

  17. Simultaneous monitoring of intracellular ATP and oxygen levels in chondrogenic differentiation using a dual-color bioluminescence reporter.

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Kazunori


    A number of assay methods which measure cellular metabolic activity have only measured intracellular ATP levels because it has been speculated that ATP production and oxygen consumption are obligatorily coupled to each other under normal conditions. However, there exist many cases in which ATP production and oxygen consumption are uncoupled. Therefore, measurement of only intracellular ATP levels has a limit for understanding the overall metabolic states during various cellular functions. Here, we report a novel system for simultaneously monitoring intracellular ATP and oxygen levels using a red-emitting Phrixothrix hirtus luciferase (PxRe) and a blue-emitting Renilla luciferase (Rluc). Using this system, we monitored the dynamic changes in both intracellular ATP and oxygen levels during chondrogenesis. We found that the oxygen level oscillated at twice the frequency of ATP in chondrogenesis and the oxygen oscillations have an antiphase mode to the ATP oscillations; we also found an independent mode for the ATP oscillations. This result indicates that both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial respiration oscillate and thus play a role in chondrogenesis. This dual-color monitoring system is useful for studying metabolic regulations that underlie diverse cellular processes.

  18. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe


    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  19. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe


    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  20. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan


    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…

  1. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA


    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  2. Nematicidal activity of terpenoids.

    Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Alaniz, Nina M; Saleh, Mahmoud A


    Thirty four phytoterpenoids were evaluated for their nematicidal effect using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematicidal activities of the tested compounds at concentrations of 50 μg/mL showed wide variation in their effects ranging from no effect, weak, moderate and strong effects. Terpenoids exerting 50% or higher mortality at 50 μg/mL were further tested at five different concentrations to calculate the concentration that will kill 50% of the nematode population (LC(50)). Among the most effective terpenoids were carvacrol, thymol, nerolidol, α-terpinene, geraniol, citronellol, farnesol, limonene, pseudoionone and eugenol in a descending order. These compounds exhibited a dose-dependent effect. The results suggest that the selected monoterpenoids and essential oils with a high concentration of these compounds mayprovide potential natural nematicides and merit further study as botanical nematicides for the control of both plant and animal parasitic nematodes. In general, oxygenated terpenoids and phenolic terpenoids exhibited higher nematicidal activity than hydrocarbons terpenoids.

  3. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    Saltiel, Christiane


    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma.

  4. Active optical clock

    CHEN JingBiao


    This article presents the principles and techniques of active optical clock, a special laser combining the laser physics of one-atom laser, bad-cavity gas laser, super-cavity stabilized laser and optical atomic clock together. As a simple example, an active optical clock based on thermal strontium atomic beam shows a quantum-limited linewidth of 0.51 Hz, which is insensitive to laser cavity-length noise, and may surpass the recorded narrowest 6.7 Hz of Hg ion optical clock and 1.5 Hz of very recent optical lattice clock. The estimated 0.1 Hz one-second instability and 0.27 Hz uncertainty are limited only by the rela-tivistic Doppler effect, and can be improved by cold atoms.

  5. LANSCE Activity Report

    Amy Robinson; Audrey Archuleta; Barbara Maes; Dan Strottman; Earl Hoffman; Garth Tietjen; Gene Farnum; Geoff Greene; Joyce Roberts; Ken Johnson; Paul Lewis; Roger Pynn; Stan Schriber; Steve Sterbenz; Steve Wender; Sue Harper


    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Activity Report describes scientific and technological progress and achievements in LANSCE Division during the period of 1995 to 1998. This report includes a message from the Division Director, an overview of LANSCE, sponsor overviews, research highlights, advanced projects and facility upgrades achievements, experimental and user program accomplishments, news and events, and a list of publications. The research highlights cover the areas of condensed-matter science and engineering, accelerator science, nuclear science, and radiography. This report also contains a compact disk that includes an overview, the Activity Report itself, LANSCE operations progress reports for 1996 and 1997, experiment reports from LANSCE users, as well as a search capability.

  6. Stellar Chromospheric Activity

    Hall Jeffrey C.


    Full Text Available The Sun, stars similar to it, and many rather dissimilar to it, have chromospheres, regions classically viewed as lying above the brilliant photosphere and characterized by a positive temperature gradient and a marked departure from radiative equilibrium. Stellar chromospheres exhibit a wide range of phenomena collectively called activity, stemming largely from the time evolution of their magnetic fields and the mass flux and transfer of radiation through the complex magnetic topology and the increasingly optically thin plasma of the outer stellar atmosphere. In this review, I will (1 outline the development of our understanding of chromospheric structure from 1960 to the present, (2 discuss the major observational programs and theoretical lines of inquiry, (3 review the origin and nature of both solar and stellar chromospheric activity and its relationship to, and effect on, stellar parameters including total energy output, and (4 summarize the outstanding problems today.

  7. Techniques for active passivation

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.


    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  8. Cisplatin triggers platelet activation.

    Togna, G I; Togna, A R; Franconi, M; Caprino, L


    Clinical observations suggest that anticancer drugs could contribute to the thrombotic complications of malignancy in treated patients. Thrombotic microangiopathy, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular thrombotic events have been reported for cisplatin, a drug widely used in the treatment of many solid tumours. The aim of this study is to explore in vitro cisplatin effect on human platelet reactivity in order to define the potentially active role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced thrombotic complications. Our results demonstrate that cisplatin increases human platelet reactivity (onset of platelet aggregation wave and thromboxane production) to non-aggregating concentrations of the agonists involving arachidonic acid metabolism. Direct or indirect activation of platelet phospholipase A(2) appears to be implicated. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  9. The Active Asteroids

    Jewitt, Dave


    Some asteroids eject dust, unexpectedly producing transient, comet-like comae and tails. First ascribed to the sublimation of near-surface water ice, mass losing asteroids (also called "main-belt comets") can in fact be driven by a surprising diversity of mechanisms. In this paper, we consider eleven dynamical asteroids losing mass, in nine of which the ejected material is spatially resolved. We address mechanisms for producing mass loss including rotational instability, impact ejection, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure sweeping, dehydration stresses and thermal fracture, in addition to the sublimation of ice. In two objects (133P and 238P) the repetitive nature of the observed activity leaves ice sublimation as the only reasonable explanation while, in a third ((596) Scheila), a recent impact is the cause. Another impact may account for activity in P/2010 A2 but this tiny object can also be explained as having shed mass after reaching rotational instability. Mass loss from (3200) Phaethon is proba...

  10. Myofilament length dependent activation

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)


    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  11. Sesterterpenoids with Anticancer Activity.

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Marco; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert


    Terpenes have received a great deal of attention in the scientific literature due to complex, synthetically challenging structures and diverse biological activities associated with this class of natural products. Based on the number of C5 isoprene units they are generated from, terpenes are classified as hemi- (C5), mono- (C10), sesqui- (C15), di- (C20), sester- (C25), tri (C30), and tetraterpenes (C40). Among these, sesterterpenes and their derivatives known as sesterterpenoids, are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in fungi, marine organisms, and plants. Their structural diversity encompasses carbotricyclic ophiobolanes, polycyclic anthracenones, polycyclic furan-2-ones, polycyclic hydroquinones, among many other carbon skeletons. Furthermore, many of them possess promising biological activities including cytotoxicity and the associated potential as anticancer agents. This review discusses the natural sources that produce sesterterpenoids, provides sesterterpenoid names and their chemical structures, biological properties with the focus on anticancer activities and literature references associated with these metabolites. A critical summary of the potential of various sesterterpenoids as anticancer agents concludes the review.

  12. Human neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    Thomas, E L; Lehrer, R I; Rest, R F


    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) take up opsonized microorganisms into phagosomes that fuse with secretory granules in the PMN cytoplasm to form phagolysosomes. Killing and digestion of microorganisms take place within phagolysosomes. Antimicrobial activities in phagolysosomes are divided into two classes. Oxygen (O2)-dependent mechanisms are expressed when PMNs undergo the "respiratory burst." An NADPH oxidase in the phagolysosome membrane is activated and reduces O2 to superoxide (O2-). O2 reduction is the first step in a series of reactions that produce toxic oxidants. For example, .O2- dismutases to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the azurophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of Cl- by H2O2 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The reaction of HOCl with ammonia and amines modulates the toxicity of this oxidant. O2-independent antimicrobial mechanisms include the activities of lysosomal proteases, other hydrolytic enzymes, and proteins and peptides that bind to microorganisms and disrupt essential processes or structural components. For example, the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, cathepsin G, and the defensins are released into phagolysosomes from the azurophil granules. Proposed mechanisms of action of neutrophil antimicrobial agents, their range of microbial targets, and their possible interactions within phagolysosomes are discussed.

  13. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Eissa, A.M. F.


    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  14. Thermal activity on Enceladus

    Tobie, G.; Besserer, J.; Behounkova, M.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Sotin, C.


    Observations by Cassini have revealed that Enceladus' souh pole is highly active, with jets of icy particles and water vapour emanated from narrow tectonic ridges, called "tiger stripes". This jet activity is associated to a very high thermal emission mainly focused along the tectonic ridges. Heat power required to sustain such an activity is probably related to the dissipation of mechanical energy due to tidal forces exerted by Saturn. However, the dissipation process and its relation to the tectonic features are not clearly established. Both shear heating along the tectonic ridges and viscous dissipation in the convective part of the ice shell could contribute to the energy budget (Nimmo et al. 2007, Tobie et al. 2008). Tobie et al. (2008) pointed out that only interior models with a liquid water layer at depth, covering at least ~2/3 of the southern hemisphere, can explain the observed magnitude of dissipation and its particular location at the south pole. However, the long term stability of such a liquid reservoir remains problematic (Roberts and Nimmo 2007) and the possible link between the liquid reservoir and the surface activities is unknown. Concentration of tidal stresses along the tiger ridges have also been invoked as a mechanism to trigger the eruptive processes (Hurtford et al. 2007, Smith-Konter et al. 2008). However, those models do not take into account a realistic rheological structure for the ice shell when computing the fluctuating stress field. Moreover, the effect of the faults on the background tidal stress is neglected. In particular, low viscosity values are expected to be associated with the shear zone along the tiger stripes and may have a significant impact of the global tidal stress field. In order to self-consistently determine the tidal deformation and its impact on the thermal activity on Enceladus, we are currently developing a 3D model that combines a thermal convection code in spherical geometry (Choblet et al. 2007) and a

  15. Adaptable typologies for active roofs

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Zeiler, W.


    The main objective of this part of the 6th framework Pan-European EUR-ACTIVE ROOF-er project is to improve the interaction between design participants of dynamic adaptable Active Roofs in product development and Active Roofs from an architects/ customers perspective. Improvements in Active Roof desi

  16. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Atsushi Usami


    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  17. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  18. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  19. AMS Prototyping Activities

    Burleigh, Scott


    This slide presentation reviews the activity around the Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) prototype. An AMS reference implementation has been available since late 2005. It is aimed at supporting message exchange both in on-board environments and over space links. The implementation incoroporates all mandatory elements of the draft recommendation from July 2007: (1) MAMS, AMS, and RAMS protocols. (2) Failover, heartbeats, resync. (3) "Hooks" for security, but no cipher suites included in the distribution. The performance is reviewed, and a Benchmark latency test over VxWorks Message Queues is shown as histograms of a count vs microseconds per 1000-byte message

  20. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark


    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  1. Topological Active Volumes

    Barreira N


    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  2. System of Volcanic activity



    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.


    Caruntu Genu Alexandru


    Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.

  4. Active galactic nuclei

    Blandford, RD; Woltjer, L


    Starting with this volume, the Lecture Notes of the renowned Advanced Courses of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy will be published annually. In each course, three extensive lectures given by leading experts in their respective fields cover different and essential aspects of the subject. The 20th course, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, dealt with current research on active galactic nuclei; it represents the most up-to-date views on the subject, presented with particular regard for clarity. The previous courses considered a wide variety of subjects, beginning with ""Theory

  5. Active terahertz metamaterials

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

  6. Reuse of activated alumina

    Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)


    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  7. Diagramming Complex Activities

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh


    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action as...... aspect. The paper suggests thematic roles as a semantics for actions, argues that a selection of well-known diagramming techniques can be defined within this theory, and uses the theory to discuss new issues related to process control and mobile technology....

  8. Miscarriage and occupational activity

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Bonzini, Matteo


    . METHODS: A search in Medline and EMBASE 1966-2012 identified 30 primary papers reporting the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage according to ≥1 of 5 occupational activities of interest. Following an assessment of completeness of reporting, confounding, and bias, each risk estimate was characterized as more......, N=10). RR for working hours and standing became smaller when analyses were restricted to higher quality studies. CONCLUSIONS: These largely reassuring findings do not provide a strong case for mandatory restrictions in relation to shift work, long working hours, occupational lifting, standing...

  9. Physical activity in elderly

    Jan Cvecka


    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  10. Physical Activity in Elderly

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan


    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  11. The Active Muon Shield

    Bezshyiko, Iaroslava


    In the SHiP beam-dump of the order of 1011 muons will be produced per second. An active muon-shield is used to magnetically deflect these muons out of the acceptance of the spectrom- eter. This note describes how this shield is modelled and optimized. The SHiP spectrometer is being re-optimized using a conical decay-vessel, and utilizing the possibility to magnetize part of the beam-dump shielding iron. A shield adapted to these new conditions is presented which is significantly shorter and lighter than the shield used in the Technical Proposal (TP), while showing a similar performance.

