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Sample records for activated charcoal prevents

  1. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile flow problems (cholestasis) during pregnancy. ... pregnancy, according to some early research reports. Preventing hangover. Activated charcoal is included in some hangover remedies, ...

  2. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neekkan Dey; Archita Das; Arunava Ghosh; Indu B Chatterjee

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100–200 g/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73–80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70–90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  3. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth;

    2002-01-01

    kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h...

  4. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the CxF to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH4F. The charcoal laden with NH4F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH4F as a mixture of NH3 and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH4F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH3 concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests

  5. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  6. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion.

  7. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion. PMID:9029746

  8. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the local made charcoal tubes against adsorption of benzene, toluene and xylene vapors. Results indicate that desorption capacity and the recovery percentage decrease as the benzene, toluene and xylene concentrations and also relative humidity increase. It is concluded that the water vapor is the major interfere in the adsorption of mentioned vapors when the air is passed through the activated charcoal bed. The experiments show that the local made charcoal tubes are suitable for sampling in the predicted ranges existing in the work place.

  9. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES

    OpenAIRE

    P Nassiri; F Golbabaie; K. Mehrain; A. Hematian

    1994-01-01

    This study has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the local made charcoal tubes against adsorption of benzene, toluene and xylene vapors. Results indicate that desorption capacity and the recovery percentage decrease as the benzene, toluene and xylene concentrations and also relative humidity increase. It is concluded that the water vapor is the major interfere in the adsorption of mentioned vapors when the air is passed through the activated charcoal bed. The experiments show th...

  10. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  11. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS

    OpenAIRE

    P Nassiri; F Golbabaie; S. Nasseri; M. Mahmoodi; K. Mehrain

    1988-01-01

    The importance of the use of activated charcoal tubes for sampling gases and vapors is very well-known. For producing these tubes in the country, their production started in the laboratory of the department of occupation al health using activated charcoal, polyurethane foam and glass wool and consequently two types of foamed and foamless tubes were produced. To investigate the quality of the raw materials used, 186 tubes were exposed to various proportions of solutions of different volumes of...

  12. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  13. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An activated charcoal--yogurt mixture was evaluated in vivo to determine the effect on the gastrointestinal absorption of paracetamol, as compared to activated-charcoal--water slurry. The potential advantage of the activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture is a better palatability and general...... values and 95% CI for the AUCs were (in mg/l x min): 6307 (4932-8065) for the activated charcoal--water slurry and 6525 (5111-8330) for the activated charcoal--yogurt mixture. The palatability study showed significant difference (p

  14. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SAMPLER TUBES FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nassiri

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the use of activated charcoal tubes for sampling gases and vapors is very well-known. For producing these tubes in the country, their production started in the laboratory of the department of occupation al health using activated charcoal, polyurethane foam and glass wool and consequently two types of foamed and foamless tubes were produced. To investigate the quality of the raw materials used, 186 tubes were exposed to various proportions of solutions of different volumes of known percentages of four compounds of benzene, toluene, O-xylene and P-xlene. The adsorption of various parts of sampler tubes was done by a chemical method using CS2 and the final analysis was done by gas chromatography. The results obtained show that the amount of the above named compounds adsorbed by glass wool and foam in comparison to the activated charcoal isn’t significant (respectively P<0.001 & P,0.05. Also the experiments don’s show any significant differences between the total amount of adsorbed chemicals by charcoal in the back-up layer and the sample layer of the foamed tube and the amount adsorbed in the foamless tube, when treated with various compounds (P,0.001. Considering the equal adsorption of both types of tubes and the advantage of foamed tubes in controlling the time duration and the flow rate of sampling, the foamed type was recommended for production and use.

  15. Assessment of the elution of charcoal, cellulose acetate, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Aye, K; Appleton, S; Rogers, R A; Taylor, C R

    2004-08-01

    This experiment was designed to study the release of cellulose acetate fibers, charcoal, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters. For the first time in such studies, efforts were made to identify the particles that were eluted using other analytical techniques in addition to light microscopy. Other corrective measures were also implemented. During the studies it was found that trimming of larger filters to fit smaller filter housings introduced cellulose acetate-like particles from the fibers of the filter material. Special, custom made-to-fit filters were used instead. Tools such as forceps that were used to retrieve filters from their housings were also found to introduce fragments onto the filters. It is believed that introduction of such debris may have accounted for the very large number of cellulose acetate and charcoal particles that had been reported in the literature. Use of computerized particle-counting microscopes appeared to result in excessive number of particles. This could be because the filter or smoke pads used for such work do not have the flat and level surfaces ideal for computerized particle-counting microscopes. At the high magnifications that the pads were viewed for particles, constant focusing of the microscope would be essential. It was also found that determination of total particles by using extrapolation of particle count by grid population usually gave extremely high particle counts compared to the actual number of particles present. This could be because particle distributions during smoking are not uniform. Lastly, a less complex estimation of the thickness of the particles was adopted. This and the use of a simple mathematical conversion coupled with the Cox equation were utilized to assess the aerodynamic diameters of the particles. Our findings showed that compared to numbers quoted in the literature, only a small amount of charcoal, cellulose acetate shards, and other particles are

  16. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. The selection of optimum conditions and influencing factors of activated charcoal adsorption systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated charcoal adsorption systems have been widely used for uranium exploration. Based upon the test results of charcoal adsorption systems for radonmetry, the authors have selected the optimum conditions for adsorption systems, including types of adsorbent and desiccator, sensitivity of the systems, exposure time of buried adsorber, relationship of Rn with volume and adsorptive content of adsorber and so on. In addition to this, some factors such as desorption temperature and time of activated charcoal and influence of different moisture on adsorption capability of activated charcoal were studied. Some test data are given in detail

  18. Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds - a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated carbo

  19. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  20. Some theoretical priciples of the activation of wood charcoal by steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseev, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Kinetics and diffusion in the pores of a carbonaceous material are considered. The macroscopic rate of the reaction of steam with the carbon of wood charcoal has been determined. The optimum conditions for the activation of wood charcoal have been found.

  1. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...

  2. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  3. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  4. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    OpenAIRE

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by she...

  5. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of multiple and single dose activated charcoal for acute self-poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fahim

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The case fatality for intentional self-poisoning in rural Asia is 10–30 times higher than in the West, mostly due to the use of highly toxic poisons. Activated charcoal is a widely available intervention that may – if given early – bind to poisons in the stomach and prevent their absorption. Current guidelines recommend giving a single dose of charcoal (SDAC if patients arrive within an hour of ingestion. Multiple doses (MDAC may increase poison elimination at a later time by interrupting any enterohepatic or enterovascular circulations. The effectiveness of SDAC or MDAC is unknown. Since most patients present to hospital after one hour, we considered MDAC to have a higher likelihood of clinical benefit and set up a study to compare MDAC with no charcoal. A third arm of SDAC was added to help determine whether any benefit noted from MDAC resulted from the first dose or all doses. Methods/design We set up a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of superactivated charcoal in unselected adult self-poisoning patients admitted to the adult medical wards of three Sri Lankan secondary hospitals. Patients were randomised to standard treatment or standard treatment plus either a single 50 g dose of superactivated charcoal dissolved in 300 ml of water or six doses every four hours. All patients with a history of poison ingestion were approached concerning the study and written informed consent taken from each patient, or their relative (for unconscious patients or those 72 hrs post-ingestion, and previous recruitment. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes included the occurrence of serious complications (need for intubation, time requiring assisted ventilation, fits, cardiac dysrhythmias. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis; the effects of reported time to treatment after poisoning and status on admission will also be assessed. Discussion This trial will provide important

  6. Factors Affecting the Estimation of Indoor Radon Using Passive Activated Charcoal Canisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, Salvatore Charles

    1990-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption studies of 20 activated charcoals were conducted in a monolayer and a packed bed utilizing tracer gases. Kinetic studies, using xenon-133, demonstrate the existence of a two-compartment micropore volume with entrance capillaries which together determine the response characteristics of the charcoal to external concentration gradients of tracer gases. This new two -compartment model adequately describes the adsorption and desorption dynamics of radon in the presence of water vapor. Measurements with charcoal exposed to water vapor and Rn-222 in a monolayer and packed bed for exposure intervals of 1-7 days demonstrate that the uptake rate and total quantity of adsorbed Rn-222 are highly dependent upon the amount of water adsorbed. The effect of CO_2 on radon adsorption is small in any charcoal. The measured effective diffusion coefficient of radon in a packed bed of a peat based charcoal at 15% humidity and 25^circC is 7.97 times 10^{-6} cm^2/s. Condensed water vapor in the entrance capillaries reduces the effective pore radius, increasing the diffusion half-time, both into and out of the charcoal. The amount of adsorbed water per gram of charcoal required to block the entrance capillaries varies with the charcoal type. The proposed term for this quantity is the "break-point". A two-stage diffusion barrier charcoal monitor with a long diffusion path length was developed. This design inhibits passive airflow while maintaining the amount of adsorbed water vapor in the primary charcoal adsorbent below the break-point. Water removal at the entry port allows for longer exposure times improving the integrating capability necessary for indoor exposure assessment. The long diffusion path length increases the integration time -constant for radon adsorption normally 24 hours for conventional open-faced canisters to 50 hours for the improved canister. The increased integration time-constant allows for a 7 day sample to be measured at 70% humidity and 23

  7. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  8. A new and simple method for separation of 131I from tellurium oxide using an activated charcoal column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for separation of 131I from irradiated TeO2 is described. Initially Te was separated from the 131I by precipitation technique. 131I solution containing traces of Te was adsorbed on an activated charcoal. After sufficient washings with HCl and water, 131I was desorbed from charcoal with NaOH. The recovery of Te was 99%. Retention of 131I on charcoal was 100% and elution efficiency was 75-80%. (author)

  9. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use 67Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with 67Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the 67Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the 67Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of 67Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the 67Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients with constipation. In conclusion

  10. PURIFICATION OF LIQUID SMOKE FROM DURIAN PEEL’S WITH ACTIVATED CHARCOAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitya Rinaldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste of durian’s peel can be used to make liquid smoke and activated charcoal with pyrolysis method. To make liquid smoke for food preservative, liquid smoke must be proceeded with purification method such as distilation, purification with activated zeolit and activated charcoal. Liquid smoke characterization results from the durian’s peel from pyrolysis, distillation, purification with activated zeolite and activated charcoal purification with pH values ​​obtained successively 4.09; 3.24; 3.46; and 2.09. Acetic acid levels respectively 6.07; 7.59; 9.11; and 10.63 (mg/L. Based on the characteristics of the component compounds using GC-MS, results of pyrolysis liquid smoke was detected 17 compounds, liquid smoke distillation obtaining 12 compounds, liquid smoke purification with active zeolit obtaining 10 compounds and liquid smoke from activated charcoal purification obtaining 6 compounds with the majority component comprised of acetic acid compounds, phenols and carbonyls and do not contain carcinogenic compounds, so it can be used as a food preservative.

  11. Review of the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of a critical review of the published literature on the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal. This review, which was supported by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, showed that (a) individual charcoals have a wide range of adsoprtion coefficients and therefore the performance of a given bed is heavily dependent on the quality of the charcoal it contains; (b) because of the detrimental effects of mass transfer on noble gas adsorption, consideration should be given to including this factor in developing technical specifications for adsorption beds; and (c) additional research is needed on the determination of the inter-relationship of moisture and temperature and their effects on adsorption bed performance

  12. The determination, by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of gold in activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method is described for the determination of gold in activated charcoal by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Compensation for matrix effects is achieved by means of platinum that is added for use as an internal standard. Calibration is achieved by use of a series of synthetic standards that are made by the spiking of barren charcoal with gold and platinum. The limit of determination is about 8 p.p.m. of gold, and the relative standard deviation is 1,2 per cent at a concentration level of 2300 p.p.m

  13. Microbial Contamination of Ice Machines Is Mediated by Activated Charcoal Filtration Systems in a City Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorioka, Katsuhiro; Oie, Shigeharu; Hayashi, Koji; Kimoto, Hiroo; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Although microbial contamination of ice machines has been reported, no previous study has addressed microbial contamination of ice produced by machines equipped with activated charcoal (AC) filters in hospitals. The aim of this study was to provide clinical data for evaluating AC filters to prevent microbial contamination of ice. We compared microbial contamination in ice samples produced by machines with (n = 20) and without an AC filter (n = 40) in Shunan City Shinnanyo Municipal Hospital. All samples from the ice machine equipped with an AC filter contained 10-116 CFUs/g of glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. No microorganisms were detected in samples from ice machines without AC filters. After the AC filter was removed from the ice machine that tested positive for Gram-negative bacteria, the ice was resampled (n = 20). Analysis found no contaminants. Ice machines equipped with AC filters pose a serious risk factor for ice contamination. New filter-use guidelines and regulations on bacterial detection limits to prevent contamination of ice in healthcare facilities are necessary.

  14. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing four levels of activated charcoal supplemental (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of BW). Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 tre...

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF YAM IN VITRO GENEBANKING: EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND DARKNESS ON PLANTLETS OF THREE ACCESSIONS FROM BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbidinoukoun Arnaud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the in vitro preservation of yam genetic resources through reduction of the number of subcultures. Effects of different concentrations of activated charcoal (1 g.l-1, 2 g.l-1and 3 g.l-1 and temporary darkness were tested on the in vitro morphogenesis of three beninese yam accessions (Dcr28, Dcr164 and Da93G1. Galzy glutamine was used as basis culture medium and explants were microcuttings obtained from four months old plantlets. The results indicated that the activated charcoal, alone or combined with temporary darkness has an inhibitory effect on the aerial organs formation but favors root development with a greater mean number of root shoots (9.3±1.67 with 3 g.l-1 of activated charcoal than the subtract without activated charcoal (2.5±0.17. A significant interaction was noted between accessions and concentration of activated charcoal indicating genotypic variability from the activated charcoal effect. The different accession plantlets growing in high concentration of activated charcoal culture media combined with temporary darkness were vigorous after eight month without subculture and subsequently allow doing one subculture per year

  16. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F. de [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polo, Aldino N.B.; Benedetti, Angélica M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Leão, Mônica M.D. [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Slusarski-Santana, Veronice, E-mail: veronice.santana@unioeste.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX was positive, which increased its activity. • The best results were obtained at pH 3 and 9 with ZnO/NaX and at pH 3 with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC. • High degradation and considerable mineralization were attained with 10% ZnO/NaX. • ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on NaX and AC are promising alternatives as photocatalysts. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NaX, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2 h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  17. Lead Testing in Soil Contaminated with Pesticides and Reducing its Effects by the Activity of Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Chand Thakur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning is classically defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects, but being a heavy metal which is potentially toxic, if present at even minor concentrations, it is of great concern to environmentalists and medical professionals alike. Activated charcoal has been known to adsorb heavy metals and thus, was used in this study as well. Aim: The main aim of this study was to decrease the lead content of agricultural soil which is attributed to the use of pesticides containing lead by using activated charcoal. Material and Methods: The lead contamination in agricultural soil and plant dry mass samples which increases due to the effect of pesticides was detected by using Field Portable X-Ray Fluroscence (FP-XRF spectrophotometer. Soil was taken in plastic trays and the plants were grown and watered daily. The collected ground water was also tested. For the estimation of lead in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS was employed. Results: This study suggested the remediation of soil lead content by using activated charcoal. The study also revealed that activated charcoal not only adsorbs lead but also inhibits the accumulation of lead in ground water. Conclusion: This study promotes a cost effective process to treat agricultural lands polluted with leaded pesticides. Water purifiers, refrigerator etc. contain varying amounts of activated charcoal, after usage of these appliances it can be recycled and used as a source of activated charcoal. This can be applied in pesticide contaminated fields either in the form of slurry or by spraying.

  18. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  19. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Sharief ud Din Khan; Manju Arora; Wahab, M. A.; Parveen Saini

    2014-01-01

    Acrylic resin (AR) based electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC) in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorpo...

  20. Liquid phase adsorption behavior of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-05-20

    This study describes liquid phase adsorption characteristics of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of inulin. Nearly neutral solution (pH 6-8) was favorable to the adsorption and the equilibrium was attained after 40 min with the maximum adsorption Qmax 0.182 g/g (adsorbate/adsorbent) at 298 K. The experimental data analysis indicated that the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2) = 1) and Langmuir isotherms model (R(2) > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic with a physical nature. Inulin desorption could reach 95.9% using 50% ethanol solution and activated charcoal could be reused without significant losses in adsorption capacity. These results are of practical significance for the application of activated charcoal in the production and purification of inulin-type fructan.

  1. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...... of food, the paracetamol adsorption capacity of the 2 activated charcoals was reduced by max. 19% (Pfood (Hoegberg et al. 2002). Depending on which type of ice cream was mixed with the charcoal...

  2. Preparation of reusable conductive activated charcoal plate as a new electrode for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A conductive activated charcoal plate (ACP) was prepared from a low-cost, abundant, and non-conductive charcoal. The prepared ACP was characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the charcoal and the ACP was 0.58m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 461.67m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The ACP was employed in textile wastewater treatment using electrosorption process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments. The decolorization efficiency of 76% at optimum conditions of voltage=450mV, pH=4, and contact time=120 min indicated that the ACP has promising potential to decolorize textile wastewater. Moreover, the results of the kinetic analyses demonstrated that wastewater treatment followed pseudo-first order kinetic model. The ACP electrode could be regenerated and reused effectively at five successive cycles of electrosorption/electrodesorption.

  3. Adsorption and desorption of noble gases on activated charcoal: I. 133Xe studies in a monolayer and packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, S C; Harley, N H

    1990-10-01

    Detailed desorption studies using petroleum-based activated charcoals were conducted in monolayers and packed beds. Less extensive studies were conducted on several other types of charcoal. Kinetic studies, using 133Xe, demonstrated the existence of a micropore volume with entrance capillaries that together determined the response characteristics of charcoal to external concentration gradients of tracer gases. This new two-phase model, composed of micropores and entrance capillaries, describes the desorption dynamics of an adsorbed gas in the presence of water vapor. Condensed water vapor in the entrance capillaries of the charcoal reduced the effective pore radius and increased the diffusion half-time. Water could also adversely affect the integrating capability of the charcoal dramatically if the adsorbed water completely blocked the entrance capillaries. The amount of adsorbed water required to block the capillaries varied with the charcoal type and was termed here as the "break-point." The desorption parameters measured in this work can be used to design an improved passive Rn monitor to effectively integrate during a 3-7 d exposure period by eliminating the adverse effects of water vapor. The improved canister design would provide more accurate and reproducible measurements of indoor Rn concentrations than are currently available. PMID:2398007

  4. Serum acetaminophen assay using activated charcoal adsorption and gas chromatography without derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandam, M; Novic, B; Savich, R; Wagman, E

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative assay of acetaminophen in serum has been developed. The drug, together with an internal standard 2-acetamidophenol, is adsorbed on activated charcoal and then extracted into a mixture of ethyl acetate and isopropanol. This extract is then analyzed, without any derivatization, by gas chromatography. The isothermal analysis yielded a good, highly reproducible separation. The drug peak was symmetrical and without any tailing. The peak height response ratio was found to be linear with concentrations ranging from 25-500 ng/L. No interference was observed with the various drugs or metabolites which are commonly encountered in human serum. PMID:7421146

  5. Radon adsorption on activated charcoal in the presence of indoor pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino Torres, Leopoldo Leonardo

    1998-12-01

    A number of recent studies have reported that activated charcoals can adsorb significant amounts of volatile organic compounds at concentration levels generally encountered indoors. In this study, a fundamental understanding of radon adsorption on activated charcoal in the presence of water vapor and various indoor volatile organic compounds has been presented. A dynamic adsorption system was designed and constructed to study adsorption of radon both as a pure component (when present alone in a gas mixture with nitrogen) and in the presence of water vapor and some selected indoor air pollutants. The air pollutants investigated in this study include carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, toluene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The experimental data were obtained in the form of breakthrough curves. The data were used to verify several existing models for both pure component radon adsorption and its adsorption from binary mixtures. As expected, radon adsorption capacity by charcoal decreased in the presence of water vapor. However, a decrease of about 9% was observed when the relative humidity of the nitrogen stream was below 40%. A sharp decrease in the adsorption capacity, about 40%, was noted if the relative humidity was above 50%. The adsorption capacity for radon decreased by 10% to 20% in the presence of toluene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The decrease was about 2% to 6% when carbon dioxide or formaldehyde was present in the gas mixture. The capacity for radon also decreased by about 40% during adsorption from the multicomponent mixtures. However, this reduction in the capacity was due mainly to the water vapor. Therefore it may be concluded that radon measurements would be affected significantly in the presence of various indoor pollutants. The models used in this study provided excellent agreement with the experimental data for both pure radon (when present alone in the nitrogen stream) and when present in binary mixtures with water vapor and other indoor pollutants.

  6. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakara, N; Sudeep Kumara, K; Yashodhara, I; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2015-04-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of (222)Rn and (220)Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the (222)Rn and (220)Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for (222)Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for (220)Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3-4.12 m(3) kg(-1) with a mean value of 2.99 m(3) kg(-1). The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼ 100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed (222)Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal.

  7. Lead Testing in Soil Contaminated with Pesticides and Reducing its Effects by the Activity of Activated Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Devesh Chand Thakur; Vaishnavi Akunuri; Priyanka Mummaneni; Sujatha Christopher; Nanjundiaha Shashidhara; Venkatesh Thuppil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead poisoning is classically defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects, but being a heavy metal which is potentially toxic, if present at even minor concentrations, it is of great concern to environmentalists and medical professionals alike. Activated charcoal has been known to adsorb heavy metals and thus, was used in this study as well. Aim: The main aim of this study was to decrease the lead content of ag...

  8. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon (222Rn), thoron (220Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of 222Rn and 220Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the 222Rn and 220Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for 222Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for 220Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3–4.12 m3 kg−1 with a mean value of 2.99 m3 kg−1. The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed 222Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal. - Highlights: • 222Rn and 220Rn removal from air using activated charcoal bed is demonstrated. • Breakthrough time and adsorption coefficient were evaluated. • A sustained mitigation factor

  9. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle;

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... to be of similar size compared to the control, although statistics were weak. The AUC of the 5-g dose was 59% larger than the AUC of the 50-g dose (p = 0.0003). The terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of paracetamol was 1.6 (CI 1.4-2.0) and 1.9 (CI 1.5-2.4) hr for 50 and 25 g, respectively (NS), and 2.5 (CI 1...

  10. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Law Chi-kin; Leung Candi MC

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–5...

  11. Kinetics studies of d-glucose hydrogenation over activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muthanna J.

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of the catalytic hydrogenation of d-glucose to produce d-sorbitol was studied in a three-phase laboratory scale reactor. The hydrogenation reactions were performed on activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst in the temperature range 25-65°C and in a constant pressure of 1 atm. The kinetic data were modeled by zero, first and second-order reaction equations. In the operating regimes studied, the results show that the hydrogenation reaction was of a first order with respect to d-glucose concentration. Also the activation energy of the reaction was determined, and found to be 12.33 kJ mole-1. A set of experiment was carried out to test the deactivation of the catalyst, and the results show that the deactivation is slow with the ability of using the catalyst for several times with a small decrease in product yield.

  12. Production of activated charcoal beads or green moldnings useful in stationary or fluidized bed uses rotary stirrer(s) for mixing carbonaceous powder with binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s).......In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s)....

  13. Parametric study on removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide is influenced by various parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, face velocity and packing density. This study is to evaluate the dependency of the removal efficiency on each parameter and these combined parameters, quantitatively. Four types of adsorbents, BC-727, AgX, CHC-50 and SS 208C 5KI3, were tested. From experimental data and mass transfer theory, an experimental equation for evaluating the removal efficiency of adsorbents was derived under a series of experiments for radioactive methyl iodine-131. It was concluded that the removal efficiency calculated from the experimental equation agreed well with the experimental value. Effects of experimental specific parameters, such as Pre-flow time, methyl iodide injection time and After-flow time, on the removal efficiency of adsorbent are also described

  14. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief ud Din Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin (AR based electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorporation of AC particles leads to systematic change in the morphology of composites especially the formation of porous structure. The dielectric measurements show that 30 wt% AC loading composite display higher relative permittivity value (~79 compared to pristine AR (~5. Further, the porous structure, electrical conductivity, and permittivity value contribute towards EMI shielding effectiveness value of −36 dB (attenuation of >99.9% of incident radiation for these composites, thereby demonstrating their suitability for making efficient EMI shielding coatings.

  15. Elimination of manganese-54 in waste water by oxine-impregnated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese ion in solution has been adsorbed in a column packed with oxine-impregnated activated charcoal. In an initial stage, the distribution of Mn ion along the column follows a first order kinetic equation, and the apparent rate constant was determined. With an additional supply of the solution, however, the distribution tends to deviate from the first order kinetic plots. A bed depth/service time relation has been determined experimentally. By introducing a concept of the effective ''adsorption capacity'' and ''adsorption rate constant of the adsorbent, an equation has been presented for estimating the feed application time for breakthrough at any given experimental conditions. With the assumption of a simple first order kinetic adsorption, a bed depth/service time relation was also determined by a numerical calculation, for further examining the characteristics of the relation. (author)

  16. Activated charcoal. 1970-June, 1980 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1970-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations from a worldwide literature survey pertaining to the uses of activated charcoal in industry as well as in the laboratory, including its use in air pollution, chemical adsorption, radioactive waste adsorption, electrochemistry, industrial waste treatment, and the mining industry. (This updated bibliography contains 92 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  18. Whole-bowel irrigation versus activated charcoal in sorbitol for the ingestion of modified-release pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshenbaum, L A; Mathews, S C; Sitar, D S; Tenenbein, M

    1989-09-01

    Overdose with modified-release pharmaceuticals is an increasing phenomenon. This study examines whole-bowel irrigation as a potential decontamination strategy after overdose with enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid and compares it with administration of activated charcoal in sorbitol, which is currently the recommended intervention. A three-phase randomized crossover protocol was used in 10 adult volunteers. Each volunteer ingested nine 325 mg doses of enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid on three occasions, with at least 1 week between each administration period. Serum samples were analyzed for salicylic acid concentration by HPLC. Both interventions decreased peak salicylic acid concentration, time-to-zero salicylic acid concentration, and AUC when compared with control (p less than 0.01). Whole-bowel irrigation was superior to activated charcoal in sorbitol by all three criteria (p less than 0.05). Adverse effects were qualitatively and quantitatively greater during activated charcoal in sorbitol, and the volunteers preferred whole-bowel irrigation over charcoal in sorbitol. Our data suggest that whole-bowel irrigation should be considered for overdose of other modified-release pharmaceuticals. PMID:2673619

  19. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: sktripathi16@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm{sup −2} (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g{sup −1}). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg{sup −1} and 1.63 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively, were achieved for EDLC.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m2 g−1 was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m2 g−1. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm−2 (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g−1). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg−1 and 1.63 kW kg−1, respectively, were achieved for EDLC

  1. Determination of the structural and chemisorption characteristics of granulated active charcoal on the basis of coconut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Dragan D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater purification and the acquirement of drinking water from water streams that are in most cases recipients of various industrial plants, present a significant problem nowadays. The structural characteristics of granulated active charcoal (GAC obtained by the carbonization of coconut shells and activated by steam are presented in this paper. The established kinetics of suspending cyanide from aqueous solution using GAC impregnated with copper(II acetate were studied and a mathematical model estabkusged by a regression - correlation analysis.

  2. Adsorption of ruthenium ions on activated charcoal: influence of temperature on the kinetics of the adsorption process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QADEER Riaz

    2005-01-01

    Influence of temperature on ruthenium adsorption on activated charcoal from 3 mol/L HNO3 solutions was investigated in the temperature range of 288 K to 308 K. It was observed that the rise in temperature increases the adsorption of ruthenium ions on activated charcoal and follows the kinetics of first order rate law with rate constant values 0.0564-0.0640 min-1 in the temperature range of 288 K to 308 K respectively. The activation energy for the adsorption process was found to be 1.3806kJ/mol. Various thermodynamics quantities namely △H, △S and △G were computed from the equilibrium constant KC values. The results indicated a positive heat of adsorption, a positive △S and a negative △G.

  3. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent.

  4. Carbon dioxide captured by multi-walled carbon nanotube and activated charcoal: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available this study, the equilibrium adsorption of CO2 on activated charcoal (AC and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT were investigated. Experiments were performed at temperature range of 298-318 K and pressures up to 40 bars. The obtained results indicated that the equilibrium uptakes of CO2 by both adsorbents increased with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. In spite of lower specific surface area, the maximum amount of CO2 uptake achieved by MWCNT at 298K and 40 bars were twice of CO2 capture by AC (15 mmol.g-1 compared to 7.93 mmol.g-1. The higher CO2 captured by MWCNT can be attributed to its higher pore volume and specific structure of MWCN T such as hollowness and light mass which had greater influence than specific surface area. The experimental data were analyzed by means of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. Following a simple acidic treatment procedure increased marginally CO2 capture by MWCNT over entire range of pressure, while for AC this effect appeared at higher pressures. Small values of isosteric heat of adsorption were evaluated based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation showed the physical nature of adsorption mechanism. The high amount of CO2 capture by MWCNT renders it as a promising carrier for practical applications such as gas separation.

  5. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent. PMID:12628781

  6. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase 'excess' charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka's different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  7. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  8. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Huang; Dongwei Li; Liu Kexiang; Yuewei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the...

  9. Activated charcoal with high nitrogen conent and zero chromium, method for obtaining same and multiple uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente Alonso, Enrique; Ruiz Bobes, Begoña; Rodríguez Gil, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to a novel activated charcoal which is characterised by having high nitrogen content, and to the method for obtaining same from solid industrial waste from vegetable tanning of bovine hides, or from tannin-free non-tanned bovine hide, which has been defatted and dehydrated with acetone, said method including the following steps: grinding up the starting material after drying same if necessary in order to obtain a precursor, subjecting the precursor to thermo...

  10. Micropropagation of orchid hybrids in knudson culture medium with addiction of vitamins of ms culture medium, benzilaminopurine and activated charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Villa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The genera Cattleya and Brassavola, naturally occurring in Brazil, are widely used in hybridization to obtain better shape of the lip in the hybrids. This demand creates the need to develop more effective propagation to meet the market and contributing to avoid the extinction of these plants. This study aimed to test BAP concentrations, activated charcoal, culture medium Knudson and culture medium MS’s vitamins in subculture of Brassocattleya Pastoral x Laeliocattleya Amber Glow orchids plants. There were used seedlings from in vitro germination, with 1-1.5 cm length, undergoing standardization in the culture medium Knudson for three months. The experiment were performed using concentrations of culture medium Knudson (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200%, combined with concentrations of culture medium MS’s vitamins (0%, 50%, 100% and 200% and BAP concentrations (0; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 versus activated charcoal (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, incorporated in a culture medium Knudson. In each flask of 250 mL containing approximately 50 mL of culture medium, four seedlings were placed under aseptic conditions. It was concluded that can use 129% of Knudson, supplemented with 137.5 mg L-1 activated charcoal, 104% of vitamin MS medium without addition of BAP as the best composition for culture medium of hybrid orchid in vitro propagation. The Knudson culture medium does not promote increase in the root system.

  11. Effect of ethanol and pH on the adsorption of acetaminophen (paracetamol) to high surface activated charcoal, in vitro studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle R; Christophersen, A Bolette;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) intoxication often in combination with ethanol, is seen commonly in overdose cases. Doses of several grams might be close to the maximum adsorption capacity of the standard treatment dose (50g) of activated charcoal. The aim of this study was to determine......, a standard dose of 50 g of either of the two tested activated charcoals adsorbed a sufficient amount of paracetamol to be beneficial in the treatment of the majority of overdoses of this drug. For both types of activated charcoal, with or without ethanol, there was no significant difference in the adsorption...... the maximum adsorption capacity for paracetamol for two types of high surface-activated charcoal [Carbomix and Norit Ready-To-Use (not yet registered trademark in Denmark) both from Norit Cosmara, Amersfoort, The Netherlands] in simulated in vivo environments: At pH 1.2 (gastric environment), at pH 7...

  12. Comparison of Deferoxamine, Activated Charcoal, and Vitamin C in Changing the Serum Level of Fe in Iron Overloaded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghafari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron is an essential mineral for normal cellular physiology but its overload can lead to cell injury. For many years, deferoxamine injection has been used as an iron chelator for treatment of iron overload. The aim of this study is to compare oral deferoxamine, activated charcoal, and vitamin C, as an absorbent factor of Fe, in changing the serum level of iron in iron overload rats. Methods: In this experimental study, all groups were administered 150 mg iron dextran orally by gavage. After eight hours, rats in the first group received oral deferoxamine while those in the second and third groups received oral activated charcoal 1 mg/kg and oral vitamin C 150 mg, respectively. Then, serum levels of iron ware measured in all rats. Results: The mean serum level of iron in rats that received oral deferoxamine was 258.11±10.49 µg/dl, whereas mean levels of iron in charcoal and vitamin C groups were 380.88±11.21 µg/dl and 401.22±13.28 µg/dl, respectively. None of the measurements were within safety limits of serum iron. Conclusion: It seems that oral deferoxamine per se may not help physicians in the management of cases presented with iron toxicity. Activated charcoal did not reduce serum iron significantly in this study and further investigations may be warranted to assess the potential clinical utility of its mixture with oral deferoxamine as an adjunct in the clinical management of iron ingestions.

  13. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    2N. Qamar; R. Azmat; Naz, R.; Malik, B.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye) from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8), shaking time (5min. - 1hour), adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm) and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml) were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal ...

  14. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Qamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8, shaking time (5min. - 1hour, adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal efficiency (100%, optimum conditions were obtained at pH 8 (99.24%, adsorbent dose of 0.9g and dye concentration of 185 mg with charcoal. Kinetics of adsorption was investigated as well as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to describe equilibrium studies. The Langmuir adsorption isotherms models and pseudo second order kinetics fitted the experimental data best with high regression coefficient R2. The results of the present studies points to the potential of charcoal as an effective adsorbent for the removal of dye from contaminated water sources.

  15. Study of Single Catalytic Events at Copper-in-Charcoal: Localization of Click Activity Through Subdiffraction Observation of Single Catalytic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decan, Matthew R; Scaiano, Juan C

    2015-10-15

    Single molecule fluorescence microscopy reveals that copper-in-charcoal--a high performance click catalyst- has remarkably few catalytic sites, with 90% of the charcoal particles being inactive, and for the catalytic ones the active sites represent a minute fraction (∼0.003%) of the surface. The intermittent nature of the catalytic events enables subdiffraction resolution and mapping of the catalytic sites. PMID:26722775

  16. Moisture insensitive charcoal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in the air in houses is the most appropriate approach for the real-time measurements, but this requires complex and expensive instruments and is not practical for large studies. Activated carbon canisters have been used extensively for determining the average concentration over a period of a few days. The ''open face'' charcoal detectors have an integration time constant of about 14 h so that they are sensitive to short-term transient changes in the radon concentration. In addition, water uptake at high relative humidities reduces the radon uptake by the charcoal. The addition of a diffusion barrier and a nylon screen results in a charcoal detector with an integration half-time ranging from 20 to 60 h and a reduced uptake of water at high humidities. Silicone rubber sheeting is relatively permeable to radon and impermeable to water vapor. It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the effect of a silicone barrier on the charcoal canister radon collective device. 3 refs

  17. A passive radon dosimeter based on the combination of a track etch detector and activated charcoal

    CERN Document Server

    Deynse, A V; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test a combination of a Makrofol track detector with a new type of charcoal (Carboxen-564) to design a personal radon dosimeter. The intention is to use this dosimeter as a personal radon dosimeter to measure the monthly radon exposure in workplaces, especially when the occupancy is not exactly known. The proposed combination was exposed to low and high concentrations of radon in a large range of relative humidity (RH). For the optimal layer thickness, a charcoal bed of 2.2 mm, a specific track density of 5.1 tracks cm sup - sup 2 /kBq h m sup - sup 3 was obtained. For a monthly working exposure (170 h) at an average radon concentration of 100 Bq/m sup 3 , this means 87 tracks/cm sup 2 or 10 times the background of the Makrofol detector, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%.

  18. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marton

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite, each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it

  19. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatments of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, J.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Almeida e Silva, J.B. [School of Chemical Engineering at Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Biotechnology], Email: jmarcelo@cetesb.sp.gov.br; Pessoa Junior, A. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite), each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it to 5.5 with H

  20. Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

  1. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arao, Tomohito, E-mail: arao@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. - Highlights: > Pot experiments using agricultural soil contaminated with aromatic arsenicals (AAs). > Methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA) was the most abundant AA in rice and soybean. > MPAA concentration in rice grains was dramatically reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was also reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > AC amendment effectively reduced AAs in rice and soybean. - Activated charcoal amendment to soil contaminated with diphenylarsinic acid reduced aromatic arsenicals in rice and soybean.

  2. Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Wounded zygotic embryos of cultivated carrot produce somatic proembryos on hormone-free nutrient medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Continued maintenance of proembryos on this medium leads to a "pure" culture of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). Ethylene had no effect on this process. Also, somatic embryo production was not affected by growing cultures on activated charcoal-impregnated filter papers. However, somatic proembyros initiated on activated charcoal papers were not maintainable as PGSPs and developed into later embryo stages. Normally, medium pH dropped from 5.7 to 4 during each subculture period, but when using activated charcoal papers the pH endpoint was around 6 - 7 due to a leachable substance(s) within the filter papers. When powdered, activated charcoal was used in the medium as an adsorbent of products potentially released after wounding, pH dropped at the normal rate and to the expected levels; proembryos did not mature into later embryo stages and were maintainable exclusively as PGSPs. Low pH (approximately 4) is detrimental to proembyro production, but is essential to maintaining PGSPs on hormone-free nutrient medium, whereas a sustained pH > or = 5.7 allows continued development of PGSPs into later embryo stages.

  3. Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

  4. IN-VITRO KINETICS, ADSORPTION ISOTHERM, AND EFFECT OF PH ON ANTIDOTAL EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IN TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandeya S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol overdose has been one of the most frequent causes of drug poisoning in the recent years, especially in young adult males. In the current work, the in-vitro study on adsorption kinetics and the effect of pH on antidotal effect of activated charcoal (AC in tramadol hydrochloride intoxication were carried out. For adsorption study tramadol hydrochloride solutions of various concentrations were prepared in both simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF and analyzed by UV spectrophotometer. For kinetics study tramadol hydrochloride and charcoal in ratio 1:5 was kept in 6 different flasks and sonicated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes and analyzed spectrophotometrically. The data were plotted among two most commonly used adsorption isotherm, Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isotherm and their coefficient of determination (R2 was compared to get the best adsorption isotherm equation. The kinetics study was done in both SGF and SIF. The result showed that AC 50 gm can adsorb 4802.692 mg tramadol hydrochloride at gastric environment and 8064.516 mg tramadol hydrochloride at intestinal environment. The R2 value in the current study is found to be more in SIF (0.986 than in SGF (0.985. In accordance to the value of R2, the pseudo second order kinetics model fit best for this study with R2 value of 0.9997 in SGF and 0.9994 in SIF. From the current study it can be concluded that 50g AC has the capacity to adsorb sufficient amount of tramadol hydrochloride and the kinetics followed during the adsorption was pseudo-second order.

  5. Simultaneous removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol and Cd from soils by electrokinetic remediation combined with activated bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian Wei; Wang, Fa Yuan; Huang, Zheng Hong; Wang, Hui

    2010-04-15

    An in situ electrokinetic remediation technique was designed by combining the uniform electrokinetic technology with a new-type of bamboo charcoal as adsorbent. A bench-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the application of this technique for simultaneous removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and Cd from a sandy loam at different periodic polarity-reversals. The contaminated soil was artificially spiked with 100 mg/kg 2,4-DCP and 500 mg/kg Cd. Two modes of polarity-reversal intervals of 12 and 24 h were included. After 10.5 d of operation, about 75.97% of Cd and 54.92% of 2,4-DCP were removed from soil at intervals of 24 h, whilst only 40.13% of Cd and 24.98% of 2,4-DCP were removed at intervals of 12 h. Soil water contents under two operation modes both significantly decreased, but evenly distributed spatially. Soil pH values under two operation modes were all maintained in the range from 7.2 to 7.4, close to the initial value. The electricity consumption per day was 12.24 and 11.61 kWh/m(3)/d, respectively at polarity-reversal intervals of 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, at polarity-reversal interval of 24 h, electroremediation combined with activated bamboo charcoal was effective in simultaneous removal of 2,4-DCP and Cd from soil. Our results indicate a promising potential in in situ electroremediation of soils co-contaminated with organics and heavy metals. PMID:20006426

  6. Adsorption and desorption of noble gases on activated charcoal: II. 222Rn studies in a monolayer and packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, S C; Harley, N H

    1990-10-01

    The adsorptive and desorptive characteristics of canisters containing a petroleum-based charcoal were investigated under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and Rn concentration. Charcoals exposed in a monolayer and packed bed during exposure intervals of 1-7 d demonstrate that Rn adsorption and desorption are dependent on bed depth and the amount of water adsorbed. Changes in the adsorptive and desorptive properties of the charcoal occurred near the break-point where the pores became occluded by water vapor that condenses in the entrance capillaries. Radon-222 adsorption is decreased by an order of magnitude as the amount of adsorbed water exceeds the break-point of the charcoal. The reduction in pore surface due to adsorbed water results in a marked increase in the rate of Rn loss from exposed canisters, accounting for reduced adsorption. The apparent desorption time-constant for a 2-cm bed of loose Witco 6 x 10 mesh charcoal containing 0.220-0.365 kg H2O kg-1 is typically between 2-8 h. The apparent desorption time-constant for an equivalent packed bed containing a water vapor content of 0.026-0.060 kg H2O kg-1, which is below the break-point of the charcoal, is about 15-30 h. Conventional charcoal canisters, if exposed in the fully-opened configuration, can achieve the break-point in less than 4 d at 70% humidity. The use of a diffusion barrier would allow for longer exposure times until the break-point of the charcoal is achieved. PMID:2398008

  7. Measurements of the equilibrium factor and radon dose in some houses in Cairo, Egypt using activated charcoal canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration was measured in some houses in Cairo, Egypt using activated charcoal canisters. Equilibrium factor and radon annual equivalent dose are measured as well . The measurements were performed in closed and open ventilation rooms. The average radon concentration was found to be 11.55 Bq/m3 and 24.93 Bq/m3 in open rooms and closed rooms, respectively. The deduced values of equilibrium factor were ranging from 0.171 to 0.180 with an average of 0.175 in open rooms and ranging from 0.190 to 0.205 with an average of 0.194 in closed rooms. The average radon annual equivalent dose was found to be o.111 mSv/y and 0.267 mSv/y in open rooms and closed ones, respectively. These values are much lower than the maximum permissible dose of 1.0 mSv/y recommended by ICRP-60-1990.

