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Sample records for activates bmp-independent chondrogenesis

  1. Kaempferol induces chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells through activation of ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway.

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    Nepal, Manoj; Li, Liang; Cho, Hyoung Kwon; Park, Jong Kun; Soh, Yunjo

    2013-12-01

    Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders.

  2. Master regulator for chondrogenesis, Sox9, regulates transcriptional activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer BBF2H7/CREB3L2 in chondrocytes.

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    Hino, Kenta; Saito, Atsushi; Kido, Miori; Kanemoto, Soshi; Asada, Rie; Takai, Tomoko; Cui, Min; Cui, Xiang; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2014-05-16

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer, box B-binding factor 2 human homolog on chromosome 7 (BBF2H7), is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transmembrane transcription factor. This molecule is activated in response to ER stress during chondrogenesis. The activated BBF2H7 accelerates cartilage matrix protein secretion through the up-regulation of Sec23a, which is responsible for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus and is a target of BBF2H7. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanisms of the transcriptional activation of Bbf2h7 in chondrocytes. The transcription of Bbf2h7 is regulated by Sex determining region Y-related high-mobility group box 9 (Sox9), a critical factor for chondrocyte differentiation that facilitates the expression of one of the major cartilage matrix proteins Type II collagen (Col2), through binding to the Sox DNA-binding motif in the Bbf2h7 promoter. BBF2H7 is activated as a transcription factor in response to physiological ER stress caused by abundant synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins, and consequently regulates the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins. Taken together, our findings demonstrate novel regulatory mechanisms of Sox9 for controlling the secretion of cartilage matrix proteins through the activation of BBF2H7-Sec23a signaling during chondrogenesis.

  3. Thyroid hormones regulate fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling during chondrogenesis.

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    Barnard, Joanna C; Williams, Allan J; Rabier, Bénédicte; Chassande, Olivier; Samarut, Jacques; Cheng, Sheue-Yann; Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R

    2005-12-01

    Childhood hypothyroidism causes growth arrest with delayed ossification and growth-plate dysgenesis, whereas thyrotoxicosis accelerates ossification and growth. Thyroid hormone (T(3)) regulates chondrocyte proliferation and is essential for hypertrophic differentiation. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are also important regulators of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, and activating mutations of FGF receptor-3 (FGFR3) cause achondroplasia. We investigated the hypothesis that T(3) regulates chondrogenesis via FGFR3 in ATDC5 cells, which undergo a defined program of chondrogenesis. ATDC5 cells expressed two FGFR1, four FGFR2, and one FGFR3 mRNA splice variants throughout chondrogenesis, and expression of each isoform was stimulated by T(3) during the first 6-12 d of culture, when T(3) inhibited proliferation by 50%. FGFR3 expression was also increased in cells treated with T(3) for 21 d, when T(3) induced an earlier onset of hypertrophic differentiation and collagen X expression. FGFR3 expression was reduced in growth plates from T(3) receptor alpha-null mice, which exhibit skeletal hypothyroidism, but was increased in T(3) receptor beta(PV/PV) mice, which display skeletal thyrotoxicosis. These findings indicate that FGFR3 is a T(3)-target gene in chondrocytes. In further experiments, T(3) enhanced FGF2 and FGF18 activation of the MAPK-signaling pathway but inhibited their activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1. FGF9 did not activate MAPK or signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 pathways in the absence or presence of T(3). Thus, T(3) exerted differing effects on FGFR activation during chondrogenesis depending on which FGF ligand stimulated the FGFR and which downstream signaling pathway was activated. These studies identify novel interactions between T(3) and FGFs that regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during chondrogenesis.

  4. Incorporation of hyaluronic acid into collagen scaffolds for the control of chondrocyte-mediated contraction and chondrogenesis

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    Tang Shunqing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Spector, Myron [Tissue Engineering, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a principal matrix molecule in many tissues, is present in high amounts in articular cartilage. HA contributes in unique ways to the physical behavior of the tissue, and has been shown to have beneficial effects on chondrocyte activity. The goal of this study was to incorporate graduated amounts of HA into type I collagen scaffolds for the control of chondrocyte-mediated contraction and chondrogenesis in vitro. The results demonstrated that the amount of contraction of HA/collagen scaffolds by adult canine articular chondrocytes increased with the HA content of the scaffolds. The greatest amount of chondrogenesis after two weeks was found in the scaffolds which had undergone the most contraction. HA can play a useful role in adjusting the mechanical behavior of tissue engineering scaffolds and chondrogenesis in chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds.

  5. Microenvironment is involved in cellular response to hydrostatic pressures during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Ye, Rui; Hao, Jin; Song, Jinlin; Zhao, Zhihe; Fang, Shanbao; Wang, Yating; Li, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Chondrocytes integrate numerous microenvironmental cues to mount physiologically relevant differentiation responses, and the regulation of mechanical signaling in chondrogenic differentiation is now coming into intensive focus. To facilitate tissue-engineered chondrogenesis by mechanical strategy, a thorough understanding about the interactional roles of chemical factors under mechanical stimuli in regulating chondrogenesis is in great need. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate the interaction of rat MSCs with their microenvironment by imposing dynamic and static hydrostatic pressure through modulating gaseous tension above the culture medium. Under dynamic pressure, chemical parameters (pH, pO2, and pCO2) were kept in homeostasis. In contrast, pH was remarkably reduced due to increased pCO2 under static pressure. MSCs under the dynamically pressured microenvironment exhibited a strong accumulation of GAG within and outside the alginate beads, while cells under the statically pressured environment lost newly synthesized GAG into the medium with a speed higher than its production. In addition, the synergic influence on expression of chondrogenic genes was more persistent under dynamic pressure than that under static pressure. This temporal contrast was similar to that of activation of endogenous TGF-β1. Taken altogether, it indicates that a loading strategy which can keep a homeostatic chemical microenvironment is preferred, since it might sustain the stimulatory effects of mechanical stimuli on chondrogenesis via activation of endogenous TGF-β1.

  6. MicroRNAs regulate osteogenesis and chondrogenesis

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    Dong, Shiwu, E-mail: shiwudong@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Bo; Guo, Hongfeng; Kang, Fei [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Department of Anatomy, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To focus on the role of miRNAs in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Involved in the regulation of miRNAs in osteoarthritis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To speculate some therapeutic targets for bone diseases. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecules and non-coding single strand RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to specific sequences within target genes. miRNAs have been recognized as important regulatory factors in organism development and disease expression. Some miRNAs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes, eventually influencing metabolism and bone formation. miRNAs are expected to provide potential gene therapy targets for the clinical treatment of metabolic bone diseases and bone injuries. Here, we review the recent research progress on the regulation of miRNAs in bone biology, with a particular focus on the miRNA-mediated control mechanisms of bone and cartilage formation.

  7. Extracellular matrix mediates epithelial effects on chondrogenesis in vitro.

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    Solursh, M; Jensen, K L; Zanetti, N C; Linsenmayer, T F; Reiter, R S

    1984-10-01

    It has been previously observed that single chick embryonic limb mesenchymal cells can differentiate into chondrocytes without cell-cell interactions when cultured in collagen or agarose gels. In the present study, limb ectoderm, but not dermis, inhibits chondrogenesis when placed on such collagen gel cultures. The inhibitory influence can be transmitted extensive distances in the gel, even when the ectoderm is placed on a porous filter. Collagen gels, preconditioned with limb ectoderms, are also inhibitory to chondrogenesis. On the other hand, chondrogenesis is less inhibited by ectoderm when the mesenchymal cells are placed in agarose. These results suggest that the antichondrogenic effect of limb ectoderm is mediated through alterations of the collagenous extracellular matrix and support the idea that the extracellular matrix must be considered as an organized, functional unit capable of regulating cell differentiation.

  8. Intermittent PTHrP(1–34) Exposure Augments Chondrogenesis and Reduces Hypertrophy of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

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    Fischer, Jennifer; Aulmann, Antje; Dexheimer, Verena; Grossner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Phenotype instability and premature hypertrophy prevent the use of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cartilage regeneration. Aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent supplementation of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), as opposed to constant treatment, can beneficially influence MSC chondrogenesis and to explore molecular mechanisms below catabolic and anabolic responses. Human MSCs subjected to chondrogenic induction in high-density culture received PTHrP(1–34), forskolin, dbcAMP, or PTHrP(7–34) either constantly or via 6-h pulses (three times weekly), before proteoglycan, collagen type II, and X deposition; gene expression; and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were assessed. While constant application of PTHrP(1–34) suppressed chondrogenesis of MSCs, pulsed application significantly increased collagen type 2 (COL2A1) gene expression and the collagen type II, proteoglycan, and DNA content of pellets after 6 weeks. Collagen type 10 (COL10A1) gene expression was little affected but Indian hedgehog (IHH) expression and ALP activity were significantly downregulated by pulsed PTHrP. A faster response to PTHrP exposure was recorded for ALP activity over COL2A1 regulation, suggesting that signal duration is critical for catabolic versus anabolic reactions. Stimulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling by forskolin reproduced major effects of both treatment modes, whereas application of PTHrP(7–34) capable of protein kinase C (PKC) signaling was ineffective. Pulsed PTHrP exposure of MSCs stimulated chondrogenesis and reduced endochondral differentiation apparently uncoupling chondrogenic matrix deposition from hypertrophic marker expression. cAMP/PKA was the major signaling pathway triggering the opposing effects of both treatment modes. Intermittent application of PTHrP represents an important novel means to improve chondrogenesis of MSCs and may be considered as a supporting clinical

  9. Gene Transfer Strategies to Promote Chondrogenesis and Cartilage Regeneration.

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    Im, Gun-Il

    2016-04-01

    Gene transfer has been used experimentally to promote chondrogenesis and cartilage regeneration. While it is controversial to apply gene therapy for nonlethal conditions such as cartilage defect, there is a possibility that the transfer of therapeutic transgenes may dramatically increase the effectiveness of cell therapy and reduce the quantity of cells that are needed to regenerate cartilage. Single or combination of growth factors and transcription factors has been transferred to mesenchymal stem cells or articular chondrocytes using both nonviral and viral approaches. The current challenge for the clinical applications of genetically modified cells is ensuring the safety of gene therapy while guaranteeing effectiveness. Viral gene delivery methods have been mainstays currently with enhanced safety features being recently refined. On the other hand, efficiency has been greatly improved in nonviral delivery. This review summarizes the history and recent update on the gene transfer to enhance chondrogenesis from stem cells or articular chondrocytes.

  10. Induction of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis by polyacrylate substrates.

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    Glennon-Alty, Laurence; Williams, Rachel; Dixon, Simon; Murray, Patricia

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can generate chondrocytes in vitro, but typically need to be cultured as aggregates in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), which makes scale-up difficult. Here we investigated if polyacrylate substrates modelled on the functional group composition and distribution of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding site could induce MSCs to undergo chondrogenesis in the absence of exogenous TGF-β. Within a few days of culture on the biomimetic polyacrylates, both mouse and human MSCs, and a mesenchymal-like mouse-kidney-derived stem cell line, began to form multi-layered aggregates and started to express the chondrocyte-specific markers, Sox9, collagen II and aggrecan. Moreover, collagen II tended to be expressed in the centre of the aggregates, similarly to developing limb buds in vivo. Surface analysis of the substrates indicated that those with the highest surface amine content were most effective at promoting MSC chondrogenesis. These results highlight the importance of surface group functionality and the distribution of those groups in the design of substrates to induce MSC chondrogenesis.

  11. Biomimetic alginate/polyacrylamide porous scaffold supports human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis

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    Guo, Peng [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China); Yuan, Yasheng, E-mail: yuanyasheng@163.com [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China); Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Chi, Fanglu [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China)

    2014-09-01

    We describe the development of alginate/polyacrylamide (ALG/PAAm) porous hydrogels based on interpenetrating polymer network structure for human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis. Three ALG/PAAm hydrogels at molar ratios of 10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 were prepared and characterized with enhanced elastic and rubbery mechanical properties, which are similar to native human cartilage tissues. Their elasticity and swelling properties were also studied under different physiological pH conditions. Finally, in vitro tests demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells could proliferate on the as-synthesized hydrogels with improved alkaline phosphatase activities. These results suggest that ALG/PAAm hydrogels may be a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • ALG/PAAm hydrogels were prepared at different molar ratios for cartilage tissue engineering. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels feature an interpenetrating polymer network structure. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels demonstrate strengthened elastic and rubbery mechanical properties. • hMSCs could be cultured on the ALG/PAAm hydrogels for proliferation and chondrogenesis.

  12. Differential regulation of EP receptor isoforms during chondrogenesis and chondrocyte maturation.

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    Clark, Christine A; Schwarz, Edward M; Zhang, Xinping; Ziran, Navid M; Drissi, Hicham; O'Keefe, Regis J; Zuscik, Michael J

    2005-03-18

    Regulation of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte maturation by prostaglandins has been a topic of interest during recent years. Particular focus on this area derives from the realization that inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could impact these cartilage-related processes which are important in skeletal development and are recapitulated during bone healing either post-trauma or post-surgery. In addition to reviewing the relevant literature focused on prostaglandin synthesis and signaling through the G-protein coupled EP receptors, we present novel findings that establish the expression profile of EP receptors in chondroprogenitors and chondrocytes. Further, we begin to examine the signaling that may be involved with the transduction of PGE2 effects in these cells. Our findings suggest that EP2 and EP4 receptor activation of cAMP metabolism may represent a central axis of events that facilitate the impact of PGE2 on the processes of mesenchymal stem cell commitment to chondrogenesis and ultimate chondrocyte maturation.

  13. Redundancy in regulation of chondrogenesis in MIA/CD-RAP-deficient mice.

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    Schmid, Rainer; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2014-02-01

    Recent in vitro analysis of MIA/CD-RAP-deficient (MIA(-/-)) mesenchymal stem cells revealed altered chondrogenic differentiation, characterised by enhanced proliferation and delayed differentiation. However, adult MIA(-/-) mice develop normally and show only ultrastructural defects of the cartilage but no major abnormalities. We therefore focused, in this study, on chondrogenesis in vivo in MIA(-/-) mouse embryos to reveal potential molecular changes during embryogenesis and possible redundant mechanisms, which explain the almost normal phenotype despite MIA/CD-RAP loss. In situ hybridisation analysis revealed larger expression areas of Col2a1 and Sox9 positive, proliferating chondrocytes at day 15.5 and 16.5 of embryogenesis in MIA(-/-) mice. The initially diminished zone of Col10a1-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes at day 15.5 was compensated at day 16.5 in MIA(-/-) embryos. Supported by in vitro studies using mesenchymal stem cells, we discovered that chondrogenesis in MIA(-/-) mice is modified by enhanced Sox9, Sox6 and AP-2α expression. Finally, we identified reduced AP1 and CRE activity, analysed by reporter gene- and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, important for redundancy mechanism which rescued delayed hypertrophic differentiation and allows normal development of MIA(-/-) mice. In summary, as observed in other knockout models of molecules important for cartilage development and differentiation, viability and functional integrity is reached by remarkable molecular redundancy in MIA/CD-RAP knockout mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The immediate early gene product EGR1 and polycomb group proteins interact in epigenetic programming during chondrogenesis.

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    Frank Spaapen

    Full Text Available Initiation of and progression through chondrogenesis is driven by changes in the cellular microenvironment. At the onset of chondrogenesis, resting mesenchymal stem cells are mobilized in vivo and a complex, step-wise chondrogenic differentiation program is initiated. Differentiation requires coordinated transcriptomic reprogramming and increased progenitor proliferation; both processes require chromatin remodeling. The nature of early molecular responses that relay differentiation signals to chromatin is poorly understood. We here show that immediate early genes are rapidly and transiently induced in response to differentiation stimuli in vitro. Functional ablation of the immediate early factor EGR1 severely deregulates expression of key chondrogenic control genes at the onset of differentiation. In addition, differentiating cells accumulate DNA damage, activate a DNA damage response and undergo a cell cycle arrest and prevent differentiation associated hyper-proliferation. Failed differentiation in the absence of EGR1 affects global acetylation and terminates in overall histone hypermethylation. We report novel molecular connections between EGR1 and Polycomb Group function: Polycomb associated histone H3 lysine27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 blocks chromatin access of EGR1. In addition, EGR1 ablation results in abnormal Ezh2 and Bmi1 expression. Consistent with this functional interaction, we identify a number of co-regulated targets genes in a chondrogenic gene network. We here describe an important role for EGR1 in early chondrogenic epigenetic programming to accommodate early gene-environment interactions in chondrogenesis.

  15. Regulating Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with a Retinoic Acid Receptor-Beta Inhibitor: Differential Sensitivity of Chondral Versus Osteochondral Development

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    Solvig Diederichs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Main objective was to investigate whether the synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR-β antagonist LE135 is able to drive in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs or improve differentiation by suppressing hypertrophic chondrocyte development. Methods: Chondrogenesis of human bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs was induced in micromass pellet culture for six weeks. Effects of LE135 alone and in combinatorial treatment with TGF-β on deposition of cartilaginous matrix including collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans, on deposition of non-hyaline cartilage collagens type I and X, and on hypertrophy markers including alkaline phosphatase (ALP, indian hedghehog (IHH and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 were assessed. Results: LE135 was no inducer of chondrogenesis and failed to stimulate deposition of collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans. Moreover, addition of LE135 to TGF-β-treated pellets inhibited cartilaginous matrix deposition and gene expression of COL2A1. In contrast, non-hyaline cartilage collagens were less sensitive to LE135 and hypertrophy markers remained unaffected. Conclusion: This demonstrates a differential sensitivity of chondral versus endochondral differentiation pathways to RARβ signaling; however, opposite to the desired direction. The relevance of trans-activating versus trans-repressing RAR signaling, including effects on activator protein (AP-1 is discussed and implications for overcoming current limits of hMSC chondrogenesis are considered.

  16. Enamel Matrix Derivative Stimulates Osteogenesis-and Chondrogenesis-related Transcription Factors in C3H10T1/2 Cells

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    Masataka NARUKAWA; Naoto SUZUKI; Tadahiro TAKAYAMA; Yasuhiko YAMASHITA; Kichibee OTSUKA; Koichi ITO

    2007-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine how enamel matrix derivative (EMD) affects the expression of osteogenesis-and chondrogenesis-related transcription factors in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.C3H10T1/2 cell line, a typical pluripotential mesenchymal cell line, was cultured with or without EMD for up to 7 d. Expression of mRNAs encoding osteogenesis-and chondrogenesis-related transcription factors(Runx2, Osterix, AJ18, Dlx5, Msx2, Sox5, Sox9 and Zfp60) was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Runx2 and Sox9 protein expression and the presence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6-like molecules in EMD were determined by Western blotting. EMD substantially increased mRNA levels of osteogenesis-and chondrogenesis-related transcription factors. EMD also induced Runx2 and Sox9 protein expression. Western blotting analysis of EMD using anti-BMP-6 antibody revealed immunoreactive bands corresponding to about 14 kDa and 60 kDa. These results suggest that EMD stimulates osteogenesis-and chondrogenesis-related transcription factors, and these activities may be mediated, at least in part, by BMP-6in EMD.

  17. Semi-automatic grading system in histologic and immunohistochemistry analysis to evaluate in vitro chondrogenesis

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    Gutiérrez, María Lucía; Deparatamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Guevara, Johana; Instituto de Errores Innatos del Metabolismo. Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C., Colombia; Barrera, Luis Alejandro; Instituto de Errores Innatos del Metabolismo. Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,

    2012-01-01

    During embryological limb formation mesenchymal cells condense and differentiate into chondrocytes, in a process known as chondrogenesis. These chondrocytes synthesize glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), thus playing an important role in this process. A simplified system in vitro chondrogenesis, using adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated. This differentiation potential is usually assessed by histological staining. Objective. Establishment of a semi-automatic grading system for ...

  18. Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis in the Knee: A Review.

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    Lee, Yee Han Dave; Suzer, Ferzan; Thermann, Hajo

    2014-07-01

    Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) is a 1-step cartilage restoration technique that combines microfracture with the use of an exogenous scaffold. This matrix covers and mechanically stabilizes the clot. There have been an increasing number of studies performed related to the AMIC technique and an update of its use and results is warranted. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was performed using the terms "AMIC" or "Autologous Matrix Induced Chondrogenesis." A total of 19 basic science and clinical articles were identified. Ten studies that were published on the use of AMIC for knee chondral defects were identified and the results of 219 patients were analyzed. The improvements in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective, Lysholm and Tegner scores at 2 years were comparable to the published results from autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and matrix ACI techniques for cartilage repair. Our systematic review of the current state of the AMIC technique suggests that it is a promising 1-stage cartilage repair technique. The short-term clinical outcomes and magnetic resonance imaging results are comparable to other cell-based methods. Further studies with AMIC in randomized studies versus other repair techniques such as ACI are needed in the future.

  19. Hydrophilic polyurethane matrix promotes chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Nalluri, Sandeep M; Krishnan, G Rajesh; Cheah, Calvin; Arzumand, Ayesha; Yuan, Yuan; Richardson, Caley A; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2015-09-01

    Segmental polyurethanes exhibit biphasic morphology and can control cell fate by providing distinct matrix guided signals to increase the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based hydrophilic polyurethanes can deliver differential signals to MSCs through their matrix phases where hard segments are cell-interactive domains and PEG based soft segments are minimally interactive with cells. These coordinated communications can modulate cell-matrix interactions to control cell shape and size for chondrogenesis. Biphasic character and hydrophilicity of polyurethanes with gel like architecture provide a synthetic matrix conducive for chondrogenesis of MSCs, as evidenced by deposition of cartilage-associated extracellular matrix. Compared to monophasic hydrogels, presence of cell interactive domains in hydrophilic polyurethanes gels can balance cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These results demonstrate the correlation between lineage commitment and the changes in cell shape, cell-matrix interaction, and cell-cell adhesion during chondrogenic differentiation which is regulated by polyurethane phase morphology, and thus, represent hydrophilic polyurethanes as promising synthetic matrices for cartilage regeneration.

  20. Ewing sarcoma ewsa protein regulates chondrogenesis of Meckel's cartilage through modulation of Sox9 in zebrafish.

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    Merkes, Chris; Turkalo, Timothy K; Wilder, Nicole; Park, Hyewon; Wenger, Luke W; Lewin, Seth J; Azuma, Mizuki

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common skeletal (bone and cartilage) cancer in adolescents, and it is characterized by the expression of the aberrant chimeric fusion gene EWS/FLI1. Wild-type EWS has been proposed to play a role in mitosis, splicing and transcription. We have previously shown that EWS/FLI1 interacts with EWS, and it inhibits EWS activity in a dominant manner. Ewing sarcoma is a cancer that specifically develops in skeletal tissues, and although the above data suggests the significance of EWS, its role in chondrogenesis/skeletogenesis is not understood. To elucidate the function of EWS in skeletal development, we generated and analyzed a maternal zygotic (MZ) ewsa/ewsa line because the ewsa/wt and ewsa/ewsa zebrafish appeared to be normal and fertile. Compared with wt/wt, the Meckel's cartilage of MZ ewsa/ewsa mutants had a higher number of craniofacial prehypertrophic chondrocytes that failed to mature into hypertrophic chondrocytes at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf). Ewsa interacted with Sox9, which is the master transcription factor for chondrogenesis. Sox9 target genes were either upregulated (ctgfa, ctgfb, col2a1a, and col2a1b) or downregulated (sox5, nog1, nog2, and bmp4) in MZ ewsa/ewsa embryos compared with the wt/wt zebrafish embryos. Among these Sox9 target genes, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiment demonstrated that Ewsa directly binds to ctgfa and ctgfb loci. Consistently, immunohistochemistry showed that the Ctgf protein is upregulated in the Meckel's cartilage of MZ ewsa/ewsa mutants. Together, we propose that Ewsa promotes the differentiation from prehypertrophic chondrocytes to hypertrophic chondrocytes of Meckel's cartilage through inhibiting Sox9 binding site of the ctgf gene promoter. Because Ewing sarcoma specifically develops in skeletal tissue that is originating from chondrocytes, this new role of EWS may provide a potential molecular basis of its pathogenesis.

  1. Ewing sarcoma ewsa protein regulates chondrogenesis of Meckel's cartilage through modulation of Sox9 in zebrafish.

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    Chris Merkes

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is the second most common skeletal (bone and cartilage cancer in adolescents, and it is characterized by the expression of the aberrant chimeric fusion gene EWS/FLI1. Wild-type EWS has been proposed to play a role in mitosis, splicing and transcription. We have previously shown that EWS/FLI1 interacts with EWS, and it inhibits EWS activity in a dominant manner. Ewing sarcoma is a cancer that specifically develops in skeletal tissues, and although the above data suggests the significance of EWS, its role in chondrogenesis/skeletogenesis is not understood. To elucidate the function of EWS in skeletal development, we generated and analyzed a maternal zygotic (MZ ewsa/ewsa line because the ewsa/wt and ewsa/ewsa zebrafish appeared to be normal and fertile. Compared with wt/wt, the Meckel's cartilage of MZ ewsa/ewsa mutants had a higher number of craniofacial prehypertrophic chondrocytes that failed to mature into hypertrophic chondrocytes at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf. Ewsa interacted with Sox9, which is the master transcription factor for chondrogenesis. Sox9 target genes were either upregulated (ctgfa, ctgfb, col2a1a, and col2a1b or downregulated (sox5, nog1, nog2, and bmp4 in MZ ewsa/ewsa embryos compared with the wt/wt zebrafish embryos. Among these Sox9 target genes, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiment demonstrated that Ewsa directly binds to ctgfa and ctgfb loci. Consistently, immunohistochemistry showed that the Ctgf protein is upregulated in the Meckel's cartilage of MZ ewsa/ewsa mutants. Together, we propose that Ewsa promotes the differentiation from prehypertrophic chondrocytes to hypertrophic chondrocytes of Meckel's cartilage through inhibiting Sox9 binding site of the ctgf gene promoter. Because Ewing sarcoma specifically develops in skeletal tissue that is originating from chondrocytes, this new role of EWS may provide a potential molecular basis of its pathogenesis.

  2. Activity of protein kinase C during the differentiation of chick limb bud mesenchymal cells.

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    Sonn, J K; Solursh, M

    1993-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between protein kinase C (PKC) and chondrogenesis, PKC activity was assayed in cultures of stage 23/24 chick limb bud mesenchymal cells under various conditions. PKC activities of cytosolic and particulate fractions were low in 1 day cultured cells. As chondrogenesis proceeds, cytosolic PKC activity increased more than twofold, while that of the particulate fraction increased only slightly. Three days' treatment of cultures with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, 5 x 10(-8) M) inhibited chondrogenesis judged by the accumulation of Alcian blue bound to the extracellular matrix and depressed PKC activity in cytosolic fraction. When cells were grown for 3 days in control medium after 3 days' treatment with PMA, chondrogenesis resumed and PKC activity recovered to normal values. PKC activity in cultures plated at low density (5 x 10(6) cells/ml) where chondrogenesis is reduced was as low as that in 1 day cultured cells plated at high density (2 x 10(7) cells/ml) or that in PMA treated cells. On the other hand, staurosporine promoted chondrogenesis without affecting PKC activity. Furthermore, reversal of PMA's inhibitory effect on chondrogenesis by staurosporine was not accompanied by recovery of PKC activity. These data indicate that increases in PKC activity is closely related to chondrogenesis and that PMA inhibits chondrogenesis by depressing PKC. However, staurosporine's enhancing effect on chondrogenesis is not related to PKC activity.

  3. Chemical modification of extracellular matrix by cold atmospheric plasma-generated reactive species affects chondrogenesis and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Peter; Chernets, Natalie; Song, You; Dobrynin, Danil; Pleshko, Nancy; Steinbeck, Marla J; Freeman, Theresa A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) modifies extracellular matrices (ECM) to influence chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Replacement of cartilage by bone during endochondral ossification is essential in fetal skeletal development, bone growth and fracture healing. Regulation of this process by the ECM occurs through matrix remodelling, involving a variety of cell attachment molecules and growth factors, which influence cell morphology and protein expression. The commercially available ECM, Matrigel, was treated with microsecond or nanosecond pulsed (μsp or nsp, respectively) DBD frequencies conditions at the equivalent frequencies (1 kHz) or power (~1 W). Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was added and the mixture subcutaneously injected into mice to simulate ectopic endochondral ossification. Two weeks later, the masses were extracted and analysed by microcomputed tomography. A significant increase in bone formation was observed in Matrigel treated with μsp DBD compared with control, while a significant decrease in bone formation was observed for both nsp treatments. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis showed Matrigel treated with μsp plasma increased the number of invading cells, the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor and chondrogenesis while the opposite was true for Matrigel treated with nsp plasma. In support of the in vivo Matrigel study, 10 T1/2 cells cultured in vitro on μsp DBD-treated type I collagen showed increased expression of adhesion proteins and activation of survival pathways, which decreased with nsp plasma treatments. These results indicate DBD modification of ECM can influence cellular behaviours to accelerate or inhibit chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Differential co-expression of long and short form type IX collagen transcripts during avian limb chondrogenesis in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M

    1992-05-01

    Using RNA blot analysis of developmentally staged avian limb buds, we demonstrate that transcripts of several cartilage marker genes appear in limb tissue prior to overt chondrogenesis. Type II collagen mRNA, cartilage proteoglycan core protein mRNA, alpha 2(IX) collagen mRNA, and transcripts of the short form alpha 1(IX) collagen chain derived from the downstream promoter are co-expressed in limb tissue approximately 24-36 hours before the appearance of the respective polypeptides in differentiating cartilagenous tissue. Transcripts of the long form alpha 1(IX) collagen chain derived from the upstream promoter appear somewhat later in development; nearly coincident with the immunolocalization of type IX collagen in the cartilage elements of the limb. The spatial distribution of type II and type IX collagen transcripts was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Type II collagen and the long form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts co-localized in the chondrogenic elements of the developing forelimb. In contrast, short form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts which lack the 5' region encoding the NC4 globular amino-terminal domain were distributed throughout the non-chondrogenic, non-myogenic mesenchymal regions of the limb and were not detectable above background levels in the limb chondrogenic elements. The precocious appearance of several cartilage marker gene transcripts prior to chondrogenesis suggests that multiple levels of gene regulation including alternative promoter use, alternative RNA splicing, alternative polyadenylation, and other post-transcriptional as well as translational mechanisms are active prior to, and during avian limb chondrogenesis.

  5. Optimizing a novel method for low intensity ultrasound in chondrogenesis induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Shafaei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Using LIUS resulted in early chondrogenesis in comparison with terminally differentiated chondrocytes by TGFβ. Therefore, LIUS might provide an applicable, safe, efficient, and cheap tool for chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs in cartilage tissue engineering.

  6. Chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma : disentangling the neoplastic chondrogenesis of two rare cartilaginous tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeo, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this study was to disentangle neoplastic chondrogenesis in two rare cartilaginous tumours: chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. It was addressed: 1 The spectrum of phenotypic differentiation in chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma, 2 The signalling pathways driving chondrobla

  7. Dual Monitoring of Secretion and ATP Levels during Chondrogenesis Using Perfusion Culture-Combined Bioluminescence Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Joon Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal pattern formation in limb development depends on prechondrogenic condensation which prefigures the cartilage template. However, although morphogens such as TGF-βs and BMPs have been known to play essential roles in skeletal patterning, how the morphogens induce prechondrogenic cells to aggregate and determine patterns of cartilage elements has remained unclear. Our previous study reported that ATP oscillations are induced during chondrogenesis. This result suggests the possibility that ATP oscillations lead to the oscillatory secretion of morphogens, due to the fact that secretion process requires ATP. To examine the correlation between ATP oscillations and secretion levels of morphogens, we have developed perfusion culture-combined bioluminescence monitoring system to simultaneously monitor intracellular ATP levels and secretion levels. Using this system, we found that secretory activity oscillates in phase with ATP oscillations and that secretion levels of TGF-β1 and BMP2 oscillate during chondrogenesis. The oscillatory secretion of the morphogens would contribute to amplifying the fluctuation of the morphogens, underlie the spatial patterning of morphogens, and consequently lead to skeletal pattern formation.

  8. Dual Monitoring of Secretion and ATP Levels during Chondrogenesis Using Perfusion Culture-Combined Bioluminescence Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Han, Youngbae

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal pattern formation in limb development depends on prechondrogenic condensation which prefigures the cartilage template. However, although morphogens such as TGF-βs and BMPs have been known to play essential roles in skeletal patterning, how the morphogens induce prechondrogenic cells to aggregate and determine patterns of cartilage elements has remained unclear. Our previous study reported that ATP oscillations are induced during chondrogenesis. This result suggests the possibility that ATP oscillations lead to the oscillatory secretion of morphogens, due to the fact that secretion process requires ATP. To examine the correlation between ATP oscillations and secretion levels of morphogens, we have developed perfusion culture-combined bioluminescence monitoring system to simultaneously monitor intracellular ATP levels and secretion levels. Using this system, we found that secretory activity oscillates in phase with ATP oscillations and that secretion levels of TGF-β1 and BMP2 oscillate during chondrogenesis. The oscillatory secretion of the morphogens would contribute to amplifying the fluctuation of the morphogens, underlie the spatial patterning of morphogens, and consequently lead to skeletal pattern formation.