  12. Active galactic nuclei

    Beckmann, Volker


    This AGN textbook includes phenomena based on new results in the X-Ray domain from new telescopes such as Chandra and XMM Newton not mentioned in any other book. Furthermore, it considers also the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope with its revolutionary advances of unprecedented sensitivity, field of view and all-sky monitoring. Those and other new developments as well as simulations of AGN merging events and formations, enabled through latest super-computing capabilities. The book gives an overview on the current knowledge of the Active Galacitc Nuclei phenomenon. The spectral energy d

  13. Direct Activation Of Methane

    Basset, Jean-Marie


    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin structure: H.sub.4SiW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.3PW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.4SiMo.sub.12O.sub.40, or H.sub.3PMo.sub.12O.sub.40, can be when supported on silica.

  14. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  15. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina


    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  16. The Active Solid Earth

    Ebinger, Cynthia


    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  17. Active Optics in LAMOST

    Ding-Qiang Su; Xiang-Qun Cui


    Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)is one of the major national projects under construction in China. Active optics is one of the most important technologies for new large telescopes. It is used for correcting telescope errors generated by gravitational and thermal changes. Here,however, we use this technology to realize the configuration of LAMOST, -a task that cannot be done in the traditional way. A comprehensive and intensive research on the active optics used in LAMOST is also reported, including an open-loop control method and an auxiliary closed-loop control method. Another important development is in our pre-calibration method of open-loop control, which is with some new features: simultaneous calculation of the forces and displacements of force actuators and displacement actuators; the profile of mirror can be arbitrary;the mirror surface shape is not expressed by a fitting polynomial, but is derived from the mirror surface shape formula which is highly accurate; a proof is given that the solution of the pre-calibration method is the same as the least squares solution.

  18. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center


    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  19. Leadership Development Activities

    Malikeh Beheshtifar


    Full Text Available Nowadays, human resource development is considered as a developed concept in HR field. It is a process for helping personnel to conduct their duties better. Most organizations tend to leadership development as a separable subject and as areas of responsibility within organization. Whereas the leadership development plans have been unsuccessful. This article aim to draw attention to the fact that leadership development is crucial in organizations. A literature review was conducted by searching journal databases, textbooks, and relevant reports. A categorization of the evidence allowed informed discussions on the key themes surrounding leadership development activities. Leadership development is caused to employees' promotion and progress via nurture of new talents, stimulus in employees by persuade to do individual development, save time and cost, and increase customers' satisfaction by relations improvement. Accordingly, the development systems can cover a wide scope in organization. They are effective to career management, training and development, performance management, strategic human resource planning, recruitment and selection, and succession planning activities. Despite the need for further scientific and validated studies, organizations should be urged to devote sufficient resources and attention towards leadership development for promoting long-term survival and prosperity.

  20. Involvement in Physical Activity

    James Gavin


    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  1. Activin Receptor-Like Kinase Receptors ALK5 and ALK1 Are Both Required for TGFβ-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    de Kroon, Laurie M. G.; Narcisi, Roberto; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N.; Cleary, Mairéad A.; van Beuningen, Henk M.; Koevoet, Wendy J. L. M.; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; van der Kraan, Peter M.


    Introduction Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for cartilage regeneration because BMSCs can differentiate into cartilage tissue-producing chondrocytes. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) is crucial for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and is known to signal via Activin receptor-Like Kinase (ALK) receptors ALK5 and ALK1. Since the specific role of these two TGFβ receptors in chondrogenesis is unknown, we investigated whether ALK5 and ALK1 are expressed in BMSCs and whether both receptors are required for chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Materials & Methods ALK5 and ALK1 gene expression in human BMSCs was determined with RT-qPCR. To induce chondrogenesis, human BMSCs were pellet-cultured in serum-free chondrogenic medium containing TGFβ1. Chondrogenesis was evaluated by aggrecan and collagen type IIα1 RT-qPCR analysis, and histological stainings of proteoglycans and collagen type II. To overexpress constitutively active (ca) receptors, BMSCs were transduced either with caALK5 or caALK1. Expression of ALK5 and ALK1 was downregulated by transducing BMSCs with shRNA against ALK5 or ALK1. Results ALK5 and ALK1 were expressed in in vitro-expanded as well as in pellet-cultured BMSCs from five donors, but mRNA levels of both TGFβ receptors did not clearly associate with chondrogenic induction. TGFβ increased ALK5 and decreased ALK1 gene expression in chondrogenically differentiating BMSC pellets. Neither caALK5 nor caALK1 overexpression induced cartilage matrix formation as efficient as that induced by TGFβ. Moreover, short hairpin-mediated downregulation of either ALK5 or ALK1 resulted in a strong inhibition of TGFβ-induced chondrogenesis. Conclusion ALK5 as well as ALK1 are required for TGFβ-induced chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and TGFβ not only directly induces chondrogenesis, but also modulates ALK5 and ALK1 receptor signaling in BMSCs. These results imply that optimizing cartilage formation by

  2. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  3. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J


    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  4. Characterization and distribution of esterase activity in activated sludge

    Boczar, BA; Forney, LJ; Begley, WM; Larson, RJ; Federle, TW


    The location and activity of esterase enzymes in activated Sludge from three Municipal wastewater treatment plants were characterized using model Substrate, and denaturing and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) Of particulate, freeze thaw (primarily periplasmic enzymes and those

  5. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...


    Agnieszka Tomska


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  7. How Active Are Older Americans?

    Judy Kruger, PhD


    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969 according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active.ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in

  8. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  9. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    Novak, Joy Rainbow


    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  10. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie


    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  11. Project origami activities for exploring mathematics

    Hull, Thomas


    IntroductionActivity 1 Folding Equilateral Triangles in a Square Activity 2 Origami Trigonometry Activity 3 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths: Fujimoto Approximation Activity 4 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths Exactly Activity 5 Origami Helix Activity 6 Folding a Parabola Activity 7 Can Origami Trisect an Angle?Activity 8 Solving Cubic Equations Activity 9 Lill's Method Activity 10 Folding Strips into Knots Activity 11 Haga's ""Origamics"" Activity 12 Modular Star Ring Activity 13 Folding a Butterfly Bomb Activity 14 Molly's Hexahedron Activity 15 Business Card Modulars Activity 16 Five Inter

  12. Active Ageing: An Analysis

    Alina-Cristina Nuta


    Full Text Available The problem of ageing is a highly topical for Romania and for European Union. In this framework, to create and implement some strategies for active ageing is an important objective. The international and regional forums set (supported by official statistics that the number of older people growing rapidly. Romania needs some programmes (with labour, social, economic, health care aspects to deal with the demographic changes, programs that will reform the existing working life structures and legislation. Despite the actual pension reform, which tries to close the opportunity of early retirement (by penalizing the total pension flows, or increasing the retirement age, etc., the labour system does not sets some important targets for this area.

  13. DPAL activities in Japan

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio


    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.




    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy

  15. The sound of activism.

    Sandstrom, B; Vetter, C


    ABSTRACT A longtime advocate for female empowerment and equality, Boden Sandstrom has worked for political change in many arenas. In the 1960s, she began a career as a librarian, but soon made activism her full-time job, working for feminist, leftist and socialist causes. In the 1970s, she found a way to turn her lifelong passion for music into a career as a sound engineer. Once established in that profession, she began donating her services to political events, marches, demonstrations, and rallies. After thirteen years of running her own company, called Woman Sound,Inc. (later City Sound Productions,Inc.), she turned to the study of ethnomusicology. She is now Program Manager and Lecturer for the Ethnomusicology Program at the University of Maryland, where she is also working on her doctorate in that subject. She continues to freelance as a sound engineer and serve as a technical producer for major events.

  16. Actively stressed marginal networks

    Sheinman, M; MacKintosh, F C


    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field, effective medium theory, scaling analysis and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of non-affine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  17. Actively stressed marginal networks.

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C


    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three-dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field theory, scaling analysis, and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of nonaffine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  18. Active Flow Control



    This paper considers the two-dimensional problem of a plane vortex sheet disturbed by an impulsive line source. A previous incorrect treatment of this problem is examined in detail. Instabilities of the vortex sheet are triggered by the source and grow exponentially in space and time. The Green function is constructed for the problem and it is shown that a point source properly positioned and delayed will induce a field that cancels the unstable growing modes. The resulting displacement of the vortex sheet is expressed in simple terms. The instabilities are checked by the anti-source which combines with the field of the primary source into a vortex sheet response which decays with time at large time. This paper is a contribution to the study of active control of shear layer instabilities, the main contribution being to clear up a previous paper with peculiar results that are, in fact, wrong.

  19. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio


    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  20. Plasminogen activation and cancer

    Danø, Keld; Behrendt, N.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.


    Breakdown of the extracellular matrix is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. It is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the serine protease plasmin and a number of matrix metalloproteases.The activity of each of these proteases is regulated by an array......, the regulation of extracellular proteolysis in cancer involves a complex interplay between cancer cells and non-malignant stromal cells in the expression of the molecular components involved. For some types of cancer, this cellular interplay mimics that observed in the tissue of ori- gin during non......-neoplastic tissue remodelling processes.We propose that cancer invasion can be considered as uncontrolled tissue remodelling. Inhibition of extracellular proteases is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. Because proteases have many different functions in the normal organism, efficient inhibition will have...

  1. Physical activity among adolescents

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M


    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... during leisure time. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations for girls and boys separately, adjusted by age group, parents' occupational social class, family structure, and migration status. There were significant and graded associations between adolescents' PA and all four...... dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order...

  2. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Purchase, J F


    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  3. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  4. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  5. Motivating Kids to Be Active

    ... set healthy patterns that will last into adulthood. Benefits of Being Active When kids are active, their ... school sports to after-school interests, such as yoga or skateboarding. It's important to remember that physical ...

  6. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    ... more energy than resting. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for ...

  7. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  8. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  9. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    Zaycev V.P.


    Full Text Available Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of active personality of students. It is rotined that in education of active personality of students an important role is played by their research activity.

  10. Automated activity-aware prompting for activity initiation.

    Holder, Lawrence B; Cook, Diane J


    Performing daily activities without assistance is important to maintaining an independent functional lifestyle. As a result, automated activity prompting systems can potentially extend the period of time that adults can age in place. In this paper we introduce AP, an algorithm to automate activity prompting based on smart home technology. AP learns prompt rules based on the time when activities are typically performed as well as the relationship between activities that normally occur in a sequence. We evaluate the AP algorithm based on smart home datasets and demonstrate its ability to operate within a physical smart environment.

  11. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Pinson, David M


    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  12. Danish Labour Market Activation Policies

    Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, LIsbeth


    transformation over the past fifteen years. From the initial curbing of unemployment among the insured unemployed through standard activation offers, the aim today is also to increase labour supply among non-economic active groups using individually tailored programmes. Danish activation policies this embrace...

  13. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.


    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  14. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  15. Optically active quantum dots

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.


    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  16. [Active management of labor].

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L


    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  17. Surface Active Components: Review

    Z. Shafiei


    Full Text Available Biosurfactant or surface active components are produced by many different microorganisms. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic (generally hydrocarbon moieties that partition preferentially a within the interface between fluid phases with some other degrees of polarity and hydrogen bonding including oil/water or air/water interfaces. These properties render surfactants able to reducing surface and interfacial tension and forming microemulsion where hydrocarbons can solubilize in water or where water can solubilize in hydrocarbons, the majority of surfactants have gained importance in the fields of enhanced oil recovery, environmental bioremediation, food processing and pharmaceuticals. However, large-scale production of these molecules has not been realized as a result of low yields in production processes and high recovery and purification costs. This review article represents a classification of biosurfactant in addition to their microbial origin and effect of some nutrition and environmental factor for high production of biosurfactant. The nitrogen, carbon sources and environmental factors can make a difference key to the regulating biosurfactants synthesis Fascination with microbial surfactants have been steadily increasing recently because of advantages over the chemical surfactants for example environmentally friendly nature, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and specific gravity at extreme temperature, pH and salinity. For this reason the demand of biosurfactant are increasing day by day.

  18. Elusive Active Galactic Nuclei

    Maiolino, R; Gilli, R; Nagar, N M; Bianchi, S; Böker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M


    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically "elusive". X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction of elusive AGN in local galaxies and to constrain their nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local density comparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei. Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas column densities exceeding 10^24 cm^-2, suggesting that their peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely that in elusive AGN, the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and the ionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of a classical Narrow Line Region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantly to the 30 keV bump of the X-ray background.

  19. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried


    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  20. Barriers for recess physical activity

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper


    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  1. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G


    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  2. In vivo imaging of protease activity by Probody therapeutic activation.

    Wong, Kenneth R; Menendez, Elizabeth; Craik, Charles S; Kavanaugh, W Michael; Vasiljeva, Olga


    Probody™ therapeutics are recombinant, proteolytically-activated antibody prodrugs, engineered to remain inert until activated locally by tumor-associated proteases. Probody therapeutics exploit the fundamental dysregulation of extracellular protease activity that exists in tumors relative to healthy tissue. Leveraging the ability of a Probody therapeutic to bind its target at the site of disease after proteolytic cleavage, we developed a novel method for profiling protease activity in living animals. Using NIR optical imaging, we demonstrated that a non-labeled anti-EGFR Probody therapeutic can become activated and compete for binding to tumor cells in vivo with a labeled anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, by inhibiting matriptase activity in vivo with a blocking-matriptase antibody, we show that the ability of the Probody therapeutic to bind EGFR in vivo was dependent on protease activity. These results demonstrate that in vivo imaging of Probody therapeutic activation can be used for screening and characterization of protease activity in living animals, and provide a method that avoids some of the limitations of prior methods. This approach can improve our understanding of the activity of proteases in disease models and help to develop efficient strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Global optogenetic activation of inhibitory interneurons during epileptiform activity.