  8. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions.

  9. Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, David A; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Zackrisson, Olle

    2008-05-01

    Fire is a global driver of carbon storage and converts a substantial proportion of plant biomass to black carbon (for example, charcoal), which remains in the soil for thousands of years. Black carbon is therefore often proposed as an important long-term sink of soil carbon. We ran a 10-year experiment in each of three boreal forest stands to show that fire-derived charcoal promotes loss of forest humus and that this is associated with enhancement of microbial activity by charcoal. This result shows that charcoal-induced losses of belowground carbon in forests can partially offset the benefits of charcoal as a long-term carbon sink.

  10. Hydrogen water deuterium exchange studies on palladium on activated charcoal hydrophobic catalyst (Preprint No. CA-20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium exchange between hydrogen gas and water is one of the most promising processes for heavy water production. In production of heavy water, separation factor and energy cost are two main parameters which govern the economic effectiveness of a process. Out of the chemical exchange process, H2-H2O exchange has higher separation factor at a given temperature. Even though the separation factor is high, major disadvantage in the process is that a catalyst is required. Group VIII metals are most suitable catalysts for hydrogenation, dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis because of their ability to chemisorb H2 dissociatively. Even among VIII2 triad, Pt has the highest activity. A highly active Pt catalyst has a reported half life of 4 seconds. As Pd is cheaper than Pt, studies have been carried out using active Pd as catalyst for H2-H2O exchange. It is observed that: (1)at metal concentration of 0.3%, Pd shows the optimum catalytic activity, (2)a highly active Pd is found to have a half life of 5 minutes, and (3)addition of α-alumina enhances the catalytic activity. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs

  11. Theoretical study of the diffusion 222Rn gas on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 222Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing activated carbon's ability to adsorb 222Rn . In this work, it has been determined the 222Rn coefficient adsorption for 222Rn activated carbon detectors. Scintillation vials were used as detectors. The measurement of the 222Rn activity adsorbed in activated carbon was made by a liquid scintillation measurement of its alpha-beta progeny decay. On the other hand, in this work a diffusion and adsorption model has been developed for the transport of 222Rn in an activated carbon porous bed. The equation that describes these processes is a partial differential equation, of the second order with respect to axial coordinate, and the first order with respect to time. The equation was numerically solved using a finites differences method. With this model the 222Rn activity adsorbed in the detector, for several situations, was calculated. The results were tested with the data obtained from series of experiences made in our laboratories. (author)

  12. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraboss, V. L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi3+ into the TiO2 lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO2 to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO2. AC-Bi/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO2 and undoped TiO2 for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi3+ has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO2. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO2. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by photoluminescence technique using coumarin as a probe molecule. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of the AC-Bi/TiO2 was proposed for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation.

  13. Charred by charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Taskeen

    2014-01-01

    A boy borne down with charcoal on his chukudu (home-made cycle), Goma. In an environment where the rebel groups have established a shadow state and economy in a political economy framed by war, charcoal as a necessity is traded every day in Goma, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. It is this charcoal trading that allows the boy to survive; it then bites back with violence that is financed by the very same things. In contrast to existing scholarship on internationally traded high value comm...

  14. Studies on radon adsorption characteristics of different charcoals used as amplifiers for the track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cosma, C; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    Ten sorts of charcoals were studied regarding their use as amplifier in the design of a personal dosimeter. It consists of a combination of a Makrofol detector and activated charcoal. The calibration factor for the Makrofol using the charcoals as an amplifier is about ten times higher comparing with an exposure without charcoal. The best results were obtained with Carboxen 564. The background radioactivity of charcoals must also be considered in the dosimeter's design.

  15. Severe theophylline poisoning: charcoal haemoperfusion or haemodialysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, R. M.; Hearing, S.; Goldsmith, D.J.; Keevil, B.; Venning, M. C.; Ackrill, P.

    1995-01-01

    Theophylline poisoning with a blood level of 183 mg/l in a 38-year-old man was treated with activated charcoal by mouth, but despite this the blood level of theophylline rose and there was circulatory collapse with rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and hyperthermia. Treatment with charcoal haemoperfusion and simultaneous haemodialysis was given, followed by continuous arteriovenous haemodialysis (CAVHD). Mean extraction rates of theophylline were 26% during CAVHD, and 86% during combined di...

  16. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rainier Imaña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the production of charcoal was 9.76%. There was no municipal tax for charcoal. State taxes accounted 10% of the tax burden, the rest are federal taxes. COFINS was responsible for the largest tax burden: 3%, which confirms the Brazilian tax system is very non progressive. In Minas Gerais, Brazilian tax on goods and services (ICMS is deferred, the charcoal buyer has the obligation to collect this tax. This means the steel company accounts for the total burden of ICMS.

  17. Adsorption Kinetics of Cd(ll) and Pb(ll) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bamboo-Based Activated Charcoal and Bamboo Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam; Francis Kalu Onwu; Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde; Mgbeahuruike A. Chinedu

    2015-01-01

    The use of bamboo dust (BD) and bamboo-based activated charcoal for adsorption of Pb(ll) and Cd(ll) ions from aqueous solutions were assessed in this work. The effect of contact time on the uptake of these metal ions was studied in batch process. The adsorption data were correlated with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and diffusivity kinetic models. Results show that pseudo second-order kinetic model gave the best description for the adsorption process. Kinetic studies further showed ...

  18. Confirmatory research program: effects of atmospheric contaminants on commercial charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of activated charcoals in engineered-safety-feature and normal ventilation systems of nuclear power stations to continually remove radioiodine from flowing air prior to release to the environment has added importance to the question of the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. In January of 1977 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began an investigation to determine the extent to which atmospheric contaminants in ambient concentrations degrade the efficiency of various commercially-available charcoals for removing methyl iodide. The approach employed by NRL is two-fold. First, charcoal samples are exposed to unmodified outdoor air for periods of one to nine months, then examined for methyl iodide retention, increase in weight, and the pH of water extract. The atmospheric contaminants are identified by the NRL Air Quality Monitoring Station, and concentrations of the various contaminants (ozone, SO2, NO2, CO2, methane and total hydrocarbons) are also available. Second, additional charcoal samples are exposed to the same pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions in various pollutant combinations. Results indicate that the water vapor-charcoal interaction is an important factor in the degradation of the commercial charcoals. Laboratory results indicate the pollutant sulfur dioxide plus water vapor can result in significant charcoal deterioration, as did ozone plus water vapor. Conversely, carbon monoxide did not appear to affect the charcoal. Also, differences were observed for various charcoals

  19. The influence of pH, temperature and hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues R.C.L.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of pH, temperature and degree of hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Furfural and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural were almost totally removed in all the experiments, irrespective of pH and temperature and whether the charcoal was added before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Adding activated charcoal before the vacuum evaporation process favored the removal of phenolic compounds for all values of pH. Acetic acid, on the contrary, was most effectively removed when the activated charcoal was added after the vacuum evaporation process at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4. However, addition of activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4 favored the removal of both acetic acid and phenolic compounds.

  20. paleofire: An R package to analyse sedimentary charcoal records from the Global Charcoal Database to reconstruct past biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Vannière, Boris; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Power, Mitchell J.; Brewer, Simon; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a new R package, paleofire, for analysis and synthesis of charcoal time series, such as those contained in the Global Charcoal Database (GCD), that are used to reconstruct paleofire activity (past biomass burning). paleofire is an initiative of the Global Paleofire Working Group core team (www.gpwg.org), whose aim is to encourage the use of sedimentary charcoal series to develop regional-to-global syntheses of paleofire activity, and to enhance access to the GCD data by providing a common research framework. Currently, paleofire features are organized into three different parts related to (i) site selection and charcoal series extraction from the GCD; (ii) charcoal data transformation; and (iii) charcoal series compositing and synthesis. We provide a technical description of paleofire and describe some new implementations such as the circular block bootstrap procedure. We tested the software using GCDv3 data from eastern North America, and provide examples of interpreting results of regional and global syntheses.

  1. Invstigation of activated charcoal in treatment of fulminant acute pancreatitis%活性炭应用于暴发性胰腺炎治疗的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石书伟; 田新; 李俊; 华科雷; 李瑞霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compared with the effective of gauze pad and activated Charcoal that filled around omental sac and pancreas after FAP (Fulminant acute pancreatitis) with surgery.Methods April 2002 to July 2010,a total of 25 patients with FAP be treated,including 17 males and 8 females,aged 13-74 years,mean 40 years,21 cases were cured,4died,the cure rate was 84%.In April 2007 as a dividing line,the previous was 14 cases (Gauze pad group),the after was 11 cases (activated Charcoal group).Results The gauze pad group 2 died within seven days after surgery,the mortality rate 14.3% (2/14),1 patient died after seven days,a total of 3 patients died,with a total mortality of 21.4% (3/14).The activated charcoal group no died within seven days after surgery,1 patient died after seven days,the total mortality rate of 9% (1/11).In mortality and total mortality within seven days,Gauze pad group both higher than Activated Charcoal group.The APACHE Ⅱ score,T,P and R on the third and seventh postoperative day was significantly better than the patients on the first day after surgery (P < 0.05),but activated Charcoal was better than Gauze pad group (P < 0.05) ;Gauze pad group,the average hospital stay was (89.91 ± 9.90) days,hospitalization costs for ¥ (31.92 ± 3.70) thousand ; Activated Charcoal group,the average length of stay (79.00 ± 6.83) days,hospitalization costs for ¥ (27.38 ±2.80) thousand.Gauze pad group two sets of data were higher than activated Charcoal group (P < 0.05).Conclusions In the process of lesser sac lavage after FAP,inflammatory mediators and toxins in the body's absorption and clearance,the activated Charcoal compared to mat yarn have higher efficiency,it can reduce mortality of patients.Shorter hospital stay and reduce hospital costs.%目的 探讨暴发性胰腺炎术后小网膜囊内胰腺周围填充活性炭与棉纱垫对暴发性胰腺炎治疗的效果.方法 2002年4月至2010年7月,共收治暴发性胰腺炎25例,其中男17

  2. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  3. Paracetamol biodegradation by activated sludge and photocatalysis and its removal by a micelle-clay complex, activated charcoal, and reverse osmosis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Rafik; Khamis, Mustafa; Abbadi, Jehad; Amro, Ahmad; Qurie, Mohannad; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Ayyash, Fatima; Hamarsheh, Omar; Yaqmour, Reem; Nir, Shlomo; Bufo, Sabino A; Scrano, Laura; Lerman, Sofia; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic studies on the stability of the pain killer paracetamol in Al-Quds activated sludge demonstrated that paracetamol underwent biodegradation within less than one month to furnish p-aminophenol in high yields. Characterizations of bacteria contained in Al-Quds sludge were accomplished. It was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the bacterium most responsible for the biodegradation of paracetamol to p-aminophenol and hydroquinone. Batch adsorptions of paracetamol and its biodegradation product (p-aminophenol) by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (octadecyltrimethylammonium)-clay (montmorillonite) were determined at 25°C. Adsorption was adequately described by a Langmuir isotherm, and indicated better efficiency of removal by the micelle-clay complex. The ability of bench top reverse osmosis (RO) plant as well as advanced membrane pilot plant to remove paracetamol was also studied at different water matrixes to test the effect of organic matter composition. The results showed that at least 90% rejection was obtained by both plants. In addition, removal of paracetamol from RO brine was investigated by using photocatalytic processes; optimal conditions were found to be acidic or basic pH, in which paracetamol degraded in less than 5 min. Toxicity studies indicated that the effluent and brine were not toxic except for using extra low energy membrane which displayed a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC-50) value of 80%. PMID:26852629

  4. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Rainier Imaña; Álvaro Nogueira de Souza; Humberto Ângelo; Márcio Lopes da Silva; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2015-01-01

    In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the prod...

  5. Impact of land-use and long-term (>150 years) charcoal accumulation on microbial activity, biomass and community structure in temperate soils (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Dufey, Joseph E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, biochar has been increasingly investigated as a soil amendment for long-term soil carbon sequestration while improving soil fertility. On the short term, biochar application to soil generally increases soil respiration as well as microbial biomass and activity and affects significantly the microbial community structure. However, such effects are relatively short-term and tend to vanish over time. In our study, we investigated the long-term impact of charcoal accumulation and land-use on soil biota in temperate haplic Luvisols developed in the loess belt of Wallonia (Belgium). Charcoal-enriched soils were collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial (>150 years old) charcoal kilns in forest (4 sites) and cropland (5 sites). The topsoil of the adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils was sampled in a comparable way. Soils were characterized (pH, total, organic and inorganic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na, cation exchange capacity and available P) and natural soil organic matter (SOM) and black carbon (BC) contents were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. After rewetting at pF 2.5, soils were incubated during 140 days at 20 °C. At 70 days of incubation, 10 g of each soil were freeze dried in order to measure total microbial biomass and community structure by PLFA analysis. The PLFA dataset was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) while soil parameters were used as supplementary variables. For both agricultural and forest soils, the respiration rate is highly related to the total microbial biomass (R²=0.90). Both soil respiration and microbial biomass greatly depend on the SOM content, which indicates that the BC pool is relatively inert microbiologically. Land-use explains most of the variance in the PLFA dataset, largely governing the first principal component of the ACP. In forest soils, we observe a larger proportion of gram + bacteria, actinomycetes and an increased bacteria:fungi ratio compared to cropland, where gram

  6. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance

  7. Healthy Functions and Mechanisms of Bamboo-Charcoal Modified Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, healthy fuactions and mechanismof bamboo-charcoal modified polyesters arc studied. Theresults show that there are five healthy functionsincorporated effectively in bamboo-charcoal modifiedpolyesters, such as good far-lnfrared radiation, good UVprotection, certain negative ion emission, certain anti-bacteria and good absorption functions. The metal elementsand carburets are mainly responsible for far-infrared,negative ion emission functions. UV prevention functionresults mainly from the carbon elements. The absorbabilityand bacteriostasis functions lie in the porous structures.

  8. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning. PMID:26403022

  9. Decolorization of crude latex by activated charcoal, purification and physico-chemical characterization of religiosin, a milk-clotting serine protease from the latex of Ficus religiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Moni; Sharma, Anurag; Jagannadham, M V

    2010-07-14

    The crude latex of Ficus religiosa is decolorized by activated charcoal. Decolorization follows the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. A serine protease, named religiosin, has been purified to homogeneity from the decolorized latex using anion exchange chromatography. Religiosin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 43.4 kDa by MALDI-TOF. Religiosin is an acidic protein with a pI value of 3.8 and acts optimally at pH 8.0-8.5 and temperature 50 degrees C. The proteolytic activity of religiosin is strongly inhibited by PMSF and chymostatin indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The extinction coefficient (epsilon(1%)(280)) of religiosin is 29.47 M(-1) cm(-1)with 16 tryptophan, 26 tyrosine, and 11 cysteine residues per molecule. The enzyme shows broad substrate specificity against natural as well as synthetic substrates with an apparent K(m) of 0.066 mM and 6.25 mM using casein and Leu-pNA, respectively. MS/MS analysis confirms the novelty of the enzyme. Religiosin is highly stable against denaturants, metal ions, and detergents as well as over a wide range of pH and temperature. In addition, the enzyme exhibits milk-clotting as well as detergent activity. PMID:20560603

  10. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  11. Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalahmeh, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity, inappropriate sanitation and wastewater pollution are critically important global issues. Greywater is a sustainable water source for recycling, so this thesis examined simple, robust, low-cost alternatives for on-site treatment of greywater to irrigation water quality. Laboratory-scale pine bark, activated charcoal and sand filters were evaluated as regards their pollutant removal and interactions between medium properties, greywater, microbial activity and bacterial communit...

  12. Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: lessons from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at a lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Practical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas. -Authors

  13. Preparation of highly developed mesoporous activated carbon fiber from liquefied wood using wood charcoal as additive and its adsorption of methylene blue from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Junyan; Yu, Lili; Liu, Xinyan

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon fiber (C-WACF) with super high surface area and well-developed small mesopores were prepared by liquefied wood and uses wood charcoal (WC) as additive. The characterization and properties of C-WACF were investigated by XRD, XPS and N2 adsorption. Results showed the pore development was significant at temperatures >750°C, and reached a maximum BET surface area (2604.7 m(2)/g) and total pore volume (1.433 cm(3)/g) at 850°C, of which 86.8% was from the contribution of the small mesopores of 2-4 nm. It was also found that the mesopore volume and methylene blue adsorption of C-WACF were highly increased as the temperature increases from 750 to 850°C. Additionally, the reduction of graphitic layers, the obvious changes of functional groups and the more unstable carbons on the surface of C-WACF, which played important roles in the formation of mesopores, were also observed.

  14. Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water Samples by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Preconcentration Using the Biomass of Aspergillus niger Loaded on Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahlaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast, and sensitive method for determination of total arsenic in drinking water sample by ETAAS after solid phase preconcentration has been developed. The dead biomass of A. niger loaded on activated charcoal has been applied as bioadsorbent for preconcentration step. The effects of parameters such as pH, type and concentration of eluent, biosorption time, sample volume, and effect of interfering ions have also been studied. Under the optimum condition, the enrichment factor of 10 for the analyte has been obtained. The accuracy of the method has been investigated by the recovery of spiked standards and the recovery percents between 99 and 102% have been achieved. Total amount of arsenic was determined by reducing As (V to As (III with potassium iodide (KI and ascorbic acid in HCl solution. Under the optimum conditions, for 400 mL of drinking water samples, the detection limit (3σ and linear range were achieved 1 ng/mL and 5–100 ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation for ten determinations of a spiked sample with concentration of 10 ng/mL As was 3.2%.

  15. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, A.; Denison, M.S.; Berg, van den M.

    2006-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167

  16. THE BLENDING EFFECT OF COALITE, COCONUT SHELL CHARCOAL AND GELAM WOOD CHARCOAL ON CALORIFIC VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Nukman; Riman Sipahutar; Irsyadi Yani; Taufik Arief

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to scrutinize the effect of blend solid fuels consisting of coalite, coconut shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal on calorific value. Coalite is the solid fuels made from coal that is mined from the earth, while coconuts shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal are processed from natural plants. Coalite, coconut shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal are solid fuels which was obtained from carbonization process or pyrolitic process of fuel material. Gelam wood char...

  17. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  18. In vitro study on fluoxetine adsorption onto charcoal using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta-Politou, J; Skopelitis, I; Apatsidis, I; Koupparis, M

    2001-01-01

    This in vitro investigation was performed to study the adsorption rate constant as well as the adsorption characteristics of fluoxetine (F) to activated charcoal and its commercial formulation Carbomix powder in simulated gastric (pH 1.2) fluid environment. Ion-selective electrode (ISE) potentiometry, based on the selective, direct and continuous monitoring of F with an F-ISE constructed in our laboratory was used. The method used in the kinetic experiments consists of the rapid addition of a slurry containing the charcoal into the drug solution under stirring and continuous recording of the F-ISE potential until the establishment of equilibrium. The free ionized drug concentration at appropriate time intervals was calculated from the recorded adsorption curve and the apparent adsorption rate constant was estimated assuming pseudo first order kinetics. Within run R.S.D. of the estimates ranged from 0.24 to 11.5%, while between run R.S.D. (n=3-4) ranged from 0.90 to 13.8%. A linear relationship was found between the apparent adsorption rate constants and the amount of charcoal used with slopes (+/-S.D.) for activated charcoal and Carbomix equal to 1.14(+/-0.21) and 0.146(+/-0.009) s(-1)g(-1), respectively. Successive additions of microvolumes of F solution were made into a charcoal slurry with measurement of the F-ISE potential at equilibrium. The maximum adsorption capacity values (+/-S.D.) of activated charcoal and Carbomix were 254.8+/-1.8 and 405+/-41 mg/g, respectively while the affinity constant values (+/-S.D.) were 45.6+/-2.2 and 55.5+/-2.9 l/g, respectively. The adsorption of F to charcoals was rapid and for amounts of charcoal 10 times greater than the amount of the drug, 95% of F was adsorbed within the first 5 min. Relative to the toxic and lethal doses in cases of F intoxications, both types of charcoals tested adsorbed effectively F at gastric pH. Carbomix can be considered as appropriate charcoal formulation for medical treatment in cases of F

  19. Paleosol charcoal : Reconstructing vegetation history in relation to agro−pastoral activities since the Neolithic. A case study in the Eastern French Pyrenees.

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Marie; Bal, Marie-Claude; Rendu, Christine; Ruas, Marie-Pierre; Campmajo, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience This article uses a method that combines pedoanthracological and pedo-archaeological approaches to terraces, complemented with archaeological pastoral data, in order to reconstruct the history of ancient agricultural terraces on a slope of the Enveitg Mountain in the French Pyrenees. Four excavations revealed two stages of terrace construction that have been linked with vegetation dynamics, which had been established by analyses of charcoal from the paleosols and soi...

  20. Cultivo de embriões imaturos de citros em diferentes concentrações de carvão ativado e ácido giberélico Activated charcoal and giberellic acid concentrations on immature embryos culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adição de carvão ativado e giberelina no meio de cultura podem proporcionar melhores condições no desenvolvimento de embriões imaturos de citros. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de carvão ativado e GA3 (ácido giberélico no cultivo de embriões imaturos provenientes do cruzamento entre laranjeira 'Pêra Rio' x tangerineira 'Poncã'. Após 118 dias da polinização, frutos imaturos, com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro, foram coletados, suas sementes removidas e tratadas com álcool (70% por cinco minutos, hipoclorito de sódio (2% por 20 minutos e, posteriormente, lavadas três vezes em água destilada e autoclavada. Em condições assépticas, os tegumentos das sementes foram separados, os embriões globulares excisados e inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio MT, acrescido de carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 g L-1 e GA3 (0; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 mg L-1. Após a inoculação, os embriões permaneceram por 90 dias em sala de crescimento a 27+1ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e irradiância de 32 mmol m-2 s-1. Maior comprimento da parte aérea foi obtido em meio MT, acrescido de 0,1 e 1 mg L-1 de GA3, combinado com 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Maior comprimento do sistema radicular, massa da matéria fresca e número de folhas de plântulas foram obtidos em meio MT, acrescido de 0,01 mg L-1 de GA3, na ausência de carvão ativado. A adição de carvão ativado influenciou na concentração de ácido giberélico acrescido no meio de cultura.Activated charcoal and gibberelin provides better conditions on development of citrus immature embryos. Activated charcoal and GA3 (gibberelic acid on 'Pêra Rio' sweet orange x 'Poncã' mandarin immature embryos culture was evaluated. After 118 days-pollination, imature fruits with 3 to 4 cm of diameter were collected, seeds removed and treated with alcohol (70% for five min., sodium hypoclorite (2% for 20 min. and three times washed with distilled and autoclaved water. In aseptic conditions, the teguments

  1. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing of the cryogenically cooled charcoal using fusion-compatible binders for pumping helium has shown promising results. The program demonstrated comparable or improved performance with these binders compared to the charcoal (type and size) using an epoxy binder

  2. Effects of quebracho tannin extract (Schinopsis balansae Engl.) and activated charcoal on nitrogen balance, rumen microbial protein synthesis and faecal composition of growing Boer goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Amal; Dickhoefer, Uta; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Under irrigated arid conditions, organic fertiliser rich in slowly decomposable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) is needed for soil fertility maintenance. Feeding ruminants with condensed tannins will lower ruminal protein degradation, reduce urinary N excretion and might increase the faecal fraction of slowly decomposable N. Supplementation with activated charcoal (AC) might enrich manure with slowly degrading C. Therefore, we investigated the effects of feeding quebracho tannin extract (QTE) and AC on the N balance of goats, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (EMPS) and the composition of faeces. The feeding trial comprised three periods; in each period, 12 male Boer goats (28 ± 3.9 kg live weight) were assigned to six treatments: a Control diet (per kg diet 500 g grass hay and 500 g concentrate) and to further five treatments the Control diet was supplemented with QTE (20 g and 40 g/kg; diets QTE2 and QTE4, respectively), with AC (15 g and 30 g/kg, diets AC1.5 and AC3.0, respectively) and a mixture of QTE (20 g/kg) plus AC (15 g/kg) (diet QTEAC). In addition to the N balance, EMPS was calculated from daily excretions of purine derivatives, and the composition of faecal N was determined. There was no effect of QTE and AC supplementation on the intake of organic matter (OM), N and fibre, but apparent total tract digestibility of OM was reduced (p = 0.035). Feeding QTE induced a shift in N excretion from urine to faeces (p ≤ 0.001) without altering N retention. Total N excretion tended to decrease with QTE treatments (p = 0.053), but EMPS was not different between treatments. Faecal C excretion was higher in QTE and AC treatments (p = 0.001) compared with the Control, while the composition of faecal N differed only in concentration of undigested dietary N (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that QTE can be included into diets of goats up to 40 g/kg, without affecting N utilisation, but simultaneously increasing the

  3. Environmentally friendly production of charcoal from empty fruit bunches using pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empty fruit bunches (EFB) from palm oil milling process are classified as palm oil waste. The EFB can be turned into valuable product such as charcoal, which can be processed further to activated carbon in order to solve some of the disposal problems. In this project, raw EFB was converted to charcoal by means of a pilot plant. A burner generating indirect heat controls the temperature of the process. The carbonization process was carried out in the absence of air at various temperatures and durations to find the optimum carbonization parameters. The study shows that the optimum operating, temperature for carbonization of EFB is 500 oC for the duration of 11/2 hours. The average fixed carbon content of the charcoal is 61.08. The high percentage of volatile matter is prevented from escaping into the air by trapping them in a series of cyclones. The double layered cyclones using water as the cooling medium, condense more volatile matter and reduces smoke exhaust. 50.7 % of ,gaseous product is condensed and 49.2 % is emitted to the atmosphere. The result is an environmental friendly pilot plant. (author)

  4. Heats of adsorption for charcoal nitrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.; Akkimaradi, B.S.; Rastogi, S.C. [ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India). Thermal Systems Group; Rao, R.R. [Government College for Boys, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Srinivasan, K. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    This paper develops an empirical equation for correlation of the loading dependence of the heat of adsorption for two samples of activated charcoal-nitrogen systems. Details are given of the use of isotherm data, the evaluation of the heat of adsorption using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the plotting of primary adsorption data, and the plotting of the heat of adsorption as a function of the loading of the two samples. The need to consider the heat of adsorption property when designing a system in which a gaseous medium is adsorbed by a solid sorbent is discussed. (UK)

  5. Charcoal production in the Mopane woodlands of Mozambique: what are the trade-offs with other ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollen, Emily; Ryan, Casey M; Baumert, Sophia; Vollmer, Frank; Grundy, Isla; Fisher, Janet; Fernando, Jone; Luz, Ana; Ribeiro, Natasha; Lisboa, Sá N

    2016-09-19

    African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. We found that villages with longer histories of charcoal production had experienced declines in wood suitable for charcoal, firewood and construction, and tended to have lower perceived availabilities of these services. Scenarios of future charcoal impacts indicated that firewood and woody construction services were likely to trade-off with charcoal production. However, even under the most extreme charcoal scenario, these services were not completely lost. Other provisioning services, such as wild food, medicinal plants and grass, were largely unaffected by charcoal production. To reduce the future impacts of charcoal production, producers must avoid increased intensification of charcoal extraction by avoiding the expansion of species and sizes of trees used for charcoal production. This is a major challenge to land managers and policymakers in the area.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. PMID:27502380

  6. Charcoal production in the Mopane woodlands of Mozambique: what are the trade-offs with other ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Sophia; Vollmer, Frank; Grundy, Isla; Fisher, Janet; Fernando, Jone; Luz, Ana; Lisboa, Sá N.

    2016-01-01

    African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. We found that villages with longer histories of charcoal production had experienced declines in wood suitable for charcoal, firewood and construction, and tended to have lower perceived availabilities of these services. Scenarios of future charcoal impacts indicated that firewood and woody construction services were likely to trade-off with charcoal production. However, even under the most extreme charcoal scenario, these services were not completely lost. Other provisioning services, such as wild food, medicinal plants and grass, were largely unaffected by charcoal production. To reduce the future impacts of charcoal production, producers must avoid increased intensification of charcoal extraction by avoiding the expansion of species and sizes of trees used for charcoal production. This is a major challenge to land managers and policymakers in the area. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502380

  7. A theoretical treatment of adsorption of radon gas on charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ding; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Shiau, Yuo-Hsien; Tse, Wan-Sun [Academia Sinica, Taipei, TW (China). Inst. of Physics; Skrable, K.; Li, Kuang-Pang

    1997-09-01

    The use of an activated charcoal sampler for radon monitoring has become popular in recent years because of its passiveness and low price. Dynamics of adsorption on a passive sampler have been described with theoretical models. However, extrapolation of the measured results of radon on charcoal to the diurnal fluctuations of the ambient radon concentration is often difficult and even misleading because of the oversimplification of these models. A more generalized approach is undertaken by treating the diurnal variations in radon concentrations as poly-exponential functions and by solving for explicit particular solutions of Fick`s equation. The application of these solutions to various practical situations is explored. This includes their use for charcoal sampler calibration. Estimated values of the adsorption coefficients, k, and diffusion constant, D, appear to be agreeable with corresponding reported values. A triple-sampler protocol is also proposed for radon survey in areas of high diurnal fluctuations. (author)

  8. Charcoal Production via Multistage Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun; Ka Leung Lam; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    Interests in charcoal usage have recently been re-ignited because it is believed that charcoal is a muchbetter fuel than wood. The conventional charcoal production consumes a large amount of energy due to the prolonged heating time and cooling time which contribute to the process completing in one to several days. Wood py-rolysis consists of both endothermic and exothermic reactions as well as the decomposition of the different components at different temperature range (hemicellulose: 200-260℃; cellulose: 240-350℃ and lignin: 280-500℃). Inthis study we propose a multistagepyrolysis which is an approach to carry out pyrolysis with multiple heating stages so as to gain certain processing benefits. We propose a three-stage approach which includes rapid stepwise heating stage to a variable target temperatures of 250 ℃, 300℃, 350 ℃ and 400 ℃, slow and gradual heatingstage to a tinal temperature of 400℃ and adiabatic with cooling stage. The multi-stage pyrolysis process can save 30% energy and the processing time by using a first temperature target of 300 ℃and heating rate of 5℃.min-1 to produce a fixed-carbon yield of 25.73% as opposed to the base case with a fixed-carbon yield of23.18%.

  9. Commercial charcoal production in the Ibarapa district of southwestern Nigeria: forestry dividends and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R

    2010-01-01

    Logging activities have long provided both wood fuel and charcoal for household and commercial use in rural and urban communities in developing countries. However, logging problems range from deforestation to threatened household air quality from burning wood and charcoal. This exploratory case study triangulated 15 in-depth interviews among charcoal bulk buyers and the workers, observations of workers at two èédú (charcoal) commercial depots in Igbo-Ora and of workers in the forest, and review of studies in academic database. Three categories of people are working in the business ranging from the producers in the forests (alaake) to the bulk buyers (olowo) in the middle and the wholesalers (ajagunta) in the city. A small team of 4-8 people can produce three pickup truck loads of charcoal in 2 weeks, and a large team between 7-8 loads. The olowo and the alaake have associations, membership cards, and meet to discuss business progress and regulate members' economic behavior. Close to 35,000 bags of charcoal of 450 pickup trucks may make the journey weekly from Ibarapa. Overall, the charcoal business is informal, and the local people also frown at cutting any useful indigenous trees ascertaining that an individual's actions may affect the whole community. The role of community health educators is important in the dissemination of effects of deforestation through charcoal production. PMID:22192943

  10. Charcoal production from Pinus species in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Charcoal produced from wood of Pinus strobus var. chiapensis (13 years old) and P. elliottii var. elliotti (15 years old) was compared with charcoal from Eucalyptus maculata and E. camaldulensis (both 4-5 year old). Although their charcoal was inferior to E. maculata charcoal in several respects, both pine species produced better charcoal than E. camaldulensis.

  11. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    the German lowlands (e.g. Raab et al., 2015) and their potentially adverse effects on tree growth, these findings elucidate a yet unknown impact of past human activities on recent biological processes. Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., and Zech, W., 2001: The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics. Naturwissenschaften, 88, 37-41. Raab, A., Takla, M., Raab, T., Nicolay, A., Schneider, A., Rösler, H., Heußner, K.U., Bönisch, E., 2015. Pre-industrial charcoal production in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany): Detection and evaluation of a large charcoal-burning field by combining archaeological studies, GIS-based analyses of shaded-relief maps and dendrochronological age determination. Quaternary International, doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2014.09.041.

  12. Carbon sequestration from waste via conversion to charcoal : equipment for a small scale operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.C. [Cenovus Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Struyk, A. [AST Technical Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gilbert, D. [GTEC Consulting, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is not very cost effective in oilsand operations. For that reason, this study examined the feasibility of using charcoal sequestration (CS) as an alternative carbon offset method to CCS. The economics of the charcoal approach depends on 2 factors, notably the cost of the feed biomass and the cost of processing. The first factor was addressed in this study by using municipal waste as feedstock which is available free of charge. Since the cost of processing depends on the apparatus and the scale of operation, a robust kiln was designed to convert waste at remote industrial camp sites to charcoal. In charcoal sequestration, carbon contained in a portion of naturally produced biomass is preserved in solid form by converting it to charcoal, thus preventing it from entering into atmosphere as carbon dioxide. The paper showed that the newly designed equipment can contribute to a reduction in waste disposal costs and that the study can serve as a demonstration and data collection project for waste-to-charcoal projects for carbon sequestration. These demo projects can also help evaluate various aspects of this novel method of sequestration, and enhance public awareness on the subject. In view of the growing per capita waste worldwide, use of municipal waste as feedstock for charcoal sequestration can be a significant measure of carbon offset at global scale. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Concentrações de citocinina e carvão ativado na micropropagação de pimenta-do-reino Cytokynin concentrations and activated charcoal on black pepper micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ferreira Moura

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum tem grande importância para a economia do Norte do Brasil. A pimenta-do-reino é propagada principalmente por estaquia que, além de ser pouco eficiente, pode possibilitar a propagação da doença fusariose. Dessa forma, testes para verificar a eficiência da micropropagação são pertinentes. O objetivo do trabalho foi testar concentrações de BAP - 6-benzilaminopurina (0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 4,5mg L-1 e a adição de carvão ativado a 0,2% ao meio de cultura na micropropagação de pimenta-do-reino. O meio de cultura foi composto de sais e vitaminas de Murashige & Skoog, 3% de sacarose e 8g L-1 de ágar. Foram utilizados como explantes ápices caulinares de plântulas da cultivar "Bragantina" germinadas in vitro. Os tratamentos foram avaliados em esquema fatorial 4x2, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após 45 dias no estabelecimento, foi avaliado o número de brotos, mas não foi observada diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, considerando-se os dois fatores e a interação entre eles. Após 45 dias no primeiro subcultivo, foram avaliados o número de brotos e de explantes (segmentos nodais. A interação entre BAP e carvão ativado teve efeito significativo para número de brotos e de explantes, sendo que o carvão influenciou o efeito das concentrações de BAP. A concentração de 0,5mg L-1 de BAP na ausência de carvão ativado gerou maior número de brotos e de explantes. O carvão ativado não é necessário na fase de proliferação de gemas de pimenta-do-reino da cultivar "Bragantina".Black pepper (Piper nigrum has great importance for the Northern Brazil’s economy. Black pepper is mainly propagated by mass propagation, which is not very efficient and may spread fusariosis. Thus, micropropagation efficiency tests are pertinent. The objective of this research paper was to test BAP - 6-benzilaminopurine concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5mg L-1 and activated charcoal at 0.2% addition to

  14. Study of the performance of charcoal filters under post-LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of the performance of TEDA- and KI-impregnated charcoals has been done under reactor accident conditions. The efficiency of these charcoals in removing CH3I and I2 was studied as a function of temperature, relative humidity, radiation field with and without H2, contaminants and other factors. In addition to determining the decontamination factor, in certain cases, the distribution of activity along the length of the charcoal bed was monitored as a function of purging time. Activity distribution measurements were useful in understanding the chemistry of these systems

  15. The evolution of the epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan: a spatial and temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemic of carbon monoxide poisoning suicide by burning barbecue charcoal has occurred in East Asia in the last decade. We investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of the epidemic to assess its impact on the epidemiology of suicide in Taiwan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Age-standardised rates of suicide and undetermined death by charcoal burning were mapped across townships (median population aged 15 y or over = 27,000 in Taiwan for the periods 1999-2001, 2002-2004, and 2005-2007. Smoothed standardised mortality ratios of charcoal-burning and non-charcoal-burning suicide and undetermined death across townships were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Trends in overall and method-specific rates were compared between urban and rural areas for the period 1991-2007. The epidemic of charcoal-burning suicide in Taiwan emerged more prominently in urban than rural areas, without a single point of origin, and rates of charcoal-burning suicide remained highest in the metropolitan regions throughout the epidemic. The rural excess in overall suicide rates prior to 1998 diminished as rates of charcoal-burning suicide increased to a greater extent in urban than rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: The charcoal-burning epidemic has altered the geography of suicide in Taiwan. The observed pattern and its changes in the past decade suggest that widespread media coverage of this suicide method and easy access to barbecue charcoal may have contributed to the epidemic. Prevention strategies targeted at these factors, such as introducing and enforcing guidelines on media reporting and restricting access to charcoal, may help tackle the increase of charcoal-burning suicides. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  16. EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus CLONES FOR CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal is economically representative in the Brazilian economy, specially in Minas Gerais, the main producer, and consumer of this product. A problem related to the charcoal utilization is its heterogeneous quality, which is influenced both for the wood and the production process. This variability causes waste of material and make it difficult to handle the blast furnaces. The objective of this work was to evaluate the wood of ten clones: seven of Eucalyptus grandis and three of Eucalyptus saligna: both directed to charcoal production. Also, it was looked for to select clones with highercapacity for the establishment of a forestry improvement program. During the assessment it was considered the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the charcoal. According to the results it was verified that there exists a large variation among the assessed clones, which is higher in Eucalyptus grandis. The production of dry mass, associated to the estimation of mass of both lignin and charcoal proportionate a classification of the clones considered as the superior (clones number five, six and two, median (clones number ten, three, one and eight and inferior (clones number nine, four and seven. Clone seven was the worsen for the charcoal production due to its low growth rate. The classification of the clones based on both the wood chemical characteristics and charcoal yield was not satisfactory. The growth rate was fundamental for the clones classification, being recommendable to incorporate it in future assessment of wood quality. Eucalyptus grandis clones were superior to Eucalyptus saligna clones.

  17. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  18. Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Narayan Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin toxicity or adverse drug reaction is common due to its narrow therapeutic window. Mild and moderate toxicity require supportive care and enteral activated charcoal. In severe toxicity, charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP have been shown to decrease serum phenytoin half-life and early recovery. Here, we report two cases with phenytoin toxicity who showed marked clinical improvement after early and frequent CHP treatment.

  19. Charcoal production with by-product recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxamana, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    The carbonization of Gonacaryum calleryanum, Cananga odorata, Sandoricum koetjape, and Dillenia philippinensis at 315-375 degrees gave charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and settled for in a yield of 36-47%, 38-49% and 1-5%, respectively.

  20. Principals' Perceptions and Practices of School Bullying Prevention Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Funk, Jeanne B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine principals' perceptions and practices regarding bullying prevention. A survey instrument was developed to assess principals' stages of change and perceived barriers regarding selected bullying prevention activities as well as the effectiveness of bullying prevention activities. Of a national random sample…

  1. EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus CLONES FOR CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho; José Tarcísio Lima; Fábio Akira Mori; Ana Luiza Lino

    2001-01-01

    Charcoal is economically representative in the Brazilian economy, specially in Minas Gerais, the main producer, and consumer of this product. A problem related to the charcoal utilization is its heterogeneous quality, which is influenced both for the wood and the production process. This variability causes waste of material and make it difficult to handle the blast furnaces. The objective of this work was to evaluate the wood of ten clones: seven of Eucalyptus grandis and three of Eucalyptus ...