  9. Role of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) in Growth Plate Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Abstract Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a group of seven transcription factors. Upon activation by a variety of stimuli, NF-κB translocates to the nucleus and modulates the expression of target genes involved in cell growth, survival, and death. Previous evidence indicates that NF-κB regulates bone growth and development. We have shown that the NF-κB p65 is expressed in the growth plate and facilitates longitudinal bone growth by inducing chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and by preventing apoptosis. Furthermore, we have demonstrated in rodents that NF-κB expressed in growth plate chondrocytes mediates the promoting effects of GH and IGF-1 on longitudinal bone growth and growth plate chondrogenesis. Lastly, functional studies carried out in two children with growth failure and GH insensitivity, and affected by two different mutations impairing NF-κB activation, indicate that NF-κB also mediates the growth-promoting effects of GH in humans.

  10. Roles of DMP1 processing in osteogenesis, dentinogenesis and chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; Chen, Li; Ma, Su; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Hua; Feng, Jian Q; Qin, Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic protein that plays critical roles in osteogenesis and dentinogenesis. Protein chemistry studies have demonstrated that DMP1 primarily exists as processed NH₂⁻ and COOH-terminal fragments in the extracellular matrix of bone and dentin. Our earlier work showed that the substitution of Asp²¹³ (a residue at a cleavage site) by Ala²¹³ blocks the processing of mouse DMP1 in vitro. Recently, we generated transgenic mice expressing this mutant DMP1 (designated 'D213A-DMP1'). By crossbreeding these transgenic mice with Dmp1-knockout (Dmp1-KO) mice, we obtained mice expressing the D213A-DMP1 transgene in the Dmp1-null background (named 'Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg' mice). In this study, we analyzed the long bone, mandible, dentin, and cartilage of Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg mice in comparison with wild-type, Dmp1-KO, and Dmp1-KO mice expressing the normal DMP1 transgene (Dmp1-KO/normal-Tg). Our results showed that D213A-DMP1 was barely cleaved in the dentin matrix of Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg mice and the expression of D213A-DMP1 failed to rescue the developmental defects in Dmp1-null mice. Interestingly, enlarged growth plates and condylar cartilages were observed in Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg mice, indicating a potential role of the full-length form of DMP1 in chondrogenesis.

  11. Forkhead transcription factor foxe1 regulates chondrogenesis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Chisako; Iida, Atsumi; Tabata, Yoko; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2009-12-15

    Forkhead transcription factor (Fox) e1 is a causative gene for Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, which is characterized by hypothyroidism and cleft palate. Applying degenerate polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the conserved forkhead domain, we identified zebrafish foxe1 (foxe1). Foxe1 is expressed in the thyroid, pharynx, and pharyngeal skeleton during development; strongly expressed in the gill and weakly expressed in the brain, eye, and heart in adult zebrafish. A loss of function of foxe1 by morpholino antisense oligo (MO) exhibited abnormal craniofacial development, shortening of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyals, and suppressed chondrycytic proliferation. However, at 27 hr post fertilization, the foxe1 MO-injected embryos showed normal dlx2, hoxa2, and hoxb2 expression, suggesting that the initial steps of pharyngeal skeletal development, including neural crest migration and specification of the pharyngeal arch occurred normally. In contrast, at 2 dpf, a severe reduction in the expression of sox9a, colIIaI, and runx2b, which play roles in chondrocytic proliferation and differentiation, was observed. Interestingly, fgfr2 was strongly upregulated in the branchial arches of the foxe1 MO-injected embryos. Unlike Foxe1-null mice, normal thyroid development in terms of morphology and thyroid-specific marker expression was observed in foxe1 MO-injected zebrafish embryos. Taken together, our results indicate that Foxe1 plays an important role in chondrogenesis during development of the pharyngeal skeleton in zebrafish, probably through regulation of fgfr2 expression. Furthermore, the roles reported for FOXE1 in mammalian thyroid development may have been acquired during evolution.

  12. Comparison of Simulated Microgravity and Hydrostatic Pressure for Chondrogenesis of hASC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Liliana F; Steward, Andrew J; Nordberg, Rachel C; Taylor, Michael A; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2017-04-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is a growing field due to the lack of regenerative capacity of native tissue. The use of bioreactors for cartilage tissue engineering is common, but the results are controversial. Some studies suggest that microgravity bioreactors are ideal for chondrogenesis, while others show that mimicking hydrostatic pressure is crucial for cartilage formation. A parallel study comparing the effects of loading and unloading on chondrogenesis has not been performed. The goal of this study was to evaluate chondrogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) under two different mechanical stimuli relative to static culture: microgravity and cyclic hydrostatic pressure (CHP). Pellets of hASC were cultured for 14 d under simulated microgravity using a rotating wall vessel bioreactor or under CHP (7.5 MPa, 1 Hz, 4 h · d-1) using a hydrostatic pressure vessel. We found that CHP increased mRNA expression of Aggrecan, Sox9, and Collagen II, caused a threefold increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycan production, and resulted in stronger vimentin staining intensity and organization relative to microgravity. In addition, Wnt-signaling patterns were altered in a manner that suggests that simulated microgravity decreases chondrogenic differentiation when compared to CHP. Our goal was to compare chondrogenic differentiation of hASC using a microgravity bioreactor and a hydrostatic pressure vessel, two commonly used bioreactors in cartilage tissue engineering. Our results indicate that CHP promotes hASC chondrogenesis and that microgravity may inhibit hASC chondrogenesis. Our findings further suggest that cartilage formation and regeneration might be compromised in space due to the lack of mechanical loading.Mellor LF, Steward AJ, Nordberg RC, Taylor MA, Loboa EG. Comparison of simulated microgravity and hydrostatic pressure for chondrogenesis of hASC. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):377-384.

  13. Cytomegalovirus induces abnormal chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during embryonic mandibular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bringas Pablo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human clinical studies and mouse models clearly demonstrate that cytomegalovirus (CMV disrupts normal organ and tissue development. Although CMV is one of the most common causes of major birth defects in humans, little is presently known about the mechanism(s underlying CMV-induced congenital malformations. Our prior studies have demonstrated that CMV infection of first branchial arch derivatives (salivary glands and teeth induced severely abnormal phenotypes and that CMV has a particular tropism for neural crest-derived mesenchyme (NCM. Since early embryos are barely susceptible to CMV infection, and the extant evidence suggests that the differentiation program needs to be well underway for embryonic tissues to be susceptible to viral infection and viral-induced pathology, the aim of this study was to determine if first branchial arch NCM cells are susceptible to mCMV infection prior to differentiation of NCM derivatives. Results E11 mouse mandibular processes (MANs were infected with mouse CMV (mCMV for up to 16 days in vitro. mCMV infection of undifferentiated embryonic mouse MANs induced micrognathia consequent to decreased Meckel's cartilage chondrogenesis and mandibular osteogenesis. Specifically, mCMV infection resulted in aberrant stromal cellularity, a smaller, misshapen Meckel's cartilage, and mandibular bone and condylar dysmorphogenesis. Analysis of viral distribution indicates that mCMV primarily infects NCM cells and derivatives. Initial localization studies indicate that mCMV infection changed the cell-specific expression of FN, NF-κB2, RelA, RelB, and Shh and Smad7 proteins. Conclusion Our results indicate that mCMV dysregulation of key signaling pathways in primarily NCM cells and their derivatives severely disrupts mandibular morphogenesis and skeletogenesis. The pathogenesis appears to be centered around the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways, and there is unusual juxtaposition of abnormal stromal

  14. Semi-automatic grading system in histologic and immunohistochemistry analysis to evaluate in vitro chondrogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Johana Guevara Morales; María Lucía Gutiérrez; Luis Alejandro Barrera

    2012-01-01

    During embryological limb formation mesenchymal cells condense and differentiate into chondrocytes, in a process known aschondrogenesis. These chondrocytes synthesize glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), thus playing an important role in this process.A simplified system in vitro chondrogenesis, using adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated. Thisdifferentiation potential is usually assessed by histological staining. Objective. Establishment of a semi-automatic grading systemfor hist...

  15. Hypoxic treatment inhibits insulin-induced chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells despite upregulation of DEC1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Ebbesen, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Chondrogenesis occurs in vivo in a hypoxic environment, in which the hypoxia inducible factor 1, HIF-1, plays a regulatory role, possibly mediated through the transcription factor DEC1. We have analyzed the effect of hypoxia (1% oxygen) alone and in combination with insulin on the chondrogenic di...

  16. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Independent Effects of Growth Hormone on Growth Plate Chondrogenesis and Longitudinal Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shufang; Yang, Wei; De Luca, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    GH stimulates growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate. However, it is not clear yet whether these effects are entirely mediated by the local expression and action of IGF-1 and IGF-2. To determine whether GH has any IGF-independent growth-promoting effects, we generated (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) mice. The systemic injection of tamoxifen in these mice postnatally resulted in the excision of the IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r) gene exclusively in the growth plate. (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) tamoxifen-treated mice [knockout (KO) mice] and their Igf1r(flox/flox) control littermates (C mice) were injected for 4 weeks with GH. At the end of the 4-week period, the tibial growth and growth plate height of GH-treated KO mice were greater than those of untreated C or untreated KO mice. The systemic injection of GH increased the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B in the tibial growth plate of the C and KO mice. In addition, GH increased the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and the mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in both C and KO mice. In cultured chondrocytes transfected with Igf1r small interfering RNA, the addition of GH in the culture medium significantly induced thymidine incorporation and collagen X mRNA expression. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that GH can promote growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate, even when the local effects of IGF-1 and IGF-2 are prevented. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the intracellular molecular mechanisms mediating the IGF-independent, growth-promoting GH effects.

  17. Effect of parathyroid hormone-related protein in an in vitro hypertrophy model for mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael B; Fischer, Maria; Zellner, Johannes; Berner, Arne; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Kujat, Richard; Prantl, Lukas; Nerlich, Michael; Tuan, Rocky S; Angele, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express markers of hypertrophic chondrocytes during chondrogenic differentiation. We tested the suitability of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a regulator of chondrocyte hypertrophy in embryonic cartilage development, for the suppression of hypertrophy in an in vitro hypertrophy model of chondrifying MSCs. Chondrogenesis was induced in human MSCs in pellet culture for two weeks and for an additional two weeks cultures were either maintained in standard chondrogenic medium or transferred to a hypertrophy-enhancing medium. PTHrP(1-40) was added to the medium throughout the culture period at concentrations from 1 to 1,000 pM. Pellets were harvested on days one, 14 and 28 for biochemical and histological analysis. Hypertrophic medium clearly enhanced the hypertrophic phenotype, with increased cell size, and strong alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and type X collagen staining. In chondrogenic medium, 1-100 pM PTHrP(1-40) did not inhibit chondrogenic differentiation, whereas 1,000 pM PTHrP(1-40) significantly reduced chondrogenesis. ALP activity was dose-dependently reduced by PTHrP(1-40) at 10-1,000 pM in chondrogenic conditions. Under hypertrophy-enhancing conditions, PTHrP(1-40) did not inhibit the induction of the hypertrophy. At the highest concentration (1,000 pM) in the hypertrophic group, aggregates were partially dedifferentiated and differentiated areas of these aggregates maintained their hypertrophic appearance. PTHrP(1-40) treatment dose-dependently reduced ALP expression in MSC pellets cultured under standard chondrogenic conditions and is thus beneficial for the maintenance of the chondrogenic phenotype in this medium condition. When cultured under hypertrophy-enhancing conditions, PTHrP(1-40) could not diminish the induced enhancement of hypertrophy in the MSC pellets.

  18. Conditional Expression of Wnt4 during Chondrogenesis Leads to Dwarfism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hu-Hui; Behringer, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    Wnts are expressed in the forming long bones, suggesting roles in skeletogenesis. To examine the action of Wnts in skeleton formation, we developed a genetic system to conditionally express Wnt4 in chondrogenic tissues of the mouse. A mouse Wnt4 cDNA was introduced into the ubiquitously expressed Rosa26 (R26) locus by gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The expression of Wnt4 from the R26 locus was blocked by a neomycin selection cassette flanked by loxP sites (floxneo) that was positioned between the Rosa26 promoter and the Wnt4 cDNA, creating the allele designated R26floxneoWnt4. Wnt4 expression was activated during chondrogenesis using Col2a1-Cre transgenic mice that express Cre recombinase in differentiating chondrocytes. R26floxneoWnt4; Col2a1-Cre double heterozygous mice exhibited a growth deficiency, beginning approximately 7 to 10 days after birth, that resulted in dwarfism. In addition, they also had craniofacial abnormalities, and delayed ossification of the lumbar vertebrae and pelvic bones. Histological analysis revealed a disruption in the organization of the growth plates and a delay in the onset of the primary and secondary ossification centers. Molecular studies showed that Wnt4 overexpression caused decreased proliferation and altered maturation of chondrocytes. In addition, R26floxneoWnt4; Col2a1-Cre mice had decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These studies demonstrate that Wnt4 overexpression leads to dwarfism in mice. The data indicate that Wnt4 levels must be regulated in chondrocytes for normal growth plate development and skeletogenesis. Decreased VEGF expression suggests that defects in vascularization may contribute to the dwarf phenotype. PMID:17505543

  19. Conditional expression of Wnt4 during chondrogenesis leads to dwarfism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available Wnts are expressed in the forming long bones, suggesting roles in skeletogenesis. To examine the action of Wnts in skeleton formation, we developed a genetic system to conditionally express Wnt4 in chondrogenic tissues of the mouse. A mouse Wnt4 cDNA was introduced into the ubiquitously expressed Rosa26 (R26 locus by gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES cells. The expression of Wnt4 from the R26 locus was blocked by a neomycin selection cassette flanked by loxP sites (floxneo that was positioned between the Rosa26 promoter and the Wnt4 cDNA, creating the allele designated R26(floxneoWnt4. Wnt4 expression was activated during chondrogenesis using Col2a1-Cre transgenic mice that express Cre recombinase in differentiating chondrocytes. R26(floxneoWnt4; Col2a1-Cre double heterozygous mice exhibited a growth deficiency, beginning approximately 7 to 10 days after birth, that resulted in dwarfism. In addition, they also had craniofacial abnormalities, and delayed ossification of the lumbar vertebrae and pelvic bones. Histological analysis revealed a disruption in the organization of the growth plates and a delay in the onset of the primary and secondary ossification centers. Molecular studies showed that Wnt4 overexpression caused decreased proliferation and altered maturation of chondrocytes. In addition, R26(floxneoWnt4; Col2a1-Cre mice had decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. These studies demonstrate that Wnt4 overexpression leads to dwarfism in mice. The data indicate that Wnt4 levels must be regulated in chondrocytes for normal growth plate development and skeletogenesis. Decreased VEGF expression suggests that defects in vascularization may contribute to the dwarf phenotype.

  20. The Cross-talk Between TGF-β1 and Dlk1 Mediates Early Chondrogenesis During Embryonic Endochondral Ossification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; M, Linda; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Dlkl/Pref-1/FA1 (delta like-1/preadipocyte factor-1/Fetal Antigen-1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. However, mechanisms mediating control of its expression during chondrogenesis are not k......Dlkl/Pref-1/FA1 (delta like-1/preadipocyte factor-1/Fetal Antigen-1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. However, mechanisms mediating control of its expression during chondrogenesis...... are not known. Thus, we examined the effect of a number of signalling molecules and their inhibitors on Dlk1 expression during in vitro chondrogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic limb bud mesenchymal micromass cultures and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) pellet cultures. Dlk1 was initially expressed...... its function in embryonic chondrogenesis. The cross-talk between TGF-β1 and Dlk1/FA1 was shown to promote early chondrogenesis during the embryonic endochondral ossification process....

  1. The role of transforming growth factor alpha in rat craniofacial development and chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Solursh, M; Sandra, A

    1996-08-01

    To explore the possible role of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in craniofacial development, its expression in the craniofacial region of rat embryos from embryonic day (d) 9 to d 20 was examined by in situ hybridisation and immunostaining. The TGF-alpha transcripts were first detected in the neural fold of embryonic d 9 and 10 embryos. In the craniofacial region, the TGF-alpha transcripts were not detected until embryonic d 16 in mesenchyme surrounding the olfactory bulb, within the olfactory bulb, the nasal capsule, vomeronasal organ, and vibrissal follicle. In addition, TGF-alpha message was detected in mesenchyme in the vicinity of Meckel's cartilage, and in the dental epithelium and lamina. This expression pattern of TGF-alpha transcripts persisted until embryonic d 17 but disappeared by d 18. The presence of TGF-alpha protein largely coincided with TGF-alpha message although, unlike the message, it persisted throughout later embryogenesis in the craniofacial region. The possible function of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis was explored by employing the micromass culture technique. Cartilage nodule formation in mesenchymal cells cultured from rat mandibles in the presence of TGF-alpha was significantly inhibited. This inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis was reversed by addition of antibody against the EGF receptor, which crossreacts with the TGF-alpha receptor. The inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis in vitro was further confirmed by micromass culture using mesenchymal cells from rat embryonic limb bud. Taken together, these results demonstrate the involvement of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis during embryonic development, possibly by way of a specific inhibition of cartilage formation from mesenchymal precursor cells.

  2. 17{beta}-Estradiol inhibits chondrogenesis in the skull development of zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fushimi, Shigeko, E-mail: fushimi@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Public Health, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Wada, Naoyuki, E-mail: wada@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Nohno, Tsutomu, E-mail: nohno@bcc.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Tomita, Masafumi, E-mail: toxicology@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Medical Toxicology, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan); Saijoh, Kiyofumi, E-mail: saijohk@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Hygiene, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1 Takaramachi, Kanazawa 920-8564 (Japan); Sunami, Shigeo, E-mail: ssunami@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Nutrition, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, 288 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0193 (Japan); Katsuyama, Hironobu, E-mail: katsu@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Public Health, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192 (Japan)

    2009-12-13

    17{beta}-Estradiol (E2) plays important roles in the development and differentiation of the gonad and central nervous systems, but little is known regarding the effects of exogenous E2 on chondrogenesis in skeletal development. In the present study, we found that treatment with E2 1-5 days post-fertilization (dpf) at concentrations above 1.5 x 10{sup -5} M increased the mortality rate in zebrafish embryos. Morphological analysis showed that treatment with E2 1-5 dpf caused abnormal cartilage formation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations above 5 x 10{sup -6} M. E2 1-5 dpf at 1.5 x 10{sup -5} M caused defects of the ethmoid plate, parallel cleft of the trabecular cartilage, and hypoplasia of Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyal cartilage. The sensitivity of embryos to E2 depended on the developmental stage. In early chondrogenesis (1-2 dpf), the embryos were highly sensitive to E2, leading to hypoplasia of the cartilage. In situ hybridization studies showed that expression levels of patched1 (ptc1) and patched2 (ptc2) receptor mRNAs were markedly decreased by exposure to 2 x 10{sup -5} M E2 1-2 dpf. However, the expression levels of sonic hedgehog (shh) and tiggywinkle hedgehog (twhh) mRNAs were constant in the E2-treated embryos. In addition, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 did not completely abolish the effects of E2, suggesting that E2 may not inhibit chondrogenesis through its nuclear estrogen receptor. These results suggest that exposure to exogenous E2 possibly inhibits chondrogenesis via inhibition of the hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction system.

  3. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of limb ectoderm on in vitro chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solursh, M; Reiter, R S

    1988-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated possible dual effects of the limb ectoderm in cartilage differentiation. On one hand, explants from early (stage 15) wing buds are dependent on contact with the limb ectoderm for cartilage differentiation (Gumpel-Pinot, J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 59:157-173, 1980). On the other hand, limb ectoderm from stage 23/24 wing buds inhibits cartilage differentiation by cultured limb mesenchyme cells even without direct contact (Solursh et al., Dev. Biol. 86:471-482, 1981). In the present study, ectoderms from both stage 15/16 and stage 23/24 wings are cultured under the same conditions, and ectoderms from each source are shown to have two effects. Each stimulates chondrogenesis in stage 15 wing bud mesenchyme, and each inhibits chondrogenesis in older wing mesenchyme. The results suggest that the limb ectoderm has at least dual effects on cartilage differentiation, depending on the stage of the mesenchyme. One effect involves an early mesenchymal dependence on the ectoderm. This effect requires contact between the ectoderm and mesoderm (Gumpel-Pinot, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 59:157-173, 1980) but also can be observed at a distance from the ectoderm. Later, the ectoderm can act without direct contact between the ectoderm and mesoderm to inhibit chondrogenesis over some distance.

  4. Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 on Equine Synovial Fluid Chondroprogenitor Expansion and Chondrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bianchessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells have been identified in the synovial fluid of several species. This study was conducted to characterize chondroprogenitor (CP cells in equine synovial fluid (SF and to determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 on SF-CP monolayer proliferation and subsequent chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that FGF-2 would stimulate SF-CP proliferation and postexpansion chondrogenesis. SF aspirates were collected from adult equine joints. Colony-forming unit (CFU assays were performed during primary cultures. At first passage, SF-cells were seeded at low density, with or without FGF-2. Following monolayer expansion and serial immunophenotyping, cells were transferred to chondrogenic pellet cultures. Pellets were analyzed for chondrogenic mRNA expression and cartilage matrix secretion. There was a mean of 59.2 CFU/mL of SF. FGF-2 increased the number of population doublings during two monolayer passages and halved the population doubling times. FGF-2 did not alter the immunophenotype of SF-CPs during monolayer expansion, nor did FGF-2 compromise chondrogenesis. Hypertrophic phenotypic markers were not expressed in control or FGF-2 groups. FGF-2 did prevent the development of a “fibroblastic” cell layer around pellet periphery. FGF-2 significantly accelerates in vitro SF-CP expansion, the major hurdle to clinical application of this cell population, without detrimentally affecting subsequent chondrogenic capacity.

  5. Differential effects of dexamethasone on the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells: Influence of microenvironment, tissue origin and growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shintani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available nchymal stromal cells (MSCs, which reside within various tissues, are utilized in the engineering of cartilage tissue. Dexamethasone (DEX – a synthetic glucocorticoid – is almost invariably applied to potentiate the growth-factor-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro, albeit that this effect has been experimentally demonstrated only for transforming-growth-factor-beta (TGF-β-stimulated bone-marrow-derived MSCs. Clinically, systemic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with untoward side effects (e.g., bone loss and increased susceptibility to infection. Hence, the use of these agents should be avoided or limited. We hypothesize that the influence of DEX on the chondrogenesis of MSCs depends upon their tissue origin and microenvironment [absence or presence of an extracellular matrix (ECM], as well as upon the nature of the growth factor. We investigated its effects upon the TGF-β1- and bone-morphogenetic-protein 2 (BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis of MSCs as a function of tissue source (bone marrow vs. synovium and microenvironment [cell aggregates (no ECM vs. explants (presence of a natural ECM]. In aggregates of bone-marrow-derived MSCs, DEX enhanced TGF-β1-induced chondrogenesis by an up-regulation of cartilaginous genes, but had little influence on the BMP-2-induced response. In aggregates of synovial MSCs, DEX exerted no remarkable effect on either TGF-β1- or BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis. In synovial explants, DEX inhibited BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis almost completely, but had little impact on the TGF-β1-induced response. Our data reveal that steroids are not indispensable for the chondrogenesis of MSCs in vitro. Their influence is context dependent (tissue source of the MSCs, their microenvironment and the nature of the growth-factor. This finding has important implications for MSC based approaches to cartilage repair.

  6. Fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid hybrid scaffold promotes early chondrogenesis of articular chondrocytes: an in vitro study

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    Idrus Ruszymah BH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic- and naturally derived- biodegradable polymers have been widely used to construct scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA are bioresorbable and biocompatible, rendering them as a promising tool for clinical application. To minimize cells lost during the seeding procedure, we used the natural polymer fibrin to immobilize cells and to provide homogenous cells distribution in PLGA scaffolds. We evaluated in vitro chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in PLGA scaffolds using fibrin as cell transplantation matrix. Methods PLGA scaffolds were soaked in chondrocytes-fibrin suspension (1 × 106cells/scaffold and polymerized by dropping thrombin-calcium chloride (CaCl2 solution. PLGA-seeded chondrocytes was used as control. All constructs were cultured for a maximum of 21 days. Cell proliferation activity was measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in vitro using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl-2-, 5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT assay. Morphological observation, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC, gene expression and sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG analyses were performed at each time point of 1, 2 and 3 weeks to elucidate in vitro cartilage development and deposition of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM. Results Cell proliferation activity was gradually increased from day-1 until day-14 and declined by day-21. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was detected as early as 2-week in fibrin/PLGA hybrid construct as confirmed by the presence of cartilage-isolated cells and lacunae embedded within basophilic ECM. Cartilage formation was remarkably evidenced after 3 weeks. Presence of cartilage-specific proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs were confirmed by positive Safranin O and Alcian Blue staining. Collagen type II exhibited intense immunopositivity at the pericellular matrix. Chondrogenic properties were further

  7. Proteome analysis during chondrocyte differentiation in a new chondrogenesis model using human umbilical cord stroma mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Alexandre; Mateos, Jesús; Lesende-Rodríguez, Iván; Calamia, Valentina; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; de Toro, Francisco J; Arufe, Maria C; Blanco, Francisco J

    2012-02-01

    Umbilical cord stroma mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated toward chondrocyte-like cells using a new in vitro model that consists of the random formation of spheroids in a medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum on a nonadherent surface. The medium was changed after 2 days to one specific for the induction of chondrocyte differentiation. We assessed this model using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and secretome analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine which proteins were differentially expressed during chondrogenesis. Differential gel electrophoresis analysis was performed, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry protein identification. A total of 97 spots were modulated during the chondrogenesis process, 54 of these spots were identified as 39 different proteins and 15 were isoforms. Of the 39 different proteins identified 15 were down-regulated, 21 were up-regulated, and 3 were up- and down-regulated during the chondrogenesis process. Using Pathway Studio 7.0 software, our results showed that the major cell functions modulated during chondrogenesis were cellular differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Five proteins involved in cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism found during the differential gel electrophoresis study were confirmed using Western blot. The results indicate that our in vitro chondrogenesis model is an efficient and rapid technique for obtaining cells similar to chondrocytes that express proteins characteristic of the cartilage extracellular matrix. These chondrocyte-like cells could prove useful for future cell therapy treatment of cartilage pathologies.

  8. Proteome Analysis During Chondrocyte Differentiation in a New Chondrogenesis Model Using Human Umbilical Cord Stroma Mesenchymal Stem Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Alexandre; Mateos, Jesús; Lesende-Rodríguez, Iván; Calamia, Valentina; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; de Toro, Francisco J.; Arufe, Maria C.; Blanco, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Umbilical cord stroma mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated toward chondrocyte-like cells using a new in vitro model that consists of the random formation of spheroids in a medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum on a nonadherent surface. The medium was changed after 2 days to one specific for the induction of chondrocyte differentiation. We assessed this model using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and secretome analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine which proteins were differentially expressed during chondrogenesis. Differential gel electrophoresis analysis was performed, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry protein identification. A total of 97 spots were modulated during the chondrogenesis process, 54 of these spots were identified as 39 different proteins and 15 were isoforms. Of the 39 different proteins identified 15 were down-regulated, 21 were up-regulated, and 3 were up- and down-regulated during the chondrogenesis process. Using Pathway Studio 7.0 software, our results showed that the major cell functions modulated during chondrogenesis were cellular differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Five proteins involved in cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism found during the differential gel electrophoresis study were confirmed using Western blot. The results indicate that our in vitro chondrogenesis model is an efficient and rapid technique for obtaining cells similar to chondrocytes that express proteins characteristic of the cartilage extracellular matrix. These chondrocyte-like cells could prove useful for future cell therapy treatment of cartilage pathologies. PMID:22008206

  9. Semi-automatic grading system in histologic and immunohistochemistry analysis to evaluate in vitro chondrogenesis

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    Johana Guevara Morales

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During embryological limb formation mesenchymal cells condense and differentiate into chondrocytes, in a process known aschondrogenesis. These chondrocytes synthesize glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, thus playing an important role in this process.A simplified system in vitro chondrogenesis, using adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs has been demonstrated. Thisdifferentiation potential is usually assessed by histological staining. Objective. Establishment of a semi-automatic grading systemfor histochemistry stains and immunohistochemistry assays. Materials and methods. For chondrogenesis cells were culturedfor three weeks in aggregates with inducing media. Total GAGs were measured using dimethylmethylene blue (DMB method.For histological analyses aggregates were stained with Alcian blue for total GAGs detection and immunohistochemistry (IHCfor aggrecan was performed. Semi-automatic grading for all slides was obtained after ImageJ analysis. Results. MSCs culturedas aggregates in chondrogenic differentiation media had similar protein concentrations for all time points, suggesting cellularityremained homogenous during culture. Total GAGs was higher for aggregates cultured in chondrogenic compared to complete media.The same trend was observed for Alcian blue stain grades by blinded observer and analysis using ImageJ software. Aggrecan’s IHCanalysis had a decreasing tendency with time for aggregates in chondrogenic media for blinded observer and ImageJ evaluation.Conclusion. We developed a functional system for semi-automatic slide grading. We corroborated these results by biochemicalanalysis with comparable results. To our knowledge, for in vitro chondrogenesis, this is the first report to evaluate stains usingthis methodology. This procedure might be useful for other applications in the field of Biology and Medical Sciences.

  10. Chondrogenesis of human infrapatellar fat pad stem cells on acellular dermal matrix

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    Ken eYe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acellular dermal matrix (ADM has been in clinical use for decades in numerous surgical applications. The ability for ADM to promote cellular repopulation and revascularisation, and tissue regeneration is well documented. Adipose stem cells have the ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissue types, including bone and cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interaction between ADM and adipose stem cells in vitro using TGFβ3 and BMP6.Human infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASC were cultured with ADM derived from rat dermis under chondrogenic (TGFβ3 and BMP6 in vitro for 2 and 4 weeks. Histology, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess for markers of chondrogenesis (collagen Type II, SOX9 and proteoglycans. At 4 weeks, cell-scaffold constructs displayed cellular changes consistent with chondrogenesis, with evidence of stratification of cell layers and development of a hyaline-like cartilage layer superficially which stained positively for collagen Type II and proteoglycans. Significant cell-matrix interaction was seen between the cartilage layer and the ADM itself with seamless integration between each layer. Real time qPCR showed significantly increases of COL2A1, SOX9, and ACAN gene expression over 4 weeks when compared to control. COL1A2 gene expression remained unchanged over 4 weeks.We believe the principles which make ADM versatile and successful for tissue regeneration are application to cartilage regeneration. This study demonstrates in vitro the ability for IPFP-ASCs to undergo chondrogenesis, infiltrate and interact with ADM. These outcomes serve as a platform for in vivo modelling of ADM for cartilage repair.

  11. Honokiol improved chondrogenesis and suppressed inflammation in human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells via blocking nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Yin, Zhanhai; Wang, Ling; Li, Feng; Qiu, Yusheng

    2017-08-29

    Cartilage degradation is the significant pathological process in osteoarthritis (OA). Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activate various downstream mediators contributing to OA pathology. Recently, stem cell-based cartilage repair emerges as a potential therapeutic strategy that being widely studied, whereas, the outcome is still far from clinical application. In this study, we focused on an anti-inflammatory agent, honokiol, which is isolated from an herb, investigated the potential effects on human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in IL-1β stimulation. Second passage hUC-MSCs were cultured for multi-differentiation. Flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, von Kossa stain, alcian blue stain and oil red O stain were used for characterization and multi-differentiation determination. Honokiol (5, 10, 25, 50 μM) and IL-1β (10 ng/ml) were applied in hUC-MSCs during chondrogenesis. Analysis was performed by MTT, cell apoptosis evaluation, ELISA assay, qRT-PCR and western blot. hUC-MSC was positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105, but lack of CD34 and CD45. Remarkable osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and adipogenesis were detected in hUC-MSCs. IL-1β enhanced cell apoptosis and necrosis and activated the expression of caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -9, 13 in hUC-MSCs. Moreover, the expression of SRY-related high-mobility group box 9 (SOX-9), aggrecan and col2α1 was suppressed. Honokiol relieved these negative impacts induced by IL-1β and suppressed Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway by downregulating expression of p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα and p-p65 in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Honokiol improved cell survival and chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs and inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammatory response, which suggested that combination of anti-inflammation and stem cell can be a novel strategy for better cartilage repair.