    Ledri, Marco; Madsen, Marita Grønning; Nikitidou, Litsa; Kirik, Deniz; Kokaia, Merab


    Optogenetic techniques provide powerful tools for bidirectional control of neuronal activity and investigating alterations occurring in excitability disorders, such as epilepsy. In particular, the possibility to specifically activate by light-determined interneuron populations expressing channelrhodopsin-2 provides an unprecedented opportunity of exploring their contribution to physiological and pathological network activity. There are several subclasses of interneurons in cortical areas with different functional connectivity to the principal neurons (e.g., targeting their perisomatic or dendritic compartments). Therefore, one could optogenetically activate specific or a mixed population of interneurons and dissect their selective or concerted inhibitory action on principal cells. We chose to explore a conceptually novel strategy involving simultaneous activation of mixed populations of interneurons by optogenetics and study their impact on ongoing epileptiform activity in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Here we demonstrate that such approach results in a brief initial action potential discharge in CA3 pyramidal neurons, followed by prolonged suppression of ongoing epileptiform activity during light exposure. Such sequence of events was caused by massive light-induced release of GABA from ChR2-expressing interneurons. The inhibition of epileptiform activity was less pronounced if only parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons were activated by light. Our data suggest that global optogenetic activation of mixed interneuron populations is a more effective approach for development of novel therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, but the initial action potential generation in principal neurons needs to be taken in consideration.

  4. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Goodrich David E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  5. Resources Management in Active Networks


    In an active network, users can insert customized active codes into active nodes to execute. Thus it needs more resources than those required by conventional networks, and these resources must be effectively monitored and managed. Management policies in existing OSs are too complicated to apply to simple active packets. In this paper, we present new resources management policies that are mainly adoped to manage CPU, storage and transmission bandwidth. Namely, we use SPF algorithm to schedule and process active packets, and import an interval queue method to allocate transmission bandwidth, and use feedback mechanism to control congestion. At the same time, we design some experiments on prototype systems with and without resources management policies respectively. The experiments results show that management policies presented by us can effectively manage resources in active nodes and can improve the performance of active networks.

  6. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L


    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  7. Atmospheric neutrino data Active-Active x Active-Sterile oscillations

    Peres, O L G


    I summarize here the results of a global fit to the full data set corresponding to 33.0 kt-yr of data of the Super-Kamiokande experiment as well as to all other experiments in order to compare the active-active and active-sterile neutrinos oscillation channels to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly.

  8. UV activity indicators

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    In Order to continue the work displayed in Buccino & Mauas(2003) and Buccino (2003), we have calculated the index Mg II (Xhk) on 1640 high resolution IUE spectra of 269 main sequence stars of spectral classes F, G and K. From this set of observations, we found an exponential relation between the continuum UV flux and the color (B-V). Contrary to Schrijver et al (1989), who assumed that the continuum UV flux depended on the color following the relation found by Rutten (1984) for the visible one, i.e. the logarithm of the flux is proportional to a polynomial of third order with the color. Nevertheless, the exponential relation flux in the continuous UV and the color (B-V) fits far better to our data that the given one by Rutten (1984). Obtained this dependency for the ultraviolet continuum flux, the index Xhk can be obtained from the single flux in the lines core, allowing to calculate the index of Mg II for those spectra where the continuum is very dark and so the relation signal noise is very low. As it were already reported in previous works (Rutten (1991), Schrijver (1992)), we found a minimum basal flux in the Mg II h and k lines core due to the cromospheric heating by disipation of acustics waves. From this minimum flux, we calculated minimum index of activity that satisfactorily fits to the minimum values of the indexes calculated on the 1640 spectra like quotient between the flux in the line core and the continuous one.

  9. Strategy as active waiting.

    Sull, Donald N


    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.

  10. Genotoxic activity of praziquantel.

    Montero, R; Ostrosky, P


    Praziquantel is a synthetic drug with a remarkable activity against parasites, particularly treamatodes and cestodes. Initial genotoxicity tests used a spectrum of endpoints including tests in bacteria, yeasts, mammalian cells and Drosophila and each one gave negative results. Effects on reproductive cells of mice were negative as well. However, host mediated studies in mice and humans were contradictory and a comutagenic effect with several mutagens and carcinogens was found. Later studies, including monitoring in humans and pigs have shown that Praziquantel induces a greater frequency of hyperploid lymphocytes as well as structural chromosomal aberrations, but not in all the individuals treated. In vitro studies have demonstrated that Praziquantel can induce micronuclei in syrian hamster embryonic (SHE) cells and in lymphocytes of some individuals. The same was found about structural chromosomal aberrations. Fetal death and fetal resorption were found when Praziquantel was administered in high doses to pregnant rats between the 6th and 10th day of gestation. Due to its efficiency as a parasiticide, Praziquantel is in use in Latin-American, Asiatic, African and East-European countries where infections by trematodes and cestodes are frequent. However, the extensive use of Praziquantel in multiple reinfections, in non-infected and non-diagnosed individuals for prevention, in higher doses or repeated doses for cysticercosis treatment and in individuals exposed to environmental mutagens, in conjunction with new findings about its metabolism and genotoxic properties, make it necessary to further evaluate the potential of this drug not only to be mutagenic per se, but to contribute in the development of neoplasm.

  11. Active Beam Spectroscopy

    von Hellermann, M. G.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O.; Summers, H. P.; Whiteford, A.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Zastrow, K. D.


    Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) plays a pivotal role in the diagnostics of hot fusion plasmas and is implemented currently in most of the operating devices. In the present report the main features of CXRS are summarized and supporting software packages encompassing "Spectral Analysis Code CXSFIT", "Charge Exchange Analysis Package CHEAP", and finally "Forward Prediction of Spectral Features" are described. Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) is proposed as indispensable cross-calibration tool for absolute local impurity density measurements and also for the continuous monitoring of the neutral beam power deposition profile. Finally, a full exploitation of the `Motional Stark Effect' pattern is proposed to deduce local pitch angles, total magnetic fields and possibly radial electric fields. For the proposed active beam spectroscopy diagnostic on ITER comprehensive performance studies have been carried out. Estimates of expected spectral signal-to-noise ratios are based on atomic modelling of neutral beam stopping and emissivities for CXRS, BES and background continuum radiation as well as extrapolations from present CXRS diagnostic systems on JET, Tore Supra, TEXTOR and ASDEX-UG. Supplementary to thermal features a further promising application of CXRS has been proposed recently for ITER, that is a study of slowing-down alpha particles in the energy range up to 2 MeV making use of the 100 keV/amu DNB (Diagnostic Neutral Beam) and the 500 keV/amu HNB (Heating Neutral Beam). Synthetic Fast Ion Slowing-Down spectra are evaluated in terms of source rates and slowing-down parameters


    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Le-Quy, Vang; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann;

    and when external carbon sources were supplemented to the activated sludge the composition of the denitrifying communities was significantly affected. Transcriptome profiling provided detailed insight in the metabolic pathways in several of the active denitrifiers in activated sludge. In conclusion...... reactor studies. To obtain better identification of active denitrifying communities in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) we applied DNA-SIP with 13C-labelled substrates, and RT-PCR of expressed denitrification genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) upon various substrate-inductions. To come around...... were determined with quantitative FISH, while their active metabolic pathways were investigated directly in activated sludge with a tag-based metatranscriptomic approach under acetate-utilizing and denitrifying conditions. The different methods revealed a majority of denitrifiers in all WWTPs belonging...

  13. Fluidization and Active Thinning by Molecular Kinetics in Active Gels.

    Oriola, David; Alert, Ricard; Casademunt, Jaume


    We derive the constitutive equations of an active polar gel from a model for the dynamics of elastic molecules that link polar elements. Molecular binding kinetics induces the fluidization of the material, giving rise to Maxwell viscoelasticity and, provided that detailed balance is broken, to the generation of active stresses. We give explicit expressions for the transport coefficients of active gels in terms of molecular properties, including nonlinear contributions on the departure from equilibrium. In particular, when activity favors linker unbinding, we predict a decrease of viscosity with activity-active thinning-of kinetic origin, which could explain some experimental results on the cell cortex. By bridging the molecular and hydrodynamic scales, our results could help understand the interplay between molecular perturbations and the mechanics of cells and tissues.

  14. Negotiating active ageing at a Danish activity centre

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    and practices active ageing. The paper uses an activity centre in Copenhagen as its site of negotiation. Methods: These questions have been explored with the use of ethnographic fieldwork and through a documentary study. The ethnographic fieldwork has been conducted at an activity centre with 4 months...... of participatory observation in 2011 and 2012, as well as 11 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with users of the centre. 4 of these users have been followed around during everyday activities such as doing groceries, picking up grandchildren, etc. The documentary study consists of documents and statements...

  15. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina


    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  16. Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge

    Z. Al-Qodah


    Full Text Available In this study, activated sludge was used as a precursor to prepare activated carbon using sulfuric acid as a chemical activation agent. The effect of preparation conditions on the produced activated carbon characteristics as an adsorbent was investigated. The results indicate that the produced activated carbon has a highly porous structure and a specific surface area of 580 m²/g. The FT-IR analysis depicts the presence of a variety of functional groups which explain its improved adsorption behavior against pesticides. The XRD analysis reveals that the produced activated carbon has low content of inorganic constituents compared with the precursor. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to three adsorption isotherm models and found to closely fit the BET model with R² equal 0.948 at pH 3, indicating a multilayer of pesticide adsorption. The maximum loading capacity of the produced activated carbon was 110 mg pesticides/g adsorbent and was obtained at this pH value. This maximum loading was found experimentally to steeply decrease as the solution pH increases. The obtained results show that activated sludge is a promising low cost precursor for the production of activated carbon.

  17. Silicon active photonic devices

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  18. Permanent active longitudes and activity cycles on RS CVn stars

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Tuominen, Ilkka


    A new analysis of the published long-term photometric observations has revealed permanent active-longitude structures in four RS CVn stars: EI Eri, II Peg, sigma Gem, and HR 7275. Two active longitudes separated by half of the period are found to dominate on the surface during all available seasons. The positions of the longitudes on three stars (EI Eri, II Peg, HR 7275) are migrating in the orbital reference frame, and there is no preferred orientation with respect to the line of centres in the binaries. The rate of migration is approximately constant. In case of sigma Gem the active longitude migration is synchronized with the orbital motion in the direction of the line of centres in the binary. The active region lifetimes can be longer than the time span of the observations (>=15 yr). The periods of the active longitude rotation are determined: for EI Eri 1fd 9510, for II Peg 6fd 7066, for sigma Gem 19fd 604, for HR 7275 28fd 263. Long-term activity cycles of the stars are discovered from the analysis of the relative contribution of the two longitudes to the photometric variability. One longitude is found to be usually more active than the other at a given moment, and the change of the activity level between the longitudes is cyclic with periods of years. The switch of the activity takes a much shorter time, about a few months, similar to the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon found for FK Com stars. Moments of switching are regarded as new tracers of the activity, and total cycles, which return activity to the same longitude, are found to be for EI Eri 9.0 yr, for II Peg 9.3 yr, for sigma Gem 14.9 yr, for HR 7275 17.5 yr.

  19. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4 activates its ubiquitin ligase activity.

    Persaud, Avinash; Alberts, Philipp; Mari, Sara; Tong, Jiefei; Murchie, Ryan; Maspero, Elena; Safi, Frozan; Moran, Michael F; Polo, Simona; Rotin, Daniela


    Ligand binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) causes dimerization and activation by transphosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the kinase domain. FGFR1 is ubiquitylated by the E3 ligase NEDD4 (also known as NEDD4-1), which promotes FGFR1 internalization and degradation. Although phosphorylation of FGFR1 is required for NEDD4-dependent endocytosis, NEDD4 directly binds to a nonphosphorylated region of FGFR1. We found that activation of FGFR1 led to activation of c-Src kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4, enhancing the ubiquitin ligase activity of NEDD4. Using mass spectrometry, we identified several FGF-dependent phosphorylated tyrosines in NEDD4, including Tyr(43) in the C2 domain and Tyr(585) in the HECT domain. Mutating these tyrosines to phenylalanine to prevent phosphorylation inhibited FGF-dependent NEDD4 activity and FGFR1 endocytosis and enhanced cell proliferation. Mutating the tyrosines to glutamic acid to mimic phosphorylation enhanced NEDD4 activity. Moreover, the NEDD4 C2 domain bound the HECT domain, and the presence of phosphomimetic mutations inhibited this interaction, suggesting that phosphorylation of NEDD4 relieves an inhibitory intra- or intermolecular interaction. Accordingly, activation of FGFR1 was not required for activation of NEDD4 that lacked its C2 domain. Activation of c-Src by epidermal growth factor (EGF) also promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced the activity of NEDD4. Thus, we identified a feedback mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases promote catalytic activation of NEDD4 and that may represent a mechanism of receptor crosstalk.

  20. CDPK Activation in PRR Signaling.

    Seybold, Heike; Boudsocq, Marie; Romeis, Tina


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases undergo a rapid biochemical activation in response to an intracellular Ca increase induced by the PRR-dependent perception of a pathogen-related stimulus. Based on SDS gel resolution, the in-gel kinase assay allows the analysis of multiple in vivo protein samples in parallel, combining the advantage of protein separation according to molecular mass with the activity read-out of a protein kinase assay. It thus enables to follow the transient CDPK activation and inactivation in response to in vivo elicitation with a time-wise resolution. In addition, changes of CDPK phosphorylation activity often correlate with slight shifts in the enzyme's apparent molecular mass, indicating posttranslational modifications and a conformational change of the active enzyme compared to its inactive resting form. These band shifts can be detected by a simple immunoblotting to monitor CDPK activation.