  2. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Vleminckx

    Full Text Available The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i the relative abundance of each guild, (ii each species and family abundance and (iii mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: "recent" charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16 and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while "ancient" charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP, and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii the prevalence of other

  3. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Biwolé, Achille B; Daïnou, Kasso; Gillet, Jean-François; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Drouet, Thomas; Hardy, Olivier J

    2014-01-01

    The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: "recent" charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while "ancient" charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental

  4. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin. PMID:21549503

  5. A Mathematical Model for Assaying Gaseous Radioiodine in Charcoal Cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling radioiodine in ambient air or gaseous effluent streams is accomplished by passing an air sample through a charcoal cartridge. Since gaseous radioiodine may be presented in various chemical forms including elemental and organic species, the charcoal is impregnated with 5% TEDA (TetraEthylenDiAmine) to convert organic iodide species to forms that can be collected on charcoal. Charcoal cartridges' producers test their cartridges against nonradioactive iodine at concentrations that are about 9-10 orders of magnitude higher than radioiodine concentrations that could be encountered in nuclear industry. Thus, the suitability of their reported adsorption efficiencies to the radioiodine concentration range is doubtful. The analysis of a cartridge containing radioiodine is generally performed by germanium gamma ray spectrometer. The cartridge is counted with the inlet side facing the detector and assuming most of the activity is concentrated in the front side of the cartridge. When sampling is performed for long periods (over several days), radioiodine can be found in deeper parts of the cartridge. In such cases the analysis may lead to major discrepancies between the measured value and the true value. Another problem rises in very long sampling periods (around one month) where breakthrough of the cartridge may occur. In such a case, the measured value does not account for the radioiodine that crossed the cartridge. In the present study, a numerical model was developed, to estimate the total amount of radioiodine that is adsorbed in the cartridge and the amount that breaks-through the cartridge. In order to use the model, the cartridge was divided into 14 layers and calibration was performed for the counting of each layer from the front and rear sides of the cartridge. Such a calibration has to be performed for each radionuclide and for each detector

  6. Forestry policy and charcoal production in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the historical, social and political-economic dynamics of environmental policy implementation in Senegal's charcoal market. It explores the relationship between urban demand for charcoal and its rural environmental consequences. It focuses on the ways in which the social and political-economic relations within the market and between the market and state shape production, exchange, regulation, and ultimately the social and econological consequences of charcoal production and use. The article begins by characterizing the patterns of woodfuel supply and use in Senegal and by recounting the historical perception and response to environmental problems associated with the woodfuel trade. It describes the social and economic organization of production and exchange, followed by an analysis of policy implementation. It also shows that where social relations dominate production and exchange, environmental policy making and implementation will be an iterative process. Sustainable resource management is not implemented once and for ever, but will come and go. (author)

  7. 5 CFR 950.108 - Preventing coercive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preventing coercive activity. 950.108 Section 950.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.108 Preventing coercive activity. True...

  8. Novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D volume rendering toward improving the resolution of the fossil record of charcoal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Belcher

    Full Text Available Variations in the abundance of fossil charcoals between rocks and sediments are assumed to reflect changes in fire activity in Earth's past. These variations in fire activity are often considered to be in response to environmental, ecological or climatic changes. The role that fire plays in feedbacks to such changes is becoming increasingly important to understand and highlights the need to create robust estimates of variations in fossil charcoal abundance. The majority of charcoal based fire reconstructions quantify the abundance of charcoal particles and do not consider the changes in the morphology of the individual particles that may have occurred due to fragmentation as part of their transport history. We have developed a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to image processing that enables the 3-dimensional reconstruction of individual charcoal particles. This method is able to measure the volume of both microfossil and mesofossil charcoal particles and allows the abundance of charcoal in a sample to be expressed as total volume of charcoal. The method further measures particle surface area and shape allowing both relationships between different size and shape metrics to be analysed and full consideration of variations in particle size and size sorting between different samples to be studied. We believe application of this new imaging approach could allow significant improvement in our ability to estimate variations in past fire activity using fossil charcoals.

  9. Holocene Charcoal Deposition From Brazilian Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Albuquerque, A. S.; Simoes, F. L.; Sifeddine, A.

    2004-12-01

    Determination of charcoal accumulation rate in lacustrine sediments allows to reconstruct the fire history of the region surrounding the lake. Our studies have been achieved in three Amazonian sites and one site in Atlantic rainforest. Charcoal fragments are identified and counted under a microscope. Typical size of these charcoals is around ten micrometers and they probably have been subject to eolian transport. The highest charcoal accumulation rates were obtained in sediments from Middle Holocene in Carajás region, eastern Amazonia. These rates are on the same order than the present day charcoal accumulation rate in Alta Floresta, a region of Amazonia which is being submited to intense slash and burn. The lowest values were found in Lagoa da Pata in Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, a very humid area in western Amazon. We observed from the D. Helvécio record, in the Atlantic rainforest, fire occurrences from 8,400 to 6,400 cal years BP. For Carajás lake, surrounded by tropical rain forest, we had identified fires during the period between 8,000 and 5,300 cal years BP. Finally, the lake Caracarana, which is surrounded by grass savanna, showed a record of main fire occurrence phase at 9,750 cal yrs BP and a second phase marked by charcoal peaks at 7,680, 6,990 and 6,460 cal yrs BP. The synchronism of the fire occurrence periods in different Brazilian regions is related to the Middle Holocene dry climate phase provoked by the low summer insolation. Differences in the accumulation rates can be attributed to differences in biomass availability and fire return time. The carbon released in the atmosphere by this fires must have contributed to the observed increase of CO2, poorer in 13C, during the middle Holocene.

  10. Active Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  12. Corncob and active charcoal in the Laccase and Basidiome production of Pleurotus spSabugo de milho e carvão ativado na produção de Lacase e Basidiomas de Pleurotus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Maria Andrade-Nobrega

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn cob as a lignocellulosic feedstock could be a viable option for edible mushroom production by fungi of the genus Pleurotus considering that there are enormous amounts of this agricultural waste in the State of Parana, as well in the whole Brazil territory. This work evaluated three strains of Pleurotus sp., Pleurotus ostreatus (white and CCB, P. Eryngii (salmon, as laccase producers using liquid extract of corn cob, and solid medium based on corn cob without adding other nutritional sources. A strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (white produced the highest titres of laccase in liquid medium (1.2 U L-1 and also on solid medium (~ 2.8 U kg-1 among the three strains evaluated. The additon of active charcoal increased the biological efficency (30.3 % of P. eryngii (salmon when compared in its absence (12.7 %. However, the strain of P. ostreatus (white did not present statistical difference among the treatments demonstrating that the addition of active charcoal to the solid medium for mushroom production can promote an increase in the biological efficiency depending upon the fungal strain used.O sabugo de milho é uma matéria prima lignocelulósica que pode ser uma opção viável para a produção de cogumelos comestíveis por fungos do gênero Pleurotus, considerando-se que existe uma enorme quantidade deste resíduo agrícola no Estado do Paraná e em todo o Brasil. Este trabalho avaliou três linhagens de Pleurotus sp., Pleurotus ostreatus (branco e CCB e P. Eryngii (Salmão, como produtoras de lacase utilizando-se extrato líquido de sabugo de milho e em meio sólido à base de sabugo de milho, sem adicionar outras fontes de nutrientes. A linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus (branco produziu os maiores títulos de lacase no meio líquido (1,2 U L-1 e também no sólido (~ 2,8 U kg-1 dentre as três linhagens avaliadas. A adição de carvão ativo aumentou a eficiência biológica (30,3 % do P. eryngii (salmão quando comparada com a ausência do

  13. Thermal testing methods in determination of characterization of charcoals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守新; 张世润; 礼波宁; 朱文红

    2000-01-01

    Thermal analysis testing methods were used in determination of the characterization of charcoals. Thermogravimetry (TG) method was adopted to determine the composition of charcoals, which include moisture, volatiles, fixed carbon and ash contents. The result showed that this method could detect the subtle change of charcoal composition, even the variation of different parts of material. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and related methods were also used to investigate reactivity of charcoals. The ignition temperature decrease with increasing carbon content was detected by these methods.

  14. Study on application of safety checklist in preventive maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the principles and the characteristics of safety checklist as a risk evaluation method. Examples of application of safety checklists to preventive maintenance activities such as criteria comparison and checkup items in place in nuclear power plants are illustrated in details with issues appeared in the checklist establishment. Checklist has a good application in the RCM analysis or in the actual preventive maintenance program for Chashma Nuclear Power Plant indicated by concrete instances. In the light of safety checklist which is used to sustain preventive maintenance as a simple and applicable risk analysis approach, we can get deep knowledge of risks of nuclear power plant to perfect preventive maintenance activities. (authors)

  15. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  16. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  17. Urea coated with oxidized charcoal reduces ammonia volatilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Mendes de Paiva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the most consumed nitrogen fertilizer in the world. However, its agronomic and economic efficiency is reduced by the volatilization of NH3, which can reach 78 % of the applied nitrogen. The coating of urea granules with acidic compounds obtained by charcoal oxidation has the potential to reduce the volatilization, due to the acidic character, the high buffering capacity and CEC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of HNO3-oxidized carbon on the control of NH3 volatilization. These compounds were obtained by oxidation of Eucalyptus grandis charcoal, produced at charring temperatures of 350 and 450 ºC, with 4.5 mol L-1 HNO3. The charcoal was oxidized by solubilization in acidic or alkaline medium, similar to the procedure of soil organic matter fractionation (CHox350 and CHox450. CHox was characterized by C, H, O, N contents and their respective atomic relations, by the ratio E4 (absorbance 465 nm by E6 (absorbance 665 nm, and by active acidity and total acidity (CEC. The inhibitory effect of CHox on the urease activity of Canavalia ensiformis was assessed in vitro. The NH3 volatilization from urea was evaluated with and without coating of oxidized charcoal (U-CHox350 or U-CHox450 in a closed system with continuous air flow. The pH of both CHox was near 2.0, but the total acidity of CHox350 was higher, 72 % of which was attributed to carboxylic groups. The variation in the ionization constants of CHox350 was also greater. The low E4/E6 ratios characterize the high stability of the compounds in CHox. CHox did not inhibit the urease activity in vitro, although the maximum volatilization peak from U-CHox450 and U-CHox350 occurred 24 h after that observed for uncoated urea. The lowest volatilization rate was observed for U-CHox350 as well as a 43 % lower total amount of NH3 volatilized than from uncoated urea.

  18. EPILEPSY AND EDUCATION AND PREVENTION ACTIVITIES (EP) DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This database contains entries that focus on epilepsy education and prevention emphasizing the application of effective early detection and control program activities and risk reduction efforts. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts of various types of mater...

  19. Mental disorder prevention and physical activity in Iranian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Salehe Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Physical activity significantly prevents mental disorder in older adults. Although it has effects on anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression, the greatest influence is on improving the somatization symptoms.

  20. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Holz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47–48° S in southern South America (SSA we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records show fire activity for the last 4ka yrs and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers – El Nino-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human

  1. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Holz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47–48° S in southern South America (SSA we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires

  2. Infrared Spectroscopic Study on the Modified Mechanism of Aluminum-Impregnated Bone Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride contamination in drinking water is a prominent and widespread problem in many parts of the world. Excessive ingestion of fluoride through water can lead to the high risk of fluorosis in human body. Bone charcoal, with the principal active component of hydroxyapatite, is a frequently used adsorbent for fluoride removal. Many laboratory experiments suggest that the aluminum-impregnated bone charcoal is an effective adsorbent in defluoridation. However, the mechanisms underlying this modification process are still not well understood, which in turn greatly impedes the further studies on other different modified adsorbents. To address this issue, we used the infrared spectroscopy to examine the bone charcoal and the aluminum-impregnated bone charcoal, respectively. The comparative results show that the −OH peak of infrared spectroscopy has been intensified after modification. This significant change helped speculate the modified mechanism of the aluminum-impregnated bone charcoal. In addition, it is found that the hydroxide ion dissociates from hydroxyapatite in the modification process. Such finding implies that the tetrahydroxoaluminate can be combined with the hydroxyapatite and the aluminum ion can be impregnated onto the bone char surface.

  3. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  4. Efeito da interação entre carvão ativado e N6-benzilaminopurina na propagação in vitro de bananeira, cv. Grand Naine (AAA Interaction effect between activated charcoal and N6-benzylaminopurine in the in vitro propagation of banana, cultivar Grand Naine (AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O carvão ativado possui a propriedade de adsorver os compostos fenólicos liberados pela oxidação dos tecidos lesionados durante o cultivo in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da interação entre o carvão ativado e diferentes concentrações de N6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro da bananeira, cv. Grande Naine (AAA. O meio de cultura utilizado foi o MS, solidificado com 5 g.L-1 de ágar. O cultivo foi mantido em sala de crescimento a 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e intensidade luminosa de 30 mmol.m-2s-1. Foram avaliadas a presença e a ausência de carvão ativado (0 e 3 g.L-1 e quatro concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 6 mg.L-1 no meio de cultura. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, em um sistema fatorial 2x4. Os explantes foram avaliados a cada 30 dias, por um período de quatro subcultivos. Após cada subcultivo, o comprimento de brotações, a taxa de multiplicação, o vigor, o nível de oxidação das brotações emitidas e o número de raízes formadas foram avaliados. Independentemente das concentrações de BAP, o carvão ativado influenciou significativamente em todas as variáveis analisadas. De maneira geral, a adição de carvão ativado afetou negativamente a taxa de multiplicação, embora tenha melhorado o vigor e o número de raízes e diminuído a oxidação dos explantes. Na ausência de carvão ativado, o BAP proporcionou as maiores taxas de multiplicação das brotações.Active charcoal has the capacity to fix phenolic compounds released by the oxidation of manipulated tissues during in vitro cultivation. The present work objective was to evaluate the interaction effects between active charcoal, combined to different BAP concentrations in the in vitro banana propagation, cv. Grand Nain (AAA. The culture medium used was the MS, solidified with 5 g.L-1 agar. Cultures were kept in a growth room at 25 ± 2ºC with a photoperiod of 16 h at 30 mmol

  5. [Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko

    2016-07-01

    The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment. It is also important to identify the adequate duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise intervention that is most effective for older individuals. PMID:27395464

  6. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  7. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  8. Validation of computer code TRAFIC used for estimation of charcoal heatup in containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Standard Indian PHWRs are provided with a Primary Containment Filtration and Pump-Back System (PCFPB) incorporating charcoal filters in the ventilation circuit to remove radioactive iodine that may be released from reactor core into the containment during LOCA+ECCS failure which is a Design Basis Accident for containment of radioactive release. This system is provided with two identical air circulation loops, each having 2 full capacity fans (1 operating and 1 standby) for a bank of four combined charcoal and High Efficiency Particulate Activity (HEPA) filters, in addition to other filters. While the filtration circuit is designed to operate under forced flow conditions, it is of interest to understand the performance of the charcoal filters, in the event of failure of the fans after operating for some time, i.e., when radio-iodine inventory is at its peak value. It is of interest to check whether the buoyancy driven natural circulation occurring in the filtration circuit is sufficient enough to keep the temperature in the charcoal under safe limits. A computer code TRAFIC (Transient Analysis of Filters in Containment) was developed using conservative one dimensional model to analyze the system. Suitable parametric studies were carried out to understand the problem and to identify the safety of existing system. TRAFIC Code has two important components. The first one estimates the heat generation in charcoal filter based on 'Source Term'; while the other one performs thermal-hydraulic computations. In an attempt validate the Code, experimental studies have been carried out. For this purpose, an experimental set up comprising of scaled down model of filtration circuit with heating coils embedded in charcoal for simulating the heating effect due to radio iodine has been constructed. The present work of validation consists of utilizing the results obtained from experiments conducted for different heat loads, elevations and adsorbent

  9. Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high

  10. Activation of LXR Increases Acetaminophen Clearance and Prevents Its Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Simrat P. S.; Zhang, Bin; Niu, Yongdong; Jiang, Mengxi; Gao, Jie; Zhai, Yonggong; Lee, Jung Hoon; Uppal, Hirdesh; Tian, Hui; Tortorici, Michael A.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Qin, Wenxin; Venkataramanan, Raman; Xie, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP), the active ingredient of Tylenol, is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in the US. As such, it is necessary to develop novel strategies to prevent or manage APAP toxicity. In this report, we revealed a novel function of the liver X receptor (LXR) in preventing APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Activation of LXR in transgenic mice or by an LXR agonist conferred resistance to the hepatotoxicity of APAP, whereas the effect of LXR agonist on APAP to...

  11. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    On account of the frequency of appearing and character of atherosclerosis cardiac vascular disease, one of the most crucial elements of effective fight against it is preparation of complex preventive programs including as vast number of population as possible. Consequently, Benjamin and Smitch suggested attaching the notion of basic prevention to the standard division into primary and secondary one. The basic prevention, carrying out in the general population, should concern genetic predisposition, psychosocial factors, keeping up proper body weight, healthy eating and physical activity. Especially high hopes are connected with high efficiency, simplicity and low money-consumption of preventive activities associated with physical activity modification, which has a crucial influence on reducing negative impact of atherosclerosis hazard. The results of numerous scientific research, carried out in many countries and on various, large groups, proved undoubtedly that at the healthy adult people of both sex the systematic physical activity of moderate intensification plays an essential part in preventing CVD and decreasing the death risk because of that reason as well. Moreover, systematic physical exercises show many other health-oriented actions, thanks to which they have an influence on decreasing premature and total death rate. The risk of incidence of civilization-related diseases such as diabetes type II, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, tumors (of large intestine, breast, prostatic gland) and depression has decreased significantly. Unequivocally positive influence has been proved at many observations dedicated to health recreational physical activity and physical activity connected with professional work based on aerobe effort. The positive effects have been also observed at children population and senior population which is more and more numerous and the most at risk. The beneficial action of physical activity is connected with direct effect on organism

  12. Intravenous theophylline poisoning and multiple-dose charcoal in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, K W; Bar-Or, D; Rumack, B H

    1987-08-01

    Large overdoses of IV theophylline (50 to 100 mg/kg) were administered to five canines on two separate occasions. On day one, with no charcoal administered, theophylline levels were serially obtained between ten minutes and 12 hours after infusion and the animals were recovered from anesthesia. Three days later the same dose of theophylline was administered, but then 50 g activated charcoal was placed through a nasogastric tube into the duodenum every hour for eight doses. In all five animals tested, activated charcoal significantly decreased the area under the serum concentration-time curve, decreased the half-life of elimination, and increased the clearance of theophylline. This effect on pharmacokinetics was not seen when the nasogastric tube was put into the stomach instead of the small bowel because the charcoal administered did not pass beyond the pylorus. In a separate experiment in which bile theophylline concentrations were measured, it was demonstrated that enhanced elimination was not from interruption of enterohepatic circulation of theophylline. This suggests that the demonstrated physiologic mechanism is that of gastrointestinal dialysis.

  13. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  14. Activity Surveillance and Hawthorne Effect to Prevent Programming Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Sufian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Course instructors are facing serious problems in dealing with students who plagiarize programs especially when the number of students in the course is high. Among the proposed approach to handle this problem is by using automatic detection of plagiarism in programming projects. Preventive action is required rather than curing the problem so that programming students get the right message from the beginning. Approach: To address this problem, a surveillance system was proposed to record every programming activity. It is developed in an integrated development environment so that programming activity profile in Java format is created when students are developing their Java program. A non-intrusive and non-experimental setting approach was applied in which hidden data collection is conducted to observe students’ behavior in natural programming setting. Experimental study effect i.e., Hawthorne effect and effect of expectation on subject behavior was exploited as prevention on plagiarism. Surveillance system produces two file types: Activity log to keep programming activity log information and Backup file to save the program writing record. Results: The proposed programming activity surveillance system, DwiCoder presented a programming activity report at the end of each programming session. Students can assess their own progress in developing a program in these three activities: Compilation, execution and modification. The report was presented in a simple and meaningful way to encourage student spend their own time in programming activity. Conclusion: By using DwiCoder, student’s programming activity is continuously monitored and their behavior is under control. This system provides an effective prevention method in tackling plagiarism.

  15. Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Jeffrey B; Bury, David C; Richardson, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. One-third of these deaths may be preventable through healthy lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity. The Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, whereas the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, although exogenous supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids does not improve cardiovascular outcomes. There is an association between increased sodium intake and cardiovascular risk, but reducing dietary sodium has not consistently shown a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Physical activity recommendations for adults are at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination. Increases in physical activity by any level are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Introducing muscle-strengthening activities at least twice per week in previously inactive adults is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes. Inactive adults without known CVD can gradually increase activity to a moderate-intensity level without consulting a physician. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends behavioral counseling to promote healthy diet and physical activity in adults at high risk of CVD. Evidence of benefit for counseling patients at average risk is less established. PMID:27281836

  16. Effects of historic charcoal burning on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Buras, Allan; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In Northeastern Germany the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kiln remains. At the study site in the forests north of Cottbus, Rubic Brunic Arenosols are developed on Weichselian glaciofluvial deposits. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained from several thousand kilns. The round charcoal kiln remains with inner diameters up to 20 m are smooth platforms elevated a few decimeters higher than the surrounding area. The remaining mounds consist of an about 40 cm thick sheet containing residuals of the charcoal production process such as charcoal fragments, ash but also organic material covering the Rubic Brunic Arenosols. The charcoal kiln remains are distanced only up to 100 m from each other. For the 32 square kilometers large study site, the ground area covered by such charcoal production residuals is about 0.5 square kilometer, i.e. 1.5% of the study area. The charcoal kiln sites are a remarkable carbon accumulator on the sandy parent material. Against this background, we aim to characterize the effects of pyrolysis and the enrichment of carbon, induced by the charcoal production, on soil properties. Field work was done during archaeological rescue excavations on three charcoal kiln relicts having diameters of about 15 m. We applied 150 l of Brilliant Blue solution on six 1 square meter plots (three inside, three outside of the charcoal kiln mound) and afterwards trenched horizontal and vertical profiles for recording the staining patterns. Undisturbed soil samples to study soil micromorphology and further undisturbed samples for characterizing soil physical and hydraulic properties were taken. Outside of the charcoal kiln remain the Brilliant Blue solution drained within less than 10 minutes, whereas on the charcoal kiln remains the draining took between 20 and 40 minutes. Preliminary laboratory analyses underline the findings from the field and

  17. Physical activity in prevention and reduction of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Oggiano Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is evidence that physical activity decreases the degree of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries in persons who are physically active by modifying the chemistry and metabolism of lipoproteins. The effect of physical activity on the lipid status is achieved by affecting the enzymes of lipoprotein metabolism including the lipoprotein and liver lipase and transport protein of cholesterol esters. Epidemiological investigations on the effect of physical activity in prevention of cardiovascular diseases point to the fact that the persons who have a higher degree of cardio-respiratory endurance have a much lower mortality rate than those with a lower degree. The positive effect of physical activity on the cardiovascular system is reflected on the improved aerobic capacity, metabolic function, amplification of lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, immunological functions; it increases the perfusion of myocardium and the fibrinolytic activity, and reduces the adherence of thrombocytes due to increased synthesis of prostaglandin (PGI2, it also enhances the energy consumption, which is important in the maintenance of ideal bodyweight, prevention and treatment of obesity, and it has a positive effect on the control of stress. Conclusion With respect to the effects on the lipid status, aerobic physical exercises like running, swimming, cycling, with the intensity of training of a medium (65% VO2 load, have a positive effect on lipid status. The best form of physical activity is the one in which the endurance and power are increased.

  18. Preventing cancer: the role of food, nutrition and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The recommendations of a major report on dietary aspects of cancer prevention are summarised and discussed. The findings of The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Second Expert Report Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective were published in 2007 and remain valid. The Report reviewed the relationship between food, nutrition, physical activity, body fatness and 17 cancer sites. The goal of the Report was to review all the relevant research, using precise and reproducible methodologies. An expert panel reviewed the evidence. Based upon evidence that was graded "convincing" or "probable", a series of 10 recommendations to reduce the risk of developing cancer was produced. One of the most important factors is maintaining a healthy weight throughout life, which can be achieved by regular physical activity and limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks. Other important dietary measures include consuming a diet high in plant-based foods, limiting intakes of red meat, and avoiding salty foods and processed meat. Alcohol should be consumed in modest amounts, if at all. Dietary supplements are not recommended for cancer prevention.

  19. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Vleminckx; Julie Morin-Rivat; Biwolé, Achille B.; Kasso Daïnou; Jean-François Gillet; Jean-Louis Doucet; Thomas Drouet; Olivier J Hardy

    2014-01-01

    The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree spec...

  20. The costs of preventive activities for exotic contagious diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities. The costs of each preventive activity were related to the type of activity, the number of times the activity was carried out and the share of costs that could be associated with FMD or SF. Uncertainty about parameters was incorporated...... to clean lorries immediately after transportation of live animals. The distribution of costs between stakeholders was estimated to be as follows: pig industry 63%, cattle industry 27%, and the public authorities 10%. Most of the activities focused on reducing the probability of spreading FMD/SF, while only...... by the pig and cattle industries, respectively. Data were retrieved from multiple sources such as databases, legal documents, official statistics, yearly reports and expert opinions. As no previous studies have assessed such costs, data collection and estimation procedures were discussed and decided upon...

  1. 76 FR 27384 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It... better understand Veterans and their families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental...

  2. Production of charcoal from small-dimension lignocellulosic waste material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perzynski, B.; Babicki, R.

    1973-01-01

    Wood charcoal could be produced in a batch furnace by the indirect heating of sawdust or oakwood chips remaining after the extraction of furfural (98-01-1). The highest yields (25.8%) were obtained from the extracted oakwood by the indirect heating of 300/sup 0/. Good charcoals were also obtained from oak sawdust at 300 to 400/sup 0/ (indirect heating) or at 270/sup 0/ (direct heating), from pine sawdust at 350 to 400/sup 0/ (indirect heating), and from beech sawdust at 270/sup 0/ (indirect heating). All these charcoals contained less than or equal to 5% ash and 10 to 20% volatile components.

  3. Avaliação de diferentes tipos de carvão ativo na destoxificação de hidrolisado de palha de arroz para produção de xilitol Evaluation of different kinds of activated charcoal used for rice straw hydrolysate detoxification for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz foi tratado com cinco tipos de carvão ativo (pó e granulado com o objetivo de remover, por adsorção, compostos tóxicos que podem agir como inibidores no processo de bioconversão de xilose em xilitol, por Candida guilliermondii. Os valores máximos de fator de rendimento em xilitol (Y P/S = 0,67g g-1 e produtividade volumétrica (Q P = 0,61g L-1 h-1 foram atingidos quando o hidrolisado foi tratado com carvão ativo em pó de partículas de tamanho pequeno (0,043mm, baixa granulometria (32% retidos em peneira de 325mesh e grande área superficial (860m² g-1, características as quais favoreceram a adsorção dos compostos tóxicos.Rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was treated with five kinds of activated charcoal (powdered and granulated in order to remove, by adsorption, toxic compounds that can be act as inhibitors in the bioconversion of xylose to xylitol, by Candida guilliermondii. Maximum values of xylitol yield factor (Y P/S= 0.67g g-1 and volumetric productivity (Q P=0.61g L-1h-1 were provided by powdered activated charcoal with small particles size (0.043mm, low granulometry (32% restrained in 325mesh and large surface area (860m² g-1, characteristics which favoured the toxic compounds adsorption.

  4. Laboratory studies of charcoal production from species of eucalyptus suited to Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    To assess their suitability for charcoal production, wood from 6 species of Eucalyptus was carbonized and analyzed. The yield, fixed, carbon content and apparent density of charcoal were measured. In studies with E. grandis and E. urophylla, charcoal quality was found to increase with tree age. E. maculata produced charcoal with the most desirable characteristics.

  5. [Nutrition and physical activity: two targets for cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Ronan; Dupertuis, Yves M; Belabed, Linda; Pichard, Claude

    2010-05-26

    The links between nutrition and cancer onset are now well established by epidemiological studies. The scientific evidence is presented in a report of the World Cancer Research Foundation (WCRF). Protective factors towards overall cancer risk are fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Overweight and obesity, intakes of alcoholic beverage, fat, salt, high temperature cooked and processed red meat, increase cancer risk. In addition, beta-carotene systematic supplementation could increase lung cancer risk in smokers. As optimal controlling of these risk factors can decrease cancer mortality by 25%, nutritional counselling must be integrated in the global strategy of primary and secondary prevention of cancers.

  6. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC.

  7. Simulating water and pollutant transport in bark, charcoal and sand filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuk Karlsson, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    A septic tank combined with a sand filter is the most common onsite wastewater treatment system worldwide, since it is a simple, lowcost and reliable treatment method. Alternatives to sand in filters could be advantageous in terms of availability of material and enhanced treatment properties. In this study, flow dynamics and pollutant transport in three filter materials; sand, pine bark and activated charcoal, intermittently dosed with artificial greywater, were simulated using the HYDRU...

  8. Adapted physical activity in the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Ksenija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging. Epidemiology. According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world’s population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. The Quality and Quantity of Bone Tissue. Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in

  9. Performance evaluation of natural draft based agricultural residues charcoal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, K.N.; Ramana, P.V.; Singh, R.N. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Inst., Gujarat (India)

    2000-07-01

    A natural draft based agricultural residues charcoal reactor has been described herein along with its performance details. Instead of releasing pyrogases into the atmosphere, these gases are burnt inside the charcoal reactor, offering better energy efficiency and environmental acceptability. Agricultural residues like arhar stalks (Cajanus cajan), saw mill woody waste, Ipomoea (Ipomoea fistulasa, Syn. Ipomoea Carnea) and babul wood (Acacia nilotica), all sun dried, were used as the feedstocks for charcoal making. Saleable charcoal (SC) yield was in the range of 28 to 47% dry basis (db) with the maximum from saw mill woody waste and the minimum from Ipomoea. Fixed carbon (FC) content in the SC varies from 69 to 77% (db) in the agricultural residues based charcoal. Babul wood charring gave the highest SC yield (50%, db) and the best quality charcoal in terms of FC (80%, db). Economic analysis revealed that if the system developed was operated annually for 4000 h, the user could have a net profit of around Rs.l,00,000/-(US $2500). (author)

  10. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with charcoal at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: When the inner surface of the ITER pumping duct is covered with a thin αN-tilde:H film, the hydrogen recombination coefficient can be reduced. In this case, atomic hydrogen can reach the cryopump region and interact with charcoal cryosorbent. The interaction of thermal hydrogen molecules and atoms with charcoal has been analyzed by sorption measurements and TDS at 77 K. A stream quartz reactor with H2 RF discharge was used for the production of H atoms. The ratio of H and H2 in mixture in the afterglow zone was 1/10000. After exposure in H/H2 mixture the tube section with charcoal was warmed up to 300 K. In reference experiments the same sample of charcoal was exposed successively in H2 and CH4. After sample exposure in H/H2 mixture, the TD peak shifted to higher temperatures from 125 K (peak temperature after exposure in H2) to 150 K. The high temperature shoulder of this peak coincided with the temperature of methane release. The wide spectrum of heavy hydrocarbons formed at 77 K was registered by mass-spectrometry at charcoal heating up to 700 K. The specific adsorption volume of charcoal measured by N2 adsorption at 77 K decreased by 10-15%. (author)

  11. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhai Huang; Baoliang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g.,charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment.To further elucidate their interaction mechanism,sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene,m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated.The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation,and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38,being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types.After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF),both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component.The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified.The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites,partition phases,and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated.The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment.The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850℃),10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar,and 10 organic sorbates.

  12. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. PMID:27343945

  13. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates. PMID:21235190

  14. Carbon emissions due to deforestation for the production of charcoal used in Brazil’s steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J.; Barrett, Damian J.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2015-04-01

    Steel produced using coal generates 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions annually. Opportunities exist to substitute this coal with carbon-neutral charcoal sourced from plantation forests to mitigate project-scale emissions and obtain certified emission reduction credits under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism. This mitigation strategy has been implemented in Brazil and is one mechanism among many used globally to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions; however, its potential adverse impacts have been overlooked to date. Here, we report that total CO2 emitted from Brazilian steel production doubled (91 to 182 MtCO2) and specific emissions increased (3.3 to 5.2 MtCO2 per Mt steel) between 2000 and 2007, even though the proportion of coal used declined. Infrastructure upgrades and a national plantation shortage increased industry reliance on charcoal sourced from native forests, which emits up to nine times more CO2 per tonne of steel than coal. Preventing use of native forest charcoal could have avoided 79% of the CO2 emitted from steel production between 2000 and 2007; however, doing so by increasing plantation charcoal supply is limited by socio-economic costs and risks further indirect deforestation pressures and emissions. Effective climate change mitigation in Brazil’s steel industry must therefore minimize all direct and indirect carbon emissions generated from steel manufacture.

  15. The forbidden fuel: Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity.

  16. The forbidden fuel. Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulu, Leo Charles [Michigan State University, Department of Geography, 103 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity. (author)

  17. The forbidden fuel: Charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulu, Leo Charles, E-mail: zulu@msu.ed [Michigan State University, Department of Geography, 103 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity.

  18. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  19. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...... found in 9 cases. Data suggest that this method of death has increased significantly in Denmark. Therefore, it is highly relevant to draw attention to the subject, to increase awareness as well as prevent future escalation....

  20. Suppression of charcoal rot in soybean by moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa GS-33 under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep; Paradeshi, Jayasinh; Chaudhari, Bhushan

    2016-08-01

    Charcoal rot severely limits the soybean crop yield under saline conditions. The present studies focus on biocontrol and plant growth promoting potential of phenazine producing moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GS-33) in soybean under saline soil conditions. A marine isolate; GS-33 was identified as P. aeruginosa based on polyphasic characterization. This strain showed potent in vitro biocontrol activity against charcoal rot causing fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. It was capable of producing phenazine-1-carboxylic acid even at elevated salt concentrations. Moreover, GS-33 possessed other biocontrol traits like production of siderophores, HCN and protease under saline conditions. Multiple traits for plant growth promotion such as synthesis of IAA, NH3 , and solubilization of phosphate were also exhibited by GS-33. Plant growth promoting and biocontrol control potentials of GS-33 were evaluated by pot assay under saline soil conditions. Higher biomass and chlorophyll content were observed in GS-33 treated seedlings. A greater reduction in charcoal rot caused by fungal pathogens under both normal and saline soil conditions in GS-33 treated seedlings was observed. In a nut shell, phenazine producing halotolerant strain GS-33 could mitigate saline soil conditions (abiotic stress) and infestation of M. phaseolina (biotic stress) in soybean. PMID:27213894

  1. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  2. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong, Nakarin Saengow, Ekarin Chaiya, Narawut Srisang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  3. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in

  4. PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD HYBRIDS AND CHARCOAL AT THREE AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vássia Carvalho Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present studied was investigated hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in three different ages. Wood and charcoal characteristics as well as the influence of wood characteristics on the charcoals produced were evaluated. Chemical analyzes (extractives, lignin, ash, elemental analysis, basic density and calorific value - PCS were performed for wood. The charcoals were produced in a muffle type furnace with a heating rate of 1.67 °C.min-1 and an end temperature of 450 °C. Volatile material content, ash content, fixed carbon content, elemental analysis and gravimetric yield of the pyrolysis process were performed for the charcoals. An increase in density values , extractives content, carbon content and C/H rate were observed with the maturity of the tree. Other features such as ash content and S/G ratio decreased with the age of the tree. Greater gravimetric yield in charcoal and non-condensable gases were found in more mature materials.

  5. GRANULOMETRIC INFLUENCE ON THE COMBUSTION OF CHARCOAL FOR BARBECUE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed characteristics of charcoal used for barbecue and mainly took interest in the influence of the granulometry in the combustion process. The material have been tested for four different grain size (8, 16, 32 and 50 mm following a combustion test called combustion index (ICOMcv, which takes in consideration time processing, temperature generated and the mass consumed. The characterization of charcoal was done according to the following parameters, moisture, apparent density, grain density, volatile materials content, ash content, fixed carbon content and calorific value. The proofed charcoal presented standard indicators for use in barbecue and was noticed the relationship between granulometric analysis and the ICOMcv. The 16 mm grain size charcoal sample showed the best results for combustion. By contrast, the largest grain size sample presented lower results compared to the other samples. Thus, establishing unprecedented quantitative indicators in relation to those observed in practice, regarding the influence of grain size on the efficiency of combustion of the charcoal when used for barbecue.

  6. Antioxidant activity and haemolysis prevention efficiency of polyaniline nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Somik; Saikia, Jyoti P.; Kumar, A.; Konwar, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers have been synthesized by interfacial polymerization using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) as dopants. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of bulk polyaniline reveals ES I structure and has been indexed in a pseudo-orthorhombic lattice. The broadening of (110) reflection in the nanofiber samples has been analysed in terms of domain length and strain using a convolution method employing a Voigt function. The increase in d spacing for the (110) reflection in HCl-doped PAni nanofibers have been assigned to the change in structural conformation due to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from microRaman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit a remarkable blueshift in the absorption bands attributed to π-π* and π-polaron band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size, which is also observed in TEM micrographs. The antioxidant activity of the polyaniline nanofiber samples has been investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. It has also been observed that polyaniline nanofibers are able to protect the haemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) from cytotoxic agents, namely H2O2. The observed enhancement in the antioxidant and haemolysis prevention activity of the PAni nanofibers as compared to bulk has been attributed to the reduction in particle size and changes in structural conformation, as evident from TEM, XRD and microRaman spectroscopy.

  7. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (Revision of a Currently..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the following...

  8. Can Charcoal Provide Information About Fire Effects and Fire Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of

  9. Antioxidant activity and haemolysis prevention efficiency of polyaniline nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Somik; Kumar, A [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Saikia, Jyoti P; Konwar, B K, E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-01-29

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers have been synthesized by interfacial polymerization using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) as dopants. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of bulk polyaniline reveals ES I structure and has been indexed in a pseudo-orthorhombic lattice. The broadening of (110) reflection in the nanofiber samples has been analysed in terms of domain length and strain using a convolution method employing a Voigt function. The increase in d spacing for the (110) reflection in HCl-doped PAni nanofibers have been assigned to the change in structural conformation due to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from microRaman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit a remarkable blueshift in the absorption bands attributed to {pi}-{pi}{sup *} and {pi}-polaron band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size, which is also observed in TEM micrographs. The antioxidant activity of the polyaniline nanofiber samples has been investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. It has also been observed that polyaniline nanofibers are able to protect the haemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) from cytotoxic agents, namely H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The observed enhancement in the antioxidant and haemolysis prevention activity of the PAni nanofibers as compared to bulk has been attributed to the reduction in particle size and changes in structural conformation, as evident from TEM, XRD and microRaman spectroscopy.

  10. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  11. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  12. Charcoal reactivity: comparison between eucalyptus charcoals and charcoal from native forests; Reatividade do carvao vegetal: comparacao entre carvoes de cerrado e eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Luiz Fernando Andrade de; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Figueira, Renato Minelli [Associacao Brasileira de Metais (ABM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    The rates of gasification of charcoal produced from native forests and eucalyptus were compared. Using a mathematical model for heat and mass transfer between solids and gas, the effects of these different rates of gasification in blast furnace operation were investigated in terms of the degree of iron ore reduction in the upper part of blast furnace and carbon consumption. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. 76 FR 9637 - Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity... outreach efforts on the prevention of suicide among Veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments...). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide....

  14. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 k...

  15. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  16. Active Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Long-term desorption of 131I from KI-impregnated charcoals loaded with CH3I, under simulated post-LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term (1100 h) desorption of 131I from KI-impregnated charcoal filters, loaded with CH3I, has been studied under simulated post-LOCA conditions. A charcoal filter bed (20 cm long, 5.0 cm in diameter), which was pre-equilibrated with air at 353 K and a relative humidity of 72%, was exposed to 1.7 g of CH3I (containing 320 MBq of 131I) over a period of one hour. The 131I released was monitored continuously during loading and during the 1100-h purging period. The activity distribution along the length of the charcoal filter was also monitored during purging, using an external γ-ray detector. Iodine-131 released rates (Bq.h-1) as a function of purging time (in hours) were: 2.3 x 106 t/sup -6.26 +/- 0.32/ (for t = 1-5 h) and 2.0 x 103 t/sup -0.64 +/- 0.08/ (for t = 5-1100 h). The 131I activity distribution along the length of the charcoal bed decreased exponentially from inlet to outlet. Also, a small broadening and displacement (towards the outlet) of the initial 131I distribution were observed during purging. These data show that in post-accident environments deep-bed charcoal filters impregnated with KI are effective barriers to both the short-term and long-term release of CH3131I

  18. Evaluation of Rn equilibrium factor using charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and new evaluation system for radon equilibrium factor has been developed. Radon equilibrium factor is defined as a ratio between radon progeny concentration and radon concentration in air. Radon progeny in air becomes one of the main factors of public dose. However radon concentration itself in air has usually been estimated, because its detection is much easier than that of its progeny. In this dosimetry technique, radon equilibrium becomes the most important parameter we must adequately evaluate in advance. In this study, a new system using a charcoal filter for evaluation of radon equilibrium factor using charcoal filter was discussed. Two filters are combined to sample the airborne radioactivity of radon family. One of them is the charcoal filter, where is the main point of this study. Radon concentration is estimated based on the radioactivity sampled on a charcoal filter, and radon progeny concentration is based on the radioactivity on a glass-fiber filter. We have already fully known the characteristics of the glass-fiber filter for radon progeny. Therefore we tested charcoal filters here and obtained some characteristics on its sampling ability for radon. Especially we focused on the variety of sample abilities based on sampling flow-rate (L/min) and sampling duration (min). As a result, the most optimum sampling flow-rate was determined as 20 L/min and sampling duration was 10 min, based on the results gained by several experiments. According to this new evaluation system, we can calculate more adequate radon equilibrium factor easily because both concentrations of radon and its progeny in a same sample air can be determined at the same time. We can well adopt this system in special environments like in mines and undergrounds. (author)

  19. Entrained solvent separation by charcoal adsorption from aqueous streams generated during uranium recovery from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the two cycle solvent extraction process for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid, solvents such as D2EHPA, di nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA), tri butyl phosphate (TBP), etc., get dissolved/entrained in the various aqueous phases such as WPA, ammonium carbonate solution, MGA and sulphuric acid. These solvents have to be separated both from process economy point of view and for industrial acceptability. Systematic experiments showed that recovery of solvents by diluent washing is not effective for alkaline solution. Hence studies were undertaken to study the feasibility of activated charcoal adsorption for entrained/dissolved solvent separation. (author)

  20. Analysis of Japanese Articles about Suicides Involving Charcoal Burning or Hydrogen Sulfide Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Yoshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kitazono, Takanari; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media suicide reports has yet to be evaluated in terms of the guidelines for media suicide coverage. Thus, the present study analyzed Japanese newspaper articles (n = 4007) on suicides by charcoal burning or hydrogen sulfide gas between 11 February 2003 and 13 March 2010. The suicide reports were evaluated in terms of the extent to which they conformed to the suicide reporting guidelines. The mean violation scores were 3.06 (±0.7) for all articles, 3.2 (±0.8) for articles about suicide by charcoal burning, and 2.9 (±0.7) for articles about suicide by hydrogen sulfide (p < 0.001). With the exception of not following several recommendations, newspaper articles about suicide have improved in quality, as defined by the recommendations for media suicide coverage. To prevent imitative suicides based on media suicide reports, individuals in the media should try not to report suicide methods and to make attempts to report the poor condition of suicide survivors. PMID:27754453

  1. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants......, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...