  12. Cell-based semiquantitative assay for sulfated glycosaminoglycans facilitating the identification of chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ching-Yu; Wu, Yu-Wei; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Yeh, Min-I; Lin, Yi-Ming; Lee, Sheng-Yang

    2015-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), in particular chondroitin sulfate, are an accepted marker of chondrogenic cells. In this study, a cell-based sulfated GAG assay for identifying the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells was developed. Based on fluorescent staining using safranin O and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), this method was highly sensitive. The results were both qualitative and quantitative. The method is suitable for identifying the chondrogenic process and also for screening compounds. The method may be helpful for discovering novel bioactive compounds for cartilage regeneration.

  13. Increase in levels of cyclic AMP during avian limb chondrogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solursh, M; Reiter, R; Ahrens, P B; Pratt, R M

    1979-01-01

    In the present study the level of cAMP was measured during in vitro chondrogenesis of wing mesenchyme of stage 24 chick embryos and was found to increase significantly from 6.3 pmol/mg protein at the end of the first day of culture to 9.7 pmol/mg protein on the second day, when chondrogenic expression is first detected by the appearance of an Alcian blue staining extracellular matrix. Nonchondrogenic cultures derived from wings of stage 19 embryos had a lower level of cAMP (4.4 +/- 0.07 pmol/mg protein). The level of cAMP in intact wings was 4.5 +/- 0.4 pmol/mg protein and did not change between stages 19 through 25. The correlatin between increased levels of cAMP and the onset of chondrogenesis is consistent with a role of cAMP in the expression of differentiated functions in chondrocytes, as well as in some other cell types.

  14. In vitro chondrogenesis with lysozyme susceptible bacterial cellulose as a scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikas; Sun, Lin; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L

    2015-12-01

    A current focus of tissue engineering is the use of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as an alternative to autologous chondrocytes for cartilage repair. Several natural and synthetic polymers (including cellulose) have been explored as a biomaterial scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. While bacterial cellulose (BC) has been used in tissue engineering, its lack of degradability in vivo and high crystallinity restricts widespread applications in the field. Recently we reported the formation of a novel bacterial cellulose that is lysozyme-susceptible and -degradable in vivo from metabolically engineered Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Here we report the use of this modified bacterial cellulose (MBC) for cartilage tissue engineering using hMSCs. MBC's glucosaminoglycan-like chemistry, combined with in vivo degradability, suggested opportunities to exploit this novel polymer in cartilage tissue engineering. We have observed that, like BC, MBC scaffolds support cell attachment and proliferation. Chondrogenesis of hMSCs in the MBC scaffolds was demonstrated by real-time RT-PCR analysis for cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) markers (collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9) as well as histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of cartilage-specific ECM markers. Further, the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of hMSCs in MBC showed unique characteristics. For example, after 4 weeks of cultivation, the spatial cell arrangement and collagen type-II and ACAN distribution resembled those in native articular cartilage tissue, suggesting promise for these novel in vivo degradable scaffolds for chondrogenesis.

  15. Chondrogenesis of infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells in 3D printed chitosan scaffold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ye

    Full Text Available Infrapatellar fat pad adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASCs have been shown to harbor chondrogenic potential. When combined with 3D polymeric structures, the stem cells provide a source of stem cells to engineer 3D tissues for cartilage repair. In this study, we have shown human IPFP-ASCs seeded onto 3D printed chitosan scaffolds can undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6. By week 4, a pearlescent, cartilage-like matrix had formed that penetrated the top layers of the chitosan scaffold forming a 'cap' on the scaffold. Chondrocytic morphology showed typical cells encased in extracellular matrix which stained positively with toluidine blue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive staining for collagen type II and cartilage proteoglycans, as well as collagen type I. Real time PCR analysis showed up-regulation of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9 genes when IPFP-ASCs were stimulated by TGFβ3 and BMP6. Thus, IPFP-ASCs can successfully undergo chondrogenesis using TGFβ3 and BMP6 and the cartilage-like tissue that forms on the surface of 3D-printed chitosan scaffold may prove useful as an osteochondral graft.

  16. 3, 3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine Increases In Vitro Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Human Umbilical Cord Stroma Through SRC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pernas, Pablo; Fafián-Labora, Juan; Lesende-Rodriguez, Iván; Mateos, Jesús; De la Fuente, Alexandre; Fuentes, Isaac; De Toro Santos, Javier; Blanco García, Fco; Arufe, María C

    2016-09-01

    Our group focuses on the study of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human umbilical cord stroma or Warthońs jelly and their directed differentiation toward chondrocyte-like cells capable of regenerating damaged cartilage when transplanted into an injured joint. This study aimed to determine whether lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) or 3, 3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the active thyroid hormone, modulates chondrogenesis in our in vitro model of directed chondrogenic differentiation, and whether Wnt signalling is involved in this modulation. MSCs from human umbilical cord stroma underwent directed differentiation toward chondrocyte-like cells by spheroid formation. The addition of T3 to the chondrogenic medium increased the expression of genes linked to chondrogenesis like collagen type 2, integrin alpha 10 beta 1, and Sox9 measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Levels of collagen type 2 and aggrecane analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and staining by Safranin O were increased after 14 days in spheroid culture with T3 compared to those without T3 or only with PRL. B-catenin, Frizzled, and GSK-3β gene expressions were significantly higher in spheroids cultured with chondrogenic medium (CM) plus T3 compared to CM alone after 14 days in culture. The increase of chondrogenic differentiation was inhibited when the cells were treated with T3 plus ML151, an inhibitor of the T3 steroid receptor. This work demonstrates, for first time, that T3 promotes differentiation towards chondrocytes-like cells in our in vitro model, that this differentiation is mediated by steroid receptor co-activator 2 (SRC2) and does not induce hypertrophy. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2097-2108, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Self-assembled N-cadherin mimetic peptide hydrogels promote the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells through inhibition of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Xu, Jianbin; Wong, Dexter Siu Hong; Li, Jinming; Zhao, Pengchao; Bian, Liming

    2017-11-01

    N-cadherin, a transmembrane protein and major component of adherens junction, mediates cell-cell interactions and intracellular signaling that are important to the regulation of cell behaviors and organ development. Previous studies have identified mimetic peptides that possess similar bioactivity as that of N-cadherin, which promotes chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs); however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we combined the N-cadherin mimetic peptide (HAVDI) with the self-assembling KLD-12 peptide: the resultant peptide is capable of self-assembling into hydrogels functionalized with N-cadherin peptide in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Encapsulation of hMSCs in these hydrogels showed enhanced expression of chondrogenic marker genes and deposition of cartilage specific extracellular matrix rich in proteoglycan and Type II Collagen compared to control hydrogels, with a scrambled-sequence peptide after 14 days of chondrogenic culture. Furthermore, western blot showed a significantly higher expression of active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), which phosphorylates β-catenin and facilitates ubiquitin-mediated degradation, as well as a lower expression of β-catenin and LEF1 in the N-cadherin peptide hydrogels versus controls. Immunofluorescence staining revealed significantly less nuclear localization of β-catenin in N-cadherin mimetic peptide hydrogels. Our findings suggest that N-cadherin peptide hydrogels suppress canonical Wnt signaling in hMSCs by reducing β-catenin nuclear translocation and the associated transcriptional activity of β-catenin/LEF-1/TCF complex, thereby enhancing the chondrogenesis of hMSCs. Our biomimetic self-assembled peptide hydrogels can serve as a tailorable and versatile three-dimensional culture platform to investigate the effect of biofunctionalization on stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Cross-talk Between TGF-β1 and Dlk1 Mediates Early Chondrogenesis During Embryonic Endochondral Ossification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; M, Linda; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Dlkl/Pref-1/FA1 (delta like-1/preadipocyte factor-1/Fetal Antigen-1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. However, mechanisms mediating control of its expression during chondrogenesis...

  19. Chondrogenesis of periodontal ligament stem cells by transforming growth factor-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a normal healthy impacted third molar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunyoung Choi; Tae-Jun Cho; Soon-Keun Kwon; Gene Lee; Jaejin Cho

    2013-01-01

    The periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cell is regarded as a source of adult stem cells due to its multipotency. However, the proof of chondrogenic potential of the cells is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6. After isolation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from human periodontal ligament, the cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A mechanical force initiated chondrogenic differentiation of the cells. For chondrogenic differentiation, 10 μg ·L-1 TGF-β3 or 100 μg ·L-1 BMP-6 and the combination treating group for synergistic effect of the growth factors. We analyzed the PDLSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and chondrogenesis were evaluated by glycosaminoglycans assay, histology, immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell properties proved by FACS analysis. Glycosaminoglycans contents were increased 217% by TGF-β3 and 220% by BMP-6. The synergetic effect of TGF-β3 and BMP-6 were shown up to 281% compared to control. The combination treatment increased Sox9, aggrecan and collagen II expression compared with not only controls, but also TGF-β3 or BMP-6 single treatment dramatically. The histological analysis also indicated the chondrogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in our conditions. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential of the dental stem cell as a valuable cell source for chondrogenesis, which may be applicable for regeneration of cartilage and bone fracture in the field of cell therapy.

  20. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabiri, Azadeh, E-mail: z_kabiri@resident.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandiari, Ebrahim, E-mail: esfandiari@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemibeni, Batool, E-mail: hashemibeni@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Mohammad, E-mail: m_kazemi@med.mui.ac.i [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mardani, Mohammad, E-mail: mardani@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: abesmaeili@yahoo.com [Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  1. Thyroid Hormone-Induced Hypertrophy in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis Is Mediated by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Alexandra; Olbrich, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian; Berner, Arne; Zellner, Johannes; Kujat, Richard; Angele, Peter; Nerlich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express markers of hypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes. As hypertrophic cartilage undergoes ossification, this is a concern for the application of MSCs in articular cartilage tissue engineering. To identify mechanisms that elicit this phenomenon, we used an in vitro hypertrophy model of chondrifying MSCs for differential gene expression analysis and functional experiments with the focus on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Hypertrophy was induced in chondrogenic MSC pellet cultures by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and dexamethasone withdrawal and addition of triiodothyronine. Differential gene expression analysis of BMPs and their receptors was performed. Based on these results, the in vitro hypertrophy model was used to investigate the effect of recombinant BMP4 and the BMP inhibitor Noggin. The enhancement of hypertrophy could be shown clearly by an increased cell size, alkaline phosphatase activity, and collagen type X deposition. Upon induction of hypertrophy, BMP4 and the BMP receptor 1B were upregulated. Addition of BMP4 further enhanced hypertrophy in the absence, but not in the presence of TGFβ and dexamethasone. Thyroid hormone induced hypertrophy by upregulation of BMP4 and this induced enhancement of hypertrophy could be blocked by the BMP antagonist Noggin. BMP signaling is an important modulator of the late differentiation stages in MSC chondrogenesis and the thyroid hormone induces this pathway. As cartilage tissue engineering constructs will be exposed to this factor in vivo, this study provides important insight into the biology of MSC-based cartilage. Furthermore, the possibility to engineer hypertrophic cartilage may be helpful for critical bone defect repair. PMID:23937304

  2. Midkine-deficiency delays chondrogenesis during the early phase of fracture healing in mice.

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    Melanie Haffner-Luntzer

    Full Text Available The growth and differentiation factor midkine (Mdk plays an important role in bone development and remodeling. Mdk-deficient mice display a high bone mass phenotype when aged 12 and 18 months. Furthermore, Mdk has been identified as a negative regulator of mechanically induced bone formation and it induces pro-chondrogenic, pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory effects. Together with the finding that Mdk is expressed in chondrocytes during fracture healing, we hypothesized that Mdk could play a complex role in endochondral ossification during the bone healing process. Femoral osteotomies stabilized using an external fixator were created in wildtype and Mdk-deficient mice. Fracture healing was evaluated 4, 10, 21 and 28 days after surgery using 3-point-bending, micro-computed tomography, histology and immunohistology. We demonstrated that Mdk-deficient mice displayed delayed chondrogenesis during the early phase of fracture healing as well as significantly decreased flexural rigidity and moment of inertia of the fracture callus 21 days after fracture. Mdk-deficiency diminished beta-catenin expression in chondrocytes and delayed presence of macrophages during early fracture healing. We also investigated the impact of Mdk knockdown using siRNA on ATDC5 chondroprogenitor cells in vitro. Knockdown of Mdk expression resulted in a decrease of beta-catenin and chondrogenic differentiation-related matrix proteins, suggesting that delayed chondrogenesis during fracture healing in Mdk-deficient mice may be due to a cell-autonomous mechanism involving reduced beta-catenin signaling. Our results demonstrated that Mdk plays a crucial role in the early inflammation phase and during the development of cartilaginous callus in the fracture healing process.

  3. In Vivo Chondrogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Human Cell-laden Hydrogel Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Thomas; Hägg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; Kölby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Methods: Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- × 5- × 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/alginate construct in a subcutaneous pocket. Four groups of printed constructs were used: (1) human (male) nasal chondrocytes (hNCs), (2) human (female) bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), (3) coculture of hNCs and hBMSCs in a 20/80 ratio, and (4) Cell-free scaffolds (blank). After 14, 30, and 60 days, the scaffolds were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical analysis. Results: The constructs had good mechanical properties and keep their structural integrity after 60 days of implantation. For both the hNC constructs and the cocultured constructs, a gradual increase of glycosaminoglycan production and hNC proliferation was observed. However, the cocultured group showed a more pronounced cell proliferation and enhanced deposition of human collagen II demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusions: In vivo chondrogenesis in a 3D bioprinted human cell-laden hydrogel construct has been demonstrated. The trophic role of the hBMSCs in stimulating hNC proliferation and matrix deposition in the coculture group suggests the potential of 3D bioprinting of human cartilage for future application in reconstructive surgery. PMID:28280669

  4. Small Molecule-BIO Accelerates and Enhances Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Vitro Chondrogenesis

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    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyaline cartilage defects exhibit a major challenge in the field of orthopedic surgery owing to its limited repair capacity. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are regarded as potent cells with a property of cartilage regeneration. We aimed to optimize marrow-derived MSC chondrogenic culture using a small bioactive molecule referred to as BIO. Methods: MSCs from the marrow of NMRI mice were extracted, culture-expanded, and characterized. Micro-mass culture was then established for chondrogenic differentiation (control group. The cultures of MSC in chondrogenic medium supplemented with 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 1 µM BIO were taken as the experimental groups. Cartilage differentiation was examined by both histological sections and real-time PCR for Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen II at different time points. Moreover, the involvement of the Wnt pathway was investigated. Results: Based on histological sections, there was seemingly more intense metachromatic matrix produced in the cultures with 0.01 µM BIO. In this experimental group, cartilage-specific genes tended to be upregulated at day 14 compared to day 21 of the control group, indicating the accelerating effect of BIO on cartilage differentiation. Overall, there was statistically a significant increase (P=0.01 in the expression level of cartilage-specific genes in cultures with 0.01 µM BIO (enhancing effects. These upregulations appeared to be mediated through the Wnt pathway evident from the significant upregulation of T-cell factor and beta-catenin molecules (P=0.01. Conclusion: Taken together, BIO at 0.01 µM could accelerate and enhance in vitro chondrogenesis of mouse marrow-derived MSCs. Please cite this article as: Baghaban Eslaminejad MR, Fallah N. Small Molecule-BIO Accelerates and Enhances Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Vitro Chondrogenesis. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:107-116.

  5. Feasibility of arthroscopic placement of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis grafts in the cadaver hip joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Thorey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assortment of clinical trials have been done presenting the effectiveness of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC for the regeneration of chondral leasions. The purpose of the study was to underline the accessability of the acetabulum and the femoral head through the known portals and prove i the feasibility of placing the AMIC in the different zones of the hip joint and ii check for dislocation after joint movement. Six human cadavers underwent hip arthroscopy on both hips. Two chondral lesions were set on each femoral head and two in the acetabulum to evaluate a total of 48 defects. After microfracturing an autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis graft was placed on these lesions arthroscopically. After repeated joint movement the dislocation of the graft was checked. It was possible to place the AMIC graft in all 48 chondral lesions. The time needed for placing the graft was 8±2.9 minutes. A trend of time reduction could be detected throughout this study as the surgeon gained more experience. For the femoral head, after twenty cycles of joint movement 18/24 spots showed no displacement, 4/24 showed minor displacement (<3 mm and 2/24 showed major displacement (>3 mm. None showed total displacement. For the acetabulum 22/24 spots showed no displacement and 2/24 showed minor displacement. A combined microfracturing and placing of an AMIC graft of focal chondral lesions of the hip joint can be done arthroscopically. Prospective randomized in vivo studies should compare the results of arthroscopilally placed AMIC grafts with microfracturing and microfracturing alone.

  6. Non-destructive label-free continuous monitoring of in vitro chondrogenesis via electrical conductivity and its anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Changhwan; Karki, Bishal; Son, Youngsook; Lee, EunAh; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-02-01

    Non-destructive label-free continuous monitoring of in vitro tissue culture is an unmet demand in tissue engineering. Noting that different compositions of cartilage lead to different electrical tissue properties, we propose a new method to measure the electrical conductivity and its anisotropy during in vitro chondrogenesis. We used a conductivity tensor probe with 17 electrodes and a bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) device to measure the conductivity values and the anisotropy ratios at the bottom and top surfaces of the tissue samples during the culture period of 6 weeks. Clearly distinguishing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), collagen, and also various mixtures of them, the measured conductivity value and the estimated tissue anisotropy provide diagnostic information of the depth-dependent tissue structure and compositions. Continuously monitoring the individual tissue during the entire chondrogenesis process without any adverse effect, the proposed method may significantly increase the productivity of cartilage tissue engineering.

  7. Molecular Study of a Hoxa2 Gain-of-Function in Chondrogenesis: A Model of Idiopathic Proportionate Short Stature.

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Nyssen-Behets; René Rezsöhazy; Lengelé, Benoît G.; Deprez, Pierre M L; Nichane, Miloud G

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study using transgenic mice ectopically expressing Hoxa2 during chondrogenesis, we associated the animal phenotype to human idiopathic proportionate short stature. Our analysis showed that this overall size reduction was correlated with a negative influence of Hoxa2 at the first step of endochondral ossification. However, the molecular pathways leading to such phenotype are still unknown. Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to cont...

  8. Effects of the mesonephros and insulin-like growth factor I on chondrogenesis of limb explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduspan, J S; Solursh, M

    1993-04-01

    The mesonephros has been shown to have a growth-promoting influence in vivo on limb outgrowth. This influence has been studied in detail using an organ culture system. The results show that in the presence of the mesonephros limb explants formed larger cartilages than cultures without mesonephros. Furthermore, with mesonephros, morphology of the cartilages is comparable to that of skeletal elements in vivo while cartilages formed in cultures lacking mesonephros were amorphous. The mesonephric influence also promoted the formation of a well-organized extracellular matrix in the cartilage while cartilage in cultures without mesonephros formed an abnormal appearing matrix. Cartilage matrices in cultures with or without mesonephros were immunoreactive to type IX and type II collagens, cartilage proteoglycan PGH, and link protein although cultures lacking mesonephros had a very restricted distribution of type IX collagen immunoreactivity. Despite the different distribution of type IX collagen, long-form-type IX collagen transcripts appeared similar in both types of culture based on in situ hybridization. The mesonephric effect on limb explants could be partially duplicated by the addition of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to cultures without mesonephros. Furthermore, the mesonephric influence on cartilage growth and morphological differentiation could be blocked by the addition of a blocking antibody to IGF-I to cultures with mesonephros. The results support the hypothesis that IGF-I is one of the growth factors produced by the mesonephros which may play a role in early limb development and chondrogenesis.

  9. Cdc42 is required for chondrogenesis and interdigital programmed cell death during limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Ryo; Yamada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Dai; Iimura, Tadahiro; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Harada, Takeshi; Tsukasaki, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Gou; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Nakao, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Yamaguchi, Akira; Aiba, Atsu; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Cdc42, a member of the Rho subfamily of small GTPases, is known to be a regulator of multiple cellular functions, including cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, its tissue-specific roles, especially in mammalian limb development, remain unclear. To investigate the physiological function of Cdc42 during limb development, we generated limb bud mesenchyme-specific inactivated Cdc42 (Cdc42(fl/fl); Prx1-Cre) mice. Cdc42(fl/fl); Prx1-Cre mice demonstrated short limbs and body, abnormal calcification of the cranium, cleft palate, disruption of the xiphoid process, and syndactyly. Severe defects were also found in long bone growth plate cartilage, characterized by loss of columnar organization of chondrocytes, and thickening and massive accumulation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with reduced bone growth. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that expressions of Col10 and Mmp13 were reduced in non-resorbed hypertrophic cartilage, indicating that deletion of Cdc42 inhibited their terminal differentiation. Syndactyly in Cdc42(fl/fl); Prx1-Cre mice was caused by fusion of metacarpals and a failure of interdigital programmed cell death (ID-PCD). Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of limb buds showed that the expression patterns of Sox9 were ectopic, while those of Bmp2, Msx1, and Msx2, known to promote apoptosis in the interdigital mesenchyme, were down-regulated. These results demonstrate that Cdc42 is essential for chondrogenesis and ID-PCD during limb development.

  10. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contribute to Chondrogenesis in Coculture with Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs have been shown as the most potential stem cell source for articular cartilage repair. In this study, we aimed to develop a method for long-term coculture of human articular chondrocytes (hACs and hUCB-MSCs at low density in vitro to determine if the low density of hACs could enhance the hUCB-MSC chondrogenic differentiation as well as to determine the optimal ratio of the two cell types. Also, we compared the difference between direct coculture and indirect coculture at low density. Monolayer cultures of hUCB-MSCs and hACs were investigated at different ratios, at direct cell-cell contact groups for 21 days. Compared to direct coculture, hUCB-MSCs and hACs indirect contact culture significantly increased type II collagen (COL2 and decreased type I collagen (COL1 protein expression levels. SRY-box 9 (SOX9 mRNA levels and protein expression were highest in indirect coculture. Overall, these results indicate that low density direct coculture induces fibrocartilage. However, indirect coculture in conditioned chondrocyte cell culture medium can increase expression of chondrogenic markers and induce hUCB-MSCs differentiation into mature chondrocytes. This work demonstrates that it is possible to promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs in combination with hACs, further supporting the concept of novel coculture strategies for tissue engineering.

  11. Alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and structure integrity in chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shih-Chieh; Kuo, Pei-Yin; Chang, Ching-Fang; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Ho, Larry Low-Tone

    2006-06-01

    The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) during chondrogenesis was investigated by the use of pellet culture. Undifferentiated hMSCs expressed low but detectable amounts of SMA and the addition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) to the culture medium increased SMA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Differentiation in pellet culture was rapidly induced in the presence of TGF-beta1 and was accompanied by the development of annular layers at the surface of the pellet. These peripheral layers lacked expression of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen during early differentiation. Progress in differentiation increased the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen and the expression of SMA in these layers. Double-staining for type II collagen and SMA by immunofluorescence demonstrated the differentiation of hMSCs into cells positive for these two proteins. The addition of cytochalasin D, a potent inhibitor of the polymerization of actin microfilaments, caused damage to the structural integrity and surface smoothness of the chondrogenic pellets. The SMA-positive cells in the peripheral layers of the chondrogenic pellets mimic those within the superficial layer of articular cartilage and are speculated to play a major role in cartilage development and maintenance.

  12. High Field Sodium MRI Assessment of Stem Cell Chondrogenesis in a Tissue-Engineered Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Shreyan; Pothirajan, Padmabharathi; Dorcemus, Deborah; Nukavarapu, Syam; Kotecha, Mrignayani

    2016-04-01

    The development of non-invasive assessment techniques in vitro and in vivo is essential for monitoring and evaluating the growth of engineered cartilage tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the leading non-invasive imaging modality used for assessing engineered cartilage. Typical MRI uses water proton relaxation times (T1 and T2) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to assess tissue growth. These techniques, while excellent in providing the first assurance of tissue growth, are unspecific to monitor the progress of engineered cartilage extracellular matrix components. In the current article, we present high field (11.7 T, (1)H freq. = 500 MHz) sodium MRI assessment of tissue-engineered cartilage at the early stage of tissue growth in vitro. We observed the chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived stromal cells seeded in a gradient polymer-hydrogel matrix made out of poly(85 lactide-co-15 glycolide)--PuraMatrix™ for 4 weeks. We calculated the sodium concentration in the engineered constructs using a model of sodium MRI voxels that takes into account scaffold volume, cell density and amount of glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sodium concentration was then converted to the fixed charge density (FCD) and compared with FCD derived from biochemical GAG analysis. Despite the small amount of GAG present in the engineered constructs, the sodium MRI derived FCD is found to be correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient R = 0.79) with the FCD derived from biochemical analysis. We conclude that sodium MRI could prove to be an invaluable tool in assessing engineered cartilage quantitatively during the repair or regeneration of cartilage defects.

  13. Chondrogenesis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in highly porous alginate-foams supplemented with chondroitin sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhao [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Nooeaid, Patcharakamon [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Kohl, Benjamin [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Roether, Judith A.; Schubert, Dirk W. [Institute of Polymer Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Meier, Carola [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Boccaccini, Aldo R. [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Godkin, Owen; Ertel, Wolfgang; Arens, Stephan [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula, E-mail: gundula.schulze@pmu.ac.at [Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin-Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the limited intrinsic cartilage repair, autologous chondrocyte or bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) was implanted into cartilage defects. For this purpose suitable biocompatible scaffolds are needed to provide cell retention, chondrogenesis and initial mechanical stability. The present study should indicate whether a recently developed highly porous alginate (Alg) foam scaffold supplemented with chondroitin sulfate (CS) allows the attachment, survival and chondrogenesis of BM-MSCs and articular chondrocytes. The foams were prepared using a freeze-drying method; some of them were supplemented with CS and subsequently characterized for porosity, biodegradation and mechanical profile. BM-MSCs were cultured for 1–2 weeks on the scaffold either under chondrogenic or maintenance conditions. Cell vitality assays, histology, glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) assay, and type II and I collagen immunolabelings were performed to monitor cell growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in the scaffolds. Scaffolds had a high porosity ~ 93–95% with a mean pore sizes of 237 ± 48 μm (Alg) and 197 ± 61 μm (Alg/CS). Incorporation of CS increased mechanical strength of the foams providing gradually CS release over 7 days. Most of the cells survived in the scaffolds. BM-MSCs and articular chondrocytes formed rounded clusters within the scaffold pores. The BM-MSCs, irrespective of whether cultured under non/chondrogenic conditions and chondrocytes produced an ECM containing sGAGs, and types II and I collagen. Total collagen and sGAG contents were higher in differentiated BM-MSC cultures supplemented with CS than in CS-free foams after 14 days. The cell cluster formation induced by the scaffolds might stimulate chondrogenesis via initial intense cell–cell contacts. - Highlights: • Alginate foam scaffolds revealed a high porosity and mean pore size of 197–237 μm. • Chondroitin sulfate was released over 14 days by the scaffolds. • Chondrocytes

  14. The Influence of IL-10 and TNFα on Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Three-Dimensional Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jagielski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chondrogenic differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are a promising cell source for articular cartilage repair. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of two three-dimensional (3D culture systems for chondrogenic MSC differentiation in comparison to primary chondrocytes and to assess the effect of Interleukin (IL-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNFα on chondrogenesis by MSCs in 3D high-density (H-D culture. MSCs were isolated from femur spongiosa, characterized using a set of typical markers and introduced in scaffold-free H-D cultures or non-woven polyglycolic acid (PGA scaffolds for chondrogenic differentiation. H-D cultures were stimulated with recombinant IL-10, TNFα, TNFα + IL-10 or remained untreated. Gene and protein expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, sox9 and TNFα were examined. MSCs expressed typical cell surface markers and revealed multipotency. Chondrogenic differentiated cells expressed cartilage-specific markers in both culture systems but to a lower extent when compared with articular chondrocytes. Chondrogenesis was more pronounced in PGA compared with H-D culture. IL-10 and/or TNFα did not impair the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Moreover, in most of the investigated samples, despite not reaching significance level, IL-10 had a stimulatory effect on the type II collagen, aggrecan and TNFα expression when compared with the respective controls.

  15. Silk fibroin/gelatin–chondroitin sulfate–hyaluronic acid effectively enhances in vitro chondrogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawatjui, Nopporn [Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Damrongrungruang, Teerasak [Department of Oral Diagnosis, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat [Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation Research Group, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); School of Microbiology, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Jearanaikoon, Patcharee [Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hongeng, Suradej [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Limpaiboon, Temduang, E-mail: temduang@kku.ac.th [Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2015-07-01

    Tissue engineering is becoming promising for cartilage repair due to the limited self-repair capacity of cartilage tissue. We previously fabricated and characterized a three-dimensional silk fibroin/gelatin–chondroitin sulfate–hyaluronic acid (SF–GCH) scaffold and showed that it could promote proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). This study aimed to evaluate its biological performance as a new biomimetic material for chondrogenic induction of BM-MSCs in comparison to an SF scaffold and conventional pellet culture. We found that the SF–GCH scaffold significantly enhanced the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs compared to the SF scaffold and pellet culture in which the production of sulfated glycoaminoglycan was increased in concordance with the up-regulation of chondrogenic-specific gene markers. Our findings indicate the significant role of SF–GCH by providing a supportive structure and the mimetic cartilage environment for chondrogenesis which enables cartilage regeneration. Thus, our fabricated SF–GCH scaffold may serve as a potential biomimetic material for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SF–GCH scaffold enhances proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. • SF–GCH acts as a supportive and biomimetic material for BM-MSC chondrogenesis. • SF–GCH is a potential biomimetic scaffold suitable for cartilage tissue engineering.

  16. Hedgehog signaling is required for cranial neural crest morphogenesis and chondrogenesis at the midline in the zebrafish skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Naoyuki; Javidan, Yashar; Nelson, Sarah; Carney, Thomas J; Kelsh, Robert N; Schilling, Thomas F

    2005-09-01

    Neural crest cells that form the vertebrate head skeleton migrate and interact with surrounding tissues to shape the skull, and defects in these processes underlie many human craniofacial syndromes. Signals at the midline play a crucial role in the development of the anterior neurocranium, which forms the ventral braincase and palate, and here we explore the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in this process. Using sox10:egfp transgenics to follow neural crest cell movements in the living embryo, and vital dye labeling to generate a fate map, we show that distinct populations of neural crest form the two main cartilage elements of the larval anterior neurocranium: the paired trabeculae and the midline ethmoid. By analyzing zebrafish mutants that disrupt sonic hedgehog (shh) expression, we demonstrate that shh is required to specify the movements of progenitors of these elements at the midline, and to induce them to form cartilage. Treatments with cyclopamine, to block Hh signaling at different stages, suggest that although requirements in morphogenesis occur during neural crest migration beneath the brain, requirements in chondrogenesis occur later, as cells form separate trabecular and ethmoid condensations. Cell transplantations indicate that these also reflect different sources of Shh, one from the ventral neural tube that controls trabecular morphogenesis and one from the oral ectoderm that promotes chondrogenesis. Our results suggest a novel role for Shh in the movements of neural crest cells at the midline, as well as in their differentiation into cartilage, and help to explain why both skeletal fusions and palatal clefting are associated with the loss of Hh signaling in holoprosencephalic humans.

  17. Three-dimensional scaffold-free fusion culture: the way to enhance chondrogenesis of in vitro propagated human articular chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lehmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage regeneration based on isolated and culture-expanded chondrocytes has been studied in various in vitro models, but the quality varies with respect to the morphology and the physiology of the synthesized tissues. The aim of our study was to promote in vitro chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes using a novel three-dimensional (3-D cultivation system in combination with the chondrogenic differentiation factors transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-b2 and L-ascorbic acid. Articular chondrocytes isolated from six elderly patients were expanded in monolayer culture. A single-cell suspension of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes was then added to agar-coated dishes without using any scaffold material, in the presence, or absence of TGF-b2 and/or L-ascorbic acid. Three-dimensional cartilage-like constructs, called single spheroids, and microtissues consisting of several spheroids fused together, named as fusions, were formed. Generated tissues were mainly characterized using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The morphology of the in vitro tissues shared some similarities to native hyaline cartilage in regard to differentiated S100-positive chondrocytes within a cartilaginous matrix, with strong collagen type II expression and increased synthesis of proteoglycans. Finally, our innovative scaffold-free fusion culture technique supported enhanced chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes in vitro. These 3-D hyaline cartilage-like microtissues will be useful for in vitro studies of cartilage differentiation and regeneration, enabling optimization of functional tissue engineering and possibly contributing to the development of new approaches to treat traumatic cartilage defects or osteoarthritis.