  1. Swim pressure of active matter

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team


    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  2. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A


    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  3. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne;


    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  4. Social activity and healthy aging

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare


    with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall...... level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social...... activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin...

  5. Activated sludge inhibition capacity index

    V. Surerus


    Full Text Available Toxic compounds in sewage or industrial wastewater may inhibit the biological activity of activated sludge impairing the treatment process. This paper evaluates the Inhibition Capacity Index (ICI for the assessment of activated sludge in the presence of toxicants. In this study, activated sludge was obtained from industrial treatment plants and was also synthetically produced. Continuous respirometric measurements were carried out in a reactor, and the oxygen uptake rate profile obtained was used to evaluate the impact of inhibiting toxicants, such as dissolved copper, phenol, sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate and amoxicillin, on activated sludge. The results indicate that ICI is an efficient tool to quantify the intoxication capacity. The activated sludge from the pharmaceutical industry showed higher resistance than the sludge from other sources, since toxicants are widely discharged in the biological treatment system. The ICI range was from 58 to 81% when compared to the synthetic effluent with no toxic substances.

  6. Japanese activities in refrigeration technology

    Fujita, T.; Ohtsuka, T.; Ishizaki, Y.

    This paper reviews recent activities in refrigeration technology in Japan. The projects described are stimulated by growing industrial needs or form part of large national projects. The JNR project on the MAGLEV train is currently the most powerful activity and it demands knowledge in all the different disciplines of cryogenics in particular on various scales of refrigeration. Research activities are also directed towards the development of Stirling cycle and magnetic refrigerators for applications in a wider area.

  7. L3 Study Team Activities

    Shoemaker, David; L3ST Team


    The NASA-Chartered L3 Study Team is working to develop the US community participation and to support NASA's contribution to the ESA-led LISA mission to observe gravitational waves via space-based detectors. The present activities of the L3ST will be described, and the next steps for the Study Team will also be given. NASA supports travel activities and support for the Study Team activities.


    V. S. Novikov


    Full Text Available Fundamental and applied innovations impact activities in the tourist industry and evolution thereof. More and more sophisticated technologies and communication techniques are practically used to serve tourists. Basically, innovative tourist activity development concept represents innovation of values and in particular means that tourist’s impression is taken into account to higher extent and tourist product personification changes the products’ consumer value. Discussed in the article are tourist activity, tourist cluster, destination and glocalization development prospects.

  9. Activity Recognition in Social Media


    activity is splitting. 6 Crowd video classification Ability to identify crowd behavior enables crowd management systems to design and manage public...characterize group activities . We then showed the effectiveness of group level features in crowd video classification . 9 List of Publications 1. N. Bhargava, S...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0044 Activity Recognition in Social Media Subhasis Chaudhuri INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY Final Report 05/09/2016

  10. Activating Teaching for Quality Learning

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student...... activating teaching methods focusing on those based on knowledge dissemination. The practical aspects of the implemented teaching method are considered, and employed assessment methods and tools are discussed....

  11. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  12. Architectural Design Activities for JAS

    Khaled, Lena


    The critical part for building any software system is its architecture. Architectural design is a design at a higher level of abstraction. A good architecture ensures that software will satisfy its requirement. This paper defines the most important activities of architectural design that used through building any software; also it applies these activities on one type of Electronic Commerce (EC) applications that is Job Agency System(JAS) to show how these activities can work through these types of applications.

  13. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel


    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  14. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the...

  15. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics


    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  16. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    Réol, Lise Andersen


    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...



    Papain (Papainase, EC was immobilized on porous silica beads by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. The thermal activation of this immobilized papain in aqueous system was found at a temperature range from 50 to 90℃. The higher the temperature, the more active the immobilized papain will possess. At the same time,the durability of the immobilized papain on heating was greatly improved. The effect of additives and salts on the activity of the immobilized papain were also studied. The results showed that the additives and some of the salts studied could markedly enhance the activity of the immobilized papain at elevated temperature.

  18. CDBG Activity Funding by Tract

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.

  19. Physical activity and human health

    Paulina Wojciechowska


    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  20. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the operational...

  1. Active Gas Regenerative Liquefier Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We offer a novel liquefier that has the potential to simultaneously increase thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduce complexity. The ?active gas...

  2. Active Directory Designing, Deploying, and Running Active Directory

    Desmond, Brian


    By giving you a thorough grounding in Active Directory, this bestselling book teaches you how to design, manage, and maintain an AD infrastructure, whether it's for a small business network or a multinational enterprise with thousands of resources, services, and users. The fourth edition covers Active Directory from Windows 2000 through Windows Server 2008 in an easy-to-understand narrative style.

  3. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.


    Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to

  4. Active vibration and noise control by hybrid active acoustic panels

    Stoebener, U.; Gaul, L. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. A fuer Mechanik


    In the present paper a hybrid passive and active treatment for vibration and noise reduction of plate type structures is proposed. The treatment is manufactured as sandwich structure and is called hybrid active acoustic panel. The passive component is used to reduce the vibration and sound radiation for high frequencies whereas the active part of the system is designed for the low frequency range. By selecting the thickness of the passive damping layer a certain frequency limit is defined, which divides the high and low frequency range. The actuator and sensor layout of the active component is evaluated by using the mode shapes of the low frequency range. According to the evaluated layout a hybrid active acoustic panel is manufactured and experimentally tested. The experimental results validate the proposed concept. (orig.)

  5. Additive manufactured polymeric 3D scaffolds with tailored surface topography influence mesenchymal stromal cells activity.

    Neves, Sara C; Mota, Carlos; Longoni, Alessia; Barrias, Cristina C; Granja, Pedro L; Moroni, Lorenzo


    Additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored surface topography constitute a clear advantage in tissue regeneration strategies to steer cell behavior. 3D fibrous scaffolds of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer presenting different fiber surface features were successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing combined with wet-spinning, in a single step, without any post-processing. The optimization of the processing parameters, mainly driven by different solvent/non-solvent combinations, led to four distinct scaffold types, with average surface roughness values ranging from 0.071 ± 0.012 μm to 1.950 ± 0.553 μm, average pore sizes in the x- and y-axis between 351.1 ± 33.6 μm and 396.1 ± 32.3 μm, in the z-axis between 36.5 ± 5.3 μm and 70.7 ± 8.8 μm, average fiber diameters between 69.4 ± 6.1 μm and 99.0 ± 9.4 μm, and porosity values ranging from 60.2 ± 0.8% to 71.7 ± 2.6%. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on these scaffolds adhered, proliferated, and produced endogenous extracellular matrix. The effect of surface roughness and topography on hMSCs differentiation was more evident for cells seeded at lower density, where the percentage of cells in direct contact with the surface was higher compared to more densely seeded scaffolds. Under osteogenic conditions, lower surface roughness values (0.227 ± 0.035 μm) had a synergistic effect on hMSCs behavior, while chondrogenesis was favored on rougher surfaces (1.950 ± 0.553 μm).

  6. Protease activities of rumen protozoa.

    Forsberg, C W; Lovelock, L K; Krumholz, L; Buchanan-Smith, J G


    Intact, metabolically active rumen protozoa prepared by gravity sedimentation and washing in a mineral solution at 10 to 15 degrees C had comparatively low proteolytic activity on azocasein and low endogenous proteolytic activity. Protozoa washed in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 4 degrees C and stored on ice autolysed when they were warmed to 39 degrees C. They also exhibited low proteolytic activity on azocasein, but they had a high endogenous proteolytic activity with a pH optimum of 5.8. The endogenous proteolytic activity was inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, for example, iodoacetate (63.1%) and the aspartic proteinase inhibitor, pepstatin (43.9%). Inhibitors specific for serine proteinases and metalloproteinases were without effect. The serine and cysteine proteinase inhibitors of microbial origin, including antipain, chymostatin, and leupeptin, caused up to 67% inhibition of endogenous proteolysis. Hydrolysis of casein by protozoa autolysates was also inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Some of the inhibitors decreased endogenous deamination, in particular, phosphoramidon, which had little inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Protozoal and bacterial preparations exhibited low hydrolytic activities on synthetic proteinase and carboxypeptidase substrates, although the protozoa had 10 to 78 times greater hydrolytic activity (per milligram of protein) than bacteria on the synthetic aminopeptidase substrates L-leucine-p-nitroanilide, L-leucine-beta-naphthylamide, and L-leucinamide. The aminopeptidase activity was partially inhibited by bestatin. It was concluded that cysteine proteinases and, to a lesser extent, aspartic proteinases are primarily responsible for proteolysis in autolysates of rumen protozoa. The protozoal autolysates had high aminopeptidase activity; low deaminase activity was observed on endogenous amino acids. PMID:6364968

  7. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    Nasta K.; Mona R.


    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

  8. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    Nasta K.; Mona R.


    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

  9. Leisure activities, time and environment

    Røpke, Inge; Godskesen, Mirjam Irene


    The intention of this paper is to explore the relationships between leisure activities and the environment. Most research on leisure is unrelated to environmental issues, but when this research is “read” through environmental “glasses”, it provides relevant inputs for environmental studies...... use and activities rather than various categories of consumer spending....

  10. Developing Internal Controls through Activities

    Barnes, F. Herbert


    Life events can include the Tuesday afternoon cooking class with the group worker or the Saturday afternoon football game, but in the sense that Fritz Redl thought of them, these activities are only threads in a fabric of living that includes all the elements of daily life: playing, working, school-based learning, learning through activities,…

  11. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    Nell, Phillip C.; Larsen, Marcus M.

    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  12. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    Nell, Phillip C.; Møller Larsen, Marcus


    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    Ajali, U; Chukwurah, B K C


    The folk herbal uses of Securidaca longipedunculata in the treatment of diarrhea, boils, gonorrhea, and cough prompted phytochemical analyses and antimicrobial activity screening of extracts of the root. Some flavonoids isolated showed activity against many micro-organisms. These flavonoids were isolated using chromatographic methods.

  14. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  15. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement


    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.


    Luminiţa Danciu


    Full Text Available Inside a company activity planning is made according to estimates. This means that estimates are very important. If estimates are wrong the company's activity will be on the wrong way. In the management zone in order to focus on general objectives achievement there are used estimates and forecasting methods.

  17. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    Bækgaard, Lars


    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related activit...

  18. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.


    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  19. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy


    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  20. An Application of Activity Theory

    Marken, James A.


    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  1. Generic active appearance models revisited

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Alabort-i-Medina, Joan; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja


    The proposed Active Orientation Models (AOMs) are gen- erative models of facial shape and appearance. Their main dierences with the well-known paradigm of Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are (i) they use a dierent statistical model of appearance, (ii) they are accompanied by a robust algorithm for m

  2. Physical Activity and Renal Transplantation

    Vincenzo Bellizzi


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is burdened by high cardiovascular risk because of increased prevalence of traditional and disease-specific cardiovascular risk factors and, consequently, patients are affected by greater morbidity and mortality. In renal transplanted patients, healthy lifestyle and physical activity are recommended to improve overall morbidity and cardiovascular outcomes. According to METs (Metabolic Equivalent Task; i.e. the amount of energy consumed while sitting at rest, physical activities are classified as sedentary (<3.0 METs, of moderate-(3.0 to 5.9 METs or vigorous-intensity (≥6.0 METs. Guidelines suggest for patients with chronic kidney disease an amount of physical activity of at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity five times per week (min 450 MET-minutes/week. Data on physical activity in renal transplanted patients, however, are limited and have been mainly obtained by mean of non-objective methods. Available data suggest that physical activity is low either at the start or during renal transplantation and this may be associated with poor patient and graft outcomes. Therefore, in renal transplanted patients more data on physical activity obtained with objective, accelerometer-based methods are needed. In the meanwhile, physical activity have to be considered as an essential part of the medical care for renal transplanted recipients.

  3. Designing active objects in DEGAS

    Akker, J.F.P. van den; Siebes, A.P.J.M.


    This report discusses application design for active databases, in particular for the active object-based database programming language DEGAS. In DEGAS one modularisation principle, the object, is applied to all elements of the application, including rules. We discuss a design process consisting of f

  4. 50 CFR 401.4 - Activities prohibited.


    ..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.4 Activities prohibited. Law enforcement, public relations, harvesting, marketing and processing activities, construction of fisherman use facilities, and activities concerned...

  5. Active properties of neuronal dendrites.

    Johnston, D; Magee, J C; Colbert, C M; Cristie, B R


    Dendrites of neurons in the central nervous system are the principal sites for excitatory synaptic input. Although little is known about their function, two disparate perspectives have arisen to describe the activity patterns inherent to these diverse tree-like structures. Dendrites are thus considered either passive or active in their role in integrating synaptic inputs. This review follows the history of dendritic research from before the turn of the century to the present, with a primary focus on the hippocampus. A number of recent techniques, including high-speed fluorescence imaging and dendritic patch clamping, have provided new information and perspectives about the active properties of dendrites. The results support previous notions about the dendritic propagation of action potentials and also indicate which types of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels are expressed and functionally active in dendrites. Possible roles for the active properties of dendrites in synaptic plasticity and integration are also discussed.