  2. Modeling climate change mitigation from alternative methods of charcoal production in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, Rob [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Current carbon accounting methodologies do not accommodate activities that involve emissions reductions from both land-use change and energy production. This paper analyzes the climate change mitigation potential of charcoal production in East Africa by examining the impact of changing both land management and technology. Current production in a major charcoal producing region of Kenya where charcoal is made as a by-product of land clearance for commercial grain production is modeled as the ''business-as-usual'' scenario. Alternative production systems are proposed based on coppice management of native or exotic trees. Improved kilns are also considered. Changes in aboveground, belowground, and soil carbon are modeled and two distinct baseline assessments are analyzed: one is based on a fixed area of land and one is based on the quantity of non-renewable fuel that is displaced by project activities. The magnitude of carbon emissions reductions varies depending on land management as well as the choice of carbonization technology. However, these variations are smaller than the variations arising from the choice of baseline methodology. The fixed-land baseline yields annualized carbon emission reductions equivalent to 0.5-2.8 tons per year (t y{sup -1}) with no change in production technology and 0.7-3.5 t y{sup -1} with improved kilns. In contrast, the baseline defined by the quantity of displaced non-renewable fuel is 2-6 times larger, yielding carbon emissions reductions of 1.4-12.9 t y{sup -1} with no change in production technology and 3.2-20.4 t y{sup -1} with improved kilns. The results demonstrate the choice of baseline, often a political rather than scientific decision, is critical in assessing carbon emissions reductions. (author)

  3. Activating College Men to Prevent Sexual Violence: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. Candace

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of male college students who participated in a theatre-based, peer-education, sexual assault prevention presentation. The program was established through the use of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Theatre of the Oppressed, as well as multicultural feminist theory and approaches. These models emphasize subverting…

  4. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Active Prostate and Urologic Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol...

  7. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.-D.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen and microscopic charcoal examined in Holocene sediment core samples record major environmental modifications affecting Alexandria's Eastern Harbor through time. We assess whether such changes on Egypt's coastal margin were influenced primarily by natural, or natural plus human, or primarily human factors. We focus on (1) the times when pollen assemblages and microscopic charcoal content changed in the core, (2) how they changed, and (3) why this occurred. The analysis takes into account the core's stratigraphy, regional climate variability, human history, and local archaeological record. Four pollenmicroscopic charcoal zones are identified. The earliest change occurred at ca. 6000 YBP, during Egypt's earlier Predynastic (Neolithic) period, coinciding with a lithologic break from sand to muddy sand. Pollen during this time indicates a transition to a much drier climate rather than effects of human activity. The second change in pollen occurred 3600-2900 YBP, during a period of continued aridity with no lithologic variation in this core interval. Pollen (cereal taxa, agricultural weeds, grape) and a sharp increase in microscopic charcoal indicate that human activity became prevalent at least 700 y before Alexander the Great's arrival in this region, and these results highlight the transition from a largely natural climatecontrolled environment to one influenced by both climate and anthropogenic activity. The third shift up-core in pollen assemblages is dated at ca. 2300 YBP, at the boundary between a sand and mud unit. It coincides with construction by the Ptolemies of the Heptastadion between Alexandria and Pharos Island. From this time onward, harbor sediment in the nearly enclosed catchment basin indicates a near-continuous record of dominant proximal human activity. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  8. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length. Internationaly, NT is defined as the understanding, manipulation, and control of matter at the length mentioned above, thus, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms, molecules, and bulk matter) can be engineered, synthesized, and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials, devices, structures, and systems. NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature, such as high strength, unique surface structure, soft feeling, durability, water resistance, incombustibility, antimicrobial property, and so on. Indeed, NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research, by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries. This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT, its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  9. Apparatus for producing charcoal from fine lignocellulose wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R.; Perzynski, B.

    1979-05-15

    A continuous retort for the production of charcoal from sawdust, nut shells, wood chips, etc. consists of a cylindrical tower separated from the top into the drying, pyrolyzing, and cooling sections. Dry feed is introduced at the top where it is spread by stirrer blades on 2 trays kept at 120 degrees and 160 degrees by external heating. The feed falls through discharge slots into a 2nd section where it is contacted with a limited supply of hot air while the temperature rises to about 600 degrees. Hot charcoal is swept by stirrer blades toward discharge slots and falls into a 3rd section where it is cooled and discharged. Off gases are used for predrying the incoming feed, scrubbed, and vented through a stack.

  10. Charcoal analysis and Holocene vegetation history in southern Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, George

    1999-04-01

    Charcoal analysis of three archaeological sites in southern Syria in the vicinity of the Jebel al Arab (formerly Jebel Druze) indicates that during the Early Bronze Age an association consisting predominately of Pistacia, deciduous oak and almond was exploited. During the Middle Bronze Age these taxa diminish and are partially replaced by more steppic species or introduced wood such as olive. During the Roman period evergreen oak appeared in the region and gradually replaced the deciduous oak which is now restricted to a small area. The gradual replacement of deciduous oaks by evergreen oaks has been observed in other areas of the Mediterranean basin during the Holocene. Conifer charcoal such as pine and cedar is present on the sites, but it is not clear whether these were local or imported from farther away, for example, the Lebanese highlands. During the Middle Bronze Age olive wood was also used as combustible but here also its exact origin is not known.

  11. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  12. Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma harzianum against soybean charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaledi Nima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, is one of the most destructive and widespread diseases of crop plants such as soybean. In this study, the biological control capability of 11 Trichoderma spp. isolates against M. phaseolina was investigated using screening tests. Among all the tested Trichoderma spp. isolates, inhibition varied from 20.22 to 58.67% in dual culture tests. Dual culture, volatile and non-volatile tests revealed that two isolates of Trichoderma harzianum (including the isolates T7 and T14 best inhibited the growth of M. phaseolina in vitro. Therefore, these isolates were selected for biocontrol of M. phaseolina in vivo. The results of greenhouse experiments revealed that disease severity in the seed treatment with T. harzianum isolates was significantly lower than that of the soil treatment. In most of the cases, though, soil treatment with T. harzianum resulted in higher plant growth parameters, such as root and shoot weight. The effects of T. harzianum isolates on the activity of peroxidase enzyme and phenolic contents of the soybean root in the presence and absence of M. phaseolina were determined in greenhouse conditions. Our results suggested that a part of the inhibitory effect of T. harzianum isolates on soybean charcoal rot might be related to the indirect influence on M. phaseolina. Plant defense responses were activated as an elicitor in addition to the direct effect on the pathogen growth.

  13. Editorial: Using charcoal to fix the price of carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Gray

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using charcoal as a model is probably as close as we can come at present to developing a realistic cost for offsetting CO2 emissions. Of course, carbon taxation needs an equitable basis for calculation and, unlike the current offset costs that are based largely on what the voluntary market can sustain, fixed emission charges per weight may well be the incentive required to achieve elusive GHG reduction targets.

  14. Urea coated with oxidized charcoal reduces ammonia volatilization

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Mendes de Paiva; Reinaldo Bertola Cantarutti; Gelton Geraldo Fernandes Guimarães; Ivo Ribeiro da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Urea is the most consumed nitrogen fertilizer in the world. However, its agronomic and economic efficiency is reduced by the volatilization of NH3, which can reach 78 % of the applied nitrogen. The coating of urea granules with acidic compounds obtained by charcoal oxidation has the potential to reduce the volatilization, due to the acidic character, the high buffering capacity and CEC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of HNO3-oxidized carbon on the control of NH3 volatilization. These ...

  15. Acute Kidney Injury Predicts Mortality after Charcoal Burning Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chin; Tseng, Yi-Chia; Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Yang, Huang-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jen-Fen; Lin, Wey-Ran; Wang, I-Kuan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on risk factors for mortality in charcoal burning suicide. In this observational study, we analyzed the data of 126 patients with charcoal burning suicide that seen between 2002 and 2013. Patients were grouped according to status of renal damage as acute kidney injury (N = 49) or non-acute kidney injury (N = 77). It was found that patients with acute kidney injury suffered severer complications such as respiratory failure (P = 0.002), myocardial injury (P = 0.049), hepatic injury (P acute kidney injury. Moreover, patients with acute kidney injury suffered longer hospitalization duration (16.9 ± 18.3 versus 10.7 ± 10.9, P = 0.002) and had higher mortality rate (8.2% versus 0%, P = 0.011) than patients without injury. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was demonstrated that serum creatinine level (P = 0.019) and heart rate (P = 0.022) were significant risk factors for mortality. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with acute kidney injury suffered lower cumulative survival than without injury (P = 0.016). In summary, the overall mortality rate of charcoal burning suicide population was 3.2%, and acute kidney injury was a powerful predictor of mortality. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27430168

  16. Variability in oxidative degradation of charcoal: Influence of production conditions and environmental exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, P. L.; Bird, M. I.; Francis, S. M.; Thornton, B.; Midwood, A. J.; Scott, A. C.; Apperley, D.

    2011-05-01

    Charcoal is a key component of the Black Carbon (BC) continuum, where BC is characterized as a recalcitrant, fire-derived, polyaromatic material. Charcoal is an important source of palaeoenvironmental data, and of great interest as a potential carbon sink, due to its high apparent environmental stability. However, at least some forms of charcoal are clearly susceptible to environmental alteration and degradation over relatively short timescales. Although these processes have importance for the role of charcoal in global biogeochemistry, they remain poorly understood. Here we present results of an investigation into the susceptibility of a range of charcoal samples to oxidative degradation in acidified potassium dichromate. The study examines both freshly-produced charcoal, and charcoal exposed to environmental conditions for up to 50,000 years. We compare the proportion of carbon present in different forms between the samples, specifically with respect to the relative chemical resistance of these forms. This was undertaken in order to improve understanding of the post-depositional diagenetic changes affecting charcoal within environmental deposits. A wide range in chemical compositions are apparent both within and between the sample groups. In freshly-produced charcoal, material produced at 300 °C contains carbon with more labile forms than charcoal produced at ⩾400 °C, signifying a key chemical change over the 300-400 °C temperature range. Charcoal exposed to environmental depositional conditions is frequently composed of a highly carboxylated aromatic structure and contains a range of carbon fractions of varying oxidative resistance. These findings suggest that a significant number of the environmental charcoals have undergone post-depositional diagenetic alteration. Further, the data highlight the potential for the use of controlled progressive oxidative degradation as a method to characterize chemical differences between individual charcoal samples.

  17. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  18. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

  19. Discursive constructions of falls prevention : Discourses of active aging versus old age as disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Ulrich, Anita; Tanggaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    -responsible citizens who are physically active and motivated to participate in falls prevention programmes; discourses of old age as disease on the other hand construct “fall patients” who accept being passive in the health care system. Older citizens who are not in need of treatment or less physically active...... information and investment in falls prevention programs, many still drop out or decline to participate in such programs. The study explores how discourses cross swords in the domain of falls prevention. We identify two main discourses in the field: Discourses of active aging opposed to discourses of old age...... as disease. In discourses of active aging falls are constructed as preventable and not necessarily related to old age; in discourses of old age as disease falls are constructed as a disease of old age. Specific agent positions are created within discourses. Discourses of active aging construct self...

  20. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  1. Physical Activity Prevents Progression for Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. METHODS: The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates...... the impact of white matter changes on the transition of independent elderly subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated yearly during 3 years with a comprehensive clinical protocol and cognitive assessment with classification of cognitive impairment and dementia according to usual clinical criteria....... Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia...

  2. Ingestion of charcoal by the Amazonian earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus: a potential for tropical soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Topoliantz, Stéphanie; Ballof, Sylvain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Lavelle, Patrick; Betsch, Jean-Marie; Gaucher, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    International audience It is now attested that a large part of the Amazonian rain forest has been cultivated during Pre-Colombian times, using charcoal as an amendment. The incorporation of charcoal to the soil is a starting point for the formation of fertile Amazonian Dark Earths, still selected by Indian people for shifting cultivation. We showed that finely separated charcoal was commonly incorporated in the topsoil by Pontoscolex corethrurus, a tropical earthworm which thrives after bu...

  3. Comment on "Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Johannes; Sohi, Saran

    2008-09-01

    Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only by accelerated loss of humus but also by loss of charcoal. It is also unclear whether such loss is related to mineralization to carbon dioxide or to physical export.

  4. Thyroid screening in pregnancy - a compulsory preventive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrinic Olesea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obiectives: To assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in a group of pregnant women, originating from Dobrogea region of southeastern Romania, considered to be an area without iodine deficiency, including the Black Sea area. Materials and methods: We enrolled 324 pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy. Each case was reviewed by a detailed madical history, clinical examination and by serum dosage of thyroid hormones: TSH, FT4, and the antithyroidperoxidase. They were evaluated by comparison with trimester -specific reference range for TSH recommended by American Thyroid Association, then the results were compared with those obtained using the manufacturers reference range. Abortion rate was also analysed. Results: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was different in all the 3 trimesters: subclinical hypothyroidism being the most frequently approx. 24% of all cases; 7% of pregnant women had overt hypothyroidism. Incidence of thyrotoxicosis in entire study cases was approx. 5.5%. The most frecvent thyroid autoimune disorders were Hashimoto thyroiditis: 42 % - I trimester, 26,6% in II trimester and about 12,5 % in III-trimester; Graves disease have an incidence of only 0,9 % (n=3.The difference between reference methods eluded a lower number of cases using manufactures reference range for TSH (P< 0,001, but higher for recommended trimester - specific TSH value, confirming the undervalueted hypothesis. The risk of misclassifying the hypothyroidism is between 3 %-8 %. Conclusion: Necessity for thyroid hormone dosage periodic/trimesterly/ in pregnancy is a preventive measure. The reference values for hormonal dosage requires trimester-specific assessment. The possibility of hormonal disorders during pregnancy is common. The need for specific therapy at diagnosis depends on the nature of hormonal disorder. Further precautions are needed in pregnant women with known autoimmune thyroid disorder or newly diagnosed

  5. Properties of charcoal derived from hazelnut shell and the production of briquettes using pyrolytic oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Black Sea Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Science Education

    1999-02-01

    Hazelnut shells were converted to charcoal and to liquid, and gaseous products using pyrolysis at different temperatures. The chemical compositions and yields of the charcoals were determined as functions of the carbonization temperature. Higher heating values (HHVs) were estimated using both ultimate and proximate analyses. Hazelnut shells and the derived charcoal were densified to briquettes using pyrolytic oil or tar as binder. Briquette properties improved with an increase in briquetting pressures and percentages of binder materials. The best charcoal briquettes were obtained at 800 MPa pressure at 400 K. (author)

  6. Charcoal Morphometry for Paleoecological Analysis: The Effects of Fuel Type and Transportation on Morphological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair J. Crawford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Charcoal particles preserved in sediments are used as indicators of paleowildfire. Most research focuses on abundance as an indicator of fire frequency, but charcoals also convey information about the vegetation from which they are derived. One potential source of information is their morphology, which is influenced by the parent material, the nature of the fire, and subsequent transportation and burial. Methods: We charcoalified 26 materials from a range of plant taxa, and subjected them to simulated fluvial transport by tumbling them with water and gravel. We photographed the resulting particles, and used image analysis software to measure morphological parameters. Results: Leaf charcoal displayed a logarithmic decrease in area, and a logarithmic increase in circularity, with transportation time. Trends were less clear for stem or wood charcoal. Grass charcoal displayed significantly higher aspect ratios than other charcoal types. Conclusions: Leaf charcoal displays more easily definable relationships between morphological parameters and degree of breakdown than stem or wood charcoal. The aspect ratios of fossil mesocharcoal can indicate the broad botanical source of an assemblage. Coupled to estimates of charcoal abundance, this will improve understanding of the variation in flammability of ancient ecosystems.

  7. Impact of Plasma Surface Treatment on Bamboo Charcoal/silver Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, K.; Vijayalakshmi, K. A.; Karthikeyan, N.

    2016-10-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) accompanied silver (Ag) nanocomposite is synthesized through sol-gel method. The produced BC/Ag nanocomposite was surface modified by air and oxygen plasma treatments. Silver ions (Ag+) will serve to improve the antibacterial activity as well as the surface area of BC. Plasma treatment has improved the surface functional groups, crystalline intensity and antibacterial activity of the prepared nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that Ag nanoparticles have good agreement with BC and the particle size has a mean diameter of 20-40nm. We observe the carboxyl functional groups in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after the oxygen plasma treatment. Moreover surface area and adsorption were analyzed by using the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area (SBET) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  8. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  9. A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Kupryianchyk, Darya; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K(D)) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K(D) values at 1 µg/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and O/C ratios and organic compound octanol-water partitioning coefficient, were correlated with KD values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r(2) = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K(D)=(0.18 ± 0.06) log K(ow) + (5.74 ± 1.40) log T + (0.85 ± 0.15) log SA + (1.60 ± 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 ± 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 ± 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation. PMID:26347927

  10. A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Kupryianchyk, Darya; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K(D)) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K(D) values at 1 µg/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and O/C ratios and organic compound octanol-water partitioning coefficient, were correlated with KD values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r(2) = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K(D)=(0.18 ± 0.06) log K(ow) + (5.74 ± 1.40) log T + (0.85 ± 0.15) log SA + (1.60 ± 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 ± 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 ± 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

  11. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  12. Iran’s Activities on Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction of Drug Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saberi Zafarghandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context In the present review study, authors investigated Iran’s activities regarding prevention, abuse and harm reduction of drugs nationwide. The issue appears to be important in order to show the trend of activities in the country. Evidence Acquisition In this report, authors gathered data from different Farsi/English peer review journals issued both in printed and online versions. These journals have been indexed in PubMed, ISI, ISC, SID, Magiran, UN, etc. These are among the most referred and cited databases. Results Summarizing the data led to three distinguished sections: 1 drug supply reduction activities; 2 drug demand reduction activities; 3 harm reduction activities. Conclusions As the results showed, the trend of activities was encouraging and some additional activities could be included to future programs relying on early-onset preventions.

  13. Study on Applications of Nanotechnology in Bamboo Charcoal Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangChengPeng; ChengJianBing; LuJianMing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials from 1 to 100 nm in length.Internationaly,NT is defined as the understanding,manipulation,and control of matter at the length mentioned above,thus,the physical,chemical,and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms,molecules,and bulk matter) can be engineered,synthesized,and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials,devices,structures,and systems.NT at the molecular level can be used to develop desired textile with special feature,such as high strength,unique surface structure,soft feeling,durability,water resistance,incombustibility,antimicrobial property,and so on.Indeed,NT has created numerous opportunities and challenges in the need of research,by the advancing of the technology in textile industry of China and the importing of bamboo charcoal fibers of nanotechnology from foreign countries.This paper focuses on summarizing recent applications of NT,its characters and functional test for bamboo charcoal fibers.

  14. Spatial analysis of charcoal kiln remains in the former royal forest district Tauer (Lower Lusatia, North German Lowlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Müller, Frank; Rösler, Horst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations have revealed more than thousand charcoal kiln remains (CKRs) in the prefield of the active opencast lignite mine Jänschwalde, situated about 150 km SE of Berlin (SE Brandenburg, Germany). The charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork Peitz nearby, which operated from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. In a first approach, to estimate the dimension of the charcoal production, CKRs were mapped on shaded-relief maps (SRMs) derived from high-resolution LiDAR data (Raab et al. 2015). Subsequently, for a selected test area, identified CKRs on the SRMs were compared with archaeologically excavated CKRs in the field. This survey showed a considerably number of falsely detected sites. Therefore, the data was critically re-evaluated using additional relief visualisations. Further, we extended the CKR mapping to areas which are not archaeologically investigated. The study area, the former royal forest district Tauer, consists of two separate areas: the Tauersche Heide (c. 96 km2 area) N of Peitz and the area Jänschwalde (c. 32 km2 area) NE of Peitz. The study area is characterized by a flat topography. Different former and current anthropogenic uses (e.g., military training, solar power plant, forestry measures) have affected the study area, resulting in extensive disturbances of the terrain surface. The revised CKR abundance in the study area Jänschwalde was considerably smaller than the numbers produced by our first approach. Further, the CKR mapping revealed, that a total record of the CKRs is not possible for various reasons. Despite these limitations, a solid database can be provided for a much larger area than before. Basic statistic parameters of the CKR diameters and all comparative statistical tests were calculated using SPSS. To detect underlying spatial relationships in the CKR site distribution, we applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a method to test for local spatial autocorrelation between neighbouring sites. The test is

  15. Environmental Crisis or Sustainable Development Opportunity? Transforming the Charcoal Sector in Tanzania : A Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The policy note builds on experience from both Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries with similar socioeconomic and environmental contexts. This policy note puts forward and discusses a range of policy measures along the entire charcoal value chain in Tanzania. The development of this policy note benefited from a variety of recent studies on charcoal utilization and trade conduc...

  16. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  17. Impact of Credit Access on Charcoal Productivity: Implication for Sustainable Development, Oyo- State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olagunju, F. I.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of credit on charcoal productivity was assessed in Oyo state of southwestern Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling method was used to select 140 respondents. Data used in this study were gathered from traditional charcoal producers that have access and no access to credit with the aid of interview schedule; the analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, Logit and multiple regression models. It was revealed that about 20% of the charcoal producers used loans from co-operative societies while 55% sourced their funds from personal savings. The model has a sigma square (σ2 value of 42.741 P<0.01which is an indication of a good fit and a normal distribution of the error term. About 50% of the charcoal farmers had limited access to formal funds due to insufficient collateral securities and this had negative effect on their business hence they recorded low level of farm income. The coefficient of these variables, years of experience in charcoal production, level of education, sources of credit, sources of log and their quantities were positively significant at 5% level. The multiple regression analysis revealed that frequency of extension visit, household size, amount and source of credit had a significant direct relationship with charcoal productivity. The study therefore concludes that credit acquisition by the charcoal producers had a significant impact on the charcoal productivity which brings about a sustainable development in the study area.

  18. Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Njenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Nairobi, Kenya, use 700 tonnes of charcoal per day, producing about88 tonnes of charcoal dust that is found in most of the charcoal retailing stalls that is disposed of inwater drainage systems or in black garbage heaps. The high costs of cooking fuel results in poorhouseholds using unhealthy materials such as plastic waste. Further, poor households are opting tocook foods that take a short time to prepare irrespective of their nutritional value. This articlepresents experiences with community self-help groups producing charcoal fuel briquettes fromcharcoal dust in poorer nieghbourhoods of Nairobi for home use and sale. Households thatproduced charcoal fuel briquettes for own use and those that bought them saved 70% and 30% ofmoney spent on cooking energy respectively. The charcoal fuel briquettes have been found to beenvironmentally beneficial since they produce less smoke and increase total cooking energy bymore than 15%, thereby saving an equivalent volume of trees that would be cut down for charcoal.Charcoal briquette production is a viable opportunity for good quality and affordable cooking fuel.Bioenergy and waste management initiatives should promote recovery of organic by-products forcharcoal briquette production.

  19. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Criscuoli

    Full Text Available The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2 with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2. After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  20. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  1. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. The authors sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time

  2. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    particles, extractable DOC was lower and less aromatic than in the adjacent control soil, likely due to strong sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) onto charcoal particles. We suggest that higher sorption of DOM onto the surface of biochar in the control soil provided additional acid functional groups and thus increased the surface charge to a greater extent than in the DOC poorer kiln soil. Hence, biochars incubated in the kiln soil showed less changes in CEC and surface acidity. Higher availability of DOM in the control soil could also stimulate microbial activity to a larger extent, resulting in higher oxidation rates of biochars incubated in the control soil.

  3. The physician's role in prescribing physical activity for the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, John H M; Ferro, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure control and prevention of hypertension can be achieved by both pharmacological and lifestyle interventions; one important lifestyle intervention is physical activity. Participation in regular physical activity can modestly lower blood pressure by reducing total peripheral resistance; it can also reduce the risk of developing hypertension and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Therefore, physical activity is a recommended intervention for the majority of hypertensive or p...

  4. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  5. A solid fuel which includes coal, coke and charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuti, Y.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Sonetaka, K.

    1983-04-15

    A composition of solid domestic fuel is proposed with a reduced liberation of toxic gases (CO and hydrocarbon (Uv)) upon combustion. The fuel is produced from (percent) 80 mineral coal, 10 charcoal, 10 CaC03 with an additive of 2 percent methylcellulose to the charge. Briquets are made from the mixture with perforated openings which have a transverse cross section (PS) of 10 to 200 square millimeters. The ratio of the total transverse cross section of all the openings and the transverse cross section of the fuel briquet, including the area of the openings is 25 to 70. Systems for disposition of the openings in the fuel are cited, along with the cross section of a furnace with the loaded fuel and the dependencies of the CO content in the furnace gas on the properties of the fuel.

  6. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  7. Avaliação do perfil de trabalhadores e de condições ergonômicas na atividade de produção de carvão vegetal em bateria de fornos de superfície do tipo "rabo-quente" Evaluation of worker profiles and ergonomic conditions of the charcoal production activity in a line of surface kilns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Pimenta

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida no ambiente de trabalho da produção de carvão vegetal em bateria de fornos de superfície do tipo "rabo-quent"e, localizado na latitude de 17·27' oeste e longitude de 45º11' sul no Estado de Minas Gerais, nos meses de março a junho de 2003. O objetivo geral foi avaliar o perfil de trabalhadores e as condições ergonômicas na atividade de produção de carvão vegetal em bateria de fornos de superfície do tipo "rabo-quente". Os objetivos específicos foram: a avaliar as características pessoais, sociais, econômicas e profissionais do operador; b estudar o clima do local de trabalho (temperatura; e c analisar a capacidade aeróbica do trabalhador. A metodologia empregada foi a proposta por Couto (1996 Apud (1987 e Sant'anna (1998. Pela análise dos dados, pôde-se concluir que o indivíduo da amostra era jovem, mestiço, casado, com poucos filhos e poucos dependentes financeiros, baixo nível de escolaridade, estatura média de 171,40 cm e média de peso corporal de 68,40 kg, 20% de analfabetos, de origem predominantemente rural e que professava a religião Católica. O valor do Indice de Bulbo Úmido Termômetro de Globo (IBUTG encontrado no ambiente de produção de carvão vegetal estava de acordo com a NR 15. A capacidade aeróbica em mililitros de oxigênio por quilograma por minuto apresentou valor médio igual a 35,17 (ml02/kg/min; o menor valor foi igual a 30,56 (ml 02/kg/min e o maior, igual a 39,23 (ml02/kg/min.This investigation was developed in the work environment of charcoal production in a line of surface kilns located at 17º 27' w latitude and 45º 11' 5 longitude in the state of Minas Gerais from March to June 2003. The general objective of this work was to evaluate the worker profile and ergonomic conditions of the charcoal production activity in a line of surface kilns. The specific objectives of this work were: a to evaluate the individual, social, economic and professional

  8. Prevention of Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy Through Activation of the Central Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Mohamed; Xu, Jijun J.; Diaz, Philippe; Brown, David L.; Cogdell, David; Bie, Bihua; Hu, Jianhua; Craig, Suzanne; Hittelman, Walter N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy, especially after multiple courses of paclitaxel. The development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy is associated with the activation of microglia followed by the activation and proliferation of astrocytes, and the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn. Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors are expressed in the microglia in neurodegenerative disease models. Methods To explore the potential of CB2 agonists for preventing paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, we designed and synthesized a novel CB2-selective agonist, namely MDA7. The effect of MDA7 in preventing paclitaxel-induced allodynia was assessed in rats and in CB2+/+ and CB2–/– mice. We hypothesize that the CB2 receptor functions in a negative-feedback loop and that early MDA7 administration can blunt the neuroinflammatory response to paclitaxel and prevent mechanical allodynia through interference with specific signaling pathways. Results We found that MDA7 prevents paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in rats and mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner without compromising paclitaxel's antineoplastic effect. MDA7's neuroprotective effect was absent in CB2-/- mice and was blocked by CB2 antagonists, suggesting that MDA7's action directly involves CB2 receptor activation. MDA7 treatment was found to interfere with early events in the paclitaxel-induced neuroinflammatory response as evidenced by relatively reduced Toll-like receptor and CB2 expression in the lumbar spinal cord, reduced levels of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activity, reduced numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes, and reduced secretion of proinflammatory mediators in vivo and in in vitro models. Conclusions Our findings suggest an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and may permit more aggressive use of active chemotherapeutic regimens with reduced long-term sequelae

  9. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined. Three years after applications

  10. Population-Based Childhood Overweight Prevention : Outcomes of the 'Be Active, Eat Right' Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grieken, Amy; Veldhuis, Lydian; Renders, Carry M.; Borsboom, Gerard J.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Objective: An overweight prevention protocol was used in the 'Be active, eat right' study; parents of overweight children (5 years) were offered healthy lifestyle counseling by youth health care professionals. Effects of the protocol on child BMI and waist circumference at age 7 years were evaluated

  11. Promoting Physical Activity among Youth through Community-Based Prevention Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; McDermott, Robert J.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nickelson, Jen; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; DeBate, Rita D.; Phillips, Leah M.; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age)…

  12. The impact of charcoal production on forest degradation: a case study in Tete, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, F.; Silva, J. A.; Machoco, R.; Meque, C. H.; Sitoe, A.; Ribeiro, N.; Anderson, K.; Ombe, Z. A.; Baule, S. H.; Tucker, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    Charcoal production for urban energy consumption is a main driver of forest degradation in sub Saharan Africa. Urban growth projections for the continent suggest that the relevance of this process will increase in the coming decades. Forest degradation associated to charcoal production is difficult to monitor and commonly overlooked and underrepresented in forest cover change and carbon emission estimates. We use a multitemporal dataset of very high-resolution remote sensing images to map kiln locations in a representative study area of tropical woodlands in central Mozambique. The resulting maps provided a characterization of the spatial extent and temporal dynamics of charcoal production. Using an indirect approach we combine kiln maps and field information on charcoal making to describe the magnitude and intensity of forest degradation linked to charcoal production, including aboveground biomass and carbon emissions. Our findings reveal that forest degradation associated to charcoal production in the study area is largely independent from deforestation driven by agricultural expansion and that its impact on forest cover change is in the same order of magnitude as deforestation. Our work illustrates the feasibility of using estimates of urban charcoal consumption to establish a link between urban energy demands and forest degradation. This kind of approach has potential to reduce uncertainties in forest cover change and carbon emission assessments in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Manipulation of ventilator settings to prevent active expiration against positive pressure inflation.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, D; Milner, A D; Hopkin, I E

    1985-01-01

    Recent publications have suggested that in infants receiving artificial ventilatory support a particular pattern of interaction between spontaneous breaths and ventilator inflations (active expiration against each ventilator inflation) may be important in the production of pneumothoraces. We have looked at patterns of interaction from 47 preterm infants studied on 51 occasions. We found that active expiration against the ventilator occurred on a total of 16 occasions. This pattern was prevent...

  14. The role of physical activity in the prevention of breast and endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Tahereh

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explore through epidemiologic studies the role of physical activity in preventing breast and endometrial cancer in women. First, we assessed risk for endometrial (Paper I) and breast (Paper II) cancer in relation to occupational physical activity in a large nationwide cohort generated through linkage between census data in 1960 and 1970 and the Cancer Register 1971-1989. We focused on women with the same level of estimated occupational physi...

  15. Physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease: implications for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Tina; Schultz, William M; McCue, Andrew A; Lambert, Cameron T; Sandesara, Pratik B; Eapen, Danny J; Gordon, Neil F; Franklin, Barry A; Sperling, Laurence S

    2016-06-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide. Because regular physical activity (PA) independently decreases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) while also having a positive, dose-related impact on other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, it has increasingly become a focus of CHD prevention. Current guidelines recommend 30 min of moderate-intensity PA 5 days a week, but exercise regimens remain underused. PA adherence can be fostered with a multilevel approach that involves active individual participation, physician counselling and health coaching, community involvement, and policy change, with incorporation of cardiac rehabilitation for patients requiring secondary prevention. Viewing exercise quantity as a vital sign, prescribing PA like a medication, and using technology, such as smartphone applications, encourage a global shift in focus from CVD treatment to prevention. Community-wide, home-based and internet-based prevention initiatives may also offer a developing pool of resources that can be tapped into to promote education and PA compliance. This review summarises the underlying rationale, current guidelines for and recommendations to cultivate a comprehensive focus in the endorsement of PA in the primary and secondary prevention of CHD. PMID:26941396

  16. Ethanol Regulation of Synaptic GABAA α4 Receptors Is Prevented by Protein Kinase A Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Stephen L; Bohnsack, John Peyton; Morrow, A Leslie

    2016-04-01

    Ethanol alters GABAA receptor trafficking and function through activation of protein kinases, and these changes may underlie ethanol dependence and withdrawal. In this study, we used subsynaptic fraction techniques and patch-clamp electrophysiology to investigate the biochemical and functional effects of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) activation by ethanol on synaptic GABAA α4 receptors, a key target of ethanol-induced changes. Rat cerebral cortical neurons were grown for 18 days in vitro and exposed to ethanol and/or kinase modulators for 4 hours, a paradigm that recapitulates GABAergic changes found after chronic ethanol exposure in vivo. PKA activation by forskolin or rolipram during ethanol exposure prevented increases in P2 fraction α4 subunit abundance, whereas inhibiting PKA had no effect. Similarly, in the synaptic fraction, activation of PKA by rolipram in the presence of ethanol prevented the increase in synaptic α4 subunit abundance, whereas inhibiting PKA in the presence of ethanol was ineffective. Conversely, PKC inhibition in the presence of ethanol prevented the ethanol-induced increases in synaptic α4 subunit abundance. Finally, we found that either activating PKA or inhibiting PKC in the presence of ethanol prevented the ethanol-induced decrease in GABA miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current decay τ1, whereas inhibiting PKA had no effect. We conclude that PKA and PKC have opposing effects in the regulation of synaptic α4 receptors, with PKA activation negatively modulating, and PKC activation positively modulating, synaptic α4 subunit abundance and function. These results suggest potential targets for restoring normal GABAergic functioning in the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

  17. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  18. Black carbon quantification in charcoal-enriched soils by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), the solid residue of the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, is ubiquitous in soil and sediments, fulfilling several environmental services such as long-term carbon storage. BC is a particularly important terrestrial carbon pool due to its large residence time compared to thermally unaltered organic matter, which is largely attributed to its aromatic structure. However, BC refers to a wide range of pyrogenic products from partly charred biomass to highly condensed soot, with a degree of aromaticity and aromatic condensation varying to a large extend across the BC continuum. As a result, BC quantification largely depends on operational definitions, with the extraction efficiency of each method varying across the entire BC range. In our study, we investigated the adequacy of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the quantification of BC in charcoal-enriched soils collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial charcoal kilns in forest and cropland of Wallonia, Belgium, where charcoal residues are mixed to uncharred soil organic matter (SOM). We compared the results to the fraction of the total organic carbon (TOC) resisting to K2Cr2O7 oxidation, another simple method often used for BC measurement. In our soils, DSC clearly discriminates SOM from chars. SOM is less thermally stable than charcoal and shows a peak maximum around 295°C. In forest and agricultural charcoal-enriched soils, three peaks were attributed to the thermal degradation of BC at 395, 458 and 523°C and 367, 420 and 502 °C, respectively. In cropland, the amount of BC calculated from the DSC peaks is closely related (slope of the linear regression = 0.985, R²=0.914) to the extra organic carbon content measured at charcoal kiln sites relative to the charcoal-unaffected adjacent soils, which is a positive indicator of the suitability of DSC for charcoal quantification in soil. The first BC peak, which may correspond to highly degraded charcoal, contributes to a

  19. Telmisartan prevention of LPS-induced microglia activation involves M2 microglia polarization via CaMKKβ-dependent AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Yurong; Wang, Yunjie; He, Ling; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Huang, Zhangjian; Liao, Hong; Li, Jia; Saavedra, Juan M; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    Brain inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurological diseases. During brain inflammation, microglia cells are activated, producing neurotoxic molecules and neurotrophic factors depending on their pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. It has been demonstrated that Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) ameliorate brain inflammation and reduce M1 microglia activation. The ARB telmisartan suppresses glutamate-induced upregulation of inflammatory genes in cultured primary neurons. We wished to clarify whether telmisartan, in addition, prevents microglia activation through polarization to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. We found that telmisartan promoted M2 polarization and reduced M1 polarization in LPS-stimulated BV2 and primary microglia cells, effects partially dependent on PPARγ activation. The promoting effects of telmisartan on M2 polarization, were attenuated by an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor or AMPK knockdown, indicating that AMPK activation participates on telmisartan effects. Moreover, in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells, telmisartan enhancement of M2 gene expression was prevented by the inhibitor STO-609 and siRNA of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ), an upstream kinase of AMPK. Furthermore, telmisartan enhanced brain AMPK activation and M2 gene expression in a mouse model of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In addition, telmisartan reduced the LPS-induced sickness behavior in this in vivo model, and this effect was prevented by prior administration of an AMPK inhibitor. Our results indicate that telmisartan can be considered as a novel AMPK activator, suppressing microglia activation by promoting M2 polarization. Telmisartan may provide a novel, safe therapeutic approach to treat brain disorders associated with enhanced inflammation.

  20. The Utilization of Bottom Ash Coal for Briquette Products by Adding Teak Leaves Charcoal, Coconut Shell Charcoal, and Rice Husk Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of the availability of energy sources especially fuel oil has become a serious threat for the society. The use of coal for energy source as the replacement of fuel oil, in one hand, is very profitable, but on the other hand, will cause problem which is the coal ash residue. This coal ash is a by-product of coal combustion. This coal ash contains bottom ash. Through this observation, the bottom ash can be processed to be charcoal if added by teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. Also, this observation needs to add binder materials for further processing in order to form briquette. It can be used as alternative fuel, the utilization of bottom ash and biomass will give positive impact to the environment. This observation was conducted by using compositions such as bottom ash, teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. The treatment was using comparison 100%:0% ; 80%:20% ; 60%:40% ; 50%:50% ; 40%:60% ; 20%:80% ; 0%:100%. The result that the best briquette was on the composition of 20% bottom ash : 80% coconut shell. The characteristic values from that composition were moisture content of 3.45%, ash content of 17,32%, calorific value of 7.945,72 Cal/gr, compressive strength of 2,18 kg/cm2, level of CO of 105 mg/m3, and heavy metals Cu of 29,83 µg/g and  Zn 32,99 µg/g. The characteristic value from each briquette composition treatment showed that the increasing usage proportion of biomass as added material for briquette was able to increase its moisture content and calorific value. Besides, it is also able to decrease its ash content and compressive strength

  1. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li Li; Yan Liu, Dao; Ma, Li Qun;

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect......-activated receptor-gamma, and expression of fatty acid synthase. Long-term feeding experiments were undertaken in wild-type mice and TRPV1 knockout mice. We detected TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans. In vitro, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin dose-dependently induced...... in visceral adipose tissue from obese humans was accompanied by reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx. The oral administration of capsaicin for 120 days prevented obesity in male wild type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice assigned to high fat diet. We conclude that the activation of TRPV1 channels...

  2. Physical activity in children: prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine; Simmons, David

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that increased physical activity is beneficial for blood glucose homeostasis and the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This chapter takes a life course approach with an emphasis on the intrauterine and childhood stages of life. Firstly, growth and development at critical periods with a focus on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue; then, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are considered in relation to physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The importance of the development of fundamental movement skills in early childhood for both physical fitness and also growth and development is emphasised. Physical activity guidelines in westernised countries are examined for commonalities. Finally, the effective translation of the evidence base for the benefits of physical activity into randomised controlled trials and then into real-world public health services that are sustainable is addressed with a case study from New Zealand of Project Energize--a through-school physical activity and nutrition intervention. Physical activity, alongside a 'healthy diet' is arguably the best preventive measure and treatment for both obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is an essential and normal activity of daily life, and all aspects of the life course and the environment should support physical activity.