  18. Fibronectin- and collagen-mimetic ligands regulate bone marrow stromal cell chondrogenesis in three-dimensional hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT Connelly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Modification of tissue engineering scaffolds with bioactive molecules is a potential strategy for modulating cell behavior and guiding tissue regeneration. While adhesion to RGD peptides has been shown to inhibit in vitro chondrogenesis, the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM-mimetic ligands with complex secondary and tertiary structures are unknown. This study aimed to determine whether collagen- and fibronectin-mimetic ligands would retain biologic functionality in three-dimensional (3D hydrogels, whether different ECM-mimetic ligands differentially influence in vitro chondrogenesis, and if effects of ligands on differentiation depend on soluble biochemical stimuli. A linear RGD peptide, a recombinant fibronectin fragment containing the seven to ten Type III repeats (FnIII7-10 and a triple helical, collagen mimetic peptide with the GFOGER motif were covalently coupled to agarose gels using the sulfo-SANPAH crosslinker, and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs were cultured within the 3D hydrogels. The ligands retained biologic functionality within the agarose gels and promoted density-dependent BMSC spreading. Interactions with all adhesive ligands inhibited stimulation by chondrogenic factors of collagen Type II and aggrecan mRNA levels and deposition of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. In medium containing fetal bovine serum, interactions with the GFOGER peptide enhanced mRNA expression of the osteogenic gene osteocalcin whereas FnIII7-10 inhibited osteocalcin expression. In conclusion, modification of agarose hydrogels with ECM-mimetic ligands can influence the differentiation of BMSCs in a manner that depends strongly on the presence and nature of soluble biochemical stimuli.

  19. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Lei, Youying [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan, Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  20. Human Suprapatellar Fat Pad-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Chondrogenesis and Cartilage Repair in a Model of Severe Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Muñoz-Criado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage degeneration is associated with degenerative bone and joint processes in severe osteoarthritis (OA. Spontaneous cartilage regeneration is extremely limited. Often the treatment consists of a partial or complete joint implant. Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC transplantation has been shown to restore degenerated cartilage; however, regenerative differences of ASC would depend on the source of adipose tissue. The infra- and suprapatellar fat pads surrounding the knee offer a potential autologous source of ASC for patients after complete joint substitution. When infrapatellar- and suprapatellar-derived stromal vascular fractions (SVF were compared, a significantly higher CD105 (+ population was found in the suprapatellar fat. In addition, the suprapatellar SVF exhibited increased numbers of colony formation units and a higher population doubling in culture compared to the infrapatellar fraction. Both the suprapatellar- and infrapatellar-derived ASC were differentiated in vitro into mature adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. However, the suprapatellar-derived ASC showed higher osteogenic and chondrogenic efficiency. Suprapatellar-derived ASC transplantation in a severe OA mouse model significantly diminished the OA-associated knee inflammation and cartilage degenerative grade, significantly increasing the production of glycosaminoglycan and inducing endogenous chondrogenesis in comparison with the control group. Overall, suprapatellar-derived ASC offer a potential autologous regenerative treatment for patients with multiple degenerative OA.

  1. Molecular Study of a Hoxa2 Gain-of-Function in Chondrogenesis: A Model of Idiopathic Proportionate Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Nyssen-Behets

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study using transgenic mice ectopically expressing Hoxa2 during chondrogenesis, we associated the animal phenotype to human idiopathic proportionate short stature. Our analysis showed that this overall size reduction was correlated with a negative influence of Hoxa2 at the first step of endochondral ossification. However, the molecular pathways leading to such phenotype are still unknown. Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to controls, we show here that the persistent expression of Hoxa2 in chondrogenic territories provokes a general down-regulation of the main factors controlling the differentiation cascade, such as Bapx1, Bmp7, Bmpr1a, Ihh, Msx1, Pax9, Sox6, Sox9 and Wnt5a. These data confirm the impairment of chondrogenic differentiation by Hoxa2 overexpression. They also show a selective effect of Hoxa2 on endochondral ossification processes since Gdf5 and Gdf10, and Bmp4 or PthrP were up-regulated and unmodified, respectively. Since Hoxa2 deregulation in mice induces a proportionate short stature phenotype mimicking human idiopathic conditions, our results give an insight into understanding proportionate short stature pathogenesis by highlighting molecular factors whose combined deregulation may be involved in such a disease.

  2. Gpr177, a novel locus for bone mineral density and osteoporosis, regulates osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jiang, Ming; Hsu, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Human genetic analysis has recently identified Gpr177 as a susceptibility locus for bone mineral density and osteoporosis. Determining the unknown function of this gene is therefore extremely important to furthering our knowledge base of skeletal development and disease. The protein encoded by Gpr177 exhibits an ability to modulate the trafficking of Wnt, similar to the Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt. Because it plays a critical role in Wnt regulation, Gpr177 might be required for several key steps of skeletogenesis. To overcome the early lethality associated with the inactivation of Gpr177 in mice, conditional gene deletion is used to assess its functionality. Here we report the generation of four different mouse models with Gpr177 deficiency in various skeletogenic cell types. The loss of Gpr177 severely impairs development of the craniofacial and body skeletons, demonstrating its requirement for intramembranous and endochondral ossifications, respectively. Defects in the expansion of skeletal precursors and their differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes suggest that Wnt production and signaling mediated by Gpr177 cannot be substituted. Because the Gpr177 ablation impairs Wnt secretion, we therefore identify the sources of Wnt proteins essential for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. The intercross of Wnt signaling between distinct cell types is carefully orchestrated and necessary for skeletogenesis. Our findings lead to a proposed mechanism by which Gpr177 controls skeletal development through modulation of autocrine and paracrine Wnt signals in a lineage-specific fashion.

  3. All-Arthroscopic Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis for the Treatment of Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Laura; Grassi, Miriam; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Boga, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Several surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of talar chondral lesions. Among them, microfracture is well established. Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC), using microfracture and biomaterials, has shown promising results for the treatment of knee osteochondral lesions and has been proposed for the ankle as an open technique. We describe an all-arthroscopic AMIC technique. The benefits of an all-arthroscopic procedure include smaller incisions with less soft-tissue dissection, better visualization of the joint, and a quicker recovery compared with open surgery. The use of matrix to support cartilage regeneration promotes good-quality cartilage tissue with satisfactory long-term outcomes. Our all-arthroscopic AMIC technique uses a type I–type III porcine collagen matrix (Chondro-Gide; Geistlich Pharma, Wolhusen, Switzerland) and is characterized by 2 different arthroscopic surgical phases. First, adequate exposure is achieved through use of a Hintermann spreader (Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, NJ) with sufficient joint distraction and wet lesion preparation. The second surgical step is performed dry, involving matrix placement and fixation. The all-arthroscopic AMIC technique for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus allows a very precise reconstruction in the case of cartilage defects and avoids the need for a more invasive operation associated with higher morbidity and a longer surgical time. PMID:26258040

  4. Study on the effects of gradient mechanical pressures on the proliferation, apoptosis, chondrogenesis and hypertrophy of mandibular condylar chondrocytes in vitro.

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    Li, Hui; Huang, Linjian; Xie, Qianyang; Cai, Xieyi; Yang, Chi; Wang, Shaoyi; Zhang, Min

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of gradient mechanical pressure on chondrocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of markers of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Mandibular condylar chondrocytes from 5 rabbits were cultured in vitro, and pressed with static pressures of 50kPa, 100kPa, 150kPa and 200kPa for 3h, respectively. The chondrocytes cultured without pressure (0kPa) were used as control. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the expression of aggrecan (AGG), collagen II (COL2), collagen X (COL10), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were investigated. Ultrastructures of the pressurized chondrocytes under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were observed. Chondrocyte proliferation increased at 100kPa and decreased at 200kPa. Chondrocyte apoptosis increased with peak pressure at 200kPa in a dose-dependent manner. Chondrocyte necrosis increased at 200kPa. The expression of AGG increased at 200kPa. The expression of COL2 decreased at 50kPa and increased at 150kPa. The expression of COL10 and ALP increased at 150kPa. Ultrastructure of the pressurized chondrocytes under TEM showed: at 100kPa, cells were enlarged with less cellular microvillus and a bigger nucleus; at 200kPa, cells shrank with the sign of apoptosis, and apoptosis cells were found. The mechanical loading of 150kPa is the moderate pressure for chondrocyte: cell proliferation and apoptosis is balanced, necrosis is reduced, and chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy are promoted. When the pressure is lower, chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy are inhibited. At 200kPa, degeneration of cartilage is implied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of the effects of five factors relevant to in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells using factorial design and high throughput mRNA-profiling.

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    Rune B Jakobsen

    Full Text Available The in vitro process of chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering has been shown to require three-dimensional culture along with the addition of differentiation factors to the culture medium. In general, this leads to a phenotype lacking some of the cardinal features of native articular chondrocytes and their extracellular matrix. The factors used vary, but regularly include members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and dexamethasone, sometimes in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1, however the use of soluble factors to induce chondrogenesis has largely been studied on a single factor basis. In the present study we combined a factorial quality-by-design experiment with high-throughput mRNA profiling of a customized chondrogenesis related gene set as a tool to study in vitro chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in alginate. 48 different conditions of transforming growth factor β 1, 2 and 3, bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4 and 6, dexamethasone, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2 and cell seeding density were included in the experiment. The analysis revealed that the best of the tested differentiation cocktails included transforming growth factor β 1 and dexamethasone. Dexamethasone acted in synergy with transforming growth factor β 1 by increasing many chondrogenic markers while directly downregulating expression of the pro-osteogenic gene osteocalcin. However, all factors beneficial to the expression of desirable hyaline cartilage markers also induced undesirable molecules, indicating that perfect chondrogenic differentiation is not achievable with the current differentiation protocols.

  6. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in in vitro and in vivo chondrogenesis: relating tissue engineering using adult mesenchymal stem cells to embryonic development.

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    Hellingman, Catharine A; Koevoet, Wendy; Kops, Nicole; Farrell, Eric; Jahr, Holger; Liu, Wei; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Frenz, Dorothy A; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2010-02-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered promising candidate cells for therapeutic cartilage and bone regeneration. Because tissue regeneration and embryonic development may involve similar pathways, understanding common pathways may lead to advances in regenerative medicine. In embryonic limb development, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play a role in chondrogenic differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare FGFR expression in in vivo embryonic limb development and in vitro chondrogenesis of MSCs. Our study showed that in in vitro chondrogenesis of MSCs three sequential stages can be found, as in embryonic limb development. A mesenchymal condensation (indicated by N-cadherin) is followed by chondrogenic differentiation (indicated by collagen II), and hypertrophy (indicated by collagen X). FGFR1-3 are expressed in a stage-dependent pattern during in vitro differentiation and in vivo embryonic limb development. In both models FGFR2 is clearly expressed by cells in the condensation phase. No FGFR expression was observed in differentiating and mature hyaline chondrocytes, whereas hypertrophic chondrocytes stained strongly for all FGFRs. To evaluate whether stage-specific modulation of chondrogenic differentiation in MSCs is possible with different subtypes of FGF, FGF2 and FGF9 were added to the chondrogenic medium during different stages in the culture process (early or late). FGF2 and FGF9 differentially affected the amount of cartilage formed by MSCs depending on the stage in which they were added. These results will help us understand the role of FGF signaling in chondrogenesis and find new tools to monitor and control chondrogenic differentiation.

  7. Genipin-crosslinked cartilage-derived matrix as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cell chondrogenesis.

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    Cheng, Nai-Chen; Estes, Bradley T; Young, Tai-Horng; Guilak, Farshid

    2013-02-01

    Autologous cell-based tissue engineering using three-dimensional scaffolds holds much promise for the repair of cartilage defects. Previously, we reported on the development of a porous scaffold derived solely from native articular cartilage, which can induce human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to differentiate into a chondrogenic phenotype without exogenous growth factors. However, this ASC-seeded cartilage-derived matrix (CDM) contracts over time in culture, which may limit certain clinical applications. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of chemical crosslinking using a natural biologic crosslinker, genipin, to prevent scaffold contraction while preserving the chondrogenic potential of CDM. CDM scaffolds were crosslinked in various genipin concentrations, seeded with ASCs, and then cultured for 4 weeks to evaluate the influence of chemical crosslinking on scaffold contraction and ASC chondrogenesis. At the highest crosslinking degree of 89%, most cells failed to attach to the scaffolds and resulted in poor formation of a new extracellular matrix. Scaffolds with a low crosslinking density of 4% experienced cell-mediated contraction similar to our original report on noncrosslinked CDM. Using a 0.05% genipin solution, a crosslinking degree of 50% was achieved, and the ASC-seeded constructs exhibited no significant contraction during the culture period. Moreover, expression of cartilage-specific genes, synthesis, and accumulation of cartilage-related macromolecules and the development of mechanical properties were comparable to the original CDM. These findings support the potential use of a moderately (i.e., approximately one-half of the available lysine or hydroxylysine residues being crosslinked) crosslinked CDM as a contraction-free biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 promotes transforming growth factor β3-induced chondrogenesis of human osteoarthritic synovium-derived stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUI Yun-feng; DU Lin; WANG You; WANG Yang; LUI Pauline po-yee; TANG Ting-ting; CHAN Kai-ming; DAI Ke-rong

    2010-01-01

    Background Synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) with higher chondrogenic potential are attracting considerable attention as a cell source for cartilage regeneration. We investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) on transforming growth factor beta3 (TGF-β3)-induced chondrogenesis of SDSCs isolated from human osteoarthritic synovium in a pellet culture system. Methods The clonogenicity, stem cell marker expression and multi-differentiation potential of isolated SDSCs were determined by colony forming unit assay, flow cytometry and specific staining including alizarin red S, Oil red O and alcian blue staining, respectively. SDSCs pellet was cultured in chondrogenic medium with or without TGF-β3 or/and BMP-2. At day 21, the diameter and the weight of the pellets were measured. Chondrogenic differentiation of SDSCs was evaluated by Safranin O staining, immunohistochemical staining of collagen type Ⅱ, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) synthesis and mRNA expression of collagen type Ⅱ, aggrecan, SOX9, link-protein, collagen type X and BMP receptor Ⅱ. Results Cells isolated under the optimized culturing density (104/60 cm2) showed clonogenicity and multi-differentiation potential. These cells were positive (>99%) for CD44, CD90, CD105 and negative (<10%) for CD34 and CD71. SDSCs differentiated to a chondrocytic phenotype in chondrogenic medium containing TGF-β3 with or without BMP-2. Safranin O staining of the extracellular matrix was positive and the expression of collagen type Ⅱ was detected. Cell pellets treated with TGF-β3 and BMP-2 were larger in diameter and weight, produced more sGAGs, and expressed higher levels of collagen type Ⅱ and other chondrogenic markers, except COL10A1, than medium with TGF-β3 alone. Conclusions SDSCs could be isolated from human osteoarthritic synovium. Supplementation with BMP-2 significantly promoted the in vitro TGF-β3-induced chondrogenic differentiation of SDSCs.

  9. Study of Carbon Nano-Tubes Effects on the Chondrogenesis of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells in Alginate Scaffold

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    Ali Valiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in middle-aged populations in the World and could become the fourth principal cause of disability by the year 2020. One of the critical properties for cartilage tissue engineering (TE is the ability of scaffolds to closely mimic the extracellular matrix and bond to the host tissue. Therefore, TE has been presented as a technique to introduce the best combination of cells and biomaterial scaffold and to stimulate growth factors to produce a cartilage tissue resembling natural articular cartilage. The aim of study is to improve differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs into chondrocytes in order to provide a safe and modern treatment for patients suffering from cartilage damages. Methods: After functionalization, dispersions and sterilizing carbon nano-tubes (CNTs, a new type of nanocomposite gel was prepared from water-soluble CNTs and alginate. ADSCs seeded in 1.5% alginate scaffold and cultured in chondrogenic media with and without transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 for 7 and 14 days. The genes expression of sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, types II and X collagens was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and the amount of aggrecan (AGC and type I collagen was measured by ELISA. Results: Our findings showed that the expression of essential cartilage markers, SOX9, type II collagen and AGC, in differentiated ADSCs at the concentration of 1 μg/ml CNTs in the presence of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001. Meanwhile, type X collagen expression and also type I collagen production were significantly decreased (P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results showed that utilized three-dimensional scaffold had a brilliant effect in promoting gene expression of chondrogenesis.

  10. The effect of estrogen on the expression of cartilage-specific genes in the chondrogenesis process of adipose-derived stem cells

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    Farzaneh Sadeghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During adolescence, sex hormones play an important role in regulating proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and the scheduled death of chondrocytes. Although some studies have reported the regulatory role of estrogen in the development and progression of cartilage, some of the mechanisms still remain unclear, including the role of estrogen in the expression of cartilage-specific genes in chondrogenesis process, which we cover in this study. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we used adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs to differentiate into cartilage. Differentiated cartilage cells were used in the control (without estrogen E2 in the culture medium and experimental (with estrogen in the culture medium groups to evaluate the expression of type II collagen and aggrecan as chondrogenic genes markers, with -real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: Our results indicated that estrogen leads to inhibition of type II collagen gene expression and reduction of aggrecan gene expression. Conclusion: Therefore, estrogen probably has negative effects on chondrogenesis process of ADSCs.

  11. [CHONDROGENESIS-SPECIFIC MICRORNA EXPRESSION PATTERN ANALYSIS IN CHONDROGENIC DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziji; Kang, Yan; Zhang, Zhiqi; Yang, Zibo; Fang, Shuying; Sheng, Puyi; He, Aishan; Fu, Ming; Liao, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile during chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), and assess the roles of involved miRNAs during chondrogenesis. hADSCs were harvested and cultured from donors who underwent elective liposuction or other abdominal surgery. When the cells were passaged to P3, chondrogenic induction medium was used for chondrogenic differentiation. The morphology of the cells was observed by inverted phase contrast microscopy. Alcian blue staining was carried out at 21 days after induction to access the chondrogenic status. The expressions of chondrogenic proteins were detected by ELISA at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days. The miRNA expression profiles at pre- and post-chondrogenic induction were obtained by microarray assay, and differentially expressed miRNAs were verified by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The targets of the miRNAs were predicted by online software programs. hADSCs were cultured successfully and induced with chondrogenic medium. At 21 days after chondrogenic induction, the cells were stained positively for alcian blue staining. At 7, 14, and 21 days after chondrogenic induction, the levels of collogen type II, Col2a1, aggrecan, Coll0a1, and chondroitin sulfate in induced hADSCs were significantly higher than those in non-induced hADSCs (Pdifferentially expressed miRNAs were found, including seven up-regulated and four down-regulated. Predicted target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were based on the overlap from three public prediction algorithms, with the known functions of regulating chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, self-renewal, signal transduction, intracellular signaling cascade, and cell cycle control. A group of miRNAs and their target genes are identified, which may play important roles in regulating chondrogenic differentiation of hADSCs. These results will facilitate the initial understanding of the molecular mechanism of chondrogenic differentiation

  12. TGF-ß1 enhances the BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis of bovine synovial explants and arrests downstream differentiation at an early stage of hypertrophy.

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    Nahoko Shintani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synovial explants furnish an in-situ population of mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of articular cartilage. Although bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 induces the chondrogenesis of bovine synovial explants, the cartilage formed is neither homogeneously distributed nor of an exclusively hyaline type. Furthermore, the downstream differentiation of chondrocytes proceeds to the stage of terminal hypertrophy, which is inextricably coupled with undesired matrix mineralization. With a view to optimizing BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis, the modulating influences of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1 were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Explants of bovine calf metacarpal synovium were exposed to BMP-2 (200 ng/ml for 4 (or 6 weeks. FGF-2 (10 ng/ml or TGF-ß1 (10 ng/ml was introduced at the onset of incubation and was present either during the first week of culturing alone or throughout its entire course. FGF-2 enhanced the BMP-2-induced increase in metachromatic staining for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs only when it was present during the first week of culturing alone. TGF-ß1 enhanced not only the BMP-2-induced increase in metachromasia (to a greater degree than FGF-2, but also the biochemically-assayed accumulation of GAGs, when it was present throughout the entire culturing period; in addition, it arrested the downstream differentiation of cells at an early stage of hypertrophy. These findings were corroborated by an analysis of the gene- and protein-expression levels of key cartilaginous markers and by an estimation of individual cell volume. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TGF-ß1 enhances the BMP-2-induced chondrogenesis of bovine synovial explants, improves the hyaline-like properties of the neocartilage, and arrests the downstream differentiation of cells at an early stage of hypertrophy. With the prospect of engineering a mature, truly articular type of cartilage in the context of

  13. Treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus with autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis: clinical and magnetic resonance evaluation at one-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    USUELLI, FEDERICO GIUSEPPE; GRASSI, MIRIAM; MANZI, LUIGI; GUARRELLA, VINCENZO; BOGA, MICHELE; DE GIROLAMO, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study is to report the clinical and imaging results recorded by a series of patients in whom osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) were repaired using the autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis (ACIC) technique with a completely arthroscopic approach. Methods nine patients (mean age 37.4±10 years) affected by OLTs (lesion size 2.1±0.9 cm2) were treated with the ACIC technique. The patients were evaluated clinically both preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS) and a visual analog scale (VAS). For morphological evaluation, the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used. Results the AOFAS score improved from 51.4±11.6 preoperatively to 71.8±20.6 postoperatively, while the VAS value decreased from 6.9±1.8 to 3.2±1.9. The mean MOCART score was 51.7±16.6 at 12 months of follow-up; these scores did not directly correlate with the clinical results. Conclusion use of the ACIC technique for arthroscopic repair of OLTs allowed satisfactory clinical results to be obtained in most of the patients as soon as one year after surgery, with no major complications or delayed revision surgery. ACIC is a valid and low-invasive surgical technique for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects of the talus. Level of evidence therapeutic case series, level IV. PMID:27602347

  14. The Role of Cyclic AMP and Its Relationship to Parathyroid Hormone Response in an In Vitro Model of Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    meaningful and complete information. When a report is prepared in more than one volume , repeat the primary title, add volume number, and include subtitle...et al. (1990) found human PTH (hPTH) 1-34 inhibited ALPase activity and stimulated mitogenesis in mandibular condylar cartilage in vitro. Conversely...properties of cartilage cells in vivo. Copray et al. (1988) observed prominent differences in the response to PTH by rat secondary mandibular condylar and

  15. Designer Nodal/BMP2 Chimeras Mimic Nodal Signaling, Promote Chondrogenesis, and Reveal a BMP2-like Structure

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    Esquivies, Luis; Blackler, Alissa; Peran, Macarena; Rodriguez-Esteban, Concepcion; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Booker, Evan; Gray, Peter C.; Ahn, Chihoon; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Choe, Senyon

    2014-01-01

    Nodal, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, plays an important role in vertebrate and invertebrate early development. The biochemical study of Nodal and its signaling pathway has been a challenge, mainly because of difficulties in producing the protein in sufficient quantities. We have developed a library of stable, chemically refoldable Nodal/BMP2 chimeric ligands (NB2 library). Three chimeras, named NB250, NB260, and NB264, show Nodal-like signaling properties including dependence on the co-receptor Cripto and activation of the Smad2 pathway. NB250, like Nodal, alters heart looping during the establishment of embryonic left-right asymmetry, and both NB250 and NB260, as well as Nodal, induce chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. This Nodal-induced differentiation is shown to be more efficient than BPM2-induced differentiation. Interestingly, the crystal structure of NB250 shows a backbone scaffold similar to that of BMP2. Our results show that these chimeric ligands may have therapeutic implications in cartilage injuries. PMID:24311780

  16. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the HMG domain of the chondrogenesis master regulator Sox9 in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified DNA element

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    Vivekanandan, Saravanan; Moovarkumudalvan, Balasubramanian; Lescar, Julien; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2015-10-30

    Sox9 is a fundamental sex-determining gene and the master regulator of chondrogenesis, and is involved in the development of various vital organs such as testes, kidney, heart and brain, and in skeletal development. Similar to other known Sox transcription factors, Sox9 recognizes and binds DNA with the consensus sequence C(T/A)TTG(T/A)(T/A) through the highly conserved HMG domain. Nonetheless, the molecular basis of the functional specificity of Sox9 in key developmental processes is still unclear. As an initial step towards a mechanistic understanding of Sox9 transcriptional regulation, the current work describes the details of the purification of the mouse Sox9 HMG domain (mSox9HMG), its crystallization in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified FOXP2 promoter DNA element and the X-ray diffraction data analysis of this complex. The mSox9HMG–FOXP2 promoter DNA complex was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20% PEG 3350 in 200 mMsodium/potassium phosphate with 100 mMbis-tris propane at pH 8.5. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and the complex crystallized in the tetragonal space groupP41212, with unit-cell parametersa=b= 99.49,c= 45.89 Å. Crystal-packing parameters revealed that asymmetric unit contained one mSox9HMG–FOXP2 promoter DNA complex with an estimated solvent content of 64%.

  17. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the HMG domain of the chondrogenesis master regulator Sox9 in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified DNA element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandan, Saravanan; Moovarkumudalvan, Balasubramanian; Lescar, Julien; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2015-11-01

    Sox9 is a fundamental sex-determining gene and the master regulator of chondrogenesis, and is involved in the development of various vital organs such as testes, kidney, heart and brain, and in skeletal development. Similar to other known Sox transcription factors, Sox9 recognizes and binds DNA with the consensus sequence C(T/A)TTG(T/A)(T/A) through the highly conserved HMG domain. Nonetheless, the molecular basis of the functional specificity of Sox9 in key developmental processes is still unclear. As an initial step towards a mechanistic understanding of Sox9 transcriptional regulation, the current work describes the details of the purification of the mouse Sox9 HMG domain (mSox9HMG), its crystallization in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified FOXP2 promoter DNA element and the X-ray diffraction data analysis of this complex. The mSox9HMG-FOXP2 promoter DNA complex was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20% PEG 3350 in 200 mM sodium/potassium phosphate with 100 mM bis-tris propane at pH 8.5. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and the complex crystallized in the tetragonal space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 99.49, c = 45.89 Å. Crystal-packing parameters revealed that asymmetric unit contained one mSox9HMG-FOXP2 promoter DNA complex with an estimated solvent content of 64%.

  18. Hedgehog信号调控骨髓间充质干细胞成软骨细胞分化:调控方式及其串话机制尚待研究%Hedgehog signal regulates the chondrogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells:controlling methods and cross-talking relationship with other signals need further studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宽; 吴兴

    2014-01-01

    背景:Hedgehog 信号通路在骨髓间充质干细胞成软骨细胞分化过程中发挥重要的调控作用,但具体的调控机制,以及与其他信号通路的串话机制仍需进一步的研究,是近来研究的热点。目的:介绍hedgehog信号在调控骨髓间充质干细胞成软骨分化过程中信号转导机制的研究现状与发展趋势,以及与其他信号通路的相互串话。方法:通过搜索CNKI,PubMed及Google Scholar等数据库,以“hedgehog,骨髓间充质干细胞,软骨形成,软骨细胞”和“hedgehog,IHH,SHH,bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel ,chondrogenesis, cartilage, chondrocyte”为检索词,查阅有关hedgehog信号与骨髓间充质干细胞分化相关的文献,最终共纳入36篇文献进行综述。结果与结论:骨髓间充质干细胞是目前公认的组织工程种子细胞来源,hedgehog信号通路是运动系统发育过程中重要的信号分子。Hedgehog信号蛋白IHH和SHH参与调控骨髓间充质干细胞的增殖与成软骨分化,以及软骨形成后的表型维持,且与其他信号通路发挥协同作用。然而,具体的调控方式以及与其他信号的串话机制,仍需进一步的研究,是这一领域未来研究的方向。%BACKGROUND:The hedgehog pathway has paid an important role in the progress of chondrogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the definite signal transduction pathway and cross-talking relationship with other common signal pathways are stil poorly understood and the researches related to this field is to continue as a hotspot in the future study. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the research progress of hedgehog signal pathway on the regulation of the chondrogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the relationship between hedgehog and other signal pathways in the process. METHODS:A computer-based online search in CNKI, PubMed and Google Scholar databases was performed using key words

  19. Side population cells isolated from porcine dental pulp tissue with self-renewal and multipotency for dentinogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, and neurogenesis.

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    Iohara, Koichiro; Zheng, Li; Ito, Masataka; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako

    2006-11-01

    Dental pulp has the potential to form dentin as a regenerative response to caries. This regeneration is mediated by stem/progenitor cells. Thus, stem cell therapy might be of potential utility in induction of reparative dentin. We isolated side population (SP) cells from dental pulp based on the exclusion of the DNA binding dye Hoechst 33342 by flow cytometry and compared its self-renewal capacities and multipotency with non-SP cells and primary pulp cells. The cumulative cell number of the SP cells was greater than the non-SP cells and primary pulp cells. Bmi1 was continuously expressed in SP cells, suggesting longer proliferative lifespan and self-renewal capacity of SP cells. Next, the maintenance of the multilineage differentiation potential of pulp SP cells was investigated. Expression of type II collagen and aggrecan confirmed chondrogenic conversion (30%) of SP cells. SP cells expressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adaptor protein 2, showing adipogenic conversion. Expression of mRNA and proteins of neurofilament and neuromodulin confirmed neurogenic conversion (90%). These results demonstrate that pulp SP cells maintain multilineage differentiation potential. We further examined whether bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) could induce differentiation of pulp SP cells into odontoblasts. BMP2 stimulated the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) and enamelysin in three-dimensional pellet cultures. Autogenous transplantation of the Bmp2-supplemented SP cells on the amputated pulp stimulated the reparative dentin formation. Thus, adult pulp contains SP cells, which are enriched for stem cell properties and useful for cell therapy with BMP2 for dentin regeneration.

  20. Histone Acetylation Influences the Activity of Sox9-related Transcriptional Complex

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    Furumatsu,Takayuki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chondrocyte differentiation is the fundamental process in skeletal development. From the mesenchymal condensation of chondroprogenitors to the hypertrophic maturation of chondrocytes, chondrogenesis is sequentially regulated by cross-talk among transcription factors, growth factors, and chromatin structure. The master transcription factor Sry-type HMG box (Sox 9 has an essential role in the expression of chondrogenic genes through the association with Sox9-binding sites on its target genes. Several transcription factors and coactivators, such as Scleraxis/E47 and p300, cooperatively modulate the Sox9-dependent transcription by interacting with Sox9. The Sox9-related transcriptional apparatus activates its target gene expression through p300-mediated histone acetylation on chromatin. The transforming growth factor (TGF-β superfamily also plays a key role in chondrocyte differentiation. The TGF-β-regulated Smad3/4 complex activates Sox9-dependent transcription on chromatin by associating with Sox9 itself, and by recruiting p300 onto Sox9. These findings suggest that the epigenetic status including histone modification and chromatin structure, directly influences Sox9-regulated chondrocyte differentiation. In this article, we review the regulators of Sox9 expression itself, modulators of posttranslational Sox9 function, and Sox9-associating factors in the Sox9-dependent epigenetic regulation during chondrogenesis.

  1. Poly(dl)lactic acid/polyglycolic acid/iron and poly(dl)lactic acid/polyglycolic acid/samarium cobalt composites for use as a delivery mechanism for magnetically directed chondrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Dean Alan

    Magnetically directed chondrogenesis (MDC) is a fundamental approach to articular cartilage repair. In MDC a magnet is implanted into the subchondral trabecular bone underlying a cartilage defect and used to attract chondrocytes, magnetically tagged with Fe nanoparticles, to the defect site. Pilot studies by Halpern, Crimp and Grande, using solid neodymium (Nd) magnets, indicated optimistic results by producing a hyaline-like articular cartilage after 8 weeks implantation. Since solid Nd magnets introduce long-term biocompatibility issues, the focus of this dissertation was to develop P(dl)A/PGA/Fe and P(dl)A/PGA/SmCo 5 implants for use in MDC. The effect of implant porosity, implant composition and magnetic material (Fe or SmCo5) on the initial and degraded magnetic properties were evaluated. The biocompatibility of P(dl)A/PGA/Fe implants were investigated by implantation into New Zealand white rabbits for 8 weeks. The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ethylene oxide (EO) sterilization techniques on the molecular weight and chemical structure of P(dl)A/PGA polymers were evaluated using gel permeation chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of implant morphology, size and number on the von Mises stress in the trabecular bone surrounding the implant was evaluated using a finite element model. In general, SmCo5 implants resulted in higher magnetic fields initially and after 8 weeks of degradation than comparable Fe implants. Increases in magnetic field strength were achieved by increasing the volume fraction of magnetic material and by increasing the PGA concentration. The magnetic field strength degradation rate decreased with increases in volume fraction of magnetic material and increases in PLA concentration. Implantation studies indicated that 50/50 P(dl)A/PGA were more bioactive than 75/25 P(dl)A/PGA with an increased cellular response that is specific to bone growth. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of porous

  2. Cartilage tissue engineering application of injectable gelatin hydrogel with in situ visible-light-activated gelation capability in both air and aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Alexander, Peter G; Beck, Angela M; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-09-01

    Chondroprogenitor cells encapsulated in a chondrogenically supportive, three-dimensional hydrogel scaffold represents a promising, regenerative approach to articular cartilage repair. In this study, we have developed an injectable, biodegradable methacrylated gelatin (mGL)-based hydrogel capable of rapid gelation via visible light (VL)-activated crosslinking in air or aqueous solution. The mild photocrosslinking conditions permitted the incorporation of cells during the gelation process. Encapsulated human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) showed high, long-term viability (up to 90 days) throughout the scaffold. To assess the applicability of the mGL hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering, we have evaluated the efficacy of chondrogenesis of the encapsulated hBMSCs, using hBMSCs seeded in agarose as control. The ability of hBMSC-laden mGL constructs to integrate with host tissues after implantation was further investigated utilizing an in vitro cartilage repair model. The results showed that the mGL hydrogel, which could be photopolymerized in air and aqueous solution, supports hBMSC growth and TGF-β3-induced chondrogenesis. Compared with agarose, mGL constructs laden with hBMSCs are mechanically stronger with time, and integrate well with native cartilage tissue upon implantation based on push-out mechanical testing. VL-photocrosslinked mGL scaffold thus represents a promising scaffold for cell-based repair and resurfacing of articular cartilage defects.