  6. Crystal activation experiment MA-151

    Trombka, J. I.; Eller, E. L.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Dyer, C. S.; Reedy, R. C.; Barr, D. W.; Gilmore, J. S.; Prestwood, R. J.; Bayhurst, B. P.; Perry, D. G.


    The crystal activation experiment consisted of two sample packages that were flown in the command module and returned to earth for analysis of the radioactivity induced in them during the flight. The objective of the experiment was to define the background caused by detector activation that interferes when gamma radiation is measured in the 0.02- to 10-megaelectronvolt range from earth orbit. Preliminary results show that the activation of the NaI(Tl) crystal was a factor of 3 below that from a similar measurement on Apollo 17. The identification of certain species and the level of activation observed show an important contribution from the interactions of thermal and energetic neutrons produced as secondaries in the spacecraft. That the activation was reduced by only a factor of 3 compared with the Apollo 17 experiment, despite the geomagnetically shielded orbit, possibly indicates more efficient secondary neutron production by the more energetic cosmic rays.

  7. Advances on Active Tectonics Research

    Chen Yong; Chen Qifu; Li Juan


    The tectonic movement at human scale has not been fully understood yet, especially for active tectonics, although it is the basis to study natural hazards and environmental variations. Many national and international scientific plans related closely to active tectonics research have been made in the past ten years. This paper briefly summarized the background of the undertaking of active tectonics research, its advances and existing problems, and the key points in its future studies are also pointed out. The emerging of new technologies like the Earth Observing Sys tem, Digital Seismology and so on provides unusual opportunities for tectonic research. It is emphasized, however, that careful analyses and building up of new theoretical frame are sill the key problems for studies of active tectonics, especially for active tectonics in China' s conti nent.

  8. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin


    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  9. Active matter, then and now.

    Keller, Evelyn Fox


    Historically, living was divided from dead, inert matter by its autonomous activity. Today, a number of materials not themselves alive are characterized as having inherent activity, and this activity has become the subject of a hot new field of physics, "Active Matter", or "Soft matter become alive." For active matter scientists, the relation of physics to biology is guaranteed in one direction by the assertion that the cell is a material, and hence its study can be considered a branch of material science, and in the other direction, by the claim that the physical dynamics of this material IS what brings the cell to life, and therefore its study is a proper branch of biology. I will examine these claims in relation to the concerns of nineteenth century scientists on the one hand, and on the other, in relation to future prospects of the division between animate and inanimate.

  10. Human activity recognition and prediction


    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  11. Antiprotozoal activity of Senna racemosa.

    Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J; Quijano, Leovigildo; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto


    Methanol extracts of leaves, roots and bark of Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) were tested for antiprotozooal activity against Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. All of the tested extracts showed good activity against both protozoa species. Extracts from stem bark and leaves were most active, with an IC(50) of 2.10 microg/mL for Giardia intestinalis and 3.87 microg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica. Of the previously isolated compounds from Senna racemosa, the piperidine alkaloid cassine had greater activity against Giardia intestinalis with an IC(50) of 3.28 microg/mL and chrysophanol, a 1,8-dihydroxy-anthraquinone, was the most active agent against Entamoeba histolytica, with an IC(50) of 6.21 microg/mL.

  12. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems


    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  13. Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1.

    Cok, Alexandra; Plaisier, Christina; Salie, Matthew J; Oram, Daniel S; Chenge, Jude; Louters, Larry L


    Berberine, which has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, has recently been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. While the hypoglycemic effect of berberine has been clearly documented in animal and cell line models, such as 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotube cells, the mechanism of action appears complex with data implicating activation of the insulin signaling pathway as well as activation of the exercise or AMP kinase-mediated pathway. There have been no reports of the acute affects of berberine on the transport activity of the insulin-insensitive glucose transporter, GLUT1. Therefore, we examined the acute effects of berberine on glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells, a cell line that express only GLUT1. Berberine- activated glucose uptake reaching maximum stimulation of five-fold at >40 μM. Significant activation (P berberine effect was not additive to the maximal stimulation by other known stimulants, azide, methylene blue or glucose deprivation, suggesting shared steps between berberine and these stimulants. Berberine significantly reduced the K(m) of glucose uptake from 6.7 ± 1.9 mM to 0.55 ± 0.08 mM, but had no effect on the V(max) of uptake. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP kinase, did not affect berberine-stimulated glucose uptake, but inhibitors of downstream kinases partially blocked berberine stimulation. SB203580 (inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase) did not affect submaximal berberine activation, but did lower maximal berberine stimulation by 26%, while PD98059 (inhibitor of ERK kinase) completely blocked submaximal berberine activation and decreased the maximal stimulation by 55%. It appears from this study that a portion of the hypoglycemic effects of berberine can be attributed to its acute activation of the transport activity of GLUT1.

  14. Activated and non-activated dephasing in a spin bath

    Torrontegui, E.; Kosloff, R.


    We analyze different decoherence processes in a system coupled to a bath. Apart from the well known standard dephasing mechanism which is temperature dependent an alternative mechanism is presented, the spin-swap dephasing which does not need initial bath activation and is temperature independent. We show that for dipole interaction in the weak coupling regime the separation of time scales between system and bath can not produce pure dephasing, the process being accompanied by dissipation. Activated and non-activated dephasing processes are analyzed in a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center.

  15. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail


    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon.

  16. Energy Balance and Physical Activity


    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  17. Antimicrobial activities of squalamine mimics.

    Kikuchi, K; Bernard, E M; Sadownik, A; Regen, S L; Armstrong, D


    We investigated the antimicrobial properties of compounds with structural features that were designed to mimic those of squalamine, an antibiotic isolated from the stomach of the dogfish shark. The mimics, like squalamine, are sterol-polyamine conjugates. Unlike squalamine, the mimics were simple to prepare, at high yield, from readily available starting materials. Several squalamine mimics showed activity against gram-negative rods, gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and fungi. Some had little or no hemolytic activity. The hydrophobicity of the sterol backbone and the length and the cationic charge of the side chains appeared to be critical determinants of activity. One of the squalamine mimics, SM-7, was bactericidal against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and S. aureus; its activity was decreased by divalent or monovalent cations and by bovine serum albumin. Subinhibitory concentrations of SM-7 markedly enhanced the antimicrobial activity of rifampin against gram-negative rods. These results suggest that the compounds may disrupt an outer membrane of gram-negative rods. Squalamine mimics are a new class of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The antagonism of their activity by serum and albumin and their hemolytic properties may limit their use as systemic agents. The squalamine mimics, because of their potencies, broad spectra of antimicrobial activity, and potential for systemic toxicity, appear to be good candidates for development as topical antimicrobial agents.

  18. Sry is a transcriptional activator.

    Dubin, R A; Ostrer, H


    The SRY gene functions as a genetic switch in gonadal ridge initiating testis determination. The mouse Sry and human SRY open reading frames (ORFs) share a conserved DNA-binding domain (the HMG-box) yet exhibit no additional homology outside this region. As judged by the accumulation of lacZ-SRY hybrid proteins in the nucleus, both the human and mouse SRY ORFs contain a nuclear localization signal. The mouse Sry HMG-box domain selectively binds the sequence NACAAT in vitro when challenged with a random pool of oligonucleotides and binds AACAAT with the highest affinity. When put under the control of a heterologous promotor, the mouse Sry gene activated transcription of a reporter gene containing multiple copies of the AACAAT binding site. Activation was likewise observed for a GAL4-responsive reporter gene, when the mouse Sry gene was linked to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4. Using this system, the activation function was mapped to a glutamine/histidine-rich domain. In addition, LexA-mouse Sry fusion genes activated a LexA-responsive reporter gene in yeast. In contrast, a GAL4-human SRY fusion gene did not cause transcriptional activation. These studies suggest that both the human and the mouse SRY ORFs encode nuclear, DNA-binding proteins and that the mouse Sry ORF can function as a transcriptional activator with separable DNA-binding and activator domains.

  19. Activity Cycle of Solar Filaments

    K. J. Li; Q. X. Li; P. X. Gao; J. Mu; H. D. Chen; T. W. Su


    Long-term variation in the distribution of the solar filaments observed at the Observatorie de Paris, Section de Meudon from March 1919 to December 1989 is presented to compare with sunspot cycle and to study the periodicity in the filament activity, namely the periods of the coronal activity with the Morlet wavelet used. It is inferred that the activity cycle of solar filaments should have the same cycle length as sunspot cycle, but the cycle behavior of solar filaments is globally similar in profile with, but different in detail from, that of sunspot cycles. The amplitude of solar magnetic activity should not keep in phase with the complexity of solar magnetic activity. The possible periods in the filament activity are about 10.44 and 19.20 years. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 10.44 years is statistically significant during the whole consideration time. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 19.20 years is under the 95% confidence spectrum during the whole consideration time, but over the mean red-noise spectrum of = 0.72 before approximate Carrington rotation number 1500, and after that the filament activity does not statistically show the period. Wavelet reconstruction indicates that the early data of the filament archive (in and before cycle 16) are more noiseful than the later (in and after cycle 17).

  20. Activation and proteolytic activity of the Treponema pallidum metalloprotease, pallilysin.

    Houston, Simon; Hof, Rebecca; Honeyman, Lisa; Hassler, Julia; Cameron, Caroline E


    Treponema pallidum is a highly invasive pathogen that undergoes rapid dissemination to establish widespread infection. Previous investigations identified the T. pallidum adhesin, pallilysin, as an HEXXH-containing metalloprotease that undergoes autocatalytic cleavage and degrades laminin and fibrinogen. In the current study we characterized pallilysin's active site, activation requirements, cellular location, and fibrin clot degradation capacity through both in vitro assays and heterologous treponemal expression and degradation studies. Site-directed mutagenesis showed the pallilysin HEXXH motif comprises at least part of the active site, as introduction of three independent mutations (AEXXH [H¹⁹⁸A], HAXXH [E¹⁹⁹A], and HEXXA [H²⁰²A]) abolished pallilysin-mediated fibrinogenolysis but did not adversely affect host component binding. Attainment of full pallilysin proteolytic activity was dependent upon autocatalytic cleavage of an N-terminal pro-domain, a process which could not occur in the HEXXH mutants. Pallilysin was shown to possess a thrombin cleavage site within its N-terminal pro-domain, and in vitro studies confirmed cleavage of pallilysin with thrombin generates a truncated pallilysin fragment that has enhanced proteolytic activity, suggesting pallilysin can also exploit the host coagulation process to facilitate protease activation. Opsonophagocytosis assays performed with viable T. pallidum demonstrated pallilysin is a target of opsonic antibodies, consistent with a host component-interacting, surface-exposed cellular location. Wild-type pallilysin, but not the HEXXA mutant, degraded fibrin clots, and similarly heterologous expression of pallilysin in the non-invasive spirochete Treponema phagedenis facilitated fibrin clot degradation. Collectively these results identify pallilysin as a surface-exposed metalloprotease within T. pallidum that possesses an HEXXH active site motif and requires autocatalytic or host-mediated cleavage of a pro

  1. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  2. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy

    Teede Helena J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, little is known about physical activity patterns in pregnancy with prior estimates predominantly based on subjective assessment measures that are prone to error. Given the increasing obesity rates and the importance of physical activity in pregnancy, we evaluated the relationship and agreement between subjective and objective physical activity assessment tools to inform researchers and clinicians on optimal assessment of physical activity in pregnancy. Methods 48 pregnant women between 26-28 weeks gestation were recruited. The Yamax pedometer and Actigraph accelerometer were worn for 5-7 days under free living conditions and thereafter the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was completed. IPAQ and pedometer estimates of activity were compared to the more robust and accurate accelerometer data. Results Of 48 women recruited, 30 women completed the study (mean age: 33.6 ± 4.7 years; mean BMI: 31.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2 and 18 were excluded (failure to wear [n = 8] and incomplete data [n = 10]. The accelerometer and pedometer correlated significantly on estimation of daily steps (ρ = 0.69, p -1 day-1 were not significantly correlated and there was poor absolute agreement. Relative to the accelerometer, the IPAQ under predicted daily total METs (105.76 ± 259.13 min-1 day-1 and light METs (255.55 ± 128.41 min-1 day-1 and over predicted moderate METs (-112.25 ± 166.41 min-1 day-1. Conclusion Compared with the accelerometer, the pedometer appears to provide a reliable estimate of physical activity in pregnancy, whereas the subjective IPAQ measure performed less accurately in this setting. Future research measuring activity in pregnancy should optimally encompass objective measures of physical activity. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: ACTRN12608000233325. Registered 7/5/2008.

  3. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    Jedrey, Thomas


    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  4. Enzymatic activity of myccorrhizal fungi

    Roman Pachlewski


    Full Text Available The investigations included assays of enzymatic activity of ectomycorrhizal fungi from the genera: Amanita, Cenococcum, Coltricia, Hebeloma, Lactarius, Rhizopogon, Russula, Suillus, Tricholoma and the pine ectendomycorrhizal strain MrgX. Among the 22 investigated strains of fungi 18 could decompose starch, 14 urea, 11 asparagine, 7 protein, 6 pectin and 3 ce1lulose. The most varied enzyme activities were found in Amanita muscaria, A. verna, Hebeloma, mesophaeum, ectendomycorrhizal isolate MrgX, Rhizopogon luteolus and Suillus bovinus, the highest cellolotytic activity was shown by the ectendomycorrhizal strain.

  5. Simultaneous tracking and activity recognition

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.


    Many tracking problems involve several distinct objects interacting with each other. We develop a framework that takes into account interactions between objects allowing the recognition of complex activities. In contrast to classic approaches that consider distinct phases of tracking and activity...... be used to improve the prediction step of the tracking, while, at the same time, tracking information can be used for online activity recognition. Experimental results in two different settings show that our approach 1) decreases the error rate and improves the identity maintenance of the positional...