  3. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    that employees of small enterprises are subject to higher risks than the employees of larger ones, and that small enterprises have difficulties in controlling risk. The most effective preventive approaches seem to be simple and low cost solutions, disseminated through personal contact. It is important to develop......The scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises has been reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research strategy. During the last couple of years, there has been a significant increase...... in the number of studies of small enterprises, but the research community is scattered between many different disciplines and institutions. There is a lack of evaluation of intervention studies, both in terms of effect and practical applicability. However, there is sufficiently strong evidence to conclude...

  4. Prevention of domino effect: from active and passive strategies to inherently safer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Valerio; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Salzano, Ernesto

    2007-01-10

    The possible application of an inherent safety approach to the prevention of domino accidents was explored. The application of the inherent safety guidewords to the definition of effective actions for the prevention of domino events was analyzed. Due to the constraints originated by the conventional approach to process design, the "limitation of effects" guideword resulted the more effective in the identification of inherent safety actions to avoid domino events. Detailed design criteria for the improvement of layout in the framework of inherent safety were identified and discussed. Simple rules of thumbs were obtained for the preliminary assessment of safety distances and of critical inventories with respect to the escalation of fires and explosions. The results evidenced that the integration of inherent safety criteria with conventional passive or active protections seems a promising route for the prevention of severe domino accidental scenarios in chemical and process plants.

  5. Physical activity in prevention and management of obesity and type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James O; Stuht, Jennifer; Wyatt, Holly R; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2006-01-01

    Obesity and type-2 diabetes can be considered diseases of physical inactivity. Physically activity protects against type-2 diabetes through its positive effects on weight management and on the metabolic pathways involved in glycemic control that are not weight-dependent. Increasing physical activity is one of the most effective strategies both for preventing type-2 diabetes and for managing it once it is present. However, we still face an enormous challenge in getting people to achieve sustainable increases in physical activity. A promising strategy is to get people walking more, starting small and increasing gradually over time.

  6. Adherence to Diet and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Lindsay N; Garcia, David O; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal; Roe, Denise J; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that adherence to health promotion guidelines for diet, physical activity, and maintenance of healthy body weight may decrease cancer incidence and mortality. A systematic review was performed to examine associations between adherence to established cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity and overall cancer incidence and mortality. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched following the current recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Twelve studies met inclusion criteria for this review. High versus low adherence to established nutrition and physical activity cancer prevention guidelines was consistently and significantly associated with decreases of 10% to 61% in overall cancer incidence and mortality. Consistent significant reductions were also shown for breast cancer incidence (19%-60%), endometrial cancer incidence (23%-60%), and colorectal cancer incidence in both men and women (27%-52%). Findings for lung cancer incidence were equivocal, and no significant relationships were found between adherence and ovarian or prostate cancers. Adhering to cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity is consistently associated with lower risks of overall cancer incidence and mortality, including for some site-specific cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1018-28. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27340121

  7. [The Spanish strategy for nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of obesity (NAOS Strategy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros Arribas, Juan Manuel; Dal-Re Saavedra, Marián; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Villar Villalba, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, the prevalence of which is still on the rise, is related to the main chronic diseases affecting the health of the population. Therefore, in 2004, the World Health Assembly approved the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health with the aim of reducing the risk factors of nontransmittable diseases related to unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Along this same line, the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs began implementing the NAOS Strategy in 2005 as a platform from which to include and promote all those initiatives contributing to achieving the necessary social change in the promotion of healthy eating and the prevention of a sedentary lifestyle by meeting certain specific challenges within different scopes of action. The NAOS Strategy extends far beyond the healthcare and educational areas, by combining actions in all those sectors of society playing a role in preventing obesity. Informative campaigns, agreements with public and private institutions, voluntary working agreements, educational programs and supporting health promotion initiatives are some of the activities being carried out as part of the NAOS Strategy. Carrying out these activities and incorporating yet others, in conjunction with the work of evaluating and monitoring all of these activities, will be what is going to make it possible to maintain a high degree of effectiveness in preventing obesity. PMID:18274349

  8. The effect of major depression on participation in preventive health care activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavorato Dina H

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine whether major depressive episodes (MDE contribute to a lower rate of participation in three prevention activities: blood pressure checks, mammograms and Pap tests. Methods The data source for this study was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS, a longitudinal study that started in 1994 and has subsequently re-interviewed its participants every two years. The NPHS included a short form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF to assess past year MDE and also collected data on participation in preventive activities. Initially, we examined whether respondents with MDE in a particular year were less likely to participate in screening during that same year. In order to assess whether MDE negatively altered the pattern of participation, those successfully screened at the baseline interview in 1994 were identified and divided into cohorts depending on their MDE status. Proportional hazard models were used to quantify the effect of MDE on subsequent participation in screening. Results No effect of MDE on participation in the three preventive activities was identified either in the cross-sectional or longitudinal analysis. Adjustment for a set of relevant covariates did not alter this result. Conclusion Whereas MDE might be expected to reduce the frequency of participation in screening activities, no evidence for this was found in the current analysis. Since people with MDE may contact the health system more frequently, this may offset any tendency of the illness itself to reduce participation in screening.

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF RENAL ISCHEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmoy D. Choudhury et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Ocimum canum (OC were studied for its antioxidant activity and its role to prevent renal ischemia. The in vitro antioxidant models used were DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl peroxide radical scavenging method, reducing power assay & FRAP assay. The study was carried out at different concentration (250, 500, 1000, 2000 µg/ml. Further, the antioxidant activity was studied by using in vivo method to prove its potency in preventing ischemia by incorporating renal ischemia/reperfusion model in Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four different groups of six rats in each group. Group-1 was served as Control and received oral saline only once daily for 28 days. Group-2 received (oral saline + RI. Group 3 received Ocimum canum ethanolic leaf extract 300mg/kg bwt dose orally for 28 days, Group-4 were pretreated with Ocimum canum ethanolic leaf extract an oral dose of 100mg/kg bwt for 28 days. After the experimental period all rats were sacrificed and antioxidant defense system and oxidative stress in renal tissue was investigated by histopathological study. The significant results were obtained for all in vitro models and in vivo models. A significant increase in levels of Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD, & decrease of Malondialdehyde (MDA was found in rats of Group-4 when compared with control. The results of present study indicate that the ethanolic leaf extract of Ocimum canum has significant antioxidant activity and can prevent renal ischemia.

  10. Forestry and charcoal burning in the vicinity of the ironwork Peitz (South Brandenburg, Germany) - What do we know from historical and archaeological data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takla, Melanie; Frank, Müller; Horst, Rösler; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The former royal forest districts around Peitz (South Brandenburg, Germany) were used to produce charcoal for the ironwork Peitz (1554 to 1856). More than 800 archaeologically excavated ground plans of charcoal kilns give evidence of the burning activity in the study area "Jänschwalde Heide" which is only a small part of the whole forest district. The study area in the apron of the active lignite mine Jänschwalde comprises the royal forest "Jänschwalder Heide" and the surrounding community forests. Our study approach combines archaeological research, a GIS-based approach (historical maps, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, etc.) and archival studies. The charcoal kilns have been registered since 1990 and since 2005 they are systematically excavated and documented. First dendrochronological data reach from the 17th to the 19th century confirming charcoal burning during the operation period of the iron work. Moreover 5000 additional kilns were identified and digitized from Shaded Relief Maps (SRM) created from ALS data (resolution 1p m-2; height accuracy +- 15 cm). A kiln field of such a dimension has not been documented and investigated for the North German Lowlands so far. It raises the question about the effects of charcoal burning on the forests and the landscape during the last three hundred years. Here we present the evaluation of the kiln data with regard to their size, frequency and spatial distribution. Besides the large number, the kilns have also large diameters (modal value 17 m, mean 12,5 m). Outside the boundaries of the royal forest the kilns are smaller and they were probably used to produce charcoal for local handcraft. These findings are compared to historical records from the first forest inventories (18th/19th century) like forest age and area, with historical forest laws and wood consumption data of the iron work. There is growing evidence that despite of the large extent of the kiln field the wood reserves in the forest districts about 1800

  11. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  12. Activity and health prevention in preschools--contents of an activity-based intervention programme (PAKT--Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial)

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Kristina; Mauer, Sonja; Obinger, Matthias; Lenz, Dorothea; Hebestreit, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aim To establish an effective and feasible physical activity intervention programme for preschools. Methods A multicomponent physical activity intervention programme with three components was developed for the preschool setting based on the psychomotor concept: daily structured physical education lessons for the children provided by the kindergarten teachers, physical activity homework for the chi...

  13. Chemical structure of wood charcoal by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Nicole; Harper, David; Rials, Timothy; Elder, Thomas

    2006-05-17

    In this work, the effect of temperature on charcoal structure and chemical composition is investigated for four tree species. Wood charcoal carbonized at various temperatures is analyzed by mid infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis and by thermogravimetric analysis to characterize the chemical composition during the carbonization process. The multivariate models of charcoal were able to distinguish between species and wood thermal treatments, revealing that the characteristics of the wood charcoal depend not only on the wood species, but also on the carbonization temperature. This work demonstrates the potential of mid infrared spectroscopy in the whiskey industry, from the identification and classification of the wood species for the mellowing process to the chemical characterization of the barrels after the toasting and charring process. PMID:19127715

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akowuah, Joseph O.; Kemausuor, Francis [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Mitchual, Stephen J. [Univ. of Education, Winneba, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Design and Technology Education

    2012-11-01

    In the absence of the widespread distribution of modern cooking fuels in developing countries, efforts are being made to utilise biomass residues which abound in most of these countries. This is intended to replace portions of firewood and charcoal and thereby reduce the cutting down of forests for fuel purposes. Briquettes from agro-residues have therefore been promoted as a better replacement to firewood and charcoals for heating, cooking and other industrial applications in both urban and rural communities. This study sought to assess the physico-chemical properties of charcoal briquettes produced in Ghana and also establish demand for and willingness of potential users to substitute charcoal and firewood with a charcoal briquette. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the briquettes. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the handling and burning characteristics of the charcoal briquette. A survey was undertaken a week later using questionnaires to access the willingness of the potential users to use the briquettes. Sixty respondents were purposively selected from households and the hospitality industry for the survey. Results of the physico-chemical assessment of the briquettes were as follows: length (75 to 120 mm), moisture content (5.7% dry basis), density (1.1 g/cm{sup 3}), ash content (2.6%), fixed carbon (20.7%), volatile matter (71%) and calorific value (4,820 kcal/kg). Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette is easy to ignite, has a long burning time and has good heat output. Respondents also observed that the briquettes did not give off sparks and had less smoke and ash content as compared to the regular charcoal they often used. Finally, 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquettes if the price was comparable to charcoal. (orig.)

  15. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, B.; Lehmann, J.; Zech, W.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical properties of charcoal as affected by different combustion procedures, and the eff...

  16. Entrepreneurial Skill Development: A Case Study Of The Design And Construction Of Charcoal Baking Oven

    OpenAIRE

    Asibeluo I.S; Okeri P.E; Onwurah C; Adiogba M

    2015-01-01

    This research, concerns the design and construction of a charcoal baking oven using locally available materials as a case study for entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The baking oven in this work has a rectangular box like shape with a total baking area of 315000mm2 . The oven is used for baking, drying and warming of food e.g cakes, bread, fish, meat etc. It is constructed with mild steel and angle bars. It comprises baking tray, housing frame, charcoal heating t...

  17. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan

    2013-05-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regular physical activity prevents development of chronic pain and activation of central neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Sluka, Kathleen A; O'Donnell, James M.; DANIELSON, JESSICA; Rasmussen, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a significant health problem and is associated with increases in pain during acute physical activity. Regular physical activity is protective against many chronic diseases; however, it is unknown if it plays a role in development of chronic pain. The current study induced physical activity by placing running wheels in home cages of mice for 5 days or 8 wk and compared these to sedentary mice without running wheels in their home cages. Chronic muscle pain was in...

  19. Progress in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a general overview of the progress, which has been done in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania. It describes the measures, which were taken to strengthen nuclear material accounting and control and physical protection. The current status of the national legislation and the functions of institutions involved in control of nuclear material and combating of illicit trafficking are discussed. (author)

  20. How likely are older people to take up different falls prevention activities?

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, Lucy; Kirby, Sarah; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Gilbert, Rebecca; Whitehead, Sarah; Todd, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which older people are willing to engage in different falls prevention activities, and how this may vary in different sectors of the older population. Methods: A survey sent to patients aged over 54 in ten general practices in the Southampton, Bristol and Manchester areas of the UK in 2006 yielded 5,440 respondents. The survey assessed willingness to attend classes of strength and balance training (SBT), carry out SBT at home, or accept suppo...

  1. Does physical and mental activity prevent cognitive impairment? Evidence from animal research

    OpenAIRE

    Azucena Begega

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, several pharmacological strategies have been developed to prevent age-related cognitive impairment. However, the ineffectiveness of the majority of these strategies has led to growing interest in behavioural intervention. Cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to provide significant benefits by counteracting cognitive impairment and dementia. Animal models have provided information on the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the formation of cognitiv...

  2. Present Research and Standardization Activities on Small Space Debris at Space Environment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Yukihito; Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Higashide, Masumi; Okudaira, Osamu; Kamiya, Koki; Nitta, Kumi

    2016-07-01

    The micro-debris of the size from 100 μm to several mm is expected to cause a spacecraft critical failures and troubles. However, the collision probability of the micro-debris and its effect on space equipment are hardly predicted due to lack knowledge regarding the debris distribution and experimental/numerical investigation on material and components. This paper introduce research and standardization activities related on micro-debris for space environmental prevention

  3. The effect of major depression on participation in preventive health care activities

    OpenAIRE

    Lavorato Dina H; Williams Jeanne VA; Patten Scott B; Eliasziw Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine whether major depressive episodes (MDE) contribute to a lower rate of participation in three prevention activities: blood pressure checks, mammograms and Pap tests. Methods The data source for this study was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS), a longitudinal study that started in 1994 and has subsequently re-interviewed its participants every two years. The NPHS included a short form version of the Composite I...

  4. Chemical and Isotopic Thresholds in Charring: Implications for the Interpretation of Charcoal Mass and Isotopic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey A; Hockaday, William C; Boutton, Thomas; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Kinney, Timothy J; Masiello, Caroline A

    2015-12-15

    Charcoal plays a significant role in the long-term carbon cycle, and its use as a soil amendment is promoted as a C sequestration strategy (biochar). One challenge in this research area is understanding the heterogeneity of charcoal properties. Although the maximum reaction temperature is often used as a gauge of pyrolysis conditions, pyrolysis duration also changes charcoal physicochemical qualities. Here, we introduce a formal definition of charring intensity (CI) to more accurately characterize pyrolysis, and we document variation in charcoal chemical properties with variation in CI. We find two types of responses to CI: either linear or threshold relationships. Mass yield decreases linearly with CI, while a threshold exists across which % C, % N, and δ(15)N exhibit large changes. This CI threshold co-occurs with an increase in charcoal aromaticity. C isotopes do not change from original biomass values, supporting the use of charcoal δ(13)C signatures to infer paleoecological conditions. Fractionation of N isotopes indicates that fire may be enriching soils in (15)N through pyrolytic N isotope fractionation. This influx of "black N" could have a significant impact on soil N isotopes, which we show theoretically using a simple mass-balance model. PMID:26523420

  5. Evaluation of usher wood and karkadeh stem for charcoal in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan)); Vergnet, L. (CTFT, 94 - Nogent s/Marne (France). Energie Div.)

    1993-01-01

    Two unusual biomass materials Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa (karkadeh) stem and Calotropis procera (usher) wood were investigated in the laboratory as potential raw materials for charcoal making in Sudan. The materials were characterised physically and chemically and despite the low density and high bark-to-wood ratio by volume, good yields and quality of charcoal were predicted. The carbonization trials with a laboratory retort at conditions close to those of field metal kiln gave very good charcoal yields (35% for karkadeh and 38% for usher) with high energy transformation (58% and 62%, respectively). The karkadeh charcoal, except for a somewhat high ash content, was good for domestic uses (79% fixed carbon and 30.3 MJ kg[sup -1] heat value). The usher charcoal was better with respect to fixed carbon (86.5%) and gross heat value (32.4 MJ kg[sup -1]). Both charcoals were of low density (140-160 kg m[sup -3]) and further assessment of their economic suitability should be carried out under field conditions. The carbonization by-products were also collected and characterized by means of gas chromatography. (author)

  6. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  7. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  8. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself. PMID:27192198

  9. Autophagy activation by novel inducers prevents BECN2-mediated drug tolerance to cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Kenta; Wang, Nan; Fan, Yuying; Zhang, Weiran; Schoenen, Frank J; Frankowski, Kevin J; Marugan, Juan; Zhou, Yifa; Huang, Sui; He, Congcong

    2016-09-01

    Cannabinoids and related drugs generate profound behavioral effects (such as analgesic effects) through activating CNR1 (cannabinoid receptor 1 [brain]). However, repeated cannabinoid administration triggers lysosomal degradation of the receptor and rapid development of drug tolerance, limiting the medical use of marijuana in chronic diseases. The pathogenic mechanisms of cannabinoid tolerance are not fully understood, and little is known about its prevention. Here we show that a protein involved in macroautophagy/autophagy (a conserved lysosomal degradation pathway), BECN2 (beclin 2), mediates cannabinoid tolerance by preventing CNR1 recycling and resensitization after prolonged agonist exposure, and deletion of Becn2 rescues CNR1 activity in mouse brain and conveys resistance to analgesic tolerance to chronic cannabinoids. To target BECN2 therapeutically, we established a competitive recruitment model of BECN2 and identified novel synthetic, natural or physiological stimuli of autophagy that sequester BECN2 from its binding with GPRASP1, a receptor protein for CNR1 degradation. Co-administration of these autophagy inducers effectively restores the level and signaling of brain CNR1 and protects mice from developing tolerance to repeated cannabinoid usage. Overall, our findings demonstrate the functional link among autophagy, receptor signaling and animal behavior regulated by psychoactive drugs, and develop a new strategy to prevent tolerance and improve medical efficacy of cannabinoids by modulating the BECN2 interactome and autophagy activity. PMID:27305347

  10. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohde Sachiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1 the fall risk assessment tool, 2 an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3 specific environmental safety interventions, 4 staff education, and 5 multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331 in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325 in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p = 0.039. In the first 6 months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368, increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828. The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

  11. Promoting a Shared Representation of Workers' Activities to Improve Integrated Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquelaure, Yves

    2016-06-01

    Effective and sustainable prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs) remains a challenge for preventers and policy makers. Coordination of stakeholders involved in the prevention of WR-MSDs is a key factor that requires greater reflection on common knowledge and shared representation of workers' activities among stakeholders. Information on workers' strategies and operational leeway should be the core of common representations, because it places workers at the center of the "work situation system" considered by the intervention models. Participatory ergonomics permitting debates among stakeholders about workers' activity and strategies to cope with the work constraints in practice could help them to share representations of the "work situation system" and cooperate. Sharing representation therefore represents a useful tool for prevention, and preventers should provide sufficient space and time for dialogue and discussion of workers' activities among stakeholders during the conception, implementation, and management of integrated prevention programs. PMID:27340607

  12. Peer outreach work as economic activity: implications for HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie George

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.

  13. Virulent Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium evades adaptive immunity by preventing dendritic cells from activating T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Jaime A; Carreño, Leandro J; Bueno, Susan M; González, Pablo A; Mora, Jorge E; Quezada, Sergio A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2006-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the link between innate and adaptive immunity by directly recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in bacteria and by presenting bacterial antigens to T cells. Recognition of PAMPs renders DCs as professional antigen-presenting cells able to prime naïve T cells and initiate adaptive immunity against bacteria. Therefore, interfering with DC function would promote bacterial survival and dissemination. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that have evolved in virulent bacteria to evade activation of adaptive immunity requires the characterization of virulence factors that interfere with DC function. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the causative agent of typhoid-like disease in the mouse, can prevent antigen presentation to T cells by avoiding lysosomal degradation in DCs. Here, we show that this feature of virulent Salmonella applies in vivo to prevent activation of adaptive immunity. In addition, this attribute of virulent Salmonella requires functional expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS) and effector proteins encoded within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). In contrast to wild-type virulent Salmonella, mutant strains carrying specific deletions of SPI-2 genes encoding TTSS components or effectors proteins are targeted to lysosomes and are no longer able to prevent DCs from activating T cells in vitro or in vivo. SPI-2 mutant strains are attenuated in vivo, showing reduced tissue colonization and enhanced T-cell activation, which confers protection against a challenge with wild-type virulent Salmonella. Our data suggest that impairment of DC function by the activity of SPI-2 gene products is crucial for Salmonella pathogenesis.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrouf Amina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510. Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50 was reached with 22 and 60 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

  15. Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Olga; Moreira, Patrícia S; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of beer marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) was examined in charcoal-grilled pork. Pilsner, non-alcoholic pilsner and black beers (coded respectively as PB, P0B and BB) were assayed and unmarinated samples cooked under similar conditions provided reference HAs levels. Two thermic (PhIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx) and three pyrolytic HAs (Trp-P-1, AαC, MeAαC) were quantified in unmarinated meat samples. Marinating meat in beer resulted in a significant decrease of PhIP, Trp-P-1 and AαC (p beers reduced total HA formation in charcoal-grilled pork, black beer being the most efficient with a level of 90% inhibition. A strong positive correlation was observed between the inhibitory effect of beer on total HA formation and their antioxidant activity. Beer marinades mitigate the impact of consumption of well-done grilled pork meat reducing the formation of cooking carcinogens.

  16. Pemanfaatan Asap Buangan Tungku Arang Menjadi Asam Cuka Kayu dan Kontribusinya Terhadap Pendapatan Pengusaha Arang Rakyat (the Utilization of Disposal Smoke of Charcoal Kiln as Wood Vinegar and its Contribution to Income of Charcoal Industrialist)

    OpenAIRE

     Usman, Syammaun;  Purwoko, Agus

    2010-01-01

    Untill now, smoke from charcoal industry has been disposed and become a source of air polution. The reserch was aimed to implement the processing tecnology of dosposal gas of charcoal kiln to become wood vinegar by simple dry destilation technique, to find out the economical feasibility and to examine the contribution level of wood vinegar production to charcoal industrialist. A basic technique applied was a dry destilation technique. The research showed that the processing technology o...

  17. Human activity response and prevention strategies on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yiping; CHEN Guojie

    2003-01-01

    Ten major factors have been selected to judge the degree of disturbance from human activity and the corresponding relationship of the impact on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province. Correlation analysis has demonstrated that stock-carrying capacity, percentage of land reclamation, population density, GDP per capita, mineral modulus and percentage of forest coverage are the 6 most relevant human activity factors. The analysis on the degree of disturbance has shown that population pressure, excessive or unreasonable activities in development of resources and destructive behavior of humans are the main causes of soil and water loss. Consequently, solving the various problems in the negative activity of humans and regulating human behavior are the first tasks that should be tackled in the conservation of water and soil. In the new era, the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss are measures based on the foundation of the ecosystem, which is a kind of management strategy for sustainable development. The foundation of this method is made up of the system innovations and breakthroughs in terms of aims, philosophy, measures, and aspects of the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss, simultaneous advance from the conceptual, policy, spatial, technical and mode levels and system integration on the treatment strategies.

  18. Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain, feed intake and apparent crude protein digestibility of the birds with increasing inclusion levels of UCRM. Birds fed diets supplemented with charcoal showed higher (p < 0.05) final live weight, weight gain and feed intake than birds fed diets without charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p < 0.05) weight gain when compared with birds fed similar diet but not supplemented with charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain, while birds fed diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM supplemented with charcoal recorded the poorest (p < 0.05) final live weight and weight gain. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum thiocyanate concentration increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion levels of UCRM. Dietary supplementation of charcoal resulted in increased (p < 0.05) concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol and reduced (p < 0.05) SGOT concentration. Birds fed diets containing UCRM had high (p < 0.05) serum thiocyanate concentration irrespective of dietary supplementation or not with 6 g/kg charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites.

  19. Educational Activity of Nurse in Prevention of Teeth Cariosity with Pre-school Children in Connection with Dental Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    MÁGROVÁ, Milena

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis deals with Educational Activity of a Nurse in Tooth Decay Prevention in Pre-school Children in Relation to Dental Hygiene. Tooth decay is the most frequent chronic, multifactorial, infectious disease. In my practice of a nurse I meet children patients accompanied by parents to a preventive check-up every day, but sometimes also to acute care with toothache. The present aim of paediatric stomatology is to build systematic treatment and preventive care upon individual appro...

  20. Actively caring to prevent bullying in an elementary school: Prompting and rewarding prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Shane; Teie, Sophia; McCutchen, Jenna; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    This field study evaluated the impact of an intervention designed to prevent bullying among elementary-school students by prompting and rewarding prosocial behavior. More specifically, teachers of 404 second-, third-, fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students from an elementary school in northeast Virginia asked their students to look out for other students' prosocial behaviors (termed "actively caring") and to submit their stories about actively caring. At the start of every class day, the teachers read three of these stories and recognized one story and the two associated students (i.e., the observer and the performer) by providing each with a wristband engraved with "Actively Caring for People." For six consecutive Fridays, students reported their observations of bullying and completed a single item estimate of self-esteem. Weekly surveys revealed reductions in "being bullied" and "bullying others," as well as an increase in self-esteem. PMID:27309025

  1. Calcium channel blocker prevents stress-induced activation of renin and aldosterone in conscious pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable amount of data suggest the involvement of calcium-mediated processes in the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) cascade. To investigate the effect of calcium-channel inhibition on the RAA system, the authors studied 21 conscious pigs. Blood renin and aldosterone levels increased by subjecting animals to 24 hours of immobilization stress. Renin and aldosterone levels were repeatedly measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples taken periodically over 24 hours from a chronically implanted arterial cannula. Pretreatment of the animals (N = 11) with nisoldipine, 2 x 20 mg p.o. daily for 2 days before and on the day of immobilization, transiently attenuated the stress-induced increase of plasma renin activity and completely prevented the rise of aldosterone, as compared to nontreated controls (N = 10). The finding that nisoldipine suppresses RAA activation induced by a nonpharmacologic stimulus in the conscious intact animal may have clinical implications

  2. Calcium channel blocker prevents stress-induced activation of renin and aldosterone in conscious pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceremuzynski, L.K.; Klos, J.; Barcikowski, B.; Herbaczynska-Cedro, K. (Department of Cardiology, Postgraduate Medical School, Warsaw (Poland))

    1991-06-01

    A considerable amount of data suggest the involvement of calcium-mediated processes in the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) cascade. To investigate the effect of calcium-channel inhibition on the RAA system, the authors studied 21 conscious pigs. Blood renin and aldosterone levels increased by subjecting animals to 24 hours of immobilization stress. Renin and aldosterone levels were repeatedly measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples taken periodically over 24 hours from a chronically implanted arterial cannula. Pretreatment of the animals (N = 11) with nisoldipine, 2 {times} 20 mg p.o. daily for 2 days before and on the day of immobilization, transiently attenuated the stress-induced increase of plasma renin activity and completely prevented the rise of aldosterone, as compared to nontreated controls (N = 10). The finding that nisoldipine suppresses RAA activation induced by a nonpharmacologic stimulus in the conscious intact animal may have clinical implications.

  3. The mental health benefits of regular physical activity, and its role in preventing future depressive illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Stanton,1 Brenda Happell,1 Peter Reaburn2 1Institute for Health and Social Science Research, Centre for Mental Health Nursing Innovation and School of Nursing and Midwifery, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia; 2School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia Abstract: There is a large body of literature which examines the mental health benefits of physical activity. In general, studies report an inverse, dose dependent relationship between leisure-time physical activity participation, and mental health outcomes. Studies also show a positive association between maximal aerobic capacity and general well-being. More recent studies have confirmed the positive effects of physical activity participation on cognition, including the treatment and prevention of dementia. The current exercise prescription suggested for the treatment of depression is similar to that recommended to the general population for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. There is also strong evidence from large population level studies that long term physical activity participation reduces the risk of future depressive illness. From the available evidence, it would appear that physical activity performed at a frequency, intensity, and duration which is substantially less than that required for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in the general population, may afford significant benefits in reducing the risk of future depressive illness. This may be particularly encouraging for people with prior depressive illness, or at high risk of future depressive illness, since this vulnerable population already faces significant barriers to physical activity participation over and above those encountered by the general population. Keywords: exercise, major depression, depressive disorder, preventive medicine

  4. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum fuels and ethanol contributed 5.4%; electricity, 1.6%; and coal, 1.0%. Most of the energy (84.8%) was consumed in the household sector. The “Malawi Charcoal Project”, which is the main charcoal project...

  5. Nutrition and physical activity for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Ingvar; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is associated with adverse outcomes such as physical disability, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. Several mechanisms are involved in the development of sarcopenia. Potentially modifiable factors include nutrition and physical activity. Protein metabolism is central to the nutritional issues, along with other potentially modifying nutritional factors as energy balance and vitamin D status. An increasing but still incomplete knowledge base has generated recent recommendations on an increased protein intake in the elderly. Several factors beyond the total amount of protein consumed emerge as potentially important in this context. A recent summit examined three hypotheses: (1) A meal threshold; habitually consuming 25-30 g protein at breakfast, lunch and dinner provides sufficient protein to effectively stimulate muscle protein anabolism; (2) Protein quality; including high-quality protein at each meal improves postprandial muscle protein synthesis; and (3) performing physical activity in close temporal proximity to a high-quality protein meal enhances muscle anabolism. Optimising the potential for muscle protein anabolism by consuming an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal, in combination with physical activity, appears as a promising strategy to prevent or delay the onset of sarcopenia. However, results of interventions are inconsistent, and well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before guidelines can be developed for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia. PMID:26620911

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent inflammation and metabolic disorder through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yiqing; Jiang, Wei; Spinetti, Thibaud; Tardivel, Aubry; Castillo, Rosa; Bourquin, Carole; Guarda, Greta; Tian, Zhigang; Tschopp, Jurg; Zhou, Rongbin

    2013-06-27

    Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) have potential anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of inflammatory human diseases, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that stimulation of macrophages with ω-3 FAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other family members, abolished NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inhibited subsequent caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. In addition, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 and their downstream scaffold protein β-arrestin-2 were shown to be involved in inflammasome inhibition induced by ω-3 FAs. Importantly, ω-3 FAs also prevented NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammation and metabolic disorder in a high-fat-diet-induced type 2 diabetes model. Our results reveal a mechanism through which ω-3 FAs repress inflammation and prevent inflammation-driven diseases and suggest the potential clinical use of ω-3 FAs in gout, autoinflammatory syndromes, or other NLRP3 inflammasome-driven inflammatory diseases. PMID:23809162

  7. Unsaturated fatty acids prevent activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes/macrophages[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'homme, Laurent; Esser, Nathalie; Riva, Laura; Scheen, André; Paquot, Nicolas; Piette, Jacques; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in many obesity-associated diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and gouty arthritis, through its ability to induce interleukin (IL)-1β release. The molecular link between obesity and inflammasome activation is still unclear, but free fatty acids have been proposed as one triggering event. Here we reported opposite effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) compared with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) on NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes/macrophages. Palmitate and stearate, both SFAs, triggered IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1/ASC/NLRP3-dependent pathway. Unlike SFAs, the UFAs oleate and linoleate did not lead to IL-1β secretion. In addition, they totally prevented the IL-1β release induced by SFAs and, with less efficiency, by a broad range of NLRP3 inducers, including nigericin, alum, and monosodium urate. UFAs did not affect the transcriptional effect of SFAs, suggesting a specific effect on the NLRP3 activation. These results provide a new anti-inflammatory mechanism of UFAs by preventing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and, therefore, IL-1β processing. By this way, UFAs might play a protective role in NLRP3-associated diseases. PMID:24006511

  8. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tao, Shasha [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lian, Fangru [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chau, Binh T. [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fang, Deyu [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Zhang, Donna D., E-mail: dzhang@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ► Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ► Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ► Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  9. Achievement of public health recommendations for physical activity and prevention of gains in adiposity in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, A.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is considered a cornerstone in weight control and public health guidelines recommend regular participation to prevent gains in adiposity. It may therefore come as a surprise that the cumulative evidence from observational studies to support this is not strong. A weakness...... dilution bias and decreases the precision of the estimate of an association between PA and adiposity. Furthermore, because gains in adiposity often are caused by a small average daily energy imbalance over many years, following individuals for longer periods of time is essential to characterize...

  10. Does physical and mental activity prevent cognitive impairment? Evidence from animal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Begega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several pharmacological strategies have been developed to prevent age-related cognitive impairment. However, the ineffectiveness of the majority of these strategies has led to growing interest in behavioural intervention. Cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to provide significant benefits by counteracting cognitive impairment and dementia. Animal models have provided information on the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the formation of cognitive and brain reserve. This paper reviews several studies on aged rodents showing the positive effects of environmental enrichment and aerobic exercise on brain and cognitive function of these animals. The implications of this research for human aging is discussed.

  11. Effect of Catnip Charcoal on the In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Main Alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanfei; Chen, Siyu; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Long; Liu, Yayun; Han, Chunyang; Liu, Cuiyan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of catnip Nepeta cataria (CNC) charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis in vivo. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and given oral administration of an aqueous extract of Rhizoma Coptidis (RCAE), RCAE plus CNC, RCAE plus activated carbon (AC), or distilled water, respectively. Plasma samples were collected after administration. The concentrations of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pharmacokinetics data were calculated using pharmacokinetic DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine increased, while the AUC of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the rabbits that received RCAE plus CNC. Meanwhile, the AUC of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the group given RCAE plus AC. The difference of main pharmacokinetics parameters among the four groups was significant (P berberine in comparison to AC and prolonged its release in comparison to RCAE alone. However, it decreased the bioavailability of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. In comparison, AC uniformly declined the bioavailability of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. PMID:27313645

  12. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3-5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. PMID:27132250

  13. Prevention of atherosclerosis by bioactive palmitoleate through suppression of organelle stress and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Ismail; Kocatürk, Begüm; Koyuncu, Seda; Tufanlı, Özlem; Onat, Umut I; Yıldırım, Asli D; Apaydın, Onur; Demirsoy, Şeyma; Aykut, Zaliha G; Nguyen, Uyen T; Watkins, Steven M; Hotamışlıgil, Gökhan S; Erbay, Ebru

    2016-09-28

    De novo lipogenesis (DNL), the conversion of glucose and other substrates to lipids, is often associated with ectopic lipid accumulation, metabolic stress, and insulin resistance, especially in the liver. However, organ-specific DNL can also generate distinct lipids with beneficial metabolic bioactivity, prompting a great interest in their use for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Palmitoleate (PAO), one such bioactive lipid, regulates lipid metabolism in liver and improves glucose utilization in skeletal muscle when it is generated de novo from the obese adipose tissue. We show that PAO treatment evokes an overall lipidomic remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes in macrophages and mouse tissues, which is associated with resistance of the ER to hyperlipidemic stress. By preventing ER stress, PAO blocks lipid-induced inflammasome activation in mouse and human macrophages. Chronic PAO supplementation also lowers systemic interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 concentrations in vivo in hyperlipidemic mice. Moreover, PAO prevents macrophage ER stress and IL-1β production in atherosclerotic plaques in vivo, resulting in a marked reduction in plaque macrophages and protection against atherosclerosis in mice. These findings demonstrate that oral supplementation with a product of DNL such as PAO can promote membrane remodeling associated with metabolic resilience of intracellular organelles to lipid stress and limit the progression of atherosclerosis. These findings support therapeutic PAO supplementation as a potential preventive approach against complex metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, which warrants further studies in humans. PMID:27683551

  14. Educational understanding of pollution prevention in decontamination and decommissioning/environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demolishing outdated structures from the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington, generates large quantities of waste which can be minimized. The Hanford cleanup is one of the world's largest and most complex environmental restoration efforts. Approximately 280 square miles of ground water and soil are contaminated; there are more than 80 surplus facilities, including nine shut-down nuclear reactors in various stages of decay; and there are 177 underground waste storage tanks containing highly radioactive waste. In all, 1,500 cleanup sites have been identified and the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) is currently responsible for surveillance and maintenance of 170 structures. A two hour orientation training in pollution prevention was developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide all Decontamination and Decommissioning/Environmental Restoration (D ampersand D/ER) personnel with the knowledge to apply waste minimization principles during their cleanup activities. The ERC Team Pollution Prevention Workshop serves to communicate pollution prevention philosophies and influences the way D ampersand D/ER projects are conducted at the Hanford Site

  15. Charcoal and the Record of Fire-related Sedimentation in Holocene Alluvial Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the last few decades, rising temperatures and ensuing severe wildfires in the western USA cordillera have provided the opportunity to examine processes and deposits of postfire sedimentation on alluvial fans and floodplains. Most events are generated by widespread surface runoff from intense convective-storm precipitation on severely burned slopes. Flow processes range from debris flow to sediment-charged water floods. Muddy debris flows best preserve coarse charcoal in fan deposits, whereas gravelly debris flows often comminute charcoal into fine particles. As charcoal remains suspended in high-energy hyperconcentrated and water floods, only their fine-grained deposits typically contain much charcoal. Charcoal is locally concentrated in low-energy fluvial deposits, but displays increasing evidence for reworking with distance from source. Charred vegetation and litter marking burned soil surfaces may be preserved under postfire fan and fluvial sediments. Modern deposits provide models for identification of Holocene fire-related sediments and estimates of paleofire severity. AMS 14C dating of discrete charcoal fragments allows sample selection to minimize errors of sample age > fire age. Fires are incompletely recorded in the event stratigraphy of one fan, but larger populations of 14C ages from numerous fans permit composite probability distributions that represent centennial- to millennial-scale changes in fire-related sedimentation across a study area. Records from Yellowstone and central Idaho indicate the large role of fire in episodic erosion across a range of conifer forests, most strongly during severe, multidecadal droughts in warmer periods (e.g. in Medieval time 900-1300 AD). In central Idaho, identification of charcoal macrofossils indicates broadly similar, aspect-controlled forest compositions over the last 3000 yr. Emerging data from the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, show rapid fan aggradation due to fire-related events in the warm middle

  16. Chemical recalcitrance of biochar and wildfire charcoal: how similar are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Merino, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    The enhanced chemical resistance to biological degradation of pyrogenic materials, either produced during wildfires (charcoal) or by man (biochar), makes them long-term carbon sinks once incorporated in soils. In spite of their fundamental similarities, studies comparing the chemical recalcitrance of biochar and wildfire charcoal are scarce because analogous materials for accurate comparison are not easily available. Using solid-state 13C cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we characterized the chemical recalcitrance of pyrogenic materials generated from the same unburnt feedstooks (litter and dead wood from Pinus banksiana): (a) charcoal from a high-intensity wildfire and (b) biochar obtained by slow pyrolysis [3 treatments: 2 h at 350, 500 and 650°C]. For quantification, the spectra were divided into four regions representing different chemical environments of the 13C nucleus: alkyl C (0-45 ppm), O-alkyl C (45-110 ppm), olefinic and aromatic C(110-160 ppm), and carbonyl C (160-210 ppm). As an indicator of chemical recalcitrance, the degree of aromaticity (%) was calculated as follow: aromatic-C ∗ 100 / (alkyl C+ O alkyl-C + aromatic-C). The pyrogenic materials derived from wood show higher degrees of aromaticity (68 to 88%) than pyrogenic material derived from litter (40 to 88%). When comparing biochar and wildfire charcoal, biochars produced at 500 and 650°C always have higher degrees of aromaticity than wildfire charcoals, irrespective of the original feedstock. Wildfire charcoals always show a more heterogeneous chemical composition, with alkyl and O-alkyl compounds present even in charcoal generated at very high temperatures (temperatures up to 950 °C were recorded on the litter surface during the wildfire). However, biochars produced at 500 and 650 °C are mostly aromatic, and only the biochars produced at 350 °C show partial contribution of alkyl-C compounds. Our results suggest that biochar-type pyrogenic

  17. Sedentarism, active lifestyle and sport: impact on health and obesity prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela González-Gross

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of regular physical activity have been known since ancient Greek. But in the last Century the scientific knowledge around this topic has progressed enormously, starting with the early studies of JN Morris and RS Paffenberger, who demonstrated that physical activity at work reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In the Harvard alumni study, the lowest risk was associated with a weekly output of 1000 to 2000 kcal performing vigorous activities. Further studies in all age groups have supported these findings and have added that even moderate levels of physical activity provide considerable benefits to health, including lower prevalence of overweight and obesity at all ages. Metabolic fat oxidation rate is highest at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% of VO2max. This means that people must be active regularly and force physiological mechanisms at certain intensities. All this body of evidence has contributed to current WHO physical activity recommendations of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in adults and elderly, and 60 min/day of MVPA in children and adolescents, with additional strength training, apart from adopting an active lifestyle. In the last 50 years, occupational physical activity has been reduced for about 120 kcal/day, and sedentarism has emerged as an additional risk factor to physical inactivity. Even if less than 60 min of TV time in adults have been related to lower average BMI, there is still a need for research to determine the appropriate dose of exercise in combination with sedentary behaviours and other activities in the context of our modern lifestyle in order to prevent obesity at all ages. As public health measures have failed to stop the obesity epidemic in the last 3 decades, there is clearly a need to change the paradigm. The inclusion of sport scientists, physical education teachers and other professionals in the multidisciplinary team which should be

  18. Tailoring the characteristics of carbonized wood charcoal by using different heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Oh, Choong-Hyeon; Park, Byung-Ho; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the characteristics of charcoals generated from White Lauan ( Pentacmecontorta) and Punah ( Tetrameristaglabra) by using different carbonization temperatures and heating rates. The scanning electron micrographs showed vestured pits in the White Lauan and raphide crystals in Punah as their respective anatomical characteristics. A slower heating rate resulted in a lower temperature to obtain the same amount of weight loss, regardless of the species being tested. A greater charcoal yield was obtained at a higher heating rate. The specific surface area was smaller in the charcoal produced at a higher carbonization temperature, but the heating rate had little effected. For both wood species, the axial compressive strength of the charcoal increased as the carbonization temperature was increased. The X-ray diffractograms of White Lauan and Punah woods heated at 1200°C indicated thermal decomposition of the crystal structure of cellulose, but no appreciable structural changes occurred under the tested heating rate conditions. Overall, the heating rate affected the charcoal yield but not the specific surface area, compressive strength, and crystal structure.