  3. ACTIVITY OF CANONICAL WNT SIGNAL SYSTEM IN HYALINE CARTILAGE ARTICULAR CHONDROCYTES IN PROCESS OF SYNOVIAL JOINT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Molotkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Canonical and non-canonical Wnt systems are essential regulators of chondrogenesis and bone development. However, the roles of these systems in synovial joint development are not well studied. To determine if canonical Wnt system is active in developing articular chondrocytes we used immunohistochemistry for в-galactosidase and doublecortin (cell-type specific marker for articular chondrocytes to double label sections through joint regions of E14.5, E18.5, P10 and adult mice. Here the following results are presented. Canonical Wnt signal system does not work in developing articular chondrocytes at early embryonic stages (E14.5; it is active in the articular chondrocytes at late embryonic stages (E16.5-E18.5 and during postnatal development (P7-P10, but is turned off again in the adult articular chondrocytes. These results suggest that canonical Wnt signaling is being regulated during articular chondrocytes differentiation and joint formation.

  4. Activation and localization of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1 at the site of ossification of the ligamentum flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, T; Ariga, K; Yonenobu, K; Tsumaki, N; Luyten, F P; Mukai, Y; Sato, I; Yoshikawa, H

    2001-08-01

    Localization and expression of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein (CDMP)-1 in tissues at the site of ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) were examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The CDMP-1 protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) were localized in spindle-shaped cells and chondrocytes in the OLF tissues. CDMP-1 was not detected in cells in non-ossified sites. These data indicate that CDMP-1 is locally activated and localized in spindle-shaped cells and chondrocytes at the site of OLE. Given the previously reported promoting action of CDMP-1 for chondrogenesis, the current results suggest that CDMP-1 may be involved in the progression of OLF, leading to the narrowing of spinal canal and thus causing severe clinical manifestations.

  5. Ectopic chondrogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with platelet-rich fibrin in vivo%骨髓间充质干细胞复合富血小板纤维蛋白异位成软骨的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轶杰; 陈慧; 刘鹏; 张旻; 陈永进

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore the ectopic chondrogenesis effects of double membrane transplant constructed by homologous rabbit platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheet in cartilage microenvironment in vivo. METHODS: BMSCs was obtained from New Zealand rabbits by density gradient centrifuga-tion. The cells were identified by flow cytomety, osteogenic and adipogenic induction assays and then used to form BMSC sheet cultured by standard medium with Vitamin C. PRF membrane was prepared by centrifuging the whole blood from the rabbit auricle arterial and then squeezing out the serum from the clot. The PRF membrane was co-cultured with BMSC sheet. Afterwards, the BMSCs/PRF compound membranes enwraping auricle cartilage fragments were implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous area of 15 nude mice. Only BMSC sheets enwraping auricle cartilage fragments were implanted into another 15 nude mice as the controls. 4, 8 and 12 weeks after implantation, cartilage formation was observed by HE staining and toluidine blue staining. IPP 6.0 was used for image analysis and SPSS 13.0 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: HE staining showed chondrogenesis in ectopic sites 2, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation in experimental group. In contrast, only a few chondrocytes were observed in control group at 8 weeks. IPP data analy- sis showed the average optical density value of experimental group increased gradually and was significantly higher than that of the control at the same time points (P <0. 05). CONCLUSION: The new autotransplant constructed by the BMSC sheet and PRF can provide an effective way for chondrogenesis.%目的:探讨富血小板纤维蛋白(platelet-rich fibrin,PRF)复合兔骨髓间充质干细胞膜片在软骨微环境下异位成软骨的可行性.方法:取3~4月龄雄性新西兰兔骨髓,体外分离、培养骨髓间充质干细胞;经来源鉴定后,取第3代细胞诱导培养形成细胞膜片;抽取同一只兔动脉血制备PRF后与

  6. The imbalance of masticatory muscle activity affects the asymmetric growth of condylar cartilage and subchondral bone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Mutsumi; Yonemitsu, Ikuo; Takei, Maki; Kure-Hattori, Ikuko; Ono, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effects of imbalance of masticatory muscle activity of the rat mandible on the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone during the growth period. Forty 5-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into experimental (n=20) and control (n=20) groups. In the experimental group, the left masseter muscles were resected. The rats were sacrificed at 7 or 9 weeks of age in both groups. Microcomputed tomography was used to determine the three-dimensional morphology and cancellous bone structure. For histological and histochemical examination, 5-μm-thick serial frontal sections of the condyle were stained with toluidine blue and immunostained with asporin and TGF-β1 to evaluate the promotion and inhibition of chondrogenesis. In the experimental group, microcomputed tomography analysis showed asymmetric growth; the resected side condyles showed degenerative changes. Histological analysis showed that the total cartilage in the central region of the resected side was significantly thinner than in the non-resected side in the experimental group, as well as in the control group. Compared with the control group, the expression of asporin was significantly higher in the resected side, and significantly lower in the non-resected side. In contrast, the expression of TGF-β1-immunopositive cells in the non-resected side was significantly higher than in the resected side and the control group. These findings imply that lateral imbalance of masseter muscle activity lead to inhibition of chondrogenesis and induce asymmetric formation of the condyle during the growth period. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Chondrogenesis of synovial mesenchymal stem cells co-cultured with chondrocytes on the three-dimensional scaffold%滑膜间充质干细胞与软骨细胞三维条件下混合培养向软骨细胞的分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁晓婷; 胡露露; 邵博; 龚忠诚; 刘慧; 凌彬; 克热木•阿巴斯; 林兆全; 杨萌; 尹小朋

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Articular chondrocytes with the ability of autocrine and paracrine can provide the growth factors and microenvironment for synovial mesenchymal stem cels differentiating into the chondrocyte. The three-dimensional scaffold could provide space for cels adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of chondrogenesis by co-culturing synovial mesenchymal stem cels and chondrocytes under the three-dimensional condition. METHODS:The synovial membrane and articular cartilage were harvested from rat knee joint. The synovial mesenchymal stem cels and chondrocytes were obtained through the method of enzyme digestion. The passage 3 synovial mesenchymal stem cels and passage 2 chondrocytes were co-cultured in the chitosan/I colagen composite scaffolds at the ratio of 1:2. Then, the cels/scaffold composite was harvested to be examined morphologicaly, histologicaly and immunohistochemicaly after being cultured 21 days. The confocal laser was also employed to detect the cels distribution in the scaffold. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After being cultured 72 hours, it could be observed from the cels/scaffold composite examined through the scanning electron microscope that the cels adhered on the surface of the scaffold and extracelular matrix surrounding the cels was seen on the scaffold. After being cultured 21 days, it could be found through the confocal laser scanning that the cels were wel-distributed on the scaffold, and cels decreased gradualy. Type II colagen was positive in the extracelular matrix immunohistochamicaly. It suggested from this study that the synovial mesenchymal stem cels could be co-cultured with chondrocytes in the chitosan/I colagen composite scaffolds and have the ability of chondrogenesis differentiation.%背景:软骨细胞通过自分泌及旁分泌的作用可以为滑膜间充质干细胞向软骨细胞分化提供所需的生长因子及微环境,三维条件下更有利于细胞的黏附增殖与分化

  8. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Juhász

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.

  9. CHONDROGENESIS OF ADIPOSE DERIVED STEM CELLS INDUCED BY MISSHAPEN AURICULAR CHONDROCYTES FROM MICROTIA IN VITRO%残耳软骨细胞诱导脂肪来源干细胞体外软骨形成实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡震; 潘博; 林琳; 蒋海越; 庄洪兴; 游晓波; 傅荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the misshapen auricular chondrocytes from microtia in inducing chondrogenesis of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro. Methods Human ADSCs at passage 3 and misshapen auricular chondrocytes at passage 2 were harvested and mixed at a ratio of 7 '. 3 as experimental group (group A, 1.0 ×106 mixed cells). Misshapen auricular chondrocytes or ADSCs at the same cell number served as control groups (groups B and C, respectively). All samples were incubated in the centrifuge tubes. At 28 days after incubation, the morphological examination was done and the wet weight was measured; the content of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was detected by Alcian blue colorimetry; the expressions of collagen type Ⅱ and Aggrecan were determined with RT-PCR; and HE staining, toluidine blue staining, Safranin O staining of GAG, and collagen type Ⅱ immunohistochemical staining were used for histological and immunohistochemical observations. Results At 28 days after incubation, all specimens formed disc tissue that was translucent and white with smooth surface and good elasticity in groups A and B; the specimens shrank into yellow spherical tissue without elasticity in group C. The wet weight and GAG content of specimens in groups A and B were significantly higher than those in group C (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between groups A and B in the wet weight (t=1.820 3, P=0.068 7) and in GAG content (t= 1.861 4, P=0.062 7). In groups A and B, obvious expressions of collagen type Ⅱ and Aggrecan mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR, but no obvious expressions were observed in group C; the expressions in groups A and B were significantly higher than those in group C (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between groups A and B in collagen type Ⅱ mRNA expression (t=1.457 6, P=0.144 9) and Aggrecan mRNA expression (t=1.519 5, P=0.128 6). Mature cartilage lacunas and different degrees of dyeing for the extracellular

  10. PTH stimulated growth and decreased Col-X deposition are phosphotidylinositol-3,4,5 triphosphate kinase and mitogen activating protein kinase dependent in avian sterna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Erik Kern; Coon, David J; Kern, Matthew F; Svoboda, Kathy K H

    2010-02-01

    Type X collagen (Col-X) deposition is a marker of terminal differentiation during chondrogenesis, in addition to appositional growth and apoptosis. The parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTH/PTHrP) receptor, or PPR, is a G-Protein coupled receptor (GPCR), which activates several downstream pathways, moderating chondrocyte differentiation, including suppression of Col-X deposition. An Avian sterna model was used to analyze the PPR GPCR downstream kinase role in growth rate and extracellular matrix (ECM) including Col-II, IX, and X. Phosphatidylinositol kinase (PI3K), mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) were inhibited with specific established inhibitors LY294002, PD98059, and H89, respectively to test the hypothesis that they could reverse/inhibit the PTH/PTHrP pathway. Excised E14 chick sterna were PTH treated with or without an inhibitor and compared to controls. Sternal length was measured every 24 hr. Cultured sterna were immuno-stained using specific antibodies for Col-II, IX, or X and examined via confocal microscopy. Increased growth in PTH-treated sterna was MAPK, PI3K, and PKA dose dependent, suggesting growth was regulated through multiple pathways. Col-X deposition was rescued in PTH-treated sterna in the presence of PI3K or MAPK inhibitors, but not with the PKA inhibitor. All three inhibitors moderately disrupted Col-II and Col-IX deposition. These results suggest that PTH can activate multiple pathways during chondrocyte differentiation.

  11. Periosteal BMP2 activity drives bone graft healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuis, Vivianne; Gamer, Laura; Cox, Karen; Lowery, Jonathan W; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Rosen, Vicki

    2012-10-01

    Bone graft incorporation depends on the orchestrated activation of numerous growth factors and cytokines in both the host and the graft. Prominent in this signaling cascade is BMP2. Although BMP2 is dispensable for bone formation, it is required for the initiation of bone repair; thus understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying bone regeneration driven by BMP2 is essential for improving bone graft therapies. In the present study, we assessed the role of Bmp2 in bone graft incorporation using mice in which Bmp2 has been removed from the limb prior to skeletal formation (Bmp2(cKO)). When autograft transplantations were performed in Bmp2cKO mice, callus formation and bone healing were absent. Transplantation of either a vital wild type (WT) bone graft into a Bmp2(cKO) host or a vital Bmp2(cKO) graft into a WT host also resulted in the inhibition of bone graft incorporation. Histological analyses of these transplants show that in the absence of BMP2, periosteal progenitors remain quiescent and healing is not initiated. When we analyzed the expression of Sox9, a marker of chondrogenesis, on the graft surface, we found it significantly reduced when BMP2 was absent in either the graft itself or the host, suggesting that local BMP2 levels drive periosteal cell condensation and subsequent callus cell differentiation. The lack of integrated healing in the absence of BMP2 was not due to the inability of periosteal cells to respond to BMP2. Healing was achieved when grafts were pre-soaked in rhBMP2 protein, indicating that periosteal progenitors remain responsive in the absence of BMP2. In contrast to the requirement for BMP2 in periosteal progenitor activation in vital bone grafts, we found that bone matrix-derived BMP2 does not significantly enhance bone graft incorporation. Taken together, our data show that BMP2 signaling is not essential for the maintenance of periosteal progenitors, but is required for the activation of these progenitors and their subsequent

  12. Runx1 is critical for PTH-induced onset of mesenchymal progenitor cell chondrogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwu Wang

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone (PTH plays a critical role in the regulation of chondrogenesis. In this study, we have found for the first time that Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1 contributes to PTH-induced chondrogenesis. Upon PTH treatment, limb bud mesenchymal progenitor cells in micromass culture showed an enhanced chondrogenesis, which was associated with a significant increase of chondrogenic marker gene expression, such as type II collagen and type X collagen. Runx1 was also exclusively expressed in cells treated with PTH at the onset stage of chondrogenesis. Knockdown of Runx1 completely blunted PTH-mediated chondrogenesis. Furthermore, PTH induced Runx1 expression and chondrogenesis were markedly reduced by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA signaling. Taken together, our present study indicates that chondrogenesis induced by PTH in mesenchymal progenitor cells is mediated by Runx1, which involves the activation of PKA. These data provide a novel insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms behind PTH-enhanced cartilage regeneration.

  13. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2007-01-01

    staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion: We here report...

  14. Catabolic factors and osteoarthritis-conditioned medium inhibit chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldens, G.T.H.; Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Vitters, E.L.; Schreurs, B.W.; Piek, E.; Berg, W.B. van den; Kraan, P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage has a very limited intrinsic repair capacity leading to progressive joint damage. Therapies involving tissue engineering depend on chondrogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. This chondrogenic differentiation will have to survive in a diseased joint. We postulate that catab

  15. The role of transforming growth factor alpha in rat craniofacial development and chondrogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, L; Solursh, M; Sandra, A

    1996-01-01

    To explore the possible role of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in craniofacial development, its expression in the craniofacial region of rat embryos from embryonic day (d) 9 to d 20 was examined by in situ hybridisation and immunostaining. The TGF-alpha transcripts were first detected in the neural fold of embryonic d 9 and 10 embryos. In the craniofacial region, the TGF-alpha transcripts were not detected until embryonic d 16 in mesenchyme surrounding the olfactory bulb, within...

  16. Quantitative transcriptional profiling of ATDC5 mouse progenitor cells during chondrogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2005-01-01

    . The obtained data provided a robust determination of expression patterns that make possible an accurate assessment of the molecular events along the chondrogenic differentiation pathway. In addition, time-course expression profiles were described for eight highly regulated genes that have not been associated...

  17. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Abbas [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Peyman [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Soleimani, Masoud [Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers.

  18. Chondrogenesis of adipose-derived adult stem cells in a poly-lactide-co-glycolide scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Zwingmann, Jorn; Finkenzeller, Guenter

    2009-01-01

    combined immunodeficiency mice and harvested after 8 weeks. Chondrospecific messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Corresponding extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis was demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining. Chondrospecific marker...... implantation in a subcutaneous pocket of nude mice. Human ASCs were seeded into PLGA (polylactic acid:polyglycolic acid = 90:10) scaffolds and cultured in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1)-containing medium for 3 weeks in vitro. Then specimens were implanted into a subcutaneous pocket of severe...

  19. Optimized chondrogenesis of ATCD5 cells through sequential regulation of oxygen conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Ebbesen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    , chondrocyte-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) production was monitored. Furthermore, the transcription of collagen II, an early-phase marker, and collagen X, a marker of hypertrophic conversion, was followed by real-time RT-PCR. Low oxygen concentrations between 1 and 9% inhibited chondrogenic conversion......). For the hypertrophic conversion of the ATDC5 cells, all degrees of hypoxia inhibited collagen X expression in a dose-dependent manner. Short-term culturing of the ATDC5 cells for 6 to 8 days at 12% oxygen with subsequent culturing at 21% for the remainder of the experiment resulted in maximal production of major ECM...

  20. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  1. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Huang, C.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  2. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  3. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Huang, C.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  4. Effect of Collagen Type I or Type II on Chondrogenesis by Cultured Human Articular Chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Vonk, L.A.; van Rijen, M.H.P.; Akrum, V.; Langeveld, D.; van Boxtel, A.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Current cartilage repair procedures using autologous chondrocytes rely on a variety of carriers for implantation. Collagen types I and II are frequently used and valuable properties of both were shown earlier in vitro, although a preference for either was not demonstrated. Recently,

  5. Autologous Membrane Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC) for the treatment of acetabular chondral defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Acetabular chondral defect are very frequently associated to FAI. Treatment options are still questionable. Methods Between 2008 and 2014, 201 patients over 583 have been arthroscopically treated with the AMIC procedure for grade III and/or IV acetabular chondral lesions. Patients age was between 18 and 50 years; acetabular chondral lesion size was between 2 and 4 cm2; radiological Tönnis degree of osteoarthritis was ≤ 2. Results The mean follow up of the entire group of 201 patients was 5 years (from 8 to 2). Significant improvement, as measured by the mHHS, was observed at 6 months in comparison to preoperative levels (80.3 ± 8.3) (prepair medium-sized chondral defects on the acetabular side of the hip found during treatment of FAI and lead to long-term favourable outcomes. Level of evidence IV. PMID:28066742

  6. Effect of Collagen Type I or Type II on Chondrogenesis by Cultured Human Articular Chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Saris, D.B.F.; Vonk, L.A.; Rijen, van M.H.P.; Akrum, V.; Langeveld, D.; Boxtel, van A.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Current cartilage repair procedures using autologous chondrocytes rely on a variety of carriers for implantation. Collagen types I and II are frequently used and valuable properties of both were shown earlier in vitro, although a preference for either was not demonstrated. Recently, ho

  7. A combinatorial approach towards the design of nanofibrous scaffolds for chondrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Ramos, Tiago André Da Silva; Damanik, Febriyani; Quang Le, Bach; Wieringa, Paul; Bennink, Martin; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional (3D) structure composed of proteinaceous fibres that provide physical and biological cues to direct cell behaviour. Here, we build a library of hybrid collagen-polymer fibrous scaffolds with nanoscale dimensions and screen them for their ability to grow chondrocytes for cartilage repair. Poly(lactic acid) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) at two different monomer ratios (85:15 and 50:50) were incrementally blended with collagen. Physical properties (wettability and stiffness) of the scaffolds were characterized and related to biological performance (proliferation, ECM production, and gene expression) and structure-function relationships were developed. We found that soft scaffolds with an intermediate wettability composed of the highly biodegradable PLGA50:50 and collagen, in two ratios (40:60 and 60:40), were optimal for chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells as determined by increased ECM production and enhanced cartilage specific gene expression. Long-term cultures indicated a stable phenotype with minimal de-differentiation or hypertrophy. The combinatorial methodology applied herein is a promising approach for the design and development of scaffolds for regenerative medicine.

  8. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  9. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated Carbon, Animal Charcoal, Carbo Vegetabilis, Carbon, Carbón Activado, Charbon Actif, Charbon Activé, Charbon Animal, Charbon Médicinal, Charbon Végétal, Charbon Végétal Activé, Charcoal, Gas Black, Lamp Black, Medicinal Charcoal, Noir de Gaz, ...

  10. Flavonoid Compound Icariin Activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Chondrocytes and Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Wang

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has poor capability for repair following trauma or degenerative pathology due to avascular property, low cell density and migratory ability. Discovery of novel therapeutic approaches for articular cartilage repair remains a significant clinical need. Hypoxia is a hallmark for cartilage development and pathology. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α has been identified as a key mediator for chondrocytes to response to fluctuations of oxygen availability during cartilage development or repair. This suggests that HIF-1α may serve as a target for modulating chondrocyte functions. In this study, using phenotypic cellular screen assays, we identify that Icariin, an active flavonoid component from Herba Epimedii, activates HIF-1α expression in chondrocytes. We performed systemic in vitro and in vivo analysis to determine the roles of Icariin in regulation of chondrogenesis. Our results show that Icariin significantly increases hypoxia responsive element luciferase reporter activity, which is accompanied by increased accumulation and nuclear translocation of HIF-1α in murine chondrocytes. The phenotype is associated with inhibiting PHD activity through interaction between Icariin and iron ions. The upregulation of HIF-1α mRNA levels in chondrocytes persists during chondrogenic differentiation for 7 and 14 days. Icariin (10-6 M increases the proliferation of chondrocytes or chondroprogenitors examined by MTT, BrdU incorporation or colony formation assays. Icariin enhances chondrogenic marker expression in a micromass culture including Sox9, collagen type 2 (Col2α1 and aggrecan as determined by real-time PCR and promotes extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis indicated by Alcian blue staining. ELISA assays show dramatically increased production of aggrecan and hydroxyproline in Icariin-treated cultures at day 14 of chondrogenic differentiation as compared with the controls. Meanwhile, the expression of chondrocyte catabolic

  11. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  12. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  13. Active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2017-05-01

    The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.

  14. Activity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  15. Differential expression pattern of extracellular matrix molecules during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, A T; Niemeyer, P; Kaiser, S;

    2006-01-01

    Adipose-derived adult stem cells (ADASCs) or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are considered as alternative cell sources for cell-based cartilage repair due to their ability to produce cartilage-specific matrix. This article addresses the differential expression pattern of extra......Adipose-derived adult stem cells (ADASCs) or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are considered as alternative cell sources for cell-based cartilage repair due to their ability to produce cartilage-specific matrix. This article addresses the differential expression pattern...... mRNA was monitored via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Corresponding ECM synthesis was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. After chondroinduction, expression of collagen type II, type X, COMP and aggrecan mRNA was 3-15-fold higher than in ADASCs. The type IIA splicing...... form of alpha(1)-procollagen type II was expressed in both populations, and the type IIB splicing form was exclusively detected in BMSCs. In response to TGF-beta, collagen type II and X were secreted more strongly by BMSCs than by ADASCs. BMSCs express a more mature phenotype than ADASCs after...

  16. Composite poly(l-lactic-acid)/silk fibroin scaffold prepared by electrospinning promotes chondrogenesis for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Liu, Peng; Yang, Ting; Sun, Ying; You, Qi; Li, Jiale; Wang, Zilin; Han, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Nanofibrous materials produced by electrospinning have attracted considerable attention from researchers in regenerative medicine. A combination of nanofibrous scaffold and chondrocytes is considered promising for repair of cartilage defect or damage. In the present study, we fabricated a poly(l-lactic-acid) (PLLA)/silk fibroin (SF) nanofibrous scaffold by electrospinning and evaluated its chondrogenic potential. The PLLA/SF nanofibers were characterized for diameter, surface wettability, swelling ratio, and tensile strength. Throughin vitroexperiments, PLLA/SF scaffold-chondrocyte interactions were investigated relative to the unmodified PLLA scaffold with regard to cellular adhesion, spreading, and proliferation by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and through analyses of DNA, sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-nuclear fast red staining were used to observe growth of chondrocytes, and secretion and distribution of cartilage-specific extracellular matrices in the scaffolds. Expressions of cartilage-related genes (collagen II, aggrecan, sox9, collagen I, and collagen X) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The PLLA/SF scaffold had better hydrophilicity, and could support chondrocytes adhesion and spreading more effectively than the unmodified PLLA scaffold. Chondrocytes secreted more cartilage-specific extracellular matrices and maintained their phenotype on the PLLA/SF scaffold. So it is concluded that the PLLA/SF scaffold is more conducive toin vitroformation of cartilage-like new tissues than the unmodified PLLA scaffold, and may be a promising material in cartilage tissue engineering.

  17. Gpr177, a novel locus for bone-mineral-density and osteoporosis, regulates osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jiang, Ming; Hsu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic analysis has recently identified Gpr177 as a susceptibility locus for bone-mineral-density and osteoporosis. Determining the unknown function of this gene is therefore extremely important to further our knowledge base of skeletal development and disease. The protein encoded by Gpr177 exhibits an ability to modulate the trafficking of Wnt similar to the Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt. Because of a critical role in Wnt regulation, Gpr177 might be required for several key steps of skeletog...

  18. Chondrogenesis of Precartilaginous Stem Cells in KLD-12 Self-assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffold Loading TGF-β3 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Hongbo; CHEN Anmin; SUN Kai; LIU Tie

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culture in KLD-12 self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold containing TGF-β3 gene on differentiation of precartilaginous stem cells(PSCs)into chondrocytes was studied.KLD-12 was synthesized by solid-state method.After TGF-β3 plasmid was loaded into KLD-12 self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold,DNA release ability was investigated.PSCs and hTGF-β3 gene were loaded into KLD-12 3-D scaffold,and MTT assay was performed to investigate the cell proliferation,and ELASA assay was used to investigate the expression of TGF-β3.Specific cartilage matrix was examined by quantitative real-time PCR,immunohistochemistry and Alcian Blue staining.Compared with control group,DNA synthesis level of PSCs reached the peak within 3 days when PSCs were cultured in self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold loading TGF-β3 plasmid,and maintained this high level within 2 weeks.MTT results showed that the proliferation ability of experimental group was statistically higher than that in control group(P<0.05).Quantitative realtime PCR suggested that the percentage of TGF-β3 positive PSCs in experimental group was higher than that in control group(P<0.01).ELISA assay showed that the TGF-β3 protein level increased in supernatant of experimental group's PSCs,reached the peak after 72 h and then declined a little to the plateau phase.Compared with the control group,the specific gene of chondrocyte typical extracellular matrix significantly up-regulated (P<0.01).The results showed that PSCs differentiated into chondrocytes in self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold loading TGF-β3 plasmid,which provided a flesh approach to cartilage tissue engineering.

  19. Effect of a synthetic folic acid analogue, 9-methyl-pteroylglutamic acid, on fetal chondrogenesis: ultrastructural observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R R; Slobodian, S A; Chepenik, K P; Cotler, J M

    1983-01-01

    Maternally administered folic acid antagonists (x-methyl-PGA and 9-methyl-PGA) are known to produce various skeletal malformations in the neonate. These defects are thought to be due in part to abnormal metabolism and/or deposition of various extracellular matrix components, i.e., collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Experimental reduction of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis in vitro has been shown previously to alter the spatial orientation and normal pattern of collagen fibrillogenesis. Furthermore, dietary withdrawal of folic acid concomitant with maternal administration of 9-methyl-PGA has been shown to result in abnormal collagen, uronic acid, and hexosamine metabolism by fetal limbs. In the present study pregnant rats were exposed to a transitory folic acid deficiency from day 11 to 14 of gestation and fetal tibias (mid-diaphyseal region) were examined with the electron microscope on day 18 of gestation. Although we were unable to ascertain any aberrant patterns of fibrillogenesis and orientation with respect to collagen, this particular teratogenic regimen resulted in an altered pattern of chondrocyte development when observed at the ultrastructural level.

  20. Transcriptional signature of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) preconditioned for chondrogenesis in hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgaard, L.; Lund, P.; Duroux, M. [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Lockstone, H.; Taylor, J. [Bioinformatics and Statistical Genetics, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Emmersen, J.; Fink, T. [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Ragoussis, J. [Genomics, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Zachar, V., E-mail: vlaz@hst.aau.dk [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 3B, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    Hypoxia is an important factor involved in the control of stem cells. To obtain a better insight into the phenotypical changes brought about by hypoxic preconditioning prior to chondrogenic differentiation; we have investigated growth, colony-forming and chondrogenic capacity, and global transcriptional responses of six adipose tissue-derived stem cell lines expanded at oxygen concentrations ranging from ambient to 1%. The assessment of cell proliferation and colony-forming potential revealed that the hypoxic conditions corresponding to 1% oxygen played a major role. The chondrogenic inducibility, examined by high-density pellet model, however, did not improve on hypoxic preconditioning. While the microarray analysis revealed a distinctive inter-donor variability, the exposure to 1% hypoxia superseded the biological variability and produced a specific expression profile with 2581 significantly regulated genes and substantial functional enrichment in the pathways of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, exposure to 1% oxygen resulted in upregulation of factors related to angiogenesis and cell growth. In particular, leptin (LEP), the key regulator of body weight and food intake was found to be highly upregulated. In conclusion, the results of this investigation demonstrate the significance of donor demographics and the importance of further studies into the use of regulated oxygen tension as a tool for preparation of ASCs in order to exploit their full potential.

  1. Effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure magnitude on the chondrogenesis of MSCs without biochemical agents under 3D co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Young; Park, So Hee; Shin, Ji Won; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Han, Ki-Ho; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2012-11-01

    Without using biochemical agents, in this study, we sought to investigate the potential of controlling the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into a specific cell type through the use of 3D co-culturing and mechanical stimuli. MSCs and primary cultured chondrocytes were separately encapsulated into alginate beads, and the two types of beads were separated by a membrane. For the investigation a computer-controllable bioreactor was designed and used to engage intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP). Five different magnitudes (0.20, 0.10, 0.05, 0.02 MPa and no stimulation) of IHP were applied. The stimulation pattern was the same for all groups: 2 h/day for 7 days starting at 24 h after seeding; 2 and 15 min cycles of stimulating and resting, respectively. Biochemical (DNA and GAG contents), histological (Alcian blue), and RT-PCR (Col II, SOX9, AGC) analyses were performed on days 1, 5, 10, and 20. The results from these analyses showed that stimulation with higher magnitudes of IHP (≥0.10 MPa) were more effective on the proliferation and differentiation of co-cultured MSCs. Together, these data demonstrate the potential of using mechanical stimulation and co-culturing for the proliferation and differentiation of MSCs, even without biochemical agents.

  2. Activating schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the Activating Schoolyards Study is to develop, implement, document and assess a comprehensive schoolyard intervention to promote physical activity (PA) during school recess for primary school children (grade 4-8). The intervention is designed to implement organizational...... to objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements...... as well as quantitative methods can be seen as a strength, as the different types of data complement each other and results of one part of the study informed the following parts. A unique aspect of our study is the use of accelerometers in combination with GPS and GIS in the effect evaluation...

  3. Active dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R F

    1995-02-01

    Although dependency has long been associated with passivity, weakness, and submissiveness, a review of the empirical literature reveals that, in certain situations and settings, dependent persons actually exhibit a variety of active, assertive behaviors. In this article, I: a) trace the historical roots of the dependency-passivity link; b) review empirical studies from developmental, social, and clinical psychology which indicate that, in certain circumstances, dependency is associated with active, assertive behavior on the part of the dependent person; c) offer an alternative conceptual model of dependency that accounts for the entire range of behaviors-both passive and active-that are exhibited by the dependent person; and d) discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of this alternative conceptual model of dependency.

  4. Identifying Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Adrian S

    2009-01-01

    Identification of active constraints in constrained optimization is of interest from both practical and theoretical viewpoints, as it holds the promise of reducing an inequality-constrained problem to an equality-constrained problem, in a neighborhood of a solution. We study this issue in the more general setting of composite nonsmooth minimization, in which the objective is a composition of a smooth vector function c with a lower semicontinuous function h, typically nonsmooth but structured. In this setting, the graph of the generalized gradient of h can often be decomposed into a union (nondisjoint) of simpler subsets. "Identification" amounts to deciding which subsets of the graph are "active" in the criticality conditions at a given solution. We give conditions under which any convergent sequence of approximate critical points finitely identifies the activity. Prominent among these properties is a condition akin to the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, which ensures boundedness of the set of...

  5. Active Cytokinins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornet, René; Theiler, Jane B.; Leonard, Nelson J.; Schmitz, Ruth Y.; Moore, F. Hardy; Skoog, Folke

    1979-01-01

    Four series of azidopurines have been synthesized and tested for cytokinin activity in the tobacco callus bioassay: 2- and 8-azido-N6-benzyladenines, -N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenines, and -zeatins, and N6-(2- and 4-azidobenzyl)adenines. The compounds having 2-azido substitution on the adenine ring are as active as the corresponding parent compounds, while those with 8-azido substitution are about 10 or more times as active. The 8-azidozeatin, which is the most active cytokinin observed, exhibited higher than minimal detectable activity at 1.2 × 10−5 micromolar, the lowest concentration tested. The shape of the growth curve indicates that even a concentration as low as 5 × 10−6 micromolar would probably be effective. By comparison, the lowest active concentration ever reported for zeatin has been 5 × 10−5 micromolar, representing a sensitivity rarely attained. All of the azido compounds have been submitted to photolysis in aqueous ethanol, and the photoproducts have been detected and identified by low and high resolution mass spectrometry. They are rationalized as products of abstraction and insertion reactions of the intermediate nitrenes. The potential of the major released products as cytokinins was also assessed by bioassay. 2-Azido-N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine competed with [14C]kinetin for the cytokinin-binding protein isolated from wheat germ. When the azido compound was photolysed in the presence of this protein, its attachment effectively blocked the binding of [14C]kinetin. PMID:16661017

  6. Get Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have fun with your family. If you have children, you can be a role model for making healthy choices. Encourage your whole family to get active outside . Go for a hike or organize a family soccer game. If someone you know has trouble making ...