  6. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...


    Anne James


    Full Text Available This paper investigates fraudulent and illegal activities that take place through virtual meeting systems. The first section gives an introduction to the problem. Section two describes some cases of fraudulent activity using virtual meeting systems. Section three explores some means of capturing such fraudulent activities so thatcriminals can be brought to justice. Section four provides a solution for capturing virtual meeting conversations in a way that could be admissible in court. Section five discusses tell-tale signs that indicates that a conversation maybe fraudulent. Section six discusses Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques that might be used to detectvirtual meeting crime. Section seven discusses the conclusion to the paper.

  8. The Leadership Challenge Activities Book

    Kouzes, James M; Biech, Elaine


    ACTIVE Learning for Exemplary Leaders. The best leaders are the best learners. This evidence-based truth has been a foundational principle of The Leadership Challenge since it was first published nearly twenty-five years ago. In this new work, bestselling Leadership Challenge authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner team up with experiential learning expert Elaine Biech to bring today's leaders over 100 engaging activities designed to expand and accelerate their leadership development efforts. Grounded in The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership® model, The Leadership Challenge Activities Book in

  9. Stresslets induced by active swimmers

    Lauga, Eric


    Active particles disturb the fluid around them as force dipoles, or stresslets, which govern their collective dynamics. Unlike swimming speeds, the stresslets of active particles are rarely determined due to the lack of a suitable theoretical framework for arbitrary geometry. We propose a general method, based on the reciprocal theorem of Stokes flows, to compute stresslets as integrals of the velocities on the particle's surface, which we illustrate for spheroidal chemically-active particles. Our method will allow tuning the stresslet of artificial swimmers and tailoring their collective motion in complex environments.

  10. Organelle morphogenesis by active remodeling

    Ramakrishnan, N; Rao, Madan; Kumar, P B Sunil


    Intracellular organelles are subject to a steady flux of lipids and proteins through active, energy consuming transport processes. Active fission and fusion are promoted by GTPases, e.g., Arf-Coatamer and the Rab-Snare complexes, which both sense and generate local membrane curvature. Here we investigate through Dynamical Triangulation Monte Carlo simulations, the role that these active processes play in determining the morphology and compositional segregation in closed membranes. Our results suggest that the ramified morphologies of organelles observed in-vivo are a consequence of driven nonequilibrium processes rather than equilibrium forces.

  11. Activated protein C modulates the proinflammatory activity of dendritic cells

    Matsumoto T


    Full Text Available Takahiro Matsumoto,1,2* Yuki Matsushima,1* Masaaki Toda,1 Ziaurahman Roeen,1 Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza,1,5 Josephine A Hinneh,1 Etsuko Harada,1,3 Taro Yasuma,4 Yutaka Yano,4 Masahito Urawa,1,5 Tetsu Kobayashi,5 Osamu Taguchi,5 Esteban C Gabazza1 1Department of Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie Prefecture, 2BONAC Corporation, BIO Factory 4F, Fukuoka, 3Iwade Research Institute of Mycology, 4Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie Prefecture, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial activity of activated protein C in allergic diseases including bronchial asthma and rhinitis. However, the exact mechanism of action of activated protein C in allergies is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that pharmacological doses of activated protein C can modulate allergic inflammation by inhibiting dendritic cells. Materials and methods: Dendritic cells were prepared using murine bone marrow progenitor cells and human peripheral monocytes. Bronchial asthma was induced in mice that received intratracheal instillation of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells. Results: Activated protein C significantly increased the differentiation of tolerogenic plasmacytoid dendritic cells and the secretion of type I interferons, but it significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-mediated maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in myeloid dendritic cells. Activated protein C also inhibited maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Activated protein C-treated dendritic cells were less effective when differentiating naïve CD4 T-cells from Th1 or Th2 cells, and the cellular effect of activated protein C was mediated by its receptors. Mice that received adoptive transfer of activated protein C

  12. Reporting C-14 activities and concentrations

    Mook, WG; van der Plicht, J


    Three modes of reporting C-14 activities are in use, in part analogous to the internationally accepted (IAEA) conventions for stable isotopes: (1) absolute activity, the specific activity of C-14 or the activity per gram of carbon; (2) activity ratio, the ratio between the absolute activities of a s

  13. Exploring neuronal activity with photons

    Bourdieu, Laurent; Léger, Jean-François


    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Information coding * Optical recordings of neuronal activity * Functional organization of the cortex at the level of a cortical column * Microarchitecture of a cortical column * Dynamics of neuronal populations * Outlook * Bibliography

  14. Lobbying Semi-Annual Activity

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains Registration and Activity Reporting information lobbyists have provided. The dollar figures in the far right columns are the total of expenses...

  15. From Lurker to Active Participant

    Sloep, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth


    The original publication is available from Sloep, P. B., & Kester, L. (2009). From Lurker to Active Participant. In R. Koper (Ed)., Learning Network Services for Professional Development (pp. 17-26). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

  16. Student-Centered Reading Activities.

    Moffett, James; Wagner, Betty Jane


    Offers student-centered reading activities designed to bring students to reading maturity and involvement in literature. Discusses partner reading, dramatizing and performing texts, transforming texts, journal writing, discussion, and writing. (PRA)

  17. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical ...

  18. Active vs. inactive muscle (image)

    ... may lose 20 to 40 percent of their muscle -- and, along with it, their strength -- as they ... have found that a major reason people lose muscle is because they stop doing everyday activities that ...

  19. Be active – eat well


    The campaign was held from 25 to 29 May 2009, and was organised by the Medical Service jointly with the Restaurants Supervisory Committee, CERN Management, the Staff Association and CHIS, with the active support of CERN restaurants.

  20. Active spectral imaging and mapping

    Steinvall, Ove


    Active imaging and mapping using lasers as illumination sources have been of increasing interest during the last decades. Applications range from defense and security, remote sensing, medicine, robotics, and others. So far, these laser systems have mostly been based on a fix wavelength laser. Recent advances in lasers enable emission of tunable, multiline, or broadband emission, which together with the development of array detectors will extend the capabilities of active imaging and mapping. This paper will review some of the recent work on active imaging mainly for defense and security and remote sensing applications. A short survey of basic lidar relations and present fix wavelength laser systems is followed by a review of the benefits of adding the spectral dimension to active and/or passive electro-optical systems.

  1. Antileishmanial activity of lapachol analogues

    Nadja MF Lima


    Full Text Available The antileishmanial activity of lapachol, isolapachol, and dihydrolapachol, along with soluble derivatives (potassium salt and acetate was obtained. All the compounds were assayed against metacyclic promastigotes of two different species of Leishmania associated to tegumentar leishmaniasis: L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis. All compounds presented significant activity, being isolapachol acetate the most active against promastigotes, with IC50/24h = 1.6 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 3.4 ± 0.5 µg/ml for, respectively, L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis. This compound was also assayed in vivo against L. amazonensis and showed to be active. Its toxicity in vitro was also established, and at concentration similar to the IC50, no toxicity was evidenced. In all experiments, pentamidine isethionate was used as a reference drug. The present results reinforce the potential use of substituted hydroxyquinones and derivatives as promising antileishmanial drugs and suggest a continuing study within this class of compounds.

  2. Nonisothermal activation: nonlinear transport theory

    Dekker, H.; Maassen van den Brink, A.


    We present the statistical mechanical foundation of nonisothermal stochastic processes, thereby generalizing Kramers' Fokker-Planck model for thermal activation and providing a microscopic context for Rolf Landauer's original ideas on state-dependent diffusion. By applying projection operator method

  3. Sustainability of natural movement activity

    Matthew Metzgar


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a focus on reducing energy consumption in commercial buildings as a means of increasing their sustainability. As part of this trend, various health clubs and fitness centers have been designed to lower consumption of resources such as electricity and water. However, energy consumption is just one part of sustainability, with human health and economic health also paramount. When all components of sustainability are analyzed, other forms of physical activity may possess higher levels of sustainability than traditional gym exercise. Natural movement activity consists of outdoor activity that replicates movements performed by ancient humans during the Paleolithic era. A full analysis of sustainability shows that natural movement activity consumes fewer resources and provides unique psychological and physical benefits compared with traditional indoor exercise.

  4. 2012 Robotics Activities at JPL

    Volpe, Richard


    The Robotics Section of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, is engaged in a full spectrum of flight project and research activities. This paper will provide an overview of these efforts, and discuss the recent accomplishments and future directions of them. Specific activities will be high- lighted based on their level of accomplishment, impact on the community, maturity, or novelty. Robotics activities on flight projects are a significant subset of the full effort for these large missions. Complementing flight activities is a diverse set of research efforts for NASA and other U.S. Government agencies. Future directions will be motivated by NASA and other sponsor objectives, as well as success experienced in these current endeavours.

  5. Response to work activity guidance

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum is concerning the request from the FY95 Platte-Kansas Rivers Ecosystem Work Activity Guidance for refuge managers to review the purposes of refuges...

  6. Active Learning with Multiple Views

    Knoblock, C A; Muslea, I; 10.1613/jair.2005


    Active learners alleviate the burden of labeling large amounts of data by detecting and asking the user to label only the most informative examples in the domain. We focus here on active learning for multi-view domains, in which there are several disjoint subsets of features (views), each of which is sufficient to learn the target concept. In this paper we make several contributions. First, we introduce Co-Testing, which is the first approach to multi-view active learning. Second, we extend the multi-view learning framework by also exploiting weak views, which are adequate only for learning a concept that is more general/specific than the target concept. Finally, we empirically show that Co-Testing outperforms existing active learners on a variety of real world domains such as wrapper induction, Web page classification, advertisement removal, and discourse tree parsing.

  7. HUD Initiated Activity Cancellation Reports

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report displays all HOME activities automatically cancelled by IDIS. Effective January 1, 2011, and the beginning of every month thereafter, committed...

  8. Work activities within sustainable development

    Francisco Duarte


    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of a Franco-Brazilian Research project entitled "Work, Innovation and Development". The aim is to conceptually consider work activity within sustainable development, and to contribute methodologically towards developing strategies for designing sustainable work systems. After a brief description of the factors and the dimensions that have contributed to the creation of ideas on sustainable development, we will put forward two main approaches for understanding work activity within the context of sustainability, these being: the durability of work activity and the development of work activities for sustainable development. Both approaches are presented and examples are given. This is followed by a discussion of the design of sustainable work systems that focuses particularly on the political and technical dimensions of project management.

  9. Autocatalytic activation of influenza hemagglutinin.

    Lee, Jeong H; Goulian, Mark; Boder, Eric T


    Enveloped viruses contain surface proteins that mediate fusion between the viral and target cell membranes following an activating stimulus. Acidic pH induces the influenza virus fusion protein hemagglutinin (HA) via irreversible refolding of a trimeric conformational state leading to exposure of hydrophobic fusion peptides on each trimer subunit. Herein, we show that cells expressing fowl plague virus HA demonstrate discrete switching behavior with respect to the HA conformational change. Partially activated states do not exist at the scale of the cell, activation of HA leads to aggregation of cell surface trimers, and newly synthesized HA refold spontaneously in the presence of previously activated HA. These observations imply a feedback mechanism involving self-catalyzed refolding of HA and thus suggest a mechanism similar to the autocatalytic refolding and aggregation of prions.

  10. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dougan, Arden [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)


    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  11. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

    R.B. Laware


    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  12. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function


    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  13. Optimal constructions for active diagnosis

    Haar, Stefan; Haddad, Serge; Melliti, Tarek; Schwoon, Stefan


    International audience; Diagnosis is the task of detecting fault occurrences in a partially observed system. Depending on the possible observations, a discrete-event system may be diagnosable or not. Active diagnosis aims at controlling the system to render it diagnosable. Past research has proposed solutions for this problem, but their complexity remains to be improved. Here, we solve the decision and synthesis problems for active diagnosability, proving that (1) our procedures are optimal w...

  14. Antioxidant activity of polyaniline nanofibers


    Well-confined uniform polyaniline (PANT) nanofibers were synthesized by using photo-assisted chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of different dopant acids, and the radical scavenging ability of the produced PANI nanofibers was determined by the DPPH assay. It was found that the antioxidant activity of PANI nanofibers was higher than conventional PANI,and increased with decreasing of averaged diameter of the nanofibers. The enhanced antioxidant activity was concerned with increased surface area of PANI nanofibers.

  15. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    None, None


    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  16. Cystamine preparations exhibit anticoagulant activity.

    Aleman, Maria M; Holle, Lori A; Stember, Katherine G; Devette, Christa I; Monroe, Dougald M; Wolberg, Alisa S


    Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl)-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination.

  17. Cystamine preparations exhibit anticoagulant activity.

    Maria M Aleman

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination.

  18. Antileishmanial activity of polycyclic derivatives

    Sarciron M.E.


    Full Text Available 33 polycyclic derivatives have been studied and tested on Leishmania donovani and L. major promastigotes. Their antileishmanial activity was assessed in vitro and an assay of their cytotoxicity was realized on human myelomonocytic cell line. The reference molecules used in the assays were amphotericin B and pentamidine. Among the compounds tested, 29 possess an antileishmanial activity; 25 of those were more active against L. donovani than amphotericin B, and nine were as effective as amphotericin B against L. major. Many synthesized derivatives were more active against L.donovani than against L. major. The cytotoxicity studies have shown that among the thirty-three derivatives tested, 12 molecules have an IC50 towards THP-1 cells about equal than that reference drugs, the 21 other derivatives are much less toxic. A 3D QSAR study was undertaken and has permitted to predict activity against L. donovani and L. major and to highlight critical area to optimize activity against the two species.