  19. Wood and charcoal quality from planted forest in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of young Eucalyptus spp. trees, and to verify the influence of age and clone on the energy performance of these fuels. It was sampled the clones 1277 and 0321 of Eucalyptus spp. in two ages (46 and 58 months. The characteristics determined in the wood were: chemical molecular and elementary, basic density, carbon stocks and lignin by volume, the energy density and heating values (higher and lower. The charcoal was produced in an electric furnace (muffle with the final temperature of 450 °C. It was conducted the mass balance and carbonization energy, beyond the immediate evaluation of the chemical composition, apparent density and calorific value of charcoal. The clone 1277, at the age 58 months, is the most suitable for the charcoal production for steel industry and direct combustion of wood, because it showed better results for basic density, energy density, carbon stocks and lignin per unit volume and the lignin content of the wood. The clonal effect and age did not influence the content of fixed carbon and volatile materials, the calorific values, the gravimetric yield in charcoal and energy losses of carbonization.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  1. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alyssa M; Casey, Scott D; Felix, Christian M; Phuan, Puay W; Verkman, A S; Levin, Marc H

    2016-05-01

    Dry eye disorders, including Sjögren's syndrome, constitute a common problem in the aging population, with limited effective therapeutic options available. The cAMP-activated Cl(-) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a major prosecretory channel at the ocular surface. We investigated whether compounds that target CFTR can correct the abnormal tear film in dry eye. Small-molecule activators of human wild-type CFTR identified by high-throughput screening were evaluated in cell culture and in vivo assays, to select compounds that stimulate Cl(-)-driven fluid secretion across the ocular surface in mice. An aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine, CFTRact-K089, fully activated CFTR in cell cultures with EC50 ∼250 nM and produced an ∼8.5 mV hyperpolarization in ocular surface potential difference. When delivered topically, CFTRact-K089 doubled basal tear volume for 4 h and had no effect in CF mice. CFTRact-K089 showed sustained tear film bioavailability without detectable systemic absorption. In a mouse model of aqueous-deficient dry eye produced by lacrimal ablation, topical administration of 0.1 nmol CFTRact-K089 3 times daily restored tear volume to basal levels, preventing corneal epithelial disruption when initiated at the time of surgery and reversing it when started after development of dry eye. Our results support the potential utility of CFTR-targeted activators as a novel prosecretory treatment for dry eye.-Flores, A. M., Casey, S. D., Felix, C. M., Phuan, P. W., Verkman, A. S., Levin, M. H. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

  2. Determining the impact of community awareness-raising activities on the prevention of malaria transmission in Palawan, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie Louise Akiko; Tongol-Rivera, Pilarita; Villacorte, Elena A; Angluben, Ray U; Yasuoka, Junko; Kano, Shigeyuki; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-06-01

    Palawan has the highest malaria endemicity in the Philippines, and malaria remains a major health burden in the region. In 1999, 344 microscopists were trained in Palawan. This allowed for early diagnosis and prompt treatment throughout the island. To take a significant step toward the elimination of malaria on the island, microscopists implemented community awareness-raising activities aimed at preventing transmission of malaria. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of these activities on the self-implemented preventive measures against malaria by the ex-patients of the microscopists. Structured interviews were carried out from January to February in 2012, in 20 remote malaria-endemic villages throughout Palawan. In total, 141 ex-patients who had previously been diagnosed malaria-positive by the microscopists, volunteered to participate in the present study. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine factors associated with self-implemented preventive measures against malaria, which included: (1) place of residence; (2) socio-demographic characteristics; (3) knowledge on malaria; (4) participation in community awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention; and (5) satisfaction with microscopists. Structural equation modeling identified six significant factors independently associated with self-implemented preventive measures against malaria; ethnicity, knowledge on malaria transmission, knowledge on vector species, knowledge on vector's most active time, participation in awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention by microscopists, and satisfaction with microscopists. Tagalog ethnicity (the predominant ethnic group) was positively related to better self-implemented preventive measures. In conclusion, aside from providing early diagnosis and treatment, microscopists played a significant role in self-implemented preventive measures against malaria. The strengthening of awareness-raising activities by microscopists

  3. Information Accessibility of the Charcoal Burning Suicide Method in Mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijin Cheng

    Full Text Available There has been a marked rise in suicide by charcoal burning (CB in some East Asian countries but little is known about its incidence in mainland China. We examined media-reported CB suicides and the availability of online information about the method in mainland China.We extracted and analyzed data for i the characteristics and trends of fatal and nonfatal CB suicides reported by mainland Chinese newspapers (1998-2014; ii trends and geographic variations in online searches using keywords relating to CB suicide (2011-2014; and iii the content of Internet search results.109 CB suicide attempts (89 fatal and 20 nonfatal were reported by newspapers in 13 out of the 31 provinces or provincial-level-municipalities in mainland China. There were increasing trends in the incidence of reported CB suicides and in online searches using CB-related keywords. The province-level search intensities were correlated with CB suicide rates (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.43 [95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.68]. Two-thirds of the web links retrieved using the search engine contained detailed information about the CB suicide method, of which 15% showed pro-suicide attitudes, and the majority (86% did not encourage people to seek help.The incidence of CB suicide was based on newspaper reports and likely to be underestimated.Mental health and suicide prevention professionals in mainland China should be alert to the increased use of this highly lethal suicide method. Better surveillance and intervention strategies need to be developed and implemented.

  4. Attenuation of signaling pathways stimulated by pathologically activated FGF-receptor 2 mutants prevents craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswarakumar, V P; Ozcan, F; Lew, E D; Bae, J H; Tomé, F; Booth, C J; Adams, D J; Lax, I; Schlessinger, J

    2006-12-01

    Craniosynostosis, the fusion of one or more of the sutures of the skull vault before the brain completes its growth, is a common (1 in 2,500 births) craniofacial abnormality, approximately 20% of which occurrences are caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF receptors (FGFRs). We describe a genetic and pharmacological approach for the treatment of a murine model system of Crouzon-like craniosynostosis induced by a dominant mutation in Fgfr2c. Using genetically modified mice, we demonstrate that premature fusion of sutures mediated by Crouzon-like activated Fgfr2c mutant is prevented by attenuation of signaling pathways by selective uncoupling between the docking protein Frs2alpha and activated Fgfr2c, resulting in normal skull development. We also demonstrate that attenuation of Fgfr signaling in a calvaria organ culture with an Fgfr inhibitor prevents premature fusion of sutures without adversely affecting calvaria development. These experiments show that attenuation of FGFR signaling by pharmacological intervention could be applied for the treatment of craniosynostosis or other severe bone disorders caused by mutations in FGFRs that currently have no treatment. PMID:17132737

  5. Effect of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED Measures on Active Living and Fear of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED has become a popular urban planning approach to preventing crime and mitigating fear of crime through the improvement of physical neighborhood environments. CPTED is widely used to improve deteriorated neighborhoods that suffer from crime. However, few studies have empirically examined the complex relationships among CPTED, fear of crime, and active living. Our study, therefore, investigated the effects of CPTED measures on walking frequency and fear of crime, analyzing behavioral data of residents living in participatory neighborhood regeneration areas and matched neighborhoods. We analyzed survey data from 12 neighborhoods that implemented CPTED approaches and 12 matched neighborhoods in Seoul, Korea, using structural equation modeling, which could consistently estimate complex direct and indirect relationships between a latent variable (fear of crime and observable variables (CPTED measures and walking frequency. We designed the survey instrument as a smartphone app. Participants were recruited from 102 locations within the 24 selected neighborhoods; in total, 623 individuals returned surveys. The results revealed that sufficient closed-circuit television, street lighting, and maintenance played a significant role in mitigating fear of crime. This study has implications for planning and policy issues related to CPTED, mental health, and active living.

  6. Resveratrol Prevents Retinal Dysfunction by Regulating Glutamate Transporters, Glutamine Synthetase Expression and Activity in Diabetic Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kaihong; Yang, Na; Wang, Duozi; Li, Suping; Ming, Jian; Wang, Jing; Yu, Xuemei; Song, Yi; Zhou, Xue; Yang, Yongtao

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of resveratrol (RSV) on retinal functions, glutamate transporters (GLAST) and glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in diabetic rats retina, and on glutamate uptake, GS activity, GLAST and GS expression in high glucose-cultured Müller cells. The electroretinogram was used to evaluate retinal functions. Müller cells cultures were prepared from 5- to 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The expression of GLAST and GS was examined by qRT-PCR, ELISA and western-blotting. Glutamate uptake was measured as (3)H-glutamate contents of the lysates. GS activity was assessed by a spectrophotometric assay. 1- to 7-month RSV administrations (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated hyperglycemia and weight loss in diabetic rats. RSV administrations also significantly attenuated diabetes-induced decreases in amplitude of a-wave in rod response, decreases in amplitude of a-, and b-wave in cone and rod response and decreases in amplitude of OP2 in oscillatory potentials. 1- to 7-month RSV treatments also significantly inhibited diabetes-induced delay in OP2 implicit times in scotopic 3.0 OPS test. The down-regulated mRNA and protein expression of GLAST and GS in diabetic rats retina was prevented by RSV administrations. In high glucose-treated cultures, Müller cells' glutamate uptake, GS activity, GLAST and GS expression were decreased significantly compared with normal control cultures. RSV (10, 20, and 30 mmol/l) significantly inhibited the HG-induced decreases in glutamate uptake, GS activity, GLAST and GS expression (at least P < 0.05). These beneficial results suggest that RSV may be considered as a therapeutic option to prevent from diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus lupulus, Prevents Platelet Activation in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ming Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.. Xanthohumol was found to be a very potent cancer chemopreventive agent through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of xanthohumol on platelet activation. The aim of this paper was to examine the antiplatelet effect of xanthohumol in washed human platelets. In the present paper, xanthohumol exhibited more-potent activity in inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Xanthohumol inhibited platelet activation accompanied by relative [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 formation, hydroxyl radical (OH● formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation. Neither SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, nor ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, reversed the xanthohumol-mediated inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Furthermore, xanthohumol did not significantly increase nitrate formation in platelets. This study demonstrates for the first time that xanthohumol possesses potent antiplatelet activity which may initially inhibit the PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, and PLCγ2-PKC cascades, followed by inhibition of the thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of [Ca2+]i and finally inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, this novel role of xanthohumol may represent a high therapeutic potential for treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Intraperitoneal administration of activated protein C prevents postsurgical adhesion band formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Peyman; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Weiler, Hartmut; Rezaie, Alireza R

    2015-02-19

    Postsurgical peritoneal adhesion bands are the most important causes of intestinal obstruction, pelvic pain, and female infertility. In this study, we used a mouse model of adhesion and compared the protective effect of activated protein C (APC) to that of the Food and Drug Administration-approved antiadhesion agent, sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm) by intraperitoneal administration of either APC or Seprafilm to experimental animals. Pathological adhesion bands were graded on day 7, and peritoneal fluid concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), d-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1) were evaluated. Inflammation scores were also measured based on histologic data obtained from peritoneal tissues. Relative to Seprafilm, intraperitoneal administration of human APC led to significantly higher reduction of postsurgical adhesion bands. Moreover, a markedly lower inflammation score was obtained in the adhesive tissues of the APC-treated group, which correlated with significantly reduced peritoneal concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and an elevated tPA level. Further studies using variants of human APC with or without protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling function and mutant mice deficient for either endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) or PAR1 revealed that the EPCR-dependent signaling activity of APC is primarily responsible for its protective activity in this model. These results suggest APC has therapeutic potential for preventing postsurgical adhesion bands. PMID:25575539

  9. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake M. Laguador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respondents who were owners of restaurants that utilized charcoal for grilling. The company adopts partnership form of ownership and based on the result of the survey, the study is feasible in the region and raw materials were abundant in the nearby towns and provinces. It is resolute to establish a business which offers high quality and low priced green charcoal in the market as alternative biofuel with payback period of 4 years and 11 monthsbased on the result of financial analysis.

  10. Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-06-01

    The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions.

  11. Soil stratigraphy of charcoal kiln remains (CKR) in the Litchfield Hills, CT, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; Hirsch, Florian; Ouimet, Will; Dethier, David

    2016-04-01

    Charcoal kiln relicts (CKRs) are small anthropogenic landforms that are often found in historic mining areas. CKRs have not been a big research topic yet but mainly were studied as by-products of archaeological excavations. In the last years newly available and very accurate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on high-resolution Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data have been used to identify these archaeological remains. In addition, findings of several thousands CKRs in the North German Lowland have increased the awareness that historical charcoal production may significantly contribute to Late Holocene landscape change. Besides the archaeological aspect of CKRs, potential impacts of charcoal burning on the ecology of modern soil landscapes and ecosystem processes must be considered. A relatively high density of CKRs is found in the Litchfield Hills nearby the town of West Cornwall, Litchfield County, CT, USA. The CKRs are especially well preserved on slopes of the tributary valleys of the Housatonic River and form little, circular ramparts with diameters normally less than ten meters. First, rough field surveys in Litchfield County in spring 2015 have suggested differences between soils inside and outside the CKR. Soils on the CKR seem to have relatively deep humus-rich and charcoal containing topsoils whereas the topsoils outside the CKR appear typically thinner and less rich in humus. More thorough investigations have been started in autumn 2015 to prove the hypothesis that properties, distribution and development of soils are controlled by archaeological remains of historical charcoal burning. We present preliminary results from our field studies conducted in October 2015. The stratigraphy and the extent of the 26 CKRs were studied using a sedimentological-pedological approach by coring and trenching. Our results indicate that in Litchfield County the CKRs were used twice and in quick succession. Before the second reuse, the rim of the platform was stabilized

  12. Physical activity in the prevention of peripheral artery disease in the elderly

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    Gabriele Giacomo Schiattarella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor and cardiovascular diseases (CVD are estimated to be the most common cause of death in the elderly. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD represents an important clinical manifestation of CVD leading to increase morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly population. The correct management of PAD population includes the prevention of cardiovascular events and relief of symptoms, most commonly intermittent claudication. Progressive physical activity is an effective treatment to improve walking distance and to reduce mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with PAD, however the ability to effectively engage in physical activity often declines with increasing age. The maintenance and increase of reserve functional capacity are important concepts in the elderly population. Ultimately, the goal in participation of physical activity in the healthy elderly population is maintenance and development of physical functional reserve capacity. Therefore, for individuals suffering of PAD, appropriate physical activity in the form of supervised exercise may serve as a primary therapy. Although there are few direct comparisons of therapeutic exercise programs versus pharmacological or surgical interventions, these increases in walking distance are greater than those reported for the most widely used agents for claudication, pentoxyphylline and cilostazol. Despite a reduction in mortality and improvement of quality of life caused by physical activity in the PAD population, the molecular, cellular, and functional changes that occur during physical activity are not completely understood. Therefore, this review paper aims at presenting an overview of recent established clinical and molecular findings addressing the role of physical activity on PAD in the older population.

  13. Conceptual framework for standard economic evaluation of physical activity programs in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenstetter, Silke B

    2011-12-01

    Economic evaluations of primary prevention physical activity programs have gained importance because of scarce resources in health-care-systems. A concept for economic evaluation should be based on the efficacy of physical activity, the standard methods of economic evaluation and the aims of public health. Previous publications have examined only parts of these components and have not developed a comprehensive conceptual framework; it is the objective of this article to develop such a framework. The derived method should aid decision makers and staff members of intervention programs in reviewing and conducting an economic evaluation. A literature search of articles was done using six electronic databases. Referenced works for standard methods and more comprehensive approaches for evaluation of preventive programs were studied. The newly developed conceptual framework for economic evaluation includes: (1) the type of physical activity program; (2) features of a selected study population; (3) the outcome dimension comprising exercise efficacy, reach, recruitment, response rate, maintenance, compliance and adverse health effects plus the social impact; and (4) the cost dimension consisting of program development costs, program implementation costs including the implementation, recruitment, program, participants' time costs and savings resulting from the health effects of the intervention. Cost-effectiveness also depends on the methodology, such as the chosen perspective, data collection, valuation methods and discounting. If an intervention is not considered cost-effective, it is necessary to check each dimension to find possible failures in order to learn for future interventions. A more detailed economic evaluation is of utmost importance for improved comparability and transferability. PMID:21773728

  14. Colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koji; Watanabe, Toshio; Shimada, Sunao; Takeda, Shogo; Itani, Shigehiro; Higashimori, Akira; Nadatani, Yuji; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasome is a large, multiprotein complex that consists of a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and pro-caspase-1. Activation of the inflammasome results in cleavage of pro-caspase-1 into cleaved caspase-1, which promotes the processing of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β into mature IL-1β. We investigated the effects of colchicine on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury and activation of the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Colchicine treatment inhibited indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury by 86% (1 mg/kg) and 94% (3 mg/kg) as indicated by the lesion index 24 h after indomethacin administration. Colchicine inhibited the protein expression of cleaved caspase-1 and mature IL-1β, without affecting the mRNA expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β. Although treatment with recombinant IL-1β (0.1 μg/kg) did not change the severity of small intestinal damage, the preventive effects of colchicine were abolished by supplementation with the same dose of recombinant IL-1β. Indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage was reduced by 77%, as determined by the lesion index in NLRP3(-/-) mice, and colchicine treatment failed to inhibit small intestinal damage in NLRP3(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27585971

  15. Effect of Metal Oxide on Electrical Resistivity of Conductive Wood Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the effect of metal oxide on electrical resistivity of conductive wood charcoal,wood powder of Masson pine was mixed with ferric oxide (Fe_2O_3) and nickel oxide (NiO), respectively,and then the mixed powders were carbonized at high temperature in a laboratory-scale tube furnace in a nitrogen atmosphere. DCY-3 resistivity tester was used to measure electrical resistivity of conductive wood charcoal. When carbonization temperature was 1200 ℃, the electrical resistivity of controlsamples, Fe_2O_3 (...

  16. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchinda Maurice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4 was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country

  17. Vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age by using microscopic structure of charcoals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic structure of charcoals was determined in two sites of Bronze Age, Chifeng area by using the scanning electronic microscope. The results showed that these charcoals are all timbers of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica). It has powerful climatic indicative significance. Based on the assemblage of pollen composition, their eco-climatic index and character of community, the vegetation reconstruction of Bronze Age was obtained. The reconstruction showed that the zonal vegetation was Mongolian oak forest and Chinese pine forest in the loess hills in the Chifeng area, which suggested that the climatic condition was warmer and wetter at that time than present time.

  18. Holocene Fire History of an Eastern Oregon Forest Based on Soil Charcoal Radiocarbon Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, R. J.; Malkemus, D.; Clifton, C. F.

    2006-12-01

    Limited research has been done on long-term forest fire histories in northeastern Oregon. As part of an investigation to determine the minimum age of a 300 ha landslide in the Blue Mountains, a pit was excavated near the toe of the slide. The pit, located in a depression between the landslide and a ridge, contains massive clays and silts, and an 8000-year sequence of forest fires recorded in 7 buried charcoal layers. Eight- thousand-year-old Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) is common in the area, but no tephra was found in the excavation. The upper 17 cm is organic rich soil. Seven horizons of charcoal are present; the upper six are subhorizontal and occur at depths of 17, 36, 41, 46, 52, and 57 cm. The lowest charcoal horizon follows a disconformity that cuts diagonally across the pit from 85 to 125 cm below the surface; oxidation in the form of orange mottling occurs above this disconformity (interpreted to be a paleoslope) and is prominent below it. The charcoal horizons provide evidence of large-scale forest fires in the vicinity, with differing intensities represented by the amount of charcoal in each horizon. The layers vary in thickness from 2 to 6 cm. Five charcoal horizons were radiocarbon dated (AMS) and calendar calibrated. The charcoal at the base of the soil (at 17 cm) provided an age of AD 1670 to 1960; this horizon correlates with widespread fires in the Blue Mountains in AD 1855. The horizon second closest to the surface (at 36 cm) provided an age of 1310 ± 40 B.P. The thickest horizon (at 46 cm) yielded an age of 2420 ± 40 B.P. The lowest horizontal horizon (at 57 cm) provided an age of 3460 ± 40 B.P. The lowest charcoal (at the disconformity) yielded an age of 7990 ± 40 B.P. Based on radiocarbon dates, the mean rate of sedimentation in the closed depression is approximately 1.2 cm/century. Fire episodes (which correspond remarkably well with a lake core site approximately 150 km south), indicate relatively long periods (from 400 to over 4000

  19. Activation of the GABAB receptor prevents nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation in mice

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    Carla eLobina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that activation of the GABAB receptor, either by means of orthosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs, inhibited different nicotine-related behaviors, including intravenous self-administration and conditioned place preference, in rodents. The present study investigated whether the anti-nicotine effects of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and GABAB PAMs, CGP7930 and GS39783, extend to nicotine stimulant effects. To this end, CD1 mice were initially treated with baclofen (0, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., CGP7930 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., or GS39783 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., then treated with nicotine (0 and 0.05 mg/kg, s.c., and finally exposed to an automated apparatus for recording of locomotor activity. Pretreatment with doses of baclofen, CGP7930, or GS39783 that did not alter locomotor activity when given with nicotine vehicle fully prevented hyperlocomotion induced by 0.05 mg/kg nicotine. These data extend to nicotine stimulant effects the capacity of baclofen and GABAB PAMs to block the reinforcing, motivational, and rewarding properties of nicotine. These data strengthen the hypothesis that activation of the GABAB receptor may represent a potentially useful, anti-smoking therapeutic strategy.

  20. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  1. Assessing the potential of biochar and charcoal to improve soil hydraulic properties in the humid Ethiopian Highlands: The Anjeni watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayabil, H.K.; Stoof, C.R.; Lehmann, J.C.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has shown promise for restoring soil hydraulic properties. However, biochar production could be expensive in the developing world, while charcoal iswidely available and cheap. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate whether some of the charcoal made in developing countries ca

  2. PWSCC Preventive Maintenance Activities for Alloy 600 in Japanese PWR Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because many nuclear plants have been in operation for ages, the importance of preventive maintenance technologies is getting higher. One conspicuous problem found in pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants is the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) observed in Alloy 600 (a kind of high nickel based alloy) parts. Alloy 600 was used for butt welds between low alloy steel and stainless steel of nozzles of Reactor Vessel (RV), Steam Generator (SG), and Pressurizer (Pz). As PWSCC occurred at these parts may cause Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), preventive maintenance is necessary. PWSCC is considered to be caused by a mixture of three elements: high residual tensile stress on surface, material (Alloy 600) and environment. PWSCC can be prevented by improving one of the elements. MHI has been developing stress improvement methods, for example, Water Jet Peening (WJP), Shot Peening by Ultrasonic vibration (USP), and Laser Stress Improvement Process (L-SIP). According to the situation, appropriate method is applied for each part. WJP has been applied for RV nozzles of a lot of plants in Japan. However PWSCC was observed in RV nozzles during the inspection before WJP in recent years, MHI developed the Advanced INLAY system to improve the material from Alloy 600 to Alloy 690. Alloy 600 on the inner surface of the nozzles is removed and welding with Alloy 690 is performed. In addition, heat treatments for the nozzles are difficult for its structural situation, so ambient temperature temper bead welding technique for RV nozzles was developed to make the heat treatments unnecessary. This paper describes countermeasures against PWSCC and introduces the maintenance activities performed in Japan. (author)

  3. Review of the sustainability of the forest sector to produce charcoal from planted forests; Analise da sustentabilidade do setor florestal para producao de carvao vegetal a partir de florestas plantadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Thiago Oliveira [Fundacao de Tecnologia Florestal e Geoprocessamento (NUPA/FUNTEC), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Projetos Ambientais

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is the world's greater producer of charcoal and most of this production takes care of to the siderurgical sector. Thus, one understands that the Brazilian steel is produced of sustainable form. However, such sustainability is not based only on a renewable energy source. The origin of the wood for the carbonization, if proceeding from planted forests or native bushes, is crucial factor in this analysis. Beyond the ambient dimension, the sustainability of the charcoal segment also is influenced by its social, economic and technological aspects. In this context, the present article searches, through the construction and the analysis of the diagnosis of the charcoal in Brazil, to evaluate the sustainability of the sector and to consider alternatives to reach it. The current model of production of charcoal in the country is unsustainable. The main adopted systems of carbonization in Brazil are low level technological with consequent decrease production. The activity is unhealthy, beyond having many cases of enslaved and infantile work. The coal of native forests is much cheaper and the fiscalization is poor, fact that discourages its production from planted forests. But if the vegetal coal will be understood as an energy solution for the siderurgical sector measures can be taken to search a model of sustainable production. (author)

  4. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care. Methods/Design This four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use. This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia. Discussion Infancy is likely to

  5. GPER inhibits diabetes-mediated RhoA activation to prevent vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zilin; Cheng, Liang; Liang, Hongliang; Duan, Weixun; Hu, Jing; Zhi, Weiwei; Yang, Jinbao; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhao, Minggao; Liu, Jincheng

    2016-02-01

    The effect of estrogen receptors on diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction is critical, but ambiguous. Individuals with diabetic vascular disease may require estrogen receptor-specific targeted therapy in the future. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has beneficial effects on vascular function. However, its fundamental mechanisms are unclear. The RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway contributes to diabetic vascular complications, whereas estrogen can suppress Rho-kinase function. Thus, we assumed that GPER inhibits diabetes-mediated RhoA activation to prevent vascular dysfunction. We further investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in this process. Vascular endothelial cells and ex vivo cultured ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6 mouse aortae were treated with high glucose (HG) alone or in combination with GPER agonist (G1). G1 treatment was also administered to OVX db/db mice for 8 weeks. An ex-vivo isovolumic myograph was used to analyze the endothelium-dependent vasodilation and endothelium-independent contraction of mouse aortae. Apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation were attenuated in G1-pretreated vascular endothelial cells. G1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation of inhibitory endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase residue threonine 495 (eNOS Thr495), inhibited RhoA expression, and increased NO production. Additionally, G1 rescued the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation and inhibited RhoA activation in the thoracic aorta of OVX db/db mice and ex-vivo cultured OVX C57BL/6 mouse aortae treated with HG. Estrogens acting via GPER could protect vascular endothelium, and GPER activation might elicit ERα-independent effect to inhibit RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway. Additionally, GPER activation might reduce vascular smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting RhoA activation. Thus, the results of the present study suggest a new therapeutic paradigm for end-stage vascular dysfunction by inhibiting RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway via GPER activation. PMID:26785611

  6. Smooth Sliding Mode Control for Vehicle Rollover Prevention Using Active Antiroll Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanfeng Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rollover accidents induced by severe maneuvers are very dangerous and mostly happen to vehicles with elevated center of gravity, such as heavy-duty trucks and pickup trucks. Unfortunately, it is hard for drivers of those vehicles to predict and prevent the trend of the maneuver-induced (untripped rollover ahead of time. In this study, a lateral load transfer ratio which reflects the load distribution of left and right tires is used to indicate the rollover criticality. An antiroll controller is designed with smooth sliding mode control technique for vehicles, in which an active antiroll suspension is installed. A simplified second order roll dynamic model with additive sector bounded uncertainties is used for control design, followed by robust stability analysis. Combined with the vehicle dynamics simulation package TruckSim, MATLAB/Simulink is used for simulating experiment. The results show that the applied controller can improve the roll stability under some typical steering maneuvers, such as Fishhook and J-turn. This direct antiroll control method could be more effective for untripped rollover prevention when driver deceleration or steering is too late. It could also be extended to handle tripped rollovers.

  7. Eastern Andean environmental and climate synthesis for the last 2000 years BP from terrestrial pollen and charcoal records of Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, G. D.; Echeverria, M. E.; Mancini, M. V.; Bianchi, M. M.; Marcos, M. A.; Bamonte, F. P.

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds (SWW) constitute an important zonal circulation system that dominates the dynamics of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude climate. Little is known about climatic changes in the Southern South America in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere due to the low density of proxy records, and adequate chronology and sampling resolution to address environmental changes of the last 2000 years. Since 2009, new pollen and charcoal records from bog and lakes in northern and southern Patagonia at the east side of the Andes have been published with an adequate calibration of pollen assemblages related to modern vegetation and ecological behaviour. In this work we improve the chronological control of some eastern Andean previously published sequences and integrate pollen and charcoal dataset available east of the Andes to interpret possible environmental and SWW variability at centennial time scales. Through the analysis of modern and past hydric balance dynamics we compare these scenarios with other western Andean SWW sensitive proxy records for the last 2000 years. Due to the distinct precipitation regimes that exist between Northern (40-45° S) and Southern Patagonia (48-52° S) pollen sites locations, shifts on latitudinal and strength of the SWW results in large changes on hydric availability on forest and steppe communities. Therefore, we can interpret fossil pollen dataset as changes on paleohydric balance at every single site by the construction of paleohydric indices and comparison to charcoal records during the last 2000 cal yrs BP. Our composite pollen-based Northern and Southern Patagonia indices can be interpreted as changes in latitudinal variation and intensity of the SWW respectively. Dataset integration suggest poleward SWW between 2000 and 750 cal yrs BP and northward-weaker SWW during the Little Ice Age (750-200 cal yrs BP). These SWW variations are synchronous to Patagonian fire activity major shifts. We found an in phase

  8. Six centuries of anthropogenic forest change on a Polynesian high island: Archaeological charcoal records from the Marquesas Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, Jennifer M.; Allen, Melinda S.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognised that Polynesian settlers developed central Pacific islands into productive economic landscapes, but the character and tempo of these transformations are poorly understood. Archaeological wood charcoal assemblages are uniquely suited to inform on landscape change, especially when the principal food crops were arboreal. We use a large archaeological charcoal collection, drawn from numerous geographically and functionally varied contexts, to develop a multi-scalar vegetation history of Marquesas Islands' lowland forests. Our aims were to: 1) reveal historical patterns of plant biogeography, including introductions by Polynesian settlers; 2) detail the nature and timing of anthropogenic impacts on native Marquesan forests; and 3) track the emergence of economically productive arboreal landscapes. A collection of 6510 fragments identified to 59 taxa inform on a ∼600-year sequence of human activities. The earliest samples indicate rich forests were encountered by human colonists, comprised of a mix of dicotyledonous hardwood species and woody monocots. These included members of two now-extinct Sapotaceae genera, Planchonella and cf. Sideroxylon, along with Allophylus, a Sapindaceae apparently extirpated from Nuku Hiva. Two important coastal trees, Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea, also appear to be indigenous. Polynesian impacts were rapid and widespread, irrevocably altering the indigenous vegetation and disrupting native ecosystems. Samples from later occupations document on-going modifications to lowland vegetation communities. This included inter-valley variability in the timing of transformations and the development of mosaic formations, comprised of native forest interspersed with areas of cultivation and habitation. By 1650 CE, low and mid-elevation vegetation was extensively remodelled, as anthropogenic forests of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Inocarpus fagifer (Tahitian chestnut), and other economic species became widely

  9. Predicting the physiological relevance of in vitro cancer preventive activities of phytochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lynne M HOWELLS; Elena P MOISEEVA; Christopher P NEAL; Bethany E FOREMAN; Catherine K ANDREADI; Yi-yang SUN; E Ann HUDSON; Margaret M MANSON

    2007-01-01

    There is growing interest in the ability of phytochemicals to prevent chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease. However, some of these agents have poor bioavailability and many of the in-depth studies into their mechanisms of action have been carried out in vitro using doses which are unachievable in humans. In order to optimize the design of chemopreventive treatment, it is impor-tant to determine which of the many reported mechanisms of action are clinically relevant. In this review we consider the physiologically achievable doses for afew of the best studied agents (indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethane, curcumin,epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol) and summarize the data derived froms tudies using these low concentrations in cell culture. We then cite examples of in vitro effects which have been observed in vivo. Finally, the ability of agent combinations to act synergistically or antagonistically is considered. We con-clude that each of the compounds shows an encouraging range of activities in vitro at concentrations which are likely to be physiologically relevant. There arealso many examples of in vivo studies which validate in vitro observations. An important consideration is that combinations of agents can result in significant activity at concentrations where any single agent is inactive. Thus, for each of the compounds reviewed here, in vitro studies have provided useful insights into their mechanisms of action in humans. However, data are lacking on the full range of activities at low doses in vitro and the benefits or otherwise of combinations invivo.

  10. Epigenetic activities of flavonoids in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Christian; Burkard, Markus; Leischner, Christian; Lauer, Ulrich M; Frank, Jan; Venturelli, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic modifications are described in an increasing number of pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obesity and cancer. The general reversibility of epigenetic changes makes them an attractive and promising target e.g. in the treatment of cancer. Thus, a growing number of epigenetically active compounds are currently tested in clinical trials for their therapeutic potential. Interestingly, many phytochemicals present in plant foods, particularly flavonoids, are suggested to be able to alter epigenetic cellular mechanisms. Flavonoids are natural phenol compounds that form a large group of secondary plant metabolites with interesting biological activities. They can be categorized into six major subclasses, which display diverse properties affecting the two best characterized epigenetic mechanisms: modulation of the DNA methylation status and histone acetylation. High dietary flavonoid intake has strongly been suggested to reduce the risk of numerous cancer entities in a large body of epidemiological studies. Established health-promoting effects of diets rich in fruit and vegetables are faced by efforts to use purified flavonoids as supplements or pharmaceuticals, whereupon data on the latter applications remain controversial. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of current research on flavonoids to further elucidate their potential in cancer prevention and therapy, thereby focusing on their distinct epigenetic activities. PMID:26161152

  11. Rapid incorporation of glucosinolates as a strategy used by a herbivore to prevent activation by myrosinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalsamee, Mohamed K; Giampà, Marco; Niehaus, Karsten; Müller, Caroline

    2014-09-01

    Various plants have a binary defence system that consists of a substrate and a glucosidase, which is activated upon tissue disruption thereby forming reactive hydrolysis products. Insects feeding on such plants have to overcome this binary defence system or prevent the activation. In this study, we investigated the strategy used by a herbivore to deal with such binary defence. We studied, how the larvae of the sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) circumvent the activation of glucosinolates by myrosinase enzymes, which are found in their Brassicaceae host plants. Myrosinase activities were low in the front part of the larval gut but activities increased over the gut passage. In contrast, the glucosinolates were only highly concentrated in the first gut part and were rapidly incorporated into the haemolymph before the food reached the second half of the gut. Thus, the uptake and concentration of glucosinolates, i.e., sequestration, must occur in the front part of the gut. Using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI), we could demonstrate that the incorporated glucosinolate sinalbin circulates in the haemolymph where it accumulates around the Malpighian tubules. This study highlights the pivotal role of the gut of an adapted herbivore as a regulatory functional organ to cope with plant toxins. MALDI-MSI turned out as a highly useful technique to visualise glucosinolates in a herbivore, which has to deal with plants exhibiting a binary defence system, and may be applied to follow the fate of plant metabolites in other insect species in the future. PMID:25017143

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiushi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are complex and heterogeneous compounds implicated in diabetes. Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC at the distal nephron plays an important role in diabetic hypertension. Here, we report that H2S antagonizes AGEs-induced ENaC activation in A6 cells. ENaC open probability (PO in A6 cells was significantly increased by exogenous AGEs and that this AGEs-induced ENaC activity was abolished by NaHS (a donor of H2S and TEMPOL. Incubating A6 cells with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT mimicked the effects of AGEs on ENaC activity, but did not induce any additive effect. We found that the expression levels of catalase were significantly reduced by AGEs and both AGEs and 3-AT facilitated ROS uptake in A6 cells, which were significantly inhibited by NaHS. The specific PTEN and PI3K inhibitors, BPV(pic  and LY294002, influence ENaC activity in AGEs-pretreated A6 cells. Moreover, after removal of AGEs from AGEs-pretreated A6 cells for 72 hours, ENaC PO remained at a high level, suggesting that an AGEs-related “metabolic memory” may be involved in sodium homeostasis. Our data, for the first time, show that H2S prevents AGEs-induced ENaC activation by targeting the ROS/PI3K/PTEN pathway.

  13. The Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) health promotion and prevention study: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Daniel E.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Alegría, Margarita; Harvey, Philip; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Results of previous studies attest to the greater illness burden of common mental disorders (anxiety and depression) in older Latinos and the need for developing preventive interventions that are effective, acceptable, and scalable. Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) is a newly developed intervention that uses a community health worker (CHW) to lead a health promotion program in order to prevent common mental disorders among at-risk older Latinos. This pilot study tests the feas...

  14. The Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) health promotion and prevention study: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Daniel E.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Alegría, Margarita; Harvey, Philip; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results of previous studies attest to the greater illness burden of common mental disorders (anxiety and depression) in older Latinos and the need for developing preventive interventions that are effective, acceptable, and scalable. Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA) is a newly developed intervention that uses a community health worker (CHW) to lead a health promotion program in order to prevent common mental disorders among at-risk older Latinos. This pilot study tests the fea...

  15. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-04-25

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of {beta}-SiC with traces of {alpha}-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time.

  16. Comparison of Chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Charcoal Versus Gas and Solar Energy Treated Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment using different sources of heat on the chemical composition and microbial quality of milk was studied. Raw cow, goat and sheep milk were heated with charcoal, gas and solar energy at 99ºC for 12 min, cooled to 20ºC and chemical (fat, protein, total solids, ash (titratable acidity, vitamin C composition as well as microbiological examination (total viable bacteria count were carried out. Results showed that fat, total solids and ash contents w ere high in cow milk heated with solar energy, while protein content was high when milk was heated with gas, and the titratable acidity was high in milk heated with charcoal and gas. The fat, total solids and ash contents of goat milk w ere high when milk was heated with gas, while the protein content and titratable acidity were high when milk was heated with solar energy. The fat contents of sheep milk was high when milk was heated with gas, while the protein and total solids content were high in milk heated with solar energy, and ash content and titratable acidity were high in milk heated with charcoal. Vitamin C content was high for all milks when heated with solar energy, while the total viable bacteria count was high in milks of all species when heated with charcoal. Solar energy was shown to be suitable for heating milk from chemical view point, while heat treatment of milk with gas was found to be better microbiologically.

  17. Wood quality of five species from cerrado for production of charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tattiane Gomes Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of wood and charcoal of some species from cerrado mineiro aiming the production of bioenergy and use in steel industry. Five wood species from cerrado located in Minas Gerais state were used. Basic density and lignin, total extractives, holocellulose and ash contents were evaluated. Charcoal and fixed carbon yields, contents of fixed carbon, volatile materials and ashes, higher heating value and apparent relative density were evaluated. An entirely randomized design with four repetitions was used in the evaluation of the experiment. Moreover, multivariate analysis of principle components was used. The species Casearia sylvestris and Luehea divaricata had the highest gravimetric yield of charcoal and fixed carbon, as much as high lignin contents in the wood. Charcoal made from Trema micrantha presented high heating value, but the lowest apparent relative density. The species Guazuma ulmifolia stood out due to high fixed carbon content and great potential for use in the steel industry, together with the specie Casearia sylvestris.

  18. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  19. Isolation of Nocardia asteroides from respiratory specimens by using selective buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, E; Snell, H; Black, B L; Storey, M.; Colby, W D

    1992-01-01

    Nocardiosis is difficult to diagnose clinically and by laboratory methods. A patient presented with disease compatible with pulmonary malignancy, but Nocardia asteroides was isolated on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar. Investigation revealed that this medium may be a suitable selective primary isolation medium for Nocardia species from respiratory specimens.

  20. Selective buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for isolation of nocardiae from mixed cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, M. A.; Holmes, H T; Nolte, F S

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of Nocardia species from mixed cultures is facilitated by use of a selective medium. We show that buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium with polymyxin, anisomycin, and vancomycin can be used for the selective isolation of nocardiae from contaminated specimens.

  1. Reconstructions of biomass burning from sediment-charcoal records to improve data-model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlon, Jennifer R.; Kelly, Ryan; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Vannière, Boris; Power, Mitchell J.; Bartlein, Patrick; Higuera, Philip; Blarquez, Olivier; Brewer, Simon; Brücher, Tim; Feurdean, Angelica; Gil Romera, Graciela; Iglesias, Virginia; Yoshi Maezumi, S.; Magi, Brian; Mustaphi, Colin J. Courtney; Zhihai, Tonishtan

    2016-06-01

    The location, timing, spatial extent, and frequency of wildfires are changing rapidly in many parts of the world, producing substantial impacts on ecosystems, people, and potentially climate. Paleofire records based on charcoal accumulation in sediments enable modern changes in biomass burning to be considered in their long-term context. Paleofire records also provide insights into the causes and impacts of past wildfires and emissions when analyzed in conjunction with other paleoenvironmental data and with fire models. Here we present new 1000-year and 22 000-year trends and gridded biomass burning reconstructions based on the Global Charcoal Database version 3 (GCDv3), which includes 736 charcoal records (57 more than in version 2). The new gridded reconstructions reveal the spatial patterns underlying the temporal trends in the data, allowing insights into likely controls on biomass burning at regional to global scales. In the most recent few decades, biomass burning has sharply increased in both hemispheres but especially in the north, where charcoal fluxes are now higher than at any other time during the past 22 000 years. We also discuss methodological issues relevant to data-model comparisons and identify areas for future research. Spatially gridded versions of the global data set from GCDv3 are provided to facilitate comparison with and validation of global fire simulations.