  7. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  8. Active learning

    CERN Document Server

    Settles, Burr

    2012-01-01

    The key idea behind active learning is that a machine learning algorithm can perform better with less training if it is allowed to choose the data from which it learns. An active learner may pose "queries," usually in the form of unlabeled data instances to be labeled by an "oracle" (e.g., a human annotator) that already understands the nature of the problem. This sort of approach is well-motivated in many modern machine learning and data mining applications, where unlabeled data may be abundant or easy to come by, but training labels are difficult, time-consuming, or expensive to obtain. This book is a general introduction to active learning. It outlines several scenarios in which queries might be formulated, and details many query selection algorithms which have been organized into four broad categories, or "query selection frameworks." We also touch on some of the theoretical foundations of active learning, and conclude with an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches in practice, inclu...

  9. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying Active: Physical ... 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits of physical ...

  10. Laboratory Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  11. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  12. Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  13. Activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  14. Glucokinase activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipski, Kevin J; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Stevens, Benjamin D

    2012-07-01

    In this review we highlight recently disclosed progress in the field of small-molecule activators of the human glucokinase enzyme. Several of the reported chemotypes possess structural features that diverge from known leads; some of these modifications appear to be specifically designed to modulate tissue selectivity or discrete parameters of enzyme function (e.g., S0.5 v Vmax). This review will inform the reader of the extent of continued effort being directed toward discovery of a first-in-class drug for Type II diabetes mellitus that functions through this target. Patents were selected from those published in December 2009 up to November 2011; foreign filings were translated where possible to understand the claims and biological techniques utilized to characterize the reported glucokinase activators. Overall, there appears to be a recent trend leading to reduced patent filings for small-molecule glucokinase activators. There are many possible explanations for this trend; however, it is likely that the field has reached maturity and that the downturn of new disclosures represents the transition of many of these programs to the clinic.

  15. Fumarase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Mose; Eldirdiri, Abubakr; Bertelsen, Lotte Bonde

    2017-01-01

    ]fumarate conversion to [1,4-(13)C2]malate by fumarase has been proposed as a measure of necrosis in rat tumor models and in chemically induced AKI rats. Here we show that the degradation of cell membranes in connection with necrosis leads to elevated fumarase activity in plasma and urine and secondly...... that hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]malate production 24 h after reperfusion correlates with renal necrosis in a 40-min unilateral ischemic rat model. Fumarase activity screening on bio-fluids can detect injury severity, in bilateral as well as unilateral AKI models, differentiating moderate and severe AKI as well...... as short- and long-term AKI. Furthermore after verification of renal injury by bio-fluid analysis the precise injury location can be monitored by in vivo measurements of the fumarase activity non-invasively by hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C]fumarate MR imaging. The combined in vitro and in vivo biomarker of AKI...

  16. Intangible activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ‘Informal helping’ is often associated with other types of prosocial behaviour such as formal voluntary work. Therefore, one could jump to the conclusion that it would be the same factors driving both types of activities. This article demonstrates that this is not the case. The study relies...... that it is necessary to separate the decision to help and the amount of hours that people help, a distinction that previous empirical studies on this topic fail to include. The results show that informal helping may not simply be compared to other instances of prosocial behaviour. In particular, the socio...

  17. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  18. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Xpert Opinion Activity Calendar Activity Cards Ballet Baseball ... Disaster - Are You at Risk? Disaster - Helping Hands Physical Activity - Questions Physical Activity - Active or Not, Here it ...

  19. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  20. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  1. DAVIC activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    DAVIC (Digital Audio Visual Council) is the defacto standardization organization established in Mar. 1994, based on international consensus for digital audio visual services. After completion of MPEG2 standardization, the broadcasting industry, the communication industry, the computer industry, and consumer electronics industry have started development of concrete services and products. Especially the interactive digital audio visual services, such as Video On Demand (VOD) or Near Video On Demand (NVOD), have become hot topics all over the world. Such interactive digital audio visual services are combined technologies of multi-media coding, digital transmission and computer networking. Therefore more than 150 organizations from all industry sectors have participated in DAVIC and are contributing from their own industrial contexts. DAVIC's basic policy is to use the available technologies specified by the other standards bodies as much as possible. So DAVIC's standardization activities have close relationship with ISO IEC/JTC1/SC29, ITU-T SG 9, ATM-Forum, IETF, IMA, DVB, etc. DAVIC is trying to specify Applications, Reference Models, Security, Usage Information Control, and the interfaces and protocols among the Content Provider, the Server, the core network, the access network, and the Set Top Unit. DAVIC's first goal is to specify DAVIC1.0 based on CFP1 (Call for Proposal) and CFP2 by Dec. 1995, and the next direction is under preparation for further progress based on CFP3 and CFP4.

  2. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  3. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  5. Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  7. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of muscle-strengthening activities include lifting weights, yoga, push-ups, and sit-ups. A “repetition” is one complete movement of an activity. To get health benefits, do muscle-strengthening activities until it is hard ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects ...

  12. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  13. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  15. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  17. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Page Content Article Body Pediatricians can ...

  18. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    OpenAIRE

    Turzi, Stefano S

    2017-01-01

    I put forward a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standar...

  19. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  20. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Murdoch, Linda; Reeder, Anthony I; Amun, Qa-t-a

    2011-05-29

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  1. Criminalisation of Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  2. Active commuting to school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  3. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  4. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...

  5. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  8. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  9. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  12. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) ...

  13. Active magnetic regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  14. ACS Community Activities Contests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener, Marisa

    2007-08-01

    The Committee on Community Activities and the Office of Community Activities announce the winners of the Illustrated Haiku Contest, Earth Day 2007 and the Poster Contest, National Chemistry Week 2006.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance ... Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite ...

  16. Obesity and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, John M; Davis, Kelliann K

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity seems to be an important component of lifestyle interventions for weight loss and maintenance. Although the effects of physical activity on weight loss may seem to be modest, there seems to be a dose-response relationship between physical activity and weight loss. Physical activity also seems to be a critically important behavior to promote long-term weight loss and the prevention of weight regain. The benefits of physical activity on weight loss are also observed in patients with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) and in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. Moreover, independent of the effect of physical activity on body weight, engagement in physical activity that results in improved cardiorespiratory fitness can contribute to reductions in health risk in overweight and obese adults. Thus, progression of overweight and obese patients to an adequate dose of physical activity needs to be incorporated into clinical interventions for weight control.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ...

  20. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  1. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps ... file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word ...

  3. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: ...

  4. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  5. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  6. Activity Theory and Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  7. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical activ

  8. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen;

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  9. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamrozy M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  10. Proteolytic activities in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, T; Holzer, H

    1975-03-28

    Studies on the mechanism and time course of the activation of proteinases A (EC 3.4.23.8), B (EC 3.4.22.9) and C (EC 3.4.12.--) in crude yeast extracts at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C showed that the increase in proteinase B activity is paralleled with the disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor. Addition of purified proteinase A to fresh crude extracts accelerates the inactivation of the proteinase B inhibitor and the appearance of maximal activities of proteinases B and C. The decrease of proteinase B inhibitor activity and the increase of proteinase B activity are markedly retarded by the addition of pepstatin. Because 10-minus 7 M pepstatin completely inhibits proteinase A without affecting proteinase B activity, this is another indication for the role of proteinase A during the activation of proteinase B. Whereas extracts of yeast grown on minimal medium reached maximal activation of proteinases B and C after 20 h of incubation at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C, extracts of yeast grown on complete medium had to be incubated for about 100 h. In the latter case, the addition of proteinas A results in maximal activation of proteinases B and C and disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor activity only after 10--20 h of incubation. With the optimal conditions, the maximal activities of proteinases A, B and C, as well as of the proteinase B inhibitor, were determined in crude extracts of yeast that had been grown batchwise for different lengths of time either on minimal or on complete medium. Upon incubation, all three proteinases were activated by several times their initial activity. This reflects the existence of proteolytically degradable inhibitors of the three proteinases and together with the above mentioned observations it demonstrates that the "activation" of yeast proteinases A, B and C upon incubation results from the proteolytic digestion of inhibitors rather than from activation of inactive zymogens by limited proteolysis.

  11. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... ‘sites of active aging’ in Denmark. By presenting three technologies of active aging (billiards at an activity center for elderly persons, dancing tiles for rehabilitation after falls and an online fitness community for elderly persons) the paper suggests that active aging is more than regimes...

  12. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...

  13. A Simplified Method for the Aspiration of Bone Marrow from Patients Undergoing Hip and Knee Joint Replacement for Isolating Mesenchymal Stem Cells and In Vitro Chondrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C. Juneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for aspiration of bone marrow from the femur of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA or total hip arthroplasty (THA may vary from an OR (operating room to OR based on the surgeon’s skill and may lead to varied extent of clotting of the marrow and this, in turn, presents difficulty in the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from such clotted bone marrow. We present a simple detailed protocol for aspirating bone marrow from such patients, isolation, and characterization of MSCs from the aspirated bone marrow specimens and show that the bone marrow presented no clotting or exhibited minimal clotting. This represents an economical source and convenient source of MSCs from bone marrow for use in regenerative medicine. Also, we presented the detailed protocol and showed that the MSCs derived from such bone marrow specimens exhibited MSCs characteristics and generated micromass cartilages, the recipe for regenerative medicine for osteoarthritis. The protocols we presented can be used as standard operating procedures (SOPs by researchers and clinicians.

  14. A Simplified Method for the Aspiration of Bone Marrow from Patients Undergoing Hip and Knee Joint Replacement for Isolating Mesenchymal Stem Cells and In Vitro Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Subhash C; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Ganguly, Milan; Veillette, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The procedure for aspiration of bone marrow from the femur of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) may vary from an OR (operating room) to OR based on the surgeon's skill and may lead to varied extent of clotting of the marrow and this, in turn, presents difficulty in the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from such clotted bone marrow. We present a simple detailed protocol for aspirating bone marrow from such patients, isolation, and characterization of MSCs from the aspirated bone marrow specimens and show that the bone marrow presented no clotting or exhibited minimal clotting. This represents an economical source and convenient source of MSCs from bone marrow for use in regenerative medicine. Also, we presented the detailed protocol and showed that the MSCs derived from such bone marrow specimens exhibited MSCs characteristics and generated micromass cartilages, the recipe for regenerative medicine for osteoarthritis. The protocols we presented can be used as standard operating procedures (SOPs) by researchers and clinicians.

  15. Diminished Chondrogenesis and Enhanced Osteoclastogenesis in Leptin-Deficient Diabetic Mice (ob/ob) Impair Pathologic, Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn; Li, John; Brownley, Cameron; Peterson, Jonathan R.; Oluwatobi, Eboda; Drake, James; Cholok, David; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Sung, Hsiao Hsin; Goulet, James; Li, Shuli

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic trauma patients exhibit delayed postsurgical wound, bony healing, and dysregulated bone development. However, the impact of diabetes on the pathologic development of ectopic bone or heterotopic ossification (HO) following trauma is unknown. In this study, we use leptin-deficient mice as a model for type 2 diabetes to understand how post-traumatic HO development may be affected by this disease process. Male leptin-deficient (ob/ob) or wild-type (C57BL/6 background) mice aged 6–8 weeks underwent 30% total body surface area burn injury with left hind limb Achilles tenotomy. Micro-CT (μCT) imaging showed significantly lower HO volumes in diabetic mice compared with wild-type controls (0.70 vs. 7.02 mm3, P < 0.01) 9 weeks after trauma. Ob/ob mice showed evidence of HO resorption between weeks 5 and 9. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated high Vegfa levels in ob/ob mice, which was followed by disorganized vessel growth at 7 weeks. We noted diminished chondrogenic gene expression (SOX9) and diminished cartilage formation at 5 days and 3 weeks, respectively. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase stain showed increased osteoclast presence in normal native bone and pathologic ectopic bone in ob/ob mice. Our findings suggest that early diminished HO in ob/ob mice is related to diminished chondrogenic differentiation, while later bone resorption is related to osteoclast presence. PMID:26413838

  16. Feasibility and limitations of the round robin test for assessment of in vitro chondrogenesis evaluation protocol in a tissue-engineered medical product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Masako; Hattori, Koji; Narikawa, Koichi; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tadokoro, Mika; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Myoui, Akira; Nanno, Katsuhiko; Kato, Yukio; Kanawa, Masami; Sugawara, Katsura; Kobo, Tomoko; Ushida, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Tissue-engineered medical products (TEMPs) should be evaluated before implantation. Therefore, it is indispensable to establish evaluation protocols in regenerative medicine. Whether or not such evaluation protocols are reasonable is generally verified through a 'round robin' test. However, the round robin test for TEMPs intrinsically includes a deficiency, because 'identical' specimens can not be prepared for TEMPs. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and limitations of the round robin test for TEMPs by using a prepared evaluation protocol. We adopted tissue-engineered cartilage constructs as delivered specimens and a protocol of measuring sGAG content as an evaluation protocol proposed to ISO TC150/SC7, which is an invasive, but usually applied, method, although non-invasive methods are keenly required in evaluating TEMPs. The results showed that: (a) the coefficient of variation (CV) of the measured sGAG contents in intralaboratory tests was ~5% at most; (b) the CV of sGAG content in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured different constructs was comparable with that in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured one half of a construct along with the organizing laboratory; (c) the CV caused by factors other than the specimen was ~15%, comparable to that in reproducible experiments in biomedical fields. Based on these results, the study concludes that a round robin test for a TEMP could be valuable, under the condition that the delivered TEMPs are sufficiently reproducible so that the CV of the measured values is < 5% in the organizing laboratory.

  17. Ascorbate-dependent impact on cell-derived matrix in modulation of stiffness and rejuvenation of infrapatellar fat derived stem cells toward chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzute, Tyler; Zhang, Ying; He, Fan; Pei, Ming

    2016-08-10

    Developing an in vitro microenvironment using cell-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) is a promising approach to efficiently expand adult stem cells for cartilage engineering and regeneration. Ascorbic acid serves as a critical stimulus for cells to synthesize collagens, which constitute the major component of dECM. In this study, we hypothesized that optimization of ascorbate treatment would maximize the rejuvenation effect of dECM on expanded stem cells from human infrapatellar fat pad in both proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. In the duration regimen study, we found that dECM without L-ascorbic acid phosphate (AA) treatment, exhibiting lower stiffness measured by atomic force microscopy, yielded expanded cells with higher proliferation capacity but lower chondrogenic potential when compared to those with varied durations of AA treatment. dECM with 250 µM of AA treatment for 10 d had better rejuvenation in chondrogenic capacity if the deposited cells were from passage 2 rather than passage 5, despite no significant difference in matrix stiffness. In the dose regimen study, we found that dECMs deposited by varied concentrations of AA yielded expanded cells with higher proliferation capacity despite lower expression levels of stem cell related surface markers. Compared to cells expanded on tissue culture polystyrene, those on dECM exhibited greater chondrogenic potential, particularly for the dECMs with 50 µM and 250 µM of AA treatment. With the supplementation of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), an inhibitor targeting procollagen synthesis, the dECM with 50 µM of AA treatment exhibited a dramatic decrease in the rejuvenation effect of expanded cell chondrogenic potential at both mRNA and protein levels despite no significant difference in matrix stiffness. Defined AA treatments during matrix preparation will benefit dECM-mediated stem cell engineering and future treatments for cartilage defects.

  18. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly...

  19. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  20. Trichomonas tenax proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segović, S; Buntak-Kobler, D; Galić, N; Katunarić, M

    1998-12-01

    In this study, proteolytic activity of Trichomonas tenax collected directly from patient's dentobacterial plaque was examined. Electrophoretic method involving polyacrylamide gels (Commassie Brilliant Blue R-250) and electrophoretic method involving gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels, have been used to analyse Trichomonas tenax proteolytic activity. The most obvious and the fastest activities were obtained when gels were incubated in pH 4.6; followed by results of incubating in pH 5.6; while in pH 2.8 activity was less effective but still obvious. Proteolytic activities were the most effective in area of protein MW 36 kDa. Different activities of enzymes depending on pH of incubated media indicate the presence of different endopeptidases in cell lysates of protozoon Trichomonas tenax from dentobacterial plaque.

  1. Lupus Activity in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Clowse, Megan E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy in a woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) can be complicated by both lupus activity and pregnancy mishaps. The majority of recent studies demonstrate an increase in lupus activity during pregnancy, perhaps exacerbated by hormonal shifts required to maintain pregnancy. Increased lupus activity, in turn, prompts an elevated risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclamspsia. Fortunately, the majority of pregnancies in wo...

  2. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  3. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  4. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) ...

  6. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  7. Activities of the ILO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  8. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  9. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  10. Choreography of AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendorf, Christopher G; Kemp, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    A recent study published in Cell Research by Li and colleagues reports a detailed biophysical and structural study of AMPK's intra-molecular interactions during activation. By employing subunit tagging and proximity analysis with the aid of AlphaScreen instrumentation, Li et al. add to our understanding of the choreography of activation of AMPK by both nucleotides and phosphorylation.

  11. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  12. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  13. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  14. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  15. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  16. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  17. Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostencka Alicja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS, according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.

  18. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  19. Active at Any Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go to the gym all the time to benefit from being active. To make physical activity more fun, try something you enjoy doing, such as dancing to the radio or taking a yoga class with friends. Many people find they start ...

  20. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  1. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  2. Tendinopathy and Doppler activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M I; Koenig, M J; Torp-Pedersen, S

    2006-01-01

    Intratendinous Doppler activity has been interpreted as an equivalent of neovessels in the Achilles tendon and as a sign of tendinosis (AT).......Intratendinous Doppler activity has been interpreted as an equivalent of neovessels in the Achilles tendon and as a sign of tendinosis (AT)....

  3. Activating Event Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  4. Biomedical activity of biosurfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Krasowska

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of k...

  5. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

    : what you can do depends upon where you are. Finally, human and automatic machinery alternate in filling certain roles in the activity: sometime the officer maintains the course, sometimes the autopilot. Such activities require us to rethink the traditional oppositions between communication...

  6. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William

    1999-01-01

    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  7. Intracellular light-activation of riboswitch activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Steven; Gardner, Laura; Deiters, Alexander; Williams, Gavin J

    2014-06-16

    By combining a riboswitch with a cell-permeable photocaged small-molecule ligand, an optochemical gene control element was constructed that enabled spatial and temporal control of gene expression in bacterial cells. The simplicity of this strategy, coupled with the ability to create synthetic riboswitches with tailored ligand specificities and output in a variety of microorganisms, plants, and fungi might afford a general strategy to photocontrol gene expression in vivo. The ability to activate riboswitches by using light enables the interrogation and manipulation of a wide range of biological processes with high precision, and will have broad utility in the regulation of artificial genetic circuits.

  8. Active optical zoom system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  9. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  10. Biological activities of alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Mikinori; Oda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into the structure-activity relationship of alginate, we examined the effect of alginates with varying molecular weights and M/G ratio on murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells in terms of induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion. Among the alginates tested, alginate with the highest molecular weight (MW 38,000, M/G 2.24) showed the most potent TNF-α-inducing activity. Alginates having higher M/G ratio tended to show higher activity. These results suggest that molecular size and M/G ratio are important structural parameters influencing the TNF-α-inducing activity. Interestingly, enzymatic depolymerization of alginate with bacterial alginate lyase resulted in dramatic increase in the TNF-α-inducing activity. The higher activity of enzymatically digested alginate oligomers to induce nitric oxide production from RAW264.7 cells than alginate polymer was also observed. On the other hand, alginate polymer and oligomer showed nearly equal hydroxyl radical scavenging activities.

  11. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  12. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  13. Active Directory cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Laura

    2008-01-01

    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  14. A universe of activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, J.; Jáuregui, F.; Gordón, N.; Manzanal, R.

    Since its opening back in november 1993 the Planetarium of Pamplona has gone a long way creating activities related to teaching and communicating Astronomy, Science and other areas of what we call Culture. In this poster we present a summary of some of the most relevant activities that have had an special relevance throughout these years. We will refer to our “School of Stars” in which more than 400 000 students have already been involved and other activities that have been very appreciated by our visitors.

  15. China's Space Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China National Space Administration

    2004-01-01

    @@ Currently, space activities are very active around the world. Space technologies continuously expand to various areas of human activities, and space technology and applications are becoming an indispensable part of modern information society,while the development of space science brings a brand-new view to the development of science and technology. The development of space law is not only an important approach to improving people' s quality of lives, expanding the living space of human being, and exploiting new resources, but also an important symbol of the comprehensive strength and civilization of a nation.

  16. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  18. MARIHUANA ACTIVITY OF CANNABINOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, S

    1945-12-14

    Cannabinol, generally believed to be an inert component of hemp oil, is shown to have marihuana activity. The significance of this observation with regard to the relationship between structure and mamactivity in the class of cannabinols is discussed.

  19. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  20. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  1. Effects of Activating Schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo

    access to the renovated areas for older children and allowed them to leave the school area during recess. Furthermore, most of the children felt that the renewed schoolyard areas were far from their classrooms. CONCLUSIONS: Renewing the schoolyard is not enough to stimulate physical activity. Schools...... have to support the older children’s recess physical activity on an organisational level by encourage them to use the schoolyard and renewing schoolyard areas close to their classrooms. This follow-up study of children’s perception of the renewed schoolyards can aid development of future schoolyard......PURPOSE: There is no consistent evidence to guide schoolyard interventions promoting physical activity. The Activating Schoolyards Study is a quasi-experimental schoolyard intervention study aimed at investigating the impact of renewed schoolyards on 10-15-year-old children’s recess physical...

  2. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  3. Vessel Activity Record

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Activity Record is a bi-weekly spreadsheet that shows the status of fishing vessels. It records whether fishing vessels are fishing without an observer...

  4. Bax activation by Bim?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czabotar, P E; Colman, P M; Huang, D C S

    2009-01-01

    .... Although some data support a role for certain BH3-only proteins, such as Bim or tBid, to directly activate Bax, others have led to the conclusion that BH3-only proteins act indirectly by antagonizing...

  5. Math Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Douglas K.; Hynes, Michael C.

    1974-01-01

    The goals, objects, materials and grade levels are specified in this description of a laboratory activity involving analytic geometry concepts. Students mark out bicycle gymkhana courses in which directions to participants are given by Cartesian coordinates. (JP)

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  9. Habitats, activities, and signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational, ......, and pragmatic, 2) proposes a notation, and 3) sketches a method and exemplifies areas of application using authentic cases from hospital work, primary school education, the maritime domain, and other areas......Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational...

  10. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  12. Active flows on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

  13. Creating Art Appreciation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, Ann H.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of college students enrolled as majors in elementary education in designing art appreciation activities for use in elementary classrooms are described. The college students had no art background. (RM)

  14. Tanzania - Kigoma Solar Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the Kigoma solar activity was designed to answer questions about the implementation of the program and about outcomes that may have...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  16. Interactive Design Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulev, Petar; Farrer, Joan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computers and Human Well-being * To Fuzzy or Yes (No)! * Interactive Design Activism * Sensing the Sun * Personalised Public Health Advice * Modifying Human Behaviour * Transdisciplinarity, Knowledge Transfer and Multi-domain

  17. Homebuyer Activities Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a ...

  19. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  20. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  1. The Active Music Reception

    OpenAIRE

    Šulanová, Silvie

    2009-01-01

    Listening to music in the process of education is beneficial for a pupil only in case it is realized by means of active creativeness. To meet this requirement specific activities concerning music listening are applied in the framework of receptive music teaching. The dissertation proposes a so called dynamic model to function as an ideal solution to didactic transformation of music. The model enables to set up such classroom conditions in which pupils find it easier to observe elementary item...

  2. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  3. TPR And TPR Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽萍

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the definition of Total Physical Response(TPR),elaborates the process and the principles of it 80 that more and more TPR activities can be created according to them.The use of TPR shows us an interesting and effective way of teaching and learning English.TPR activities are interesting,challenging and motivating that almost all the students enjoy them.

  4. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  5. Toroidal optical activity

    CERN Document Server

    Raybould, T A; Papasimakis, N; Kuprov, I; Youngs, I; Chen, W T; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I

    2015-01-01

    Optical activity is ubiquitous across natural and artificial media and is conventionally understood in terms of scattering from electric and magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate experimentally and confirm numerically a type of optical activity that cannot be attributed to electric and magnetic multipoles. We show that our observations can only be accounted for by the inclusion of the toroidal dipole moment, the first term of the recently established peculiar family of toroidal multipoles.

  6. ACTIVITY - BASED COSTING DESIGNING

    OpenAIRE

    Wioletta Skibiñska; Marta Kad³ubek

    2010-01-01

    The traditional costing system sometimes does not give accurate information about the consumption of different resources and the activities of the organisation. The activity-based costing system is an information-rich costing system which is more and more necessary for the success of many European companies. Base of designing and implementation of an ABC system in the enterprises are presented in the article.

  7. Hypoglycemic Activity of Jatrorrhizine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The hypoglycemic activity and its mechanism of Jatrorrhizine (Jat) were studied. The normal mice and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice were given with different doses of Jat. Blood glucose and liver glycogen levels were determined by spectrophotometry with glucose-oxidase and iodine reagents respectively. The levels of blood lactic acid (LC) and liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were measured to explore the effect of Jat on anaerobic glycolysis. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in liver was measured to evaluate the effect of Jat on aerobic glycolysis in liver. It was found that Jat (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) could significantly decrease blood glucose level in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both normal and alloxan-diabetic mice, increase the activity of SDH, but had no significant effects on the LC level and LDH activity. Jat could significantly reduce the content of liver glycogen in normal mice. Moreover, Jat could inhibit the platelet aggregation in rabbits in vitro in a dose-effect relationship. It was concluded that Jat induced the pronounced decrease in blood glucose in normal and hyperglycemic mice. The hypoglycemic activity of Jat may be attributed to the enhancement of aerobic glycolysis.

  8. Phytase activity in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J

    2005-11-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  10. Who is actively denitrifying in activated sludge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    transcripts came from Gammaproteobacteria. A clear taxonomic discrepancy was observed between the nirS and nirK expressing bacteria, which primarily belonged to Beta- and Alphaproteobacteria, respectively. The nosZ gene was expressed by both taxonomic groups and it was therefore surprising that the highest......-scale wastewater treatment plant the transcripts (mRNA) of the nirS, nirK and nosZ denitrification genes expressed under acetate or amino acid consumption were amplified, sequenced and identified. This revealed that the majority of the denitrifiers belonged to Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, while only few...... genetic diversity was observed from the nirS transcripts and not the nosZ transcripts. Likewise, denitrifying cultures obtained from the activated sludge affiliated with the same Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria as detected with the denitrification genes, except one culture, which affiliated...

  11. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  12. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-01-01

    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).

  13. ACTIVATION ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF DIBENZOFURAN ON ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; LUO Lingai

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of commercial activated carbons, such as Norit RB1, Monolith and Chemviron activated carbons, were used as adsorbents for adsorption of dibenzofuran. The average pore size and specific surface area of these activated carbons were measured. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons, and then the activation energy for desorption of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons was estimated. The results showed that the Chemviron and the Norit RB1 activated carbon maintained higher specific surface area and larger micropore pore volume in comparison with the Monolith activated carbon, and the activation energy for the desorption of dibenzofuran on these two activated carbons was higher than that on the Monolith activated carbon. The smaller the pore of the activated carbon was, the higher the activated energy of dibenzofuran desorption was.

  14. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  15. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  16. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  17. [Inflammasome: activation mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Raibel; Buelvas, Neudo

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a rapid biologic response of the immune system in vascular tissues, directed to eliminate stimuli capable of causing damage and begin the process of repair. The macromolecular complexes known as "inflammasomes" are formed by a receptor, either NOD (NLR) or ALR, the receptor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). In addition, the inflammasome is formed by the speck-like protein associated to apoptosis (ASC) and procaspase-1, that may be activated by variations in the ionic and intracellular and extracellular ATP concentrations; and the loss of stabilization of the fagolisosomme by internalization of insoluble crystals and redox mechanisms. As a result, there is activation of the molecular platform and the processing of inflammatory prointerleukins to their active forms. There are two modalities of activation of the inflammasome: canonical and non-canonical, both capable of generating effector responses. Recent data associate NLRP 3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia, gout, malaria and hypertension. The inflammasome cascade is emerging as a new chemotherapeutic target in these diseases. In this review we shall discuss the mechanisms of activation and regulation of the inflammasome that stimulate, modulate and resolve inflammation.

  18. Active flows on trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-11-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

  19. Chromatin as active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.

    2017-01-01

    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  20. Software Activation Using Multithreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrui Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Software activation is an anti-piracy technology designed to verify that software products have been legitimately licensed. Activation should be quick and simple while simultaneously being secure and protecting customer privacy. The most common form of software activation is for the user to enter a legitimate product serial number. However, software activation based on serial numbers appears to be weak, since cracks for many programs are readily available on the Internet. Users can employ such cracks to bypass software activation.Serial number verification logic usually executes sequentially in a single thread. Such an approach is relatively easy to break since attackers can trace the code to understand how the logic works. In this paper, we develop a practical multi-threaded verification design. Our results show that by proper use of multi-threading, the amount of traceable code in a debugger can be reduced to a low percentage of the total and the traceable code in each run can differ as well. This makes it significantly more difficult for an attacker to reverse engineer the code as a means of bypassing a security check. Finally, we attempt to quantify the increased effort needed to break our verification logic.

  1. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D

    2014-07-01

    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  2. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  3. Active Elbow Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ripel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the design of a motorized rehabilitation device – active elbow orthosis (AEO – inspired by the principles of robotic exoskeletons. The device is currently designed for the elbow joint, but can be easily modified for other joints as well. AEO determines the motion activity of the patient using a strain gauge and utilizes this measurement to control the actuator that drives the forearm part of the orthosis. Patient activity level is related to a free arm measurement obtained via a calibration procedure prior to the exercise. A high-level control module offers several types of exercises mimicking the physiotherapist. The device was successfully verified by tests on a number of patients, resulting in extended range of elbow-joint motion.

  4. Solar activity and earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, J.

    1979-02-26

    Prolonged astronomical observations have discovered that the Sun, which is the nearest star to the Earth, is not calm and serene. On the solar surface, there are often windstorms, electrical lights, and sometimes large flame eruptions; and there are regularly black spots in patches which are also active. The Sun not only disperses light and heat, but also throws out large quantities of currents of charged particles to be scattered in space and to reach the Earth, sometimes, which are called by some solar winds. These activities in the Sun can induce many physical phenomena on earth, including magnetic storms, polar light, sudden disruption or attenuation of medium- and short-wave radio, and many atmospheric changes. Some scientists believe they are perhaps also related to the occurrence of earthquakes. This paper explains these solar activities and their possible relationship to earthquakes.

  5. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  6. General human activity patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  7. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  8. Adapted Active Appearance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Séguier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  9. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings......The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control...

  10. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  11. Simultaneous monitoring of intracellular ATP and oxygen levels in chondrogenic differentiation using a dual-color bioluminescence reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2014-12-01

    A number of assay methods which measure cellular metabolic activity have only measured intracellular ATP levels because it has been speculated that ATP production and oxygen consumption are obligatorily coupled to each other under normal conditions. However, there exist many cases in which ATP production and oxygen consumption are uncoupled. Therefore, measurement of only intracellular ATP levels has a limit for understanding the overall metabolic states during various cellular functions. Here, we report a novel system for simultaneously monitoring intracellular ATP and oxygen levels using a red-emitting Phrixothrix hirtus luciferase (PxRe) and a blue-emitting Renilla luciferase (Rluc). Using this system, we monitored the dynamic changes in both intracellular ATP and oxygen levels during chondrogenesis. We found that the oxygen level oscillated at twice the frequency of ATP in chondrogenesis and the oxygen oscillations have an antiphase mode to the ATP oscillations; we also found an independent mode for the ATP oscillations. This result indicates that both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial respiration oscillate and thus play a role in chondrogenesis. This dual-color monitoring system is useful for studying metabolic regulations that underlie diverse cellular processes.