    Anzhela I. BALOG


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to disclosure of features of social activity of modern student's youth. At the beginning of the article different classifications of social activity forms are described, that proves their great diversity. To identify specifics of social activity of modern student's youth we used the results of the survey conducted among university students in Kirov. We analyzed the readiness of students to participate in social activities; the popularity of various social organizations in the student environment; the expectations related to social activity and subjective self-determination of the level of social activity of student's youth. It should be noted that to date, indeed public youth organizations are well represented in our country. As for the student youth, then, of course, the most common of the non-governmental organizations in this environment are the bodies of the student government. They are represented by student councils, trade unions, student scientific society, student centers and personnel agencies, councils of dormitories and other organizations. The majority of respondents to impose requirements youth organizations develop their leadership and managerial qualities as well as promote selforganization of young people. This proves the need for the development of youth public organizations of competent state youth policy. 

  20. Face activated neurodynamic cortical networks.

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Ranken, Doug; Supek, Selma


    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as faces, activate multiple brain regions, yet little is known on the dynamics and complexity of the activated cortical networks during the entire measurable evoked response. In this study, we used simulated and face-evoked empirical MEG data from an oddball study to investigate the feasibility of accurate, efficient, and reliable spatio-temporal tracking of cortical pathways over prolonged time intervals. We applied a data-driven, semiautomated approach to spatio-temporal source localization with no prior assumptions on active cortical regions to explore non-invasively face-processing dynamics and their modulation by task. Simulations demonstrated that the use of multi-start downhill simplex and data-driven selections of time intervals submitted to the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm resulted in improved accuracy of the source localization and the estimation of the onset of their activity. Locations and dynamics of the identified sources indicated a distributed cortical network involved in face processing whose complexity was task dependent. This MEG study provided the first non-invasive demonstration, agreeing with intracranial recordings, of an early onset of the activity in the fusiform face gyrus (FFG), and that frontal activation preceded parietal for responses elicited by target faces.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Malik Chalal


    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  2. Pedometer-determined physical activity and active transport in girls

    Schofield Grant


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the risk of insufficient physical activity is greater in girls than in boys, especially during the adolescent years. The promotion of active transport (AT to and from school has been posited as a practical and convenient solution for increasing girls' total daily activity. However, there is limited information describing the associations between AT choices and girls' physical activity across a range of age, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The objectives of this study were to (1 investigate physical activity patterns in a large multiethnic sample of female children and adolescents, and to (2 estimate the physical activity associated with AT to and from school. Methods A total of 1,513 girls aged 5–16 years wore sealed multiday memory (MDM pedometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. The ethnic composition of this sample was 637 European (42.1%, 272 Pacific Island (18.0%, 207 East Asian (13.7%, 179 Maori (11.8%, 142 South Asian (9.4%, and 76 from other ethnic groups (5%. Pedometer compliance and school-related AT were assessed by questionnaire. Results Mean weekday step counts (12,597 ± 3,630 were higher and less variable than mean weekend steps (9,528 ± 4,407. A consistent decline in daily step counts was observed with age: after adjustment for ethnicity and SES, girls in school years 9–10 achieved 2,469 (weekday and 4,011 (weekend fewer steps than girls in years 1–2. Daily step counts also varied by ethnicity, with Maori girls the most active and South Asian girls the least active. Overall, 44.9% of participants used AT for school-related travel. Girls who used AT to and from school averaged 1,052 more weekday steps than those who did not use AT. However, the increases in steps associated with AT were significant only in older girls (school years 5–10 and in those of Maori or European descent. Conclusion Our data suggest that adolescent-aged girls and girls of Asian descent are

  3. Low intensity ultrasound stimulates biological activity of aerobic activated sludge

    LIU Hong; YAN Yixin; WANG Wenyan; YU Yongyong


    This work aims to explore a procedure to improve biological wastewater treatment efficiency using low intensity ultrasound.The aerobic activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as the experimental material.Oxygen uptake rate(OUR)of the activated sludge (AS)was determined to indicate the changes of AS activity stimulated by ultrasound at 35 kHZ for 0-40 min with ultrasonic intensities of 0-1.2 W/cm2.The highest OUR was observed at the ultrasonic intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 and an irradiation period of 10 min;more than 15% increase was achieved immediately after sonication.More significantly,the AS activity stimulated by ultrasound could last 24 h after sonication,and the AS activity achieved its peak value within 8 h after sonication.or nearly 100% higher than the initial level after sonication.Therefore,to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of bioreactors,ultrasound with an intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 could be employed to irradiate a part of the AS in the bioreactor for 10 min every 8 h.

  4. Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients.

    Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming


    Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts.

  5. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven


    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  6. Foundations of Active Control - Active Noise Reduction Helmets

    Elmkjær, Torsten Haaber Leth


    This Ph.D. thesis includes fundamental considerations about topologies, algorithms, implementations, methods etc., that can enter in the next generation of active control (AC) systems. Specifically, a new variant of feedforward control referred to as confined feedforward active control (CFFAC......-output (MIMO) system that facilitates both feedforward and feedback control. The general system is then referred to as hybrid MIMO confined-feedforward feedback (HMIMOCFFFB) active noise reduction (ANR) system. The investigation of a multi-channel ANR system with hybrid feedforward and feedback topologies...... performance. It is common engineering practice to apply an assumption of Gaussian distributed signals. However, many phenomena encountered in daily life fall into a generalization of the normal distribution that is referred to as α-stable distributions. Noise sources encountered in the domain of AC...

  7. Energy Balance and Physical Activity



    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of the world and becoming one of the major global public health problems.Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time,available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity.Increases in physical activity have been showen to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition,with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate.The Surgeon General's Report on physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular,moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life.However,the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for 3 times a day for aerobic training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits.Indeed,nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health,and should be encouraged in all age groups,particularly early in life,The question is no longer centerd around the health benefit of increasing physical activity,but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals,Hence,effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity.Among various interventions,the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children,The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challege in this field today.

  8. Antibacterial activity of epidural infusions.

    Coghlan, M W; Davies, M J; Hoyt, C; Joyce, L; Kilner, R; Waters, M J


    The incidence of epidural abscess following epidural catheterisation appears to be increasing, being recently reported as one in 1000 among surgical patients. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activity of various local anaesthetics and additives, used in epidural infusions, against a range of micro-organisms associated with epidural abscess. The aim was to determine which, if any, epidural infusion solution has the greatest antibacterial activity. Bupivacaine, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine crystals were dissolved and added to Mueller-Hinton Agar in concentrations of 0.06%, 0.125%, 0.2%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%. Fentanyl, adrenaline and clonidine were also mixed with agar in isolation and in combination with the local anaesthetics. Using a reference agar dilution method, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for a range of bacteria. Bupivacaine showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentrations between 0.125% and 0.25%. It did not inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at any of the concentrations tested. Levobupivacaine and ropivacaine showed no activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, even at the highest concentrations tested, and minimal activity against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentrations 0.5% and 1% respectively). The presence of fentanyl, adrenaline and clonidine had no additional effect on the antibacterial activity of any of the local anaesthetic agents. The low concentrations of local anaesthetic usually used in epidural infusions have minimal antibacterial activity. While the clinical implications of this in vitro study are not known, consideration should be given to increasing the concentration of bupivacaine in an epidural infusion or to administering a daily bolus of 0.25% bupivacaine to reduce the risk of epidural bacterial growth.

  9. Activities as a research resource

    Carla Regina Silva


    Full Text Available Activities play a guiding central role in occupational therapy, articulating to its utilization, the understanding and assessment of its capabilities in numerous and different interventions arising from this field. In this study, we aim to present the use of activities as a research methodology resource. Considering the pathways studied in a master’s research followed by a PhD work, some applications of this resource are reported as a powerful strategy of investigation for the occupational therapy researcher. It is about structuring, systematizing, and analyzing the activities proposed in professional practice by the theoretical and methodological rigor used in the research works. It emphasizes how the use of these activities can be considered important data, records, instruments and sources for different research methods, especially for qualitative analyses. Workshop activities were offered in the above mentioned studies; they were used as communication instruments and expressions of personal and collective experiences, supplying data to understand the actions of subjects and collectives. Furthermore, this strategy was applied as spaces of experimentation, learning and expression, where each participant was conceived as an active being of the process, in a way that the proposal could result in democratic experiences that reflected greater interest and participation, and a more complex presentation of the research data. It is worth mentioning that other methodological procedures, which substantiated the analyses and interpretation of the data collected, were also used. It was possible to conclude that activities, mainly as a qualitative research resource, constituted materialities in different languages and expressions that enriched the analyses arising from micro-realities, producing a repertoire of information that supported the interpretations required for the investigative processes.

  10. Activity assessment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Schoepfer, Alain; Safroneeva, Ekaterina


    The activity of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) can be assessed with patient-reported outcomes and biologic measures. Patient-reported outcomes include symptoms and quality of life, whereas biologic measures refer to endoscopic, histologic, and biochemical activity (e.g. blood biomarkers). So far, a validated tool to assess EoE activity in the above-mentioned dimensions is lacking. Given the lack of a standardized way to assess EoE activity in the various dimensions, the results of different clinical trials may be difficult to compare. For symptom assessment in adult patients, the symptom 'dysphagia' should be evaluated according to different standardized food consistencies. Furthermore, symptom assessment should take into account the following items: avoidance of specific food categories, food modification, and time to eat a regular meal. A distinct symptom recall period (e.g. 2 weeks) has to be defined for symptom assessment. Performing an 'esophageal stress test' with ingestion of a standardized meal to measure symptom severity bears the potential risk of acute food bolus impaction and should therefore be avoided. The description of endoscopic findings in EoE has meanwhile been standardized. Histologic evaluation of EoE activity should report either the size of the high-power field used or count the eosinophils per mm(2). There is a current lack of blood biomarkers demonstrating a good correlation with histologic activity in esophageal biopsies. The development and validation of an adult and pediatric EoE activity index is urgently needed not only for clinical trials and observational studies, but also for daily practice.

  11. Pollen indicators of human activity

    LI YiYin; ZHOU LiPing; CUI HaiTing


    The study of past human activities and their environmental effect is high in the agenda of global change research. A record of pollen assemblages is one of the most common proxies employed for detecting the impact of human activities on the landscape. In this review, we provide a summary and discussion on the recent progress on the use of pollen as indicators of human activity. For most of the studies related to human impact, the following features have been focused on: (1) decline of certain tree pollen; (2) flourishing of pioneer plant pollen; (3) concomitant occurrence of cereal-type pollen and cropland weed pollen; (4) abrupt changes in pollen concentration and richness; and (5) occurrence of nitrophilous plants and pastoral weed. Pollen of anthropogenic plants (weeds and cereal-type plants) is ideal indicators of human activities. Different types of human activities will result in different pollen assem-blages. Patterns of human-impacted pollen spectra would vary between forested areas and grassland. In the study of human impact with pollen data, high resolution in both time and space must be consid-ered. High resolution in space will help to inform the complexity of the landscape. More importantly, it can help to reveal the interference of human activities on the landscape, hence avoiding the bias cre-ated by the limited data points. Fine resolution in time will make accurate recording of short-lived events possible, hence avoiding the exclusion of events related to human activities. The combination of palynology with other proxies will help to decipher more accurately landscape changes through time. Charcoal is a particularly useful proxy for recording the disturbance of humans on vegetation. Its peak values usually occur with pronounced drop of tree pollen and significant rise of anthropogenic pollen.

  12. Matlab Interfacing with ActiveX%Matlab的ActiveX接口

    金玮; 范征宇; 姜新华



  13. Berberine acutely activates the glucose transport activity of GLUT1

    Cok, Alexandra; Plaisier, Christina; Salie, Matthew J.; Oram, Daniel S.; Chenge, Jude; Louters, Larry L.


    Berberine, which has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, has recently been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. While the hypoglycemic effect of berberine has been clearly documented in animal and cell line models, such as 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotube cells, the mechanism of action appears complex with data implicating activation of the insulin signaling pathway as well as activation of the exercise or AMP kinase-mediated pathway. There have been no reports of the a...

  14. Physiological roles of mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activated p38-regulated/activated protein kinase

    Sergiy; Kostenko; Gianina; Dumitriu; Kari; Jenssen; Lgreid; Ugo; Moens


    Mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPKs)are a family of proteins that constitute signaling pathways involved in processes that control gene expression,cell division, cell survival,apoptosis,metabolism,differentiation and motility.The MAPK pathways can be divided into conventional and atypical MAPK pathways.The first group converts a signal into a cellular response through a relay of three consecutive phosphorylation events exerted by MAPK kinase kinases,MAPK kinase,and MAPK.Atypical MAPK pathways are not organized into this three-tiered cascade.MAPK that belongs to both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways can phosphorylate both non-protein kinase substrates and other protein kinases.The latter are referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases.This review focuses on one such MAPK-activated protein kinase,MAPK-activated protein kinase 5(MK5)or p38-regulated/activated protein kinase(PRAK).This protein is highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and seems to be the target of both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways.Recent findings on the regulation of the activity and subcellular localization,bona fide interaction partners and physiological roles of MK5/PRAK are discussed.