  2. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo Woddlands and the Energy Demands of People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Mukelabai, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

  3. The use of charcoal as an alternate internal fuel addition in the pelletising process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vining, K.R.; Firth, A.R.; Douglas, J.D.; Garden, J.F. [Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization, Clayton South, Victoria (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    Solid fuels are often combined with ground iron ore fines during the pelletizing process in order to reduce maximum firing temperatures and amounts of burner fuel required, as well as to pellet strength. Coke and coal both contribute to raised levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the pelletization process. Various minerals have been investigated as an alternative to coke and coal. The use of wood biomass and wood char is a suitable alternative to coke and coal, as it is a renewable energy source, has a low ash content, and can reduce GHG emissions from the iron and steel-making process. The results of an experimental testwork program conducted to compare the behaviour of fired pellets containing traditional solid fuels and charcoal were presented. Physical properties of the pellets were compared in terms of their tumble and abrasion indices, reduction properties, and compressive strength. Pellet microstructures were also compared. The aim of the project was to demonstrate that biomass is an adequate replacement for both coke and coal. Chemical analyses were conducted, and surface area and specific reactivity was measured. A pot grate test was conducted. Results of the study showed that the use of charcoal or anthracite resulted in green balls with a higher moisture content than Black Pine charcoal. Various firing regimes were used during the experiments. Results showed that charcoal performed better than coke breeze due to its faster reactivity. Further testing is needed to determine optimal combinations of basicity, firing temperature, and internal fuel additions. 4 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites from wood charcoal by pulse current sintering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Imamura, Y

    2005-01-01

    SiC/C composites were investigated by sintering a mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 powder (32-45 mu m) at 1400, 1600 and 1800 degrees C under N-2 atmosphere with a pulse current sintering method. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites were investigated by measuring the Seebeck coefficient and th

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist, HPP593, prevents renal necrosis under chronic ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa V Fedorova

    Full Text Available The Goldblatt's 2 kidney 1 clip (2K1C rat animal model of renovascular hypertension is characterized by ischemic nephropathy of the clipped kidney. 2K1C rats were treated with a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ agonist, HPP593. Clipped kidneys from untreated rats developed tubular and glomerular necrosis and massive interstitial, periglomerular and perivascular fibrosis. HPP593 kidneys did not exhibit any histochemical features of necrosis; fibrotic lesions were present only in perivascular areas. Necrosis in the untreated clipped kidneys was associated with an increased oxidative stress, up regulation and mitochondrial translocation of the pro-death protein BNIP3 specifically in tubules. In the kidneys of HPP593-treated rats oxidative stress was attenuated and BNIP3 protein decreased notably in the mitochondrial fraction when compared to untreated animals. In untreated clipped kidneys, mitochondria were dysfunctional as revealed by perturbations in the levels of MCAD, COXIV, TFAM, and Parkin proteins and AMPK activation, while in HPP593-treated rats these proteins remained at the physiological levels. Nuclear amounts of oxidative stress-responsive proteins, NRF1 and NRF2 were below physiological levels in treated kidneys. Mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy were inhibited similarly in both treated and untreated 2K1C kidneys as indicated by a decrease in PGC1-α and deficiency of the autophagy-essential proteins LC3-II and ATG5. However, HPP593 treatment resulted in increased accumulation of p62 protein, an autophagic substrate and an enhancer of NRF2 activity. Therefore, inhibition of BNIP3 activation by the preservation of mitochondrial function and control of oxidative stress by PPARδ is the most likely mechanism to account for the prevention of necrotic death in the kidney under conditions of persistent ischemia.

  6. Evaluation of nutrient supplementation to charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was produced by Candida guilliermondii from charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with or without nutrients (ammonium sulphate, calcium chloride, rice bran extract. Both, xylitol yield and volumetric productivity decreased significantly when the nutrients were added to treated and untreated hydrolysates. In the treated hydrolysate, the efficiency of xylose conversion to xylitol was 79% when the nutrients were omitted. The results demonstrated that rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated with activated charcoal was a cheap source of xylose and other nutrients for xylitol production by C. guilliermondii. The non-necessity of adding nutrients to the hydrolysate media would be very advantageous since the process becomes less costly.Este trabalho avaliou a produção de xilitol pela levedura Candida guilliermondii, a partir de hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz não tratado e tratado com carvão ativo, ambos suplementados ou não com nutrientes (sulfato de amônio, cloreto de cálcio e extrato de farelo de arroz. Os resultados mostraram que tanto o rendimento como a produtividade volumétrica em xilitol diminuíram quando os nutrientes foram adicionados em ambos hidrolisados, tratado e não tratado. Em hidrolisado tratado, a eficiência de conversão de xilose em xilitol foi de 79% quando em ausência de nutrientes. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz tratado com carvão ativo é uma fonte barata de xilose e outros nutrientes, para a produção de xilitol por Candida guilliermondii. A não necessidade de adicionar nutrientes ao meio a base de hidrolisado é muito vantajosa, uma vez que o processo se torna mais econômico.

  7. Neem (Azadirachta indica in the management of Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogen of charcoal rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Devakumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Neem has been hailed as the kalpataru of modern times and a tree for solving global problems. Ten neem products comprising of hexane-extracted neem seed kernel oil (HENSK, cold-pressed neem oil, dewaxed oil, odour-free oil, neem fat, unsaturated fraction of the oil, steam volatile fraction (NIM-76, bitter fraction, neem isoprenoids containing 10% azadirachtins and a novel neem bitter formulation at 1 per cent concentration were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. (Holliday and Punithalingam, 1970, the pycnidia stage of Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub. Butl. the causal agent of charcoal rot/stem blight, seed rot, pre and post-emergence damping off. M. phaseolina is responsible for causing extensive global losses to various crops. The pathogen is both seed- and soil-borne. Among the enriched fractions, both NIM-76 and neem bitter fraction had shown higher efficacy over the parent coldpressed neem oil. The highest percent of inhibition was observed in case of the formulation NEEM 5 EC (91.87% followed by azadirachtin (81.25%, neem bitters (75.0, NIM-76 (61.25, HENSK (43.12, odourfree neem oil (56.25%, cold pressed unsaturated oil (50%, saturated fat (25%, lipid associates (56.25%. Thus the formulation NEEM 5 EC, azadirachtin and the odour-free neem bitter could find application in seed treatment to control a very common pathogen in tropics.

  8. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C. However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates. Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants

  9. An orally active TRPV4 channel blocker prevents and resolves pulmonary edema induced by heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorneloe, Kevin S; Cheung, Mui; Bao, Weike; Alsaid, Hasan; Lenhard, Stephen; Jian, Ming-Yuan; Costell, Melissa; Maniscalco-Hauk, Kristeen; Krawiec, John A; Olzinski, Alan; Gordon, Earl; Lozinskaya, Irina; Elefante, Lou; Qin, Pu; Matasic, Daniel S; James, Chris; Tunstead, James; Donovan, Brian; Kallal, Lorena; Waszkiewicz, Anna; Vaidya, Kalindi; Davenport, Elizabeth A; Larkin, Jonathan; Burgert, Mark; Casillas, Linda N; Marquis, Robert W; Ye, Guosen; Eidam, Hilary S; Goodman, Krista B; Toomey, John R; Roethke, Theresa J; Jucker, Beat M; Schnackenberg, Christine G; Townsley, Mary I; Lepore, John J; Willette, Robert N

    2012-11-01

    Pulmonary edema resulting from high pulmonary venous pressure (PVP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) patients, but current treatment options demonstrate substantial limitations. Recent evidence from rodent lungs suggests that PVP-induced edema is driven by activation of pulmonary capillary endothelial transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels. To examine the therapeutic potential of this mechanism, we evaluated TRPV4 expression in human congestive HF lungs and developed small-molecule TRPV4 channel blockers for testing in animal models of HF. TRPV4 immunolabeling of human lung sections demonstrated expression of TRPV4 in the pulmonary vasculature that was enhanced in sections from HF patients compared to controls. GSK2193874 was identified as a selective, orally active TRPV4 blocker that inhibits Ca(2+) influx through recombinant TRPV4 channels and native endothelial TRPV4 currents. In isolated rodent and canine lungs, TRPV4 blockade prevented the increased vascular permeability and resultant pulmonary edema associated with elevated PVP. Furthermore, in both acute and chronic HF models, GSK2193874 pretreatment inhibited the formation of pulmonary edema and enhanced arterial oxygenation. Finally, GSK2193874 treatment resolved pulmonary edema already established by myocardial infarction in mice. These findings identify a crucial role for TRPV4 in the formation of HF-induced pulmonary edema and suggest that TRPV4 blockade is a potential therapeutic strategy for HF patients.

  10. Protocatechuic acid and human disease prevention: biological activities and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, R; Santangelo, C; D'Archivio, M; Li Volti, G; Giovannini, C; Galvano, F

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown that a high dietary intake of vegetables and fruit rich in polyphenols is associated with a reduction of cancer incidence and mortality from coronary heart disease. The healthy effects associated with polyphenol consumption have made the study of the mechanisms of action a matter of great importance. In particular, the hydroxybenzoic acid protocatechuic acid (PCA) has been eliciting a growing interest for several reasons. Firstly, PCA is one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols such as anthocyanins and procyanidins that are normally found at high concentrations in vegetables and fruit, and are absorbed by animals and humans. Since the daily intake of anthocyanins has been estimated to be much higher than that of other polyphenols, the nutritional value of PCA is increasingly recognized. Secondly, a growing body of evidence supports the concept that PCA can exert a variety of biological effects by acting on different molecular targets. It has been shown that PCA possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as antihyperglycemic and neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, PCA seems to have chemopreventive potential because it inhibits the in vitro chemical carcinogenesis and exerts pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in different tissues. This review is aimed at providing an up-dated and comprehensive report on PCA giving a special emphasis on its biological activities and the molecular mechanisms of action most likely responsible for a beneficial role in human disease prevention. PMID:22519395

  11. Skeletal muscle secreted factors prevent glucocorticoid-induced osteocyte apoptosis through activation of β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähn, K; Lara-Castillo, N; Brotto, L; Mo, C L; Johnson, M L; Brotto, M; Bonewald, L F

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that the sole effect of muscle on bone is through mechanical loading. However, as the two tissues are intimately associated, we hypothesized that muscle myokines may have positive effects on bone. We found that factors produced by muscle will protect osteocytes from undergoing cell death induced by dexamethasone (dex), a glucocorticoid known to induce osteocyte apoptosis thereby compromising their capacity to regulate bone remodeling. Both the trypan blue exclusion assay for cell death and nuclear fragmentation assay for apoptosis were used. MLO-Y4 osteocytes, primary osteocytes, and MC3T3 osteoblastic cells were protected against dex-induced apoptosis by C2C12 myotube conditioned media (MT-CM) or by CM from ex vivo electrically stimulated, intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) or soleus muscle derived from 4 month-old mice. C2C12 MT-CM, but not undifferentiated myoblast CM prevented dex-induced cell apoptosis and was potent down to 0.1 % CM. The CM from EDL muscle electrically stimulated tetanically at 80 Hz was more potent (10 fold) in prevention of dex-induced osteocyte death than CM from soleus muscle stimulated at the same frequency or CM from EDL stimulated at 1 Hz. This suggests that electrical stimulation increases production of factors that preserve osteocyte viability and that type II fibers are greater producers than type I fibers. The muscle factor(s) appears to protect osteocytes from cell death through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, as MT-CM induces β-catenin nuclear translocation and β-catenin siRNA abrogated the positive effects of MT-CM on dex-induced apoptosis. We conclude that muscle cells naturally secrete factor(s) that preserve osteocyte viability. PMID:22972510

  12. Skeletal muscle secreted factors prevent glucocorticoid-induced osteocyte apoptosis through activation of β-catenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jähn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely held belief that the sole effect of muscle on bone is through mechanical loading. However, as the two tissues are intimately associated, we hypothesized that muscle myokines may have positive effects on bone. We found that factors produced by muscle will protect osteocytes from undergoing cell death induced by dexamethasone (dex, a glucocorticoid known to induce osteocyte apoptosis thereby compromising their capacity to regulate bone remodeling. Both the trypan blue exclusion assay for cell death and nuclear fragmentation assay for apoptosis were used. MLO-Y4 osteocytes, primary osteocytes, and MC3T3 osteoblastic cells were protected against dex-induced apoptosis by C2C12 myotube conditioned media (MT-CM or by CM from ex vivo electrically stimulated, intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL or soleus muscle derived from 4 month-old mice. C2C12 MT-CM, but not undifferentiated myoblast CM prevented dex-induced cell apoptosis and was potent down to 0.1 % CM. The CM from EDL muscle electrically stimulated tetanically at 80 Hz was more potent (10 fold in prevention of dex-induced osteocyte death than CM from soleus muscle stimulated at the same frequency or CM from EDL stimulated at 1 Hz. This suggests that electrical stimulation increases production of factors that preserve osteocyte viability and that type II fibers are greater producers than type I fibers. The muscle factor(s appears to protect osteocytes from cell death through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, as MT-CM induces β-catenin nuclear translocation and β-catenin siRNA abrogated the positive effects of MT-CM on dex-induced apoptosis. We conclude that muscle cells naturally secrete factor(s that preserve osteocyte viability.

  13. Progress in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper gives a general overview of the progress which has been made in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania. It describes the measures which were taken to strengthen nuclear material accounting and control and physical protection. The current status of the national legislation and the functions of institutions involved in control of nuclear material and combating of illicit trafficking are discussed. Lithuania, similar to many countries, did not avoid a new type of a crime - smuggling of nuclear materials - which was observed in the 1990's. The most serious case in Lithuania happened in 1993 when fresh fuel assembly was stolen from Ignalina NPP. This assembly contains approximately 124 kg of UO2 (enrichment 2%). 100 kg of the pellets from this assembly was found later in several pieces at different places. This case served as a strong stimulus to strengthen prevention measures of Illicit trafficking. The legal basis was created and governmental institutions were obliged with special duties related with nuclear material. The laws and regulations set the order for the shipment and handling of nuclear material. The penalties for violation of these laws and regulations specified in Penal Code and Administrative Code were made stricter. The State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) is a very important element in prevention of the illicit trafficking. The Regulations of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material at Nuclear Facilities and LOFs was issued by the State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) on 10 December 1997 following the provisions of the Law on Nuclear Energy. Lithuania extended its international obligations by ratifying the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (entered into force on 5 July 2000). The fully computerized nuclear material accountancy system was created at Ignalina NPP. The system gives the possibility to find the

  14. Randomised controlled trial of a secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients ('ProActive Heart': study protocol. Secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C Barr

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a significant cause of health and economic burden. Secondary prevention programs play a pivotal role in the treatment and management of those affected by CHD although participation rates are poor due to patient, provider, health system and societal-level barriers. As such, there is a need to develop innovative secondary prevention programs to address the treatment gap. Telephone-delivered care is convenient, flexible and has been shown to improve behavioural and clinical outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a six-month telephone-delivered secondary prevention program for MI patients (ProActive Heart. Methods 550 adult MI patients have been recruited over a 14 month period (December 2007 to January 2009 through two Brisbane metropolitan hospitals, and randomised to an intervention or control group (n = 225 per group. The intervention commences within two weeks of hospital discharge delivered by study-trained health professionals ('health coaches' during up to 10 × 30 minute scripted telephone health coaching sessions. Participants also receive a ProActive Heart handbook and an educational resource to use during the health coaching sessions. The intervention focuses on appropriate modification of CHD risk factors, compliance with pharmacological management, and management of psychosocial issues. Data collection occurs at baseline or prior to commencement of the intervention (Time 1, six months follow-up or the completion of the intervention (Time 2, and at 12 months follow-up for longer term outcomes (Time 3. Primary outcome measures include quality of life (Short Form-36 and physical activity (Active Australia Survey. A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the

  15. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  16. Does Management Matter?: Using MISR to Assess the Effects of Charcoal Production and Management on Woodland Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, K.

    2008-12-01

    In much of Sub-Saharan Africa, more than 75 percent of a rapidly growing urban population depends on charcoal as their primary source of energy for cooking. The high demand for charcoal has led many to believe that charcoal harvesting catalyzes widespread deforestation. The Senegalese government and international donors have initiated projects within protected areas to combat deforestation and created land management plans to sustainably harvest charcoal. To date, the effects of forest management techniques on forest sustainability are still in question. This research uses a multiphase approach integrating satellite analysis with field surveys to assess the effect of varying forest management strategies on forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Phase I involved testing the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellites capability in detecting structural changes in vegetative cover caused by charcoal harvesting and production. Analysis of the MISR derived k(red) parameter showed MISR can consistently differentiate between forest cover types and successfully differentiates between sites at pre- and post-charcoal harvest stages. Phase II conducted forestry and social surveys comparing and contrasting local effects of land management, land use, and charcoal production on forest regeneration. Phase III uses the local surveys to validate and train the regional remote sensing data to assess the effectiveness of land management in promoting forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Combining detailed local knowledge with the regional capabilities of MISR provide valuable insight into the factors that control woodland regeneration and sustainability. Preliminary results from phases II and III indicate that both field and remotely sensed variations in forest cover, tree regeneration, and land use change does not vary when compared against land management type. Final results will provide managers with additional

  17. Preventing Long-Term Risk of Obesity for Two Generations: Prenatal Physical Activity Is Part of the Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie-May Ruchat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The period surrounding pregnancy has been identified as a risk period for overweight/obesity in both mother and child because of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG. The promotion of a healthy GWG is therefore of paramount importance in the context of the prevention of obesity in the current and next generations. Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of prenatal physical activity interventions, alone or in combination with nutritional counselling, on GWG and to address whether preventing excessive GWG decreases the incidence of infant high birth weight and/or postpartum weight retention. Method. A search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify all relevant studies. Nineteen studies were included in this review: 13 interventions combining physical activity, nutrition, and GWG counselling and 6 interventions including physical activity alone. Results. Prenatal lifestyle interventions promoting healthy eating and physical activity habits appear to be the most effective approach to prevent excessive GWG. Achievement of appropriate GWG may also decrease the incidence of high infant birth weight and postpartum weight retention. Conclusion. Healthy eating habits during pregnancy, combined with an active lifestyle, may be important elements in the prevention of long-term risk of obesity for two generations.

  18. Broccoli sprout extract prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy via Nrf2 activation in db/db T2DM mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Wang, Shudong; Ji, Honglei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Tan, Yi; Wintergerst, Kupper; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2016-01-01

    To develop a clinic-relevant protocol for systemic up-regulation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), male db/db and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were given sulforaphane (SFN, an Nrf2 activator) and its natural source, broccoli sprout extract (BSE) by gavage every other day for 3 months, with four groups: vehicle (0.1 ml/10 g), BSE-low dose (estimated SFN availability at 0.5 mg/kg), BSE-high dose (estimated SFN availability at 1.0 mg/kg), and SFN (0.5 mg/kg). Cardiac function and pathological changes (hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative damage) were assessed by echocardiography and histopathological examination along with Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Both BSE and SFN significantly prevented diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Mechanistically, BSE, like SFN, significantly up-regulated Nrf2 transcriptional activity, evidenced by the increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and its downstream gene expression. This resulted in a significant prevention of cardiac oxidative damage and inflammation. For all these preventive effects, BSE at high dose provided a similar effect as did SFN. These results indicated that BSE at high dose prevents DCM in a manner congruent with SFN treatment. Therefore, it suggests that BSE could potentially be used as a natural and safe treatment against DCM via Nrf2 activation. PMID:27457280

  19. Synaptophysin 1 Clears Synaptobrevin 2 from the Presynaptic Active Zone to Prevent Short-Term Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajit Rajappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Release site clearance is an important process during synaptic vesicle (SV recycling. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. Here we identify self-assembly of exocytosed Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2 and Synaptophysin 1 (Syp1 by homo- and hetero-oligomerization into clusters as key mechanisms mediating release site clearance for preventing cis-SNARE complex formation at the active zone (AZ. In hippocampal neurons from Syp1 knockout mice, neurons expressing a monomeric Syb2 mutant, or after acute block of the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF, responsible for cis-SNARE complex disassembly, we found strong frequency-dependent short-term depression (STD, whereas retrieval of Syb2 by compensatory endocytosis was only affected weakly. Defects in Syb2 endocytosis were stimulus- and frequency-dependent, indicating that Syp1 is not essential for Syb2 retrieval, but for its efficient clearance upstream of endocytosis. Our findings identify an SV protein as a release site clearance factor.

  20. Physical Activity and Gastrointestinal Cancers: Primary and Tertiary Preventive Effects and Possible Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Steindorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cancers account for 37% of all cancer deaths worldwide, underlining the need to further investigate modifiable factors for gastrointestinal cancer risk and prognosis. This review summarizes the corresponding evidence for physical activity (PA, including, briefly, possible biological mechanisms. Despite high public health relevance, there is still a scarcity of studies, especially for tertiary prevention. Besides the convincing evidence of beneficial effects of PA on colon cancer risk, clear risk reduction for gastroesophageal cancer was identified, as well as weak indications for pancreatic cancer. Inverse associations were observed for liver cancer, yet based on few studies. Only for rectal cancer, PA appeared to be not associated with cancer risk. With regard to cancer-specific mortality of the general population, published data were rare but indicated suggestive evidence of protective effects for colon and liver cancer, and to a lesser extent for rectal and gastroesophageal cancer. Studies in cancer patients on cancer-specific and total mortality were published for colorectal cancer only, providing good evidence of inverse associations with post-diagnosis PA. Overall, evidence of associations of PA with gastrointestinal cancer risk and progression is promising but still limited. However, the already available knowledge further underlines the importance of PA to combat cancer.

  1. Active prevention of postpartum endometritis in pregnant women with anaerobic dysbiosis and planned cesarian section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin K,V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of inflammatory di¬seases postpartum endometritis (PE retains its leading position. The likelihood of postpartum endometritis deve¬lopment after cesarean section increases by 5-10 times compared with spontaneous labor and its frequency has no tendency to decrease. The urgency of PE problem is determined not only by its high prevalence, economic losses, but its possible complications (uterine suture failure and generalization of infection as well. Clinical picture of PE currently is characterized by late manifastation, presence of atypical and asymptomatic forms with mismatched general reaction of the organism and severity of the local pathological process. The leading role in the etiology of PE belongs to conditionaly pathogenic microflora, in the most cases (90% presence of strict anaerobic nonsporeforming mic¬roorganisms, composing part of the normal flora of the genital tract in women. The aim of the study was the development of the principles of active prevention of postpartum endometritis in women with severe vaginal anaerobic dysbiosis while planning cesarean section.

  2. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  3. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  4. New welfare, new policies: towards preventive worker-directed active labour market policies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, H.H.A.; van der Aa, P.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Debates about the new welfare, and the new social policies that go (or should go) with it, share an emphasis on risk-prevention strategies and pluralistic risk management. Focusing specifically on the risk of unemployment, this article discusses the case for so-called preventive worker-directed acti

  5. The Role of Physical Activities with Rub ber Tubes in Preventing Football Players’ Muscle Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Bezugolov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the results of 120 male football players, aged 16-17 (average age is 16,0±0,4 monitoring. Average sporting experience is 9,4±1,2. Depending on trauma preventive measures 2 groups were singled out. The I group was comprised of 60 football players for 2009–2010 seasons, using standard trauma preventive measures. The II group was comprised of 60 football players for 2010–2011 seasons, using the new trauma preventive program. The offered trauma preventive program proved to be the most efficient in hamstring traumas prevention, which often arise as a result of sprints and jumps, typical for football matches.

  6. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  7. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Jellesma; J. Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study: Child

  8. Development of an Active Ankle Foot Orthosis to Prevent Foot Drop and Toe Drag in Hemiplegic Patients: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyoon Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed an active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO that controls dorsiflexion/plantarflexion of the ankle joint to prevent foot drop and toe drag during hemiplegic walking. To prevent foot slap after initial contact, the ankle joint must remain active to minimize forefoot collision against the ground. During late stance, the ankle joint must also remain active to provide toe clearance and to aid with push-off. We implemented a series elastic actuator in our AAFO to induce ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The activator was controlled by signals from force sensing register (FSR sensors that detected gait events. Three dimensional gait analyses were performed for three hemiplegic patients under three different gait conditions: gait without AFO (NAFO, gait with a conventional hinged AFO that did not control the ankle joint (HAFO, and gait with the newly-developed AFO (AAFO. Our results demonstrate that our newly-developed AAFO not only prevents foot drop by inducing plantarflexion during loading response, but also prevents toe drag by facilitating plantarflexion during pre-swing and dorsiflexion during swing phase, leading to improvement in most temporal-spatial parameters. However, only three hemiplegic patients were included in this gait analysis. Studies including more subjects will be required to evaluate the functionality of our newly developed AAFO.

  9. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  10. Leakage of high active liquid waste into the thermowell of HALW evaporator (4/4). Repair work for leakage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakage of high active liquid waste into the thermowell of High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) Evaporator was confirmed when thermometers were replaced in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. We estimate that the cause of the leakage is tunnel corrosion at the bottom cap of the thermowell due to high temperature at the bottom of the evaporator. This paper deals with the repair work for the leakage prevention. (author)

  11. Hybrid mode-locked fiber ring laser using graphene and charcoal nanoparticles as saturable absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2016-05-01

    A fiber ring laser which implements hybrid mode locking technique has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to generate pulse train at 20 GHz repetition rate with ultrashort pulse width. Graphene and charcoal nano-particles acting as passive mode lockers are inserted into a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser to improve the performance. With graphene saturable absorbers, the pulse duration is shortened from 5.3 ps to 2.8 ps, and with charcoal nano-particles, it is shortened to 3.2 ps. The RF spectra show that supermode noise can be removed in the presence of the saturable absorbers. Numerical simulation of the pulse transmission has also been carried out, which shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Comparative study of cultivation of feces in vermiculite or charcoal to obtain larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steveen Rios Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We compared feces culturing in charcoal or vermiculite to obtain Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae. Methods Feces (5g from infected rats was mixed with vermiculite (10g or coal (10g in plastic cups and incubated at 28°C for 48h. Larvae were recovered using Baermann-Moraes method. Results Significantly higher number of positive larval cultures were recovered from vermiculite than from charcoal (15/17 and 4/17, respectively; p < 0.001; 990.6 ± 307.5 and 215 ± 78.1 larvae, p = 0.027. Conclusions Vermiculite yields more larvae and provides cleaner pellets, improving larvae identification and facilitating their use for other purposes.

  13. The negative effect of financial constraints on planning prevention activities: some evidence from the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Annalisa; De Vito, Corrado; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; D'Andrea, Elvira; Villari, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed to assess the association between regional financial deficits and Recovery Plans and the quality of the 702 projects developed by the Italian Regions within the National Prevention Plan 2010-13. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between Recovery Plans and low quality of projects, possibly due to weak regional public health capacities. Regions with Recovery Plans are likely to focus mainly on short-term issues with a high impact on health care costs, leaving few resources available for prevention. A different approach to financial deficit focused on long-term strategies, including those for health promotion and disease prevention, is needed.

  14. Charcoal and Total Carbon in Soils from Foothills Shrublands to Subalpine Forests in the Colorado Front Range

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Sanford; Christopher Licata

    2012-01-01

    Temperate conifer forests in the Colorado Front Range are fire-adapted ecosystems where wildland fires leave a legacy in the form of char and charcoal. Long-term soil charcoal C (CC) pools result from the combined effects of wildland fires, aboveground biomass characteristics and soil transfer mechanisms. We measured CC pools in surface soils (0–10 cm) at mid-slope positions on east facing aspects in five continuous foothills shrubland and conifer forest types. We found a significant statisti...

  15. NMR-based estimates of the molecular dimensions in wildfire charcoal: Implications for predictions of biochar residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, William; Kane, Evan; Huang, Rixiang; Von Bargen, Justin; Davis, Rebecca; Ohlson, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass to energy and fuels generates charcoal as a co-product. Charcoals derived from sustainable biomass sources—biochars—are an inherently stable form of carbon, relatively long residence times in the environment. Biochars can have potentially beneficial properties as soil fertility amendments, which has further stimulated research on the use of biochars for soil carbon sequestration as a climate change mitigation strategy. However, it is challenging to assess the long-term stability of biochar carbon using laboratory or field incubations because these are comprised of short-term observations. In this study, we make use of ancient charcoals from the boreal forests of Alaska and Scandanavia. We have deliberately selected charcoals from organic soil horizons, as to investigate the inherent biological and chemical stability of charcoal C without the protective influence of soil minerals. We use 14C radiocarbon dating to determine the age of the charcoals, differential scanning calorimetry to assess thermal stability, and solid-state 13C NMR to assess the chemical structure. Specifically, we employ C-H dipolar-dephasing NMR experiments to estimate the relative abundance and molecular dimensions of condensed aromatic domains and aliphatic structures. We test the hypothesis that the environmental stability, as determined by apparent 14C age and thermal stability, is related to the extent of ring condensation in the charcoal structure. Preliminary results suggest that the dimension of the condensed aromatic ring clusters may be an important molecular parameter to include in algorithms used to model/predict the residence time of charcoal and biochar C in soil.

  16. Applying a bio-economic optimal control model to charcoal production: The case of slash and burn agriculture in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arrocha, Fernando; Mauricio G. Villena

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between rural poverty and forestland management in the context of charcoal production under slash and burn. An optimal control model determines how a representative household makes decisions on the allocation of labor and forest areas to exploit, which in turn affects the renewable resource base available to the community. The proposed optimal control model for charcoal production is built upon the agricultural model of slash and burn of Pascual and Barbie...

  17. Applying a bio-economic optimal control model to charcoal production: The case of slash and burn agriculture in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arrocha, Fernando; Mauricio G. Villena

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between rural poverty and forest land management in the context of charcoal production under slash and burn. An optimal control model determines how a representative household makes decisions on the allocation of forest areas to work and use them to affect the renewable resource base on which it depends. The proposed optimal control model for charcoal production is built upon the agricultural model of slash and burn by Pascual and Barbier (2007). This theo...

  18. Charcoal-Oil Mixture as an Alternative Fuel: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roila Awang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast depletion of fuel oil and continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. The world energy consumption is projected to grow at an average of 2.7-3.7% from 1996 to 2010. Therefore search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus this study presents the results on the characteristic of charcoal-oil mixture as an alternative fuel. The calorific value, ash content and stability of the mixture are determined.

  19. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  20. Comparison of three buffers used in the formulation of buffered charcoal yeast extract medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

    1993-01-01

    Growth of Legionella spp. on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with 3-(n-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), 3-(n-morpholino)-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO), or n-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer was similar. With three exceptions, growth was no different in buffered yeast extract broth supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate and formulated with MOPS or ACES buffer.

  1. Aniline blue-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for presumptive identification of Legionella species.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    By utilizing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium containing 0.01% aniline blue in conjunction with a long-wave UV light, the differentiation of five species of Legionella was facilitated. L. pneumophila, when grown on this medium, did not absorb the aniline blue dye; however, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, L. bozemanii, and L. gormanii absorbed the dye in varying amounts and produced colonies of various shades of blue.

  2. Clinical demonstration of isolation of Nocardia asteroides on buffered charcoal-yeast extract media.

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers, R M; Rihs, J D; Yu, V L

    1992-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides was isolated only from sputum samples, obtained from three patients with pulmonary nocardiosis, that had been cultured onto buffered charcoal-yeast extract (BCYE) and selective BCYE media as part of laboratory workups for Legionella species. A decontamination procedure with low-pH pretreatment (KCl-HCl solution) had been performed on the sputa prior to culture onto the BCYE media because direct cultures on the media were overgrown with commensal microflora. Chalky white co...

  3. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models.

  4. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models. PMID:26207816

  5. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information... collection under review; (Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection). Juvenile Residential Facility Census The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of...

  6. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities. PMID:27412981

  7. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoma, J.; Kasali, G.B. [Building and Industrial Minerals Research Unit, National Council for Scientific Research, (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO{sub 2} did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  8. Canonical correlation analysis of the characteristics of charcoal from Qualea parviflora Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the relationships between the characteristics of charcoal from Qualea parviflora Mart. using canonical correlation analysis. Five trees were analyzed in such way that 5-cm thick discs were removed from each tree at the base, DBH (1.30 m, middle and top sections. The wood was carbonized in a muffle furnace at a heating rate of 1.67 °C min-1. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the relationships between the group formed by fixed carbon, volatile matter, ash, elemental carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen levels and a second group formed by the gravimetric yield, higher heating value and relative bulk density of the charcoal. A tendency was noted for high levels of fixed carbon and elemental carbon to be associated to low levels of volatile matter, ash and oxygen and to low gravimetric yield. Fixed carbon and elemental carbon levels had a positive relation to higher heating value and to relative bulk density, whereas volatile matter, ash and oxygen levels had a negative relation to such characteristics. The higher the gravimetric yield from carbonization, the higher the volatile matter, ash and oxygen levels will be in the resulting charcoal.

  9. Optimum Parameters for the Formulation of Charcoal Briquettes Using Bagasse and Clay as Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenya generates about 1.6 million tones of sugarcane bagasse which has enormouspotential for exploitation in modern commercial applications. Due to rising fossilfuel prices, availability in large quantity and rapidly growing interest in bio-energyas well as technological advances and environmental concerns , bagasse could beutilized for the formulation of charcoal briquettes for household use tosupplement wood charcoal. In this study briquettes were formulated usingcarbonized bagasse, clay as a binder and molasses as a filler. Bagasse was obtainedfrom sugar factories for carbonization. Carbonization was carried out using abrick-built kiln while blending used a manually operated drum mixer. A piston typebriquetting press fitted onto a universal strength testing machine was used for theproduction of briquettes. The most optimum parameters that produced briquetteswhich complied to current charcoal specifications for household use were in theratio of 1:1:40 for molasses, clay and carbonized bagasse respectively at0.50N/mm2 pressure. At this formulation, briquettes were produced whose ashcontent, volatile matter and calorific energy were 36.4%, 27.2% and 4.390 Kca/grespectively. The briquettes produced burnt without sparks and were smokeless,producing no irritating smell. They ignited easily and took relatively long beforethey extinguished. They were recommended for household use in Kenya.

  10. Population-based prevention of obesity: the need for comprehensive promotion of healthful eating, physical activity, and energy balance: a scientific statement from American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Interdisciplinary Committee for Prevention (formerly the expert panel on population and prevention science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Obarzanek, Eva; Stettler, Nicolas; Bell, Ronny; Field, Alison E; Fortmann, Stephen P; Franklin, Barry A; Gillman, Matthew W; Lewis, Cora E; Poston, Walker Carlos; Stevens, June; Hong, Yuling

    2008-07-22

    Obesity is a major influence on the development and course of cardiovascular diseases and affects physical and social functioning and quality of life. The importance of effective interventions to reduce obesity and related health risks has increased in recent decades because the number of adults and children who are obese has reached epidemic proportions. To prevent the development of overweight and obesity throughout the life course, population-based strategies that improve social and physical environmental contexts for healthful eating and physical activity are essential. Population-based approaches to obesity prevention are complementary to clinical preventive strategies and also to treatment programs for those who are already obese. This American Heart Association scientific statement aims: 1) to raise awareness of the importance of undertaking population-based initiatives specifically geared to the prevention of excess weight gain in adults and children; 2) to describe considerations for undertaking obesity prevention overall and in key risk subgroups; 3) to differentiate environmental and policy approaches to obesity prevention from those used in clinical prevention and obesity treatment; 4) to identify potential targets of environmental and policy change using an ecological model that includes multiple layers of influences on eating and physical activity across multiple societal sectors; and 5) to highlight the spectrum of potentially relevant interventions and the nature of evidence needed to inform population-based approaches. The evidence-based experience for population-wide approaches to obesity prevention is highlighted.

  11. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  12. [Defense mechanism to prevent ectopic activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes under physiological conditions and its breakdown in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Midori; Otsuko, Makoto

    2004-11-01

    Independent of the etiology, acute pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and the potential for mortality. In most patients, acute pancreatitis follows an uncomplicated or mild course. Recent studies in hereditary pancreatitis have clearly revealed that trypsin is the key enzyme at the onset of pancreatitis. However, there are several defense mechanisms to prevent ectopic activation of trypsin under physiological conditions. If the defense mechanisms failed or activation of trypsin occurred over defense ability, trypsin would activate other digestive enzymes and self-digestion of the pancreas would occur.

  13. Comparison between measurements of black carbon, charcoal and associated nutrients in western Amazonan soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; McMichael, C.; Hanlon, C.; Bush, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    To construct fire and climate history and human occupation records from soils and lake sediment profiles, climatologists and anthropologists have traditionally measured charcoal abundances by microscopic image analysis. In contrast, geochemists have developed methods of black carbon (BC) quantification using chemical extraction. We compared charcoal (>0.5 mm particle size) versus BC (measured via the CTO-340 method of Kuhlbusch, 1995) in multiple soil profiles from four western Amazon regions with evidence of pre-Columbian occupation. A secondary goal of this project was to understand the relative influence of climate and humans in the fire and ecological history of the Amazon. BC concentration in soils of the Amazon varied widely from an average of 0.5 mg g 1 in cores around Lake Gentry (southeastern Peru) to 5.5 mg g 1 around Lake Ayauchi (southeastern Ecuador), corresponding to the evidence of greater land use around the latter. Surprising, BC concentrations in habitation horizon soils at Quistococha, near Iquitos, Peru were similar to Lake Gentry, averaging about 0.6 mg g 1. However, BC as a percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) was much more uniform with an average of 12.0, 13.3, 14.6, and 13.0% in Quistococha, Gentry, Ayauchi, and Los Amigos (central-eastern Peru) soils, respectively, suggesting that the same processes that concentrate SOC also concentrate BC. BC may act to protect SOC via sorption or produce SOC via microbial community enhancement. These findings also show that BC is not regionally enriched as it might be were climate to be a predominant factor in BC production, and seem to track land use more closely. Charcoal and BC concentrations were linearly correlated in only about half the soil profiles and neither BC nor charcoal were consistently correlated with chemical anthropogenic indicators such as P or Ca within soil profiles or specific regions. However, there was a statistical covariance between each of these parameters suggesting that each

  14. Service-learning in higher education relevant to the promotion of physical activity, healthful eating, and prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Rosenkranz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  15. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways.

  16. Telmisartan prevents weight gain and obesity through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta-dependent pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Liqun;

    2010-01-01

    -gamma expression, whereas neither candesartan nor losartan affected PPAR-delta expression. In vivo, long-term administration of telmisartan significantly reduced visceral fat and prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity in wild-type mice and hypertensive rats but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. Administration...

  17. Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Paola Corrêa da SILVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective: In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods: Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results: EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm, as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae (15.04±2.29 mm. EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLactive extracts, discovered in the Amazon rain forest, show potential as sources of new antibacterial agents for use as chemical coadjuvants in prevention strategies to treat caries.

  18. Physical Activity, Cognitive Function, and Brain Health: What Is the Role of Exercise Training in the Prevention of Dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Paul D.; Beth Parker; Gregory, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    The population of elderly adults in the US is growing, and the prevalence of age-related cognitive decline and dementia is expected to increase in turn. Effective and inexpensive interventions or preventive measures are necessary to attenuate the increased economic and social burden of dementia. This review will focus on the potential for physical activity and exercise training to promote brain health and improve cognitive function via neurophysiological changes. We will review pertinent anim...

  19. Environmental Novelty Activates β2-Adrenergic Signaling to Prevent the Impairment of Hippocampal LTP by Aβ Oligomers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shaomin; Jin, Ming; Zhang, Dainan; Yang, Ting; Koeglsperger, Thomas; Fu, Hongjun; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    A central question about human brain aging is whether cognitive enrichment slows the development of Alzheimer changes. Here we show that prolonged exposure to an enriched environment (EE) facilitated signaling in the hippocampus of wild-type mice that promoted long-term potentiation. A key feature of the EE effect was activation of β2-adrenergic receptors and downstream cAMP/PKA signaling. This EE pathway prevented LTP inhibition by soluble oligomers of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) isolated from AD...

  20. Mobile apps for pediatric obesity prevention and treatment, healthy eating, and physical activity promotion: just fun and games?

    OpenAIRE

    Schoffman, Danielle E.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Jones, Sonya J.; Wilcox, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Mobile applications (apps) offer a novel way to engage children in behavior change, but little is known about content of commercially available apps for this population. We analyzed the content of apps for iPhone/iPad for pediatric weight loss, healthy eating (HE), and physical activity (PA). Fifty-seven apps were downloaded and tested by two independent raters. Apps were coded for: inclusion of the Expert Committee for Pediatric Obesity Prevention's (ECPOP) eight recommended strategies (e.g....

  1. 76 FR 38410 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0057, Pollution Prevention and Control, Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ...: 1010-0057, Pollution Prevention and Control, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau... extension of an information collection (1010-0057) extension. SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork... 1010-0057 in your comment and include your name and return address. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  2. Active Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. The biflavonoid amentoflavone inhibits neovascularization preventing the activity of proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarallo, Valeria; Lepore, Laura; Marcellini, Marcella;

    2011-01-01

    collections consisting of >100 plant extracts. Here, we report the isolation and identification from an extract of the Malian plant Chrozophora senegalensis of the biflavonoid amentoflavone as an antiangiogenic bioactive molecule. Amentoflavone can to bind VEGFs preventing the interaction and phosphorylation...

  4. Active Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC–MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added. - Highlights: ► Garlic and red wine were added to ground beef and irradiated at 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. ► When the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly and it affected sensory score. ► Thus, addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation. ► This effect was consistent when additives, such as garlic and red wine, were added into ground beef.

  7. Paroxetine treatment, following behavioral suppression of PTSD-like symptoms in mice, prevents relapse by activating the infralimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentefour, Yassine; Rakibi, Youness; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Garcia, René

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies have shown that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remission, induced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, is associated with increased prefrontal activation during post-treatment symptom provocation. Other studies have shown that continuation SSRI treatment after remitting from PTSD reduces the rate of relapse. The aim of the present preclinical study was to investigate the relationship between post-treatment prefrontal changes and PTSD relapse prevention. Avoidance conditioning (with a 1.5-mA foot-shock), avoidance extinction and a trauma priming exposure (with a 0.3-mA foot-shock) were used in mice to induce, suppress and reactivate PTSD-like symptoms (including avoidance, fear sensitization, enhanced contextual fear, and anxiety-like behavior), respectively. Paroxetine, injected at 8 mg/kg/day (7 days), was used as SSRI treatment. PTSD-like symptoms were present for at least 30 days and resistant to paroxetine treatment. However, after extinction training (suppressing all PTSD-like symptoms), paroxetine treatment prevented symptom reactivation. Paroxetine treatment also induced infralimbic neuronal activation. However, infralimbic functional tetrodotoxin inactivation abolished the preventive effect of paroxetine treatment on symptom reactivation. The data reveal a potential ability of treatments inducing infralimbic activation to provide prophylactic protection against PTSD relapse. PMID:26706692

  8. Gene-activation mechanisms in the regression of atherosclerosis, elimination of diabetes type 2, and prevention of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, P V

    2011-07-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia are major global health problems. Both endogenous and exogenous factors activate genes functioning in biological processes. This review article focuses on gene-activation mechanisms that regress atherosclerosis, eliminate DM type 2 (DM2), and prevent cognitive decline and dementia. Gene-activating compounds upregulating functions of liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and affecting lipid and protein metabolism, increase ER size through membrane synthesis, and produce an antiatherogenic plasma lipoprotein profile. Numerous gene-activators regress atherosclerosis and reduce the occurrence of atherosclerotic disease. The gene-activators increase glucose disposal rate and insulin sensitivity and, by restoring normal glucose and insulin levels, remove metabolic syndrome and DM2. Patients with DM2 show an improvement of plasma lipoprotein profile and glucose tolerance together with increase in liver phospholipid (PL) and cytochrome (CYP) P450. The gene-activating compounds induce hepatic protein and PL synthesis, and upregulate enzymes including CYPs and glucokinase, nuclear receptors, apolipoproteins and ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters. They induce reparation of ER structures and eliminate consequences of ER stress. Healthy living habits activate mechanisms that maintain high levels of HDL and apolipoprotein AI, promote health, and prevent cognitive decline and dementia. Agonists of liver X receptor (LXR) reduce amyloid in brain plaques and improve cognitive performance in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. The gene activation increases the capacity to withstand cellular stress and to repair cellular damage and increases life span. Life free of major health problems and in good cognitive health promotes well-being and living a long and active life.

  9. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Simons; Johannes Brug; Mai J M Chinapaw; Michiel de Boer; Jaap Seidell; Emely de Vet

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight. METHODS: We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥2 hours/week non-active video game time) adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140) (receiving active video games and encouragement to ...

  10. A balanced pyrimidine pool is required for optimal Chk1 activation to prevent ultrafine anaphase bridge formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemble, Simon; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Biard, Denis; Lambert, Sarah; Amor-Guéret, Mounira

    2016-08-15

    Cytidine deaminase (CDA) deficiency induces an excess of cellular dCTP, which reduces basal PARP-1 activity, thereby compromising complete DNA replication, leading to ultrafine anaphase bridge (UFB) formation. CDA dysfunction has pathological implications, notably in cancer and in Bloom syndrome. It remains unknown how reduced levels of PARP-1 activity and pyrimidine pool imbalance lead to the accumulation of unreplicated DNA during mitosis. We report that a decrease in PARP-1 activity in CDA-deficient cells impairs DNA-damage-induced Chk1 activation, and, thus, the downstream checkpoints. Chemical inhibition of the ATR-Chk1 pathway leads to UFB accumulation, and we found that this pathway was compromised in CDA-deficient cells. Our data demonstrate that ATR-Chk1 acts downstream from PARP-1, preventing the accumulation of unreplicated DNA in mitosis, and, thus, UFB formation. Finally, delaying entry into mitosis is sufficient to prevent UFB formation in both CDA-deficient and CDA-proficient cells, suggesting that both physiological and pathological UFBs are derived from unreplicated DNA. Our findings demonstrate an unsuspected requirement for a balanced nucleotide pool for optimal Chk1 activation both in unchallenged cells and in response to genotoxic stress.

  11. VIEWS REGARDING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE ACTIVITIES RELATEDTO THE PREVENTION AND COMBAT AGAINST MONEY LAUNDERING

    OpenAIRE

    DUMITRESCU Serju; Avram, Marioara

    2012-01-01

    The present paper tries to render different aspects of money laundering in Romania according to the present legislation. We have tried to identify several aspects related to this issue such as: the sequences of the money laundering process, the entities having reporting obligations, the duties of the persons in charge with the prevention & combat against money laundering, report deadlines, different types of reporting which have to be done to the Money Laundering Department , the contraventio...

  12. Herbal Medicine Goshajinkigan Prevents Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Allodynia without Impairing Antitumor Activity of Paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Muh. Akbar Bahar; Tsugunobu Andoh; Keisuke Ogura; Yoshihiro Hayakawa; Ikuo Saiki; Yasushi Kuraishi

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. However, there are no effective strategies to treat the neuropathy. We examined whether Goshajinkigan, a herbal medicine, would prevent paclitaxel-induced allodynia without affecting the anticancer action in mice. Murine breast cancer 4T1 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad. Paclitaxel (10 and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, alternate day from day 7 postinoculation) ...

  13. Hydrogen sulphide and mild hypothermia activate the CREB signaling pathway and prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hai-bin; Ji, Xiangjun; Zhu, Si-Hai; Hu, Yi-min; Zhang, Li-dong; Miao, Xiao-lei; Ma, Ru-Meng; Duan, Man-lin; Li, Wei-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Both hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and mild hypothermia have been reported to prevent brain damage caused by reperfusion assault through regulating the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). However, the relationship between the two treatments and how they exert neuro-protective effects through NMDARs remain to be elucidated. Methods Transient cerebral ischemia was induced using the Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion method. We used sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) as the H2S donor. We randomly...

  14. Herbal Medicine Goshajinkigan Prevents Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Allodynia without Impairing Antitumor Activity of Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Akbar Bahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. However, there are no effective strategies to treat the neuropathy. We examined whether Goshajinkigan, a herbal medicine, would prevent paclitaxel-induced allodynia without affecting the anticancer action in mice. Murine breast cancer 4T1 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad. Paclitaxel (10 and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, alternate day from day 7 postinoculation inhibited the tumor growth, and Goshajinkigan (1 g/kg, oral, daily from day 2 postinoculation did not affect the antitumor action of paclitaxel. Mechanical allodynia developed in the inoculated region due to tumor growth and in the hind paw due to paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Paclitaxel-induced allodynia was markedly prevented by Goshajinkigan, although tumor-associated allodynia was not inhibited by Goshajinkigan. These results suggest that Goshajinkigan prevents paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy without interfering with the anti-cancer action of paclitaxel.

  15. Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

  16. Conversion reaction of the Yallourn charcoal by the methane microwave plasma; Metanmaikuroha purazuma niyoru yarunsumi no tenkan hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Osamu; Marushima, Ayumi; Kobayashi, Motoki; Ogami, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya

    1999-09-01

    The distribution of the raw coal midyear gift element to the product. As a technology development which converted lignite to fuel oil, middle raw material gas and the high-grade residue in which carbon content rate is high directly, the time change of the process which distributes each C, H, O element from supply methane and Yallourn charcoal using the methane microwave plasma in each product was examined. The center of the reaction tube (25.0 mm inside diameter 400 length Mm) made of cylindrical fused silica was filled with the drying charcoal. 2.45 GHz of a fixed output. The waveguide is irradiated under the methane (4.0 kPa) supply at the upper part of Yallourn charcoal in reaction tube in respect of the microwave from horizontal direction pass. As the result, a following knowledge was obtained. (1) The gas product (hydrogen with the acetylene mainly) distributes C, H element in the supply methane. (2). In the Yallourn charcoal, to oil product which consists of aliphatic hydrocarbon of H/C ratio 1.5-1.6 in the reaction within the half, the C element is distributed after 5 minutes to the carbon dioxide. (3). It is distributed to gas product (it is finally carbon monoxide) in which most of the O element in the Yallourn charcoal goes through generation and vapor phase homogeneous reaction of the carbon dioxide by the decomposition of the mosquito reportage xyl unit. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Identifying past fire regimes throughout the Holocene in Ireland using new and established methods of charcoal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Donna; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Globally, in recent years there has been an increase in the scale, intensity and level of destruction caused by wildfires. This can be seen in Ireland where significant changes in vegetation, land use, agriculture and policy, have promoted an increase in fires in the Irish landscape. This study looks at wildfire throughout the Holocene and draws on lacustrine charcoal records from seven study sites spread across Ireland, to reconstruct the past fire regimes recorded at each site. This work utilises new and accepted methods of fire history reconstruction to provide a recommended analytical procedure for statistical charcoal analysis. Digital charcoal counting was used and fire regime reconstructions carried out via the CharAnalysis programme. To verify this record new techniques are employed; an Ensemble-Member strategy to remove the objectivity associated with parameter selection, a Signal to Noise Index to determine if the charcoal record is appropriate for peak detection, and a charcoal peak screening procedure to validate the identified fire events based on bootstrapped samples. This analysis represents the first study of its kind in Ireland, examining the past record of fire on a multi-site and paleoecological timescale, and will provide a baseline level of data which can be built on in the future when the frequency and intensity of fire is predicted to increase.

  18. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity with lithium prevents and attenuates paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M; Yan, X; Weng, H-R

    2013-12-19

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a first-line chemotherapy-drug used to treat many types of cancers. Neuropathic pain and sensory dysfunction are the major toxicities, which are dose-limiting and significantly reduce the quality of life in patients. Two known critical spinal mechanisms underlying taxol-induced neuropathic pain are an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and suppressed glial glutamate transporter activities. In this study, we uncovered that increased activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3β) in the spinal dorsal horn was concurrently associated with increased protein expressions of GFAP, IL-1β and a decreased protein expression of glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), as well as the development and maintenance of taxol-induced neuropathic pain. The enhanced GSK3β activities were supported by the concurrently decreased AKT and mTOR activities. The changes of all these biomarkers were basically prevented when animals received pre-emptive lithium (a GSK3β inhibitor) treatment, which also prevented the development of taxol-induced neuropathic pain. Further, chronic lithium treatment, which began on day 11 after the first taxol injection, reversed the existing mechanical and thermal allodynia induced by taxol. The taxol-induced increased GSK3β activities and decreased AKT and mTOR activities in the spinal dorsal horn were also reversed by lithium. Meanwhile, protein expressions of GLT-1, GFAP and IL-1β in the spinal dorsal horn were improved. Hence, suppression of spinal GSK3β activities is a key mechanism used by lithium to reduce taxol-induced neuropathic pain, and targeting spinal GSK3β is an effective approach to ameliorate GLT-1 expression and suppress the activation of astrocytes and IL-1β over-production in the spinal dorsal horn.

  19. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  20. Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (IDATA) Study Data | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (IDATA) Study is a methodologic study of device-based, internet-based, and conventional self-report instruments for assessing physical activity and diet in epidemiologic research. | Device-based and intensive self-report physical activity and diet data with biomarkers

  1. INHIBITING MAP KINASE ACTIVITY PREVENTS CALCIUM TRANSIENTS AND MITOSIS ENTRY IN EARLY SEA URCHIN EMBRYOS

    OpenAIRE

    Philipova, Rada; Larman, Mark G.; Leckie, Calum P.; Harrison, Patrick K.; Groigno, Laurence; Whitaker, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A transient calcium increase triggers nuclear envelope breakdown (mitosis entry) in sea urchin embryos. Cdk1/cyclin B kinase activation is also known to be required for mitosis entry. More recently MAP kinase activity has also been shown to increase during mitosis. In sea urchin embryos both kinases show a similar activation profile, peaking at the time of mitosis entry.

  2. Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

  3. Bench-scale and packed bed sorption of methylene blue using treated olive pomace and charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Banat, F; Al-Asheh, S.; Al-Ahmad, R.; Bni-Khalid, F.

    2006-01-01

    A combination of olive pomace after solvent extraction and charcoal produced from the solid waste of olive oil press industry was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch tests showed that up to 80% of dye was removed when the dye concentration was 10 mg/ml and the sorbent concentration was 45 mg/ml. An increase in the olive pomace concentration resulted in greater dye removal from aqueous solution, and an increase in MB dye concentration a...

  4. Comparison of different agars used in the formulation of buffered charcoal yeast extract medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of agar type used for buffered charcoal yeast extract medium supplemented with 0.1% alpha-ketoglutarate was tested based on the growth and size of Legionella pneumophila. Oxoid Agar no. 1, Difco Bacto and Bitek agars, and BBL Granulated, Grade A, and Select agars were tested. For colony size the agars were ranked in the following order: Oxoid agar no. 1 much greater than Bacto greater than Bitek approximately Granulated approximately Grade A greater than Select. Colony yield per pl...

  5. Does temperature of charcoal creation affect subsequent mineralization of soil carbon and nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier-Bergeron, S.; Bradley, R.; Munson, A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fire is the most common form of natural disturbance of boreal forest ecosystems and has primordial influence on successional processes. This may be due in part to the pre-disturbance vegetation development stage and species composition, but these successional pathways could also vary with differences in fire behavior and consequently in fire intensity, defined as the energy released during various phases of a fire. Fire intensity may also affect soil C and N cycling by affecting the quality of the charcoal that is produced. For example, the porosity of coal tends to increase with increasing temperature at which it is produced Higher porosity would logically increase the surface area to which dissolved soil molecules, such as tannins and other phenolics, may be adsorbed. We report on a microcosm study in which mineral and organic soils were jointly incubated for eight weeks with a full factorial array of treatments that included the addition of Kalmia tannins, protein, and wood charcoal produced at five different temperatures. A fourth experimental factor comprised the physical arrangement of the material (stratified vs. mixed), designed to simulate the effect of soil scarification after fire and salvage harvest. We examined the effects of these treatments on soil C and N mineralisation and soil microbial biomass. The furnace temperature at which the charcoal was produced had a significant effect on its physico-chemical properties; increasing furnace temperatures corresponded to a significant increase in % C (P<0.001), and a significant decrease in %O (P<0.001) and %H (P<0.001). Temperature also had significant impacts on microporosity (surface area and volume). Temperature of production had no effect (P=0.1355) on soil microbial biomass. We observed a linear decreasing trend (P<0.001) in qCO2 with increasing temperature of production, which was mainly reflected in a decline in basal respiration. Finally, we found a significant interaction (P=0.010) between

  6. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the cave A5-3 in Arsanjan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern humans (Homo-sapiens), who originated in East Africa about 200,000 years ago, migrated out of Africa about 130,000-60,000 years ago, dispersed in West Asia, and finally replaced Neanderthals in Europe and Asia. The region of West Asia, especially southern Iran, therefore, is very important to understand the evolution of modem humans. The Japan-Iran international research group, led by Professor Tsuneki of Tsukuba University, has investigated A5-3 cave in the Arsanjan archeological site in southern Iran since 2011. The sequence of layers in the cave is estimated to belong Middle Paleolithic to the Proto-Neolithic period, based on the type of lithic artifacts excavated. In this study, we measured AMS-14C dates of charcoal fragments collected from the layers to reveal the chronology of the Arsanjan site. Charcoal samples collected from surface layer to Layer 4 in Trench E5 (total 6 layers) and Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 (total 10 layers) in the A5-3 cave were used. In Trench E5, charcoal samples of surface layer were dated at modern, samples of Layer 1 at 300-115 BP, samples of Layer 2 at 26,750-26,370 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 and samples of Layer 4 were older than 14C-detection limit. In Trench B3, charcoal samples of Layer 2 were dated at 36,500-35,300 BP, and one sample of Layer 3 was dated at 36,890±190 BP. The layers in both Trenches E5 and B3 had been considered to correspond to each other base on the type of lithic artifacts, but the 14C results show that the layers of Trench B3 are about 10,000 BP older than those of Trench E5. Layers 2 and 3 in Trench B3 belong to the early Upper Paleolithic period, contemporary with the result reported for AH IV layer in Ghar-e Boof archeological site at Dasht-e Rostam region, southwestern Iran. This study is the second finding of use of these micro-blades at 37,000 BP in Iran, following the Ghar-e Boof site. Layer 4 in Trench B3 includes Middle Paleolithic artifacts, and so 37,000 BP obtained for Layer 3 in

  7. Activation of the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel triggers UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and prevents obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangtao Ma; Zhenyu Zhu; Li Li; Jian Zhong; Daoyan Liu; Bernd Nilius; Zhiming Zhu; Hao Yu; Zhigang Zhao; Zhidan Luo; Jing Chen; Yinxing Ni; Rongbing Jin; Liqun Ma; Peijian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-expending organ that produces heat.Expansion or activation of BAT prevents obesity and diabetes.Chronic cold exposure enhances thermogenesis in BAT through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activation triggered via a β-adrenergic pathway.Here,we report that the cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is functionally present In mouse BAT.Challenging brown adipocytes with menthol,a TRPM8 agonist,up-regulates UCP1 expression and requires protein kinase A activation.Upon mimicking long-term cold exposure with chronic dietary menthol application,menthol significantly increased the core temperatures and locomotor activity in wild-type mice; these effects were absent in both TRPM8-/- and UCP1-/- mice.Dietary obesity and glucose abnormalities were also prevented by menthol treatment.Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for TRPM8,suggesting that stimulation of this channel mediates BAT thermogenesis,which could constitute a promising way to treat obesity.

  8. Fc receptor endocytosis is controlled by a cytoplasmic domain determinant that actively prevents coated pit localization

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Macrophages and B-lymphocytes express two major isoforms of Fc receptor (FcRII-B2 and FcRII-B1) that exhibit distinct capacities for endocytosis. This difference in function reflects the presence of an in- frame insertion of 47 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the lymphocyte isoform (FcRII-B1) due to alternative mRNA splicing. By expressing wild type and mutant FcRII cDNAs in fibroblasts, we have now examined the mechanism by which the insertion acts to prevent coated pit localization...

  9. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Boer, de M.; Seidell, J.; Vet, de E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective - The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healt

  10. Replacing non-active video gaming by active video gaming to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Boer, M. de; Seidell, J.; Vet, E. de

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of health

  11. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of health

  12. Deficiency of LKB1 in skeletal muscle prevents AMPK activation and glucose uptake during contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Kei; McCarthy, Afshan; Smith, Darrin; Green, Kevin A.; Grahame Hardie, D.; Ashworth, Alan; Dario R. Alessi

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the LKB1 tumour suppressor protein kinase is the major ‘upstream' activator of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We have used mice in which LKB1 is expressed at only ∼10% of the normal levels in muscle and most other tissues, or that lack LKB1 entirely in skeletal muscle. Muscle expressing only 10% of the normal level of LKB1 had significantly reduced phosphorylation and activation of AMPKα2. In LKB1-lacking muscle, the basal activity of the A...

  13. Measurement of dynamic adsorption coefficient of Xe on coconut charcoal in CO2 streams by gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a method for measuring the dynamic adsorption coefficients of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 in CO2 carrier streams by SP-2305E gas chromatograph with the thermal conductivity cell. The adsorption column is made of stainless steel (diameter 4 x 240 mm) packed with 60-80 mesh coconut charcoal II-2. The CO2 content in carrier streams is about 87%. Three groups of data of Xe dynamic adsorption coefficient were obtained at temperature 15.5 deg C, 31.5 deg C and 50.5 deg C by pulse injection respectively. Another group was obtained at temperature approx. 16 deg C by continueous injection. In addition, adsorption isotherms and adsorption isometrics were determined. In this experimental system, the adsorption heat of Xe on coconut charcoal II-2 is 2820 cal/mole

  14. Passive and Active Vaccination Strategies to Prevent Ricin Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Berry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ricin toxin (RT is derived from castor beans, produced by the plant Ricinus communis. RT and its toxic A chain (RTA have been used therapeutically to arm ligands that target disease-causing cells. In most cases these ligands are cell-binding monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. These ligand-toxin conjugates or immunotoxins (ITs have shown success in clinical trials [1]. Ricin is also of concern in biodefense and has been classified by the CDC as a Class B biothreat. Virtually all reports of RT poisoning have been due to ingestion of castor beans, since they grow abundantly throughout the world and are readily available. RT is easily purified and stable, and is not difficult to weaponize. RT must be considered during any “white powder” incident and there have been documented cases of its use in espionage [2,3]. The clinical syndrome resulting from ricin intoxication is dependent upon the route of exposure. Countermeasures to prevent ricin poisoning are being developed and their use will depend upon whether military or civilian populations are at risk of exposure. In this review we will discuss ricin toxin, its cellular mode of action, the clinical syndromes that occur following exposure and the development of pre- and post-exposure approaches to prevent of intoxication.

  15. Activation of liver X receptors prevents statin-induced death of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Petersen, Rasmus K; Steffensen, Knut R;

    2008-01-01

    The biological functions of liver X receptors (LXRs) alpha and beta have primarily been linked to pathways involved in fatty acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Here we report a novel role of LXR activation in protecting cells from statin-induced death. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced...... to differentiate by standard isobutylmethylxanthine/dexamethasone/insulin treatment in the presence of statins, they failed to differentiate and underwent massive apoptosis. The simultaneous addition of selective LXR agonists prevented the statin-induced apoptosis. By using mouse embryo fibroblasts from wild...... statin-induced apoptosis; nor did LXR action depend on protein kinase B, whose activation by insulin was impaired in statin-treated cells. Rather, LXR-dependent rescue of statin-induced apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes required NF-kappaB activity, since expression of a dominant negative version...

  16. Antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, V; Dehdashti, Kh

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate has a key role in pain perception and also development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. It has been reported that clavulanic acid affects glutamatergic transmission via activation of glutamate transporter. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models. Male Swiss mice (25-30 g) were used in this study. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test and hot plate method were used to assess the antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid. Morphine (30 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to the mice two times a day (8 AM and 4 PM) for 3 days in order to produce tolerance. To develop morphine dependence, morphine sulfate (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg) was injected at 8 and 12 AM and 16 PM respectively and for 3 consecutive days. Naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p) was used to induce morphine withdrawal syndrome and the number of jumps and presence of ptosis, piloerection, tremor, sniffing and diarrhea were recorded and compared with control group. Clavulanic acid at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibited abdominal constriction and licking behavior of acetic acid and formalin-induced pain respectively. Clavulanic acid was not able to show any antinociception in hot plate model and could not prevent development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. Clavulanic acid has considerable antinociceptive activity and further studies are needed to clarify its exact mechanism.

  17. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoprotegerin, OPG, RANK, RANKL, denosumab, strontium ranelate, osteoporosis

  18. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhrouf Amina; Mahdouani Kacem; Jrah Hanene; Kouidhi Bochra; Chaieb Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ) and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV) and the 2, 3-bis...

  19. NecroX-7 prevents oxidative stress-induced cardiomyopathy by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joonghoon; Park, Eok; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Jin [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-hoon [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Sun Young; Kwak, Hyo-Shin; Park, Heui Sul; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Myoungsub; Yim, Hyeon Joo; Seo, Dong Ook [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soon Ha, E-mail: shakim@lgls.com [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress is one of the causes of cardiomyopathy. In the present study, NecroXs, novel class of mitochondrial ROS/RNS scavengers, were evaluated for cardioprotection in in vitro and in vivo model, and the putative mechanism of the cardioprotection of NecroX-7 was investigated by global gene expression profiling and subsequent biochemical analysis. NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced death of H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes at EC{sub 50} = 0.057 μM. In doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy in rats, NecroX-7 significantly reduced the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which were increased by DOX treatment (p < 0.05). Microarray analysis revealed that 21 genes differentially expressed in tBHP-treated H9C2 cells were involved in ‘Production of reactive oxygen species’ (p = 0.022), and they were resolved by concurrent NecroX-7 treatment. Gene-to-gene networking also identified that NecroX-7 relieved cell death through Ncf1/p47phox and Rac2 modulation. In subsequent biochemical analysis, NecroX-7 inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity by 53.3% (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that NecroX-7, in part, provides substantial protection of cardiomyopathy induced by tBHP or DOX via NOX-mediated cell death. -- Highlights: ► NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced in vitro cardiac cell death. ► NecroX-7 ameliorated doxorubicin-induced in vivo cardiomyopathy. ► NecroX-7 prevented oxidative stress and necrosis-enriched transcriptional changes. ► NecroX-7 effectively inhibited NADPH oxidase activation. ► Cardioprotection of Necro-7 was brought on by modulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  20. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  1. Microstructure of carbon derived from mangrove charcoal and its application in Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tao [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo Ruiying, E-mail: ryluo@buaa.edu.c [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Qiao Wenming [College of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the microstructure of mangrove-charcoal-derived carbon (MC) was studied using XRD, STM and TEM. MC was found to consist of aligned quasi-spherical structural units with diameters of around 5-20 nm. It shows typical hard carbon characteristics, including a strongly disoriented single graphene layer and BSU, formed by two or three graphene layers stacked nearly parallel. Some curved and faceted graphene layers, especially closed carbon nanoparticles with fullerene-like, were observed in the as-prepared samples. MC was also evaluated as an anodic material for Li-ion batteries. MC carbonized at 1000 deg. C possessed the highest available discharge capacity (below 0.5 V) of 335 mAh g{sup -1}, the high first-cycle coulombic efficiency of 73.7%, good rate and cyclic capability and PC-based electrolyte compatibility. {sup 7}Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of fully lithiated mangrove charcoal-derived carbons indicated the co-existence of three Li species.

  2. Effects of Particle Size on the Thermal Properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal Briquettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokan, A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal briquettes were studied as a function of particle size. The particle sizes were 300, 425, 600, 1180 and 2000µm. The sieved materials were compressed into briquettes and pellets. The pellets were 12.5mm diameter and 13mm in length. The properties determined were moisture content, ash content and calorific value. The calorific value for Sawdust particle were 300µm =16.04MJ/kg and 2000µm = 17.82MJ/kg which indicates an increased with increase in particle size. For Corncobs the calorific value also rises from 16.63MJ/kg to 17.51MJ/kg for 300 µm and 2000 µm respectively. In the same vain Prosopis Africana charcoal gives 24.94MJ/kg for 300µm size and 29.67MJ/kg for 2000µm. It was observed that for all the materials investigated, an increase in particle size was accompanied by higher energy output.

  3. Low nuclear body formation and tax SUMOylation do not prevent NF-kappaB promoter activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet Amandine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tax protein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a powerful activator of the NF-κB pathway, a property critical for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Tax permanently stimulates this pathway at a cytoplasmic level by activating the IκB kinase (IKK complex and at a nuclear level by enhancing the binding of the NF-κB factor RelA to its cognate promoters and by forming nuclear bodies, believed to represent transcriptionally active structures. In previous studies, we reported that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation play a critical role in Tax localization and NF-κB activation. Indeed, analysis of lysine Tax mutants fused or not to ubiquitin or SUMO led us to propose a two-step model in which Tax ubiquitination first intervenes to activate IKK while Tax SUMOylation is subsequently required for promoter activation within Tax nuclear bodies. However, recent studies showing that ubiquitin or SUMO can modulate Tax activities in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm and that SUMOylated Tax can serve as substrate for ubiquitination suggested that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation may mediate redundant rather than successive functions. Results In this study, we analyzed the properties of a new Tax mutant that is properly ubiquitinated, but defective for both nuclear body formation and SUMOylation. We report that reducing Tax SUMOylation and nuclear body formation do not alter the ability of Tax to activate IKK, induce RelA nuclear translocation, and trigger gene expression from a NF-κB promoter. Importantly, potent NF-κB promoter activation by Tax despite low SUMOylation and nuclear body formation is also observed in T cells, including CD4+ primary T lymphocytes. Moreover, we show that Tax nuclear bodies are hardly observed in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the degree of NF-κB activation by Tax correlates with the level of Tax ubiquitination, but not

  4. Soil charcoal analysis as a climato-stratigraphical tool: The key case of Cordillera Real, northern Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pasquale, G. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Impagliazzo, S., E-mail: stefania.impagliazzo@unina.i [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Lubritto, C. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Marziano, M. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Passariello, I. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Ermolli, E. Russo [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The present study represents the first attempt of reconstructing fire history through soil charcoal dating. The investigated area is located in the Guandera Biological Reserve (western Cordillera Real, northern Ecuador). Six AMS radiocarbon dating, performed at the base of five soil profiles allowed a fire phase to be identified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. A strong correspondence was highlighted between the age of the Guandera fires and the El Abra stadial, which is considered the Younger Dryas equivalent in South America. This local evidence of fires contributes to define the geographic area in which the El Abra stadial was recorded and suggests a wider use of the soil charcoal analysis.

  5. Is adding charcoal to soil a good method for CO2 sequestration? : modeling a spatially homogeneous soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, DP David; Fatima, T Tasnim; Meurs, van, L.; Muntean, A Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the aim to avoid dangerous climate change. In this paper, we propose a simple mathematical model (a coupled system of nonlinear ODEs) to capture some of the dynamical effects produced by adding charcoal to fertile soils. The main goal is to understand to which extent charcoal is able to lock up carbon in soils. Our results are preliminary in the sense that we do not solve the CO2 sequ...

  6. Activation of TRPV1 by dietary capsaicin improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and prevents hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dachun; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Shuangtao;

    2010-01-01

    Some plant-based diets lower the cardiometabolic risks and prevalence of hypertension. New evidence implies a role for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Little is known about impact of chronic TRPV1 activation on the...... regulation of vascular function and blood pressure. Here we report that chronic TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increases the phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and eNOS and thus production of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells, which is calcium dependent. TRPV1 activation by capsaicin...

  7. Prometaphase APCcdh1 activity prevents non-disjunction in mammalian oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Alexandra; Madgwick, Suzanne; Chang, Heng-Yu; Nabti, Ibtissem; Levasseur, Mark; Jones, Keith T

    2007-01-01

    The first female meiotic division (MI) is uniquely prone to chromosome segregation errors through non-disjunction, resulting in trisomies and early pregnancy loss1. Here, we show a fundamental difference in the control of mammalian meiosis which may underlie such susceptibility. It involved a reversal in the well-established timing of activation of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC)2, 3 by its co-activators cdc20 and cdh1. APCcdh1 was active first, during prometaphase I, and was needed in o...

  8. In vitro prevention of chick pancreatic lipase activity by Abroma augusta extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nidhi Gupta; Aditya Ganeshpurkar; Nishikant Jatav; Divya Bansal; Nazneen Dubey

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate chick pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the Abroma augusta (A. augusta). Methods: A. augusta was first extracted with methanol and subjected to phytochemical screenings. Quantitative estimation of flavonoids, phenolics and alkaloids was done. Pancreatic lipase from chick pancreas was isolated and used as substrate for anti-lipase studies. Results:A. augusta extract effectively inhibited concentration dependent lipase activity, whereby extract at concentration 100 μg/mL inhibited 88.6% enzyme activity. Conclusions: From these results, it could be concluded that A. augusta can be used as a potential source anti-lipase agents.

  9. [Physical cardiovascular activity in the physical preventive medecine of the diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The indication of physical activity in patients with Diabetes mellitus type 2 and in the metabolic syndrome has a scientific proven evidence. There does no exist a general definite program of this activity. There is designed his methodology, modality, intensity, frequency and duration. The first results are presented in diabete type 2 patients and of them those who meet with metabolic syndrome by means of evaluation of the HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and IMC. On emphasizes that there is reached a very high and linear decrease of the HbA1c, with the individualized program of physical cardiovascular activity.

  10. EGFR inhibition evokes innate drug resistance in lung cancer cells by preventing Akt activity and thus inactivating Ets-1 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuchareon, Janyaporn; McCormick, Frank; Eisele, David W; Tetsu, Osamu

    2015-07-21

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About 14% of NSCLCs harbor mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Despite remarkable progress in treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), only 5% of patients achieve tumor reduction >90%. The limited primary responses are attributed partly to drug resistance inherent in the tumor cells before therapy begins. Recent reports showed that activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is an important determinant of this innate drug resistance. In contrast, we demonstrate that EGFR inhibition promotes innate drug resistance despite blockade of RTK activity in NSCLC cells. EGFR TKIs decrease both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt protein kinase pathways for a short time, after which the Ras/MAPK pathway becomes reactivated. Akt inhibition selectively blocks the transcriptional activation of Ets-1, which inhibits its target gene, dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), a negative regulator specific for ERK1/2. As a result, ERK1/2 is activated. Furthermore, elevated c-Src stimulates Ras GTP-loading and activates Raf and MEK kinases. These observations suggest that not only ERK1/2 but also Akt activity is essential to maintain Ets-1 in an active state. Therefore, despite high levels of ERK1/2, Ets-1 target genes including DUSP6 and cyclins D1, D3, and E2 remain suppressed by Akt inhibition. Reduction of DUSP6 in combination with elevated c-Src renews activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway, which enhances cell survival by accelerating Bim protein turnover. Thus, EGFR TKIs evoke innate drug resistance by preventing Akt activity and inactivating Ets-1 function in NSCLC cells.

  11. Development of charcoal retort pilot plant in Zambia. African Energy Programme research report series no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical report discusses the theoretical and experimental work which has been undertaken in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of charcoal retort model prototypes. Optimum operating conditions have been established at an initial temperature of 350 deg. C and stabilisation time of 5 hours. From the technical point of view, the project is viable since as per set objectives, charcoal is being produced at a higher conversion efficiency of around 40% and the by-products in the form of pyroligenous liquor and tar are recovered. As expected, the analysis shows that the model is uneconomic since the technological price of the products exceeds that of the selling price of products. However, the increase in the size of the retort chamber by eighteen renders the prototype economically viable. The report also discusses further work such as continuation of the testing of the retort to establish concretely the optimum operating conditions, determination of the reliability and durability of the retort and evaluation of the quality of charcoal produced, which has been recommended. Based on the results from the retort model and preliminary financial analysis, an economic analysis on the value of by-products from wood distillation is undertaken. The analysis shows that there is a reasonable market of by-products, (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) to warrant processing of the pyroligenous liquor, and subsequent setting up of a small scale distillation plant. Using the same results from the retort model, a charcoal retort plant with a 10m3 retort chamber capacity is designed. In the design of the retort chamber, various considerations are undertaken such as stress calculations of the retort chamber on the support legs, furnace, piping and distribution chamber design, and their associated heat losses. Basing on the amount of heat required to complete the carbonisation process and heat losses from the system, a suitable furnace size and air blower are selected. The

  12. Resistance to toxin-mediated fungal infection: role of lignins, isoflavones, other seed phenolics, sugars and boron in the mechanism of resistance to charcoal rot disease in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the combined effects of charcoal rot and drought on total seed phenol, isoflavones, sugars, and boron in susceptible (S) and moderately resistant (MR) soybean genotypes to charcoal rot pathogen. A field experiment was conducted for two years under ir...

  13. Post-Natal Inhibition of NF-κB Activation Prevents Renal Damage Caused by Prenatal LPS Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Guan, Xiao; Pan, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiongshan; Wang, Fangjie; Ji, Yan; Huang, Pei; Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Han, Qi; Yi, Ping; Namaka, Michael; Liu, Ya; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to an inflammatory stimulus has been shown to cause renal damage in offspring. Our present study explored the role of intra-renal NF-κB activation in the development of progressive renal fibrosis in offspring that underwent prenatal exposure to an inflammatory stimulus. Time-dated pregnant rats were treated with saline (control group) or 0.79 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through intra-peritoneal injection on gestational day 8, 10 and 12. At the age of 7 weeks, offspring from control or LPS group were treated with either tap water (Con+Ve or LPS+Ve group) or pyrollidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 120mg/L), a NF-κB inhibitor, via drinking water starting (Con+PDTC or LPS+PDTC group), respectively, till the age of 20 or 68 weeks. The gross structure of kidney was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff staining and Sirius red staining. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction and/or immunohistochemical staining. Our data showed that post-natal persistent PDTC administration efficiently repressed intra-renal NF-κB activation, TNF-α and IL-6 expression. Post-natal PDTC also prevented intra-renal glycogen deposition and collagenous fiber generation as evident by the reduced expression of collagen III and interstitial α-SMA in offspring of prenatal LPS exposure. Furthermore, post-natal PDTC administration reversed the intra-renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) over-activity in offspring of prenatal LPS exposure. In conclusion, prenatal inflammatory exposure results in offspring's intra-renal NF-κB activation along with inflammation which cross-talked with excessive RAS activation that caused exacerbation of renal fibrosis and dysfunction in the offspring. Thus, early life prevention of NF-κB activation may be a potential preventive strategy for chronic renal inflammation and progressive renal damage. PMID:27073902

  14. Clinical and radiographic study of activated carbon workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Uragoda, C. G.

    1989-01-01

    Activated carbon is made in Sri Lanka by passing steam through charcoal made from coconut shells. The carbon does not contain free silica. Sixty six men who had worked in a factory making activated carbon for an average of 7.2 years had no more respiratory symptoms than a control group, and none showed radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. There was no evidence that people exposed to charcoal and pure carbon for up to 11 years are at risk of developing pneumoconiosis.

  15. Deregulated MAPK activity prevents adipocyte differentiation of fibroblasts lacking the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Petersen, Rasmus K; Jørgensen, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    A functional retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is required for adipose conversion of preadipocyte cell lines and primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) in response to treatment with standard adipogenic inducers. Interestingly, lack of functional pRB in MEFs was recently linked to elevated Ras activity....../Akt are significantly increased in pRB-deficient MEFs both before and after the addition of adipogenic inducers. Consistently, we detected higher levels of activated Ras in MEFs lacking pRB. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation by the MEK inhibitor UO126 restored the ability of pRB-deficient MEFs to undergo adipocyte...... differentiation, as manifested by expression of adipocyte marker genes and lipid accumulation. Furthermore and reflecting the elevated levels of activated PKB/Akt in the pRB-deficient MEFs, differentiation proceeded in an insulin-independent manner. In conclusion, we suggest that pRB plays a pivotal role...

  16. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease—Implications for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. McCarty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD, a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways—exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea, and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine—which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine—mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD—including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine—also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date.

  17. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease-Implications for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways-exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea), and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine-which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine-mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD-including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine-also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date. PMID:27417759

  18. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease—Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways—exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea), and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine—which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine—mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD—including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine—also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date. PMID:27417759

  19. Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain inhibits FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Jiang, Yuan; An, Yuan; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Yu, Chundong, E-mail: cdyu@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) was effectively expressed. {yields} FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced palmitic acid-induced steatosis of HepG2 cells. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice. {yields} FGFR4-ECD partially restored tetracycline-repressed PPAR{alpha} expression. -- Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine whether neutralization of FGFR4 ligands by soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) can inhibit the activation of FGFR4, we constructed FGFR4-ECD expression vector and showed that FGFR4-ECD was effectively expressed in cells and secreted into culture medium. FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and reduced steatosis of HepG2 induced by palmitic acid in vitro. Furthermore, in a tetracycline-induced fatty liver model, expression of FGFR4-ECD in mouse liver reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and partially restored the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which promotes the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation but is repressed by tetracycline. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGFR4-ECD can block FGFR4 signaling and prevent hepatic steatosis, highlighting the potential value of inhibition of FGFR4 signaling as a method for therapeutic intervention against NAFLD.

  20. Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 prevents the development of tactile sensitivity in a rodent model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndong Christian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain due to nerve injury is one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. Following peripheral nerve injury, neuronal and glial plastic changes contribute to central sensitization and perpetuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in rodents. The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK family is pivotal in this spinal cord plasticity. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs limit inflammatory processes by dephosphorylating MAPKs. For example, MKP-1 preferentially dephosphorylates p-p38. Since spinal p-p38 is pivotal for the development of chronic hypersensitivity in rodent models of pain, and p-p38 inhibitors have shown clinical potential in acute and chronic pain patients, we hypothesize that induction of spinal MKP-1 will prevent the development of peripheral nerve-injury-induced hypersensitivity and p-p38 overexpression. Results We cloned rat spinal cord MKP-1 and optimize MKP-1 cDNA in vitro using transfections to BV-2 cells. We observed that in vitro overexpression of MKP-1 blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced phosphorylation of p38 (and other MAPKs as well as release of pro-algesic effectors (i.e., cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide. Using this cDNA MKP-1 and a non-viral, in vivo nanoparticle transfection approach, we found that spinal cord overexpression of MKP-1 prevented development of peripheral nerve-injury-induced tactile hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the phosphorylated form of p38. Conclusions Our results indicate that MKP-1, the natural regulator of p-p38, mediates resolution of the spinal cord pro-inflammatory milieu induced by peripheral nerve injury, resulting in prevention of chronic mechanical hypersensitivity. We propose that MKP-1 is a potential therapeutic target for pain treatment or prevention.