  12. MicroRNA-381 Regulates Chondrocyte Hypertrophy by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase 4 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weishen; Sheng, Puyi; Huang, Zhiyu; Meng, Fangang; Kang, Yan; Huang, Guangxin; Zhang, Zhiqi; Liao, Weiming; Zhang, Ziji

    2016-08-23

    Chondrocyte hypertrophy, regulated by Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13), is a crucial step in cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. We previously demonstrated that microRNA-381 (miR-381) promotes MMP13 expression during chondrogenesis and contributes to cartilage degeneration; however, the mechanism underlying this process remained unclear. In this study, we observed divergent expression of miR-381 and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), an enzyme that directly inhibits RUNX2 and MMP13 expression, during late-stage chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells, as well as in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes during long bone development in E16.5 mouse embryos. We therefore investigated whether this miRNA regulates HDAC4 expression during chondrogenesis. Notably, overexpression of miR-381 inhibited HDAC4 expression but promoted RUNX2 expression. Moreover, transfection of SW1353 cells with an miR-381 mimic suppressed the activity of a reporter construct containing the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of HDAC4. Conversely, treatment with a miR-381 inhibitor yielded increased HDAC4 expression and decreased RUNX2 expression. Lastly, knockdown of HDAC4 expression resulted in increased RUNX2 and MMP13 expression in SW1353 cells. Collectively, our results indicate that miR-381 epigenetically regulates MMP13 and RUNX2 expression via targeting of HDAC4, thereby suggesting the possibilities of inhibiting miR-381 to control chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage degeneration.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Grepafloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Wiedemann

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Grepafloxin has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Its activity against Gram-positive bacteria exceeds that of currently available quinolones. Grepafloxacin-resistant mutants seem to occur less frequently than ciprofloxacin - or ofloxacin-resistant mutants, and the increase in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against the former mutants is less than that of the latter. This applies only to the relative differences (in dilution steps; the absolute values are similar. Grepafloxacin kills Gram-positive bacteria at concentrations little above the MIC. Its pharmacodynamic profile against pneumococci is promising, favouring use of this drug for respiratory tract infections.

  14. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles...

  15. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...... the activity of primary coronal and root lesions reliably and accurately at one examination by using the combined information obtained from a range of indicators--such as visual appearance, location of the lesion, tactile sensation during probing and gingival health....

  16. SCOR announces new activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Edward R., Jr.

    Roger Revelle had many good ideas during his long and productive career. One of them came to fruition in 1957 in the form of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), which the International Council for Science created as its first interdisciplinary body, to promote international activities in oceanography. Revelle served as SCOR's first president from 1957 to 1960. SCOR offers opportunities for scientists from different countries to cooperate in planning and executing international programs in ocean sciences. Over its 44 years in existence, SCOR has sponsored 120 working groups and has actively participated in many of the major international oceanographic projects. Thirty-six nations presently participate as SCOR members.

  17. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.

    2013-01-01

    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively-coupled...

  18. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively coupled (AC) waveguides can act as a stationary or integrate-and-fire comparator sensitive to tiny differences in their input powers.

  19. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  20. Institutional investor activism : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, William; Bratton, William; McCahery, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  1. An electrochemical active valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neagu, C.R.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Elwenspoek, M.; Kelly, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel electrochemical microactuator was developed, which operates as an active valve. The microactuator consists of an electrochemical cell and a membrane that deflects because of the pressure of oxygen gas generated by electrolysis. Relatively large pressures (up to tens of bars) can be reached w

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  3. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  4. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...

  5. Shark Tagging Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  6. CMMs Development Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; HU Yefa; HUANG Anyi

    2006-01-01

    The coordinate measuring machine (CMM) has been an important role in the digital manufacturing. This paper reviews CMM early stage development history and current activities. The authors provide some ideas about the areas that academic research can help to the CMMs development.

  7. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients.

  8. Elusive active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maiolino, R; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Nagar, NM; Bianchi, S; Boker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M

    2003-01-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically 'elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtai

  9. 'Active' Thin Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, M.R.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Optical microscopy using thin sections has become more and more important over the last decade to study concrete. Unfortunately, this technique is not capable of studying actually hydrating cement paste. At Delft University of Technology a new technique has been developed using 'active' thin section

  10. Physical activity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Blinc

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to technological development, the average level of physical activity is decreasing among residents of developed countries, which is an important factor in the epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome.Results (findings. Although excessive physical exertion disrupts hormonal balance, harms the immune system and somewhat increases the risk of sudden cardiac death, the overwhelming majority of adaptations to regular exercise comprise health benefits. Sensitivity to insulin is increased, metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol is improved, and the basal tone of the sympathetic nervous system is decreased, which all reduces coronary atherothrombotic events and cardio-vascular mortality. Physical exercise is linked to reduced risk of colon carcinoma, breast cancer and endometrial carcinoma. Regular physical activity prolongs life on average by about two years in comparison with sedentary population, but even more importantly, it preserves endurance and power necessary for independent living well into in advanced age. Physical exercise reduces symptoms of depression and improves the perceived level of satisfaction.Conclusions. In order to achieve the metabolic and psychological benefits of exercise, it is necessary to engage in at least a half hour of moderately intense activity on most days of the week, but daily physical activity is even better.

  11. Seismology of active stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekker, S.; García, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this review we will discuss the current standing and open questions of seismology in active stars. With the longer photometric time series data that are, and will become, available from space-missions such as Kepler we foresee significant progress in our understanding of stellar internal structur

  12. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  13. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...

  14. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    dimensional 2D/3D deformable model. Our activation splines are easy to set up and can be used for physics based animation of deformable models such as snake motion and locomotion of characters. Our approach generalises easily to both 2D and 3D simulations and is applicable in physics based games or animations...

  15. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, A; Karoff, C

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by ...

  16. Marketing coprovided activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2014-05-01

    Coproviding is a wonderful way for two or more organizations to work together to provide continuing nursing education. To be transparent to the learners, marketing materials identify the parties involved and prominently note the name of the organization accountable for developing the activity and awarding the contact hours.

  17. Mechanism of charity activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman B. Golovkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the essential properties of the mechanism of charitable activities and to formulate the concept of quotmechanism of charitable activityquot. Methods the objective of the study is achieved using the complex of methods which are based on the interaction of dialectical and metaphysical analysis the epistemological properties of which allowed to reveal various aspects of the charitable activities mechanism functioning taking into account the principles of comprehensiveness complexity specificity and objectivity of the research. Results the rules are stated of using the term quotmechanismquot to characterize actions of state and law the essence of the charity mechanism is defined the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activity quot is formulated. Scientific novelty for the first time at theoretical level in legal science the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activityquot is formulated and its essential properties are set. Practical significance the research will contribute to improving the legal regulation in the field of philanthropy as well as to improving the efficiency and quality of charitable activity in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  18. Holidays & Festivals: Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debbie

    There are many times throughout the year when change is celebrated. This elementary level, interdisciplinary resource gives background information and activities related to cross-cultural celebrations of change. Topics covered include: (1) "Charting Changes"; (2) "Special People"; (3) "Celebrating Light"; (4)…

  19. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures…

  20. Low activity aluminum blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenati, R.; Tichler, P.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    The basic design of the breeding blanket consists of cylindrical aluminium canisters filled with a ceramic bed of moderating, shielding, and breeding materials all suitably cooled. A technical analysis of the blanket for an EPR design is given. Activation studies are presented. The effect of pulsed magnetic fields on module structure is investigated. (MOW)

  1. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  2. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures affecting…

  3. Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  4. Bonus Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  5. Atherosclerosis and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mamari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease have been considered as major health problem worldwide. Abnormalities in lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and impairment of endothelial function have been implicated as the main contributing factors in atherosclerosis and its progression. Physical activity has been recognized as a preventive measure for atherosclerosis.

  6. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

    2001-01-01

    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  7. Antifungal activity of diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Reisinger, E C; Söldner, B; Dierich, M P

    1989-10-01

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) was evaluated for its ability to combat four different species of fungi in vitro. Using a microtiter-broth-dilution method we were able to demonstrate an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor mucedo in doses achievable by intravenous administration in man.

  8. Active Math Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...

  9. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and

  10. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...

  11. Antimalarial activity of cedronin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, C; Deharo, E; Sauvain, M; Jardel, C; David, P T; Gasquet, M

    1994-06-01

    Cedronin was isolated from Simaba cedron Planchon (Simaroubaceae), a species popularly believed in South America to have antimalarial properties. It was examined for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activities and for cytotoxicity against KB cells. Experimental results showed that cedronin was active against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strain, with an IC50 of 0.25 micrograms/ml (0.65 mumol/ml). It was also found to be active in vivo against Plasmodium vinkei with an IC50 of 1.8 mg/kg (4.7 nM/kg) in the classic 4-day test. Cedronin belongs to the small group of quassinoids with a C19 basic skeleton and shows a rather low cytotoxicity against KB cells (IC50 = 4 micrograms/ml, 10.4 microM) as compared with C20 biologically active quassinoids; however its toxic/therapeutic ratio (10/1.8) remains lower than chloroquine (10/0.5).

  12. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  13. Activities. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daffer, Phares G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provided are the activity sheets for students and the teaching guide for this middle school geometry activity. Materials, prerequisites, objectives, and procedures are listed. Extension activities are suggested. An answer key is included. (CW)

  14. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 22, 2016 Physical Activity and Your Heart in the News April 6, ...

  15. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  16. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  17. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…

  18. The Active Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Jewitt, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Some asteroids eject dust, unexpectedly producing transient, comet-like comae and tails. First ascribed to the sublimation of near-surface water ice, mass losing asteroids (also called "main-belt comets") can in fact be driven by a surprising diversity of mechanisms. In this paper, we consider eleven dynamical asteroids losing mass, in nine of which the ejected material is spatially resolved. We address mechanisms for producing mass loss including rotational instability, impact ejection, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure sweeping, dehydration stresses and thermal fracture, in addition to the sublimation of ice. In two objects (133P and 238P) the repetitive nature of the observed activity leaves ice sublimation as the only reasonable explanation while, in a third ((596) Scheila), a recent impact is the cause. Another impact may account for activity in P/2010 A2 but this tiny object can also be explained as having shed mass after reaching rotational instability. Mass loss from (3200) Phaethon is proba...

  19. Cisplatin triggers platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G I; Togna, A R; Franconi, M; Caprino, L

    2000-09-01

    Clinical observations suggest that anticancer drugs could contribute to the thrombotic complications of malignancy in treated patients. Thrombotic microangiopathy, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular thrombotic events have been reported for cisplatin, a drug widely used in the treatment of many solid tumours. The aim of this study is to explore in vitro cisplatin effect on human platelet reactivity in order to define the potentially active role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced thrombotic complications. Our results demonstrate that cisplatin increases human platelet reactivity (onset of platelet aggregation wave and thromboxane production) to non-aggregating concentrations of the agonists involving arachidonic acid metabolism. Direct or indirect activation of platelet phospholipase A(2) appears to be implicated. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  20. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma.

  1. Active optical clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JingBiao

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the principles and techniques of active optical clock, a special laser combining the laser physics of one-atom laser, bad-cavity gas laser, super-cavity stabilized laser and optical atomic clock together. As a simple example, an active optical clock based on thermal strontium atomic beam shows a quantum-limited linewidth of 0.51 Hz, which is insensitive to laser cavity-length noise, and may surpass the recorded narrowest 6.7 Hz of Hg ion optical clock and 1.5 Hz of very recent optical lattice clock. The estimated 0.1 Hz one-second instability and 0.27 Hz uncertainty are limited only by the rela-tivistic Doppler effect, and can be improved by cold atoms.

  2. Techniques for active passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  3. Active and passive euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachels, J

    1975-01-09

    The traditional distinction between active and passive euthanasia requires critical analysis. The conventional doctrine is that there is such an important moral difference between the two that, although the latter is sometimes permissible, the former is always forbidden. This doctrine may be challenged for several reasons. First of all, active euthanasia is in many cases more humane than passive euthanasia, Secondly, the conventional doctrine leads to decisions concerning life and death on irrelevant grounds. Thirdly, the doctrine rests on a distinction between killing and letting die that itself has no moral importance. Fourthly, the most common arguments in favor of the doctrine are invalid. I therefore suggest that the American Medical Association policy statement that endorses this doctrine is unsound.

  4. Stellar Chromospheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jeffrey C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sun, stars similar to it, and many rather dissimilar to it, have chromospheres, regions classically viewed as lying above the brilliant photosphere and characterized by a positive temperature gradient and a marked departure from radiative equilibrium. Stellar chromospheres exhibit a wide range of phenomena collectively called activity, stemming largely from the time evolution of their magnetic fields and the mass flux and transfer of radiation through the complex magnetic topology and the increasingly optically thin plasma of the outer stellar atmosphere. In this review, I will (1 outline the development of our understanding of chromospheric structure from 1960 to the present, (2 discuss the major observational programs and theoretical lines of inquiry, (3 review the origin and nature of both solar and stellar chromospheric activity and its relationship to, and effect on, stellar parameters including total energy output, and (4 summarize the outstanding problems today.

  5. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  6. Techniques for active passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  7. Nematicidal activity of terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Alaniz, Nina M; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2013-01-01

    Thirty four phytoterpenoids were evaluated for their nematicidal effect using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematicidal activities of the tested compounds at concentrations of 50 μg/mL showed wide variation in their effects ranging from no effect, weak, moderate and strong effects. Terpenoids exerting 50% or higher mortality at 50 μg/mL were further tested at five different concentrations to calculate the concentration that will kill 50% of the nematode population (LC(50)). Among the most effective terpenoids were carvacrol, thymol, nerolidol, α-terpinene, geraniol, citronellol, farnesol, limonene, pseudoionone and eugenol in a descending order. These compounds exhibited a dose-dependent effect. The results suggest that the selected monoterpenoids and essential oils with a high concentration of these compounds mayprovide potential natural nematicides and merit further study as botanical nematicides for the control of both plant and animal parasitic nematodes. In general, oxygenated terpenoids and phenolic terpenoids exhibited higher nematicidal activity than hydrocarbons terpenoids.

  8. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  9. LANSCE Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Robinson; Audrey Archuleta; Barbara Maes; Dan Strottman; Earl Hoffman; Garth Tietjen; Gene Farnum; Geoff Greene; Joyce Roberts; Ken Johnson; Paul Lewis; Roger Pynn; Stan Schriber; Steve Sterbenz; Steve Wender; Sue Harper

    1999-02-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Activity Report describes scientific and technological progress and achievements in LANSCE Division during the period of 1995 to 1998. This report includes a message from the Division Director, an overview of LANSCE, sponsor overviews, research highlights, advanced projects and facility upgrades achievements, experimental and user program accomplishments, news and events, and a list of publications. The research highlights cover the areas of condensed-matter science and engineering, accelerator science, nuclear science, and radiography. This report also contains a compact disk that includes an overview, the Activity Report itself, LANSCE operations progress reports for 1996 and 1997, experiment reports from LANSCE users, as well as a search capability.

  10. Quality Of Construction Activity

    OpenAIRE

    LOREDANA VALENTINA HEDRE

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the quality works of building has a different importance because, as opposed to another activities of material productions here are not admitted bear of the quality in respect resistances, stability, durability, safeties in exploitation. The responsibility concerning assurance quality is not summed up just to the level of builders or beneficiaries, they became a national problem and last recently, European and even global issues. Implications are considered factors contributing...

  11. Current Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    Biological oceanography, marine food chain dynamics, carbon cycling in the ocean. Martin, Seelye,Ph.D., Johns Hopkins. Geophysical fluid dynamics...currently under investigation, (Ahmed, Packard) 8. Amylase studies An assay for amylase activity has been adapted to measure zooplankton grazing. This...as a function of available food and of the biomass of copepods, was prescribed by sixteen equations: five, corresponding to copepodite stages (I to V

  12. Diamond dipole active antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnov, Igor N.; Falkovych, I. S.; Gridin, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Reznik, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Advantages of the diamond dipole antenna as an active antenna are presented. Such an antenna is like an inverted bow-tie antenna, but the former has some advantages over the ordinary bow-tie antenna. It is shown that the diamond dipole antenna may be an effective element of a new antenna array for low-frequency radio astronomy as well as a communication antenna.

  13. Active Brownian rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruani, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria, chemically-driven rods, and motility assays are examples of active (i.e. self-propelled) Brownian rods (ABR). The physics of ABR, despite their ubiquity in experimental systems, remains still poorly understood. Here, we review the large-scale properties of collections of ABR moving in a dissipative medium. We address the problem by presenting three different models, of decreasing complexity, which we refer to as model I, II, and III, respectively. Comparing model I, II, and III, we disentangle the role of activity and interactions. In particular, we learn that in two dimensions by ignoring steric or volume exclusion effects, large-scale nematic order seems to be possible, while steric interactions prevent the formation of orientational order at large scales. The macroscopic behavior of ABR results from the interplay between active stresses and local alignment. ABR exhibit, depending on where we locate ourselves in parameter space, a zoology of macroscopic patterns that ranges from polar and nematic bands to dynamic aggregates.

  14. Proteomics of Eosinophil Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deane F. Mosher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5 (1. These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC–MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet–eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome. We describe how isobaric labeling enables robust sample-to-sample comparisons and relate the 220 phosphosites that changed significantly upon treatment with IL5 to previous studies of eosinophil activation. Finally, we review previous attempts to leverage the power of mass spectrometry to discern differences between eosinophils of healthy subjects and those with eosinophil-associated conditions and point out features of label-free quantification and isobaric labeling that are important in planning future mass spectrometric studies.

  15. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  16. Human neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Lehrer, R I; Rest, R F

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) take up opsonized microorganisms into phagosomes that fuse with secretory granules in the PMN cytoplasm to form phagolysosomes. Killing and digestion of microorganisms take place within phagolysosomes. Antimicrobial activities in phagolysosomes are divided into two classes. Oxygen (O2)-dependent mechanisms are expressed when PMNs undergo the "respiratory burst." An NADPH oxidase in the phagolysosome membrane is activated and reduces O2 to superoxide (O2-). O2 reduction is the first step in a series of reactions that produce toxic oxidants. For example, .O2- dismutases to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the azurophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of Cl- by H2O2 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The reaction of HOCl with ammonia and amines modulates the toxicity of this oxidant. O2-independent antimicrobial mechanisms include the activities of lysosomal proteases, other hydrolytic enzymes, and proteins and peptides that bind to microorganisms and disrupt essential processes or structural components. For example, the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, cathepsin G, and the defensins are released into phagolysosomes from the azurophil granules. Proposed mechanisms of action of neutrophil antimicrobial agents, their range of microbial targets, and their possible interactions within phagolysosomes are discussed.

  17. Sesterterpenoids with Anticancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Marco; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes have received a great deal of attention in the scientific literature due to complex, synthetically challenging structures and diverse biological activities associated with this class of natural products. Based on the number of C5 isoprene units they are generated from, terpenes are classified as hemi- (C5), mono- (C10), sesqui- (C15), di- (C20), sester- (C25), tri (C30), and tetraterpenes (C40). Among these, sesterterpenes and their derivatives known as sesterterpenoids, are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in fungi, marine organisms, and plants. Their structural diversity encompasses carbotricyclic ophiobolanes, polycyclic anthracenones, polycyclic furan-2-ones, polycyclic hydroquinones, among many other carbon skeletons. Furthermore, many of them possess promising biological activities including cytotoxicity and the associated potential as anticancer agents. This review discusses the natural sources that produce sesterterpenoids, provides sesterterpenoid names and their chemical structures, biological properties with the focus on anticancer activities and literature references associated with these metabolites. A critical summary of the potential of various sesterterpenoids as anticancer agents concludes the review.

  18. Thermal activity on Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, G.; Besserer, J.; Behounkova, M.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Sotin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Observations by Cassini have revealed that Enceladus' souh pole is highly active, with jets of icy particles and water vapour emanated from narrow tectonic ridges, called "tiger stripes". This jet activity is associated to a very high thermal emission mainly focused along the tectonic ridges. Heat power required to sustain such an activity is probably related to the dissipation of mechanical energy due to tidal forces exerted by Saturn. However, the dissipation process and its relation to the tectonic features are not clearly established. Both shear heating along the tectonic ridges and viscous dissipation in the convective part of the ice shell could contribute to the energy budget (Nimmo et al. 2007, Tobie et al. 2008). Tobie et al. (2008) pointed out that only interior models with a liquid water layer at depth, covering at least ~2/3 of the southern hemisphere, can explain the observed magnitude of dissipation and its particular location at the south pole. However, the long term stability of such a liquid reservoir remains problematic (Roberts and Nimmo 2007) and the possible link between the liquid reservoir and the surface activities is unknown. Concentration of tidal stresses along the tiger ridges have also been invoked as a mechanism to trigger the eruptive processes (Hurtford et al. 2007, Smith-Konter et al. 2008). However, those models do not take into account a realistic rheological structure for the ice shell when computing the fluctuating stress field. Moreover, the effect of the faults on the background tidal stress is neglected. In particular, low viscosity values are expected to be associated with the shear zone along the tiger stripes and may have a significant impact of the global tidal stress field. In order to self-consistently determine the tidal deformation and its impact on the thermal activity on Enceladus, we are currently developing a 3D model that combines a thermal convection code in spherical geometry (Choblet et al. 2007) and a

  19. Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Sosič, Rok; Hicks, Jennifer L; King, Abby C; Delp, Scott L; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-07-20

    To be able to curb the global pandemic of physical inactivity and the associated 5.3 million deaths per year, we need to understand the basic principles that govern physical activity. However, there is a lack of large-scale measurements of physical activity patterns across free-living populations worldwide. Here we leverage the wide usage of smartphones with built-in accelerometry to measure physical activity at the global scale. We study a dataset consisting of 68 million days of physical activity for 717,527 people, giving us a window into activity in 111 countries across the globe. We find inequality in how activity is distributed within countries and that this inequality is a better predictor of obesity prevalence in the population than average activity volume. Reduced activity in females contributes to a large portion of the observed activity inequality. Aspects of the built environment, such as the walkability of a city, are associated with a smaller gender gap in activity and lower activity inequality. In more walkable cities, activity is greater throughout the day and throughout the week, across age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) groups, with the greatest increases in activity found for females. Our findings have implications for global public health policy and urban planning and highlight the role of activity inequality and the built environment in improving physical activity and health.

  20. Adaptable typologies for active roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Zeiler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this part of the 6th framework Pan-European EUR-ACTIVE ROOF-er project is to improve the interaction between design participants of dynamic adaptable Active Roofs in product development and Active Roofs from an architects/ customers perspective. Improvements in Active Roof desi

  1. Activin Receptor-Like Kinase Receptors ALK5 and ALK1 Are Both Required for TGFβ-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kroon, Laurie M. G.; Narcisi, Roberto; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N.; Cleary, Mairéad A.; van Beuningen, Henk M.; Koevoet, Wendy J. L. M.; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; van der Kraan, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for cartilage regeneration because BMSCs can differentiate into cartilage tissue-producing chondrocytes. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) is crucial for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and is known to signal via Activin receptor-Like Kinase (ALK) receptors ALK5 and ALK1. Since the specific role of these two TGFβ receptors in chondrogenesis is unknown, we investigated whether ALK5 and ALK1 are expressed in BMSCs and whether both receptors are required for chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Materials & Methods ALK5 and ALK1 gene expression in human BMSCs was determined with RT-qPCR. To induce chondrogenesis, human BMSCs were pellet-cultured in serum-free chondrogenic medium containing TGFβ1. Chondrogenesis was evaluated by aggrecan and collagen type IIα1 RT-qPCR analysis, and histological stainings of proteoglycans and collagen type II. To overexpress constitutively active (ca) receptors, BMSCs were transduced either with caALK5 or caALK1. Expression of ALK5 and ALK1 was downregulated by transducing BMSCs with shRNA against ALK5 or ALK1. Results ALK5 and ALK1 were expressed in in vitro-expanded as well as in pellet-cultured BMSCs from five donors, but mRNA levels of both TGFβ receptors did not clearly associate with chondrogenic induction. TGFβ increased ALK5 and decreased ALK1 gene expression in chondrogenically differentiating BMSC pellets. Neither caALK5 nor caALK1 overexpression induced cartilage matrix formation as efficient as that induced by TGFβ. Moreover, short hairpin-mediated downregulation of either ALK5 or ALK1 resulted in a strong inhibition of TGFβ-induced chondrogenesis. Conclusion ALK5 as well as ALK1 are required for TGFβ-induced chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and TGFβ not only directly induces chondrogenesis, but also modulates ALK5 and ALK1 receptor signaling in BMSCs. These results imply that optimizing cartilage formation by

  2. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  3. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  4. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  5. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  6. AMS Prototyping Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the activity around the Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) prototype. An AMS reference implementation has been available since late 2005. It is aimed at supporting message exchange both in on-board environments and over space links. The implementation incoroporates all mandatory elements of the draft recommendation from July 2007: (1) MAMS, AMS, and RAMS protocols. (2) Failover, heartbeats, resync. (3) "Hooks" for security, but no cipher suites included in the distribution. The performance is reviewed, and a Benchmark latency test over VxWorks Message Queues is shown as histograms of a count vs microseconds per 1000-byte message

  7. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This AGN textbook includes phenomena based on new results in the X-Ray domain from new telescopes such as Chandra and XMM Newton not mentioned in any other book. Furthermore, it considers also the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope with its revolutionary advances of unprecedented sensitivity, field of view and all-sky monitoring. Those and other new developments as well as simulations of AGN merging events and formations, enabled through latest super-computing capabilities. The book gives an overview on the current knowledge of the Active Galacitc Nuclei phenomenon. The spectral energy d

  8. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-15

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin structure: H.sub.4SiW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.3PW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.4SiMo.sub.12O.sub.40, or H.sub.3PMo.sub.12O.sub.40, can be when supported on silica.

  9. Miscarriage and occupational activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Bonzini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    . METHODS: A search in Medline and EMBASE 1966-2012 identified 30 primary papers reporting the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage according to ≥1 of 5 occupational activities of interest. Following an assessment of completeness of reporting, confounding, and bias, each risk estimate was characterized as more......, N=10). RR for working hours and standing became smaller when analyses were restricted to higher quality studies. CONCLUSIONS: These largely reassuring findings do not provide a strong case for mandatory restrictions in relation to shift work, long working hours, occupational lifting, standing...

  10. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  11. Physical Activity in Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  12. MRI of active otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyeh, S. [Section of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Berlis, A. [Section of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Ross, U.H. [Department of Otolaryngology, Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg (Germany); Reinhardt, M.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg (Germany); Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Our aim was to determine whether MRI reliably shows pathology in patients with active otosclerosis (otospongiosis). We studied five patients with clinical and audiometric signs of this disorder and positive findings on high-resolution CT and tympanocochlear scintigraphy. Contrast enhancement of otospongiotic lesions was found in all affected ears, and could be topographically related to demineralised otospongiotic foci on CT. In lesions in the lateral wall of the labyrinth MRI sometimes showed the pathology better than CT, where partial-volume effects could be troublesome. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The Active Muon Shield

    CERN Document Server

    Bezshyiko, Iaroslava

    2016-01-01

    In the SHiP beam-dump of the order of 1011 muons will be produced per second. An active muon-shield is used to magnetically deflect these muons out of the acceptance of the spectrom- eter. This note describes how this shield is modelled and optimized. The SHiP spectrometer is being re-optimized using a conical decay-vessel, and utilizing the possibility to magnetize part of the beam-dump shielding iron. A shield adapted to these new conditions is presented which is significantly shorter and lighter than the shield used in the Technical Proposal (TP), while showing a similar performance.

  14. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, RD; Woltjer, L

    1990-01-01

    Starting with this volume, the Lecture Notes of the renowned Advanced Courses of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy will be published annually. In each course, three extensive lectures given by leading experts in their respective fields cover different and essential aspects of the subject. The 20th course, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, dealt with current research on active galactic nuclei; it represents the most up-to-date views on the subject, presented with particular regard for clarity. The previous courses considered a wide variety of subjects, beginning with ""Theory

  15. GPS Activities at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrend, Dirk

    2002-11-19

    The Alignment Engineering Group of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) started to use RTK (real-time kinematic) GPS equipment in order to perform structure mapping and GIS-related tasks on the SLAC campus. In a first step a continuously observing GPS station (SLAC M40) was set up. This station serves as master control station for all differential GPS activities on site and its coordinates have been determined in the well-defined global geodetic datum ITRF2000 at a given reference epoch. Some trials have been performed to test the RTK method. The tests have proven RTK to be very fast and efficient.

  16. Crew Activity Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  17. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  18. Reuse of activated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  19. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  20. COMPANY ACTIVITY FINANCIAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruntu Genu Alexandru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.

  1. System of Volcanic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HÉDERVARI

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.

  2. FY 1996 activity summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety provides nuclear safety policy, independent technical evaluation, and technical support. A summary of these activities is provided in this report. These include: (1) changing the mission of the former production facilities to storage and waste management; (2) stabilizing nuclear materials not recycled due to production cessation or interruptions; (3) reformulating the authorization basis for existing facilities to convert to a standards based approach for operations consistent with modern expectations; and (4) implementing a modern regulatory framework for nuclear facilities. Enforcement of the Price-Anderson Amendments Act is also reported.

  3. Active terahertz metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

  4. Diagramming Complex Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action as...... aspect. The paper suggests thematic roles as a semantics for actions, argues that a selection of well-known diagramming techniques can be defined within this theory, and uses the theory to discuss new issues related to process control and mobile technology....

  5. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  6. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  7. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  8. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... compliance. The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of Axivity AX3 accelerometers taped directly to the skin of 9-13-year-old children. METHODS: Children in 46 school classes (53.4% girls, age 11.0±1.0 years, BMI 17.7±2.8 kg*m) across Denmark wore two Axivity AX3 accelerometers, one taped...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles...

  9. Leadership Development Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Beheshtifar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human resource development is considered as a developed concept in HR field. It is a process for helping personnel to conduct their duties better. Most organizations tend to leadership development as a separable subject and as areas of responsibility within organization. Whereas the leadership development plans have been unsuccessful. This article aim to draw attention to the fact that leadership development is crucial in organizations. A literature review was conducted by searching journal databases, textbooks, and relevant reports. A categorization of the evidence allowed informed discussions on the key themes surrounding leadership development activities. Leadership development is caused to employees' promotion and progress via nurture of new talents, stimulus in employees by persuade to do individual development, save time and cost, and increase customers' satisfaction by relations improvement. Accordingly, the development systems can cover a wide scope in organization. They are effective to career management, training and development, performance management, strategic human resource planning, recruitment and selection, and succession planning activities. Despite the need for further scientific and validated studies, organizations should be urged to devote sufficient resources and attention towards leadership development for promoting long-term survival and prosperity.

  10. The Active Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  11. Active Near Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Past activity from Near Earth Asteroids is recorded in the meteoroid streams that cause our meteor showers. Automated meteoroid orbit surveys by photographic, low-light video, specular radar, and head-echo radar reflections are providing the first maps of meteor shower activity at different particle sizes. There are distinct differences in particle size distributions among streams. The underlaying mechanisms that created these streams are illuminated: fragmentation from spin-up or thermal stresses, meteoroid ejection by water vapor drag, and ejection of icy particles by CO and CO2 sublimation. The distribution of the meteoroid orbital elements probe the subsequent evolution by planetary perturbations and sample the range of dynamical processes to which Near Earth Asteroids are exposed. The non-stream "sporadic" meteors probe early stages in the evolution from meteoroid streams into the zodiacal dust cloud. We see that the lifetime of large meteoroids is generally not limited by collisions. Results obtained by the CAMS video survey of meteoroid orbits are compared to those from other orbit surveys. Since October 2010, over 200,000 meteoroid orbits have been measured. First results from an expansion into the southern hemisphere are also presented, as are first results from the measurement of main element compositions. Among the many streams detected so far, the Geminid and Sextantid showers stand out by having a relatively high particle density and derive from parent bodies that appear to have originated in the main belt.

  12. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  13. Active Optics in LAMOST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-Qiang Su; Xiang-Qun Cui

    2004-01-01

    Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)is one of the major national projects under construction in China. Active optics is one of the most important technologies for new large telescopes. It is used for correcting telescope errors generated by gravitational and thermal changes. Here,however, we use this technology to realize the configuration of LAMOST, -a task that cannot be done in the traditional way. A comprehensive and intensive research on the active optics used in LAMOST is also reported, including an open-loop control method and an auxiliary closed-loop control method. Another important development is in our pre-calibration method of open-loop control, which is with some new features: simultaneous calculation of the forces and displacements of force actuators and displacement actuators; the profile of mirror can be arbitrary;the mirror surface shape is not expressed by a fitting polynomial, but is derived from the mirror surface shape formula which is highly accurate; a proof is given that the solution of the pre-calibration method is the same as the least squares solution.

  14. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  15. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  16. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  17. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  18. Characterization and distribution of esterase activity in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boczar, BA; Forney, LJ; Begley, WM; Larson, RJ; Federle, TW

    2001-01-01

    The location and activity of esterase enzymes in activated Sludge from three Municipal wastewater treatment plants were characterized using model Substrate, and denaturing and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) Of particulate, freeze thaw (primarily periplasmic enzymes and those

  19. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  20. How Active Are Older Americans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger, PhD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969 according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active.ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in

  1. SPORTS ACTIVITIES SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy

  2. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio

    2008-11-21

    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  3. Active Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    FFOWCS WILLIAMS, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the two-dimensional problem of a plane vortex sheet disturbed by an impulsive line source. A previous incorrect treatment of this problem is examined in detail. Instabilities of the vortex sheet are triggered by the source and grow exponentially in space and time. The Green function is constructed for the problem and it is shown that a point source properly positioned and delayed will induce a field that cancels the unstable growing modes. The resulting displacement of the vortex sheet is expressed in simple terms. The instabilities are checked by the anti-source which combines with the field of the primary source into a vortex sheet response which decays with time at large time. This paper is a contribution to the study of active control of shear layer instabilities, the main contribution being to clear up a previous paper with peculiar results that are, in fact, wrong.

  4. The sound of activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, B; Vetter, C

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A longtime advocate for female empowerment and equality, Boden Sandstrom has worked for political change in many arenas. In the 1960s, she began a career as a librarian, but soon made activism her full-time job, working for feminist, leftist and socialist causes. In the 1970s, she found a way to turn her lifelong passion for music into a career as a sound engineer. Once established in that profession, she began donating her services to political events, marches, demonstrations, and rallies. After thirteen years of running her own company, called Woman Sound,Inc. (later City Sound Productions,Inc.), she turned to the study of ethnomusicology. She is now Program Manager and Lecturer for the Ethnomusicology Program at the University of Maryland, where she is also working on her doctorate in that subject. She continues to freelance as a sound engineer and serve as a technical producer for major events.

  5. Flipped Classroom, active Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...... with the teaching subject compared to more traditional teaching, where introductions and theoretical monologs conducted by the teacher prevail. In addition it is assumed that the pupils learning processes move towards more independency and metacognitive thinking.   During the study period interventions...... didactic workshop with the involved teachers. One of the demands of the didactic design is to include a video embedded in a formative evaluation sheet produced in Google Drive by the teachers themselves. The didactic analysis of the collected audio and video recordings will be presented at the NOFA 5...

  6. Actively stressed marginal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, M; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field, effective medium theory, scaling analysis and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of non-affine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  7. Actively stressed marginal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-12-07

    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three-dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field theory, scaling analysis, and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of nonaffine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  8. [Lymphohistiocytic activation syndrome (LHAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrady, R; Bono, W

    2014-01-01

    Lymphohistiocytic activation syndrome (LHAS) is related to inappropriate stimulation of macrophage cells in bone marrow and lymphoid system. LHAS combines the non-specific clinical signs (fever, poor general condition, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy) and suggestive biological elements (bi-or pancytopenia, abnormal liver function, coagulopathy, increased LDH, ferritin and triglycerides). The diagnosis of SALH remains an emergency every clinician should discuss before any febrile cytopenia. The etiology of LHAS is still obscure, but recent advances in the genetic study of familial forms provide some essential elements in understanding. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Active Ageing: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Cristina Nuta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of ageing is a highly topical for Romania and for European Union. In this framework, to create and implement some strategies for active ageing is an important objective. The international and regional forums set (supported by official statistics that the number of older people growing rapidly. Romania needs some programmes (with labour, social, economic, health care aspects to deal with the demographic changes, programs that will reform the existing working life structures and legislation. Despite the actual pension reform, which tries to close the opportunity of early retirement (by penalizing the total pension flows, or increasing the retirement age, etc., the labour system does not sets some important targets for this area.

  10. DPAL activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  11. Plasminogen activation and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Keld; Behrendt, N.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Breakdown of the extracellular matrix is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. It is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the serine protease plasmin and a number of matrix metalloproteases.The activity of each of these proteases is regulated by an array......, the regulation of extracellular proteolysis in cancer involves a complex interplay between cancer cells and non-malignant stromal cells in the expression of the molecular components involved. For some types of cancer, this cellular interplay mimics that observed in the tissue of ori- gin during non......-neoplastic tissue remodelling processes.We propose that cancer invasion can be considered as uncontrolled tissue remodelling. Inhibition of extracellular proteases is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. Because proteases have many different functions in the normal organism, efficient inhibition will have...

  12. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... during leisure time. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations for girls and boys separately, adjusted by age group, parents' occupational social class, family structure, and migration status. There were significant and graded associations between adolescents' PA and all four...... dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order...

  13. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  14. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  15. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  16. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  17. Project origami activities for exploring mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionActivity 1 Folding Equilateral Triangles in a Square Activity 2 Origami Trigonometry Activity 3 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths: Fujimoto Approximation Activity 4 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths Exactly Activity 5 Origami Helix Activity 6 Folding a Parabola Activity 7 Can Origami Trisect an Angle?Activity 8 Solving Cubic Equations Activity 9 Lill's Method Activity 10 Folding Strips into Knots Activity 11 Haga's ""Origamics"" Activity 12 Modular Star Ring Activity 13 Folding a Butterfly Bomb Activity 14 Molly's Hexahedron Activity 15 Business Card Modulars Activity 16 Five Inter

  18. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  19. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  20. Scenarios and activities (Chapter 1)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burns, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The description and quantification of the shale gas-related activities presented in this Chapter informs the assessment of ecological and social risk addressed in other Chapters. For the Exploration Only scenario, activities that will manifest...

  1. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  2. Motivating Kids to Be Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... set healthy patterns that will last into adulthood. Benefits of Being Active When kids are active, their ... school sports to after-school interests, such as yoga or skateboarding. It's important to remember that physical ...

  3. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  4. Automated activity-aware prompting for activity initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Lawrence B; Cook, Diane J

    2013-01-01

    Performing daily activities without assistance is important to maintaining an independent functional lifestyle. As a result, automated activity prompting systems can potentially extend the period of time that adults can age in place. In this paper we introduce AP, an algorithm to automate activity prompting based on smart home technology. AP learns prompt rules based on the time when activities are typically performed as well as the relationship between activities that normally occur in a sequence. We evaluate the AP algorithm based on smart home datasets and demonstrate its ability to operate within a physical smart environment.

  5. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaycev V.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of active personality of students. It is rotined that in education of active personality of students an important role is played by their research activity.

  6. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  7. Danish Labour Market Activation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, LIsbeth

    2007-01-01

    transformation over the past fifteen years. From the initial curbing of unemployment among the insured unemployed through standard activation offers, the aim today is also to increase labour supply among non-economic active groups using individually tailored programmes. Danish activation policies this embrace...

  8. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  9. Proteasome Activation by Small Molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leestemaker, Yves; de Jong, Annemieke; Witting, Katharina F; Penning, Renske; Schuurman, Karianne; Rodenko, Boris; Zaal, Esther A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371570905; van de Kooij, Bert; Laufer, Stefan; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Borst, Jannie; Scheper, Wiep; Berkers, Celia R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/329510916; Ovaa, Huib

    2017-01-01

    Drugs that increase 26S proteasome activity have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A chemical genetics screen of over 2,750 compounds using a proteasome activity probe as a readout in a high-throughput live-cell fluorescence-activated cell

  10. Hospitality Services. Student Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This student activity book contains pencil-and-paper activities for use in a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The activities are organized into 29 chapters on the following topics: hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization/management structures in…

  11. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage...

  12. Antibacterial activity of Pterocarpus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Omoloso, A D

    2003-09-01

    The leaves, root and stem barks of Pterocarpus indicus were successively partitioned with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol. All the fractions exhibited a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. The activity was more pronounced in the butanol and methanol fractions. None were active against the moulds.

  13. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  14. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  15. Elusive Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Maiolino, R; Gilli, R; Nagar, N M; Bianchi, S; Böker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M

    2003-01-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically "elusive". X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction of elusive AGN in local galaxies and to constrain their nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local density comparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei. Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas column densities exceeding 10^24 cm^-2, suggesting that their peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely that in elusive AGN, the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and the ionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of a classical Narrow Line Region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantly to the 30 keV bump of the X-ray background.

  16. Surface Active Components: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Shafiei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant or surface active components are produced by many different microorganisms. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic (generally hydrocarbon moieties that partition preferentially a within the interface between fluid phases with some other degrees of polarity and hydrogen bonding including oil/water or air/water interfaces. These properties render surfactants able to reducing surface and interfacial tension and forming microemulsion where hydrocarbons can solubilize in water or where water can solubilize in hydrocarbons, the majority of surfactants have gained importance in the fields of enhanced oil recovery, environmental bioremediation, food processing and pharmaceuticals. However, large-scale production of these molecules has not been realized as a result of low yields in production processes and high recovery and purification costs. This review article represents a classification of biosurfactant in addition to their microbial origin and effect of some nutrition and environmental factor for high production of biosurfactant. The nitrogen, carbon sources and environmental factors can make a difference key to the regulating biosurfactants synthesis Fascination with microbial surfactants have been steadily increasing recently because of advantages over the chemical surfactants for example environmentally friendly nature, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and specific gravity at extreme temperature, pH and salinity. For this reason the demand of biosurfactant are increasing day by day.

  17. Active Target Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Draznik, Peter; Frank, Nathan

    2012-10-01

    We have simulated an existing experimental design to determine the resolution improvement upon energy measurements of neutron unbound nuclei. A number of experiments of this type have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), located at Michigan State University. An excited nucleus is typically produced with a radioactive beam interacting with a passive Beryllium target. Many different nuclei are produced in experiment, each of which immediately decays into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are detected and the neutrons interact in scintillation detectors such as the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). In our simulation, we have constructed an active target that provides additional information such that the point of nuclear interaction within the target may be determined. This information improves the resolution in decay energy measurements of neutron unbound isotopes. This presentation will cover some aspects of the simulation process, as well as showing some of the results that demonstrate the simulated improvement over a passive target.

  18. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  19. Optically active quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  20. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  1. Social activity and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall...... activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin...

  2. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-11-28

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  3. Global optogenetic activation of inhibitory interneurons during epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledri, Marco; Madsen, Marita Grønning; Nikitidou, Litsa; Kirik, Deniz; Kokaia, Merab

    2014-02-26

    Optogenetic techniques provide powerful tools for bidirectional control of neuronal activity and investigating alterations occurring in excitability disorders, such as epilepsy. In particular, the possibility to specifically activate by light-determined interneuron populations expressing channelrhodopsin-2 provides an unprecedented opportunity of exploring their contribution to physiological and pathological network activity. There are several subclasses of interneurons in cortical areas with different functional connectivity to the principal neurons (e.g., targeting their perisomatic or dendritic compartments). Therefore, one could optogenetically activate specific or a mixed population of interneurons and dissect their selective or concerted inhibitory action on principal cells. We chose to explore a conceptually novel strategy involving simultaneous activation of mixed populations of interneurons by optogenetics and study their impact on ongoing epileptiform activity in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Here we demonstrate that such approach results in a brief initial action potential discharge in CA3 pyramidal neurons, followed by prolonged suppression of ongoing epileptiform activity during light exposure. Such sequence of events was caused by massive light-induced release of GABA from ChR2-expressing interneurons. The inhibition of epileptiform activity was less pronounced if only parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons were activated by light. Our data suggest that global optogenetic activation of mixed interneuron populations is a more effective approach for development of novel therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, but the initial action potential generation in principal neurons needs to be taken in consideration.

  4. In vivo imaging of protease activity by Probody therapeutic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth R; Menendez, Elizabeth; Craik, Charles S; Kavanaugh, W Michael; Vasiljeva, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Probody™ therapeutics are recombinant, proteolytically-activated antibody prodrugs, engineered to remain inert until activated locally by tumor-associated proteases. Probody therapeutics exploit the fundamental dysregulation of extracellular protease activity that exists in tumors relative to healthy tissue. Leveraging the ability of a Probody therapeutic to bind its target at the site of disease after proteolytic cleavage, we developed a novel method for profiling protease activity in living animals. Using NIR optical imaging, we demonstrated that a non-labeled anti-EGFR Probody therapeutic can become activated and compete for binding to tumor cells in vivo with a labeled anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, by inhibiting matriptase activity in vivo with a blocking-matriptase antibody, we show that the ability of the Probody therapeutic to bind EGFR in vivo was dependent on protease activity. These results demonstrate that in vivo imaging of Probody therapeutic activation can be used for screening and characterization of protease activity in living animals, and provide a method that avoids some of the limitations of prior methods. This approach can improve our understanding of the activity of proteases in disease models and help to develop efficient strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodrich David E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  6. Resources Management in Active Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In an active network, users can insert customized active codes into active nodes to execute. Thus it needs more resources than those required by conventional networks, and these resources must be effectively monitored and managed. Management policies in existing OSs are too complicated to apply to simple active packets. In this paper, we present new resources management policies that are mainly adoped to manage CPU, storage and transmission bandwidth. Namely, we use SPF algorithm to schedule and process active packets, and import an interval queue method to allocate transmission bandwidth, and use feedback mechanism to control congestion. At the same time, we design some experiments on prototype systems with and without resources management policies respectively. The experiments results show that management policies presented by us can effectively manage resources in active nodes and can improve the performance of active networks.

  7. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    subjects the teaching style should be characterized by more variation and motivate the pupils. Research has shown that there is a correlation between physical activity and intellectual capital (e.g. educational attainment and academic performance), physical capital (e.g. physical fitness and reduction...... of the risk for diseases and risk factors) and emotional capital (e.g. fun, enjoyment and self-esteem) (Bailey, Hillman, Arent, & Petitpas, 2013). The school reform prescribes that all pupils from grade 1-9 must have at least 45 minutes of movement activities in average every day.Next to the well-known PE-teaching...... the movement activities must be integrated in the academic and creative subjects as active teaching and brain breaks etc. or as organized activities during the extended school day. Movement activities has become a part of all subjects and all teachers’ professional task. Since these movement activities...

  8. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  9. Atmospheric neutrino data Active-Active x Active-Sterile oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, O L G

    1998-01-01

    I summarize here the results of a global fit to the full data set corresponding to 33.0 kt-yr of data of the Super-Kamiokande experiment as well as to all other experiments in order to compare the active-active and active-sterile neutrinos oscillation channels to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly.

  10. Active Beam Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hellermann, M. G.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O.; Summers, H. P.; Whiteford, A.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2008-03-01

    Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) plays a pivotal role in the diagnostics of hot fusion plasmas and is implemented currently in most of the operating devices. In the present report the main features of CXRS are summarized and supporting software packages encompassing "Spectral Analysis Code CXSFIT", "Charge Exchange Analysis Package CHEAP", and finally "Forward Prediction of Spectral Features" are described. Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) is proposed as indispensable cross-calibration tool for absolute local impurity density measurements and also for the continuous monitoring of the neutral beam power deposition profile. Finally, a full exploitation of the `Motional Stark Effect' pattern is proposed to deduce local pitch angles, total magnetic fields and possibly radial electric fields. For the proposed active beam spectroscopy diagnostic on ITER comprehensive performance studies have been carried out. Estimates of expected spectral signal-to-noise ratios are based on atomic modelling of neutral beam stopping and emissivities for CXRS, BES and background continuum radiation as well as extrapolations from present CXRS diagnostic systems on JET, Tore Supra, TEXTOR and ASDEX-UG. Supplementary to thermal features a further promising application of CXRS has been proposed recently for ITER, that is a study of slowing-down alpha particles in the energy range up to 2 MeV making use of the 100 keV/amu DNB (Diagnostic Neutral Beam) and the 500 keV/amu HNB (Heating Neutral Beam). Synthetic Fast Ion Slowing-Down spectra are evaluated in terms of source rates and slowing-down parameters

  11. Genotoxic activity of praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Ostrosky, P

    1997-12-01

    Praziquantel is a synthetic drug with a remarkable activity against parasites, particularly treamatodes and cestodes. Initial genotoxicity tests used a spectrum of endpoints including tests in bacteria, yeasts, mammalian cells and Drosophila and each one gave negative results. Effects on reproductive cells of mice were negative as well. However, host mediated studies in mice and humans were contradictory and a comutagenic effect with several mutagens and carcinogens was found. Later studies, including monitoring in humans and pigs have shown that Praziquantel induces a greater frequency of hyperploid lymphocytes as well as structural chromosomal aberrations, but not in all the individuals treated. In vitro studies have demonstrated that Praziquantel can induce micronuclei in syrian hamster embryonic (SHE) cells and in lymphocytes of some individuals. The same was found about structural chromosomal aberrations. Fetal death and fetal resorption were found when Praziquantel was administered in high doses to pregnant rats between the 6th and 10th day of gestation. Due to its efficiency as a parasiticide, Praziquantel is in use in Latin-American, Asiatic, African and East-European countries where infections by trematodes and cestodes are frequent. However, the extensive use of Praziquantel in multiple reinfections, in non-infected and non-diagnosed individuals for prevention, in higher doses or repeated doses for cysticercosis treatment and in individuals exposed to environmental mutagens, in conjunction with new findings about its metabolism and genotoxic properties, make it necessary to further evaluate the potential of this drug not only to be mutagenic per se, but to contribute in the development of neoplasm.

  12. Strategy as active waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.

  13. UV activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    In Order to continue the work displayed in Buccino & Mauas(2003) and Buccino (2003), we have calculated the index Mg II (Xhk) on 1640 high resolution IUE spectra of 269 main sequence stars of spectral classes F, G and K. From this set of observations, we found an exponential relation between the continuum UV flux and the color (B-V). Contrary to Schrijver et al (1989), who assumed that the continuum UV flux depended on the color following the relation found by Rutten (1984) for the visible one, i.e. the logarithm of the flux is proportional to a polynomial of third order with the color. Nevertheless, the exponential relation flux in the continuous UV and the color (B-V) fits far better to our data that the given one by Rutten (1984). Obtained this dependency for the ultraviolet continuum flux, the index Xhk can be obtained from the single flux in the lines core, allowing to calculate the index of Mg II for those spectra where the continuum is very dark and so the relation signal noise is very low. As it were already reported in previous works (Rutten (1991), Schrijver (1992)), we found a minimum basal flux in the Mg II h and k lines core due to the cromospheric heating by disipation of acustics waves. From this minimum flux, we calculated minimum index of activity that satisfactorily fits to the minimum values of the indexes calculated on the 1640 spectra like quotient between the flux in the line core and the continuous one.

  14. Fluidization and Active Thinning by Molecular Kinetics in Active Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Alert, Ricard; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-02-24

    We derive the constitutive equations of an active polar gel from a model for the dynamics of elastic molecules that link polar elements. Molecular binding kinetics induces the fluidization of the material, giving rise to Maxwell viscoelasticity and, provided that detailed balance is broken, to the generation of active stresses. We give explicit expressions for the transport coefficients of active gels in terms of molecular properties, including nonlinear contributions on the departure from equilibrium. In particular, when activity favors linker unbinding, we predict a decrease of viscosity with activity-active thinning-of kinetic origin, which could explain some experimental results on the cell cortex. By bridging the molecular and hydrodynamic scales, our results could help understand the interplay between molecular perturbations and the mechanics of cells and tissues.

  15. IDENTIFICATION AND ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF ACTIVE DENITRIFIERS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Le-Quy, Vang; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann;

    and when external carbon sources were supplemented to the activated sludge the composition of the denitrifying communities was significantly affected. Transcriptome profiling provided detailed insight in the metabolic pathways in several of the active denitrifiers in activated sludge. In conclusion...... reactor studies. To obtain better identification of active denitrifying communities in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) we applied DNA-SIP with 13C-labelled substrates, and RT-PCR of expressed denitrification genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) upon various substrate-inductions. To come around...... were determined with quantitative FISH, while their active metabolic pathways were investigated directly in activated sludge with a tag-based metatranscriptomic approach under acetate-utilizing and denitrifying conditions. The different methods revealed a majority of denitrifiers in all WWTPs belonging...

  16. Activity is strength: More active systems are stronger glass formers

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between activity and passive transport processes in an active system may lead to complex spatio-temporal dynamics offering a rich and fascinating phenomenology compared to their passive counterparts. Understanding the properties of an active system in the dense limit is important both from biological as well as physical point of view. Here, we extend an immensely successful microscopic theory for the glassy dynamics of passive systems in their dense low-temperature limit, namely the Random First-Order Transition (RFOT) theory, for an active system generalizing and unifying the findings of recent simulations on such systems. The qualitative picture of glassy dynamics for a passive system survives when activity is introduced, however, a number interesting properties emerge. For example, activity changes the typical length scale and relaxation times, pushes the thermodynamic and dynamic glass transition points towards higher density or lower temperature and the fragility of the system changes as a func...

  17. Gamma band activity in the reticular activating system (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Urbano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep-wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem-thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep-wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by preconscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the

  18. Being active when you have heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - activity; CAD - activity; Coronary artery disease - activity; Angina - activity ... Getting regular exercise when you have heart disease is ... It may also help you be more active without chest pain or other ...

  19. Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Al-Qodah

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated sludge was used as a precursor to prepare activated carbon using sulfuric acid as a chemical activation agent. The effect of preparation conditions on the produced activated carbon characteristics as an adsorbent was investigated. The results indicate that the produced activated carbon has a highly porous structure and a specific surface area of 580 m²/g. The FT-IR analysis depicts the presence of a variety of functional groups which explain its improved adsorption behavior against pesticides. The XRD analysis reveals that the produced activated carbon has low content of inorganic constituents compared with the precursor. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to three adsorption isotherm models and found to closely fit the BET model with R² equal 0.948 at pH 3, indicating a multilayer of pesticide adsorption. The maximum loading capacity of the produced activated carbon was 110 mg pesticides/g adsorbent and was obtained at this pH value. This maximum loading was found experimentally to steeply decrease as the solution pH increases. The obtained results show that activated sludge is a promising low cost precursor for the production of activated carbon.

  20. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  1. Negotiating active ageing at a Danish activity centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    and practices active ageing. The paper uses an activity centre in Copenhagen as its site of negotiation. Methods: These questions have been explored with the use of ethnographic fieldwork and through a documentary study. The ethnographic fieldwork has been conducted at an activity centre with 4 months...... of participatory observation in 2011 and 2012, as well as 11 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with users of the centre. 4 of these users have been followed around during everyday activities such as doing groceries, picking up grandchildren, etc. The documentary study consists of documents and statements...

  2. Silicon active photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  3. Permanent active longitudes and activity cycles on RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1998-08-01

    A new analysis of the published long-term photometric observations has revealed permanent active-longitude structures in four RS CVn stars: EI Eri, II Peg, sigma Gem, and HR 7275. Two active longitudes separated by half of the period are found to dominate on the surface during all available seasons. The positions of the longitudes on three stars (EI Eri, II Peg, HR 7275) are migrating in the orbital reference frame, and there is no preferred orientation with respect to the line of centres in the binaries. The rate of migration is approximately constant. In case of sigma Gem the active longitude migration is synchronized with the orbital motion in the direction of the line of centres in the binary. The active region lifetimes can be longer than the time span of the observations (>=15 yr). The periods of the active longitude rotation are determined: for EI Eri 1fd 9510, for II Peg 6fd 7066, for sigma Gem 19fd 604, for HR 7275 28fd 263. Long-term activity cycles of the stars are discovered from the analysis of the relative contribution of the two longitudes to the photometric variability. One longitude is found to be usually more active than the other at a given moment, and the change of the activity level between the longitudes is cyclic with periods of years. The switch of the activity takes a much shorter time, about a few months, similar to the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon found for FK Com stars. Moments of switching are regarded as new tracers of the activity, and total cycles, which return activity to the same longitude, are found to be for EI Eri 9.0 yr, for II Peg 9.3 yr, for sigma Gem 14.9 yr, for HR 7275 17.5 yr.

  4. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4 activates its ubiquitin ligase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Avinash; Alberts, Philipp; Mari, Sara; Tong, Jiefei; Murchie, Ryan; Maspero, Elena; Safi, Frozan; Moran, Michael F; Polo, Simona; Rotin, Daniela

    2014-10-07

    Ligand binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) causes dimerization and activation by transphosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the kinase domain. FGFR1 is ubiquitylated by the E3 ligase NEDD4 (also known as NEDD4-1), which promotes FGFR1 internalization and degradation. Although phosphorylation of FGFR1 is required for NEDD4-dependent endocytosis, NEDD4 directly binds to a nonphosphorylated region of FGFR1. We found that activation of FGFR1 led to activation of c-Src kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4, enhancing the ubiquitin ligase activity of NEDD4. Using mass spectrometry, we identified several FGF-dependent phosphorylated tyrosines in NEDD4, including Tyr(43) in the C2 domain and Tyr(585) in the HECT domain. Mutating these tyrosines to phenylalanine to prevent phosphorylation inhibited FGF-dependent NEDD4 activity and FGFR1 endocytosis and enhanced cell proliferation. Mutating the tyrosines to glutamic acid to mimic phosphorylation enhanced NEDD4 activity. Moreover, the NEDD4 C2 domain bound the HECT domain, and the presence of phosphomimetic mutations inhibited this interaction, suggesting that phosphorylation of NEDD4 relieves an inhibitory intra- or intermolecular interaction. Accordingly, activation of FGFR1 was not required for activation of NEDD4 that lacked its C2 domain. Activation of c-Src by epidermal growth factor (EGF) also promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced the activity of NEDD4. Thus, we identified a feedback mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases promote catalytic activation of NEDD4 and that may represent a mechanism of receptor crosstalk.

  5. Prescribing physical activity through primary care: does activity intensity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily; Stuckey, Melanie I; Petrella, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity guidelines recommend engaging in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity to elicit health benefits. Similarly, these higher intensity ranges for activity are typically targeted in healthy living interventions (ie, exercise prescription). Comparatively less attention has been focused on changing lower intensity physical activity (ie, sedentary activity) behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of prescribing changes to physical activity of various intensities (ie, sedentary through exercise) through the primary care setting. Sixty older adults (aged 55-75 years; mean age 63 = 5 years) volunteered to participate, and were randomly assigned to 4 groups: 3 receiving an activity prescription intervention targeting a specific intensity of physical activity (exercise, sedentary, or both), and 1 control group. During the 12-week intervention period participants followed personalized activity programs at home. Basic clinical measures (anthropometrics, blood pressure, aerobic fitness) and blood panel for assessing cardiometabolic risk (glucose, lipid profile) were conducted at baseline (week 0) and follow-up (week 12) in a primary care office. There were no differences between groups at baseline (P > 0.05). The intervention changed clinical (F₅,₅₀ = 20.458, P = 0.000, ηP² = 0.672) and blood panel measures (F₅,₅₀ = 4.576, P = 0.002, ηP² = 0.314) of cardiometabolic health. Post hoc analyses indicted no differences between groups (P > 0.05). Physical activity prescription of various intensities through the primary care setting improved cardiometabolic health status. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sedentary behavior prescription (alone, or combined with exercise) in primary care. The findings support the ongoing practice of fitness assessment and physical activity prescription for chronic disease management and prevention.

  6. Additive manufactured polymeric 3D scaffolds with tailored surface topography influence mesenchymal stromal cells activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Sara C; Mota, Carlos; Longoni, Alessia; Barrias, Cristina C; Granja, Pedro L; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-05-24

    Additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored surface topography constitute a clear advantage in tissue regeneration strategies to steer cell behavior. 3D fibrous scaffolds of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer presenting different fiber surface features were successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing combined with wet-spinning, in a single step, without any post-processing. The optimization of the processing parameters, mainly driven by different solvent/non-solvent combinations, led to four distinct scaffold types, with average surface roughness values ranging from 0.071 ± 0.012 μm to 1.950 ± 0.553 μm, average pore sizes in the x- and y-axis between 351.1 ± 33.6 μm and 396.1 ± 32.3 μm, in the z-axis between 36.5 ± 5.3 μm and 70.7 ± 8.8 μm, average fiber diameters between 69.4 ± 6.1 μm and 99.0 ± 9.4 μm, and porosity values ranging from 60.2 ± 0.8% to 71.7 ± 2.6%. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on these scaffolds adhered, proliferated, and produced endogenous extracellular matrix. The effect of surface roughness and topography on hMSCs differentiation was more evident for cells seeded at lower density, where the percentage of cells in direct contact with the surface was higher compared to more densely seeded scaffolds. Under osteogenic conditions, lower surface roughness values (0.227 ± 0.035 μm) had a synergistic effect on hMSCs behavior, while chondrogenesis was favored on rougher surfaces (1.950 ± 0.553 μm).

  7. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  8. CDPK Activation in PRR Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Heike; Boudsocq, Marie; Romeis, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases undergo a rapid biochemical activation in response to an intracellular Ca increase induced by the PRR-dependent perception of a pathogen-related stimulus. Based on SDS gel resolution, the in-gel kinase assay allows the analysis of multiple in vivo protein samples in parallel, combining the advantage of protein separation according to molecular mass with the activity read-out of a protein kinase assay. It thus enables to follow the transient CDPK activation and inactivation in response to in vivo elicitation with a time-wise resolution. In addition, changes of CDPK phosphorylation activity often correlate with slight shifts in the enzyme's apparent molecular mass, indicating posttranslational modifications and a conformational change of the active enzyme compared to its inactive resting form. These band shifts can be detected by a simple immunoblotting to monitor CDPK activation.

  9. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  10. Laser treatments of active acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Lauren E; Stevenson, Mary L; Nagler, Arielle R

    2017-08-04

    The utility of laser therapy is increasingly being recognized in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. We aimed to perform a narrative review of the medical literature on the use of laser therapy for the treatment of active acne vulgaris. We performed a PubMed literature search on September 1, 2016 using the search terms "active acne," "acne," "laser therapy," and "laser surgery." Case reports, case series, cohort, and controlled trials were included. Studies of lasers in the treatment of acne, including erbium glass, Nd:YAG, pulse dye laser (PDL), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, and laser-based photodynamic therapy, have been published. While treatment of active acne with lasers has been successful, many studies are limited by small patient number and lack of control populations and comparison to standard therapies for active acne. Laser therapies are increasingly becoming part of or an adjunct to the medical treatment of active acne and are a useful treatment modality.

  11. Swim pressure of active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team

    2014-11-01

    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  12. Activated sludge inhibition capacity index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Surerus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic compounds in sewage or industrial wastewater may inhibit the biological activity of activated sludge impairing the treatment process. This paper evaluates the Inhibition Capacity Index (ICI for the assessment of activated sludge in the presence of toxicants. In this study, activated sludge was obtained from industrial treatment plants and was also synthetically produced. Continuous respirometric measurements were carried out in a reactor, and the oxygen uptake rate profile obtained was used to evaluate the impact of inhibiting toxicants, such as dissolved copper, phenol, sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate and amoxicillin, on activated sludge. The results indicate that ICI is an efficient tool to quantify the intoxication capacity. The activated sludge from the pharmaceutical industry showed higher resistance than the sludge from other sources, since toxicants are widely discharged in the biological treatment system. The ICI range was from 58 to 81% when compared to the synthetic effluent with no toxic substances.

  13. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  14. Architectural Design Activities for JAS

    CERN Document Server

    Khaled, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The critical part for building any software system is its architecture. Architectural design is a design at a higher level of abstraction. A good architecture ensures that software will satisfy its requirement. This paper defines the most important activities of architectural design that used through building any software; also it applies these activities on one type of Electronic Commerce (EC) applications that is Job Agency System(JAS) to show how these activities can work through these types of applications.

  15. Japanese activities in refrigeration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Ohtsuka, T.; Ishizaki, Y.

    This paper reviews recent activities in refrigeration technology in Japan. The projects described are stimulated by growing industrial needs or form part of large national projects. The JNR project on the MAGLEV train is currently the most powerful activity and it demands knowledge in all the different disciplines of cryogenics in particular on various scales of refrigeration. Research activities are also directed towards the development of Stirling cycle and magnetic refrigerators for applications in a wider area.

  16. Activity Recognition in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-29

    activity is splitting. 6 Crowd video classification Ability to identify crowd behavior enables crowd management systems to design and manage public...characterize group activities . We then showed the effectiveness of group level features in crowd video classification . 9 List of Publications 1. N. Bhargava, S...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0044 Activity Recognition in Social Media Subhasis Chaudhuri INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY Final Report 05/09/2016

  17. Activating Teaching for Quality Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student...... activating teaching methods focusing on those based on knowledge dissemination. The practical aspects of the implemented teaching method are considered, and employed assessment methods and tools are discussed....

  18. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  19. INNOVATIONS AND TOURISTIC ACTIVITY EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Novikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental and applied innovations impact activities in the tourist industry and evolution thereof. More and more sophisticated technologies and communication techniques are practically used to serve tourists. Basically, innovative tourist activity development concept represents innovation of values and in particular means that tourist’s impression is taken into account to higher extent and tourist product personification changes the products’ consumer value. Discussed in the article are tourist activity, tourist cluster, destination and glocalization development prospects.

  20. L3 Study Team Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, David; L3ST Team

    2017-01-01

    The NASA-Chartered L3 Study Team is working to develop the US community participation and to support NASA's contribution to the ESA-led LISA mission to observe gravitational waves via space-based detectors. The present activities of the L3ST will be described, and the next steps for the Study Team will also be given. NASA supports travel activities and support for the Study Team activities.