  15. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Ji Cheng-Ye


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  16. Critical phenomena in active matter

    Paoluzzi, Matteo; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Claudio Maggi Collaboration; Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi Collaboration; Nicoletta Gnan Collaboration

    A collection of active agents can organize in phases with structural properties remarkably similar to those of ordinary materials, such as active gases, liquids and glasses. These phases are formed, however, out of equilibrium, where the machinery of equilibrium statistical mechanics cannot be applied. It has recently been shown that models of particles with Gaussian colored noise can capture some of the nonequilibrium behavior of active Brownian particles, including motility-induced phase separation. By using the Unified Gaussian Colored Noise Approximation (UCNA) it has been possible to obtain an equilibrium-like probability distribution function and an effective free energy for active Brownian particles. Here we employ UCNA to examine the effect of colored noise on mean-field order-disorder transitions. Starting with a φ4 Landau model that undergoes a second-order phase transition as a function of a tuning parameter, we calculate the shift in transition due to colored noise as a function of the noise amplitude and correlation time τ. We find that the transition line exhibits reentrance as a function of τ. The mean-field theoretical predictions are compared with Molecular Dynamics simulations of active Lennard-Jones particles. We acknowledge support from NSF-DMR-1305184.

  17. Chromospheric activity as age indicator

    Pace, Giancarlo


    Chromospheric activity has been calibrated and widely used as age indicator. However, it has been suggested that the viability of such an age indicator is, in the best case, limited to stars younger than about 1.5 Gyr. I aim to define the age range for which chromospheric activity is a robust astrophysical clock. I collected literature measurements of the S-index in field stars, which is a measure of the strength of the H and K lines of the Ca II and a proxy for chromospheric activity, and exploited the homogeneous database of temperature and age determinations for field stars provided by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Field data, inclusive data previously used to calibrate chromospheric ages, confirm the result found using open cluster data, i.e. there is no decay of chromospheric activity after about 2 Gyr. The only existing indication supporting the viability of chromospheric ages larger than 2 Gyr, is the similarity of chromospheric activity levels in the components of 35 dwarf b...

  18. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska


    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  19. Light-activated polymethylmethacrylate nanofibers with antibacterial activity

    Elashnikov, Roman [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Lyutakov, Oleksiy, E-mail: [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Ulbrich, Pavel [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Svorcik, Vaclav [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic)


    The creation of an antibacterial material with triggerable properties enables us to avoid the overuse or misuse of antibacterial substances and, thus, prevent the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. As a potential light-activated antibacterial material, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanofibers doped with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) were prepared by electrospinning. TPP was chosen as an effectively reactive oxygen species (ROS) producer. Antibacterial tests on Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) showed the excellent light-triggerable antibacterial activity of the doped materials. Upon light irradiation at the wavelength corresponding to the TPP absorption peak (405 nm), antibacterial activity dramatically increased, mostly due to the release of AgNPs from the polymer matrix. Furthermore, under prolonged light irradiation, the AgNPs/TPP/PMMA nanofibers, displayed enhanced longevity and photothermal stability. Thus, our results suggest that the proposed material is a promising option for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteria. - Highlights: • The novelty of proposed work can be summared as follow: • Silver nanoparticles/meso-tetraphenylporphyrin embedded polymethylmethacrylate nanofibers were obtained for the first time. • Light triggering of PMMA fibers leads to sufficient release of AgNPs or their agglomeration, depending on the light source. • Release of AgNPs leads to appearance of pronounced antimicrobial activity, which can be switched on/off by the illumination.




    The exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet radiation (UV) may lead to DNA damage resulting in mutation and thus possibly cancer, while irradiation can further act as a potent tumour promoter. In addition UV induces p21ras-mediated signalling leading to activation of transcription factors such as

  1. EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing Potential Endocrine Activity

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body’s endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many ...

  2. Activity Walkthrough - a cognitive walkthrough in activity theory terms

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege


    Ideally, HCI provides methods that can be applied easily by engineers and  systems designers, to ensure that measurement of and concern for the use  situation is brought into the design process. At the same  time conceptually rich approaches, like the human activity framework, have been proposed...

  3. Comae Berenicids and related activities

    Koseki, Masahiro


    The Comae Berenicids have been considered as a winter shower but lower meteor activities continue the whole year round in this region. It might be called the meteors of Coma Sororum Medusae (CSM) instead of Comae Berenicids (COM). The CSM radiant passes the zenith twice in lower latitudes of the northern hemisphere and CSM activities vary with the altitude of the radiant. December Leonis Minorids (DLM) and September varepsilon-Perseids (SPE) are distinct from the CSM background meteors, but July Pegasids (JPE), delta-Aurigids (DAU) and nu-Aurigids (NAU) are buried in this complex. The conglomeration of DLM, COM and JCO (January Comae Berenicids) has caused confusion in meteor observations as to whether they are three distinct sources or should be considered as one. A simple model of meteor stream structure shows the clear profile of their activities. Although their radiant drifts are overlapping, they might have different parent objects.

  4. Cidofovir Activity against Poxvirus Infections

    Robert Snoeck


    Full Text Available Cidofovir [(S-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropylcytosine, HPMPC] is an acyclic nucleoside analog approved since 1996 for clinical use in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis in AIDS patients. Cidofovir (CDV has broad-spectrum activity against DNA viruses, including herpes-, adeno-, polyoma-, papilloma- and poxviruses. Among poxviruses, cidofovir has shown in vitro activity against orthopox [vaccinia, variola (smallpox, cowpox, monkeypox, camelpox, ectromelia], molluscipox [molluscum contagiosum] and parapox [orf] viruses. The anti-poxvirus activity of cidofovir in vivo has been shown in different models of infection when the compound was administered either intraperitoneal, intranasal (aerosolized or topically. In humans, cidofovir has been successfully used for the treatment of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus and orf virus in immunocompromised patients. CDV remains a reference compound against poxviruses and holds potential for the therapy and short-term prophylaxis of not only orthopox- but also parapox- and molluscipoxvirus infections.

  5. Cidofovir Activity against Poxvirus Infections.

    Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert


    Cidofovir [(S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine, HPMPC] is an acyclic nucleoside analog approved since 1996 for clinical use in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in AIDS patients. Cidofovir (CDV) has broad-spectrum activity against DNA viruses, including herpes-, adeno-, polyoma-, papilloma- and poxviruses. Among poxviruses, cidofovir has shown in vitro activity against orthopox [vaccinia, variola (smallpox), cowpox, monkeypox, camelpox, ectromelia], molluscipox [molluscum contagiosum] and parapox [orf] viruses. The anti-poxvirus activity of cidofovir in vivo has been shown in different models of infection when the compound was administered either intraperitoneal, intranasal (aerosolized) or topically. In humans, cidofovir has been successfully used for the treatment of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus and orf virus in immunocompromised patients. CDV remains a reference compound against poxviruses and holds potential for the therapy and short-term prophylaxis of not only orthopox- but also parapox- and molluscipoxvirus infections.

  6. Microwave Activation of Drug Release

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór

    Due to current limitations in control of pharmaceutical drug release in the body along with increasing medicine use, methods of externally-controlled drug release are of high interest. In this thesis, the use of microwaves is proposed as a technique with the purpose of externally activating...... setup, called the microwave activation system has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. The system presented in this thesis, operates unobtrusively, i.e. without physically interfering with the target (patient). The torso phantom is a simple dual-layered cylindrical...... the phantom is of interest for disclosing essential information about the limitations of the concept, the phantom and the system. For these purposes, a twofold operation of the microwave activation system was performed, which are reciprocal of each other. In the first operation phase, named mapping...

  7. Molecular regulation of osteoclast activity.

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Baron, Roland


    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors that are primarily responsible for the degradation of mineralized bone during bone development, homeostasis and repair. In various skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis, hypercalcemia of malignancy, tumor metastases and Paget's disease, bone resorption by osteoclasts exceeds bone formation by osteoblasts leading to decreased bone mass, skeletal fragility and bone fracture. The overall rate of osteoclastic bone resorption is regulated either at the level of differentiation of osteoclasts from their monocytic/macrophage precursor pool or through the regulation of key functional proteins whose specific activities in the mature osteoclast control its attachment, migration and resorption. Thus, reducing osteoclast numbers and/or decreasing the bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts are two common therapeutic approaches for the treatment of hyper-resorptive skeletal diseases. In this review, several of the key functional players involved in the regulation of osteoclast activity will be discussed.

  8. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi


    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Jingxiu Wang


    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  10. Active colloids in complex fluids

    Patteson, Alison E; Arratia, Paulo E


    We review recent work on active colloids or swimmers, such as self-propelled microorganisms, phoretic colloidal particles, and artificial micro-robotic systems, moving in fluid-like environments. These environments can be water-like and Newtonian but can frequently contain macromolecules, flexible polymers, soft cells, or hard particles, which impart complex, nonlinear rheological features to the fluid. While significant progress has been made on understanding how active colloids move and interact in Newtonian fluids, little is known on how active colloids behave in complex and non-Newtonian fluids. An emerging literature is starting to show how fluid rheology can dramatically change the gaits and speeds of individual swimmers. Simultaneously, a moving swimmer induces time dependent, three dimensional fluid flows, that can modify the medium (fluid) rheological properties. This two-way, non-linear coupling at microscopic scales has profound implications at meso- and macro-scales: steady state suspension proper...

  11. The anticancer activity of propolis

    Jacek Nikliński


    Full Text Available Propolis and its compounds have been the subject of many studies due to their antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity; however, it is now known that they also possess antitumor properties. This review aims to summarize the results of studies on the mechanism of activity of propolis and its active compounds such as CAPE and chrysin in the apoptotic process, and their influence on the proliferation of cancer cells. Our review shows that propolis and its presented compounds induce apoptosis pathways in cancer cells. The antiproliferative effects of propolis, CAPE or chrysin in cancer cells are the result of the suppression of complexes of cyclins, as well as cell cycle arrest. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that propolis, CAPE and chrysin may inhibit tumor cell progression and may be useful as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive anticancer drugs.

  12. Active Versus Passive Academic Networking

    Goel, Rajeev K.; Grimpe, Christoph


    This paper examines determinants of networking by academics. Using information from a unique large survey of German researchers, the key contribution focuses on the active versus passive networking distinction. Is active networking by researchers a substitute or a complement to passive networking......? Other contributions include examining the role of geographic factors in networking and whether research bottlenecks affect a researcher's propensity to network. Are the determinants of European conference participation by German researchers different from conferences in rest of the world? Results show...... that some types of passive academic networking are complementary to active networking, while others are substitute. Further, we find differences in factors promoting participation in European conferences versus conferences in rest of the world. Finally, publishing bottlenecks as a group generally do...

  13. Pharmacological activities of Curcuma caesia

    Satyendra Singh Baghel


    Full Text Available Curcuma caesia Roxb. is a perennial, erect rhizomatous herb with large leaves. Fresh rhizomes are aromatic with intense camphoraceous odour, cultivated for its rhizomes, which are used in traditional medicine. The plant is reported to contain camphor, ar-turmerone, (Z-ocimene, ar-curcumene, 1, 8-cineole, elemene, borneol, bornyl acetate and curcumene as the major constituents. The plant has been reported to have antifungal activity, anti-asthmatic, smooth muscle relaxant, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic, locomotor depressant, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, anti-inflammatory properties. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases. This review gives a view mainly on the meditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of the plant.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.


    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  15. Antiviral active peptide from oyster


    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10-5 kDa, 5-1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10?5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  16. Anthelmintic activity of Cynodon dactylon

    Abhishek B


    Full Text Available The plant named Cynodon dactylon belonging to family Poaceae and it is also known as Durva grass, Bermuda grass, Indian Doab, Dhub, and Durba was collected from Paonta Sahib Himachal Pradesh, India in month of May. The plant material was processed for extract. Air-dried and Coarsely powdered plant was extracted for 7 days with Pet. ether, methanol, and water by using maceration method. The phytochemical tests were done to find the presence of the active chemical constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, Steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins and fixed oils. Standardization of Cynodon dactylon was carried out to check the extractive value, loss on drying, ash value etc. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated on adult Indian earthworm phertima posthuma by using albendazole as a standard drug. The aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon shows anthelmintic activity as compared with the standard drug.

  17. Signal focusing through active transport

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf


    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  18. Nitrogenase activity of immobilized Azotobacter

    Seyhan, E.; Kirwan, D.J.


    As part of a program to investigate the use of biological nitrogen fixation for fertilizer ammonia production, an investigation into the immobilization of the aerobic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Azotobacter vinelandii was undertaken. Immobilization was accomplished by adsorption onto an anionic exchange cellulose (Cellex E) with loadings as high as 10/sup 11/ cells/g resin. Immobilized cell preparations were tested under both batch and continuous-flow conditions. Nitrogenease activities as high as 4200 nmol/min g resin were observed as measured by the acetylene reduction assay. Immobilized cells retained their activity for as long as 117 hr in a continuous-flow reactor. Activity loss appeared to be related to the development of a variant strain.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Indigofera suffruticosa

    Sônia Pereira Leite


    Full Text Available Various organic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae obtained by infusion and maceration were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extracts were tested against 5 different species of human pathogenic bacteria and 17 fungal strains by the agar-solid diffusion method. Most of the extracts were devoid of antifungal and antibacterial activities, except the aqueous extract of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion, which showed strong inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 5000 µg ml−1. The MIC values to dermatophyte strains were 2500 µg ml−1 against Trichophyton rubrum (LM-09, LM-13 and Microsporum canis. This study suggests that aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion can be used in the treatment of skin diseases caused by dermatophytes.

  20. Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins

    Aimee Shen


    Full Text Available Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6, which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins.