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Sample records for activated carbon sorcion

  1. Sorption of a phenols mixture in aqueous solution with activated carbon; Sorcion de una mezcla de fenoles en solucion acuosa con carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia M, D

    2004-07-01

    The constant population growth and the quick industrialization have caused severe damages to our natural aquifer resources for a great variety of organic and inorganic pollutants. Among these they are those phenol compounds that are highly toxic, resistant (to the degradation chemistry) and poorly biodegradable. The phenolic compounds is used in a great variety of industries, like it is the production of resins, nylon, plastifiers, anti-oxidants, oil additives, drugs, pesticides, colorants, explosives, disinfectants and others. The disseminated discharges or effluents coming from the industrial processes toward lakes and rivers are causing a growing adverse effect in the environment, as well as a risk for the health. Numerous studies exist on the phenols removal and phenols substituted for very varied techniques, among them they are the adsorption in activated carbon. This finishes it has been used successfully for the treatment of residual waters municipal and industrial and of drinking waters and it is considered as the best technique available to eliminate organic compounds not biodegradable and toxic present in aqueous solution (US EPA, 1991). However a little information exists on studies carried out in aqueous systems with more of a phenolic compound. The activated carbon is broadly used as adsorbent due to its superficial properties in the so much treatment of water as of aqueous wastes, adsorbent for the removal of organic pollutants. The main objective of this work is the adsorption of a aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in activated carbon of mineral origin of different meshes and to diminish with it their presence in water. The experiments were carried out for lots, in normal conditions of temperature and pressure. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the superficial properties of the sorbent like of the physical properties and chemical of the sorbate. The isotherms were carried

  2. Sorption of a mixture of phenols in aqueous solution with activated carbon; Sorcion de una mezcla de fenoles en solucion acuosa con carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia M, D.; Lopez M, B.E.; Iturbe G, J.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this work is the sorption of an aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in a molar relationship 1:1 in activated carbon of mineral origin of different nets (10, 20 and 30) and to diminish with it its presence in water. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the surface properties of the sorbent like of the physical and chemical properties of the sorbate. In all the cases it was observed that in the aqueous systems of low concentration the 4-chloro phenol are removed in an approximate proportion of 1.2-4 times greater to than phenol, however to concentrations but high both they are removed approximately in the same proportion. (Author)

  3. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Guo; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of CO2 on a raw activated carbon A and three modified activated carbon samples B, C, and D at temperatures ranging from 303 to 333 K and the thermodynamics of adsorption have been investigated using a vacuum adsorption apparatus in order to obtain more information about the effect of CO2 on removal of organic sulfur-containing compounds in industrial gases. The active ingredients impregnated in the carbon samples show significant influence on the adsorption for CO2 and its volumes adsorbed on modified carbon samples B, C, and D are all larger than that on the raw carbon sample A. On the other hand, the physical parameters such as surface area, pore volume, and micropore volume of carbon samples show no influence on the adsorbed amount of CO2. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation was the best model for fitting the adsorption data on carbon samples A and B, while the Freundlich equation was the best fit for the adsorption on carbon samples C and D. The isosteric heats of adsorption on carbon samples A, B, C, and D derived from the adsorption isotherms using the Clapeyron equation decreased slightly increasing surface loading. The heat of adsorption lay between 10.5 and 28.4 kJ/mol, with the carbon sample D having the highest value at all surface coverages that were studied. The observed entropy change associated with the adsorption for the carbon samples A, B, and C (above the surface coverage of 7 ml/g) was lower than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption. However, it was higher than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption but lower than the theoretical value for localized adsorption for carbon sample D.

  4. Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

  5. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon. PMID:24898563

  6. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon.

  7. PROGRESS ON ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Activated carbon fiber is one kind of important adsorption materials. These novel fibrousadsorbents have high specific surface areas or abundant functional groups, which make them havegreater adsorption/desorption rates and larger adsorption capacities than other adsorbents. They canbe prepared as bundle, paper, cloth and felt to meet various technical requirement. They also showreduction property. In this paper the latest progress on the studies of the preparation and adsorptionproperties of activated carbon fibers is reviewed. The application of these materials in drinking waterpurification, environmental control, resource recovery, chemical industry, and in medicine and healthcare is also presented.

  8. ACTIVATION ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF DIBENZOFURAN ON ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; LUO Lingai

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of commercial activated carbons, such as Norit RB1, Monolith and Chemviron activated carbons, were used as adsorbents for adsorption of dibenzofuran. The average pore size and specific surface area of these activated carbons were measured. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons, and then the activation energy for desorption of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons was estimated. The results showed that the Chemviron and the Norit RB1 activated carbon maintained higher specific surface area and larger micropore pore volume in comparison with the Monolith activated carbon, and the activation energy for the desorption of dibenzofuran on these two activated carbons was higher than that on the Monolith activated carbon. The smaller the pore of the activated carbon was, the higher the activated energy of dibenzofuran desorption was.

  9. Preparation of very pure active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of very pure active carbon is described. Starting from polyvinylidene chloride active carbon is prepared by carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere, grinding, sieving and activation of the powder fraction with CO2 at 9500 to approximately 50% burn-off. The concentrations of trace and major elements are reduced to the ppb and ppm level, respectively. In the present set-up 100 g of carbon grains and approximately 50 g of active carbon powder can be produced weekly

  10. Sorption of {sup 60} Co on inorganic solids; Sorcion de {sup 60} Co en solidos inorganicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados C, F.; Bulbulian G, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mardel V, B. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The behavior of sorption of the {sup 60} Co in aqueous solution under static conditions to different values of pH of the aqueous solution (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10) on MgO, MnO{sub 2}, SnO, TiO{sub 2}, activated carbon and calcinate hydrotalcite was investigated. It was found that the best sorbents of the {sup 60} Co was the MnO{sub 2}, activated carbon and TiO{sub 2} whose sorption was incremented when increasing the pH value of the aqueous solutions, in the one case of the hydrated oxides, the {sup 60} Co interacted with the electrically charged surface of the sorbents that depends on the pH of the solution and of the point of zero charge (zpc) of the sorbent. (Author)

  11. Determination of {sup 60} Co by means of Neutron Activation Analysis in the sorption of Co in synthesized porous oxides by the combustion method; Determinacion de {sup 60} Co por medio de AAN en la sorcion de Co en oxidos porosos sintetizados por metodo de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, V.; Bulbulian, S.; Urena, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: violelugo@yahoo.es

    2005-07-01

    Recently inorganic materials are investigating as sorbent of radioactive pollutants present in water. The inorganic oxides belong to this group of materials. A quick method exists for the obtaining of inorganic oxides, denominated combustion method that could be used to produce porous oxides successfully with good properties for the sorption of radioactive ions. In this investigation, iron oxides, magnesium and zinc were synthesized obtained by the combustion method, comparing them with those synthesized by the calcination method, using two different synthesis temperatures. The obtained solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (Sem), by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS). After the characterization, the crystalline oxides synthesized by both methods, to temperature of 800 C, were evaluated as sorbents in the removal of Co{sup 2+} ions, through experiments in batch, and using neutron activation analysis, determining the sorption percentage, with this it was concluded that the magnesium oxide produced by combustion it is more effective in the removal of Co{sup 2+} ions than that synthesized by calcination. It was determined the surface area of the magnesium oxides, obtaining a surface area greater for the synthesized oxide by combustion method. (Author)

  12. Photoconductivity of Activated Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, K.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    1990-08-01

    The photoconductivity is measured on a high-surface-area disordered carbon material, namely activated carbon fibers, to investigate their electronic properties. Measurements of decay time, recombination kinetics and temperature dependence of the photoconductivity generally reflect the electronic properties of a material. The material studied in this paper is a highly disordered carbon derived from a phenolic precursor, having a huge specific surface area of 1000--2000m{sup 2}/g. Our preliminary thermopower measurements suggest that this carbon material is a p-type semiconductor with an amorphous-like microstructure. The intrinsic electrical conductivity, on the order of 20S/cm at room temperature, increases with increasing temperature in the range 30--290K. In contrast with the intrinsic conductivity, the photoconductivity in vacuum decreases with increasing temperature. The recombination kinetics changes from a monomolecular process at room temperature to a biomolecular process at low temperatures. The observed decay time of the photoconductivity is {approx equal}0.3sec. The magnitude of the photoconductive signal was reduced by a factor of ten when the sample was exposed to air. The intrinsic carrier density and the activation energy for conduction are estimated to be {approx equal}10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3} and {approx equal}20meV, respectively. The majority of the induced photocarriers and of the intrinsic carriers are trapped, resulting in the long decay time of the photoconductivity and the positive temperature dependence of the conductivity.

  13. Design of activated carbon/activated carbon asymmetric capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel ePiñeiro-Prado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that offer a high power density and a low energy density in comparison with batteries. Their limited energy density can be overcome by using asymmetric configuration in mass electrodes, where each electrode works within their maximum available potential window, rendering the maximum voltage output of the system. Such asymmetric capacitors must be optimized through careful electrochemical characterization of the electrodes for accurate determination of the capacitance and the potential stability limits. The results of the characterization are then used for optimizing mass ratio of the electrodes from the balance of stored charge. The reliability of the design largely depends on the approach taken for the electrochemical characterization. Therefore, the performance could be lower than expected and even the system could break down, if a well thought out procedure is not followed.In this work, a procedure for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors based on activated carbons is detailed. Three activated carbon materials with different textural properties and surface chemistry have been systematically characterized in neutral aqueous electrolyte. The asymmetric configuration of the masses of both electrodes in the supercapacitor has allowed to cover a higher potential window, resulting in an increase of the energy density of the three devices studied when compared with the symmetric systems, and an improved cycle life.

  14. Adsorption of Imidacloprid on Powdered Activated Carbon and Magnetic Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor, M.; Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The adsorptive characteristics of imidacloprid on magnetic activated carbon (MAC12) in comparison to powdered activated carbon (PAC) were investigated. Adsorption of imidacloprid onto powdered activated carbon and magnetic activated carbon was studied as a function of time, initial imidacloprid concentration, temperature and pH. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models for both carbons were used to describe the kinetic data. The adsorption equilibrium data we...

  15. Studies of activated carbon and carbon black for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, R.; Mueller, S.; Koetz, R.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Carbon Black and activated carbon materials providing high surface areas and a distinct pore distribution are prime materials for supercapacitor applications at frequencies < 0.5 Hz. A number of these materials were tested for their specific capacitance, surface and pore size distribution. High capacitance electrodes were manufactured on the laboratory scale with attention to ease of processability. (author) 1 fig., 1 ref.

  16. Preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yang; Ke-Qiang, Qiu

    2009-05-01

    Activated carbons especially used for gaseous adsorption were prepared from Chinesefir sawdust by zinc chloride activation under vacuum condition. The micropore structure, adsorption properties, and surface morphology of activated carbons obtained under atmosphere and vacuum were investigated. The prepared activated carbons were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the structure of the starting material is kept after activation. The activated carbon prepared under vacuum exhibited higher values of the BET surface area (up to 1079 m2 g(-1)) and total pore volume (up to 0.5665 cm3 g(-1)) than those of the activated carbon obtained under atmosphere. This was attributed to the effect of vacuum condition that reduces oxygen in the system and limits the secondary reaction of the organic vapor. The prepared activated carbon has well-developed microstructure and high microporosity. According to the data obtained, Chinese fir sawdust is a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation. The obtained activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent with favorable surface properties. Compared with the traditional chemical activation, vacuum condition demands less energy consumption, simultaneity, and biomass-oil is collected in the procedure more conveniently. FTIR analysis showed that heat treatment would result in the aromatization of the carbon structure. PMID:19534162

  17. The Analysis of Activated Carbon Regeneration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚芳

    2014-01-01

    A series of methods for activated carbon regeneration were briefly introduced.Such as thermal regeneration,chemical regeneration,biochemical regeneration,and newly supercritical fluid regeneration, electrochemical regeneration,light-catalyzed regeneration,and microwave radiation method,and the developing trend of activated carbon regeneration was predicted.

  18. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  19. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Daniel J. Stepan

    2000-07-01

    High concentrations of humate in surface water result in the formation of excess amounts of chlorinated byproducts during disinfection treatment. These precursors can be removed in water treatment prior to disinfection using powdered activated carbon. In the interest of developing a more cost-effective method for removal of humates in surface water, a comparison of the activities of carbons prepared from North Dakota lignites with those of commercial carbons was conducted. Previous studies indicated that a commercial carbon prepared from Texas lignite (Darco HDB) was superior to those prepared from bituminous coals for water treatment. That the high alkali content of North Dakota lignites would result in favorable adsorptive properties for the very large humate molecules was hypothesized, owing to the formation of larger pores during activation. Since no standard humate test has been previously developed, initial adsorption testing was performed using smaller dye molecules with various types of ionic character. With the cationic dye, methylene blue, a carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite (HSKRC) adsorbed more dye than the Darco HDB. The carbon from the low-sodium lignite was much inferior. With another cationic dye, malachite green, the Darco HDB was slightly better. With anionic dyes, methyl red and azocarmine-B, the results for the HSKRC and Darco HDB were comparable. A humate test was developed using Aldrich humic acid. The HSKRC and the Darco HDB gave equally high adsorption capacities for the humate (138 mg/g), consistent with the similarities observed in earlier tests. A carbon prepared from a high-sodium lignite from a different mine showed an outstanding improvement (201 mg/g). The carbons prepared from the low-sodium lignites from both mines showed poor adsorption capacities for humate. Adsorption isotherms were performed for the set of activated carbons in the humate system. These exhibited a complex behavior interpreted as resulting from two types

  20. Preparation of microporous activated carbons based on carbonized apricot shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pavlenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of applying the method of thermo-oxidative modification of fiber, based on the shell of apricot along with producing on its base microporous activated carbons that have high specific surface area and a significant amount of micropores were presented. The paper contains analysis and interpretation data of changes in the structure and composition of samples, which occurring as a result of thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Morphological features of the surface of produced activated carbons were studied by using SEM microscopy; the pore structure and specific surface area were investigated using the method of low-temperature nitrogen adsorption.

  1. Activation of Carbon Dioxide and Synthesis of Propylene Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide to propylene carbonate catalyzed by tetra-tert-butyl metal phthalocyanine in the presence of tributylamine (TBA) shows higher yield than catalyzed by unsubstituted metal phthalocyanine. Comparing different catalysts of diverse metals, (t-Bu)4PcMg is more active than (t-Bu)4PcFe. But (t-Bu)4PcCo and (t-Bu)4PcNi only have low catalytic activities towards the reaction. Moreover, the yield will increase as the temperature increases.

  2. PREPARATION OF MESOPOROUS CARBON BY CARBON DIOXIDE ACTIVATION WITH CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Z.Shen; A.H.Lu; J.T.Zheng

    2002-01-01

    A mesoporous activated carbon (AC) can be successfully prepared by catalytic activa-tion with carbon dioxide. For iron oxide as catalyst, there were two regions of mesoporesize distribution, i.e. 2-5nm and 30-70nm. When copper oxide or magnesium oxidecoexisted with iron oxide as composite catalyst, the content of pores with sizes of 2-5nm was decreased, while the pores with 30 70nm were increased significantly. Forcomparison, AC reactivated by carbon dioxide directly was also investigated. It wasshown that the size of mesopores of the resulting AC concentrated in 2-5nm with lessvolume. The adsorption of Congo red was tested to evaluate the property of the result-ing AC. Furthermore, the factors affecting pore size distribution and the possibility ofmesopore formation were discussed.

  3. ESTIMATION OF ACTIVATED ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF n—HEXANE ON ACTIVATED CARBONS BY PTD TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhong; WANGHongjuan; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,six kinds of activated carbons such as Ag+-activated carbon,Cu2+activated carbon,Fe3+-activated carbon,activated carbon,Ba2+-activated carbon and Ca2+activated carbon were prepared.The model for estimating activated energy of desorption was established.Temperature-programmed desorption(TPD)experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of n-hexanol and then estimate the activation energy for desorption of n-hexanol on the activated carbons.Results showed that the activation energy for the desorption of n-hexanol on the Ag+-activated carbon,the Cu2+-activated carbon and the Fe3+-activated carbon were higher than those of n-hexanol on the activated carbon,the Ca2+-activated carbon and the Ba2+-activated carbon.

  4. ESTIMATION OF ACTIVATED ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF n-HEXANE ON ACTIVATED CARBONS BY TPD TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, six kinds of activated carbons such as Ag+-activated carbon, Cu2+-activated carbon, Fe3+- activated carbon, activated carbon, Ba2+- activated carbon and Ca2+-activated carbon were prepared. The model for estimating activated energy of desorption was established. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of n-hexanol and then estimate the activation energy for desorption of n-hexanol on the activated carbons. Results showed that the activation energy for the desorption of n-hexanol on the Ag+- activated carbon, the Cu2+- activated carbon and the Fe3+- activated carbon were higher than those of n-hexanol on the activated carbon, the Ca2+- activated carbon and the Ba2+- activated carbon.

  5. Organic solvent regeneration of granular activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, W. H.; Suidan, M. T.; Roller, M. A.; Kim, B. R.; Gould, J. P.

    1982-09-01

    The use of activated carbon for the treatment of industrial waste-streams was shown to be an effective treatment. The high costs associated with the replacement or thermal regeneration of the carbon have prohibited the economic feasibility of this process. The in situ solvent regeneration of activated carbon by means of organic solvent extraction was suggested as an economically alternative to thermal regeneration. The important aspects of the solvent regeneration process include: the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, the pore size distribution and energy of adsorption associated with the activated carbon; the degree of solubility of the adsorbate in the organic solvent; the miscibility of the organic solvent in water; and the temperature at which the generation is performed.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Maleki Dizaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and graphene oxide (GO nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery.

  7. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  8. Refining of hydrochars/ hydrothermally carbonized biomass into activated carbons and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    Hydrothermally treated biomass could not only be used as a fuel or a fertilizer but it can also be refined into high-value products. Activated carbons are one of those. In the studies of this thesis, four different hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses, including horse manure, grass cuttings, beer waste and biosludge, have been successfully made into activated carbons. The activated carbon materials were in the forms of powdered activated carbons, powdered composites of activated carbon a...

  9. Preparation of microporous activated carbons based on carbonized apricot shells

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Pavlenko; Sergey Anurov; Zulkhair Mansurov; Bijsenbaev Makhmut; Tatyana Konkova; Seithan Azat; Sandugash Tanirbergenova; Nurzhamal Zhylybaeva

    2014-01-01

    Results of applying the method of thermo-oxidative modification of fiber, based on the shell of apricot along with producing on its base microporous activated carbons that have high specific surface area and a significant amount of micropores were presented. The paper contains analysis and interpretation data of changes in the structure and composition of samples, which occurring as a result of thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Morphological features of the surface of produced...

  10. Activated carbon monoliths for methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chada, Nagaraju; Romanos, Jimmy; Hilton, Ramsey; Suppes, Galen; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The use of adsorbent storage media for natural gas (methane) vehicles allows for the use of non-cylindrical tanks due to the decreased pressure at which the natural gas is stored. The use of carbon powder as a storage material allows for a high mass of methane stored for mass of sample, but at the cost of the tank volume. Densified carbon monoliths, however, allow for the mass of methane for volume of tank to be optimized. In this work, different activated carbon monoliths have been produced using a polymeric binder, with various synthesis parameters. The methane storage was studied using a home-built, dosing-type instrument. A monolith with optimal parameters has been fabricated. The gravimetric excess adsorption for the optimized monolith was found to be 161 g methane for kg carbon.

  11. USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for uses other than taste and odor control is poorly documented, the purpose of this article is to critically review uses that have been reported (i.e., pesticides and herbicides, synthetic organic chemicals, and trihalom...

  12. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  13. Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofiber and Carbon Nanotube Supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum carbide was supported on three types of carbon support—activated carbon; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; and carbon nanofibers—using ammonium molybdate and molybdic acid as Mo precursors. The use of activated carbon as support afforded an X-ray amorphous Mo phase, whereas crystalline molybdenum carbide phases were obtained on carbon nanofibers and, in some cases, on carbon nanotubes. When the resulting catalysts were tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol in dodecane, catechol and phenol were obtained as the main products, although in some instances significant amounts of cyclohexane were produced. The observation of catechol in all reaction mixtures suggests that guaiacol was converted into phenol via sequential demethylation and HDO, although the simultaneous occurrence of a direct demethoxylation pathway cannot be discounted. Catalysts based on carbon nanofibers generally afforded the highest yields of phenol; notably, the only crystalline phase detected in these samples was Mo2C or Mo2C-ζ, suggesting that crystalline Mo2C is particularly selective to phenol. At 350 °C, carbon nanofiber supported Mo2C afforded near quantitative guaiacol conversion, the selectivity to phenol approaching 50%. When guaiacol HDO was performed in the presence of acetic acid and furfural, guaiacol conversion decreased, although the selectivity to both catechol and phenol was increased.

  14. Methane Adsorption Study Using Activated Carbon Fiber and Coal Based Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Deyong; Li Fei; Liu Wenge

    2013-01-01

    Inlfuence of ammonium salt treatment and alkali treatment of the coal based activated carbon (AC) and activated carbon ifber (ACF) adsorbents on methane adsorption capacity was studied via high-pressure adsorption experiment. Sur-face functional groups and pore structure of two types of adsorbents were characterized by the application of infrared ab-sorption spectroscopy (IR) and low temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption method. The results show that both ammonium salt treatment and alkali treatment have obvious effect on changing BET, pore volume as well as pore size distribution of adsorbents; and methane adsorption capacity of the activated carbon ifber is the maximum after the ammonium salt treatment.

  15. Supercapacitor Electrodes from Activated Carbon Monoliths and Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolah, B. N. M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Deraman, M.; Basri, N. H.; Farma, R.; Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.

    2013-04-01

    Binderless monoliths of supercapacitor electrodes were prepared by the carbonization (N2) and activation (CO2) of green monoliths (GMs). GMs were made from mixtures of self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) of fibers from oil palm empty fruit bunches and a combination of 5 & 6% KOH and 0, 5 & 6% carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by weight. The electrodes from GMs containing CNTs were found to have lower specific BET surface area (SBET). The electrochemical behavior of the supercapacitor fabricated using the prepared electrodes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). In general an addition of CNTs into the GMs reduces the equivalent series resistance (ESR) value of the cells. A cell fabricated using electrodes from GM with 5% CNT and 5% KOH was found to have the largest reduction of ESR value than that from the others GMs containing CNT. The cell has steeper Warburg's slope than that from its respective non-CNT GM, which reflect the smaller resistance for electrolyte ions to move into pores of electrodes despite these electrodes having largest reduction in specific BET surface area. The cell also has the smallest reduction of specific capacitance (Csp) and maintains the specific power range despite a reduction in the specific energy range due to the CNT addition.

  16. Voltammetric Response of Epinephrine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Activated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; TANG Ping; ZHAO Fa-qiong; ZENG Bai-zhao

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of epinephrine at activated glassy carbon electrode and carbon nanotube-coated glassy carbon electrode was studied. Epinephrine could exhibit an anodic peak at about 0.2 V (vs. SCE) at bare glassy carbon electrode, but it was very small.However, when the electrode was activated at certain potential (i. e. 1.9V) or modified with carbon nanotube, the peak became more sensitive,resulting from the increase in electrode area in addition to the electrostatic attraction. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to epinephrine concentration in the range of 3.3 × 10-7-1.1 × 10-5mol/L at activated glassy carbon electrode and in the range of 1.0 × 10-6-5.0 × 10-5 mol/L at carbon nanotube-coated electrode. The correlation coefficients were 0. 998 and 0. 997, respectively. The determination limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L. The two electrodes have been successfully applied for the determination of epinephrine in adrenaline hydrochloride injection with recovery of 95%-104%.

  17. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm3 to 0.52 g.cm3. Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g-1), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g-1). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (Vmicro) was between 0.33cm3.g-1 - 0.40cm3.g-1, while the mesopore volume(Vmeso) was between 0.05 cm3.g-1 - 0.07 cm3.g-1. The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m2.g-1. All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  18. Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Gordana; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses.The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters--fullerenes, nanotubes, and grapheme--their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C₆₀(OH)₂₄. PMID:27483572

  19. Enhanced capacitive properties of commercial activated carbon by re-activation in molten carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Beihu; Xiao, Zuoan; Zhu, Hua; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Wenlong; Wang, Dihua

    2015-12-01

    Simple, affordable and green methods to improve capacitive properties of commercial activated carbon (AC) are intriguing since ACs possess a predominant role in the commercial supercapacitor market. Herein, we report a green reactivation of commercial ACs by soaking ACs in molten Na2CO3-K2CO3 (equal in mass ratios) at 850 °C combining the merits of both physical and chemical activation strategies. The mechanism of molten carbonate treatment and structure-capacitive activity correlations of the ACs are rationalized. Characterizations show that the molten carbonate treatment increases the electrical conductivity of AC without compromising its porosity and wettability of electrolytes. Electrochemical tests show the treated AC exhibited higher specific capacitance, enhanced high-rate capability and excellent cycle performance, promising its practical application in supercapacitors. The present study confirms that the molten carbonate reactivation is a green and effective method to enhance capacitive properties of ACs.

  20. Proximate analysis for determination of micropores in granulated activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Ya. G.; Nikolaev, V.B.; Shepelev, A.N.

    1987-02-01

    A method is discussed for determining the specific micropore volume of granulated activated carbon used for water treatment in Soviet coking plants. Toluene molecules with a diameter of 0.67 nm are sorbed by activated carbon with micropore diameter ranging from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Therefore, sorptive properties of activated carbon in relation to toluene supply information on micropore volume in carbon. A formula which describes this relation is derived. The method for determining micropore volume on the basis of toluene adsorption was tested using 8 types of activated carbon produced from coal and petroleum. Types of activated carbon characterized by the highest adsorption were selected. 1 ref.

  1. Production of activated carbon from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Férez, María del Remedio; Valdés Barceló, Francisco Javier; García Cortés, Ángela Nuria; Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Chápuli Fernández, Eloy

    2008-01-01

    Presentado como póster en el 11th Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering, Barcelona 2008. Resumen publicado en el libro de actas del congreso. Activated carbon is an important filter material for the removal of different compounds such as hazardous components in exhaust gases, for purification of drinking water, waste water treatment, adsorption of pollution from liquid phases, in catalysis, electrochemistry or for gas storage and present an important demand. Theoretically, activat...

  2. Composite supercapacitor electrodes made of activated carbon/PEDOT:PSS and activated carbon/doped PEDOT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T S Sonia; P A Mini; R Nandhini; Kalluri Sujith; Balakrishnan Avinash; S V Nair; K R V Subramanian

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the high electrical storage capacity of composite electrodes made from nanoscale activated carbon combined with either poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) or PEDOT doped with multiple dopants such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The composites were fabricated by electropolymerization of the conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS, doped PEDOT) onto the nanoscale activated carbon backbone, wherein the nanoscale activated carbon was produced by ball-milling followed by chemical and thermal treatments. Activated carbon/PEDOT:PSS yielded capacitance values of 640 F g-1 and 26mF cm-2, while activated carbon/doped PEDOT yielded capacitances of 1183 F g-1 and 42 mF cm-2 at 10 mV s-1. This is more than five times the storage capacity previously reported for activated carbon–PEDOT composites. Further, use of multiple dopants in PEDOT improved the storage performance of the composite electrode well over that of PEDOT:PSS. The composite electrodes were characterized for their electrochemical behaviour, structural and morphological details and electronic conductivity and showed promise as high-performance energy storage systems.

  3. Active carbon catalyst for heavy oil upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidetsugu; Terai, Satoshi [Technology Research Center, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 1818 Azafujimi, Togo, Mobara-shi, Chiba 297-00017 (Japan); Uchida, Masayuki [Business Planning and Exploring Department, Overseas Business Development and Marketing Division, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 2-8-1 Akanehama, Narashino-shi, Chiba 275-0024 (Japan); Cano, Jose L.; Ancheyta, Jorge [Maya Crude Treatment Project, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    The active carbon (AC) catalyst was studied by hydrocracking of Middle Eastern vacuum residue (VR) for heavy oil upgrading. It was observed that the active carbon has the affinity to heavy hydrocarbon compounds and adsorption selectivity to asphaltenes, and exhibits better ability to restrict the coke formation during the hydrocracking reaction of VR. The mesopore of active carbon was thought to play an important role for effective conversion of heavy hydrocarbon compounds into lighter fractions restricting carbon formation. The performance of the AC catalyst was examined by continuous hydrocracking by CSTR for the removal of such impurities as sulfur and heavy metals (nickel and vanadium), which are mostly concentrated in the asphaltenes. The AC catalyst was confirmed to be very effective for the removal of heavy metals from Middle Eastern VR, Maya/Istmo VR and Maya VR. The extruded AC catalysts were produced by industrial manufacturing method. The application test of the extruded AC catalyst for ebullating-bed reactor as one of the commercially applicable reactors was carried out at the ebullating-bed pilot plant for 500h. The ebullition of the extruded AC catalyst was successfully traced and confirmed by existing {gamma}-ray density meter. The extruded AC catalyst showed stable performance with less sediment formation at an equivalent conversion by conventional alumina catalyst at commercial ebullating-bed unit. The degradation of the AC catalyst at the aging test was observed to be less than that of the conventional alumina catalyst. Thus, the AC catalyst was confirmed to be effective and suitable for upgrading of heavy oil, especially such heavy oils as Maya, which contains much heavy metals.

  4. 78 FR 13894 - Certain Activated Carbon From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Activated Carbon From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from China would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4381 (February 2013), entitled Certain Activated Carbon from China: Investigation...

  5. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  6. Active carbon production from modified asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A granular activated carbons (GACs) have been prepared from some local raw materials such as Qiayarah asphalt (QA) after some modification treatments of this asphalt by various ratios of its original constituents (asphaltenes and maltens) at 180 degree C. Thermal carbonization method by sulfur and steam physical activation have been used for AC preparation. The carbons thus prepared were characterized in the term of iodine, methylene blue (MB), P-nitro phenol (PNP) and CCl4 adsorption. The BET surface area of the prepared ACs has been estimated via a calibration curve between iodine numbers and surface area determined from N2 adsorption isotherm from previous studies, also, the surface area of the prepared ACs were determined through another methods such as retention method by ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME), adsorption from vapor phase using acetone vapor and adsorption from solution method using PNP and MB as solutes. The results referred to the success of modification method for preparing ACs of good micro porosity as compared with the AC from the untreated asphalt as well as the commercial sample. (author)

  7. Vibration damping with active carbon fiber structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Roscher, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a mechatronic strategy for active reduction of vibrations on machine tool struts or car shafts. The active structure is built from a carbon fiber composite with embedded piezofiber actuators that are composed of piezopatches based on the Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) technology, licensed by NASA and produced by Smart Material GmbH in Dresden, Germany. The structure of these actuators allows separate or selectively combined bending and torsion, meaning that both bending and torsion vibrations can be actively absorbed. Initial simulation work was done with a finite element model (ANSYS). This paper describes how state space models are generated out of a structure based on the finite element model and how controller codes are integrated into finite element models for transient analysis and the model-based control design. Finally, it showcases initial experimental findings and provides an outlook for damping multi-mode resonances with a parallel combination of resonant controllers.

  8. Production of activated carbon from TCR char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Heberlein, Markus; Klinner, Tobias; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of char for adsorptive purposes is known since the 18th century. At that time the char was made of wood or bones and used for decoloration of fluids. In the 20th century the production of activated carbon in an industrial scale was started. The today's raw materials for activated carbon production are hard coal, peat, wood or coconut shells. All these materials entail costs especially the latter. Thus, the utilization of carbon rich residues (biomass) is an interesting economic opportunity because it is available for no costs or even can create income. The char is produced by thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR®). This process is a combination of an intermediate pyrolysis and subsequently a reforming step. During the pyrolysis step the material is decomposed in a vapor and a solid carbon enriched phase. In the second step the vapor and the solid phase get in an intensive contact and the quality of both materials is improved via the reforming process. Subsequently, the condensables are precipitated from the vapor phase and a permanent gas as well as oil is obtained. Both are suitable for heat and power production which is a clear advantage of the TCR® process. The obtained biochar from the TCR® process has special properties. This material has a very low hydrogen and oxygen content. Its stability is comparable to hard coal or anthracite. Therefore it consists almost only of carbon and ash. The latter depends from input material. Furthermore the surface structure and area can be influenced during the reforming step. Depending from temperature and residence time the number of micro pores and the surface area can be increased. Preliminary investigations with methylene blue solution have shown that a TCR® char made of digestate from anaerobic digestion has adsorptive properties. The decoloration of the solution was achieved. A further influencing factor of the adsorption performance is the particle size. Based on the results of the preliminary tests a

  9. The regeneration of polluted activated carbon by radiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Minghong; Bao Borong [Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Academia Sinica, Shanghai (China); Zhou Ruimin; Zhu Jinliang; Hu Longxin [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, the regeneration of used activated carbon from monosodium glutamate factory was experimented using radiation and acid-alkali chemical cleaning method. Results showed that the activated carbon saturated with pollutants can be wash away easily by flushing with chemical solution prior irradiation. DSC was used to monitor the change of carbon adsorption.

  10. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.

  11. Clinical and radiographic study of activated carbon workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Uragoda, C. G.

    1989-01-01

    Activated carbon is made in Sri Lanka by passing steam through charcoal made from coconut shells. The carbon does not contain free silica. Sixty six men who had worked in a factory making activated carbon for an average of 7.2 years had no more respiratory symptoms than a control group, and none showed radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. There was no evidence that people exposed to charcoal and pure carbon for up to 11 years are at risk of developing pneumoconiosis.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  13. Superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges for separation and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanxue; Li, An; Zhu, Zhaoqi; Liang, Weidong; Zhao, Xinhong; La, Peiqing; Deng, Weiqiao

    2013-06-01

    Highly porous activated carbon with a large surface area and pore volume was synthesized by KOH activation using commercially available activated carbon as a precursor. By modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), highly porous activated carbon showed superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 163.6°. The changes in wettability of PDMS- treated highly porous activated carbon were attributed to the deposition of a low-surface-energy silicon coating onto activated carbon (confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), which had microporous characteristics (confirmed by XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses). Using an easy dip-coating method, superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges were also fabricated; those exhibited excellent absorption selectivity for the removal of a wide range of organics and oils from water, and also recyclability, thus showing great potential as efficient absorbents for the large-scale removal of organic contaminants or oil spills from water.

  14. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated; Caracterizacion volumetrica y superficial de carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  15. Merging allylic carbon-hydrogen and selective carbon-carbon bond activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwa, Ahmad; Didier, Dorian; Zabrodski, Tamar; Schinkel, Marvin; Ackermann, Lutz; Marek, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century, many synthetic organic chemists have focused on developing new strategies to regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectively build carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds in a predictable and efficient manner. Ideal syntheses should use the least number of synthetic steps, with few or no functional group transformations and by-products, and maximum atom efficiency. One potentially attractive method for the synthesis of molecular skeletons that are difficult to prepare would be through the selective activation of C-H and C-C bonds, instead of the conventional construction of new C-C bonds. Here we present an approach that exploits the multifold reactivity of easily accessible substrates with a single organometallic species to furnish complex molecular scaffolds through the merging of otherwise difficult transformations: allylic C-H and selective C-C bond activations. The resulting bifunctional nucleophilic species, all of which have an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centre, can then be selectively derivatized by the addition of two different electrophiles to obtain more complex molecular architecture from these easily available starting materials.

  16. Metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated IR pyrolized polyacrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Mikhail N.; Zhilyaeva, Natalya A.; Vasilyev, Andrey A.; Muratov, Dmitriy G.; Zemtsov, Lev M.; Karpacheva, Galina P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report about new approach to preparation of metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated carbon. Polyacrylonitrile is suggested as a precursor for Co, Pd and Ru nanoparticles carbon support which is prepared under IR pyrolysis conditions of a precursor. The first part of the paper is devoted to study activated carbon structural characteristics dependence on activation conditions. In the second part the effect of type of metal introduced in precursor on metal-carbon nanocomposite structural characteristics is shown. Prepared AC and nanocomposite samples are characterized by BET, TEM, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  17. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Coal-derived synthesis gas is a potential major source of hydrogen for fuel cells. Oxygen-blown coal gasification is an efficient approach to achieving the goal of producing hydrogen from coal, but a cost-effective means of enriching O2 concentration in air is required. A key objective of this project is to assess the utility of a system that exploits porous carbon materials and electrical swing adsorption to produce an O2-enriched air stream for coal gasification. As a complement to O2 and N2 adsorption measurements, CO2 was used as a more sensitive probe molecule for the characterization of molecular sieving effects. To further enhance the potential of activated carbon composite materials for air separation, work was implemented on incorporating a novel twist into the system; namely the addition of a magnetic field to influence O2 adsorption, which is accompanied by a transition between the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. The preliminary findings in this respect are discussed.

  18. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  19. THE ROLE OF ACTIVATED CARBON IN SOLVING ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Mukhin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a brief analysis of the current global situation concerning the utilization of activated carbon in various fields. The article presents data concerning the synthesis and adsorption and structure properties of new activated carbons, used for solving ecological problems. The authors investigated the newly obtained activated carbons in comparison with several AC marks known in the world. It has been shown that currently synthesized AC are competitive with foreign marks.

  20. HYDROGEN SULFIDE ADSORPTION BY ALKALINE IMPREGNATED COCONUT SHELL ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI SUN CHOO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one type of renewable energy which can be burnt to produce heat and electricity. However, it cannot be burnt directly due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S which is highly corrosive to gas engine. In this study, coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC was applied as a porous adsorbent for H2S removal. The effect of amount of activated carbon and flow rate of gas stream toward adsorption capacity were investigated. Then, the activated carbons were impregnated by three types of alkaline (NaOH, KOH and K2CO3 with various ratios. The effects of various types of alkaline and their impregnation ratio towards adsorption capacity were analysed. In addition, H2S influent concentration and the reaction temperature on H2S adsorption were also investigated. The result indicated that adsorption capacity increases with the amount of activated carbon and decreases with flow rate of gas stream. Alkaline impregnated activated carbons had better performance than unimpregnated activated carbon. Among all impregnated activated carbons, activated carbon impregnated by K2CO3 with ratio 2.0 gave the highest adsorption capacity. Its adsorption capacity was 25 times higher than unimpregnated activated carbon. The result also indicated that the adsorption capacity of impregnated activated carbon decreased with the increment of H2S influent concentration. Optimum temperature for H2S adsorption was found to be 50˚C. In this study, the adsorption of H2S on K2CO3 impregnated activated carbon was fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The fresh and spent K2CO3 impregnated activated carbon were characterized to study the adsorption process.

  1. Enhanced adsorption of humic acids on ordered mesoporous carbon compared with microporous activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengling; Xu, Zhaoyi; Wan, Haiqin; Wan, Yuqiu; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-04-01

    Humic acids are ubiquitous in surface and underground waters and may pose potential risk to human health when present in drinking water sources. In this study, ordered mesoporous carbon was synthesized by means of a hard template method and further characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, transition electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and zeta-potential measurement. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate adsorption of two humic acids from coal and soil, respectively, on the synthesized carbon. For comparison, a commercial microporous activated carbon and nonporous graphite were included as additional adsorbents; moreover, phenol was adopted as a small probe adsorbate. Pore size distribution characterization showed that the synthesized carbon had ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the activated carbon was composed mainly of micropores with a much broader pore size distribution. Accordingly, adsorption of the two humic acids was substantially lower on the activated carbon than on the synthesized carbon, because of the size-exclusion effect. In contrast, the synthesized carbon and activated carbon showed comparable adsorption for phenol when the size-exclusion effect was not in operation. Additionally, we verified by size-exclusion chromatography studies that the synthesized carbon exhibited greater adsorption for the large humic acid fraction than the activated carbon. The pH dependence of adsorption on the three carbonaceous adsorbents was also compared between the two test humic acids. The findings highlight the potential of using ordered mesoporous carbon as a superior adsorbent for the removal of humic acids.

  2. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  3. Preparation and application of active gangue's carbon black

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-lin; ZHANG Yi-dong

    2007-01-01

    After three-stage pulverization, dry-distillated activation and coupling agent surface modification, the kaolinite-typed gangue of Sichuan Hongni Coal Mine(SHCM) can be manufactured into activated gangue's carbon black. Its surface area is >25 m2/g, and possesses carbon black's carbon framework and structure. It can be used as strengthening agent of high polymer material such as rubber.

  4. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%.

  5. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  6. Enhanced Capacitive Characteristics of Activated Carbon by Secondary Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui; LU Tian-hong; Yoshio Masaki

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the improvement of commercial activated carbon(AC) on its specific capacitance and high rate capability of double layer(dl) charging/discharging process has been studied. The improvement of AC was carried out via a secondary activation under steam in the presence of catalyst NiCl2, and the suitable condition was found to be a heat treatment at about 875 ℃ for 1 h. Under those conditions, the discharge specific capacitance of the improved AC increases up to 53.67 F/g, showing an increase of about 25% as compared with that of as-received AC. The good rectangular-shaped voltammograms and A.C. impedance spectra prove that the high rate capability of the capacitor made of the improved AC is enhanced significantly. The capacitance resistance(RC) time constant of the capacitor containing the improved AC is 1.74 s, which is much lower than that of the one containing as-received AC(an RC value of 4. 73 s). It is noted that both kinds of AC samples show a similar specific surface area and pore size distribution, but some changes have taken place in the carbon surface groups, especially a decrease in the concentration of surface carbonyl groups after the improvement, which have been verified by means of X-photoelectron spectroscopy. Accordingly, it is suggested that the decrease in the concentration of surface carbonyl groups for the improved AC is beneficial to the organic electrolyte ion penetrating into the pores, thus leading to the increase in both the specific capacitance and high rate capability of the supercapacitor.

  7. Science Letters: Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 and activity in carbon-nitric oxide reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Xian-kai; ZOU Xue-quan; SHI Hui-xiang; WANG Da-hui

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 was performed by annealing in ammonia, and the activity of the modified carbon for NO reduction was studied in the presence of oxygen. Results show that Fe2O3 enhances the amount of surface oxygen complexes and facilitates nitrogen incorporation in the carbon, especially in the form of pyridinic nitrogen. The modified carbon shows excellent activity for NO reduction in the low temperature regime (<500 ℃) because of the cooperative effect of Fe2O3 and the surface nitrogen species.

  8. Adsorption of radon from a humid atmosphere on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature and relative humidity can influence the adsorption capacity of radon on activated carbon to a great extent, depending on the physical properties of the carbon. Experiments were carried out to measure the radon uptake by an activated carbon in the presence of water vapor in a specially designed adsorption apparatus. The radon concentrations in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon daughter products were reached. The experiments in the presence of water vapor were carried out using two approaches. In one case the activated carbon was preequilibrated with water vapor prior to exposing it to radon. In the other case the carbon was exposed to a mixture of water vapor and radon. The uptake capacity for radon decreased substantially when both components were introduced together compared to when carbon was preequilibrated with water

  9. Production of activated carbon from Atili seed shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehemiah Samuel MAINA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was produced from atili (black date seed shells by chemical activation with phosphoric acid as an activating agent. Carbonization was done at temperatures of 350°C, 450°C, 550°C, 650°C and at corresponding resident times of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes respectively in a muffle furnace. The study involved the determination of yield, carbon content, burn-off, moisture content, and ash content as well as the temperature and suitable resident time for carbonization. The result showed that, increasing the carbonization temperature from 350°C to 650°C as well as increasing the corresponding resident time from 20 to 60 minutes led to a decrease in carbonization yield as well as an increase in burn off. An increase in carbonization time led to a decrease in ash content while an increase in carbonization temperature led to a decrease in the moisture content. The yield, burn-off and ash content obtained at a carbonization temperature of 650°C and at a corresponding time of 60 minutes were found to be 68.29%, 31.71% and 0.75% respectively while the highest carbon content (99.16 and lowest moisture content (0.09 was obtained at this same temperature and corresponding time. The activated carbon produced gave a yield of 99.37%, ash content (2.01%, moisture content (4.20%, carbon content (93.79%, burn off (0.63% and pH of 6.752. These properties therefore indicate the suitability of the activated carbon produced.

  10. Fractal analysis of granular activated carbons using isotherm data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalili, N.R.; Pan, M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Sandi, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Utilization of adsorption on solid surfaces was exercised for the first time in 1785. Practical application of unactivated carbon filters, and powdered carbon were first demonstrated in the American water treatment plant, and a municipal treatment plant in New Jersey, in 1883 and 1930, respectively. The use of activated carbon became widespread in the next few decades. At present, adsorption on carbons has a wide spread application in water treatment and removal of taste, odor, removal of synthetic organic chemicals, color-forming organics, and desinfection by-products and their naturally occurring precursors. This paper presents an analysis of the surface fractal dimension and adsorption capacity of a group of carbons.

  11. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from pomegranate seeds by ZnCl 2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Erdem, Murat; Tay, Turgay; Karagöz, Selhan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, pomegranate seeds, a by-product of fruit juice industry, were used as precursor for the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation with ZnCl 2. The influence of process variables such as the carbonization temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons was studied. When using the 2.0 impregnation ratio at the carbonization temperature of 600 °C, the specific surface area of the resultant carbon is as high as 978.8 m 2 g -1. The results showed that the surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbons at the lowest impregnation ratio and the carbonization temperature were achieved as high as 709.4 m 2 g -1 and 0.329 cm 3 g -1. The surface area was strongly influenced by the impregnation ratio of activation reagent and the subsequent carbonization temperature.

  12. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  13. Decoration of activated carbon nanotubes by assembling nano-silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-sha Li; Bin-song Wang; Ying-jie Qiao; Wei-zhe Lu; Ji Liang

    2009-01-01

    A facile solution processed strategy of synthesizing nano silver assembled on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at room tempera-ture was put forward. Activated carbon nanotubes were used as precursors for preparing silver-decorated nanotubes. The nature of the decorated nanotubes was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and en-ergy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The inert surfaces of carbon nanotubes were activated by introducing catalytic nuclei via an oxidation-sensitization-activation approach. Activated carbon nanotubes catalyzed the metal deposition specifically onto their surfaces upon immersion in electroless plating baths. The method produced nanotubes decorated with silver. The extent of silver decoration was found to be dependent on fabrication conditions. Dense nano silver assembled on nanotube surfaces could be ob-tained by keeping a low reaction rate in the solution phase. The results here show that this method is an efficient and simple means of achieving carbon nanotubes being assembled by nano metal.

  14. Preparation of activated carbons from Chinese coal and hydrolysis lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Y.; Han, B.X. [Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL (USA). School of Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Activated carbons from Chinese coal and Chinese hydrolysis lignin have been prepared by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. The following aspects of these activated materials have been analyzed: raw material; pre-treatment of raw material; activation agent, activation temperature and time, acid the activation agent/raw material ratio. Activated carbons with BET specific surface areas of the order of 2400-2600 m{sup 2}/g which exhibited substantial microporosity, a total pore volume of over 1.30 cm{sup 3}/g and a Methylene Blue adsorption capacity of over 440 mg/g were obtained.

  15. CCN activation of pure and coated carbon black particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, U; Reischl, G P; Hitzenberger, R

    2006-02-15

    The CCN (cloud condensation nucleus) activation of pure and coated carbon black particles was investigated using the University of Vienna cloud condensation nuclei counter (Giebl, H.; Berner, A.; Reischl, G.; Puxbaum, H.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Hitzenberger, R. J. Aerosol Sci. 2002, 33, 1623-1634). The particles were produced by nebulizing an aqueous suspension of carbon black in a Collison atomizer. The activation of pure carbon black particles was found to require higher supersaturations than predicted by calculations representing the particles as insoluble, wettable spheres with mobility equivalent diameter. To test whether this effect is an artifact due to heating of the light-absorbing carbon black particles in the laser beam, experiments at different laser powers were conducted. No systematic dependence of the activation of pure carbon black particles on laser power was observed. The observations could be modeled using spherical particles and an effective contact angle of 4-6 degrees of water at their surface. The addition of a small amount of NaCl to the carbon black particles (by adding 5% by mass NaCl to the carbon black suspension) greatly enhanced their CCN efficiency. The measured CCN efficiencies were consistent with Kohler theory for particles consisting of insoluble and hygroscopic material. However, coating the carbon black particles with hexadecanol (a typical film-forming compound with one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic end) efficiently suppressed the CCN activation of the carbon black particles.

  16. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Gani Haji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties to decompose organic waste can be handled naturally by pyrolisis so it can  decomposes quickly that produces charcoal as the product. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of activated carbon from urban organic waste. Charcoal results of pyrolysis of organic waste activated with KOH 1.0 M at a temperature of 700 and 800oC for 60 to 120 minutes. Characteristics of activated carbon were identified by Furrier Transform Infra Red (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. However, their quality is determined yield, moisture content, ash, fly substances, fixed carbon, and the power of adsorption of iodine and benzene. The identified functional groups on activated carbon, such as OH (3448,5-3436,9 cm-1, and C=O (1639,4 cm-1. In general, the degree and distance between the layers of active carbon crystallites produced activation in all treatments showed no significant difference. The pattern of activated carbon surface topography structure shows that the greater the pore formation in accordance with the temperature increase the more activation time needed. The yield of activated carbon obtained ranged from 72.04 to 82.75%. The results of characterization properties of activated carbon was obtained from 1.11 to 5.41% water, 13.68 to 17.27% substance fly, 20.36 to 26.59% ash, and 56.14 to 62.31% of fixed carbon . Absorption of activated carbon was good enough at 800oC and 120 minutes of activation time, that was equal to 409.52 mg/g of iodine and 14.03% of benzene. Activated carbon produced has less good quality, because only the water content and flying substances that meet the standards.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94 [How to cite this article: Haji, A.G., Pari, G., Nazar, M., and Habibati.  (2013. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste . International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,89-94. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94

  17. Role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon prepared by potassium carbonate activation of lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Nishio, Megumi; Mochizuki, Yuuki

    2016-05-01

    The present work focuses on the role of nitrogen in the development of pores in activated carbon produced from lignin by K2CO3 activation, employing a fixed bed reactor under a high-purity He stream at temperatures of 500-900 °C. The specific surface area and pore volume obtained by activation of lignin alone are 230 m2/g and 0.13 cm3/g at 800 °C, and 540 m2/g and 0.31 cm3/g at 900 °C, respectively. Activation of a mixture of lignin and urea provides a significant increase in the surface area and volume, respectively reaching 3300-3400 m2/g and 2.0-2.3 cm3/g after holding at 800-900 °C for 1 h. Heating a lignin/urea/K2CO3 mixture leads to a significant decrease in the yield of released N-containing gases compared to the results for urea alone and a lignin/urea mixture, and most of the nitrogen in the urea is retained in the solid phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses clearly show that part of the remaining nitrogen is present in heterocyclic structures (for example, pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen), and the rest is contained as KOCN at ≤600 °C and as KCN at ≥700 °C, such that the latter two compounds can be almost completely removed by water washing. The fate of nitrogen during heating of lignin/urea/K2CO3 and role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon are discussed on the basis of the results mentioned above.

  18. STUDIES ON THE PREPARATION OF ZINC-CONTAINING ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several kinds of activated carbon fibers, using sisal fiber as precursors, were preparedwith steam activation or with ZnCl2 activation. Zinc or its compounds were dispersed in them. Theantibacterial activities of these activated carbon fibers were determined and compared. The researchresults showed that these sisal based activated carbon fibers supporting zinc have strongerantibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and S. aureus. The antibacterial activity is related tothe precursors, the pyrolysis temperature, and the zinc content. In addition, small quantity of silversupported on zinc-containing ACFs will greatly enhance the antibacterial activity of ACFs.

  19. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  20. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lihua; Liu, Wenjun; Jiang, Renfu; Wang, Zhansheng

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon (AC) polluted with biological activated carbon (BAC) process were investigated. The results showed that the true micropore and sub-micropore volume, pH value, bulk density, and hardness of regenerated AC decreased compared to the virgin AC, but the total pore volume increased. XPS analysis displayed that the ash contents of Al, Si, and Ca in the regenerated AC respectively increased by 3.83%, 2.62% and 1.8%. FTIR spectrum showed that the surface functional groups of virgin and regenerated AC did not change significantly. Pore size distributions indicated that the AC regeneration process resulted in the decrease of micropore and macropore (D>10 μm) volume and the increase of mesopore and macropore (0.1 μm

  1. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants. PMID:27214000

  2. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  3. Adsorption of light alkanes on coconut nanoporous activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Walton

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results for adsorption equilibrium of methane, ethane, and butane on nanoporous activated carbon obtained from coconut shells. The adsorption data were obtained gravimetrically at temperatures between 260 and 300K and pressures up to 1 bar. The Toth isotherm was used to correlate the data, showing good agreement with measured values. Low-coverage equilibrium constants were estimated using virial plots. Heats of adsorption at different loadings were also estimated from the equilibrium data. Adsorption properties for this material are compared to the same properties for BPL activated carbon and BAX activated carbon.

  4. Nickel adsorption by sodium polyacrylate-grafted activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewecharoen, A. [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Thiravetyan, P., E-mail: paitip@hotmail.com [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Wendel, E.; Bertagnolli, H. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    A novel sodium polyacrylate grafted activated carbon was produced by using gamma radiation to increase the number of functional groups on the surface. After irradiation the capacity for nickel adsorption was studied and found to have increased from 44.1 to 55.7 mg g{sup -1}. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that the adsorbed nickel on activated carbon and irradiation-grafted activated carbon was coordinated with 6 oxygen atoms at 2.04-2.06 A. It is proposed that this grafting technique could be applied to other adsorbents to increase the efficiency of metal adsorption.

  5. Nickel adsorption by sodium polyacrylate-grafted activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewecharoen, A; Thiravetyan, P; Wendel, E; Bertagnolli, H

    2009-11-15

    A novel sodium polyacrylate grafted activated carbon was produced by using gamma radiation to increase the number of functional groups on the surface. After irradiation the capacity for nickel adsorption was studied and found to have increased from 44.1 to 55.7 mg g(-1). X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that the adsorbed nickel on activated carbon and irradiation-grafted activated carbon was coordinated with 6 oxygen atoms at 2.04-2.06 A. It is proposed that this grafting technique could be applied to other adsorbents to increase the efficiency of metal adsorption. PMID:19576692

  6. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Frederick S

    2013-02-19

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  7. Tribological Characteristics of Chromium-active Carbon Electroplated Composite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUKa-fi; HUAMeng; Yi-min

    2004-01-01

    A process of chromium electroplating using a standard bath with additives and active carbon particles was reported, and the tribological behaviors of the composite coatings using the pin-on-disk tester and the table wear tester were i nvestig(aed. Experimental results indicate that the electroplated chromium-active carbon composite coatings exhibited the low friction coefficient anti excellent anti-wear properties whets coffered with the normal chromium electroplated ones. The formation of active carbon particles within the chromium matrices can be explained by SEM analysis and the mechanis of wear resistance of the composite coatings were studied.

  8. High Surface Area of Nano Pores Activated Carbon Derived From Agriculture Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the high surface area of nano pores activated carbon rice husk originated from local biomass was investigated. The comparison in terms of surface area, porosity and behavior in electrochemical analysis with commercial activated carbon was studied in details. The nano pores activated carbon rice husk was synthesis using consecutive of carbonization and activation under purified nitrogen and carbon dioxide purge. Interestingly, the surface area and capacity of the nano pores activated carbon rice indicated higher in comparison to commercial activated carbon. This indicated that the nano pores activated carbon has potential to be developed further as an alternative material in reducing suspension on commercial activated carbon. (author)

  9. Mechanism of phenol adsorption onto electro-activated carbon granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounici, H; Aioueche, F; Belhocine, D; Drouiche, M; Pauss, A; Mameri, N

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to determine the mechanisms which govern the adsorption of the phenol onto electro-activated carbon granules. This new activation technique allowed an increase of the performance of the adsorbent. Two models were utilised to understand the improvement in the performance of electroactivated carbon granules. The first, a simple external resistance model based on film resistance, gave acceptable predictions, with an error of less than 15%, between the theoretical results and experimental data independent of the activation potential and phenol initial concentration. The second linear model, based on diffusion phenomena, was more representative in describing the experiment than the first model. It was observed that the electro-activation method did not change the mechanism which governs phenol adsorption onto granular carbon. Indeed, the same mathematical model based on diffusion phenomena made it possible to predict with a very low error (less than 5%) the experimental data obtained for the favourable activation potential, without activation potential and with an unfavourable activation potential. The electro-activation technique makes it possible to increase the number of active sites that improve the performance of the electro-activated granular carbon compared with conventional granular activated carbon.

  10. Interaction forces between waterborne bacteria and activated carbon particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Langworthy, Don E.; Collias, Dimitris I.; Bjorkquist, David W.; Mitchell, Michael D.; Van der Mei, Henny C.

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbons remove waterborne bacteria from potable water systems through attractive Lifshitz-van der Waals forces despite electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged cells and carbon surfaces. In this paper we quantify the interaction forces between bacteria with negatively and positiv

  11. Intact tropical forests, new evidence they uptake carbon actively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a paper recently published on Nature, tropical forests play as active carbon sink, absorbing 1.3·109 tons of carbon per year on a global scale. Functional interpretation is not clear yet, but a point is quite easy to realize: tropical forests accumulate and contain more carbon than any other vegetation cover and, if their disruption goes on at current rates, these ecosystems could revert to be a “carbon bomb”, releasing huge amount of CO2 to the atmosphere.

  12. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2010-09-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs

  13. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs) will

  14. Adsorptive preconcentration of rareearth oxine complexes onto activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for the determination of traces of rare earth using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) after preconcentration of their oxine complexes onto activated carbon. Various parameters that influence adsorptive preconcentration of rare earth onto activated carbon viz. pH, amounts of activated carbon and oxine, time of stirring and aqueous phase volume were systematically studied. A numerical method based on simple least square procedure using fifth order polynomial with 25 consecutive values was developed for smoothing and differentiation of EDXRF data which was previously digitized and averaged. First order derivative EDXRF in conjunction with adsorptive preconcentration on activated carbon enables one to determine as low as 10 ppb of each individual rare earth elements

  15. Application of Activated Carbon Mixed Matrix Membrane for Oxygen Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of activated carbon on oxygen separation performance of polyethersulfone mixed matrix membrane. In this study, polyethersulfone (PES-activated carbon (AC mixed matrix membranes were fabricated using dry/wet technique. This study investigates the effect of polyethersulfone concentration and activated carbon loading on the performance of mixed matrix membrane in terms of permeability and selectivity of O2/N2 gas separation. The fabricated flat sheet mixed matrix membranes were characterized using permeation test, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. It was found that the activated carbon loading affected the gas separation performance of mixed matrix membrane. PES- 1wt% AC membrane yielded 3.75 of O2/N2 selectivity, however 5 wt% of AC can produced 5 O2/N2 selectivity

  16. Sustainable Regeneration of Nanoparticle Enhanced Activated Carbon in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The regeneration and reuse of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) is an appropriate method for lowering operational and environmental costs. Advanced oxidation is a promising environmental friendly technique for GAC regeneration. The main objective of this research was to ...

  17. Functionalized Activated Carbon Derived from Biomass for Photocatalysis Applications Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review highlighted the developments of safe, effective, economic, and environmental friendly catalytic technologies to transform lignocellulosic biomass into the activated carbon (AC. In the photocatalysis applications, this AC can further be used as a support material. The limits of AC productions raised by energy assumption and product selectivity have been uplifted to develop sustainable carbon of the synthesis process, where catalytic conversion is accounted. The catalytic treatment corresponding to mild condition provided a bulk, mesoporous, and nanostructure AC materials. These characteristics of AC materials are necessary for the low energy and efficient photocatalytic system. Due to the excellent oxidizing characteristics, cheapness, and long-term stability, semiconductor materials have been used immensely in photocatalytic reactors. However, in practical, such conductors lead to problems with the separation steps and loss of photocatalytic activity. Therefore, proper attention has been given to develop supported semiconductor catalysts and certain matrixes of carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon microspheres, carbon nanofibers, carbon black, and activated carbons have been recently considered and reported. AC has been reported as a potential support in photocatalytic systems because it improves the transfer rate of the interface charge and lowers the recombination rate of holes and electrons.

  18. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on impregnated powdered activated carbon as cheap substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Mamun, A. A.; Y.M. Ahmed; S.A. Muyibi; M.F.R. Al-Khatib; A.T. Jameel; M.A. AlSaadi

    2016-01-01

    The catalysis and characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) composite are reported in this work. Carbon nanofibers were produced on oil palm shell powdered activated carbon (PAC), which was impregnated with nickel. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of C2H2 was used in the presence of hydrogen at ∼650 °C. The flow rates of carbon source and hydrogen were fixed. The CNFs formed directly on the surface of the impregnated PAC. Variable weight percentages (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9%) of the catalyst s...

  19. The investment funds in carbon actives: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning in 1999 of the first funds by the World Bank, the purchase mechanisms of carbon actives, developed and reached today more than 1,5 milliards of euros. The landscape is relatively concentrated, in spite of the numerous initiatives. The author presents the situation since 1999, the importance of the european governmental investors, the purchase mechanisms management and an inventory of the carbon actives purchases. (A.L.B.)

  20. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, P., E-mail: pegonzal@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Centeno, T.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon-CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Urones-Garrote, E. [Centro Nacional de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Avila-Brande, D.; Otero-Diaz, L.C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated carbons were produced by KOH activation at 700 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed nanostructure consists of highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp{sup 2} bond content Almost-Equal-To 95%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Textural parameters show high surface area ( Almost-Equal-To 1000 m{sup 2}/g) and pore width of 1.3-1.8 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific capacitance reaches values as high as 161 F/g. - Abstract: Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 Degree-Sign C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet-like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp{sup 2} content Almost-Equal-To 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm{sup 3} (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m{sup 2}/g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3-1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm{sup 2}) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  1. Development and Environmental Applications of Activated Carbon Cloths

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lea Cukierman

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon cloths have received growing attention because they offer comparative advantages over the traditional powdered or granular forms of this well-known adsorbent, providing further potential uses for technological innovations in several fields. The present article provides an overview of research studies and advances concerned with the development of activated carbon cloths and their use as adsorbent in environmental applications, mostly reported in the last years. The influence ...

  2. Microwave absorbing properties of activated carbon fibre polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tianchun Zou; Naiqin Zhao; Chunsheng Shi; Jiajun Li

    2011-02-01

    Microwave absorption of composites containing activated carbon fibres (ACFs) was investigated. The results show that the absorptivity greatly depends on increasing ACF content in the absorbing layer, first increasing and then decreasing. When the content is 0.76 wt.%, the bandwidth below −10dB is 12.2 GHz. Comparing the absorption characteristics of the ACF composite with one containing unactivated fibres, it is found that carbon fibre activation increases the absorption of the composite.

  3. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by physical activation with CO2 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrun, Sutrisno; AyuRizka, Noni; Annisa, SolichaHidayat; Arif, Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the effects of different carbonization temperatures (400, 600, and 800oC) on characteristics of porosity in activated carbon derived from carbonized sugarcane bagassechar at activation temperature of 800oC. The results showed that the activated carbon derived from high carbonized temperature of sugarcane bagassechars had higher BET surface area, total volume, micropore volume and yield as compared to the activated carbon derived from low carbonized temperature. The BET surface area, total volume and micropore volume of activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagassechars obtained at 800oC of carbonized temperature and activation time of 120 min were 661.46m2/g, 0.2455cm3/g and 0.1989cm3/g, respectively. The high carbonization temperature (800oC) generated a highly microporous carbonwith a Type-I nitrogen adsorption isotherm, while the low carbonization temperature (400 and 600oC) generated a mesoporous one with an intermediate between types I and IInitrogen adsorption isotherm.

  4. Removal of dye by immobilised photo catalyst loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of activated carbon to adsorb and titanium dioxide to photo degrade organic impurities from water bodies is well accepted. Combination of the two is expected to enhance the removal efficiency due to the synergistic effect. This has enabled activated carbon to adsorb more and at the same time the lifespan of activated carbon is prolonged as the workload of removing organic pollutants is shared between activated carbon and titanium dioxide. Immobilisation is selected to avoid unnecessary filtering of adsorbent and photo catalyst. In this study, mixture of activated carbon and titanium dioxide was immobilised on glass slides. Photodegradation and adsorption studies of Methylene Blue solution were conducted in the absence and presence of UV light. The removal efficiency of immobilised TiO2/ AC was found to be two times better than the removal by immobilised AC or immobilised TiO2 alone. In 4 hours and with the concentration of 10 ppm, TiO2 loaded activated carbon prepared from 1.5 g/ 15.0 mL suspension produced 99.50 % dye removal. (author)

  5. Nanoporous activated carbon cloth for capacitive deionization of aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Han-Jun [Department of Materials Science, Hanseo University, Seosan, 352-820 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Ho [Department of Chemistry, Hanseo University, Seosan, 352-820 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hong-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsoo [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Changwon, 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Jig [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Choong-Soo [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul, 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cschi@kookmin.ac.kr

    2006-09-25

    Activated nanostructured-carbon cloths with a high ratio of surface area to volume are used as electrode for capacitive deionization. The electrochemical properties on capacitive deionization for NaCl solution have been investigated to improve efficiency of capacitive deionization properties from aqueous solution, employing chemical surface-modification by etching in alkaline and acidic solution. The removal efficiency of inorganic salts of activated carbon cloths by chemical modification significantly increased. Specially the carbon cloth surface modified in HNO{sub 3} showed an effect of improvement in the CDI efficiency due to not only ion adsorption by an electric double layer, but also electron transfer by Faradaic reaction.

  6. Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon preadsorbed with naphtalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, T; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V

    2005-05-01

    The adsorption of water vapor on a microporous activated carbon derived from the carbonization of coconut shell has been studied. Preadsorption of naphthalene was used as a tool to determine the location and the influence of the primary adsorbing centers within the porous structure of active carbon. The adsorption was studied in the pressure range p/p0=0-0.95 in a static water vapor system, allowing the investigation of both kinetic and equilibrium experimental data. Modeling of the isotherms using the modified equation of Do and Do was applied to determine the effect of preadsorption on the mechanism of adsorption. PMID:15797395

  7. The Formation of Carbon Nanofibers on Powdered Activated Carbon Impregnated with Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y. M.; Al-Mamun, A. A.; Muyibi, S. A.; Al-Khatib, M. F. R.; Jameel, A. T.; AlSaadi, M. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present work, the production and characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) composite is reported. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) were produced on powdered activated carbon PAC—impregnated with nickel—by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of a hydrocarbon in the presence of hydrogen at ˜780° C. The flow rates of carbon source and hydrogen were fixed. The CNFs were formed directly over the impregnated AC. Variable weight percentage ratios of the catalyst salt (Ni+2) were used for the impregnation (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9%, respectively). The product displays a relatively high surface area, essentially constituted by the external surface, and the absence of the bottled pores encountered with activated carbon. FSEM, TEM and TGA were used for the characterization of the product.

  8. Evaluation of Powdered Activated Carbon Efficiency in Removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon inWater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    G.R Bonyadi nejad; R Hadian; M Saadani; B Jaberian; M.M Amin; A Khodabakhshi

    2010-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Powdered Activated$ carbon is known as a suitable absorbent for organic materials. The aim of this research is evaluation of Powdered Activated-Carbon (PAC) efficiency in removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in water treatment in Isfahan."nMaterials and Methods : The increase of PAC for DOC reduction has done in three paths in the Isfahan water treatment plant (WTP). These paths including: 1) Intake up to entrance of WTP 2) Intake to exit ofWTP 3) Between...

  9. Evaluation of Powdered Activated Carbon Efficiency in Removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon inWater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R Bonyadi nejad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Powdered Activated$ carbon is known as a suitable absorbent for organic materials. The aim of this research is evaluation of Powdered Activated-Carbon (PAC efficiency in removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC in water treatment in Isfahan."nMaterials and Methods : The increase of PAC for DOC reduction has done in three paths in the Isfahan water treatment plant (WTP. These paths including: 1 Intake up to entrance of WTP 2 Intake to exit ofWTP 3 Between entrance and exit of waterworks. The paths were simulated by the Jar test system. Then DOC and UV254 absorption were analyzed and SUVA parameter for samples and activated-carbon adsorption isotherm was calculated."nResults: The injected PAC doses of 20,40,60,80 and 100 mg/l caused decreasing in DOC and UV254 absorption in every sample in all paths. The average of this decrease, from intake to WTP.s exit (second path was the greatest 69.8± 3.9%and the commonWTP process had capability of removing 35% of DOC. The first path also showed that PAC can reduce 33± 2% DOC of raw water by itself. Activated-carbon absorption results were adhered from Freundlich adsorption isotherm."nConclusion: In the third path therewas lessDOCremoval efficiency than exceptedwhen Activated- Carbon injected in rapid mixed basin with coagulant. Powdered activated carbon porosity reduction due to effect of coagulant can be the reason for this issue.Also according to different paths, the point of intake is more suitable for powdered activated carbon addition.

  10. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Adsorption of dissolved natural organic matter by modified activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Dastgheib, Seyed A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2005-06-01

    Adsorption of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) by virgin and modified granular activated carbons (GACs) was studied. DOM samples were obtained from two water treatment plants before (i.e., raw water) and after coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation processes (i.e., treated water). A granular activated carbon (GAC) was modified by high temperature helium or ammonia treatment, or iron impregnation followed by high temperature ammonia treatment. Two activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were also used, with no modification, to examine the effect of carbon porosity on DOM adsorption. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA(254)) were employed to characterize the DOMs before and after adsorption. Iron-impregnated (HDFe) and ammonia-treated (HDN) activated carbons showed significantly higher DOM uptakes than the virgin GAC. The enhanced DOM uptake by HDFe was due to the presence of iron species on the carbon surface. The higher uptake of HDN was attributed to the enlarged carbon pores and basic surface created during ammonia treatment. The SEC and SUVA(254) results showed no specific selectivity in the removal of different DOM components as a result of carbon modification. The removal of DOM from both raw and treated waters was negligible by ACF10, having 96% of its surface area in pores smaller than 1 nm. Small molecular weight (MW) DOM components were preferentially removed by ACF20H, having 33% of its surface area in 1--3 nm pores. DOM components with MWs larger than 1600, 2000, and 2700 Da of Charleston raw, Charleston-treated, and Spartanburg-treated waters, respectively, were excluded from the pores of ACF20H. In contrast to carbon fibers, DOM components from entire MW range were removed from waters by virgin and modified GACs. PMID:15927230

  12. Composite electrodes of activated carbon derived from cassava peel and carbon nanotubes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, E.; Iwantono, Yulita, M.; Taslim, R.; Subagio, A.; Salomo, Deraman, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a composite electrode was prepared from a mixture of activated carbon derived from precarbonization of cassava peel (CP) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The activated carbon was produced by pyrolysis process using ZnCl2 as an activation agent. A N2 adsorption-desorption analysis for the sample indicated that the BET surface area of the activated carbon was 1336 m2 g-1. Difference percentage of CNTs of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% with 5% of PVDF binder were added into CP based activated carbon in order to fabricate the composite electrodes. The morphology and structure of the composite electrodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The SEM image observed that the distribution of CNTs was homogeneous between carbon particles and the XRD pattern shown the amorphous structure of the sample. The electrodes were fabricated for supercapacitor cells with 316L stainless steel as current collector and 1 M sulfuric acid as electrolyte. An electrochemical characterization was performed by using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method using a Solatron 1286 instrument and the addition of CNTs revealed to improve the resistant and capacitive properties of supercapacitor cell.

  13. Adsorption uptake of synthetic organic chemicals by carbon nanotubes and activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. J.; Lim, Hyung-nam; Kilduff, James E.

    2012-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise as high performance materials for adsorbing priority pollutants from water and wastewater. This study compared uptake of two contaminants of interest in drinking water treatment (atrazine and trichloroethylene) by nine different types of carbonaceous adsorbents: three different types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), three different sized multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs), two granular activated carbons (GACs) and a powdered activated carbon (PAC). On a mass basis, the activated carbons exhibited the highest uptake, followed by SWNTs and MWNTs. However, metallic impurities in SWNTs and multiple walls in MWNTs contribute to adsorbent mass but do not contribute commensurate adsorption sites. Therefore, when uptake was normalized by purity (carbon content) and surface area (instead of mass), the isotherms collapsed and much of the CNT data was comparable to the activated carbons, indicating that these two characteristics drive much of the observed differences between activated carbons and CNT materials. For the limited data set here, the Raman D:G ratio as a measure of disordered non-nanotube graphitic components was not a good predictor of adsorption from solution. Uptake of atrazine by MWNTs having a range of lengths and diameters was comparable and their Freundlich isotherms were statistically similar, and we found no impact of solution pH on the adsorption of either atrazine or trichloroethylene in the range of naturally occurring surface water (pH = 5.7-8.3). Experiments were performed using a suite of model aromatic compounds having a range of π-electron energy to investigate the role of π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions on organic compound uptake by SWNTs. For the compounds studied, hydrophobic interactions were the dominant mechanism in the uptake by both SWNTs and activated carbon. However, comparing the uptake of naphthalene and phenanthrene by activated carbon and SWNTs, size exclusion effects

  14. Adsorption uptake of synthetic organic chemicals by carbon nanotubes and activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise as high performance materials for adsorbing priority pollutants from water and wastewater. This study compared uptake of two contaminants of interest in drinking water treatment (atrazine and trichloroethylene) by nine different types of carbonaceous adsorbents: three different types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), three different sized multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs), two granular activated carbons (GACs) and a powdered activated carbon (PAC). On a mass basis, the activated carbons exhibited the highest uptake, followed by SWNTs and MWNTs. However, metallic impurities in SWNTs and multiple walls in MWNTs contribute to adsorbent mass but do not contribute commensurate adsorption sites. Therefore, when uptake was normalized by purity (carbon content) and surface area (instead of mass), the isotherms collapsed and much of the CNT data was comparable to the activated carbons, indicating that these two characteristics drive much of the observed differences between activated carbons and CNT materials. For the limited data set here, the Raman D:G ratio as a measure of disordered non-nanotube graphitic components was not a good predictor of adsorption from solution. Uptake of atrazine by MWNTs having a range of lengths and diameters was comparable and their Freundlich isotherms were statistically similar, and we found no impact of solution pH on the adsorption of either atrazine or trichloroethylene in the range of naturally occurring surface water (pH = 5.7–8.3). Experiments were performed using a suite of model aromatic compounds having a range of π-electron energy to investigate the role of π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions on organic compound uptake by SWNTs. For the compounds studied, hydrophobic interactions were the dominant mechanism in the uptake by both SWNTs and activated carbon. However, comparing the uptake of naphthalene and phenanthrene by activated carbon and SWNTs, size exclusion

  15. Adsorption Properties of Lignin-derived Activated Carbon Fibers (LACF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gallego, Nidia C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States); Karra, Reddy [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The object of this CRADA project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) is the characterization of lignin-derived activated carbon fibers (LACF) and determination of their adsorption properties for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Carbon fibers from lignin raw materials were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the technology previously developed at ORNL. These fibers were physically activated at ORNL using various activation conditions, and their surface area and pore-size distribution were characterized by gas adsorption. Based on these properties, ORNL did down-select five differently activated LACF materials that were delivered to UTRC for measurement of VOC adsorption properties. UTRC used standard techniques based on breakthrough curves to measure and determine the adsorption properties of indoor air pollutants (IAP) - namely formaldehyde and carbon dioxide - and to verify the extent of saturated fiber regenerability by thermal treatments. The results are summarized as follows: (1) ORNL demonstrated that physical activation of lignin-derived carbon fibers can be tailored to obtain LACF with surface areas and pore size distributions matching the properties of activated carbon fibers obtained from more expensive, fossil-fuel precursors; (2) UTRC investigated the LACF potential for use in air cleaning applications currently pursued by UTRC, such as building ventilation, and demonstrated their regenerability for CO2 and formaldehyde, (3) Both partners agree that LACF have potential for possible use in air cleaning applications.

  16. Porous texture evolution in Nomex-derived activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Rodil, S; Denoyel, R; Rouquerol, J; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2002-08-01

    In the present work, the textural evolution of a series of activated carbon fibers with increasing burn-off degree, prepared by the pyrolysis and steam activation of Nomex aramid fibers, is followed by measurements of physical adsorption of N(2) (77 K) and CO(2) (273 K) and immersion calorimetry into different liquids (dichloromethane, benzene, cyclohexane). The immersion calorimetry results are discussed in depth, paying special attention to the choice of the reference material. The activated carbon fibers studied possess an essentially homogeneous microporous texture, which suggests that these materials may be applied in gas separation, either directly or with additional CVD treatment. PMID:16290775

  17. Proton catalysis with active carbons and partially pyrolyzed carbonaceous materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. V. Strelko; S. S. Stavitskaya; Yu. I. Gorlov

    2014-01-01

    The development of environmentally friendly solid acid catalysts is a priority task. Highly oxidized activated carbon and their ion-substituted (saline) forms are effective proton transfer catalysts in esterification, hydrolysis, and dehydration, and thus are promising candidates as solid acid cata-lysts. Computations by the ab initio method indicated the cause for the enchanced acidity of the carboxylic groups attached to the surface of highly oxidized carbon. The synthesis of phosphorilated carbon was considered, and the proton transfer reactions catalyzed by them in recent studies were analyzed. The development of an amorphous carbon acid catalyst comprising polycyclic carbonaceous (graphene) sheets with-SO3H,-COOH and phenolic type OH-groups was carried out. These new catalysts were synthesized by partial pyrolysis and subsequent sulfonation of carbohydrates, polymers, and other organic compounds. Their high catalytic activities in proton transfere reactions including the processing of bio-based raw materials was demonsrated.

  18. Pesticide Removal by Combined Ozonation and Granular Activated Carbon Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    This research aimed to idendfy and understand mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effect of ozonation on removal of pesdcides and other micropoUutants by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) filtradon. This allows optimization of the combination of these two processes, termed Biological Activated Car

  19. Biofuel intercropping effects on soil carbon and microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael S; Leggett, Zakiya H; Sucre, Eric B; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels will help meet rising demands for energy and, ideally, limit climate change associated with carbon losses from the biosphere to atmosphere. Biofuel management must therefore maximize energy production and maintain ecosystem carbon stocks. Increasingly, there is interest in intercropping biofuels with other crops, partly because biofuel production on arable land might reduce availability and increase the price of food. One intercropping approach involves growing biofuel grasses in forest plantations. Grasses differ from trees in both their organic inputs to soils and microbial associations. These differences are associated with losses of soil carbon when grasses become abundant in forests. We investigated how intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgalum), a major candidate for cellulosic biomass production, in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations affects soil carbon, nitrogen, and microbial dynamics. Our design involved four treatments: two pine management regimes where harvest residues (i.e., biomass) were left in place or removed, and two switchgrass regimes where the grass was grown with pine under the same two biomass scenarios (left or removed). Soil variables were measured in four 1-ha replicate plots in the first and second year following switchgrass planting. Under switchgrass intercropping, pools of mineralizable and particulate organic matter carbon were 42% and 33% lower, respectively. These declines translated into a 21% decrease in total soil carbon in the upper 15 cm of the soil profile, during early stand development. The switchgrass effect, however, was isolated to the interbed region where switchgrass is planted. In these regions, switchgrass-induced reductions in soil carbon pools with 29%, 43%, and 24% declines in mineralizable, particulate, and total soil carbon, respectively. Our results support the idea that grass inputs to forests can prime the activity of soil organic carbon degrading microbes, leading to net reductions in stocks

  20. Biofuel intercropping effects on soil carbon and microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael S; Leggett, Zakiya H; Sucre, Eric B; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels will help meet rising demands for energy and, ideally, limit climate change associated with carbon losses from the biosphere to atmosphere. Biofuel management must therefore maximize energy production and maintain ecosystem carbon stocks. Increasingly, there is interest in intercropping biofuels with other crops, partly because biofuel production on arable land might reduce availability and increase the price of food. One intercropping approach involves growing biofuel grasses in forest plantations. Grasses differ from trees in both their organic inputs to soils and microbial associations. These differences are associated with losses of soil carbon when grasses become abundant in forests. We investigated how intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgalum), a major candidate for cellulosic biomass production, in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations affects soil carbon, nitrogen, and microbial dynamics. Our design involved four treatments: two pine management regimes where harvest residues (i.e., biomass) were left in place or removed, and two switchgrass regimes where the grass was grown with pine under the same two biomass scenarios (left or removed). Soil variables were measured in four 1-ha replicate plots in the first and second year following switchgrass planting. Under switchgrass intercropping, pools of mineralizable and particulate organic matter carbon were 42% and 33% lower, respectively. These declines translated into a 21% decrease in total soil carbon in the upper 15 cm of the soil profile, during early stand development. The switchgrass effect, however, was isolated to the interbed region where switchgrass is planted. In these regions, switchgrass-induced reductions in soil carbon pools with 29%, 43%, and 24% declines in mineralizable, particulate, and total soil carbon, respectively. Our results support the idea that grass inputs to forests can prime the activity of soil organic carbon degrading microbes, leading to net reductions in stocks

  1. Production of activated carbons from coffee endocarp by CO2 and steam activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the use of coffee endocarp as precursor for the production of activated carbons by steam and CO2 was studied. Activation by both methods produces activated carbons with small external areas and microporous structures having very similar mean pore widths. The activation produces mainly primary micropores and only a small volume of larger micropores. The CO2 activation leads to samples with higher BET surface areas and pore volumes when compared with samples produced by steam activation and with similar burn-off value. All the activated carbons produced have basic characteristics with point of zero charge between 10 and 12. By FTIR it was possible to identify the formation on the activated carbon's surface of several functional groups, namely ether, quinones, lactones, ketones, hydroxyls (free and phenol); pyrones and Si-H bonds. (author)

  2. Decolorization of Cheddar cheese whey by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Campbell, Rachel; Drake, MaryAnne; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Colored Cheddar whey is a source for whey protein recovery and is decolorized conventionally by bleaching, which affects whey protein quality. Two activated carbons were studied in the present work as physical means of removing annatto (norbixin) in Cheddar cheese whey. The color and residual norbixin content of Cheddar whey were reduced by a higher level of activated carbon at a higher temperature between 25 and 55°C and a longer time. Activated carbon applied at 40g/L for 2h at 30°C was more effective than bleaching by 500mg/L of hydrogen peroxide at 68°C. The lowered temperature in activated-carbon treatments had less effect on protein structure as investigated for fluorescence spectroscopy and volatile compounds, particularly oxidation products, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Activated carbon was also reusable, removing more than 50% norbixin even after 10 times of regeneration, which showed great potential for decolorizing cheese whey.

  3. ADSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF L-HISTIDINE ON ACTIVE CARBON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption properties of L-histidine on active carbon were studied in the paper, which are affected by the main parameters, such as the quantity percent of active carbon, pH value of the solution, the time of adsorption equilibrium and adsorption temperature. The results indicate that adsorption equilibrium time of L-his on active carbon is about 80 minutes. With the increasing of the quantity percent of active carbon, the adsorbance of L-his decreases sharply, and increases lighter after that. When the quantity percent of active carbon is 10%, the adsorbance reaches the minimum.pH value of solution and extraction temperature have great affection on the adsorption. When the pH value is higher or lower than the pI of L-his, the adsorbance is small, even zero. It is proven that the experimental equilibrium data which are obtained under the conditions of 80 ℃and pH=1.0, are fitted with the Freundlich equation: q=2.5914c0.8097. The results can provide certain references in L-his adsorption process of industrial operation.

  4. Effect of activated carbon layer at sand-carbon filters vertical flow in domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wąsik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research concerning treatment of domestic sewage in sand filters of vertical flow with granular activated carbon layer. Removal of organic compounds and nitrogen from wastewater pre-treated in a septic tank, as well as total suspended solids at different hydraulic load of sand-carbon filters were specified. It was shown that favourable conditions for the development of both heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria were created in the double layer of sand and carbon filter with the upper layer of the activated carbon. For three-month cycle in the load range of 13-131 mm·d-1, mean effectiveness of BOD5, CODCr, N-NH4+ and total suspension were respectively 98%, 94%, 98% and 82%.

  5. Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Dinesh [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)]. E-mail: dm_1967@hotmail.com; Singh, Kunwar P. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Singh, Vinod K. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2006-07-31

    An efficient adsorption process is developed for the decontamination of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A low cost activated carbon (ATFAC) was prepared from coconut shell fibers (an agricultural waste), characterized and utilized for Cr(III) removal from water/wastewater. A commercially available activated carbon fabric cloth (ACF) was also studied for comparative evaluation. All the equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted at different temperatures, particle size, pHs, and adsorbent doses in batch mode. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model best fit the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacities of ATFAC and ACF at 25 deg. C are 12.2 and 39.56 mg/g, respectively. Cr(III) adsorption increased with an increase in temperature (10 deg. C: ATFAC-10.97 mg/g, ACF-36.05 mg/g; 40 deg. C: ATFAC-16.10 mg/g, ACF-40.29 mg/g). The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of temperature, initial adsorbate concentration, particle size of the adsorbent, and solid to liquid ratio. The adsorption of Cr(III) follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and entropy of activation were evaluated. The sorption capacity of activated carbon (ATFAC) and activated carbon fabric cloth is comparable to many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of trivalent chromium from water/wastewater.

  6. Breakthrough CO₂ adsorption in bio-based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkarami, Sepideh; Azargohar, Ramin; Dalai, Ajay K; Soltan, Jafar

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the effects of different methods of activation on CO2 adsorption performance of activated carbon were studied. Activated carbons were prepared from biochar, obtained from fast pyrolysis of white wood, using three different activation methods of steam activation, CO2 activation and Potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation. CO2 adsorption behavior of the produced activated carbons was studied in a fixed-bed reactor set-up at atmospheric pressure, temperature range of 25-65°C and inlet CO2 concentration range of 10-30 mol% in He to determine the effects of the surface area, porosity and surface chemistry on adsorption capacity of the samples. Characterization of the micropore and mesopore texture was carried out using N2 and CO2 adsorption at 77 and 273 K, respectively. Central composite design was used to evaluate the combined effects of temperature and concentration of CO2 on the adsorption behavior of the adsorbents. The KOH activated carbon with a total micropore volume of 0.62 cm(3)/g and surface area of 1400 m(2)/g had the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 1.8 mol/kg due to its microporous structure and high surface area under the optimized experimental conditions of 30 mol% CO2 and 25°C. The performance of the adsorbents in multi-cyclic adsorption process was also assessed and the adsorption capacity of KOH and CO2 activated carbons remained remarkably stable after 50 cycles with low temperature (160°C) regeneration. PMID:26257348

  7. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  8. Ferrous ion oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans immobilized on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-kui; QIN Wen-qing; NIU Yin-jian; LI Hua-xia

    2006-01-01

    The immobilization of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on the activated carbon particles as support matrix was investigated. Cycling batch operation results in the complete oxidation of ferrous iron in 8 d when the modified 9 K medium is set to flow through the mini-bioreactor at a rate of 0.104 L/h at 25 ℃. The oxidation rate of ferrous iron with immobilized T. ferrooxidans is 9.38 g/(L·h). The results show that the immobilization of T. ferrooxidans on activated carbon can improve the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. The SEM images show that a build-up of cells of T. ferrooxidans and iron precipitates is formed on the surface of activated carbon particles.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACACIA MANGIUM WOOD BASED ACTIVATED CARBONS PREPARED IN THE PRESENCE OF BASIC ACTIVATING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Danish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effects of alkaline activating agents on the characteristics, composition, and surface morphology of the designed activated carbons. Activated carbons were prepared by pyrolysis of Acacia mangium wood in the presence of two basic activating agents (calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide. The extent of impregnation ratio of precursor to activating agents was fixed at 2:1(w/w. Prior to pyrolysis, 24 hours soaking was conducted at 348 K. Activation was carried out in a stainless steel capped graphite crucible at 773 K for 2 hours in the absence of purge gas. The burn-off percentage was found to be 70.27±0.93% for CaO activated carbon (COAC and 73.30±0.20% for KOH activated carbon (PHAC. The activating agents had a strong influence on the surface functional groups as well as elemental composition of these activated carbons. Characterization of the activated carbon obtained was performed with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and nitrogen adsorption as Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR isotherms.

  10. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  11. Scale-up activation of carbon fibres for hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kunowsky, Mirko; Marco Lozar, Juan Pablo; Cazorla Amorós, Diego; Linares Solano, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated, at a laboratory scale, the chemical activation of two different carbon fibres (CF), their porosity characterization, and their optimization for hydrogen storage [1]. In the present work, this study is extended to: (i) a larger range of KOH activated carbon fibres, (ii) a larger range of hydrogen adsorption measurements at different temperatures and pressures (i.e. at room temperature, up to 20 MPa, and at 77 K, up to 4 MPa), and (iii) a scaling-up activat...

  12. ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM VEGETAL RAW MATERIALS TO SOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mukhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for active carbons obtaining from vegetable byproducts such as straw, nut shells, fruit stones, sawdust, hydrolysis products of corn cobs and sunflower husks have been developed. The physico-chemical characteristics, structural parameters and sorption characteristics of obtained active carbons were determined. The ability of carbonaceous adsorbents for detoxification of soil against pesticides, purification of surface waters and for removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters has been evaluated. The obtained results reveal the effectiveness of their use in a number of environmental technologies.

  13. Adsorption of Remazol Black B dye on Activated Carbon Felt

    OpenAIRE

    Donnaperna Lucio; Duclaux Laurent; Gadiou Roger

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of Remazol Black B (anionic dye) on a microporous activated carbon felt is investigated from its aqueous solution. The surface chemistry of activated carbon is studied using X-ray microanalysis, "Boehm" titrations and pH of PZC measurements which indicates that the surface oxygenated groups are mainly acidic in nature. The kinetics of Remazol Black B adsorption is observed to be pH dependent and governed by the diffusion of the dye molecules. The experimental data can be explai...

  14. Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. (Amway Corp., Ada, MI (United States))

    1994-02-01

    A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  16. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  17. Liquid-phase adsorption of phenol onto activated carbons prepared with different activation levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, C.T.; Teng, H.S.

    2000-07-01

    The paper investigates the influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons were found to vary with the burn-off level. The paper demonstrates that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores.

  18. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  19. Effects of organic carbon sequestration strategies on soil enzymatic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, E.; Suciu, N.; Botteri, L.; Ferrari, T.; Coppolecchia, D.; Trevisan, M.; Piccolo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Greenhouse gases emissions can be counterbalanced with proper agronomical strategies aimed at sequestering carbon in soils. These strategies must be tested not only for their ability in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, but also for their impact on soil quality: enzymatic activities are related to main soil ecological quality, and can be used as early and sensitive indicators of alteration events. Three different strategies for soil carbon sequestration were studied: minimum tillage, protection of biodegradable organic fraction by compost amendment and oxidative polimerization of soil organic matter catalyzed by biometic porfirins. All strategies were compared with a traditional agricultural management based on tillage and mineral fertilization. Experiments were carried out in three Italian soils from different pedo-climatic regions located respectively in Piacenza, Turin and Naples and cultivated with maize or wheat. Soil samples were taken for three consecutive years after harvest and analyzed for their content in phosphates, ß-glucosidase, urease and invertase. An alteration index based on these enzymatic activities levels was applied as well. The biomimetic porfirin application didn't cause changes in enzymatic activities compared to the control at any treatment or location. Enzymatic activities were generally higher in the minimum tillage and compost treatment, while differences between location and date of samplings were limited. Application of the soil alteration index based on enzymatic activities showed that soils treated with compost or subjected to minimum tillage generally have a higher biological quality. The work confirms the environmental sustainability of the carbon sequestering agronomical practices studied.

  20. Characteristics and properties of active carbon; El carbon activo sus caracteristicas y propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groso Cruzado, G.; Brosa Echevarria, J.

    1998-12-01

    Active carbon (AC) is a solid possessing two properties which make it extremely useful in treating water. The first consists in trapping all kinds of organic contaminants in its walls so avidly that it can leave water practically free of such compounds. The second consists in destroying the free waste chlorine which has failed to react once it has completed its disinfecting action. As a result, virtually all industries requiring potable water employ active carbon as one of their basic treatment methods. (Author) 7 refs.

  1. Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2015-01-21

    Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive. PMID:25531980

  2. Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2015-01-21

    Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive.

  3. Highly active catalyst for vinyl acetate synthesis by modified activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Yan Hou; Liang Rong Feng; Fa Li Qiu

    2009-01-01

    A new zinc acetate catalyst which was prepared from modified activated carbon exhibited extreme activity towards the synthesis of vinyl acetate. The activated carbon was modified by nitric acid, vitriol and peroxyacetic acid (PAA). The effect on specific area, structure, pH and surface acidity groups of carriers by modification was discussed. Amount of carbonyl and carboxyl groups in activated carbon was increased by peroxyacetic acid treatment. The productivity of the new catalyst was 14.58% higher than that of catalyst prepared using untreated activated carbon. The relationship between amount of carbonyl and carboxyl groups (m) and catalyst productivity (P) was P = 1.83 + 2.26 x 10-3e3.17m. Reaction mechanism was proposed.

  4. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  5. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from demineralized tyre char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Prasad, Guddu R.; Joshi, Parth.; Zala, Ranjitsingh S.; Gokhale, Siddharth S.; Manocha, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon is the most adsorbing material for industrial waste water treatment. For wider applications, the main consideration is to manufacture activated carbon from low cost precursors, which are easily available and cost effective. One such source is scrap tyres. Recently much effort has been devoted to the thermal degradation of tyres into gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and solid char residue, all of which have the potential to be processed into valuable products. As for solid residue, char can be used either as low-grade reinforcing filler or as activated carbon. The product recovered by a typical pyrolysis of tyres are usually, 33-38 wt% pyrolytic char, 38-55 wt% oil and 10-30 wt% solid fractions. In the present work activated carbon was prepared from pyrolyzed tyre char (PC). Demineralization involves the dissolution of metal into acids i.e. HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4 and in base i.e. NaOH. Different concentration of acid and base were used. Sodium hydroxide showed maximum amount of metal oxide removal. Further the concentration of sodium hydroxide was varied from 1N to 6N. As the concentration of acid are increased demineralization increases. 6N Sodium hydroxide is found to be more effective demineralising agent of tyre char.

  6. Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Suijkerbuijk, M.P.; Schmitt, H.; Sinnige, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of AC can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation po

  7. XPS of nitrogen-containing functional groups on activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.J.; Bekkum, van H.

    1995-01-01

    XPS is used to study the binding energy of the Cls, Nls and Ols photoelectrons of surface groups on several nitrogen-containing activated carbons. Specific binding energies are assigned to amide (399.9 eV). lactam and imidc (399.7 eV). pyridine (398.7 eV), pyrrole (400.7 eV), alkylamine. secondary a

  8. Tertiary activated carbon treatment of paper and board industry wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Grolle, K.C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of activated carbon post-treatment of (biologically treated) wastewater from the paper and board industry was investigated, the goal being to remove refractory organic pollutants and produce water that can be re-used in the production process. Because closing water-circuits in the pa

  9. Activated carbon coated palygorskite as adsorbent by activation and its adsorption for methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Cheng, Liping; Wu, Xueping; Tang, Yingzhao; Wu, Yucheng

    2015-07-01

    An activation process for developing the surface and porous structure of palygorskite/carbon (PG/C) nanocomposite using ZnCl2 as activating agent was investigated. The obtained activated PG/C was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET) techniques. The effects of activation conditions were examined, including activation temperature and impregnation ratio. With increased temperature and impregnation ratio, the collapse of the palygorskite crystal structure was found to accelerate and the carbon coated on the surface underwent further carbonization. XRD and SEM data confirmed that the palygorskite structure was destroyed and the carbon structure was developed during activation. The presence of the characteristic absorption peaks of CC and C-H vibrations in the FTIR spectra suggested the occurrence of aromatization. The BET surface area improved by more than 11-fold (1201 m2/g for activated PG/C vs. 106 m2/g for PG/C) after activation, and the material appeared to be mainly microporous. The maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue onto the activated PG/C reached 351 mg/g. The activated PG/C demonstrated better compressive strength than activated carbon without palygorskite clay.

  10. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMER-BASED SPHERICAL ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-lian Zhu; Ai-min Li; Ming-fang Xia; Jin-nan Wan; Quan-xing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A series of spherical activated carbons(SACs)with different pore structures were prepared from chloromethylated polydivinylbenzene by ZnCl2 activation.The effects of activation temperature and retention time on the yield and textural properties of the resulting SACs were studied.All the SACs are generated with high yield of above 65% and exhibit relatively high mesopore fraction(me%) of 35.7%-43.6% compared with conventional activated carbons.The sample zlc28 prepared at 800℃ for 2 h has the largest BET surface area of 891m2g-1 and pore volume of 0.489 cm3g-1,SEM and XRD analyses of zlc28 verify the presence of developed porous structure composed of disordered micrographite stacking with large amounts of interspaces in the order of nanometers.

  11. Activation and micropore structure of carbon-fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1997-12-01

    Rigid, high surface area activated carbon fiber composites have been produced with high permeabilities for environmental applications in gas and water purification. The project involves a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), University of Kentucky. The main focus of recent work has been to find a satisfactory means to uniformly activate large samples of carbon fiber composites to produce controlled pore structures. Processes have been developed using activation in steam and CO{sub 2}, and a less conventional method involving oxygen chemisorption and subsequent heat treatment. Another objective has been to explore applications for the activated composites in environmental applications related to fossil energy production.

  12. Authigenic carbonates from active methane seeps offshore southwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Catherine; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Demange, Jérôme; Boudouma, Omar; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Pape, Thomas; Himmler, Tobias; Fekete, Noemi; Spiess, Volkhard

    2012-12-01

    The southwest African continental margin is well known for occurrences of active methane-rich fluid seeps associated with seafloor pockmarks at water depths ranging broadly from the shelf to the deep basins, as well as with high gas flares in the water column, gas hydrate accumulations, diagenetic carbonate crusts and highly diverse benthic faunal communities. During the M76/3a expedition of R/V METEOR in 2008, gravity cores recovered abundant authigenic carbonate concretions from three known pockmark sites—Hydrate Hole, Worm Hole, the Regab pockmark—and two sites newly discovered during that cruise, the so-called Deep Hole and Baboon Cluster. The carbonate concretions were commonly associated with seep-benthic macrofauna and occurred within sediments bearing shallow gas hydrates. This study presents selected results from a comprehensive analysis of the mineralogy and isotope geochemistry of diagenetic carbonates sampled at these five pockmark sites. The oxygen isotope stratigraphy obtained from three cores of 2-5 m length indicates a maximum age of about 60,000-80,000 years for these sediments. The authigenic carbonates comprise mostly magnesian calcite and aragonite, associated occasionally with dolomite. Their very low carbon isotopic compositions (-61.0 Hole and Worm Hole pockmarks which were interpreted to reflect spatiotemporal variations in AOM related to subsurface gas hydrate formation-decomposition.

  13. Determining water content in activated carbon for double-layer capacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Minato; Izumi, Takuma; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    Karl-Fisher titration is used to estimate water contents in activated carbon and the distribution of impurity-level water in an activated carbon-solvent system. Normalization of the water content of activated carbon is attempted using vacuum drying after immersion in water was controlled. Although vacuum drying at 473 K and 24 h can remove large amounts of water, a substantial amount of water remains in the activated carbon. The water release to propylene carbonate is less than that to acetonitrile. The degradation of capacitor cell capacitance for activated carbon with some amount of water differs according to the electrolyte solvent type: acetonitrile promotes greater degradation than propylene carbonate does.

  14. PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER AND THEIR XENON ADSORPTION PROPERTIES (Ⅲ)-ADSORPTION ON MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Structures of a series of activated carbon fibers were modified by impregnating them withorganic and inorganic materials such as Methylene blue(Mb)、 p-nitrophenol (PNP)、 NaCl or byoxidizing with KMnO4 or HNO3. The influence of pore filling or chemical treatment on their xenonadsorption properties was studied. The experimental results show that Mb and PNP filling ofactivated carbon fibers result in the decrease of xenon adsorption capacities of these treated ACFs,which is due to the decrease of their surface area and micro-pore volume. However, the adsorptioncapacity increases greatly with oxidizing treatment of activated carbon fibers by 7mol/L HNO3.

  15. Activated carbons from KOH-activation of argan (Argania spinosa) seed shells as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmouwahidi, Abdelhakim; Zapata-Benabithe, Zulamita; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco; Moreno-Castilla, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by KOH-activation of argan seed shells (ASS). The activated carbon with the largest surface area and most developed porosity was superficially treated to introduce oxygen and nitrogen functionalities. Activated carbons with a surface area of around 2100 m(2)/g were obtained. Electrochemical measurements were carried out with a three-electrode cell using 1M H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte and Ag/AgCl as reference electrode. The O-rich activated carbon showed the lowest capacitance (259 F/g at 125 mA/g) and the lowest capacity retention (52% at 1A/g), due to surface carboxyl groups hindering electrolyte diffusion into the pores. Conversely, the N-rich activated carbon showed the highest capacitance (355 F/g at 125 mA/g) with the highest retention (93% at 1A/g), due to its well-developed micro-mesoporosity and the pseudocapacitance effects of N functionalities. This capacitance performance was among the highest reported for other activated carbons from a large variety of biomass precursors. PMID:22370231

  16. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  17. Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on properties of supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on electrochemical properties of organic supercapacitor was investigated. The results show that specific surface area and mesoporosity of activated carbon influence specific capacitance. If specific surface area is larger and mesoporosity is higher, the specific capacitance will become bigger. Specific surface area influences resistance of carbon electrode and consequently influences power property and pore size distribution. If specific surface area is smaller and mesoporosity is higher, the power property will become better. Ash influences leakage current and electrochemical cycling stability. If ash content is lower, the performance will become better. The properties of supercapacitor highly depend on the electrolyte. The compatibility of electrolyte and activated carbon is a determining factor of supercapacitor's working voltage. LiPF6/(EC+EMC+DMC) is inappropriate for double layer capacitor. MeEt3NPF4/PC has higher specific capacitance than EtnNPFn/PC because methyl's electronegativity value is lower than ethyl and MeEt3N+ has more positive charges and stronger polarizability than Et4N+ when an ethyl is substituted by methyl.

  18. Structural Characterization and Property Study on the Activated Alumina-activated Carbon Composite Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-Qing; WU Ren-Ping; YE Xian-Feng

    2012-01-01

    AlCl3,NH3·H2O,HNO3 and activated carbon were used as raw materials to prepare one new type of activated alumina-activated carbon composite material.The influence of heat treatment conditions on the structure and property of this material was discussed;The microstructures of the composite material were characterized by XRD,SEM,BET techniques;and its formaldehyde adsorption characteristic was also tested.The results showed that the optimal heat treatment temperature of the activated alumina-activated carbon composite material was 450 ℃,iodine adsorption value was 441.40 mg/g,compressive strength was 44 N,specific surface area was 360.07 m2/g,average pore size was 2.91 nm,and pore volume was 0.26 m3/g.According to the BET pore size distribution diagram,the composite material has dual-pore size distribution structure,the micro-pore distributes in the range of 0.6-1.7 nm,and the meso-pore in the range of 3.0-8.0 nm.The formaldehyde adsorption effect of the activated alumina-activated carbon composite material was excellent,much better than that of the pure activated carbon or activated alumina,and its saturated adsorption capacity was 284.19 mg/g.

  19. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  20. Ligninolytic Activity of Ganoderma strains on Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TYPUK ARTININGSIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a phenylpropanoid polymers with only few carbon bonds might be hydrolized. Due to its complexity, lignin is particularly difficult to decompose. Ganoderma is one of white rot fungi capable of lignin degradation. The ligninolytic of several species Ganoderma growing under different carbon sources was studied under controlled conditions which P. chrysosporium was used as standard comparison.Three types of ligninolytic, namely LiP, MnP, and laccase were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Ratio between clear zone and diameter of fungal colony was used for measuring specific activity qualitatively.Four sspecies of Ganoderma showed positive ligninolytic qualitatively that G. lucidum KT2-32 gave the highest ligninolytic. Activity of LiP and MnP in different carbon sources was consistently resulted by G. lucidum KT2-32, while the highest activity of laccase was shown by G. ochrolaccatum SA2-14. Medium of Indulin AT affected production of protein extracellular and induced ligninolytic. Glucose, BMC, and pine sawdust did not affect the activity of ligninolytic. The specific activity of Ganoderma species was found to be higher than the one of P. chrysosporium.

  1. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs

  2. VPO catalysts synthesized on substrates with modified activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VPO catalysts were prepared on oxidized and unoxidized activated carbons differing in initial porous structure. Carbons were oxidized under relatively soft (30% H2O2, 200 deg. C) and hard (50% H2O2, 350 deg. C) conditions. Carbon modification was carried out hydrothermally in a traditional autoclave (HTT) or a microwave reactor (MWT). The synthesis was also carried out under hydrothermal (HTS or MWS) conditions. V2O5 and NH4VO3 were used as precursors. The samples are characterized by diversified porous structure at SBET = 732-1617 m2/g and Vpor = 0.44-0.90 cm3/g, as well as various degree of VPO crystallinity. Possibility of preparation of the VPO catalysts under ecologically appropriate conditions, i.e. in aqueous solutions, was shown.

  3. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood revisited. II. Physical activation with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Idriss, A.; Cuerda-Correa, E.M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, C.; Alexandre-Franco, M.F.; Gomez-Serrano, V. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry; Stitou, M. [Univ. Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. de Chimie; Macias-Garcia, A. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Olive-tree has been grown in the Mediterranean countries for centuries. For an adequate development of the tree it must be subjected to different treatments such as trimming, large amounts of a woody residue being produced. Such a residue has been traditionally used as a domestic fuel or simply burnt in the landfield. In both cases greenhouse gases are generated to a large extent. Thus, the preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood appears as an attractive alternative to valorize this by-product. Commonly, two activation strategies are used with such an aim, namely chemical and physical activation. In this study, the optimization of the physical activation method with air for the production of activated carbon has been analyzed. The results obtained clearly show that if the preparation conditions are adequately controlled, it is possible to prepare activated carbons showing tailored properties in terms of micro- or mesoporous texture and surface area. (author)

  5. Surface functional groups and redox property of modified activated carbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xianglan; Deng Shengfu; Liu Qiong; Zhang Yan; Cheng Lei

    2011-01-01

    A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using HNO3, H2O2 and steam as activation agents with the aim to introduce functional groups to carbon surface in the ACs preparation process. The effects of concentration of activation agent, activation time on the surface functional groups and redox property of ACs were characterized by Temperature Program Desorption (TPD) and Cyclic Voitammetry (CV). Results showed that lactone groups of ACs activated by HNO3 increase with activation time, and the carboxyl groups increase with the concentration of HNO3. Carbonyl/quinine groups of ACs activated by H2O2 increase with the activation time and the concentration of H2O2, although the acidic groups decrease with the concentration of H2O2. The redox property reflected by CV at 0 and 0.5 V is different with any kinds of oxygen functional groups characterized by TPD, but it is consistent with the SO2 catalytic oxidization/oxidation properties indicated by TPR.

  6. Enhancing capacitive deionization performance of electrospun activated carbon nanofibers by coupling with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Tingting; Peng, Senpei; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an alternative, effective and environmentally friendly technology for desalination of brackish water. The performance of the CDI device is highly determined by the electrode materials. In this paper, a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in activated carbon nanofiber (ACF) was prepared by a direct co-electrospinning way and subsequent CO2 activation. The introduction of CNTs can greatly improve the conductivity while the CO2-mediated activation can render the final product with high porosity. As such, the hybrid structure can provide an excellent storage space and pathways for ion adsorption and conduction. When evaluated as electrode materials for CDI, the as-prepared CNT/ACF composites with higher electrical conductivity and mesopore ratios exhibited higher electrosorption capacity and good regeneration performance in comparison with the pure ACF. PMID:25595622

  7. Nomex-derived activated carbon fibers as electrode materials in carbon based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, K.; Lerf, A.; Winter, M.; Besenhard, J. O.; Villar-Rodil, S.; Suárez-García, F.; Martínez-Alonso, A.; Tascón, J. M. D.

    Electrochemical characterization has been carried out for electrodes prepared of several activated carbon fiber samples derived from poly (m-phenylene isophthalamide) (Nomex) in an aqueous solution. Depending on the burn-off due to activation the BET surface area of the carbons was in the order of 1300-2800 m 2 g -1, providing an extensive network of micropores. Their capability as active material for supercapacitors was evaluated by using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Values for the capacitance of 175 F g -1 in sulfuric acid were obtained. Further on, it was observed that the specific capacitance and the performance of the electrode increase significantly with increasing burn-off degree. We believe that this fact can be attributed to the increase of surface area and porosity with increasing burn-off.

  8. Calculation of Binary Adsorption Equilibria: Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Krøll, A.

    1999-01-01

    Binary adsorption equilibria are calculated by means of a mathematical model for multicomponent mixtures combined with the SPD (Spreading Pressure Dependent) model for calculation of activity coefficients in the adsorbed phase. The model has been applied successfully for the adsorption of binary ...... mixtures of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide on activated carbons. The model parameters have been determined, and the model has proven to be suited for prediction of adsorption equilibria in the investigated systems.......Binary adsorption equilibria are calculated by means of a mathematical model for multicomponent mixtures combined with the SPD (Spreading Pressure Dependent) model for calculation of activity coefficients in the adsorbed phase. The model has been applied successfully for the adsorption of binary...

  9. Structure and electrochemical properties of activated polyacrylonitrile based carbon fibers containing carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, Sudhakar; Chae, Han Gi; Jain, Rahul; Kumar, Satish [School of Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Solution spun polyacrylonitrile (PAN), PAN/multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and PAN/single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fibers containing 5 wt.% carbon nanotubes were stabilized in air and activated using CO{sub 2} and KOH. The surface area as determined by nitrogen gas adsorption was an order of magnitude higher for KOH activated fibers as compared to the CO{sub 2} activated fibers. The specific capacitance of KOH activated PAN/SWCNT samples was as high as 250 F g{sup -1} in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Under the comparable KOH activation conditions, PAN and PAN/SWCNT fibers had comparable surface areas (BET surface area about 2200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) with pore size predominantly in the range of 1-5 nm, while surface area of PAN/MWCNT samples was significantly lower (BET surface area 970 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The highest capacitance and energy density was obtained for PAN/SWCNT samples, suggesting SWCNT advantage in charge storage. The capacitance behavior of these electrodes has also been tested in ionic liquids, and the energy density in ionic liquid is about twice the value obtained using KOH electrolyte. (author)

  10. The treatment of a deposited lignite pyrolysis wastewater by adsorption using activated carbon and activated coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiessner, A.; Remmler, M.; Kuschk, P.; Stottmeister, U. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Remediation Research

    1998-07-31

    This paper investigated activated carbon and activated coke adsorption for the treatment of highly contaminated discoloured industrial wastewater with a wide molecular size distribution of organic compounds. Lignite pyrolysis wastewater from a filled open-cast coal mine was used for continuous and discontinuous experiments. The investigations were performed using water samples taken from various depths of the deposits ponds. A comparison of the capacities of the adsorption materials used showed, that because of its large number of macro and mesopores, activated coke is more suitable for wastewater treatment and in addition cheaper than activated carbon.

  11. Modeling equilibrium adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2010-05-01

    Solute hydrophobicity, polarizability, aromaticity and the presence of H-bond donor/acceptor groups have been identified as important solute properties that affect the adsorption on activated carbon. However, the adsorption mechanisms related to these properties occur in parallel, and their respective dominance depends on the solute properties as well as carbon characteristics. In this paper, a model based on multivariate linear regression is described that was developed to predict equilibrium carbon loading on a specific activated carbon (F400) for solutes reflecting a wide range of solute properties. In order to improve prediction accuracy, groups (bins) of solutes with similar solute properties were defined and solute removals were predicted for each bin separately. With these individual linear models, coefficients of determination (R2) values ranging from 0.61 to 0.84 were obtained. With the mechanistic approach used in developing this predictive model, a strong relation with adsorption mechanisms is established, improving the interpretation and, ultimately, acceptance of the model. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Ni supported on activated carbon as catalyst for flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ni supported on activated carbon are prepared by excessive impregnation and the desulfurization activity is investigated. It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported Ni is an efficient solid catalyst for flue gas desulfurization. The activated carbon treated by HNO3 exhibits high desulfurization activity, and different amounts of loaded-Ni on activated carbon significantly influence the desulfurization activity. The catalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XRD and XPS indicate that the activated carbon treated by HNO3 can increase oxygen-containing functional groups. Ni on activated carbon after calcination at 800 °C shows major Ni phase and minor NiO phase, and with increasing Ni content on activated carbon, Ni phase increases and affects the desulfurization activity of the catalyst, which proves that Ni is the main active phase.

  13. Activated carbon from flash pyrolysis of eucalyptus residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima-Olmedo, C; Ramírez-Gómez, Á; Gómez-Limón, D; Clemente-Jul, C

    2016-09-01

    Forestry waste (eucalyptus sp) was converted into activated carbon by initial flash pyrolysis followed carbonization and CO2 activation. These residues were obtained from a pilot plant in Spain that produces biofuel, the biochar represented 10-15% in weight. It was observed that the highest activation was achieved at a temperature of 800 °C, the specific surface increased with time but, on the contrary, high loss of matter was observed. At 600 °C, although there was an important increase of the specific surface and the volume of micropores, at this temperature it was observed that the activation time was not an influential parameter. Finally, at 400 °C it was observed that the activation process was not very significant. Assessing the average pore diameter it was found that the lowest value corresponded to the activation temperature of 600 °C, which indicated the development of microporosity. When the activation temperature increases up to 800 °C the pore diameter increased developing mesoporosity.

  14. Wetting and Non-Wetting Models of Black Carbon Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, B. F.; Laura, S.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of recent modeling studies on the activation of black carbon (BC) aerosol to form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). We use a model of BC activation based on a general modification of the Koehler equation for insoluble activation in which we introduce a term based on the activity of water adsorbed on the particle surface. We parameterize the model using the free energy of adsorption, a parameter directly comparable to laboratory measurements of water adsorption on carbon. Although the model of the water- surface interaction is general, the form of the activation equation that results depends upon a further model of the distribution of water on the particle. One possible model involves the symmetric growth of a water shell around the isoluble particle core (wetting). This model predicts upper and lower bounding curves for the activation supersaturation given by the range of water interaction energies from hydrophobic to hydrophilic which are in agreement with a large body of recent activation data. The resulting activation diameters are from 3 to 10 times smaller than activation of soluble particles of identical dry diameter. Another possible model involves an exluded liquid droplet growing in contact with the particle (non-wetting). The geometry of this model much more resembles classic assumptions of heterogeneous nucleation theory. This model can yield extremely high activation supersaturation as a function of diameter, as has been observed in some experiments, and enables calculations in agreement with some of these results. We discuss these two geometrical models of water growth, the different behaviors predicted by the resulting activation equation, and the means to determine which model of growth is appropriate for a given BC particle characterized by either water interaction energy or morphology. These simple models enable an efficient and physically reasonable means to calculate the activation of BC aerosol to form CCN based upon a

  15. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on impregnated powdered activated carbon as cheap substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mamun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The catalysis and characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs composite are reported in this work. Carbon nanofibers were produced on oil palm shell powdered activated carbon (PAC, which was impregnated with nickel. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD of C2H2 was used in the presence of hydrogen at ∼650 °C. The flow rates of carbon source and hydrogen were fixed. The CNFs formed directly on the surface of the impregnated PAC. Variable weight percentages (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% of the catalyst salt (Ni+2 were used for the impregnation. However, the best catalysis was observed on the substrate with 3% Ni+2. The product displayed a relatively high surface area, essentially constituted by the external surface. New functional groups also appeared compared to those in the PAC. Field Emission Scanning Microscopy (FESEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, BET surface area analysis and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX were used for the characterization of the new carbon nano product, which was produced through a clean novel process.

  16. Carbon nanofibers grafted on activated carbon as an electrode in high-power supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Śliwak, Agata; Béguin, François

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid electrode material for high-power supercapacitors was fabricated by grafting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) onto the surface of powdered activated carbon (AC) through catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). A uniform thin layer of disentangled CNFs with a herringbone structure was deposited on the carbon surface through the decomposition of propane at 450 °C over an AC-supported nickel catalyst. CNF coating was controlled by the reaction time and the nickel content. The superior CNF/AC composite displays excellent electrochemical performance in a 0.5 mol L(-1) solution of K2 SO4 due to its unique structure. At a high scan rate (100 mV s(-1) ) and current loading (20 A g(-1) ), the capacitance values were three- and fourfold higher than those for classical AC/carbon black composites. Owing to this feature, a high energy of 10 Wh kg(-1) was obtained over a wide power range in neutral medium at a voltage of 0.8 V. The significant enhancement of charge propagation is attributed to the presence of herringbone CNFs, which facilitate the diffusion of ions in the electrode and play the role of electronic bridges between AC particles. An in situ coating of AC with short CNFs (below 200 nm) is a very attractive method for producing the next generation of carbon composite materials with a high power performance in supercapacitors working in neutral medium. PMID:23794416

  17. Carbon nanofibers grafted on activated carbon as an electrode in high-power supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Śliwak, Agata; Béguin, François

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid electrode material for high-power supercapacitors was fabricated by grafting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) onto the surface of powdered activated carbon (AC) through catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). A uniform thin layer of disentangled CNFs with a herringbone structure was deposited on the carbon surface through the decomposition of propane at 450 °C over an AC-supported nickel catalyst. CNF coating was controlled by the reaction time and the nickel content. The superior CNF/AC composite displays excellent electrochemical performance in a 0.5 mol L(-1) solution of K2 SO4 due to its unique structure. At a high scan rate (100 mV s(-1) ) and current loading (20 A g(-1) ), the capacitance values were three- and fourfold higher than those for classical AC/carbon black composites. Owing to this feature, a high energy of 10 Wh kg(-1) was obtained over a wide power range in neutral medium at a voltage of 0.8 V. The significant enhancement of charge propagation is attributed to the presence of herringbone CNFs, which facilitate the diffusion of ions in the electrode and play the role of electronic bridges between AC particles. An in situ coating of AC with short CNFs (below 200 nm) is a very attractive method for producing the next generation of carbon composite materials with a high power performance in supercapacitors working in neutral medium.

  18. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass.

  19. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass. PMID:20382474

  20. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube from coconut shells activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melati, A.; Hidayati, E.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been explored in almost every single cancer treatment modality, including drug delivery, lymphatic targeted chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and gene therapy. They are considered as one of the most promising nanomaterial with the capability of both detecting the cancerous cells and delivering drugs or small therapeutic molecules to the cells. CNTs have unique physical and chemical properties such as high aspect ratio, ultralight weight, high mechanical strength, high electrical conductivity, and high thermal conductivity. Coconut Shell was researched as active carbon source on 500 - 600°C. These activated carbon was synthesized becomes carbon nanotube and have been proposed as a promising tool for detecting the expression of indicative biological molecules at early stage of cancer. Clinically, biomarkers cancer can be detected by CNT Biosensor. We are using pyrolysis methods combined with CVD process or Wet Chemical Process on 600°C. Our team has successfully obtained high purity, and aligned MWCNT (Multi Wall Nanotube) bundles on synthesis CNT based on coconut shells raw materials. CNTs can be used to cross the mammalian cell membrane by endocytosis or other mechanisms. SEM characterization of these materials have 179 nm bundles on phase 83° and their materials compound known by using FTIR characterization.

  1. Inlfuence of Carbon Content on S Zorb Sorbent Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li

    2013-01-01

    The reaction activity of S Zorb sorbents with different sulfur contents was investigated, and the structure and composition of carbon-containing sorbents were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and TG-MS in order to delve into the kind and morphology of carbon on the sorbent. Test results have revealed that coke could be deposited on the S Zorb sorbent dur-ing the operating process, and the coke content was an important factor inlfuencing the reaction performance of the S Zorb sorbent. Retention of a deifnite amount of coke on the sorbent while securing the desulfurization activity of the S Zorb sor-bent would be conducive to the reduction of octane loss of reaction product.

  2. Activated carbon is an electron-conducting amphoteric ion adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Biesheuvel, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC) particles can desalinate water by ion electrosorption. To describe ion electrosorption mathematically, accurate models are required for the structure of the electrical double layers (EDLs) that form within electrically charged AC micropores. To account for salt adsorption also in uncharged ACs, an "attraction term" was introduced in modified Donnan models for the EDL structure in ACs. Here it will be shown how instead of using an attraction term, c...

  3. Petroleum contaminated ground-water: Remediation using activated carbon.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayotamuno, M. J.; Kogbara, R. B.; Ogaji, S. O. T.; Probert, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products during extraction and processing operations is a serious and a growing environmental problem in Nigeria. Consequently, a study of the use of activated carbon (AC) in the clean up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination to a more acceptable level. In the experiments described, crude-oil contamination of ground water was simulated under laboratory conditions using ground-wat...

  4. Factors governing the adsorption of ethanol on spherical activated carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Anaya, Aroldo José; Lillo Ródenas, María Ángeles; Linares Solano, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol adsorption on different activated carbons (mostly spherical ones) was investigated covering the relative pressure range from 0.001 to 1. Oxygen surface contents of the ACs were modified by oxidation (in HNO3 solution or air) and/or by thermal treatment in N2. To differentiate the concomitant effects of porosity and oxygen surface chemistry on ethanol adsorption, different sets of samples were used to analyze different relative pressure ranges (below 1000 ppmv concentration and close t...

  5. [Adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto modified activated carbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xi-Zhen; Shi, Bao-You; Xie, Yue; Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Modified coal and coconut shell based powdered activated carbons (PACs) were prepared by FeCl3 and medium power microwave treatment, respectively. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto original and modified PACs. Based on pore structure and surface functional groups characterization, the adsorption behaviors of modified and original PACs were compared. The competitive adsorption of humic acid (HA) and PFOS on original and modified coconut shell PACs were also investigated. Results showed that both Fe3+ and medium power microwave treatments changed the pore structure and surface functional groups of coal and coconut shell PACs, but the changing effects were different. The adsorption of PFOS on two modified coconut shell-based PACs was significantly improved. While the adsorption of modified coal-based activated carbons declined. The adsorption kinetics of PFOS onto original and modified coconut shell-based activated carbons were the same, and the time of reaching adsorption equilibrium was about 6 hours. In the presence of HA, the adsorption of PFOS by modified PAC was reduced but still higher than that of the original. PMID:23243870

  6. Immobilization biological activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria separated from a mature filter bed of groundwater treatment plants were incubated in a culture media containing iron and manganese. A consortium of 5 strains of bacteria removing iron and manganese were obtained by repeated enrichment culturing. It was shown from the experiments of effect factors that ironmanganese removal bacteria in the culture media containing both Fe and Mn grew better than in that containing only Fe, however, they were unable to grow in the culture media containing only Mn. When comparing the bacteria biomass in the case ofρ (DO) =2.8 mg/L andρ (DO) =9.0 mg/L, no significant difference was found.The engineering bacteria removing the organic and the bacteria removing iron and manganese were simultaneously inoculated into activated carbon reactor to treat the effluent of distribution network. The experimental results showed that by using IBAC ( Immobilization Biological Activated Carbon) treatment, the removal efficiency of iron, manganese and permanganate index was more than 98% , 96% and 55% , respectively. After the influent with turbidity of 1.5 NTU, color of 25 degree and offensive odor was treated, the turbidity and color of effluence were less than 0.5 NTU and 15 degree, respectively, and it was odorless. It is determined that the cooperation function of engineering bacteria and activated carbon achieved advanced drinking water treatment.

  7. Adsorption of dyes onto activated carbon prepared from olive stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Souad NAJAR-SOUISSI; Abdelmottaleb OUEDERNI; Abdelhamid RATEL

    2005-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from olive stones(OSAC) by a physical process in two steps. The adsorption character of this activated carbon was tested on three colour dyes molecules in aqueous solution: Methylene blue(MB), Rhodamine B(RB) and Congo Red(CR). The adsorption equilibrium was studied through isotherms construction at 30℃, which were well described by Langmuir model.The adsorption capacity on the OSAC was estimated to be 303 mg/g, 217 mg/g and 167 mg/g respectively for MB, RB and CR. This activated carbon has a similar adsorption properties to that of commercial ones and show the same adsorption performances. The adsorption kinetics of the MB molecule in aqueous solution at different initial concentrations by OSAC was also studied. Kinetic experiments were well fitted by a simple intra-particle diffusion model. The measured kinetics constant was influenced by the initial concentration and we found the following correlation: Kid = 1.55 C00.51 .

  8. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Waste Tires and its application in Gasoline Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Produced activated carbon has desired surface area and adsorptive capacity for gasoline adsorption in aquatic environments and it seems preparation activated carbon from waste tiers is cheap, effective and environment friendly.

  9. The performance of four granular active carbons; Rendimiento de cuatro carbones activos granulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontangas, P. A.; Morcillo Perez, J. L.

    1999-08-01

    The ability of granular active carbon (GAC) to absorb organic contaminants explains why is widely used in treating water for human consumption. This study used a pilot plant assess the efficiency of two vegetable and two mineral GACs in regard to the elimination of trihalomethanes, cloudiness and oxidisability. The iodine value was used to evaluate the loss of absorptions capacity of the different GACs. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide by nut shell carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Xiaoliang, E-mail: sxl@whut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang Sheng; Dong Xuebin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang Qiaoxin [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Nut shell carbon (NSC)-nanotitanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) composites were prepared by sol-gel method. Photocatalytic activity on degradation of dye Rhodamine B was studied. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, pore size distribution, ultraviolet-vis light absorption spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum were carried out to characterize the composite catalyst. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of NSC-nano-TiO{sub 2} composites was much higher than P25 (Degussa). NSC could greatly absorb the organic substance and oxygen of solution because of its large surface area.

  11. Converting poultry litter to activated carbon: optimal carbonization conditions and product sorption for benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Song, Weiping

    2011-12-01

    To promote utilization of poultry litter as a source material for manufacturing low-cost activated carbon (AC) that can be used in wastewater treatment, this study investigated optimal production conditions and water-borne organic sorption potential of poultry litter-based AC. Pelletized broiler litter was carbonized at different temperatures for varied time periods and activated with steam at a range of flow rate and time. The AC products were examined for quality characteristics using standard methods and for organic sorption potentials using batch benzene sorption techniques. The study shows that the yield and quality of litter AC varied with production conditions. The optimal production conditions for poultry litter-based AC were carbonization at 700 degrees C for 45 min followed by activation with 2.5 ml min(-1) steam for another 45 min. The resulting AC possessed an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1) and a specific surface area of 403 m2 g(-1). It sorbed benzene in water following sigmoidal kinetic and isothermal patterns. The sorption capacity for benzene was 23.70 mg g(-1), lower than that of top-class commercial AC. The results, together with other reported research findings, suggest that poultry litter is a reasonable feedstock for low-cost AC applicable to pre-treat wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants and heavy metals. PMID:22439566

  12. Kinetics of continuous biodegradation of pesticide organic wastewater by activated carbon-activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Organic triazophos wastewater was continuously treated with Rhodopseudomonas capsulatus and activated carbon and activated sludge system(PACT-AS) in a plug bioreactor. A kinetic model of PACT-AS wastewater treatment system was established to provide an useful basis for further simulate scale-up treatment of toxic organic wastewater.

  13. Carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated chloroplasts of chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a new assay of carbonic anhydrase, NaH14CO3 solution at the bottom of a sealed vessel releases 14CO3 which diffuses to the top of the vessel to be assimilated by actively photosynthesizing Chlamydomonas cells. The assay is initiated by illuminating cells and stopped by turning the light off and killing the cells with acid. Enzyme activity was estimated from acid stable radioactivity above the uncatalyzed background level. With bovine carbonic anhydrase, 1.5 Wilbur Anderson Unit (WAU) can be consistantly measured at 5-6 fold above background. Sonicated whole cells of air adapted wild type (+)gave 741.1 ± 12.4 WAU/mg chl. Intact washed cells of mixotrophically grown wall-less mutant CWD(-) and a high CO2 requiring wall-less double mutant CIA-3/CW15 (-) gave 7.1 ± 1.9 and 2.8 ± 7.8 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplasts isolated from CWD and CIA-3/CW15 and subsequently disrupted gave 64.0 ± 14.7 and 2.8 ± 3.2 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplast sonicate from another wall-less mutant CW15(-) gave activity comparable to CWD. Thus on a chlorophyll basis, enzyme activity in chloroplasts from mixotrophically grown cells is about 1/10th of the level found in air adapted wild type cells. CIA-3 seems to lack this activity

  14. Speculative and hedging activities in the European carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the dynamics of the speculative and hedging activities in European futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. A comparison of the three phases in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) reveals that (i) Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date and (ii) the highest degree of speculative activity for every single phase occurs at the moment of listing the contracts for the first time. A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year, related to the schedule of deadlines of the EU ETS. In addition, a time series analysis confirms that most of the speculative activity each year occurs in the front contract, whereas the hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract. -- Highlights: •This study explores the evolution of speculative and hedging activities in futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. •Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date. •A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year. •Most of the speculative activity occurs in the front contract. •The hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract

  15. Preparation of functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon by a single-step activation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgheib, Seyed A.; Ren, Jianli; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Chang, Ramsay

    2014-01-01

    A rapid method to prepare functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon from coal is described in this paper. A mixture of ferric chloride and a sub-bituminous coal was used to demonstrate simultaneous coal activation, chlorine functionalization, and iron/iron oxides impregnation in the resulting porous carbon products. The FeCl3 concentration in the mixture, the method to prepare the FeCl3-coal mixture (solid mixing or liquid impregnation), and activation atmosphere and temperature impacted the surface area and porosity development, Cl functionalization, and iron species impregnation and dispersion in the carbon products. Samples activated in nitrogen or a simulated flue gas at 600 or 1000 °C for 1-2 min had surface areas up to ∼800 m2/g, bulk iron contents up to 18 wt%, and surface chlorine contents up to 27 wt%. Potential catalytic and adsorption application of the carbon materials was explored in catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol and adsorption of ionic mercury from aqueous solutions. Results indicated that impregnated activated carbons outperformed their non-impregnated counterparts in both the CWAO and adsorption tests.

  16. 75 FR 70208 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Administrative Review, 74 FR 31690 (July 2, 2009). \\3\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 20988 (April 27... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final......

  17. 78 FR 26748 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR... FR 67142 (October 31, 2011); Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China:...

  18. 77 FR 12614 - Activated Carbon From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Activated Carbon From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on activated carbon from China would be likely to lead to..., the Department of Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of activated carbon from...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  1. 76 FR 67142 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 48644 (August 11, 2010) (``First Rescission''). \\5\\ See Certain Activated Carbon... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic...

  2. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Benson, Steven; Crocker, Charlene; Mackenzie, Jill

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  3. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from marine macro-algal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindhan, R. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Raghava Rao, J. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)], E-mail: rao_clri@yahoo.com; Unni Nair, B. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Activated carbons prepared from two macro-algal biomass Sargassum longifolium (SL) and Hypnea valentiae (HV) have been examined for the removal of phenol from aqueous solution. The activated carbon has been prepared by zinc chloride activation. Experiments have been carried out at different activating agent/precursor ratio and carbonization temperature, which had significant effect on the pore structure of carbon. Developed activated carbon has been characterized by BET surface area (S{sub BET}) analysis and iodine number. The carbons, ZSLC-800 and ZHVC-800, showed surface area around 802 and 783 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The activated carbon developed showed substantial capability to adsorb phenol from aqueous solutions. The kinetic data were fitted to the models of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Column studies have also been carried out with ZSLC-800 activated carbon.

  4. Adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate on granular activated carbon from date pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Z.; Nedjah, S.; Azoudj, Y.; Addoun, F. [Laboratoire d' etude physic-chimique des materiaux et application a l' environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB (Algeria)], E-mail: zmerzougi@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Activated carbons, thanks to their versatility, are being used in the water treatment sector to absorb pollutants. Several factors influence the adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the porous texture and chemical nature of activated carbons on the adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Activated carbons used in this study were prepared from date pits with ZnCl2, KOH and H3PO4 by carbonization without adjuvant and adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate was conducted at 298K. Results showed that activated carbons prepared from date pits have a great potential for removing organic and inorganic pollutants from water and that the adsorption potential depends on the degree of activation of the activated carbons and on the compounds to absorb. This study highlighted that an increase of the carbon surface area and porosity results in a better adsorption capacity.

  5. Barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes containing carbon nanotubes or activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdo, Erin M; Khan, Iftheker A; Choudhury, Atif A; Saleh, Navid B; Arnold, William A

    2011-04-15

    Carbon nanotube addition has been shown to improve the mechanical properties of some polymers. Because of their unique adsorptive properties, carbon nanotubes may also improve the barrier performance of polymers used in contaminant containment. This study compares the barrier performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to that for PVA containing powdered activated carbon (PAC). Raw and surface-functionalized versions of each sorbent were tested for their abilities to adsorb 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and Cu(2+), representing the important hydrophobic organic and heavy metal contaminant classes, as they diffused across the PVA. In both cases, PAC (for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) and functionalized PAC (for Cu(2+)) outperformed SWCNTs on a per mass basis by trapping more of the contaminants within the barrier membrane. Kinetics of sorption are important in evaluating barrier properties, and poor performance of SWCNT-containing membranes as 1,2,4-TCB barriers is attributed to kinetic limitations. PMID:21349636

  6. Influence of process parameters on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon obtained from biochar by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angın, Dilek; Altintig, Esra; Köse, Tijen Ennil

    2013-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from biochar obtained through pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake by chemical activation with zinc chloride. The influences of process variables such as the activation temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons were investigated. Also, the adsorptive properties of activated carbons were tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 128.21 mg g(-1) and carbon content 76.29%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume corresponded to 801.5m(2)g(-1) and 0.393 cm(3)g(-1), respectively. This study demonstrated that high surface area activated carbons can be prepared from the chemical activation of biochar with zinc chloride as activating agents. PMID:24080293

  7. Activation and Micropore Structure Determination of Activated Carbon-Fiber Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.

    1999-04-23

    Previous work focused on the production of carbon fiber composites and subsequently activating them to induce adsorbent properties. One problem related to this approach is the difficulty of uniformly activating large composites. In order to overcome this problem, composites have been made from pre-activated fibers. The loss of surface area upon forming the composites after activation of the fibers was investigated. The electrical resistivity and strength of these composites were compared to those made by activation after forming. It was found that the surface area is reduced by about 35% by forming the composite from pre-activated fibers. However, the properties of the activated sample are very uniform: the variation in surface area is less than {+-}0.5%. So, although the surface area is somewhat reduced, it is believed that making composites from pre-activated fibers could be useful in applications where the BET surface area is not required to be very high. The strength of the composites produced from pre-activated fibers is lower than for composites activated after forming when the carbon burnoff is below 45%. For higher burnoffs, the strength of composites made with pre-activated fibers is as good or better. In both cases, there is a dramatic decrease in strength when the fiber:binder ratio is reduced below 4:1. The electrical resistivity is slightly higher for composites made from pre-activated fibers than for composites that are activated after forming, other parameters being constant (P-200 fibers, similar carbon burnoffs). For both types of composite the resistivity was also found to increase with carbon burnoff. This is attributed to breakage of the fiber causing shorter conductive paths. The electrical resistivity also increases when the binder content is lowered, which suggests that there are fewer solid contact points between the fibers.

  8. Kinetic studies on carbon dioxide capture using lignocellulosic based activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 (Carbon dioxide) emissions are one of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The power generation industry is one of the main emitters of CO2, and the emissions are expected to increase in the coming years as there seems to be no abatement in the consumption of fossil fuels for the production of electricity. Thus, there is a need for CO2 adsorption technologies to mitigate the emissions. However, there are several disadvantages associated with the current adsorption technologies. One of the issues is corrosion and the need for specialized equipment. Therefore, alternative and more sustainable materials are sought after to improve the viability of the adsorption technology. In this study, several types of agricultural wastes were used as activated carbon precursors for CO2 adsorption process in a TGA (thermogravimetric analyser). The adsorption was also modelled through a pseudo-first order and second order model, Elovich's kinetic model, and an intra-particle diffusion model. From the correlation coefficient, it was found that pseudo-second order model was well-fitted with the kinetic data. In addition, activation energy below than 42 kJ/mol confirmed that the physisorption process occurred. - Highlights: • Utilization of lignocellulosic wastes for production of activated carbon. • Single CO2 activation that yields good adsorptive capacity of adsorbent. • Activation temperature has the most prominent effect on adsorptive properties. • CO2 adsorption capacity reduces with increasing of adsorption temperature. • Pseudo-second order kinetic model shows best fits to the experimental data

  9. Probing mechanics and activity of cytoskeletal networks using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Nikta

    2013-03-01

    We use single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as multi-scale micro-probes to monitor transport and fluctuations in cytoskeletal networks. SWNTs are nanometer-diameter hollow carbon filaments with micrometer lengths and a tunable bending stiffness. Their persistence length varies between 20-100 microns. We study the motion of individual SWNTs in reconstituted actin networks by near-infrared fluorescence microscopy. At long times, SWNTs reptate through the networks. At short times, SWNTs sample the spectrum of thermal fluctuations in the networks. We can calculate complex shear moduli from recorded fluctuations and observe power-law scaling in equilibrium actin networks. In the non-equilibrium cytoskeleton of cells we have targeted SWNTs to kinesin motors and thereby to their microtubule tracks. We observe both transport along the tracks as well as active fluctuations of the tracks themselves. Human Frontier Science Program Cross-Disciplinary Fellow

  10. Electric Double-layer Capacitor Based on Activated Carbon Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this study electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on activated carbon material and organic electrolyte (tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate) were explored. The fabrication method for EDLC is presented and the performance of EDLC was examined by using the cyclic voltammetry, constant-current charging and discharging technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Influence of various components and design parameters on the performance of the capacitors were preliminarily investigated. Up to now, EDLC based on carbon materials can deliver 20.7 W/kg at the discharge rate ofI=0.3 mA, together with the energy density of 8.5 Wh/kg. Equivalent series resistance (ESR) is 0.716 Ω.cm2. The specific power of the capacitor is low and further attempts to raise the power capability of the capacitors are necessary. Some considerations are put forward to further improve the performance of EDLC.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of vanadium nanoparticles on activated carbon and their catalytic activity in thiophene hydrodesulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana [Centro de Catalisis, Petroleo y Petroquimica, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, AP, Caracas 40679 (Venezuela); Centro de Quimica Organometalica y Macromolecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, AP, Caracas 47778 (Venezuela); D' Ornelas, Lindora [Centro de Quimica Organometalica y Macromolecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, AP, Caracas 47778 (Venezuela); Betancourt, Paulino [Centro de Catalisis, Petroleo y Petroquimica, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, AP, Caracas 40679 (Venezuela)], E-mail: pbetanco@strix.ciens.ucv.ve

    2008-06-30

    Vanadium nanoparticles ({approx}7 nm) stabilized on activated carbon were synthesized by the reduction of VCl{sub 3}.3THF with K[BEt{sub 3}H]. This material was characterized by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The catalytic performance of the carbon-supported vanadium was studied using thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) as model reaction at 300 deg. C and P = 1 atm. The catalytic activity of the vanadium carbide phase on the activated carbon carrier was more significant than that of the reference catalysts, alumina supported NiMoS. The method proposed for the synthesis of such a catalyst led to an excellent performance of the HDS process.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of vanadium nanoparticles on activated carbon and their catalytic activity in thiophene hydrodesulphurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; D'Ornelas, Lindora; Betancourt, Paulino

    2008-06-01

    Vanadium nanoparticles (˜7 nm) stabilized on activated carbon were synthesized by the reduction of VCl 3·3THF with K[BEt 3H]. This material was characterized by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The catalytic performance of the carbon-supported vanadium was studied using thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) as model reaction at 300 °C and P = 1 atm. The catalytic activity of the vanadium carbide phase on the activated carbon carrier was more significant than that of the reference catalysts, alumina supported NiMoS. The method proposed for the synthesis of such a catalyst led to an excellent performance of the HDS process.

  13. Preparation of mesoporous activated carbons from coal liquefaction residue for methane decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Zhang; Lijun Jin; Shengwei Zhu; Haoquan Hu

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons were prepared from direct coal liquefaction residue (CLR) by KOH activation method,and the experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of KOH/CLR ratio,solvent for mixing the CLR and KOH,and carbonization procedure on the resultant carbon texture and catalytic activity for catalytic methane decomposition (CMD).The results showed that optimal KOH/CLR ratio of 2 ∶ 1;solvent with higher solubility to KOH or the CLR,and an appropriate carbonization procedure are conductive to improving the carbon pore structure and catalytic activity for CMD.The resultant mesoporous carbons show higher and more stable activity than microporous carbons.Additionally,the relationship between the carbon textural properties and the catalytic activity for CMD was also discussed.

  14. The performance of supercapacitor electrodes developed from chemically activated carbon produced from waste tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, I. Isil Gurten; Holmes, Stuart M.; Banford, Anthony; Aktas, Zeki

    2015-12-01

    Highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea for application as supercapacitor electrodes, utilising a chemical activation method involving treatment with either K2CO3 or H3PO4. The area, pore structure characteristics and surface functionality of the activated carbons were evaluated to investigate the influence on electrochemical performance. The performance of the activated carbons as supercapacitor electrodes was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) measurements, in an aqueous electrolyte. The results showed that the pore structure and type of the activated carbon have significant impact on the supercapacitor performance. Both waste tea-based activated carbon electrodes showed good cyclic stability. However, despite its lower specific surface area the highly microporous activated carbon produced with K2CO3, exhibited much better capacitive performance than that of the mesoporous activated carbon produced with H3PO4.

  15. Sorption of organic compounds to activated carbons. Evaluation of isotherm models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, I.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption to 'hard carbon' (black carbon, coal, kerogen) in soils and sediments is of major importance for risk assessment of organic pollutants. We argue that activated carbon (AC) may be considered a model sorbent for hard carbon. Here, we evaluate six sorption models on a literature dataset for so

  16. Coupling dehydrogenation of isobutane in the presence of carbon dioxide over chromium oxide supported on active carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Fei Ding; Zhang Feng Qin; Xue Kuan Li; Guo Fu Wang; Jian Guo Wang

    2008-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of isobutane (IB) to produce isobutene coupled with reverse water gas shift in the presence of carbon dioxide was investigated over the catalyst Cr2O3 supported on active carbon (Cr2O3/AC). The results illustrated that isobutane c onversion and isobutene yield can be enhanced through the reaction coupling in the presence of carbon dioxide. Moreover, carbon dioxide can partially eliminate carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst and keep the active phase (Cr2O3), which are then helpful to alleviate the catalyst deactivation.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan-Carbon Nanotube Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have prepared chitosan-carbon nanotube (Chitosan-CNT hydrogels by the freeze-lyophilization method and examined their antimicrobial activity. Different concentrations of CNT were used in the preparation of Chitosan-CNT hydrogels. These differently concentrated CNT hydrogels were chemically characterized using Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical microscopy. The porosity of the hydrogels were found to be >94%. Dispersion of chitosan was observed in the CNT matrix by normal photography and optical microscopy. The addition of CNT in the composite scaffold significantly reduced the water uptake ability. In order to evaluate antimicrobial activity, the serial dilution method was used towards Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida tropicalis. The composite Chitosan-CNT hydrogel showed greater antimicrobial activity with increasing CNT concentration, suggesting that Chitosan-CNT hydrogel scaffold will be a promising biomaterial in biomedical applications.

  18. Electrochemical characteristics of activated carbon nanofiber electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min-Kang [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr

    2009-08-25

    In this work, poly(amide imide) solutions in dimethylformamide were electrospun into webs consisting of 350 nm ultrafine nanofibers. These nanofiber webs were used to produce activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs), through stabilization and carbonisation-activation processes. Experimental results indicated that ACNFs activated at 800 deg. C afforded the highest specific surface area but low mesopore volume. The high specific surface area, mainly due to the micropores, introduced maximum specific capacitance at low current density (150 F g{sup -1} at 10 mA g{sup -1}). Elevating the volume fraction of mesopores gave maximum specific capacitance at high current density (100 F g{sup -1} at 1000 mA g{sup -1}), which could be explained on the basis of ion mobility in the pores. Thus, the capacitance of the supercapacitors was strongly dependent on the specific surface area and micro- or mesopore volume of the ACNFs.

  19. PREPARATION OF MICROWAVE ABSORBING NICKEL-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON BY ELECTROLESS PLATING WITH PALLADIUM-FREE ACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Boyang Jia; Lijuan Wang

    2010-01-01

    Nickel-based activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and vector network analyzer, respectively. The results show that the surface of the activated carbon was covered by a Ni-P coating, which was uniform, compact, and continuous and had an obvious metallic sheen. ...

  20. Activated carbon fibers prepared from quinoline and isoquinoline pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, I.; An, K.; Korai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Kojima, T.; Komatsu, M. [Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Nitrogen enriched activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared from isotropic quinoline and isoquinoline pitches produced by the catalytic action of HF/BF3 through spinning, stabilization, carbonization, and oxidative activation. The pitches exhibited excellent spinnability, and the resultant fibers had mechanical properties comparable to those of commercial fibers. The surface areas and nitrogen contents of the ACFs, obtained hereby were 740-860 m{sup 2}/g and 4-5.6%, respectively, at around 50 wt% of burn-off. FT-IR and XPS analyses identified the surface oxygen and nitrogen functional groups on the stabilized and activated fibers. The ACFs from isoquinoline pitch (IQP-ACF) exhibited higher basicity (l.3 meq/g) than commercial ACFs of similar surface areas (0.68 and 0.25 meq/g for PAN (FE-300) and coal tar pitch (OG-8A) based ACFs, respectively) due to a higher basic nitrogen content on the surface. The activation appears to expose basic nitrogen atoms, which were located under the surface. The basicity of ACF from quinoline pitch (QP-ACF) was much lower than that of IQP-ACF, however, QP-ACF adsorbed 74 mg/g of SO2, which was 1.4 and 2.3 times higher than that over FE-300 and OG-8A. In contrast, IQP-ACFs showed less adsorption of SO2 than that of QP-ACF and FE-300, but more than that of OG-8A. Oxidation activity of ACF surface may participate in the adsorption of SO2 in the form of SO3 or H2SO4. The oxygen functional groups under the influence of neighboring nitrogen atoms may be the active sites for the oxidative adsorption. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Thermal analysis of activated carbons modified with silver metavanadate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscianska, Joanna; Nowicki, Piotr; Nowak, Izabela [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Pietrzak, Robert, E-mail: pietrob@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of the activated carbons from waste materials as new supports for AgVO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition of AgVO{sub 3} to V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag{sup 0} for the samples 1 and 3 wt.% Ag-V is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples containing 5 wt.% Ag-V decompose to vanadyl species as intermediate compounds. - Abstract: The effect of silver metavanadate doping on physicochemical properties and thermal behaviour of the activated carbons obtained from waste materials was investigated. The carbonaceous supports were subjected to carbonisation at 400 or 600 Degree-Sign C. The samples carbonised at 600 Degree-Sign C have much more developed surface area and porous structure than the analogous samples obtained at 400 Degree-Sign C. Impregnation of activated carbons with silver metavanadate leads to a decrease in their surface area and pore volume. According to thermal analysis (TG, DTG) in the samples containing 1 and 3 wt.% of silver metavanadate, AgVO{sub 3} is fully decomposed to do vanadium oxide and Ag, with no intermediate products, while in the samples containing 5 wt.% AgVO{sub 3}, this salt is decomposed to vanadyl species as intermediate compounds at 350 Degree-Sign C before the formation of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at 500 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, in all samples impregnated with silver metavanadate the nanoparticles of silver undergo crystallisation leading to reduction of Ag{sup +} ions from the vanadium salt to Ag{sup 0}.

  2. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m3 to 5.86 kg/m3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  3. Investigating effectiveness of activated carbons of natural sources on various supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Md. Shahnewaz Sabit; Rahman, Muhammad M.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon can be produced from natural sources, such as pistachio and acorn shells, which can be an inexpensive and sustainable sources of natural wastes for the energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors. The carbonaceous materials used in this study were carbonized at the temperatures of 700°C and 900°C after the stabilization process at 240°C for two hours. These shells showed approximately 60% carbon yield. Carbonized nutshells were chemically activated using1wt% potassium hydroxide (KOH). Activated carbon powders with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) were used to construct carbon electrodes. A 1M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) and propylene carbonate (PC) were used as electrolytes. Electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the characterization of the supercapacitors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to inspect the surface texture of the activated carbons. Activated pistachio shells carbonized at 700°C showed more porous surface texture than those carbonized at 900°C. Effects of the carbonization temperatures were studied for their electrochemical characteristics. The shells carbonized at 700°C showed better electrochemical characteristics compared to those carbonized at 900°C. The test results provided about 27,083 μF/g specific capacitance at a scan rate of 10mV/s. This study showed promising results for using these activated carbons produced from the natural wastes for supercapacitor applications.

  4. Activated carbon is an electron-conducting amphoteric ion adsorbent

    CERN Document Server

    Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC) particles can desalinate water by ion electrosorption. To describe ion electrosorption mathematically, accurate models are required for the structure of the electrical double layers (EDLs) that form within electrically charged AC micropores. To account for salt adsorption also in uncharged ACs, an "attraction term" was introduced in modified Donnan models for the EDL structure in ACs. Here it will be shown how instead of using an attraction term, chemical information of the surface structure of the carbon-water interface in ACs can be used to construct an alternative EDL model for ACs. This EDL model assumes that ACs contain both acidic groups, for instance due to carboxylic functionalities, and basic groups, due to the adsorption of protons to the carbon basal planes. As will be shown, this "amphoteric Donnan" model accurately describes various data sets for ion electrosorption in ACs, for solutions of NaCl, of CaCl2, and mixtures thereof, as function of the exter...

  5. Ceiba Pentradenta wood waste activated carbon for waste water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for waste water treatment over the last decades. The low materials originated from various sources such as agricultural sources and byproducts, agricultural residues and wastes, low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced .The farming waste material has to be disposed either safely or must be reused for some valuable purpose. In this consent Ceiba Pentradenta Wood waste, an agricultural waste material which is being converted as Activated carbon in presence of Nitrogen atmosphere at 7000 C is used as an adsorbent for dye removal. The portrayal studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, soluble matter (water, acid, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, ion exchange capacity, percentage content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in treatment of the water and wastewater. The present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

  6. Effect of activation agents on the surface chemical properties and desulphurization performance of activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Flue gas pollution is a serious environmental problem that needs to be solved for the sustainable development of China.The surface chemical properties of carbon have great influence on its desulphurization performance.A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using HNO3,H2O2,NH3·H2O and steam as activation agents with the aim to introduce functional groups to carbon surface in the ACs preparation process.The ACs were physically and chemically characterized by iodine and SO2 adsorption,ultimate analysis,Boehm titration,and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR).Results showed that the iodine number and desulphurization capacity of NH3·H2O activated carbon (AC-NH3) increase with both activation time,and its desulphurization capacity also increases with the concentration of activation agent.However,HNO3 activated carbon (AC-HNO3) and H2O2 activated carbon (AC-H2O2) exhibit more complex behavior.Only their iodine numbers increase monotonously with activation time.Compared with steam activated AC (AC-H2O),the nitrogen content increases 0.232% in AC-NH3 and 0.077% in AC-HNO3.The amount of total basic site on AC-HNO3 is 0.19 mmol·g-1 higher than that on AC-H2O.H2O2 activation introduces an additional 0.08 mmol·g-1 carboxyl groups to AC surface than that introduced by steam activation.The desulphurization capacity of ACs in simulate flue gas desulphurization decreases as follows: AC-NH3 > AC-HNO3 > AC-H2O2 > AC-H2O.This sequence is in accord with the SO2 catalytic oxidation/oxidation ratio in the absence of oxygen and the oxidation property reflected by TPR.In the presence of oxygen,all adsorbed SO2 on ACs can be oxidized into SO3.The desulphurization capacity increases differently according to the activation agents;the desulphurization capacity of AC-NH3 and AC-HNO3 improves by 4.8 times,yet AC-H2O increases only by 2.62 as compared with the desulphurization of corresponding ACs in absence of oxygen.

  7. Characterization and Methanol Adsorption of Walnut-shell Activated Carbon Prepared by KOH Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qiongfen; LI Ming; JI Xu; QIU Yu; ZHU Yuntao; LENG Congbin

    2016-01-01

    Walnut-shell activated carbons (WSACs) were prepared by the KOH chemical activation. The effects of carbonization temperature, activation temperature, and ratio of KOH to chars on the pore development of WSACs were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the microstructure and morphology of WSACs. Methanol adsorption performance onto the optimal WSAC and the coal-based AC were also investigated. The results show that the optimal preparation conditions are a carbonization temperature of 700℃, an activation temperature of 700℃, and a mass ratio of 3. The BET surface area, the micropore volume, and the micropore volume percentage of the optimal WASC are 1636 m2/g, 0.641 cm3/g and 81.97%, respectively. There are a lot of micropores and a certain amount of meso- and macropores. The characteristics of the amorphous state are identified. The results show that the optimal WSAC is favorable for methanol adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the optimal WSAC is 248.02mg/g. It is shown that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of the optimal WSAC is almost equivalent to that of the common activated carbon. Therefore the optimal WSAC could be a potential adsorbent for the solar energy adsorption refrigeration cycle.

  8. Relation between interfacial energy and adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2013-03-01

    The adsorption efficacy of 16 pharmaceuticals on six different activated carbons is correlated to the thermodynamic work of adhesion, which was derived following the surface tension component approach. Immersion calorimetry was used to determine the surface tension components of activated carbon, while contact angle measurements on compressed plates were used to determine these for solutes. We found that the acid-base surface tension components of activated carbon correlated to the activated carbon oxygen content. Solute-water interaction correlated well to their solubility, although four solutes deviated from the trend. In the interaction between solute and activated carbon, van der Waals interactions were dominant and explained 65-94% of the total interaction energy, depending on the hydrophobicity of the activated carbon and solute. A reasonable relationship (r2 > 70) was found between the calculated work of adhesion and the experimentally determined activated carbon loading. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  10. Current-induced strength degradation of activated carbon spheres in carbon supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Chen, Rong; Lipka, Stephen M.; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-05-01

    Activated carbon microspheres (ACSs), which are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis and ammonia activation, are used as the active materials in the anode and cathode of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The ACS-based EDLCs of symmetrical electrodes exhibit good stability and a high degree of reversibility over 2000 charge-discharge cycles for electric current up to 10 A g-1. The ACSs maintain a nongraphitized carbon structure after over 2000 charge-discharge cycles. Nanoindentation experiments are performed on the ACSs, which are electrochemically cycled in a voltage window of 0-1 V at three electric currents of 0.5, 5, and 10 A g-1. For the same indentation load, both the contact modulus and indentation hardness of the ACSs decrease with the increase of the electric current used in the electrical charging and discharging. These results suggest that there exists strength degradation introduced by the electric current. A larger electric current will cause more strength degradation than a smaller electric current.

  11. Comparative study of carbon nanotubes and granular activated carbon: Physicochemical properties and adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangupomu, Roja Haritha; Sattler, Melanie L; Ramirez, David

    2016-01-25

    The overall goal was to determine an optimum pre-treatment condition for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to facilitate air pollutant adsorption. Various combinations of heat and chemical pre-treatment were explored, and toluene was tested as an example hazardous air pollutant adsorbate. Specific objectives were (1) to characterize raw and pre-treated single-wall (SW) and multi-wall (MW) CNTs and compare their physical/chemical properties to commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC), (2) to determine the adsorption capacities for toluene onto pre-treated CNTs vs. GAC. CNTs were purified via heat-treatment at 400 °C in steam, followed by nitric acid treatment (3N, 5N, 11N, 16N) for 3-12 h to create openings to facilitate adsorption onto interior CNT sites. For SWNT, Raman spectroscopy showed that acid treatment removed impurities up to a point, but amorphous carbon reformed with 10h-6N acid treatment. Surface area of SWNTs with 3 h-3N acid treatment (1347 m(2)/g) was higher than the raw sample (1136 m(2)/g), and their toluene maximum adsorption capacity was comparable to GAC. When bed effluent reached 10% of inlet concentration (breakthrough indicating time for bed cleaning), SWNTs had adsorbed 240 mg/g of toluene, compared to 150 mg/g for GAC. Physical/chemical analyses showed no substantial difference for pre-treated vs. raw MWNTs. PMID:26476807

  12. Molecular simulation of multi-component adsorption processes related to carbon capture in a high surface area, disordered activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Di Biase, Emanuela; Sarkisov, Lev

    2015-01-01

    We employ a previously developed model of a high surface area activated carbon, based on a random packing of small fragments of a carbon sheet, functionalized with hydroxyl surface groups, to explore adsorption of water and multicomponent mixtures under conditions representing typical carbon capture processes. Adsorption of water is initialized and proceeds through the growth of clusters around the surface groups, in a process predominantly governed by hydrogen bond interactions. In contrast,...

  13. Influence of adhesion to activated carbon particles on the viability of waterborne pathogenic bacteria under flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henny C.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Jager, Debbie; Langworthy, Don E.; Collias, Dimitris I.; Mitchell, Michael D.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2008-01-01

    In rural areas around the world, people often rely on water filtration plants using activated carbon particles for safe water supply. Depending on the carbon surface, adhering microorganisms die or grow to form a biofilm. Assays to assess the efficacy of activated carbons in bacterial removal do not

  14. Soil Organic Carbon, Black Carbon, and Enzyme Activity Under Long-Term Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xing-hua; ZHENG Jian-wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC), black carbon (BC), enzyme activity, and the relationships among these parameters. Paddy ifeld was continuously fertilized over 30 yr with nine different fertilizer treatments including N, P, K, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK (two-fold NPK), NPK+manure (NPKM), and CK (no fertilization), N, 90 kg urea-N ha-1 yr-1; P, 45 kg triple superphosphate-P2O5 ha-1 yr-1; K, 75 kg potassium chloride-K2O ha-1 yr-1;and pig manure, 22 500 kg ha-1 yr-1. Soil samples were collected and determined for SOC, BC content, and enzyme activity. The results showed that the SOC in the NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than those in the K, P, and CK treatments. The lowest SOC content was found in the CK treatment. SOC content was similar in the N, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK, and NPKM treatments. There was no signiifcant difference in BC content among different treatments. The BC-to-SOC ratios (BC/SOC) ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, suggesting that BC might originate from the same source. Regarding enzyme activity, NPK treatment had higher urease activity than NPKM treatment. The urease activity of NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than that of 2NPK, NP, N, P, K, CK, and NPKM treatment which produced higher activities of acid phosphatase, catalase, and invertase than all other treatments. Our results indicated that long-term fertilization did not signiifcantly affect BC content. Concurrent application of manure and mineral fertilizers increased SOC content and signiifcantly enhanced soil enzyme activities. Correlation analysis showed that catalase activity was signiifcantly associated with invertase activity, but SOC, BC, and enzyme activity levels were not signiifcantly correlated with one another. No signiifcant correlations were observed between BC and soil enzymes. It is unknown whether soil enzymes play a role in the decomposition of BC.

  15. Microbial activity in granular activated carbon filters in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezev, A.

    2015-01-01

    The investigations described are carried out to analyse the microbiological processes in relation to the GAC characteristics and the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in Granular Activated Carbon filters (GACFs) in water treatment. The main goal of the study was to obtain a qualitative descrip

  16. Adsorption onto fibrous activated carbon: applications to water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Cloirec, P.; Brasquet, C.; Subrenat, E. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    1997-03-01

    The adsorption of polluted waters is performed by activated carbon fibers (ACF). This new material is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. BET surface areas and pore volumes are determined. Adsorption of natural organics (humic substances) and micropollutants (aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene) is carried out in a batch or dynamic reactor. Classical models are applied and kinetic constants calculated. The results show that the performance of ACF is significantly higher than that of granular activated carbon (GAC) in terms of adsorption velocity and selectivity for micropollutants. These higher performances are due to some ACF physical properties, such as their high BET surface area and micropore volume. Moreover, the micropores are directly connected on the external surface area of fibers, which allows smaller mass transfer resistance. In a dynamic reactor, the breakthrough curves obtained with ACF beds are particularly steep, suggesting a smaller mass transfer resistance than that of GAC. The adsorption zone in an ACF bed is about 3.5 mm and is not really dependent on the water flow rate within the studied range. 25 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Effect of calcium on adsorption capacity of powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Shang, Junteng; Wang, Ying; Li, Yansheng; Gao, Hong

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of calcium ion on the adsorption of humic acid (HA) (as a target pollutant) by powered activated carbon. The HA adsorption isotherms at different pH and kinetics of two different solutions including HA alone and HA doped Ca(2+), were performed. It was showed that the adsorption capacity of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for HA was markedly enhanced when Ca(2+) was doped into HA. Also, HA and Ca(2+) taken as nitrate were tested on the uptake of each other respectively and it was showed that the adsorbed amounts of both of them were significantly promoted when HA and calcium co-existed. Furthermore, the adsorbed amount of HA slightly decreased with the increasing of Ca(2+) concentration, whereas the amount of calcium increased with the increasing of HA concentration, but all above the amounts without addition. Finally, the change of pH before and after adsorption process is studied. In the two different solutions including HA alone and HA doped Ca(2+), pH had a small rise, but the extent of pH of later solution was bigger. PMID:25078809

  18. An active, flexible carbon nanotube microelectrode array for recording electrocorticograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chan; Hsu, Hui-Lin; Lee, Yu-Tao; Su, Huan-Chieh; Yen, Shiang-Jie; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Yew, Tri-Rung; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Yao, Da-Jeng; Chang, Yen-Chung; Chen, Hsin

    2011-06-01

    A variety of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) has been developed for monitoring intra-cortical neural activity at a high spatio-temporal resolution, opening a promising future for brain research and neural prostheses. However, most MEAs are based on metal electrodes on rigid substrates, and the intra-cortical implantation normally causes neural damage and immune responses that impede long-term recordings. This communication presents a flexible, carbon-nanotube MEA (CMEA) with integrated circuitry. The flexibility allows the electrodes to fit on the irregular surface of the brain to record electrocorticograms in a less invasive way. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) further improve both the electrode impedance and the charge-transfer capacity by more than six times. Moreover, the CNTs are grown on the polyimide substrate directly to improve the adhesion to the substrate. With the integrated recording circuitry, the flexible CMEA is proved capable of recording the neural activity of crayfish in vitro, as well as the electrocorticogram of a rat cortex in vivo, with an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the proposed CMEA can be employed as a less-invasive, biocompatible and reliable neuro-electronic interface for long-term usage.

  19. Crystallinity Modulation of Layered Carbon Nitride for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhai; Shen, Yanfei; Li, Ying; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-08-22

    As an emerging metal-free semiconductor, covalently bonded carbon nitride (CN) has attracted much attention in photocatalysis. However, drawbacks such as a high recombination rate of excited electrons and holes hinder its potential applications. Tailoring the crystallinity of semiconductors is an important way to suppress unwanted charge recombination, but has rarely been applied to CN so far. Herein, a simple method to synthesize CN of high crystallinity by protonation of specific intermediate species during conventional polymerization is reported. Interestingly, the as-obtained CN exhibited improved photocatalytic activities of up to seven times those of the conventional bulk CN. This approach, with only a slight change to the conventional method, provides a facile way to effectively regulate the crystallinity of bulk CN to improve its photocatalytic activities and sheds light on large-scale industrial applications of CN with high efficiency for sustainable energy.

  20. Experimental study on adsorption kinetics of activated carbon/R134a and activated carbon/R507A pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Khairul; Koyama, Shigeru [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Saha, Bidyut B. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Rahman, Kazi A.; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Ng, Kim Choon [Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore)

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this article is to evaluate adsorption kinetics of R134a and R507A on pitch based activated carbon experimentally by a constant volume variable pressure method at different adsorption temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 C. These data are useful for the design of adsorption cooling and refrigeration systems and are unavailable in the literature. Data obtained from the kinetic studies were analyzed with various kinetic models and the Fickian diffusion model is found to be the most suitable overall. Guided by the experimental measurements, the surface diffusion is also estimated and is found that it follows the classical Arrhenius law within the experimental range. (author)

  1. Adsorption of Phenols and Chlorophenols in Wastewaters on Activated Carbon and Dried Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    YENER, Jülide

    1999-01-01

    One of the methods used for removal of phenols and chlorophenols from the wastewaters of petroleum refineries, coke, medicine, dye, plastics, pesticide, insecticide, and paper industry is the adsorption process. In this study, adsorption of phenol, o-chlorophenol and p-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions on to granular activated carbon and dried activated sludge was investigated as a function of pH, initial pollutant concentration and functional groups. Effects of these parameters on...

  2. Leachate Treatment by Batch Decant Activated Sludge Process and Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Y Hashempur; R Rezaei Kalantary; Jaafarzadeh, N.; Jorfi, S.

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Direct biodegradation of landfill leachate is too difficult because of high concentrations of COD and NH3 and also the presence of toxic compounds. The main objective of this study was to application of Strurvite precipitation as a pretreatment stage, in order to remove inhibitors of biodegradation before the batch decant activated sludge process with addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC)."nMaterials and Methods: Strurvite precipitated leachate was intro...

  3. Activated carbons from potato peels: The role of activation agent and carbonization temperature of biomass on their use as sorbents for bisphenol A uptake from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzidou, An; Deliyanni, Eleni A.

    2015-04-01

    Activated carbons prepared from potato peels, a solid waste by product, and activated with different activating chemicals, have been studied for the adsorption of an endocrine disruptor (Bisphenol-A) from aqueous solutions. The potato peels biomass was activated with phosphoric acid, KOH and ZnCl2. The different activating chemicals were tested in order the better activation agent to be found. The carbons were carbonized by pyrolysis, in one step procedure, at three different temperatures in order the role of the temperature of carbonization to be pointed out. The porous texture and the surface chemistry of the prepared activated carbons were characterized by Nitrogen adsorption (BET), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), thermal analysis (DTA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pH, the adsorbent dose, the initial bisphenol A concentration and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters such as the change of enthalpy (ΔH0), entropy (ΔS0) and Gibb's free energy (ΔG0) of adsorption systems were also evaluated. The adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was found to be 450 mg g-1 at an initial pH 3 at 25 °C for the phosphoric acid activated carbon, that make the activated carbon a promising adsorbent material.

  4. Porous carbon nitride nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jindui; Yin, Shengming; Pan, Yunxiang; Han, Jianyu; Zhou, Tianhua; Xu, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Porous carbon nitride nanosheets (PCNs) have been prepared for the first time by a simple liquid exfoliation method via probe sonication. These mesoporous nanosheets of around 5 nm in thickness combine several advantages including high surface area, enhanced light absorption and excellent water dispersity. It can be used as a versatile support for co-catalyst loading for photocatalytic dye degradation and water reduction. With 3.8 wt% Co3O4 loaded, PCNs can achieve more efficient photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B, compared with non-porous C3N4 nanosheets (CNs), bulk porous C3N4 (PCN) and bulk nonporous C3N4 (CN). With 1.0 wt% Pt loaded, CNs and PCN exhibit 7-8 times enhancement in H2 evolution than CN. Remarkably, PCNs with both porous and nanosheet-like features achieve 26 times higher activity in H2 evolution than CN. These significant improvements in photocatalytic activities can be attributed to the high surface area as well as better electron mobility of the two-dimensional nanostructure.Porous carbon nitride nanosheets (PCNs) have been prepared for the first time by a simple liquid exfoliation method via probe sonication. These mesoporous nanosheets of around 5 nm in thickness combine several advantages including high surface area, enhanced light absorption and excellent water dispersity. It can be used as a versatile support for co-catalyst loading for photocatalytic dye degradation and water reduction. With 3.8 wt% Co3O4 loaded, PCNs can achieve more efficient photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B, compared with non-porous C3N4 nanosheets (CNs), bulk porous C3N4 (PCN) and bulk nonporous C3N4 (CN). With 1.0 wt% Pt loaded, CNs and PCN exhibit 7-8 times enhancement in H2 evolution than CN. Remarkably, PCNs with both porous and nanosheet-like features achieve 26 times higher activity in H2 evolution than CN. These significant improvements in photocatalytic activities can be attributed to the high surface area as well as better electron mobility of

  5. Activated carbon derived from marine Posidonia Oceanica for electric energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    N. Boukmouche; N. Azzouz; L. Bouchama; J.P. Chopart; Y. Bouznit

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of activated carbon from marine Posidonia Oceanica were studied. The activated carbon was prepared by a simple process namely pyrolysis under inert atmosphere. The activated carbon can be used as electrodes for supercapacitor devices. X-ray diffraction result revealed a polycrystalline graphitic structure. While scanning electron microscope investigation showed a layered structure with micropores. The EDS analysis showed that the activated car...

  6. Influence of activated carbon characteristics on toluene and hexane adsorption: Application of surface response methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Pantoja, María Teresa; Yuso, A. M. de; Valenciano, Raquel; Rubio Villa, Begoña; Pino, María Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of toluene and hexane over activated carbons prepared according an experimental design, considering as variables the activation temperature, the impregnation ratio and the activation time. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the adsorption capacity of the carbons regarding the preparation conditions that determine the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons. The methodology of preparation...

  7. Effects of Surface Area and Flow Rate on Marine Bacterial Growth in Activated Carbon Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, Robert J.; Pfaender, Frederic K.

    1982-01-01

    The colonization of granular activated carbon columns by bacteria can have both beneficial and potentially detrimental consequences. Bacterial growth on the carbon surface can remove adsorbed organics and thus partially regenerate the carbon bed. However, growth can also increase the levels of bacteria in the column effluents, which can adversely affect downstream uses of the treated water. This study of a sand column and several activated carbon columns demonstrated that considerable marine ...

  8. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N2/77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H2 and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  9. Effect of calcination on Co-impregnated active carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekyarova, E.; Mehandjiev, D. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of General and Inorganic Chemistry)

    1993-11-01

    Active carbon (AC) from apricot shells with known characteristics has been impregnated with a 9.88% Co(NO[sub 3])[sub 2] [center dot] 6H[sub 2]O solution. The samples are destroyed in air at 200, 300, 400, and 550 C. The processes accompanying the thermal treatment are studied by DTA. Two processes are established during calcination of Co-impregnated active carbon: (i) destruction of the support as a result of oxidation catalyzed by the impregnated cobalt and (ii) interaction of the active phase (Co[sub 3]O[sub 4]) with the support (AC), during which Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] is reduced to CoO and Co. The presence of Co[sub 3]O[sub 4], and CoO phases is proved by X-ray measurements, while that of metal Co is established by magnetic measurements. The porous structure changes are investigated by adsorption studies. The characterization of the samples is performed by physical adsorption of N[sub 2] (77.4 K) and CO[sub 2] (273 K). The poresize distribution curves are plotted over the range 0.4--10 nm by the methods of Pierce (for the mesopores) and Medek (for the micropores). The micropore volume is determined by two independent methods: t/F method and D-R plot. The results from adsorption studies indicate a decrease of S[sub BET], V[sub mi], and, especially, the supermicropores of the samples.

  10. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: application to environmental problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Muyibi, Suleyman A; Mansor, Mariatul F; Wahid, Radziah

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800 degrees C and physical activation at 150 degrees C (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800 degrees C showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800 degrees C. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of activated carbon) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes. PMID:17913162

  11. Effect of textural property of coconut shell-based activated carbon on desorption activation energy of benzothiophene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moxin YU; Zhong LI; Hongxia XI; Qibin XIA; Shuwen WANG

    2008-01-01

    In this work,the effect of the textural property of activated carbons on desorption activation energy and adsorption capacity for benzothiophene (BT) was investi-gated.BET surface areas and the textural parameters of three kinds of the activated carbons,namely SY-6,SY-13 and SY-19,were measured with an ASAP 2010 instru-ment.The desorption activation energies of BT on the activated carbons were determined by temperature-pro-grammed desorption (TPD).Static adsorption experi-ments were carried out to determine the isotherms of BT on the activated carbons.The influence of the textural property of the activated carbons on desorption activa-tion energy and the adsorption capacity for BT was dis-cussed.Results showed that the BET surface areas of the activated carbons,SY-6,SY-13 and SY-19 were 1106,diameters were 1.96,2.58 and 2.16 nm,respectively.The TPD results indicated that the desorption activation energy of BT on the activated carbons,SY-6,SY-19 and SY-13 were 58.84,53.02 and 42.57 KJ/mol,respectively.The isotherms showed that the amount of BT adsorbed on the activated carbons followed the order of SY-6 > SY-19 > SY-13.The smaller the average pore diameter of the activated carbon,the stronger its adsorption for BT and the higher the activation energy required for BT desorp-tion on its surface.The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model can be properly used to formulate the adsorption behavior of BT on the activated carbons.

  12. Characterization of Microporous Activated Carbon Electrodes for Electric Double-layer Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-han; LIU Ling; SONG Huai-he

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) with a wide range of surface areas were made from petroleum coke by means of KOH activation. The electrochemical characterization was carried out for several activated carbons used as polariz able electrodes of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) in an aqueous electrolytic solution. The porous structures and electrochemical double-layer capacitance of the activated carbons were investigated by virtue of nitrogen gas adsorption and constant current cycling(CCC) methods. The relationship among the surface area, pore volume of the activated carbons and specific double-layer capacitance was discussed. It was found that the specific capacitance of ACs increased linearly with the increase of surface area. The presence of mesopores in the activated carbons with very high surface area(>2000 m2/g) was not very effective for them to be used as EDLCs. The influence of chemical characteristics of the activated carbons on the double layer formation could be considered to be negligible.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  16. Enhanced mercury ion adsorption by amine-modified activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianzhong [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Yang, John, E-mail: yangj@lincolnu.edu [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Deng Baolin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic metals found in water and sediments. In an effort to develop an effective adsorbent for aqueous Hg removal, activated carbon (AC) was modified with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified AC (MAC) were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and potentiometry. The impacts of solvent, APTES concentration, reactive time and temperature on the surface modification were evaluated. The aqueous Hg adsorptive kinetics and capacity were also determined. Results demonstrated that the strong Hg-binding amine ligands were effectively introduced onto the AC surfaces through the silanol reaction between carbon surface functional groups (-COOH, -COH) and APTES molecules. The modification lowered the pH at the point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) to 4.54 from 9.6, favoring cation adsorption. MAC presented a faster rate of the Hg (II) adsorption and more than double adsorptive capacity as compared with AC.

  17. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  18. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined. PMID:27243042

  19. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhlesur M. Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II, lead(II and chromium(VI. Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II and lead(II were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II and lead(II. The removal of chromium(VI was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II, Pb(II and Cr(VI by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  20. Adsorption of carbon dioxide by sodium hydroxide-modified granular coconut shell activated carbon in a fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, commercial coconut shell activated carbon was impregnated with alkaline NaOH to investigate the efficiency of modified activated carbon for CO2 adsorption in a fixed-bed column adsorption system. The modification parameters, such as the NaOH concentration (24–48%) and dwelling time (1–4 h), were also investigated. The results showed that a 32% NaOH concentration with a 3 h dwelling time provided the best CO2 adsorption capacity. Later, the modified activated carbon was characterized by nitrogen adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of the CO2 % in the feed, the adsorption temperature, the feed flow rate and the amount of adsorbent in the column were investigated in the adsorption experiments. The maximum CO2 adsorption capacity in this study was 27.10 mg/g at 35 °C. This study also suggests that NaOH-modified activated carbon is a state-of-the-art adsorbent for CO2 adsorption. - Highlights: • Coconut shell activated carbon was impregnated with alkaline NaOH. • CO2 was adsorbed in a fixed-bed column adsorption system. • The effects of CO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate and dose are analyzed. • Regeneration of modified activated carbons was effectively tested for ten cycles

  1. 77 FR 67337 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011; Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 20988... Administrative Review, 75 FR 70208, 70210 (November 17, 2010). \\22\\ In Activated Carbon AR3, the Department found..., 76 FR 67142, 67145 n.25 (October 31, 2011) (``Activated Carbon AR3''). \\23\\ In Activated Carbon......

  2. Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M.;

    2012-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GAC’s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation...... were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET...... of methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells...

  3. Improved Isotherm Data for Adsorption of Methane on Activated Carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Loh, Wai Soong

    2010-08-12

    This article presents the adsorption isotherms of methane onto two different types of activated carbons, namely, Maxsorb III and ACF (A-20) at temperatures from (5 to 75) °C and pressures up to 2.5 MPa. The volumetric technique has been employed to measure the adsorption isotherms. The experimental results presented herein demonstrate the improved accuracy of the uptake values compared with previous measurement techniques for similar adsorbate-adsorbent combinations. The results are analyzed with various adsorption isotherm models. The heat of adsorption, which is concentration and temperature dependent, has been calculated from the measured isotherm data. Henry\\'s law coefficients for these adsorbent-methane pairs are also evaluated at various temperatures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Magnetite decorated activated carbon composites for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barala, Sunil Kumar; Arora, Manju; Saini, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon decorated with magnetite (ACMG) nanoparticles composites have been prepared by facile method via impregnation of AC with stable dispersion of superparamagnetic MG nanoparticles followed by drying. These composites exhibit both magnetic and porosity behavior which can be easily optimized by controlling the weight ratio of two phases. The structural, magnetic, thermal and morphological properties of these as synthesized ACMG samples were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR, VSM and SEM techniques. The ACMG powder has been used for water purification having methylene blue (MB) dye as an impurity. The nanoporosity of these composites allow rapid adsorption of MB and their magnetic behavior helps in single step separation of MB adsorbed ACMG particles by the application of external magnetic field.

  5. Adsorption Models and Structural Characterization for Activated Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-juan; WANG Ru-zhu; OLIVEIRA R.G.; HU Jin-qiang

    2009-01-01

    The nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77.69 K were measured for two samples of activated carbon fibers and their microstructures were investigated. Among established isotherm equations, the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation showed the best agreement with the experimental data, while the Langmuir equation showed a large deviation when employed at low relative pressures. The MP method, t-method and αs-method were used to analyze the pore size distribution. The calculated average pore widths and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface areas for the sample A-13 were 0.86 nm and 1 286.60 m2/g, while for the sample A-16, they were 0.82 nm and 1 490.64 m2/g. The sample with larger pore width was more suitable to be used as additive in chemical heat pumps, while the other one could be used as adsorbent in adsorption refrigeration systems.

  6. The Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles Onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the results of spectrophotometric, dynamic light scattering (DLS and microscopic (SEM studies of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs deposition on activated carbon (AC surface modified with primary (ethanolamine and secondary (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine amines. It was found that this method is efficient for deposition of AuNPs from aqueous solution. However, nanoparticles change their morphology depending on the kind of amine used in experiments. On the AC surface modified with ethanolamine, the uniform spherical AuNPs were formed. In case of diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine application, the agglomerates of AuNPs are present. The diameter of individual AuNPs did not exceed 15 nm and was bigger as compared with the diameter of particles present in precursor solution (ca. 10 nm.

  7. Uranium Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon – Batch Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of two activated carbon samples (Tusaar Lot B-64, Tusaar ER2-189A) was tested using unadjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests support ongoing performance optimization efforts to use the best material for uranium treatment in the Hanford Site 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. A linear response of uranium loading as a function of the solution-to-solid ratio was observed for both materials. Kd values ranged from ~380,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the B-64 material and ~200,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the ER2-189A material. Uranium loading values ranged from 10.4 to 41.6 μg/g for the two Tusaar materials.

  8. Effect of Activated Carbon as a Support on Metal Dispersion and Activity of Ruthenium Catalyst for Ammonia Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ten kinds of activated carbon from different raw materials were used as supports to prepare ruthenium catalysts. N2 physisorption and CO chemisorption were carried out to investigate the pore size distribution and the ruthenium dispersion of the catalysts. It was found that the Ru dispersion of the catalyst was closely related to not only the texture of carbon support but also the purity of activated carbon. The activities of a series of the carbon-supported barium-promoted Ru catalysts for ammonia synthesis were measured at 425 ℃, 10.0 MPa and 10 000 h-1. The result shows that the same raw material activated carbon, with a high purity, high surface area, large pore volume and reasonable pore size distribution might disperse ruthenium and promoter sufficiently, which activated carbon as support, could be used to manufacture ruthenium catalyst with a high activity for ammonia synthesis. The different raw material activated carbon as the support would greatly influence the catalytic properties of the ruthenium catalyst for ammonia synthesis. For example, with coconut shell carbon(AC1) as the support, the ammonia concentration in the effluent was 13.17% over 4%Ru-BaO/AC1 catalyst, while with the desulfurized coal carbon(AC10) as the support, that in the effluent was only 1.37% over 4%Ru-BaO/AC10 catalyst.

  9. Ozonation of Cephalexin Antibiotic Using Granular Activated Carbon in a Circulating Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circulating reactor was used to decompose cephalexin during catalytic ozonation. The effect of ozone supply and granular activated carbon (GAC) catalyst was investigated for removal of CEX and COD. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon was investigated during in-situ ozonation. According to results, ozone supply appeared as the most influencing variable followed by dosage of granular activated carbon. The BET surface area, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) curves indicated that solid phase regeneration of activated carbon using ozone gas followed by mild thermal decomposition was very effective. The adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbon was slightly lower than virgin activated carbon. The overall study revealed that catalytic ozonation was effective in removing cephalexin from solution and the method can be applied for in-situ ozonation processes. (author)

  10. Comparing graphene, carbon nanotubes, and superfine powdered activated carbon as adsorptive coating materials for microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerie, Jaclyn R; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2013-10-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), nano-graphene platelets (NGPs), and superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) were comparatively evaluated for their applicability as adsorptive coatings on microfiltration membranes. The objective was to determine which materials were capable of contaminant removal while causing minimal flux reduction. Methylene blue and atrazine were the model contaminants. When applied as membrane coatings, MWCNTs had minimal retention capabilities for the model contaminants, and S-PAC had the fastest removal. The membrane coating approach was also compared with a stirred vessel configuration, in which the adsorbent was added to a stirred flask preceding the membrane cell. Direct application of the adsorbent to the membrane constituted a greater initial reduction in permeate concentrations of the model contaminants than with the stirred flask setup. All adsorbents except S-PAC showed flux reductions less than 5% after application as thin-layer membrane coatings, and flux recovery after membrane backwashing was greater than 90% for all materials and masses tested. PMID:23911830

  11. Adsorption of methylene blue and Congo red from aqueous solution by activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlachta, M; Wójtowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the adsorption removal of dyes by powdered activated carbon (PAC, Norit) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, Chinese Academy of Science) from an aqueous solution. Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) were selected as model compounds. The adsorbents tested have a high surface area (PAC 835 m(2)/g, MWCNTs 358 m(2)/g) and a well-developed porous structure which enabled the effective treatment of dye-contaminated waters and wastewaters. To evaluate the capacity of PAC and MWCNTs to adsorb dyes, a series of batch adsorption experiments was performed. Both adsorbents exhibited a high adsorptive capacity for MB and CR, and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity up to 400 mg/g for MB and 500 mg/g for CR. The separation factor, RL, revealed the favorable nature of the adsorption process under experimental conditions. The kinetics of adsorption was studied at various initial dye concentrations and solution temperatures. The pseudo-second-order model was used for determining the adsorption kinetics of MB and CR. The data obtained show that adsorption of both dyes was rapid in the initial stage and followed by slower processing to reach the plateau. The uptake of dyes increased with contact time, irrespective of their initial concentration and solution temperature. However, changes in the solution temperature did not significantly influence dye removal. PMID:24292474

  12. Treatment of oil–water emulsions by adsorption onto activated carbon, bentonite and deposited carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Okiel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Emulsified oil in waste water constitutes is a severe problem in the different treatment stages before disposed off in a manner that does not violate environmental criteria. One commonly used technique for remediation of petroleum contaminated water is adsorption. The main objective of this study is to examine the removal of oil from oil–water emulsions by adsorption on bentonite, powdered activated carbon (PAC and deposited carbon (DC. The results gave evidence of the ability of the adsorbents to adsorb oil and that the adsorptive property of the three adsorbents (bentonite, PAC, and DC has been influenced by different factors. The effects of contact time, the weight of adsorbents and the concentration of adsorbate on the oil adsorption have been studied. Oil removal percentages increase with increasing contact time and the weight of adsorbents, and decrease with increasing the concentration of adsorbate. Equilibrium studies show that the Freunlich isotherm was the best fit isotherm for oil removal by bentonite, PAC, and DC. The data show higher adsorptive capacities by DC and bentonite compared to the PAC.

  13. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA. PMID:26469934

  14. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA.

  15. A gaseous measurement system for carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane: An analytical methodology to be applied in the evaluation of the carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane produced via microbial activity in volcanic tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to develop a gaseous measurement system for the carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane produced via microbial activity or geochemical action on leachate in tuff; to determine the trapping efficiency of the system for carbon-14 dioxide; to determine the trapping efficiency of the system for carbon-14 methane; to apply the experimentally determined factors regarding the system's trapping efficiency for carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane to a trapping algorithm to determine the activity of the carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane in a mixed sample; to determine the minimum detectable activity of the measurement process in picocuries per liter; and to determine the lower limit or detection of the measurement process in counts per minute

  16. Adsorption capacities of activated carbons for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol vary with activated carbon particle size: Effects of adsorbent and adsorbate characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Soichi; Sakamoto, Asuka; Taniguchi, Takuma; Pan, Long; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2015-11-15

    The adsorption capacities of nine activated carbons for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were evaluated. For some carbons, adsorption capacity substantially increased when carbon particle diameter was decreased from a few tens of micrometers to a few micrometers, whereas for other carbons, the increase of adsorption capacity was small for MIB and moderate for geosmin. An increase of adsorption capacity was observed for other hydrophobic adsorbates besides geosmin and MIB, but not for hydrophilic adsorbates. The parameter values of a shell adsorption model describing the increase of adsorption capacity were negatively correlated with the oxygen content of the carbon among other characteristics. Low oxygen content indicated low hydrophilicity. The increase of adsorption capacity was related to the hydrophobic properties of both adsorbates and activated carbons. For adsorptive removal of hydrophobic micropollutants such as geosmin, it is therefore recommended that less-hydrophilic activated carbons, such as coconut-shell-based carbons, be microground to a particle diameter of a few micrometers to enhance their equilibrium adsorption capacity. In contrast, adsorption by hydrophilic carbons or adsorption of hydrophilic adsorbates occur in the inner pores, and therefore adsorption capacity is unchanged by particle size reduction. PMID:26302219

  17. Adsorption capacities of activated carbons for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol vary with activated carbon particle size: Effects of adsorbent and adsorbate characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Soichi; Sakamoto, Asuka; Taniguchi, Takuma; Pan, Long; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2015-11-15

    The adsorption capacities of nine activated carbons for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were evaluated. For some carbons, adsorption capacity substantially increased when carbon particle diameter was decreased from a few tens of micrometers to a few micrometers, whereas for other carbons, the increase of adsorption capacity was small for MIB and moderate for geosmin. An increase of adsorption capacity was observed for other hydrophobic adsorbates besides geosmin and MIB, but not for hydrophilic adsorbates. The parameter values of a shell adsorption model describing the increase of adsorption capacity were negatively correlated with the oxygen content of the carbon among other characteristics. Low oxygen content indicated low hydrophilicity. The increase of adsorption capacity was related to the hydrophobic properties of both adsorbates and activated carbons. For adsorptive removal of hydrophobic micropollutants such as geosmin, it is therefore recommended that less-hydrophilic activated carbons, such as coconut-shell-based carbons, be microground to a particle diameter of a few micrometers to enhance their equilibrium adsorption capacity. In contrast, adsorption by hydrophilic carbons or adsorption of hydrophilic adsorbates occur in the inner pores, and therefore adsorption capacity is unchanged by particle size reduction.

  18. Enhancing the capacitances of electric double layer capacitors based on carbon nanotube electrodes by carbon dioxide activation and acid oxidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polarizable electrodes of electric double layer capacitors(EDLCs) were made from carbon nanotubes(CNTs).Effect of carbon dioxide activation together with acid oxidation for the electrodes on the characteristics and performances of electrodes and EDLCs was studied.Carbon dioxide activation changed the microstructure of the electrodes,increased the effective surface area of CNTs and optimized the distribution of apertures of the electrodes.Acid oxidization modified the surface characteristics of CNTs.Based on the polarizable electrodes treated by carbon dioxide activation and acid oxidization,the performances of EDLCs were greatly enhanced.The specific capacitance of the electrodes with organic electrolyte was increased from 21.8 F/g to 60.4 F/g.

  19. Advanced wastewater treatment by nanofiltration and activated carbon for high quality water reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Kazner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid processes combining activated carbon and nanofiltration have been studied to identify the optimum solution for advanced wastewater treatment in high quality water reclamation and reuse. With a focus on the removal of bulk and trace organic compounds the investigation identified three promising process combinations, namely powdered activated carbon followed by nanofiltration (PAC/NF), granular activated carbon followed by nanofiltration (GAC/NF) and nanofiltration followed by granular a...

  20. Evaluation of activated carbon processes for removing trihalomethane precursors from a surface water impoundment

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinder, Steven Robert

    1987-01-01

    A pilot plant study was conducted in Newport News, Virginia to investigate the effectiveness of powdered activated carbon [PAC] and granular activated carbon [GAC], with and without preoxidation, for reducing trihalomethane [THM] precursor concentrations in Harwood's Mill Reservoir water. Preoxidation with ozone followed by GAC is referred to as the "biological activated carbonâ [BAC] process. This study showed that the GAC and BAC processes obtained the same level of organic...

  1. Production and characterization of activated carbon from indigenous coal (lakhra coal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, indigenous coal has been exploited for the preparation of activated carbon by physical. activation and characterization of if was done by using available techniques. Physical activation involved two steps; Carbonization and CO; activation. For different temperatures, carbonization was carried out for 4 hours in an oven and it was observed that percent yield and iodine number was maximum at 600 degree C. The carbonized material of 600 C was activated at different intervals of time and different temperatures for constant flow of CO/sub 2/; (activating gas). The optimum temperature and time for CO/sub 2/; activation was observed to be 750 C and 3 hours respectively, which gave lower percent yield of active carbon but of higher iodine number and methylene blue values. (author)

  2. Carbon nanohorns allow acceleration of osteoblast differentiation via macrophage activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Eri; Miyako, Eijiro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ushijima, Natsumi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Russier, Julie; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the proof-of-concept on the osteoblast differentiation capacity by CNHs will allow future studies focused on CNHs as ideal therapeutic materials for bone regeneration.Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the

  3. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-02-04

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. SU-E-J-144: Low Activity Studies of Carbon 11 Activation Via GATE Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of a Monte Carlo simulation code with low levels of activity (∼1,000Bq). Such activity levels are expected from phantoms and patients activated via a proton therapy beam. Methods: Three different ranges for a therapeutic proton radiation beam were examined in a Monte Carlo simulation code: 13.5, 17.0 and 21.0cm. For each range, the decay of an equivalent length11C source and additional sources of length plus or minus one cm was studied in a benchmark PET simulation for activities of 1000, 2000 and 3000Bq. The ranges were chosen to coincide with a previous activation study, and the activities were chosen to coincide with the approximate level of isotope creation expected in a phantom or patient irradiated by a therapeutic proton beam. The GATE 7.0 simulation was completed on a cluster node, running Scientific Linux Carbon 6 (Red Hat©). The resulting Monte Carlo data were investigated with the ROOT (CERN) analysis tool. The half-life of11C was extracted via a histogram fit to the number of simulated PET events vs. time. Results: The average slope of the deviation of the extracted carbon half life from the expected/nominal value vs. activity showed a generally positive value. This was unexpected, as the deviation should, in principal, decrease with increased activity and lower statistical uncertainty. Conclusion: For activity levels on the order of 1,000Bq, the behavior of a benchmark PET test was somewhat unexpected. It is important to be aware of the limitations of low activity PET images, and low activity Monte Carlo simulations. This work was funded in part by the Philips corporation

  5. The performance of activated carbons from sugarcane bagasse, babassu, and coconut shells in removing residual chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaguaribe, E.F.; Araujo, L.P. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Lab. de Carvao Ativado]. E-mail:emersonjaguaribe@globo.com; Medeiros, L.L.; Barreto, M.C.S. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: luciana-lucena@bol.com.br

    2005-03-01

    The capacity of activated carbons obtained from different raw materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, babassu (Orbygnia speciosa), and coconut (Cocus nucifera) shells, to remove residual chlorine is studied. The influence of particle size and time of contact between particles of activated carbon and the chlorinated solution were taken into account. The adsorptive properties of the activated carbons were measured by gas adsorption (BET method), using an ASAP 2010 porosimeter, and liquid phase adsorption, employing iodine and methylene blue adsorbates. The activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse was the only adsorbent capable of removing 100% of the residual chlorine. (author)

  6. [Effects of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection's activated carbon adsorption technology on officinal components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, En-li; Wang, Ren-jie; Li, Miao; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dian-hong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Yu-an; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    With the diversion rate of ginkgolide A, B, K as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the amount of activated carbon, ad- sorption time, mix rate, and adsorption temperature were selected as factors, orthogonal design which based on the evaluation method of information entropy was used to optimize activated carbon adsorption technology of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection. Opti- mized adsorption conditions were as follows: adsorbed 30 min with 0.2% activated carbon in 25 °C, 40 r ·min⁻¹, validation test re- sult display. The optimum extraction condition was stable and feasible, it will provide a basis for ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection' activated carbon adsorption process.

  7. Highly porous activated carbons from resource-recovered Leucaena leucocephala wood as capacitive deionization electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chia-Hung; Liu, Nei-Ling; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Highly porous activated carbons were resource-recovered from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. wood through combined chemical and physical activation (i.e., KOH etching followed by CO2 activation). This invasive species, which has severely damaged the ecological economics of Taiwan, was used as the precursor for producing high-quality carbonaceous electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI). Carbonization and activation conditions strongly influenced the structure of chars and activated carbons. The total surface area and pore volume of activated carbons increased with increasing KOH/char ratio and activation time. Overgasification induced a substantial amount of mesopores in the activated carbons. In addition, the electrochemical properties and CDI electrosorptive performance of the activated carbons were evaluated; cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements revealed a typical capacitive behavior and electrical double layer formation, confirming ion electrosorption in the porous structure. The activated-carbon electrode, which possessed high surface area and both mesopores and micropores, exhibited improved capacitor characteristics and high electrosorptive performance. Highly porous activated carbons derived from waste L. leucocephala were demonstrated to be suitable CDI electrode materials. PMID:26135977

  8. [Modification of activated carbon fiber for electro-Fenton degradation of phenol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Tian, Yao-Jin; Yang, Guang-Ping; Xie, Xin-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Microwave-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-1), nitric acid-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-2), phosphoric acid-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-3) and ammonia-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-4) were successfully fabricated. The electro-Fenton catalytic activities of modified activated carbon fiber were evaluated using phenol as a model pollutant. H2O2 formation, COD removal efficiency and phenol removal efficiency were investigated compared with the unmodified activated carbon fiber (ACF-0). Results indicated that ACF-1 showed the best adsorption and electrocatalytic activity. Modification was in favor of the formation of H2O2. The performance of different systems on phenol degradation and COD removal were ACF-1 > ACF-3 > ACF-4 > ACF-2 > ACF-0 and ACF-1 > ACF-4 > ACF-3 > ACF-2 > ACF-0, respectively, which confirmed that electrocatalytic activities of modified activated carbon fiber were better than the unmodified. In addition, phenol intermediates were not the same while using different modified activated carbon fibers.

  9. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: Application to environmental problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A.MUYIBI; Mariatul F.MANSOR; Radziah WAHID

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800℃ and physical activation at 150℃ (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800℃ showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800℃. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of AC) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes.

  10. Utilization of spent activated carbon to enhance the combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chang-Wen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Jhong-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the heating value and combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel, spent activated carbon derived fuel, and derived fuel from a mixture of organic sludge and spent activated carbon. Spent activated carbon was sampled from an air pollution control device of an incinerator and characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA, and SEM. The spent activated carbon was washed with deionized water and solvent (1N sulfuric acid) and then processed by the organic sludge derived fuel manufacturing process. After washing, the salt (chloride) and sulfide content could be reduced to 99% and 97%, respectively; in addition the carbon content and heating value were increased. Different ratios of spent activated carbon have been applied to the organic sludge derived fuel to reduce the NO(x) emission of the combustion.

  11. Carbonate precipitation through microbial activities in natural environment, and their potential in biotechnology: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eZhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate represents a large portion of carbon reservoir and is used commercially for a variety of applications. Microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP, a by-product of microbial activities, plays an important metal coprecipitation and cementation role in natural systems. This natural process occurring in various geological settings can be mimicked and used for a number of biotechnology such as metal remediation, carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery and construction restoration. In this study, different metabolic activities leading to calcium carbonate precipitation, their native environment, and potential applications and challenges are reviewed.

  12. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  13. New Activated Carbon with High Thermal Conductivity and Its Microwave Regeneration Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xuexian; SU Zhanjun; XI Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Using a walnut shell as a carbon source and ZnCl2 as an activating agent, we resolved the temperature gradient problems of activated carbon in the microwave desorption process. An appropriate amount of silicon carbide was added to prepare the composite activated carbon with high thermal conductivity while developing VOC adsorption-microwave regeneration technology. The experimental results show that the coefficient of thermal conductivity of SiC-AC is three times as much as those of AC and SY-6. When microwave power was 480 W in its microwave desorption , the temperature of the bed thermal desorption was 10℃ to 30℃below that of normal activated carbon prepared in our laboratory. The toluene desorption activation energy was 16.05 kJ∙mol-1, which was 15% less than the desorption activation energy of commercial activated carbon. This study testified that the process could maintain its high adsorption and regeneration desorption performances.

  14. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, O.; Ruhon, R.; Lavery, P. S.; Kendrick, G. A.; Hickey, S.; Masqué, P.; Arias-Ortiz, A.; Steven, A.; Duarte, C. M.

    2016-03-01

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m‑2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m‑2 yr‑1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m‑2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  15. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  16. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, O.

    2016-03-16

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m−2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m−2 yr−1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m−2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  17. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, O.; Ruhon, R.; Lavery, P. S.; Kendrick, G. A.; Hickey, S.; Masqué, P.; Arias-Ortiz, A.; Steven, A.; Duarte, C. M.

    2016-03-01

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m-2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m-2 yr-1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m-2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Activities at NASA-Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    2006-01-01

    Research activities on carbon nanotubes at NASA-Johnson Space Center include production, purification, characterization and their applications for human space flight. In-situ diagnostics during nanotube production by laser oven process include collection of spatial and temporal data of passive emission and laser induced fluorescence from C2, C3 and Nickel atoms in the plume. Details of the results from the "parametric study" of the pulsed laser ablation process indicate the effect of production parameters including temperature, buffer gas, flow rate, pressure, and laser fluence. Improvement of the purity by a variety of steps in the purification process is monitored by characterization techniques including SEM, TEM, Raman, UV-VIS-NIR and TGA. A recently established NASA-JSC protocol for SWCNT characterization is undergoing revision with feedback from nanotube community. Efforts at JSC over the past five years in composites have centered on structural polymednanotube systems. Recent activities broadened this focus to multifunctional materials, supercapacitors, fuel cells, regenerable CO2 absorbers, electromagnetic shielding, radiation dosimetry and thermal management systems of interest for human space flight. Preliminary tests indicate improvement of performance in most of these applications because of the large surface area as well as high electrical and thermal conductivity exhibited by SWCNTs.

  19. Removal performance and mechanism of ibuprofen from water by catalytic ozonation using sludge-corncob activated carbon as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Liqiu; Qi, Fei; Wang, Xue; Li, Lu; Feng, Li

    2014-09-01

    To discover the catalytic activity of sludge-corncob activated carbon in catalytic ozonation of Ibuprofen, the performance of sludge-corncob activated carbon and three selected commercial activated carbons as catalysts in catalytic ozonation was investigated. The observation indicates the degradation rate of Ibuprofen increases significantly in the presence of sludge-corncob activated carbon and the catalytic activity of sludge-corncob activated carbon is much higher than that of the other three commercial activated carbons. Ibuprofen's removal rate follows pseudo-first order kinetics model well. It is also found that the adsorption removal of Ibuprofen by sludge-corncob activated carbon is less than 30% after 40 min. And the removal efficiency of Ibuprofen in the hybrid ozone/sludge-corncob activated carbon system is higher than the sum of sludge-corncob activated carbon adsorption and ozonation alone, which is a supportive evidence for catalytic reaction. In addition, the results of radical scavenger experiments demonstrate that catalytic ozonation of Ibuprofen by sludge-corncob activated carbon follows a hydroxyl radical reaction pathway. During ozonation of Ibuprofen in the presence of activated carbon, ozone could be catalytically decomposed to form hydrogen peroxide, which can promote the formation of hydroxyl radical. The maximum amount of hydrogen peroxide occurs in the presence of sludge-corncob activated carbon, which can explain why sludge-corncob activated carbon has the best catalytic activity among four different activated carbons.

  20. Impact of carbon on the surface and activity of silica-carbon supported copper catalysts for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spassova, I.; Stoeva, N.; Nickolov, R.; Atanasova, G.; Khristova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Composite catalysts, prepared by one or more active components supported on a support are of interest because of the possible interaction between the catalytic components and the support materials. The supports of combined hydrophilic-hydrophobic type may influence how these materials maintain an active phase and as a result a possible cooperation between active components and the support material could occur and affects the catalytic behavior. Silica-carbon nanocomposites were prepared by sol-gel, using different in specific surface areas and porous texture carbon materials. Catalysts were obtained after copper deposition on these composites. The nanocomposites and the catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, TG, XRD, TEM- HRTEM, H2-TPR, and XPS. The nature of the carbon predetermines the composite's texture. The IEPs of carbon materials and silica is a force of composites formation and determines the respective distribution of the silica and carbon components on the surface of the composites. Copper deposition over the investigated silica-carbon composites leads to formation of active phases in which copper is in different oxidation states. The reduction of NO with CO proceeds by different paths on different catalysts due to the textural differences of the composites, maintaining different surface composition and oxidation states of copper.

  1. Carbon Mineralization in Acidic, Xeric Forest Soils: Induction of New Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon mineralization was examined in Lakehurst and Atsion sands collected from the New Jersey Pinelands and in Pahokee muck from the Everglades Agricultural Area. Objectives were (i) to estimate the carbon mineralization capacities of acidic, xeric Pinelands soils in the absence of exogenously supplied carbon substrate (nonamended carbon mineralization rate) and to compare these activities with those of agriculturally developed pahokee muck, and (ii) to measure the capacity for increased car...

  2. Efficient control of odors and VOC emissions via activated carbon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Farhana; Kim, James; Huang, Ruey; Nu, Huong Ton; Lorenzo, Vlad

    2014-07-01

    This research study was undertaken to enhance the efficiency and economy of carbon scrubbers in controlling odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the wastewater collection and treatment facilities of the Bureau of Sanitation, City of Los Angeles. The butane activity and hydrogen sulfide breakthrough capacity of activated carbon were assessed. Air streams were measured for odorous gases and VOCs and removal efficiency (RE) determined. Carbon towers showed average to excellent removal of odorous compounds, VOCs, and siloxanes; whereas, wet scrubbers demonstrated good removal of odorous compounds but low to negative removal of VOCs. It was observed that the relative humidity and empty bed contact time are one of the most important operating parameters of carbon towers impacting the pollutant RE. Regular monitoring of activated carbon and VOCs has resulted in useful information on carbon change-out frequency, packing recommendations, and means to improve performance of carbon towers.

  3. A cost-effective and versatile technology for regenerating activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, H. [Waste Min, Inc., Croton, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption by activated carbon is a mainstream technology for the removal of soluble chemicals from waters and wastewaters, as well as for the removal of organics from vapor streams. Activated carbon basically acts like a sponge - accumulating the chemical species removed from the liquid or vapor stream. When the capacity of the carbon is reached, the spent carbon must be replaced or regenerated to restore its ability to adsorb. The current commercial regeneration options for spent carbon have significant shortcomings. Regeneration by steaming or low temperature heating removes low boiling organic compounds from vapor-phase carbon, but is not efficient removing less volatile compounds and does not regenerate liquid-phase activated carbons. High temperature thermal regeneration methods are expensive to build and operate, have high energy requirements, destroy the adsorbed compounds, and gradually destroy the carbon itself. An alternative technology that avoids the shortcomings of current methods is regeneration of spent activated carbon by extraction with organic solvents. The process uses an organic solvent to dissolve adsorbed material out of the internal pores of the activated carbon. Subsequently, the residual solvent is removed, typically by steaming, then the solvent is recovered and recycled. Cost-wise, solvent regeneration of activated carbon is substantially less expensive than thermal methods. The solvent regeneration technology works for virtually all adsorption applications where thermal regeneration is currently utilized. Capacity-wise, solvent regeneration restores 70% to 90% of the adsorption capacity of virgin activated carbon - while recovering the adsorbates intact and without deteriorating the activated carbon. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Textural Development of Activated Carbon Prepared from Recycled PET with Different Chemical Activation Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cansado, Isabel; Ribeiro Carrott, Manuela; Carrott, Peter; Mourão, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    In this work a series of microporous activated carbons, with different burn offs, was prepared from recycled PET provided by Selenis (Portalegre-Portugal). These AC were prepared by chemical activation with KOH, NaOH and H3PO4, and carbonised under a N2 flow of 85cm3min-1 between 873 and 1273K. The carbonised samples were then cooled and successively washed until the washable solutions achieved a pH around 7.0, afterwards these were dried at 110ºC. All adsorbents were characterised by the ads...

  5. Studies on supercapacitor electrode material from activated lignin-derived mesoporous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipendu; Li, Yunchao; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong K; Hensley, Dale K; Grappe, Hippolyte A; Meyer, Harry M; Dai, Sheng; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, A K

    2014-01-28

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area of 1148 m(2)/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm(3)/g. Both physical and chemical activation enhanced the mesoporosity along with significant microporosity. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited a range of surface-area-based capacitance similar to that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and enhanced the gravimetric specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. A vertical tail in the lower-frequency domain of the Nyquist plot provided additional evidence of good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. We have modeled the equivalent circuit of the Nyquist plot with the help of two constant phase elements (CPE). Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  6. Production of activated carbons from waste tyres for low temperature NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Waste tyres were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor and the product chars were chemically activated with alkali chemical agents, KOH, K2CO3, NaOH and Na2CO3 to produce waste tyre derived activated carbons. The activated carbon products were then examined in terms of their ability to adsorb NOx (NO) at low temperature (25°C) from a simulated industrial process flue gas. This study investigates the influence of surface area and porosity of the carbons produced with the different alkali chemical activating agents on NO capture from the simulated flue gas. The influence of varying the chemical activation conditions on the porous texture and corresponding NO removal from the flue gas was studied. The activated carbon sorbents were characterized in relation to BET surface area, micropore and mesopore volumes and chemical composition. The highest NO removal efficiency for the waste tyre derived activated carbons was ∼75% which was obtained with the adsorbent treated with KOH which correlated with both the highest BET surface area and largest micropore volume. In contrast, the waste tyre derived activated carbons prepared using K2CO3, NaOH and Na2CO3 alkali activating agents appeared to have little influence on NO removal from the flue gases. The results suggest problematic waste tyres, have the potential to be converted to activated carbons with NOx removal efficiency comparable with conventionally produced carbons. PMID:26856444

  7. Influence of KOH activation techniques on pore structure and electrochemical property of carbon electrode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; LI Jie; LAI Yan-qing; SONG Hai-sheng; ZHANG Zhi-an; LIU Ye-xiang

    2006-01-01

    Taking the selection of coal-tar pitch as precursor and KOH as activated agent, the activated carbon electrode material was fabricated for supercapacitor. The surface area and the pore structure of activated carbon were analyzed by Nitro adsorption method. The electrochemical properties of the activated carbons were determined using two-electrode capacitors in 6 mol/L KOH aqueous electrolytes. The influences of activated temperature and mass ratio ofKOH to C on the pore structure and electrochemical property of porous activated carbon were investigated in detail. The reasons for the changes of pore structure and electrochemical performance of activated carbon prepared under different conditions were also discussed theoretically. The results indicate that the maximum specific capacitance of 240 F/g can be obtained in alkaline medium, and the surface area, the pore structure and the specific capacitance of activated carbon depend on the treatment methods; the capacitance variation of activated carbon cannot be interpreted only by the change of surface area and pore structure, the lattice order and the electrolyte wetting effect of the activated carbon should also be taken into account.

  8. Removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical (17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol) from wastewater effluent by activated carbon adsorption: Effects of activated carbon type and competitive adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ifelebuegu, A.O.; Lester, J.N.; Churchley, J.; Cartmell, E. [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). School of Water Science

    2006-12-15

    Granular activated carbon has been extensively used for the adsorption of organic micropollutants for potable water production. In this study the removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical from wastewater final effluent by three types of granular activated carbon (wood, coconut and coal based) has been investigated in batch adsorption experiments and correlated with the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and ultraviolet absorbance (UV). The results obtained demonstrated 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) removals of 98.6%, 99.3%, and 96.4% were achieved by the coal based (ACo), coconut based (ACn) and wood based (AWd) carbons respectively at the lowest dose of carbon (0.1 gl{sup -1}). The other adsorbates investigated all exhibited good removal. At an equilibrium concentration of 7 mgl{sup -1} the COD adsorption capacities were 3.16 mg g{sup -1}, 4.8 mg g{sup -1} and 7.1 mg g{sup -1} for the wood, coconut and coal based carbons respectively. Overall, the order of removal efficiency of EE2 and the other adsorbates for the three activated carbons was ACn {gt} ACo {gt} AWd. The adsorption capacities of the carbons were found to be reduced by the effects of other competing adsorbates in the wastewater effluent.

  9. 78 FR 70533 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Results, 78 FR at 26749; see also Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from the... FR 67142 (October 31, 2011) (``AR3 Carbon''); Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of... FR 21317 (May 7, 2009), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon from...

  10. Effects of microwave heating on porous structure of regenerated powdered activated carbon used in xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinying; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of spent powdered activated carbons used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating was investigated. Effects of microwave power and microwave heating time on the adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbons were evaluated. The optimum conditions obtained are as follows: microwave power 800W; microwave heating time 30min. Regenerated activated carbon in this work has high adsorption capacities for the amount of methylene blue of 16 cm3/0.1 g and the iodine number of 1000.06mg/g. The specific surface areas of fresh commercial activated carbon, spent carbon and regenerated activated carbon were calculated according to the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method, and the pore-size distributions of these carbons were characterized by non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results show that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of regenerated activated carbon are 1064 m2/g and 1.181 mL/g, respectively, indicating the feasibility of regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating. The results of surface fractal dimensions also confirm the results of isotherms and NLDFT. PMID:24645431

  11. Effects of microwave heating on porous structure of regenerated powdered activated carbon used in xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinying; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of spent powdered activated carbons used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating was investigated. Effects of microwave power and microwave heating time on the adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbons were evaluated. The optimum conditions obtained are as follows: microwave power 800W; microwave heating time 30min. Regenerated activated carbon in this work has high adsorption capacities for the amount of methylene blue of 16 cm3/0.1 g and the iodine number of 1000.06mg/g. The specific surface areas of fresh commercial activated carbon, spent carbon and regenerated activated carbon were calculated according to the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method, and the pore-size distributions of these carbons were characterized by non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results show that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of regenerated activated carbon are 1064 m2/g and 1.181 mL/g, respectively, indicating the feasibility of regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating. The results of surface fractal dimensions also confirm the results of isotherms and NLDFT.

  12. Flax shive as a sources of activated carbon for metals remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin, D. E.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Flax shive constitutes about 70% of the flax stem and has limited use. Because shive is a lignocellulosic by-product, it can potentially be pyrolyzed and activated to produce an activated carbon. The objective of this study was to create an activated carbon from flax shive by chemical activation in order to achieve significant binding of selected divalent cations (cadmium, calcium, copper, magnesium, nickel, zinc. Shive carbons activated by exposure to phosphoric acid and com-pressed air showed greater binding of cadmium, copper, nickel or zinc than a sulfuric acid-activated flax shive carbon reported in the literature and a commercial, wood-based carbon. Uptake of calcium from a drinking water sample by the shive carbon was similar to commercial drinking water filters that contained cation exchange resins. Magnesium removal by the shive carbon was greater than a commercial drinking water filtration carbon but less than for filters containing cation exchange resins. The results indicate that chemically activated flax shive carbon shows considerable promise as a component in industrial and residential water filtration systems for removal of divalent cations.

  13. Surface modification, characterization and adsorptive properties of a coconut activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coconut activated carbon was modified using chemical methods. Different concentration of nitric acid oxidation of the conventional sample produced samples with weakly acidic functional groups. The oxidized samples were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, nitrogen absorption-desorption, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, Bothem method, pH titration, adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and the adsorption mechanism of activated carbons was investigated. The results showed that BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbons were decreased after oxidization process, while acidic functional groups were increased. The surface morphology of oxidized carbons looked clean and eroded which was caused by oxidization of nitric acid. The oxidized carbons showed high adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and chemical properties of activated carbon played an important role in adsorption of metal ions and organic pollutants.

  14. Surface modification, characterization and adsorptive properties of a coconut activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xincheng; Jiang, Jianchun; Sun, Kang; Xie, Xinping; Hu, Yiming

    2012-08-01

    A coconut activated carbon was modified using chemical methods. Different concentration of nitric acid oxidation of the conventional sample produced samples with weakly acidic functional groups. The oxidized samples were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, nitrogen absorption-desorption, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, Bothem method, pH titration, adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and the adsorption mechanism of activated carbons was investigated. The results showed that BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbons were decreased after oxidization process, while acidic functional groups were increased. The surface morphology of oxidized carbons looked clean and eroded which was caused by oxidization of nitric acid. The oxidized carbons showed high adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and chemical properties of activated carbon played an important role in adsorption of metal ions and organic pollutants.

  15. Determination of pressure drop across activated carbon fiber respirator cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Lungu, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) is considered as an alternative adsorbent to granular activated carbon (GAC) for the development of thinner, lighter, and efficient respirators because of their larger surface area and adsorption capacities, thinner critical bed depth, lighter weight, and fabric form. This study aims to measure the pressure drop across different types of commercially available ACFs in respirator cartridges to determine the ACF composition and density that will result in acceptably breathable respirators. Seven ACF types in cloth (ACFC) and felt (ACFF) forms were tested. ACFs in cartridges were challenged with pre-conditioned constant air flow (43 LPM, 23°C, 50% RH) at different compositions (single- or combination-ACF type) in a test chamber. Pressure drop across ACF cartridges were obtained using a micromanometer, and compared among different cartridge configurations, to those of the GAC cartridge, and to the NIOSH breathing resistance requirements for respirator cartridges. Single-ACF type cartridges filled with any ACFF had pressure drop measurements (23.71-39.93 mmH2O) within the NIOSH inhalation resistance requirement of 40 mmH2O, while those of the ACFC cartridges (85.47±3.67 mmH2O) exceeded twice the limit due possibly to the denser weaving of ACFC fibers. All single ACFF-type cartridges had higher pressure drop compared to the GAC cartridge (23.13±1.14 mmH2O). Certain ACF combinations (2 ACFF or ACFC/ACFF types) resulted to pressure drop (26.39-32.81 mmH2O) below the NIOSH limit. All single-ACFF type and all combination-ACF type cartridges with acceptable pressure drop had much lower adsorbent weights than GAC (≤15.2% of GAC weight), showing potential for light-weight respirator cartridges. 100% ACFC in cartridges may result to respirators with high breathing resistance and, thus, is not recommended. The more dense ACFF and ACFC types may still be possibly used in respirators by combining them with less dense ACFF materials and/or by

  16. Determination of pressure drop across activated carbon fiber respirator cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Lungu, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) is considered as an alternative adsorbent to granular activated carbon (GAC) for the development of thinner, lighter, and efficient respirators because of their larger surface area and adsorption capacities, thinner critical bed depth, lighter weight, and fabric form. This study aims to measure the pressure drop across different types of commercially available ACFs in respirator cartridges to determine the ACF composition and density that will result in acceptably breathable respirators. Seven ACF types in cloth (ACFC) and felt (ACFF) forms were tested. ACFs in cartridges were challenged with pre-conditioned constant air flow (43 LPM, 23°C, 50% RH) at different compositions (single- or combination-ACF type) in a test chamber. Pressure drop across ACF cartridges were obtained using a micromanometer, and compared among different cartridge configurations, to those of the GAC cartridge, and to the NIOSH breathing resistance requirements for respirator cartridges. Single-ACF type cartridges filled with any ACFF had pressure drop measurements (23.71-39.93 mmH2O) within the NIOSH inhalation resistance requirement of 40 mmH2O, while those of the ACFC cartridges (85.47±3.67 mmH2O) exceeded twice the limit due possibly to the denser weaving of ACFC fibers. All single ACFF-type cartridges had higher pressure drop compared to the GAC cartridge (23.13±1.14 mmH2O). Certain ACF combinations (2 ACFF or ACFC/ACFF types) resulted to pressure drop (26.39-32.81 mmH2O) below the NIOSH limit. All single-ACFF type and all combination-ACF type cartridges with acceptable pressure drop had much lower adsorbent weights than GAC (≤15.2% of GAC weight), showing potential for light-weight respirator cartridges. 100% ACFC in cartridges may result to respirators with high breathing resistance and, thus, is not recommended. The more dense ACFF and ACFC types may still be possibly used in respirators by combining them with less dense ACFF materials and/or by

  17. Characterization of activated carbon prepared from chlorella-based algal residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Ming; Tsai, Wen-Tien; Li, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-05-01

    The chlorella-based microalgal residue (AR) was tested as a novel precursor for preparing activated carbons. A combined carbonization-activation process with flowing N2 and CO2 gases was used to prepare the carbon materials at the activation temperatures of 800-1000 °C and the residence times of 0-30 min in this work. The elemental contents, pore properties and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the resulting activated carbons have been performed. The results showed that activation temperature may be the most important parameter for determining their pore properties. The maximal Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and total pore volume of the resulting activated carbon, which was produced at the activation temperature of 950 °C with the residence time of 30 min, were 840 m(2)/g and 0.46 cm(3)/g, respectively. More interestingly, the resulting activated carbons have significant nitrogen contents of 3.6-9.6 wt%, which make them lower carbon contents (i.e., 54.6-68.4 wt%) than those of commercial activated carbons.

  18. PREPARATION OF MICROWAVE ABSORBING NICKEL-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON BY ELECTROLESS PLATING WITH PALLADIUM-FREE ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Jia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, and vector network analyzer, respectively. The results show that the surface of the activated carbon was covered by a Ni-P coating, which was uniform, compact, and continuous and had an obvious metallic sheen. The content of P and Ni was 2.73% and 97.27% in the coating. Compared with the untreated activated carbon, the real permeability μ′ and imaginary permeability μ″ of Ni-based activated carbon became greater, whereas the real permittivity ε′ and imaginary permittivity ε″ became smaller. Also, the plated activated carbon was magnetic, making it suitable for some special applications. In general, the method reported here might be a feasible procedure to coat activated carbon with other magnetic metals, which may find application in various areas.

  19. Adsorption and cometabolic bioregeneration in activated carbon treatment of 2-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, Ozguer, E-mail: Ozgur.Aktas@mam.gov.tr [Bogazici University Institute of Environmental Sciences, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Cecen, Ferhan [Bogazici University Institute of Environmental Sciences, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    The extent of cometabolic bioregeneration of activated carbons loaded with 2-nitrophenol was investigated in lab-scale batch activated sludge reactors. Bioregeneration was quantified by measuring the deterioration in adsorption capacity of a fresh activated carbon after a pre-loading and a subsequent bioregeneration sequence. Activated carbons loaded with 2-nitrophenol could be partially bioregenerated cometabolically in the presence of phenol as the growth substrate. The occurrence of exoenzymatic bioregeneration was also possible during cometabolic bioregeneration of thermally activated carbon. However, cometabolic bioregeneration of chemically activated carbon was higher in accordance with higher desorbability. Rather than biodegradation, desorption was the rate-limiting step in bi-solute bioregeneration of phenol and 2-nitrophenol. The absence of oxidative coupling reactions leads to sufficient reversible adsorption, which eventually makes 2-nitrophenol an ideal compound in terms of bioregenerability.

  20. Systematic Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Activation of Waste Tire by Factorial Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.M. Fung; W.H-Cheung; G. McKay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, waste tire was used as raw material for the production of activated carbons through pyrolysis. 'Fire char was first produced by carbomzation at 550℃ under nitrogen. A two tactortal design was used to optimize the production of activated carbon from tire char. The effects of several factors controlling the activation process, such as temperature (.830-930℃), time (2-6h) and percentage ot carbon dioxide (70%-100%) were investigated. The production was described mathematically as a function of these three factors. First order modeling equations were developed for surface area, yield and mesopore volume. It was concluded that the yield, BET surface area and mesopore volume of activated carbon were most sensitive to activation temperature and time while percentage of carbon dioxide in the activation gas was a less significant factor.

  1. Single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption on activated carbon of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel daiem, Mahmoud M; Rivera-Utrilla, José; Sánchez-Polo, Manuel; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl

    2015-12-15

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption of phthalic acid (PA), bisphenol A (BPA), diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on two activated carbons with different chemical natures and similar textural characteristics. The adsorption mechanism was also elucidated by analyzing the influence of solution pH and ionic strength. The activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption capacity to remove all micropollutants due to the presence of active sites on their surfaces, which increase dispersive interactions between the activated carbon graphene layers and the aromatic ring of pollutants. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons increased in the order: DPAadsorption of contaminants is favored at acid pH (pHadsorption sites of the activated carbon.

  2. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  3. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  4. Photocatalytic Activity and Characterization of Carbon-Modified Titania for Visible-Light-Active Photodegradation of Nitrogen Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of carbon-modified titania powders were prepared by impregnation method using a commercial available titania powder, Hombikat UV100, as matrix material while a range of alcohols from propanol to hexanol were used as precursors of carbon sources. Rising the carbon number of alcoholic precursor molecule, the modified titania showed increasing visible activities of NOx photodegradation. The catalyst modified with cyclohexanol exhibited the best activities of 62%, 62%, 59%, and 54% for the total NOx removal under UV, blue, green, and red light irradiation, respectively. The high activity with long wavelength irradiation suggested a good capability of photocatalysis in full visible light spectrum. Analysis of UV-visible spectrum indicated that carbon modification promoted visible light absorption and red shift in band gap. XPS spectroscopic analysis identified the existence of carbonate species (C=O, which increased with the increasing carbon number of precursor molecule. Photoluminescence spectra demonstrated that the carbonate species suppressed the recombination rate of electron-hole pair. As a result, a mechanism of visible-light-active photocatalyst was proposed according to the formation of carbonate species on carbon-modified TiO2.

  5. Removal of iodide from water by chlorination and subsequent adsorption on powdered activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Ikari, Mariya; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Yuta; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine oxidation followed by treatment with activated carbon was studied as a possible method for removing radioactive iodine from water. Chlorination time, chlorine dose, the presence of natural organic matter (NOM), the presence of bromide ion (Br-), and carbon particle size strongly affected iodine removal. Treatment with superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) after 10-min oxidation with chlorine (1 mg-Cl-2/L) removed 90% of the iodine in NOM-containing water (dissolved organic carbo...

  6. ORGANIC CHELATING REAGENT ON REDOX ADSORPTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER TOWARDS Au3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Organic chelating reagent influences upon the redox adsorption of activated carbon fibertowards Au3- were systematically investigated. The experimental results indicated that the presenceof organic chelating reagent on activated carbon fiber strongly affects adsorption capacity ofactivated carbon fiber towards Au3+. The reduction-adsorption amount of Au3+ increased three timesby the presence of 8-quinolinol. Furthermore, The reduction-adsorption amount of Au3+ depended onthe pH value of adsorption and temperature.

  7. Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.P Rengga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas storage is a technology developed with an adsorptive storage method, in which gases are stored as adsorbed components on the certain adsorbent. Formaldehyde is one of the major indoor gaseous pollutants. Depending on its concentration, formaldehyde may cause minor disorder symptoms to a serious injury. Some of the successful applications of technology for the removal of formaldehyde have been reported. However, this paper presents an overview of several studies on the elimination of formaldehyde that has been done by adsorption method because of its simplicity. The adsorption method does not require high energy and the adsorbent used can be obtained from inexpensive materials. Most researchers used activated carbon as an adsorbent for removal of formaldehyde because of its high adsorption capacity. Activated carbons can be produced from many materials such as coals, woods, or agricultural waste. Some of them were prepared by specific activation methods to improve the surface area. Some researchers also used modified activated carbon by adding specific additive to improve its performance in attracting formaldehyde molecules. Proposed modification methods on activation and additive impregnated carbon are thus discussed in this paper for future development and improvement of formaldehyde adsorption on activated carbon. Specifically, a waste agricultural product is chosen for activated carbon raw material because it is renewable and gives an added value to the materials. The study indicates that the performance of the adsorption of formaldehyde might be improved by using modified activated carbon. Bamboo seems to be the most appropriate raw materials to produce activated carbon combined with applying chemical activation method and addition of metal oxidative catalysts such as Cu or Ag in nano size particles. Bamboo activated carbon can be developed in addition to the capture of formaldehyde as well as the storage of adsorptive hydrogen gas that

  8. Activated carbon as a pseudo-reference electrode for electrochemical measurement inside concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, van den Albert

    2015-01-01

    The application of Kynol based activated carbon (KAC) as a pseudo-reference electrode for potentiometric measurement inside concrete is presented. Due to its high surface area the activated carbons has a large electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC > 50 F g(-1)) and are used as electrode material

  9. Exceptionally strong sorption of infochemicals to activated carbon reduces their bioavailability to fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van Mourik, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) to sediments is a relatively new approach to remediate contaminated sites. Activated carbon strongly sorbs hydrophobic organic contaminants, thereby reducing their bioavailability and uptake in organisms. Because of its high sorption capacity, AC might, however,

  10. NMR and ESR characterization of activated carbons produced from pecan shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of solid-state NMR and ESR experiments were explored as potential tools to study chemical structure, mobility, and pore volume of activated carbon. We used a model system where pecan shells were activated with phosphoric acid, and carbonized at 450ºC for 4 h with varying amounts of ai...

  11. 76 FR 60803 - Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... International Trade Administration Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon From the People's... notice of initiation of an administrative review of certain activated carbon from the People's Republic... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 30912, 30913 (May 27, 2011). On July...

  12. Influence of different carbon nanostructures on the electrocatalytic activity and stability of Pt supported electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Borghei, Maryam; Andersen, Shuang Ma;

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available graphitized carbon nanofibers and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, two carbon materials with very different structure, have been functionalized in a nitric–sulfuric acid mixture. Further on, the materials have been platinized by a microwave assisted polyol method. The relativ...... that the functionalization improves the stability for multi-walled carbon nanotubes, at the cost of decreased activity.......Commercially available graphitized carbon nanofibers and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, two carbon materials with very different structure, have been functionalized in a nitric–sulfuric acid mixture. Further on, the materials have been platinized by a microwave assisted polyol method. The relative....../F-MWCNT. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Pt particle size is around 3 nm for all samples, which was similar to the crystallite size obtained by X-ray diffraction. The activity towards electrochemical reduction of oxygen has been quantified using the thin-film rotating disk electrode, which has shown...

  13. Kinetics of salicylic acid adsorption on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakovic, Milan; Gorner, Tatiana; Villiéras, Frédéric; de Donato, Philippe; Bersillon, Jean Luc

    2005-03-29

    The adsorption and desorption of salicylic acid from water solutions was investigated in HPLC microcolumns packed with activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was obtained by the step-up frontal analysis method in a concentration range of 0-400 mg/L and was well fitted with the Langmuir equation. The investigation of rate aspects of salicylic acid adsorption was based on adsorption/desorption column experiments where different inlet concentrations of salicylic acid were applied in the adsorption phase and desorption was conducted with pure water. The concentration profiles of individual adsorption/desorption cycles data were fitted using several single-parameter models of the fixed-bed adsorption to assess the influence of different phenomena on the column behavior. It was found that the effects of axial dispersion and extraparticle mass transfer were negligible. A rate-determining factor of fixed-bed column dynamics was the kinetics of pore surface adsorption. A bimodal kinetic model reflecting the heterogeneous character of adsorbent pores was verified by a simultaneous fit of the column outlet concentration in four adsorption/desorption cycles. The fitted parameters were the fraction of mesopores and the adsorption rate constants in micropores and mesopores, respectively. It was shown that the former rate constant was an intrinsic one whereas the latter one was an apparent value due to the effects of pore blocking and diffusional hindrances in the micropores. PMID:15779975

  14. Microwave pyrolysis of oily sludge with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of crude oil storage tank sludge for fuels using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a catalyst. The effect of GAC loading on the yield of pyrolysis products was also investigated. Heating rate of oily sludge and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as oil and fuel gas was found to depend on the ratio of GAC to oily sludge. The optimal GAC loading was found to be 10%, while much smaller and larger feed sizes adversely influenced production. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 77.5% was achieved. Pyrolytic oils with high concentrations of diesel oil and gasoline (about 70 wt% in the pyrolytic oil) were obtained. The leaching of heavy metals, such as Cr, As and Pb, was also suppressed in the solid residue after pyrolysis. This technique provides advantages such as harmless treatment of oily sludge and substantial reduction in the consumption of energy, time and cost.

  15. CO2 adsorption on chemically modified activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, Burcu Selen; Aksoylu, A Erhan

    2013-05-15

    CO2 adsorption capacity of a commercial activated carbon was improved by using HNO3 oxidation, air oxidation, alkali impregnation and heat treatment under helium gas atmosphere. The surface functional groups produced were investigated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (DRIFTS). CO2 adsorption capacities of the samples were determined by gravimetric analyses for 25-200°C temperature range. DRIFTS studies revealed the formation of carboxylic acid groups on the HNO3 oxidized adsorbents. Increased aromatization and uniform distribution of the Na particles were observed on the samples prepared by Na2CO3 impregnation onto HNO3 oxidized AC support. The adsorption capacities of the nonimpregnated samples were increased by high temperature helium treatments or by increasing the adsorption temperature; both leading to decomposition of surface oxygen groups, forming sites that can easily adsorb CO2. The adsorption capacity loss due to cyclic adsorption/desorption procedures was overcome with further surface stabilization of Na2CO3 modified samples with high temperature He treatments. With Na2CO3 impregnation the mass uptakes of the adsorbents at 20 bars and 25 °C were improved by 8 and 7 folds and at 1 bar were increased 15 and 16 folds, on the average, compared to their air oxidized and nitric acid oxidized supports, respectively. PMID:23500788

  16. Mesoporous Metal-Containing Carbon Nitrides for Improved Photocatalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C3N4 have attracted increasing interest due to their unusual properties and promising applications in water splitting, heterogeneous catalysis, and organic contaminant degradation. In this study, a new method was developed for the synthesis of mesoporous Fe contained g-C3N4 (m-Fe-C3N4 photocatalyst by using SiO2 nanoparticles as hard template and dicyandiamide as precursor. The physicochemical properties of m-Fe-C3N4 were thoroughly investigated. The XRD and XPS results indicated that Fe was strongly coordinated with the g-C3N4 matrix and that the doping and mesoporous structure partially deteriorated its crystalline structure. The UV-visible absorption spectra revealed that m-Fe-C3N4 with a unique electronic structure displays an increased band gap in combination with a slightly reduced absorbance, implying that mesoporous structure modified the electronic properties of g-Fe-C3N4. The photocatalytic activity of m-Fe-C3N4 for photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB was much higher than that of g-Fe-C3N4, clearly demonstrating porous structure positive effect.

  17. Powdered Activated Carbon: An Alternative Approach to Genomic DNA Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarić, Lucija; Bačić, Ivana; Grubić, Zorana

    2015-07-01

    Forensic evidence samples are routinely found as stains on various substrates, which may contain substances known to inhibit polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The goal of this study was to evaluate post-Chelex(®) 100 purification using powdered activated carbon (PAC). Mock crime scene DNA extracts were analyzed using quantitative PCR and short tandem repeat (STR) profiling to test the DNA recovery and inhibitor removal using PAC with those of the Amicon(®) Ultra 100K. For extracted bloodstains on soil and wood substrates, PAC and Amicon(®) Ultra 100K generated similar DNA yield and quality. Moreover, the two methods significantly decreased the concentration of humic substances and tannins compared to nonpurified extracts (p < 0.001). In instances where extracts contained indigo dye (bloodstains on denim), Amicon(®) Ultra 100K performed better than PAC due to improved amplifiability. Efficient adsorption of humic substances and tannins, which are common inhibitors, indicates PAC's potential application in the purification of high-template DNA extracts. PMID:25929735

  18. Resonance Raman Optical Activity of Single Walled Chiral Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter R; Koltai, János; Surján, Péter R; Kürti, Jenő; Szabados, Ágnes

    2016-07-21

    Resonance (vibrational) Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of six chiral single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are studied by theoretical means. Calculations are performed imposing line group symmetry. Polarizability tensors, computed at the π-electron level, are differentiated with respect to DFT normal modes to generate spectral intensities. This computational protocol yields a ROA spectrum in good agreement with the only experiment on SWCNT, available at present. In addition to the conventional periodic electric dipole operator we introduce magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole operators, suitable for conventional k-space calculations. Consequences of the complex nature of the wave function on the scattering cross section are discussed in detail. The resonance phenomenon is accounted for by the short time approximation. Involvement of fundamental vibrations in the region of the intermediate frequency modes is found to be more notable in ROA than in Raman spectra. Calculations indicate exceptionally strong resonance enhancement of SWCNT ROA signals. Resonance ROA profile of the (6,5) tube shows an interesting sign change that may be exploited experimentally for SWCNT identification. PMID:27315548

  19. Capacitive properties of polypyrrole/activated carbon composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porjazoska-Kujundziski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy and polypyrrole / activated carbon (PPy / AC - composite films, with a thickness between 0.5 and 15 μm were performed in a three electrode cell containing 0.1 mol dm-3 Py, 0.5 mol dm-3 NaClO4 dissolved in ACN, and dispersed particles of AC (30 g dm-3. Electrochemical characterization of PPy and PPy / AC composites was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The linear dependences of the capacitance (qC, redox capacitance (qred, and limiting capacitance (CL of PPy and PPy / AC - composite films on their thickness (L, obtained by electrochemical and impedance analysis, indicate a nearly homogeneous distribution of the incorporated AC particles in the composite films (correlation coefficient between 0.991 and 0.998. The significant enhancement of qC, qred, and CL, was observed for composite films (for ∼40 ± 5% in respect to that of the “pure” PPy. The decreased values of a volume resistivity in the reduced state of the composite film, ρ = 1.3 ⋅ 106 Ω cm (for L = 7.5 μm, for two orders of magnitude, compared to that of PPy - film with the same thickness, ρ ∼ 108 Ω cm, was also noticed.

  20. Surface properties of activated carbon from different raw materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang XiangLan; Zhang Yan; Liu Qiong; Zhou Wei

    2012-01-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) with different surface properties were prepared from different raw materials.N2 adsorption,pH value,Boehm titration,Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and FTIR were employed to characterize the pore structure and surface chemical properties of the ACs.The results show that AC from bituminous coal (AC-B) has more meso-pores,higher pH value,more carboxylic groups and basic site than ACs from coconut shell and hawthorn(AC-C,AC-H).Oxygen in the mixture gas has great effect on SO2 catalytic oxidation/oxidation ability of AC-B.In the absence of oxygen,the adsorbed SO2 on AC-B is 0.16 mmol/g and the conversion ratio of adsorbed SO2 to SO3 is 22,07%; while in the presence of oxygen,the adsorbed amount of SO2 is 0.42 mmol/g,and all of the adsorbed SO2 was totally converted to SO3.This feature of AC-B is consistent with its higher pH value,basic site and the reaction ability with H2 from TPR.The conversion ratios of SO2 absorbed on both AC-C and AC-H were 100%,respectively.

  1. A simple and highly effective process for the preparation of activated carbons with high surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying, E-mail: liyingjlu@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding Xuefeng; Guo Yupeng; Wang Lili; Rong Chunguang; Qu Yuning; Ma Xiaoyu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Zichen, E-mail: wangzc@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} High surface area activated carbon can be prepared by rice husk H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} without pretreatment. {yields} The characteristics of the activated carbon were greatly influenced by post-processing method. {yields} The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. {yields} Some silica in rice husk reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} which could be removed by post-process. - Abstract: Activated carbons with high surface area were prepared by phosphoric acid as activation agent and rice husks as precursors. It was found that the characteristics of the activated carbons were influenced not only by the preparation but also by the post-processing method. The high surface area of the activated carbons was prepared under the optimum condition (50% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with impregnation ratio of 5:1, activation temperature of 500 deg. C, activation time of 0.5 h, wash water temperature of 100 deg. C). SiO{sub 2} content could affect the surface area of activated carbons, either. The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. The SiO{sub 2} content was 11.2% when used the optimum condition. The explanation was that silicon element in rice husks reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form silicon phosphate (SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and it could be proved further by X-ray diffraction analysis, SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} could be removed by post-process.

  2. Enhanced adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate by bamboo-derived granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Nie, Yao; Du, Ziwen; Huang, Qian; Meng, Pingping; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-23

    A bamboo-derived granular activated carbon with large pores was successfully prepared by KOH activation, and used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from aqueous solution. The granular activated carbon prepared at the KOH/C mass ratio of 4 and activation temperature of 900°C had fast and high adsorption for PFOS and PFOA. Their adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 24h, which was attributed to their fast diffusion in the micron-sized pores of activated carbon. This granular activated carbon exhibited the maximum adsorbed amount of 2.32mmol/g for PFOS and 1.15mmol/g for PFOA at pH 5.0, much higher than other granular and powdered activated carbons reported. The activated carbon prepared under the severe activation condition contained many enlarged pores, favorable for the adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. In addition, the spent activated carbon was hardly regenerated in NaOH/NaCl solution, while the regeneration efficiency was significantly enhanced in hot water and methanol/ethanol solution, indicating that hydrophobic interaction was mainly responsible for the adsorption. The regeneration percent was up to 98% using 50% ethanol solution at 45°C. PMID:24721493

  3. Characteristic and mercury adsorption of activated carbon produced by CO2 of chicken waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yaji; JIN Baosheng; ZHONG Zhaoping; ZHONG Wenqi; XIAO Rui

    2008-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from chicken waste is a promising way to produce a useful adsorbent for Hg removal.A three-stage activation process (drying at 200℃,pyrolysis in N2 atmosphere,followed by CO2 activation) was used for the production of activated samples.The effects of carbonization temperature (400-600 ℃),activation temperature (700-900 ℃),and activation time (1-2.5 h) on the physicochemieal properties (weight-loss and BET surface) of the prepared carbon were investigated.Adsorptive removal of mercury from real flue gas onto activated carbon has been studied.The activated carbon from chicken waste has the same mercury capacity as commercial activated carbon (Darco LH) (HgV:38.7% vs.53.5%,HgO:50.5% vs.68.8%),although its surface area is around 10 times smaller,89.5 m2/g vs.862 m2/g.The low cost activated carbon can be produced from chicken waste,and the procedure is suitable.

  4. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  5. Adsorption Isotherms of CH 4 on Activated Carbon from Indonesian Low Grade Coal

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Awaludin

    2011-03-10

    This article presents an experimental approach for the determination of the adsorption isotherms of methane on activated carbon that is essential for methane storage purposes. The experiments incorporated a constant-volume- variable-pressure (CVVP) apparatus, and two types of activated carbon have been investigated, namely, activated carbon derived from the low rank coal of the East of Kalimantan, Indonesia, and a Carbotech activated carbon. The isotherm results which cover temperatures from (300 to 318) K and pressures up to 3.5 MPa are analyzed using the Langmuir, Tóth, and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) isotherm models. The heat of adsorption for the single component methane-activated carbon system, which is concentration- and temperature-dependent, is determined from the measured isotherm data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Estimation of the Isotherms of Phenol on Activated Carbons and Polymeric Adsorbents under Supercritical Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚红霞; 谢兰英; 李祥斌; 李忠

    2003-01-01

    A method named as "volume-expanding and pressure-reducing adsorption" is proposed. It can be used to measure the isotherms under supercritical condition. The adsorption isotherms of phenol on activated carbons and polymeric adsorbents are estimated and compared respectively for the systems of "phenol-activated carbon-supercritical fluid CO2" and "phenol-polymeric adsorbent-supercritical fluid CO2". The results show that the amount of phenol adsorbed on the activated carbons and the polymeric adsorbents under the supercritical condition is much less than that under the general condition, which can be utilized to develop a technology regenerating the activated carbon with supercritical fluid. Moreover, the effects of ethyl alcohol, used as the third component, on the isotherms of phenol on the activated carbons and polymeric adsorbents under the supercritical condition are also investigated.

  7. Porous carbon with a large surface area and an ultrahigh carbon purity via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Liu, Xin; Pi, Xinxin; Yang, Yuqi; Wu, Shaohua

    2016-11-01

    Large surface area and good structural stability, for porous carbons, are two crucial requirements to enable the constructed supercapacitors with high capacitance and long cycling lifespan. Herein, we successfully prepare porous carbon with a large surface area (3175 m2 g-1) and an ultrahigh carbon purity (carbon atom ratio of 98.25%) via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation. As-synthesized MTC-KOH exhibits excellent performances as supercapacitor electrode materials in terms of high specific capacitance and ultrahigh cycling stability. In a three electrode system, MTC-KOH delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and still 120 F g-1 at a high rate of 30 A g-1. There is almost no capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, demonstrating outstanding cycling stability. In comparison, pre-activated MTC with a hierarchical pore structure shows a better rate capability than microporous MTC-KOH. Moreover, the constructed symmetric supercapacitor using MTC-KOH can achieve high energy densities of 8.68 Wh kg-1 and 4.03 Wh kg-1 with the corresponding power densities of 108 W kg-1 and 6.49 kW kg-1, respectively. Our work provides a simple design strategy to prepare highly porous carbons with high carbon purity for supercapacitors application.

  8. Secondary Activation of Commercial Activated Carbon and its Application in Electric Double Layer Capacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cheap commercial activated carbon (AC) was improved through the secondary activation under steam in the presence of FeCl2 catalyst in the temperature range of 800-950℃ and its application in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) with organic electrolyte was studied. The re-activation of AC results in the increases in both specific capacitance and high rate capability of EDLCs. For AC treated under optimized conditions, its discharge specific capacitance increases up to 55.65 F/g, an increase of about 33% as compared to the original AC, and the high rate capability was increased significantly. The good performances of EDLC with improved AC were correlated to the increasing mesoporous ratio.

  9. Porous texture of activated carbons prepared by phosphoric acid activation of woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Díez, M. A.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Fernández González, C.; Cuerda-Correa, E. M.; Macías-García, A.

    2004-11-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared using chestnut, cedar and walnut wood shavings from furniture industries located in the Comunidad Autónoma de Extremadura (SW Spain). Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at different concentrations (i.e. 36 and 85 wt.%) has been used as activating agent. ACs have been characterized from the results obtained by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Moreover, the fractal dimension (D) has been calculated in order to determine the AC surface roughness degree. Optimal textural properties of ACs have been obtained by chemical activation with H3PO4 36 wt.%. This is corroborated by the slightly lower values of D for samples treated with H3PO4 85 wt.%.

  10. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, W.P. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Condensate water treatment by adsorption onto an activated carbon grade with high-activity and low-silicate leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzer, J. [NORIT Germany, Kempen (Germany); Ernhofer, R. [BAYERNOIL Refineries, Ingolstadt (Germany); Dikkenberg, J. van den [NORIT Activated Carbon, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is frequently used to remove dissolved organic impurities from condensate water. An optimal adsorption capacity and GAC life time are achieved by matching the size of the target organics versus the pore size distribution of the activated carbon. From a product range of over 150 activated carbon grades, eight different NORIT GAC types are available for condensate water polishing. Differences between these grades apply to adsorption properties, hydraulic properties and purity. Guidelines for design and operation of the GAC stage are provided. (orig.)

  12. Carbon dioxide captured by multi-walled carbon nanotube and activated charcoal: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available this study, the equilibrium adsorption of CO2 on activated charcoal (AC and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT were investigated. Experiments were performed at temperature range of 298-318 K and pressures up to 40 bars. The obtained results indicated that the equilibrium uptakes of CO2 by both adsorbents increased with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. In spite of lower specific surface area, the maximum amount of CO2 uptake achieved by MWCNT at 298K and 40 bars were twice of CO2 capture by AC (15 mmol.g-1 compared to 7.93 mmol.g-1. The higher CO2 captured by MWCNT can be attributed to its higher pore volume and specific structure of MWCN T such as hollowness and light mass which had greater influence than specific surface area. The experimental data were analyzed by means of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. Following a simple acidic treatment procedure increased marginally CO2 capture by MWCNT over entire range of pressure, while for AC this effect appeared at higher pressures. Small values of isosteric heat of adsorption were evaluated based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation showed the physical nature of adsorption mechanism. The high amount of CO2 capture by MWCNT renders it as a promising carrier for practical applications such as gas separation.

  13. Estimating organic micro-pollutant removal potential of activated carbons using UV absorption and carbon characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietzschmann, Frederik; Altmann, Johannes; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Dünnbier, Uwe; Dommisch, Ingvild; Sperlich, Alexander; Meinel, Felix; Jekel, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Eight commercially available powdered activated carbons (PAC) were examined regarding organic micro-pollutant (OMP) removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. PAC characteristic numbers such as B.E.T. surface, iodine number and nitrobenzene number were checked for their potential to predict the OMP removal of the PAC products. Furthermore, the PAC-induced removal of UV254 nm absorption (UVA254) in WWTP effluent was determined and also correlated with OMP removal. None of the PAC characteristic numbers can satisfactorily describe OMP removal and accordingly, these characteristics have little informative value on the reduction of OMP concentrations in WWTP effluent. In contrast, UVA254 removal and OMP removal correlate well for carbamazepine, diclofenac, and several iodinated x-ray contrast media. Also, UVA254 removal can roughly describe the average OMP removal of all measured OMP, and can accordingly predict PAC performance in OMP removal. We therefore suggest UVA254 as a handy indicator for the approximation of OMP removal in practical applications where direct OMP concentration quantification is not always available. In continuous operation of large-scale plants, this approach allows for the efficient adjustment of PAC dosing to UVA254, in order to ensure reliable OMP removal whilst minimizing PAC consumption. PMID:24651017

  14. Activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Li, Peijun

    2007-05-01

    Vegetable oil has been proven to be advantageous as a non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable solvent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils for remediation purposes. The resulting vegetable oil contained PAHs and therefore required a method for subsequent removal of extracted PAHs and reuse of the oil in remediation processes. In this paper, activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation was assessed to ascertain PAH contaminated oil regeneration. Vegetable oils, originating from lab scale remediation, with different PAH concentrations were examined to study the adsorption of PAHs on activated carbon. Batch adsorption tests were performed by shaking oil-activated carbon mixtures in flasks. Equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models. Studies were also carried out using columns packed with activated carbon. In addition, the effects of initial PAH concentration and activated carbon dosage on sorption capacities were investigated. Results clearly revealed the effectiveness of using activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove PAHs from the vegetable oil. Adsorption equilibrium of PAHs on activated carbon from the vegetable oil was successfully evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The initial PAH concentrations and carbon dosage affected adsorption significantly. The results indicate that the reuse of vegetable oil was feasible.

  15. A thermodynamic approach to assess organic solute adsorption onto activated carbon in water

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, the hydrophobicity of 13 activated carbons is determined by various methods; water vapour adsorption, immersion calorimetry, and contact angle measurements. The quantity and type of oxygen-containing groups on the activated carbon were measured and related to the methods used to measure hydrophobicity. It was found that the water-activated carbon adsorption strength (based on immersion calorimetry, contact angles) depended on both type and quantity of oxygen-containing groups, while water vapour adsorption depended only on their quantity. Activated carbon hydrophobicity measurements alone could not be related to 1-hexanol and 1,3-dichloropropene adsorption. However, a relationship was found between work of adhesion and adsorption of these solutes. The work of adhesion depends not only on activated carbon-water interaction (carbon hydrophobicity), but also on solute-water (solute hydrophobicity) and activated carbon-solute interactions. Our research shows that the work of adhesion can explain solute adsorption and includes the effect of hydrogen bond formation between solute and activated carbon. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotube based electrochemical capacitor in 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M.A., E-mail: asyadi@utem.edu.my [Carbon Research Technology Research Group, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Jantan, N.H.; Dorah, N.; Seman, R.N.A.R.; Manaf, N.S.A. [Carbon Research Technology Research Group, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Kudin, T.I.T. [Ionics Materials & Devices Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, M.Z.A. [Ionics Materials & Devices Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); National Defence University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon and single-walled CNT based electrochemical capacitor. • Electrochemical analysis by means of CV, charge/discharge and impedance. • 1 M LiPF{sub 6} non-aqueous solution as an electrolyte. • AC/SWCNT electrode exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have been extensively studied because of their wide range of potential application such as in nanoscale electric circuits, textiles, transportation, health, and the environment. Carbon nanotubes feature extraordinary properties, such as electrical conductivities higher than those of copper, hardness and thermal conductivity higher than those of diamond, and strength surpassing that of steel, among others. This research focuses on the fabrication of an energy storage device, namely, an electrochemical capacitor, by using carbon materials, i.e., activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotubes, of a specific weight ratio as electrode materials. The electrolyte functioning as an ion carrier is 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate. Variations in the electrochemical performance of the device, including its capacitance, charge/discharge characteristics, and impedance, are reported in this paper. The electrode proposed in this work exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}.

  17. Activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotube based electrochemical capacitor in 1 M LiPF6 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Activated carbon and single-walled CNT based electrochemical capacitor. • Electrochemical analysis by means of CV, charge/discharge and impedance. • 1 M LiPF6 non-aqueous solution as an electrolyte. • AC/SWCNT electrode exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g−1. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have been extensively studied because of their wide range of potential application such as in nanoscale electric circuits, textiles, transportation, health, and the environment. Carbon nanotubes feature extraordinary properties, such as electrical conductivities higher than those of copper, hardness and thermal conductivity higher than those of diamond, and strength surpassing that of steel, among others. This research focuses on the fabrication of an energy storage device, namely, an electrochemical capacitor, by using carbon materials, i.e., activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotubes, of a specific weight ratio as electrode materials. The electrolyte functioning as an ion carrier is 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate. Variations in the electrochemical performance of the device, including its capacitance, charge/discharge characteristics, and impedance, are reported in this paper. The electrode proposed in this work exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g−1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s−1

  18. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N. [Barkatullah Univ., Bhopal (India); Dixit, Mahur Savita [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopla (India)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO{sub 2} as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO{sub 2} flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl{sub 4} onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area.

  19. Insights into properties of activated carbons prepared from different raw precursors by pyrophosphoric acid activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2016-03-01

    Low-cost activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from four kinds of solid wastes: petroleum coke, Enteromorpha prolifera, lignin from papermaking black liquid and hair, by pyrophosphoric acid (H4P2O7) activation. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis of H4P2O7-precursor mixtures implied that H4P2O7 had different influences on the pyrolysis behavior of the four raw materials. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and adsorption capacities for dyes were used to characterize the prepared activated carbons. AC derived from E. prolifera exhibited the highest surface area (1094m(2)/g) and maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for malachite green (1250mg/g). Kinetic studies showed that the experimental data were in agreement with the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, indicating the adsorption of dye onto the ACs proceeded by monolayers. PMID:26969070

  20. The Effect of CO2 Activation on the Electrochemical Performance of Coke-Based Activated Carbons for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Hong-Gun; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2015-11-01

    The present study developed electrode materials for supercapacitors by activating coke-based activated carbons with CO2. For the activation reaction, after setting the temperature at 1,000 degrees C, four types of activated carbons were produced, over an activation time of 0-90 minutes and with an interval of 30 minutes as the unit. The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons produced was evaluated to examine the effect of CO2 activation. The surface structure of the porous carbons activated through CO2 activation was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To determine the N2/77 K isothermal adsorption characteristics, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) equation were used to analyze the pore characteristics. In addition, charge and discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to analyze the electrochemical characteristics of the changed pore structure. According to the results of the experiments, the N2 adsorption isotherm curves of the porous carbons produced belonged to Type IV in the International Union of Pore and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) classification and consisted of micropores and mesopores, and, as the activation of CO2 progressed, micropores decreased and mesopores developed. The specific surface area of the porous carbons activated by CO2 was 1,090-1,180 m2/g and thus showed little change, but those of mesopores were 0.43-0.85 cm3/g, thus increasing considerably. In addition, when the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed, the specific capacity was confirmed to have increased from 13.9 F/g to 18.3 F/g. From these results, the pore characteristics of coke-based activated carbons changed considerably because of CO2 activation, and it was therefore possible to increase the electrochemical characteristics. PMID:26726596

  1. Preparation of porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk by leaching ash and chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiduzzaman, Md; Sadrul Islam, A K M

    2016-01-01

    Preparation porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk char study has been conducted in this study. Rice husk char contains high amount silica that retards the porousness of bio-char. Porousness of rice husk char could be enhanced by removing the silica from char and applying heat at high temperature. Furthermore, the char is activated by using chemical activation under high temperature. In this study no inert media is used. The study is conducted at low oxygen environment by applying biomass for consuming oxygen inside reactor and double crucible method (one crucible inside another) is applied to prevent intrusion of oxygen into the char. The study results shows that porous carbon is prepared successfully without using any inert media. The adsorption capacity of material increased due to removal of silica and due to the activation with zinc chloride compared to using raw rice husk char. The surface area of porous carbon and activated carbon are found to be 28, 331 and 645 m(2) g(-1) for raw rice husk char, silica removed rice husk char and zinc chloride activated rice husk char, respectively. It is concluded from this study that porous bio-char and activated carbon could be prepared in normal environmental conditions instead of inert media. This study shows a method and possibility of activated carbon from agro-waste, and it could be scaled up for commercial production. PMID:27536531

  2. Preparation of porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk by leaching ash and chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiduzzaman, Md; Sadrul Islam, A K M

    2016-01-01

    Preparation porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk char study has been conducted in this study. Rice husk char contains high amount silica that retards the porousness of bio-char. Porousness of rice husk char could be enhanced by removing the silica from char and applying heat at high temperature. Furthermore, the char is activated by using chemical activation under high temperature. In this study no inert media is used. The study is conducted at low oxygen environment by applying biomass for consuming oxygen inside reactor and double crucible method (one crucible inside another) is applied to prevent intrusion of oxygen into the char. The study results shows that porous carbon is prepared successfully without using any inert media. The adsorption capacity of material increased due to removal of silica and due to the activation with zinc chloride compared to using raw rice husk char. The surface area of porous carbon and activated carbon are found to be 28, 331 and 645 m(2) g(-1) for raw rice husk char, silica removed rice husk char and zinc chloride activated rice husk char, respectively. It is concluded from this study that porous bio-char and activated carbon could be prepared in normal environmental conditions instead of inert media. This study shows a method and possibility of activated carbon from agro-waste, and it could be scaled up for commercial production.

  3. Carbon Nanotubes as Active Components for Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-De Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique structure of carbon nanotubes endows them with fantastic physical and chemical characteristics. Carbon nanotubes have been widely studied due to their potential applications in many fields including conductive and high-strength composites, energy storage and energy conversion devices, sensors, field emission displays and radiation sources, hydrogen storage media, and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and quantum wires. Some of these applications have been realized in products, while others show great potentials. The development of carbon nanotubes-based sensors has attracted intensive interest in the last several years because of their excellent sensing properties such as high selectivity and prompt response. Carbon nanotube-based gas sensors are summarized in this paper. Sensors based on single-walled, multiwalled, and well-aligned carbon nanotubes arrays are introduced. Modification of carbon nanotubes with functional groups, metals, oxides, polymers, or doping carbon nanotubes with other elements to enhance the response and selectivity of the sensors is also discussed.

  4. Activated carbons from African oil palm waste shells and fibre for hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We prepared a series of activated carbons by chemical activation with two strong bases in-group that few use, and I with waste from shell and fibers and oil-palm African. Activated carbons are obtained with relatively high surface areas (1605 m2/g. We study the textural and chemical properties and its effect on hydrogen storage. The activated carbons obtained from fibrous wastes exhibit a high hydrogen storage capacity of 6.0 wt % at 77 K and 12 bar.

  5. Effect of samarium on methanation resistance of activated carbon supported ruthenium catalyst for ammonia synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春晖; 祝一锋; 刘化章

    2010-01-01

    The effects of samarium(Sm) on carbon-methanation and catalytic activity of the Ba-Ru-K/AC (active carbon) catalyst for ammonia synthesis were investigated. The addition of samarium improved significantly the activity and stability of the catalyst. The results of temperature-programmed desorption (H2-TPD) and in-situ-TPSR FTIR indicated that samarium impeded the adsorption of hydrogen on the catalyst surface, thus leading to the high catalytic activity and resistance to carbon-methanation. XRD patterns reve...

  6. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  7. Preparation and hydrogen storage capacity of highly porous activated carbon materials derived from polythiophene

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Solís, Marta; Fuertes Arias, Antonio Benito; Mokaya, R.

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Highly porous carbons have been successfully synthesized by chemical activation of polythiophene with KOH. The activation process was performed under relatively mild activation conditions, i. e., a KOH/polymer weight ratio of 2 and reaction temperatures in the 600–850 °C range. The porous carbons thus obtained possess very large surface areas, up to 3000 m2/g, and pore volumes of up to 1.75 cm3/g. The pore size distribution of these carbons can be tuned via modification of the activation...

  8. The carbon copy of human activities : how long-term land use explains spatial variability of soil organic carbon stocks at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Invloed van landgebruik, landgebruik-geschiedenis en management op de koolstofvoorraad in de bodem in Nederland.The carbon copy of human activities - how long-term land use explains spatial variability of soil organic carbon stocks at multiple scales.

  9. Development of New Types of Active Carbons, Inorganic Oxides and Phosphates as Selective Adsorbents and Carriers for Catalysts and their Industrial Application. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis

    1996-01-01

    Adsorption equilibria of carbon dioxide and methane on activated carbon. Experimental results and mathematical modelling.......Adsorption equilibria of carbon dioxide and methane on activated carbon. Experimental results and mathematical modelling....

  10. Cellulase activity and dissolved organic carbon release from lignocellulose macrophyte-derived in four trophic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bottino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40 °C. Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively were quantified, the cellulase enzymatic activity was measured by releasing reducing sugars and immobilized carbon was analyzed by filtration. During the cellulose degradation indicated by the cellulase activity, the dissolved organic carbon daily rate and enzyme activity increased. It was related to a fast hydrolysable fraction of cellulose that contributed to short-term carbon immobilization (ca. 10 days. After approximately 20 days, the dissolved organic carbon and enzyme activity were inversely correlated suggesting that the respiration of microorganisms was responsible for carbon mineralization. Cellulose was an important resource in low nutrient conditions (oligotrophic. However, the detritus quality played a major role in the lignocelluloses degradation (i.e., enzyme activity and carbon release.

  11. Experimental study on solar-powered adsorption refrigeration cycle with activated alumina and activated carbon as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himsar Ambarita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical adsorbent applied in solar-powered adsorption refrigeration cycle is activated carbon. It is known that activated alumina shows a higher adsorption capacity when it is tested in the laboratory using a constant radiation heat flux. In this study, solar-powered adsorption refrigeration cycle with generator filled by different adsorbents has been tested by exposing to solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia. The generator is heated using a flat-plate type solar collector with a dimension of 0.5 m×0.5 m. Four cases experiments of solar-powered adsorption cycle were carried out, they are with generator filled by 100% activated alumina (named as 100AA, by a mixed of 75% activated alumina and 25% activated carbon (75AA, by a mixed of 25% activated alumina and 75% activated carbon (25AA, and filled by 100% activated carbon. Each case was tested for three days. The temperature and pressure history and the performance have been presented and analyzed. The results show that the average COP of 100AA, 75AA, 25AA, and 100AC is 0.054, 0.056, 0.06, and 0.074, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn is that for Indonesian condition and flat-plate type solar collector the pair of activated carbon and methanol is the better than activated alumina.

  12. Removal efficiency of radioactive methyl iodide on TEDA-impregnated activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.M.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

    2011-02-15

    Activated carbons were prepared by different series of carbon dioxide and steam activation from walnut shells for their optimal use as radioactive methyl iodide adsorbents in Nuclear Plants. The knowledge of the most favourable textural characteristics of the activated carbons was possible by the previous study of the commercial activated carbon currently used for this purpose. In order to increase their methyl iodide affinity, the effect of triethylenediamine impregnation was studied at 5 and 10 wt.%. The results obtained indicated that in both cases the adsorption efficiency is markedly improved by the addition of impregnant, which allows the adsorbate uptake to occur not only by physical adsorption, via non-specific interactions (as in non-impregnated carbons) but also by the specific interaction of triethylenediamine with radioactive methyl iodide. Methyl iodide retention efficiencies up to 98.1% were achieved. (author)

  13. Adsorption behavior of alpha -cypermethrin on cork and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F; Priolo, Giuseppe; Alves, Arminda C; Cabral, Miguel F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the adsorption behavior of alpha -cypermethrin [R)-alpha -cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(1S)-cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate, and (S)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] in solutions on granules of cork and activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption studies were carried out using a batch equilibrium technique. A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to analyze alpha -cypermethrin after solid phase extraction with C18 disks. Physical properties including real density, pore volume, surface area and pore diameter of cork were evaluated by mercury porosimetry. Characterization of cork particles showed variations thereby indicating the highly heterogeneous structure of the material. The average surface area of cork particles was lower than that of GAC. Kinetics adsorption studies allowed the determination of the equilibrium time - 24 hours for both cork (1-2 mm and 3-4 mm) and GAC. For the studied alpha -cypermethrin concentration range, GAC revealed to be a better sorbent. However, adsorption parameters for equilibrium concentrations, obtained through the Langmuir and Freundlich models, showed that granulated cork 1-2 mm have the maximum amount of adsorbed alpha-cypermethrin (q(m)) (303 microg/g); followed by GAC (186 microg/g) and cork 3-4 mm (136 microg/g). The standard deviation (SD) values, demonstrate that Freundlich model better describes the alpha -cypermethrin adsorption phenomena on GAC, while alpha -cypermethrin adsorption on cork (1-2 mm and 3-4 mm) is better described by the Langmuir. In view of the adsorption results obtained in this study it appears that granulated cork may be a better and a cheaper alternative to GAC for removing alpha -cypermethrin from water.

  14. Removal of phenol by activated carbons prepared from palm oil mill effluent sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A. MUYIBI; Mariatul F.MANSOR; Radziah WAHID

    2006-01-01

    The study was attempted to produce activated carbons from palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced was evaluated in aqueous solution of phenol. Two types of activation were followed, namely,thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800℃, and physical activation at 150℃ (boiling treatment). A control (raw POME sludge) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced. The results indicated that the activation temperature of 800℃showed maximum absorption capacity by the activated carbon (POME 800) in aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon of POME 800. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The adsorption of phenol onto the activated carbon POME 800 was studied in terms of pseudo- first and second order kinetics to predict the rate constant and equilibrium capacity with the effect of initial phenol concentrations. The rate of adsorption was found to be better correlation for the pseudo-second order kinetics compared to the first order kinetics.

  15. Specific Energy Characteristics of Nanoporous Carbon Activated by Orthophosphoric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Rachiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of the amount of phosphoric acid on the structure nanoporous carbon materials (NCM obtained from raw materials of plant origin. The results voltammetry defined specific capacitance characteristics of NCM and conditions its synthesis with optimal energy parameters established. It is shown that reducing the number of lignin-cellulose materials in precursor volume due to carbonization leads to a decline in specific capacity of NCM approximately 6-20 %.

  16. An assessment methodology for determining pesticides adsorption on granulated activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélemy J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, water suppliers add granular activated carbon reactor in the drinking water treatment notably in order to remove pesticides residues. In Europe, their concentrations must lie below the values imposed by the EU directives (98/83/EC. Acouple of years ago, some mini-column tests were developed to improve the use of the activated carbon reactor in relation with lab experiments. Modelling, which was elaborated to predict the lifetime of reactors, did not bring validated results. Nevertheless, this kind of experiment allows us to assess the adsorption performances of an activated carbon for different pesticides. Because of the lack of comparable available results, we have eveloped a standardized methodology based on the experiment in mini-column of granular activated carbon. The main experimental conditions are activated carbon: Filtrasorb 400 (Chemviron Carbon; water: mineral and organic reconstituted water (humic acid concentration: 0,5 mg/l; influent concentration 500 g . l -1 ; activated carbon weight: 200 mg; EBCT (Empty Bed Contact Time: 0.16 min.; linear speed: 0.15 m . s -1 . In these conditions, it appears that diuron is highly adsorbed in comparison with other active substances like chloridazon, atrazine or MCPA. From the ratio of effluent volume for the breakthrough point with respect to diuron, it is suggested that products of which the difference factor ratio is – (a below 0.40: may be reckoned as weakly adsorbed (MCPA; (b from 0.41 to 0.80: may be reckoned as moderately adsorbed (chloridazon and atrazine; (c above 0.80: as highly adsorbed on granular activated carbon. Active substances that are weakly adsorbed and have to be removed from drinking water, may highly reduce the lifetime of an activated carbon bed. This kind of information is particularly useful for water suppliers and for regulatory authorities.

  17. Phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion suppression and activation enhancement with cluster carbon co-implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Nagayama, Tsutomu; Koga, Yuji; Umisedo, Sei; Kawamura, Yasunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Onoda, Hiroshi [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd., 575 Kuze Tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2012-11-06

    Carbon co-implantation is well known as an effective method for suppressing boron/phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion (TED). Germanium pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) is usually applied prior to carbon co-implantation for suppressing channeling tail of dopants. In this study, cluster carbon was applied instead of the combination of germanium PAI and monomer carbon co-implantation prior to phosphorous implantation. Dependence of phosphorous activation and TED on amorphous layer thickness, carbon dose, carbon distribution and substrate temperature have been investigated. Cluster carbon implantation enables thick amorphous layer formation and TED suppression at the same time and low temperature implantation enhances the ability of amorphous layer formation so that shallow junction and low Rs can be achieved without Ge implantation.

  18. Production of activated carbon from raw date palm fronds by ZnCI/sub 2/ activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annually a large volume of date palm frond waste is produced in Saudi Arabia as a result of the pruning of date palm trees. In this research activated carbon (AC) was prepared from date frond through a single step chemical activation method by ZnCl/sub 2/. The influence of ZnCl/sub 2/ concentrations (in the range of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 percentage) on the surface areas, pore volumes and carbon yield of ACs prepared from raw date frond (RDF) was studied with various analytical techniques. The RDF and ACs were characterized by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), nitrogen adsorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) for surface areas and pore volumes, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for surface morphology and elemental composition respectively. In the present study we have obtained the highest BET surface area 1581.67 m/sup 2/g/sup -1/ and total pore volume 0.629 cm/sup 3/ g/sup -1/ at 60 percentage ZnCl/sub 2/ concentration. The percentage yield of ACs increased with increase in ZnCl/sub 2/ concentration and reached to 39 percent at 60 percent ZnCl/sub 2/ concentration. The surface area obtained in the present study is highest amongst the results report in literature. (author)

  19. Error Analysis of Adsorption Isotherm Models for Acid Dyes onto Bamboo Derived Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.S. Chan; W.H. Cheung; S.J. Allen; G. McKay

    2012-01-01

    High surface area activated carbons were produced by thermal activation of waste bamboo scaffolding with phosphoric acid. Single component equilibrium dye adsorption was conducted on the carbons produced and comparedwith a commercially available carbon. Two acid dyes With different molecular sizes, namely Acid Yellow 117 (AY117) and Acid Blue 25 (AB25), were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the produced carbons. Itwas found that the dye with smaller molecular size, AB 25, was readily adsorbed onto the produced carbon, nearly three times, higher than a commercially available carbon, while the larger size dye, A.Y117, showed little adsorption.The experimental data were analyzed using isotherm equations including Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin,Toth, Redlich-Peterson and Sips equations. The equilibrium data were then analyzed using five different non-linear erroranalysis methods.

  20. CO2-pressure swing activation for efficient production of highly porous carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuwen; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe a new type of activation method of carbon materials using pressure swing of CO2. The porosity development markedly depends on the pressure swinging frequency. The porous carbon obtained from pressure-swing activation shows an additional porosity development without pitting corrosion on the surface, which occurs on CO2 activation without pressure-swing. This phenomenon is ascribed to the enhancement of Knudsen diffusion and/or configurational diffusion of CO2 which is...

  1. Photocatalytic Characterization of TiO2 Supported on Active Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    he Photocatalytic characterization of TiO2 supported on active carbon was investigated for photocatalytic decomposition of dichloroacetic acid. It was found that TiO2 / AC exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2. The reason is that active carbon acting as powerful adsorbent supports makes high concentration environments of organic pollutant molecules around TiO2 particles.

  2. Modeling high adsorption capacity and kinetics of organic macromolecules on super-powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Ando, Naoya; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Kurotobi, Ryuji; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2011-02-01

    The capacity to adsorb natural organic matter (NOM) and polystyrene sulfonates (PSSs) on small particle-size activated carbon (super-powdered activated carbon, SPAC) is higher than that on larger particle-size activated carbon (powdered-activated carbon, PAC). Increased adsorption capacity is likely attributable to the larger external surface area because the NOM and PSS molecules do not completely penetrate the adsorbent particle; they preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the particle. In this study, we propose a new isotherm equation, the Shell Adsorption Model (SAM), to explain the higher adsorption capacity on smaller adsorbent particles and to describe quantitatively adsorption isotherms of activated carbons of different particle sizes: PAC and SPAC. The SAM was verified with the experimental data of PSS adsorption kinetics as well as equilibrium. SAM successfully characterized PSS adsorption isotherm data for SPACs and PAC simultaneously with the same model parameters. When SAM was incorporated into an adsorption kinetic model, kinetic decay curves for PSSs adsorbing onto activated carbons of different particle sizes could be simultaneously described with a single kinetics parameter value. On the other hand, when SAM was not incorporated into such an adsorption kinetic model and instead isotherms were described by the Freundlich model, the kinetic decay curves were not well described. The success of the SAM further supports the adsorption mechanism of PSSs preferentially adsorbing near the outer surface of activated carbon particles. PMID:21172719

  3. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  4. Catalytic effect of activated carbon on bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic effect of activated carbon on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores using mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was investigated. The results show that the addition of activated carbon can greatly accelerate the rate and efficiency of copper dissolution from low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The solution with the concentration of 3.0 g/L activated carbon is most beneficial to the dissolution of copper. The resting time of the mixture of activated carbon and ores has an impact on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The 2 d resting time is most favorable to the dissolution of copper. The enhanced dissolution rate and efficiency of copper can be attributed to the galvanic interaction between activated carbon and chalcopyrite. The addition of activated carbon obviously depresses the dissolution of iron and the bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions in solution. The lower redox potentials are more favorable to the copper dissolution than the higher potentials for low-grade primary copper sulfide ores in the presence of activated carbon.

  5. Modified activated carbons with amino groups and their copper adsorption properties in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hassan Mahaninia; Paria Rahimian; Tahereh Kaghazchi

    2015-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by two chemical methods and the adsorption of Cu (II) on activated carbons from aqueous solution containing amino groups was studied. The first method involved the chlorination of activated carbon following by substitution of chloride groups with amino groups, and the second involved the nitrilation of activated carbon with reduction of nitro groups to amino groups. Resultant activated carbons were characterized in terms of porous structure, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, XPS, Boehm titration, and pHzpc. Kinetic and equilibrium tests were performed for copper adsorption in the batch mode. Also, adsorption mechanism and effect of pH on the adsorption of Cu (II) ions were discussed. Adsorption study shows enhanced adsorption for copper on the modified activated carbons, mainly by the presence of amino groups, and the Freundlich model is applicable for the activated carbons. It is suggested that binding of nitrogen atoms with Cu (II) ions is stronger than that with H+ions due to relatively higher divalent charge or stronger electrostatic force.

  6. On the preparation and characterization of chars and activated carbons from orange skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, J.M.; Bedia, J.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Cordero, T. [Chemical Engineering Department, School of Industrial Engineering, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071, University of Malaga (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Activated carbons were obtained by carbonization of orange skin waste and partial gasification with CO{sub 2}. The orange skin contains a significant amount of inorganic matter mainly potassium, calcium and phosphorus. CO{sub 2} gasification is catalyzed by potassium and calcium, resulting in carbons with a microporous structure. Thermal treatment up to 900 C applied to orange skin-derived activated carbons yields carbons with a highly developed porous structure, and a significant contribution of mesopores, due to the activation effect of potassium compounds. This porous structure is initially blocked by the inorganic matter that is removed by a subsequent acid wash, opening the porous structure of the final carbon; an activated carbon with a very wide porous structure and a specific surface area of around 1200 m{sup 2}/g was obtained. The activated carbon with high potassium content shows relatively high NO adsorption capacities in the presence of oxygen at 120 C, probably due to the catalytic effect of potassium on the oxidation of NO. The breakthrough times of the NO adsorption in the presence of oxygen at 120 C were predicted by the Bohart and Adams model with a relevant agreement between the calculated and the experimental times. (author)

  7. EFFECT OF CARBON AVAILABILITY ON MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES IN Calamagrostis angustifolia SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Feng; SONG Chang-Chun; SONG Xia; YANG Huai-Hui

    2004-01-01

    Carbon availability varies very much along soil profile and decreases from topsoil to subsoil. The effect of carbon availability index (CAI) on microbial activities in Calamagrostis angustifolia soil in the Sanjiang Plain in the Northeast China was measured. Based on the proposal about CAI and microbial respiration from Parkinson and Coleman (1999), the results showed that carbon availability limits the microbial activities in topsoil, root layer soil and subsoil initially, whereas it does not limit the microbial activity after 1.5 h incubation for recovery from the disturbance in physical, chemical and biology structure resulting from sampling, then after 5h incubation carbon availability limits mi-crobial activity again after the labile carbon was mineralized. At the same time the soil organic matter affects the carbon availability significantly when it is lower than 10%, but little when the soil organic matter is higher than 10%. The microbial biomass carbon is linearly related to carbon availability in the Calamagrostis angustifolia soil. When the CAI is lower than 0.85, the β-glucosidase activity increases along with CAI, but decreases when CAI is larger than 0.85.

  8. Evaluation of the sorption of Eu(III) in titanium diphosphate; Evaluacion de la sorcion de Eu(III) en difosfato de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz O, H.B.; Ordonez R, E.; Fernandez V, S.M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5, Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: hortiz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    In this work its are presented: the synthesis, physicochemical characterization and the surface parameters estimation that can be related with the retention properties of the titanium diphosphate for the actinides of valence III (Pu, Am, Cm among others), using the Eu{sup 3+} like a chemical analog. The surface area, hydration time, zero charge point, density of active sites and the surface species distribution in the titanium diphosphate are reported. This information was used to explain the retention of the Eu(lll) in the surface of the titanium diphosphate. (Author)

  9. Cooperativity between Al Sites Promotes Hydrogen Transfer and Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation upon Dimethyl Ether Activation on Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Vives, Aleix; Valla, Maxence; Copéret, Christophe; Sautet, Philippe

    2015-09-23

    The methanol-to-olefin (MTO) process allows the conversion of methanol/dimethyl ether into olefins on acidic zeolites via the so-called hydrocarbon pool mechanism. However, the site and mechanism of formation of the first carbon-carbon bond are still a matter of debate. Here, we show that the Lewis acidic Al sites on the 110 facet of γ-Al2O3 can readily activate dimethyl ether to yield CH4, alkenes, and surface formate species according to spectroscopic studies combined with a computational approach. The carbon-carbon forming step as well as the formation of methane and surface formate involves a transient oxonium ion intermediate, generated by a hydrogen transfer between surface methoxy species and coordinated methanol on adjacent Al sites. These results indicate that extra framework Al centers in acidic zeolites, which are associated with alumina, can play a key role in the formation of the first carbon-carbon bond, the initiation step of the industrial MTO process. PMID:27162986

  10. Electrocatalytic activity of Ni-doped nanoporous carbons in the electrooxidation of propargyl alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    García-Cruz, Leticia; Sáez, Alfonso; Ovín Ania, María Concepción; Solla-Gullón, José; Thiemann, Thies; Iniesta, Jesús; Montiel, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we explore the immobilization of nickel on various carbon supports and their application as electrocatalysts for the oxidation of propargyl alcohol in alkaline medium. In comparison with massive and nanoparticulated nickel electrode systems, Ni-doped nanoporous carbons provided similar propargyl alcohol conversions for very low metallic contents. Nanoparticulated Ni on various carbon supports gave rise to the highest electrocatalytic activity in terms of product selectivity, with a cl...

  11. Biological uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by Macoma balthica from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase with both increasing carbon dose and decreasing carbon particle size. Average reductions in bioaccumulation of 22, 64, and 84% relative to untreated Hunters Point sediment were observed for carbon amendments of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4%, respectively. Average bioaccumulation reductions of 41, 73, and 89% were observed for amendments (dose = 1.7% dry wt) with carbon particles of 180 to 250, 75 to 180, and 25 to 75 ??m, respectively, in diameter, indicating kinetic phenomena in these tests. Additionally, a biodynamic model quantifying clam PCB uptake from water and sediment as well as loss through elimination provided a good fit of experimental data. Model predictions suggest that the sediment ingestion route contributed 80 to 95% of the PCB burdens in the clams. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  12. Wastewater treatment using low cost activated carbons derived from agricultural byproducts-A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Dinesh [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, U.P. (India)], E-mail: dm_1967@hotmail.com; Singh, Kunwar P.; Singh, Vinod K. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, U.P. (India)

    2008-04-15

    A variety of low cost activated carbons were developed from agricultural waste materials viz., coconut shell, coconut shell fibers and rice husk. The low cost activated carbons were fully characterized and utilized for the remediation of various pollutants viz., chemical oxygen demand (COD), heavy metals, anions, etc., from industrial wastewater. Sorption studies were carried out at different temperatures and particle sizes to study the effect of temperatures and surface areas. The removal of chloride and fluoride increased with rise in temperature while COD and metal ions removal decreased with increase in temperature, thereby, indicating the processes to be endothermic and exothermic, respectively. The kinetics of COD adsorption was also carried out at different temperatures to establish the sorption mechanism and to determine various kinetic parameters. The COD removal was 47-72% by coconut shell fiber carbon (ATFAC), 50-74% by coconut shell carbon (ATSAC) and 45-73% by rice husk carbon (ATRHC). Furthermore, COD removal kinetics by rice husk carbon, coconut shell carbon and coconut fiber carbon at different temperatures was approximately represented by a first order rate law. Results of this fundamental study demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of low cost activated carbons. The parameters obtained in this study can be fully utilized to establish fixed bed reactors on large scale to treat the contaminated water.

  13. Activated carbon. 1979-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1979-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    The bibliography of Federally-funded research cites reports on sewage and industrial waste water treatment using activated carbon. These have been separated from other uses of activated carbon. The first part contains both laboratory as well as engineering studies. The second part covers other reports on activated carbon including research on its properties and its use in air pollution control, gas and water analysis, the absorption of chemicals and radioactive isotopes especially iodine isotopes, and drinking water treatment. (This updated bibliography contains 75 citations, 24 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Activated carbon. 1975-1978 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1975-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    The bibliography of Federally-funded research cites reports on sewage and industrial waste water treatment using activated carbon. These have been separated from other uses of activated carbon. The first part contains both laboratory as well as engineering studies. The second part covers other reports on activated carbon including research on its properties and its use in air pollution control, gas and water analysis, the absorption of chemicals and radioactive isotopes especially iodine isotopes, and drinking water treatment. (This updated bibliography contains 239 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. High power density aqueous hybrid supercapacitor combining activated carbon and highly conductive spinel cobalt oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godillot, G.; Taberna, P.-L.; Daffos, B.; Simon, P.; Delmas, C.; Guerlou-Demourgues, L.

    2016-11-01

    The remarkable electrochemical behavior of complete activated carbon/cobalt oxide cells is reported in the present work. Among the various weight ratios between the positive and negative electrodes evaluated, the best features are obtained with an overcapacitive cobalt oxide electrode. The energy densities obtained by this system (20 Wh kg-1 for a power density of 209 W kg-1) are twice higher than those measured for a activated carbon/activated carbon symmetric cell, in the same operating conditions. With discharge capacities around 62 F g-1, this system is among the best ones reported in the literature for this category.

  16. An Electrokinetic Process Coupled Activated Carbon Barrier for Nickel Removal from Kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jamshidi Zanjani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic (EK remediation coupled with activated carbon barrier was evaluated to remove nickel (500 mg/kg from kaolinite. Laboratory experiments were performed by applying a constant voltage to create electric field strength of 1 or 1.25 V/cm for 3 days. Findings showed that the barrier filled with activated carbon could prevent the formation of reverse electro-osmotic flow, which had an adverse effect on the Ni(II removal. Application of activated carbon barrier into EK process resulted in an increase of Ni migration from 11 to 47%.

  17. An Electrokinetic Process Coupled Activated Carbon Barrier for Nickel Removal from Kaolinite

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jamshidi Zanjani; Mohsen Saeedi; Chih-Huang WENG

    2012-01-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation coupled with activated carbon barrier was evaluated to remove nickel (500 mg/kg) from kaolinite. Laboratory experiments were performed by applying a constant voltage to create electric field strength of 1 or 1.25 V/cm for 3 days. Findings showed that the barrier filled with activated carbon could prevent the formation of reverse electro-osmotic flow, which had an adverse effect on the Ni(II) removal. Application of activated carbon barrier into EK process resul...

  18. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-09-25

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m(2) g(-1) and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm(3) g(-1) and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g(-1) at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  19. Adsorption of uranium, cesium and strontium onto coconut shell activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of uranium (VI), cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions onto a commercial activated carbon obtained by physical activation of coconut shell has been studied in batch systems. In particular the adsorption of uranium, studied as a function of contact time and metal ion concentration, followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the maximum adsorption capacity of the activated carbon resulted to be 55.32 mg/g. The study showed that the considered activated carbon could be successfully used for uranium adsorption from aqueous solutions. Feasibility of cesium and strontium adsorption onto the same activated carbon has been also investigated. Results showed that no affinities with both of these ions exist. (author)

  20. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K. Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2015-09-01

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m2 g-1 and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm3 g-1 and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ˜4.2 mmol g-1 at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  1. Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarães, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa

    2011-09-15

    In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes.

  2. Preparation of activated carbons and their adsorption properties for greenhouse gases: CH4 and CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Yang; Maochu Gong; Yaoqiang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Three kinds of activated carbons were prepared using coconut-shells as carbon precursors and characterized by XRD,FT-IR and texture property test.The results indicate that the prepared activated carbons were mainly amorphous and only a few impurity groups were adsorbed on their surfaces.The texture property test reveals that the activated carbons displayed different texture properties,especially the micropore size distribution.The adsorption capacities of the activated carbons were investigated by adsorbing CH4,CO2,N2 and O2 at 25 ℃ in the pressure range of 0-200 kPa.The results reveal that all the activated carbons had high CO2 adsorption capacity,one of which had the highest CO2 adsorption value of 2.55 mmol/g at 200 kPa.And the highest adsorption capacity for CH4 of the activated carbons can reach 1.93 mmol/g at 200 kPa.In the pressure range of 0-200 kPa,the adsorption capacities for N2 and O2 were increased linearly with the change of pressure and K-AC is an excellent adsorbent towards the adsorption separation of greenhouse gases.

  3. Activated carbon from thermo-compressed wood and other lignocellulosic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capart, R.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermo-compression on the physical properties such as bulk density, mass yield, surface area, and also adsorption capacity of activated carbon were studied. The activated carbon samples were prepared from thermo-compressed and virgin fir-wood by two methods, a physical activation with CO2 and a chemical activation with KOH. A preliminary thermo-compression method seems an easy way to confer to a tender wood a bulk density almost three times larger than its initial density. Thermo-compression increased yield regardless of the mode of activation. The physical activation caused structural alteration, which enhanced the enlargement of micropores and even their degradation, leading to the formation of mesopores. Chemical activation conferred to activated carbon a heterogeneous and exclusively microporous nature. Moreover, when coupled to chemical activation, thermo-compression resulted in a satisfactory yield (23%, a high surface area (>1700 m2.g-1, and a good adsorption capacity for two model pollutants in aqueous solution: methylene blue and phenol. Activated carbon prepared from thermo-compressed wood exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for both the pollutants than did a commercial activated carbon.

  4. Production and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Çanakkale-Çan Lignite by KOH and ZnCl2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Karacan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was produced from Çanakkale-Çan lignite using potassium hydroxide (KOH and zinc chloride (ZnCl2 as activating agent. The influence of carbonization temperatures (500-900 0C and different chemical reagents (KOH and ZnCl2 on the pore development and the yield of the prepared activated carbon were investigated. The resultant activated carbons were characterized in terms of the yield, BET surface area, pore volumes, micropore and mesopore fraction. Results showed that increasing the carbonization temperature, the yield decreased, while surface area and micro-porosity increased. Maximum surface area was about 1092 m2/g at 900 0C with KOH activation and carbonization duration of 1 h. The surface area of char obtained from carbonization of lignite sample without impregnation by chemical reagent was 157 m2/g at 900 0C. From these data, it has been showed that in order to produce activated carbons with high surface area and porosity, thermal activation (without impregnation itself is not sufficient. The prepared activated carbon was compared with commercial activated carbon. Surface area and micropore fraction of activated carbons obtained from both KOH and ZnCl2 activation much larger than those of the commercial activated carbon.

  5. Covalent organic polymer functionalization of activated carbon surfaces through acyl chloride for environmental clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil;

    2017-01-01

    a core-shell formation of COP material grafted to the outer layers of activated carbon. This general method brings features of both COPs and porous carbons together for target-specific environmental remediation applications, which was corroborated with successful adsorption tests for organic dyes...

  6. Magnetic graphitic carbon nitride: its application in the C–H activation of amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic graphitic carbon nitride, Fe@g-C3N4, has been synthesized by adorning graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) support with iron oxide via non-covalent interaction. The magnetically recyclable catalyst showed excellent reactivity for expeditious C-H activation and cyanation of ...

  7. RICE BRAN CARBON: AN ALTERNATIVE TO COMMERCIAL ACTIVATED CARBON FOR THE REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Hadi Hasan; Deeksha Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Rice bran carbon (RBC) prepared from rice bran (an agricultural waste) was successfully utilized for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. The potentiality of RBC was tested and compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC), and it was found that RBC removed 95% of hexavalent chromium at pH 2, 1000 µM Cr(VI) concentration, temperature 30 oC, and adsorbent dose of 2 g/L. The maximum uptake of total chromium obtained by applying the Langmuir isotherm model was 138.88 mg/g ...

  8. Adsorption of Xe-133 by activated carbon. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several nuclear power stations carbon filters in the off-gas system are now used to reduce the emission of radioactive noble gases. A gradual deterioration of the filters can be expected. Methods for measuring the efficiency of filters and the quality of the carbon should therefore be available. A reduction in the separative ability for krypton should be a useful way to indicate an impaired retention for xenon. The advantage of this method lies in the in-situ process which does not affect the operation of the system. An experimental set up and equipment has been tested to measure the dynamic adsorption constant of zenon. Two carbon qualities have been measured at 25degC and - 70degC.(G.B.)

  9. Sorption of cobalt in zeolites and natural clays of the clinoptilolite and kaolinite type; Sorcion de cobalto en zeolitas y arcillas naturales del tipo clinoptilolita y caolinita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila R, J.I.; Solache R, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work the sorption of cobalt of aqueous solutions in two natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) and a clay (kaolinite) of origin in the center-north region of Mexico is evaluated. The effect of the pH and the time of contact in the process of sorption were evaluated. The cobalt retained in the aluminosilicates was determined by neutron activation analysis. The cobalt sorption in the materials in a range of pH from 4 to 7 does not present significant variations. The studies of reaction kinetics show a very fast sorption in the first 5 hours of contact, reaching the equilibrium in approximately 24 hours. The kinetics of sorption of the cobalt ions was represented better by the Ritchie reaction model modified of second order. The experimental data for the zeolites obtained at ambient temperature and varying the concentration were adjusted to the models of Freundlich, Langmuir and Freundlich-Langmuir isotherms and it was observed that the cobalt sorption it behaves according to the Freundlich isotherm model. (Author)

  10. Leachate Treatment by Batch Decant Activated Sludge Process and Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Hashempur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Direct biodegradation of landfill leachate is too difficult because of high concentrations of COD and NH3 and also the presence of toxic compounds. The main objective of this study was to application of Strurvite precipitation as a pretreatment stage, in order to remove inhibitors of biodegradation before the batch decant activated sludge process with addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC."nMaterials and Methods: Strurvite precipitated leachate was introduced to a bench scale batch decant activated sludge reactor with hydraulic retention times of 6 and 12 hour. PAC was added to aeration tank directly at the rate of 3.5 g/L."nResults:TCOD, SCOD, NH3 and P removal efficiency with addition of PAC in HRT of 6 h were 90,87, 98.3 and 94 % respectively and 96, 95, 99.2 and 98.7 5 in HRT of 12 h."nConcusion:According to obtained data from this work, it can be concluded that Strurvite precipitation before batch decant activated sludge process and simultaneous addition of PAC is promising technology for leachate treatment and can meet effluent standards for discharge to the receiving waters.

  11. Adsorption of Reactive Red M-2BE dye from water solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Fernando M.; Bergmann, Carlos P. [Department of Material, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Osvaldo Aranha 99, Laboratory 705C, ZIP 90035-190, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fernandes, Thais H.M. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, ZIP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, ZIP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Calvete, Tatiana [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, ZIP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fagan, Solange B. [Department of Nanoscience, UNIFRA, R. dos Andradas 1614, ZIP 97010-032, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents. {yields} Reactive Red M-2BE textile dye adsorbate. {yields} Kinetics was followed by Avrami fractional-order. {yields} The maximum adsorption capacities were 335.7 and 260.7 mg g{sup -1} for MWCNT and PAC. {yields} Synthetic effluents treatment. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and powdered activated carbon were used as adsorbents for the successful removal of Reactive Red M-2BE textile dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised by infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of pH, shaking time and temperature on adsorption capacity were studied. In the acidic pH region (pH 2.0), the adsorption of the dye was favourable using both adsorbents. The contact time to obtain equilibrium at 298 K was fixed at 1 h for both adsorbents. The activation energy of the adsorption process was evaluated from 298 to 323 K for both adsorbents. The Avrami fractional-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data compared with pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order kinetic adsorption models. For Reactive Red M-2BE dye, the equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. Simulated dyehouse effluents were used to check the applicability of the proposed adsorbents for effluent treatment.

  12. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  13. 76 FR 39851 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of... antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the... (Tianjin) Co., Ltd. (``CCT'') and Ningxia Huahui Activated Carbon Co., Ltd. (``Huahui''). On June 10,...

  14. Selection of pecan shell based activated carbons for removal of organic and inorganic impurities from simulated well-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated carbons are a byproduct from pyrolysis and have value as a purifying agent. The effectiveness of activated carbons is dependent on feedstock selection and pyrolysis conditions that modify its surface properties. Therefore, pecan shell-based activated carbons (PSACs) were prepared by soakin...

  15. 76 FR 43654 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Preliminary Rescission in Part: Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 23978... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... the antidumping duty administrative review on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic...

  16. 76 FR 69705 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results, 74 FR 57995 (November 10, 2009... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the...

  17. 77 FR 26496 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Fourth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 15099... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period April 1, 2010, through...

  18. 75 FR 981 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission of Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of... circumstance review (``CCR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice...

  19. 75 FR 61126 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... the antidumping duty administrative review on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of... results of this review. See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  1. 75 FR 61697 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period April 1, 2009, through... Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Selection of...

  2. 77 FR 38082 - Certain Activated Carbon from China; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... COMMISSION Certain Activated Carbon from China; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five... Activated Carbon From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from China would be likely...

  3. 75 FR 39916 - Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-904 Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China... initiation of the antidumping duty administrative review on certain activated carbon from the People's... Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results...

  4. 78 FR 77419 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2012-2013; Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2012-2013... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of... activated carbon from the PRC (``the Order'').\\1\\ Based upon these requests, on June 3, 2013, the...

  5. 76 FR 23978 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Third...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 48644 (August 11, 2010). \\4\\ See Certain Activated Carbon from the... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period April...

  6. 77 FR 33420 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Order: Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 20988 (April 27, 2007... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of...

  7. 78 FR 16654 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 12562 (March 1, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Activated Carbon... Duty Order, 77 FR 33420 (June 6, 2012). \\3\\ See Certain Activated Carbon from China: Determination, 78 FR 13894 (March 1, 2013); see also Certain Activated Carbon from China: Investigation No....

  8. 77 FR 72824 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2011-2012; Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2011-2012... order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') based on multiple timely... order on certain activated carbon from the PRC (``the Order''). Based upon these requests, on May...

  9. 75 FR 26927 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ...: Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China, 71 FR 59721 (October 11, 2006); unchanged in... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of... duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  11. Physical and chemical properties of selected agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons and their ability to adsorb geosmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chilton; Losso, Jack N; Marshall, Wayne E; Rao, Ramu M

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate selected physical and chemical properties of agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons made from pecan shells and sugarcane bagasse, and compare those properties to a commercial coal-based activated carbon as well as to compare the adsorption efficiency of these carbons for geosmin. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of pecan shell- and bagasse-based carbons to the commercial carbon, Calgon Filtrasorb 400, showed that pecan shell carbon, but not the bagasse carbon, compared favorably to Filtrasorb 400, especially in terms of surface area, bulk density, ash and attrition. A carbon dosage study done in a model system showed the amount of geosmin adsorbed to be greater for Filtrasorb 400 and the bagasse-based carbon at low carbon concentrations than for the pecan shell carbons, but geosmin adsorption was similar in all carbons at higher carbon dosages. Application of the Freundlich isotherm model to the adsorption data showed that carbons made by steam activation of pecan shells or sugarcane bagasse had geosmin adsorption characteristics most like those of the commercial carbon. In terms of physical, chemical and adsorptive properties, steam-activated pecan shell carbon most resembled the commercial carbon and has the potential to replace Filtrasorb 400 in applications involving removal of geosmin from aqueous environments.

  12. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  13. Adsorption of methyl orange using activated carbon prepared from lignin by ZnCl2 treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, K.; Hamdi, N.; Kriaa, A.; Srasra, E.

    2012-08-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are good and cheap precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this study, activated carbons were prepared from the lignin at different temperatures (200 to 500°C) by ZnCl2. The effects influencing the surface area of the resulting activated carbon are activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio. The optimum condition, are found an impregnation ratio of 2, an activation temperature of 450°C, and an activation time of 2 h. The results showed that the surface area and micropores volume of activated carbon at the experimental conditions are achieved to 587 and 0.23 cm3 g-1, respectively. The adsorption behavior of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution onto activated lignin was investigated as a function of equilibrium time, pH and concentration. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. A maximum adsorption capacity of 300 mg g-1 of methyl orange by activated carbon was achieved.

  14. Activated carbon from pyrolysis of brewer's spent grain: Production and adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanreppelen, Kenny; Vanderheyden, Sara; Kuppens, Tom; Schreurs, Sonja; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brewer's spent grain is a low cost residue generated by the brewing industry. Its chemical composition (high nitrogen content 4.35 wt.%, fibres, etc.) makes it very useful for the production of added value in situ nitrogenised activated carbon. The composition of brewer's spent grain revealed high amounts of cellulose (20.8 wt.%), hemicellulose (48.78 wt.%) and lignin (11.3 wt.%). The fat, ethanol extractives and ash accounted for 8.17 wt.%, 4.7 wt.% and 3.2 wt.%, respectively. Different activated carbons were produced in a lab-scale pyrolysis/activation reactor by applying several heat and steam activation profiles on brewer's spent grain. Activated carbon yields from 16.1 to 23.6 wt.% with high N-contents (> 2 wt.%) were obtained. The efficiency of the prepared activated carbons for phenol adsorption was studied as a function of different parameters: pH, contact time and carbon dosage relative to two commercial activated carbons. The equilibrium isotherms were described by the non-linear Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the kinetic results were fitted using the pseudo-first-order model and the pseudo-second-order model. The feasibility of an activated carbon production facility (onsite and offsite) that processes brewer's spent grain for different input feeds is evaluated based on a techno-economic model for estimating the net present value. Even though the model assumptions start from a rather pessimistic scenario, encouraging results for a profitable production of activated carbon using brewer's spent grain are obtained.

  15. Binderless Composite Electrode Monolith from Carbon Nanotube and Biomass Carbon Activated by KOH and CO2 Gas for Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, R.; Deraman, M.; Omar, R.; Awitdrus, Ishak, M. M.; Taer, E.; Talib, I. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a method to improve the performance of supercapacitors fabricated using binderless composite electrode monolith (BCMs) from self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) of fibers from oil palm empty fruit bunches. The BCMs were prepared from green monoliths (GMs) contain SACG, SACG treated with KOH (5 % by weight) and SACG mixed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (5% by weight) and KOH (5 % by weight), respectively. These GMs were carbonized at 800 ° C under N2 environment and activated by CO2 gas at 800 ° C for 1 hour. It was found that addition of KOH and CNTs produced BCMs with higher specific capacitance and smaller internal resistance, respectively. It was also found that supercapacitor cells using these BCMs as electrodes exhibited a better specific energy and specific power. The physical properties of BCMs (density, electrical conductivity, porosity, interlayer spacing, crystallite dimension and microstructure) were affected by the addition of KOH and CNTs.

  16. Elemental mercury vapor capture by powdered activated carbon in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrizio Scala; Riccardo Chirone; Amedeo Lancia [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, Napoli (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    A bubbling fluidized bed of inert material was used to increase the activated carbon residence time in the reaction zone and to improve its performance for mercury vapor capture. Elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100{sup o}C in a purposely designed 65 mm ID lab-scale pyrex reactor, that could be operated both in the fluidized bed and in the entrained bed configurations. Commercial powdered activated carbon was pneumatically injected in the reactor and mercury concentration at the outlet was monitored continuously. Experiments were carried out at different inert particle sizes, bed masses, fluidization velocities and carbon feed rates. Experimental results showed that the presence of a bubbling fluidized bed led to an increase of the mercury capture efficiency and, in turn, of the activated carbon utilization. This was explained by the enhanced activated carbon loading and gas-solid contact time that establishes in the reaction zone, because of the large surface area available for activated carbon adhesion/deposition in the fluidized bed. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the bed outlet during the runs were used to discriminate between the controlling phenomena in the process. Experimental data have been analyzed in the light of a phenomenological framework that takes into account the presence of both free and adhered carbon in the reactor as well as mercury saturation of the adsorbent. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Effect of biostimulation on biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon in biological granular activated carbon filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tihomirova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The addition of labile organic carbon (LOC to enhance the biodegradation rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in biological columns was studied. Acetate standard solution (NaAc and LB (Luria Bertrani medium were used as LOC as biostimulants in glass column system used for measurements of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC. The addition of LOC related with the increase of total DOC in sample. The concentration of BDOC increased up to 7 and 5 times and was utilized after 24 min. contact time. The biodegradation rate constant was increased at least 8 times during adaptation-biostimulation period. There was a strong positive correlation between the biodegradation rate constant and the concentration of BDOC. Biostimulation period ranged from 24 to 53 h for NaAc biostimulant and from 20 to 168 h for LB. The study has shown that LOC could be used as stimulator to enhance the biodegradation rate of DOC during biofiltration.

  18. 2, 4 dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) sorption from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon and polymeric adsorbents and studies on effect of temperature on activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatbandhe, A S; Yenkie, M K N

    2008-04-01

    Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), one of the most commonly used chlorophenol, onto bituminous coal based Filtrasorb-400 grade granular activated carbon, were studied in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to temperature. Uptake capacity of activated carbon found to increase with temperature. Langmuir isotherm models were applied to experimental equilibrium data of 2, 4-DCP adsorption and competitive studies with respect to XAD resin were carried out. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir equilibrium model. Adsorbent monolayer capacity 'Q0, Langmuir constant 'b' and adsorption rate constant 'k(a)' were evaluated at different temperatures for activated carbon adsorption. This data was then used to calculate the energy of activation of adsorption and also the thermodynamic parameters, namely the free energy of adsorption, deltaG0, enthalpy of adsorption, deltaH0 and the entropy of adsorption deltaS0. The obtained results showed that the monolayer capacity increases with the increase in temperatures. The obtained values of thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4 DCP is an endothermic process. Synthetic resin was not found efficient to adsorb 2,4 DCP compared to activated carbon. The order of adsorption efficiencies of three resins used in the study found as XAD7HP > XAD4 > XAD1180. PMID:19295102

  19. 2, 4 dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) sorption from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon and polymeric adsorbents and studies on effect of temperature on activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatbandhe, A S; Yenkie, M K N

    2008-04-01

    Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), one of the most commonly used chlorophenol, onto bituminous coal based Filtrasorb-400 grade granular activated carbon, were studied in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to temperature. Uptake capacity of activated carbon found to increase with temperature. Langmuir isotherm models were applied to experimental equilibrium data of 2, 4-DCP adsorption and competitive studies with respect to XAD resin were carried out. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir equilibrium model. Adsorbent monolayer capacity 'Q0, Langmuir constant 'b' and adsorption rate constant 'k(a)' were evaluated at different temperatures for activated carbon adsorption. This data was then used to calculate the energy of activation of adsorption and also the thermodynamic parameters, namely the free energy of adsorption, deltaG0, enthalpy of adsorption, deltaH0 and the entropy of adsorption deltaS0. The obtained results showed that the monolayer capacity increases with the increase in temperatures. The obtained values of thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4 DCP is an endothermic process. Synthetic resin was not found efficient to adsorb 2,4 DCP compared to activated carbon. The order of adsorption efficiencies of three resins used in the study found as XAD7HP > XAD4 > XAD1180.

  20. Studies on the Simultaneous Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate and Poly(ethylene terephthalate):Ⅰ. Catalytic Activity of Metal Acetate in Transesterification of Ethylene Carbonate with Dimethyl Terephthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan ZHANG; Shu Yong JIA; Yue WANG; Jie YAO; Yi ZENG; Gong Ying WANG

    2006-01-01

    A novel direct method for preparation of dimethyl carbonate and poly(ethylene terephthalate) from ethylene carbonate and dimethyl terephthalate has been demonstrated in the presence of metal acetate catalysts, lithium acetate dihydrate showed highest catalytic activity with 47.9% yield of dimethyl carbonate. This method was a green chemical process.

  1. Single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption on activated carbon of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel daiem, Mahmoud M; Rivera-Utrilla, José; Sánchez-Polo, Manuel; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl

    2015-12-15

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption of phthalic acid (PA), bisphenol A (BPA), diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on two activated carbons with different chemical natures and similar textural characteristics. The adsorption mechanism was also elucidated by analyzing the influence of solution pH and ionic strength. The activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption capacity to remove all micropollutants due to the presence of active sites on their surfaces, which increase dispersive interactions between the activated carbon graphene layers and the aromatic ring of pollutants. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons increased in the order: DPAactivated carbon decreased by around 50% and 70% in the presence of DPA and BPA, respectively, indicating that both compounds are adsorbed on the same adsorption sites of the activated carbon. PMID:26282767

  2. Inhibition of nitrobenzene adsorption by water cluster formation at acidic oxygen functional groups on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuichi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    2008-06-15

    The inhibition effect of nitrobenzene adsorption by water clusters formed at the acidic groups on activated carbon was examined in aqueous and n-hexane solution. The activated carbon was oxidized with nitric acid to introduce CO complexes and then outgassed in helium flow at 1273 K to remove them completely without changing the structural properties of the carbon as a reference adsorbent. The amounts of acidic functional groups were determined by applying Boehm titration. A relative humidity of 95% was used to adsorb water onto the carbon surface. Strong adsorption of water onto the oxidized carbon can be observed by thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorption kinetic rate was estimated to be controlled by diffusion from the kinetic analysis. Significant decline in both capacity and kinetic rate for nitrobenzene adsorption onto the oxidized carbon was also observed in n-hexane solution by preadsorption of water to the carbon surface, whereas it was not detected for the outgassed carbons. These results might reveal that water molecules forming clusters at the CO complexes inhibited the entrance of nitrobenzene into the interparticles of the carbon. PMID:18440013

  3. Iron and activated carbon to remove the VOC; Fer et charbon actif pour eliminer les COV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, V.S. [Institut des Ressources et de l' Energie, New Delhi (India); Lamonier, J.F. [Lille-1 Univ., UMR CNRS 8181, Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du solide, 59 (France)

    2010-11-15

    This work proposes an adsorbent/catalyst material synthesized from sugarcane activated carbon and red muds coming from the aluminium industry. A low cost solution to treat the volatile organic compounds. (O.M.)

  4. Influence of anodic surface treatment of activated carbon on adsorption and ion exchange properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J.; Kim, K.D.

    1999-10-01

    The effect of anodic surface treatment of activated carbon on adsorption and ion exchange characteristics was investigated in the condition of 35 wt% NaOH electrolyte for 60 s. The acid and base values were determined by a titration technique, and surface and pore structures were studied in terms of BET volumetric measurement with N{sub 2} adsorption. The ion exchange capacity of the anodized activated carbons was characterized by a dry weight capacity technique. It was observed that an increase in current intensity leads to an increase in the surface functional groups of activated carbons, resulting in increasing pH, acid-base values, and anion-cation exchange capacities, without significant change of surface and pore structures (i.e., specific surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, and average pore diameter). Also, anodically treated activated carbons are more effectively evaluated on the base value or cation exchange capacity than on the oppose properties in this electrolytic system.

  5. Fenton- and Persulfate-driven Regeneration of Contaminant-spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton- or persulfate-driven chemical oxidation regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two treatment technologies: adsorption of organic chemicals onto GAC and chemical oxidation regeneration of the spent-GAC. Environmental...

  6. Activated Carbon Nanochains with Tailored Micro-Meso Pore Structures and Their Application for Supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Miao; He, Chunnian; Liu, Enzuo;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanochains (CNCs) were synthesized by a facile chemical vapor deposition process consisting of a 1D chain of interconnected carbon nano-onions for potential application in supercapacitors. In this study, the CNCs were further activated by a chemical method using potassium hydroxide (KOH...... that CNCs with a hierarchical pore structure and high SSA could be achieved using an activation process with a KOH-to-CNC ratio of 2 at 900 degrees C for 20 h. The mechanism is also discussed. The activation temperature and duration affect the promotion of the carbon graphitization and exaggeration...... of the carbon etching. The CNCs activated using the optimal parameters exhibited a high capacitance performance of 112.7 F g(-1) at 50 mV s(-1) with excellent stability in 6 M KOH electrolyte, which was due to the improved surface and micromesoporosity without sacrificing their electronic transmission...

  7. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  8. Adsorption of aromatic compounds from the biodegradation of azo dyes on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, P. C. C.; Órfão, J. J. M.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Pereira, M. F. R.

    2008-03-01

    The adsorption of three selected aromatic compounds (aniline, sulfanilic acid and benzenesulfonic acid) on activated carbons with different surface chemical properties was investigated at different solution pH. A fairly basic commercial activated carbon was modified by means of chemical treatment with HNO 3, yielding an acid activated carbon. The textural properties of this sample were not significantly changed after the oxidation treatment. Equilibrium isotherms of the selected compounds on the mentioned samples were obtained and the results were discussed in relation to their surface chemistry. The influence of electrostatic and dispersive interactions involved in the uptake of the compounds studied was evaluated. The Freundlich model was used to fit the experimental data. Higher uptakes are attained when the compounds are present in their molecular form. In general, adsorption was disfavoured by the introduction of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of the activated carbon.

  9. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  10. Modified granular activated carbon: A carrier for the recovery of nickel ions from aqueous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satapathy, D.; Natarajan, G.S.; Sen, R. [Central Fuel Research Inst., Nagpur (India)

    2004-07-01

    Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) is widely used for the removal and recovery of toxic pollutants including metals because of its low cost and high affinity towards the scavenging of metal ions. Activated carbon derived from bituminous coal is preferred for wastewater treatment due to its considerable hardness, a characteristic needed to keep down handling losses during re-activation. Commercial grade bituminous coal based carbon, viz. Filtrasorb (F-400), was used in the present work. The scavenging of precious metals such as nickel onto GAC was studied and a possible attempt made to recover the adsorbed Ni{sup 2+} ions through the use of some suitable leaching processes. As part of the study, the role of complexing agents on the surface of the carbon was also investigated. The use of organic complexing agents such as oxine and 2-methyloxine in the recovery process was found to be promising. In addition, the surface of the carbon was modified with suitable oxidising agents that proved to be more effective than chelating agents. Several attempts were made to optimise the recovery of metal ions by carrying out experiments with oxidising agents in order to obtain maximum recovery from the minimum quantity of carbon. Experiments with nitric acid indicated that not only was the carbon surface modified but such modification also helped in carbon regeneration.

  11. Comparison of capacitive behavior of activated carbons with different pore structures in aqueous and nonaqueous systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shao-yun; LI Xin-hai; WANG Zhi-xing; GUO Hua-jun; PENG Wen-jie

    2008-01-01

    The pore structures of two activated carbons from sawdust with KOH activation and coconut-shell with steam activation for supercapacitor were analyzed by N2 adsorption method. The electrochemical properties of both activated carbons in 6mol/L KOH solution and 1mol/L Et4NPF4/PC were compared, and the effect of pore structure on the capacitance was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance and charge-discharge measurements. The results indicate that the capacitance mainly depends on effective surface area, but the power property mainly depends on mesoporosity. At low specific current (1A/g), the maximum specific capacitances of 276.3F/g in aqueous system and 123.9F/g in nonaqueous system can be obtained from sawdust activated carbon with a larger surface area of 1808m2/g, but at a high specific current, the specific capacitance of coconut-shell activated carbon with a higher mesoporosity of 75.1% is more excellent. Activated carbon by KOH activation is fitter for aqueous system and that by steam activation is fitter for nonaqueous system.

  12. Tetracycline adsorption onto activated carbons produced by KOH activation of tyre pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R; Fierro, V; Martinez de Yuso, A; Nabarlatz, D; Celzard, A

    2016-04-01

    Tyre pyrolysis char (TPC), produced when manufacturing pyrolysis oil from waste tyre, was used as raw material to prepare activated carbons (ACs) by KOH activation. KOH to TPC weight ratios (W) between 0.5 and 6, and activation temperatures from 600 to 800 °C, were used. An increase in W resulted in a more efficient development of surface area, microporosity and mesoporosity. Thus, ACs derived from TPC (TPC-ACs) with specific surface areas up to 814 m(2) g(-1) were obtained. TPC, TPC-ACs and a commercial AC (CAC) were tested for removing Tetracycline (TC) in aqueous phase, and systematic adsorption studies, including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic aspects, were performed. Kinetics was well described by the pseudo-first order model for TPC, and by a pseudo second-order kinetic model for ACs. TC adsorption equilibrium data were also fitted by different isotherm models: Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Dubinin-Astokov, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Radke-Prausnitz and Toth. The thermodynamic study confirmed that TC adsorption onto TPC-ACs is a spontaneous process. TC adsorption data obtained in the present study were compared with those reported in the literature, and differences were explained in terms of textural properties and surface functionalities. TPC-ACs had similar performances to those of commercial ACs, and might significantly improve the economic balance of the production of pyrolysis oil from waste tyres. PMID:26855221

  13. Synthesis of Heteroaromatic Compounds by Oxidative Aromatization Using an Activated Carbon/Molecular Oxygen System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Hayashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of heteroaromatic compounds, such as substituted pyridines, pyrazoles, indoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-arylbenzazoles and pyrimidin-2(1H-ones are synthesized by oxidative aromatization using the activated carbon and molecular oxygen system. Mechanistic study focused on the role of activated carbon in the synthesis of 2-arylbenzazoles is also discussed. In the final section, we will disclose the efficient synthesis of substituted 9,10-anthracenes via oxidative aromatization.

  14. Adsorption of Purine Compounds in Beer with Activated Carbon Prepared from Beer Lees

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Junji; MURAYAMA, Norihiro; TAKEYAMA, Masato

    2009-01-01

    Six hundred thousand tons of beer lees are discharged annually in Japanese breweries. It is well known that purine compounds are one of substances which cause the gout and beer especially contains a lot of purine compounds such as adenosine, adenosine 5’-phosphate and so on, compared with the other alcoholic drinks. The application of activated carbon prepared from beer lees was investigated in order to remove purine compounds in beer. The reuse and recycling of beer lees to activated carbon ...

  15. Adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue onto activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Milan Z.; Purenović Milovan M.; Miljković Milena N.; Bojić Aleksandar Lj.; Ranđelović Marjan S.

    2011-01-01

    Horse chestnut kernel was used as the precursor for the preparation of powdered activated carbon using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Batch adsorption experiments for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions were carried out using the obtained carbon as adsorbent. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin theoretical isotherm models. The best results was obtained in ...

  16. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Oxygen-induced Decrease in the Equilibrium Adsorptive Capacities of Activated Carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Ovín Ania, María Concepción; Parra Soto, José Bernardo; Pis Martínez, José Juan

    2004-01-01

    Special attention was paid in this work to the role of surface chemistry in the adsorption of phenol and salicylic acid onto activated carbons. To this end, two commercial activated carbons (granular and powdered) were oxidised using ammonium peroxodisulphate [(NH4) 2S2O8] and nitric acid in different concentrations. The structural and chemical properties of the oxidised adsorbents were characterised via nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at –196 ° C and Boehm titrations. Phenol adsorptio...

  18. Ammonia removal using activated carbons: effect of the surface chemistry in dry and moist conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maraisa; Sánchez García, Laura; Jardim, Erika de Oliveira; Silvestre Albero, Joaquín; Rodríguez Reinoso, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The effect of surface chemistry (nature and amount of oxygen groups) in the removal of ammonia was studied using a modified resin-based activated carbon. NH3 breakthrough column experiments show that the modification of the original activated carbon with nitric acid, that is, the incorporation of oxygen surface groups, highly improves the adsorption behavior at room temperature. Apparently, there is a linear relationship between the total adsorption capacity and the amount of the more acidic ...

  19. Dissolution and carbonation of mechanically activated olivine-Investigating CO2 sequestration possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Tove Anette

    2010-01-01

    Mineral carbonation used for CO2 sequestration faces three main challenges: increasing the overall carbonation rate, handle large amounts of feedstock and products, and developing a practical process with commercially acceptable energy consumption. High intensity milling, also called mechanical activation, has been found to increase the extraction rate of metals in the metallurgical industry. The focus of this PhD study has been the use of mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method withi...

  20. Dissolution and carbonation of mechanically activated olivine-Investigating CO2 sequestration possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Tove Anette

    2010-01-01

    Mineral carbonation used for CO2 sequestration faces three main challenges: increasing the overall carbonation rate, handle large amounts of feedstock and products, and developing a practical process with commercially acceptable energy consumption.High intensity milling, also called mechanical activation, has been found to increase the extraction rate of metals in the metallurgical industry. The focus of this PhD study has been the use of mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method within...

  1. Extended XG Equation for the Prediction of Adsorption Equilibrium of Vapor Mixture on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢自立; 敦坤敏; 吴菊芳; 袁存禾

    2003-01-01

    The XG equation, which is developed by us previously for describing the adsorption equilibrium of pure vapor on activated carbon, is extended to multi-component system. Verified by experimental data, the extended XG equation was found to be more successful in predicting the adsorption equilibrium of vapor mixture on activated carbon than the extended Langmuir equation, the extended BET equation and the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST).

  2. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Waste Tires and its application in Gasoline Removal from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour; Babak jahed; Gholam Hossein Joshani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Increasing waste tiers production has made the recycling of this solid waste a critical issue in the world. On the other hand, it seems contamination of groundwater to the petroleum pollutant like gasoline is a great threat to the health of societies in developing countries. The main objective of this study was gasoline removal from aquatic environment by waste tire derived activated carbon. Materials and Methods: In this study for preparation of activated carbon...

  3. Effect of ultrasonic treatment of activated carbon on capacitive and pseudocapacitive energy storage in electrochemical supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    B.Ya. Venhryn; I.I. Grygorchak; Z.A. Stotsko; B.P. Bakhmatyuk; S.I. Mudry; Yu.O. Kulyk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Use of ultrasonic radiation for improving the properties of activated carbon was the aim of this paper. Increase of density of states at Fermi level was the main factor, responsible for working characteristics of electrochemical supercapacitors. Design/methodology/approach: Working parameters of supercapacitors on the base of activated carbon have been studied by means of precisional porometry, small angle X-ray scattering, cyclic voltamerometry, electrochemical im...

  4. Alumina-Activated Carbon Composite as Adsorbent of Procion Red Dye from Wastewater Songket Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Fatma Fatma; Zulfikar Zulfikar

    2015-01-01

    Alumina-activated carbon composite has been synthesized and studied for adsorption procion red dye. Composite was prepared by precipitation method aluminium hydroxide on the surface of activated carbon followed by calcinations. The Fourier transform Infra Red (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Brunaeur Emmet Teller (BET) surface are being used to characterize the adsorbent. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the adsorption of...

  5. Air Oxidation of Activated Carbon to Synthesize a Biomimetic Catalyst for Hydrolysis of Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotri, Abhijit; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Oxygenated carbon catalyzes the hydrolysis of cellulose present in lignocellulosic biomass by utilizing the weakly acidic functional groups on its surface. Here we report the synthesis of a biomimetic carbon catalyst by simple and economical air-oxidation of a commercially available activated carbon. Air- oxidation at 450-500 °C introduced 2000-2400 μmol g(-1) of oxygenated functional groups on the material with minor changes in the textural properties. Selectivity towards the formation of carboxylic groups on the catalyst surface increased with the increase in oxidation temperature. The degree of oxidation on carbon catalyst was found to be proportional to its activity for hydrolysis of cellulose. The hydrolysis of eucalyptus in the presence of carbon oxidized at 475 °C afforded glucose yield of 77 % and xylose yield of 67 %.

  6. Carbonation Characteristics of Alkali-Activated Blast-Furnace Slag Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Il Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated ground granulated blast-slag (AAS is the most obvious alternative material for ordinary Portland cement (OPC. However, to use it as a structural material requires the assessment and verification of its durability. The most important factor for a durability evaluation is the degree of carbonation resistance, and AAS is known to show lower performance than OPC. A series of experiments was conducted with a view to investigate the carbonation characteristics of AAS binder. As a consequence, it was found that the major hydration product of AAS was calcium silicate hydrate (CSH, with almost no portlandite, unlike the products of OPC. After carbonation, the CSH of AAS turned into amorphous silica gel which was most likely why the compressive strength of AAS became weaker after carbonation. An increase of the activator dosage leads AAS to react more quickly and produce more CSH, increasing the compaction, compressive strength, and carbonation resistance of the microstructure.

  7. RICE BRAN CARBON: AN ALTERNATIVE TO COMMERCIAL ACTIVATED CARBON FOR THE REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hadi Hasan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran carbon (RBC prepared from rice bran (an agricultural waste was successfully utilized for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. The potentiality of RBC was tested and compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC, and it was found that RBC removed 95% of hexavalent chromium at pH 2, 1000 µM Cr(VI concentration, temperature 30 oC, and adsorbent dose of 2 g/L. The maximum uptake of total chromium obtained by applying the Langmuir isotherm model was 138.88 mg/g for RBC, which was found comparable to that obtained by utilizing CAC (116.28 mg/g at 40 oC. The removal of Cr(VI was found maximum at a proton to chromium ratio of 10 and chromium to carbon ratio of 0.052, and these ratios were found to be applicable over a range of Cr(VI concentrations. The removal of Cr(VI, at low pH (< 2.0, was not only due to sorption of Cr(VI but also because of reduction of Cr(VI into less toxic Cr(III, which was also adsorbed on the surface of the sorbent. The rate of reduction removal of Cr(VI followed pseudo-first order kinetics, whereas the sorption of total chromium followed pseudo-second order kinetics for both the types of activated carbons.

  8. Role of Carbonic Anhydrase as an Activator in Carbonate Rock Dissolution and Its Implication for Atmospheric CO2 Sink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘再华

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of CO2 into H+ and is a relatively slow reaction. Hence, its kinetics may be rate determining in carbonate rock dissolution. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), which is widespread in nature, was used to catalyze the CO2 conversion process in dissolution experiments of limestone and dolomite. It was found that the rate of dissolution increases by a factor of about 10 after the addition of CA at a high CO2 partial pressure (Pco2) for limestone and about 3 at low Pco2 for dolomite. This shows that reappraisal is necessary for the importance of chemical weathering (including carbonate rock dissolution and silicate weathering) in the atmospheric CO2 sink and the mysterious missing sink in carbon cycling. It is doubtless that previous studies of weathering underestimated weathering rates due to the ignorance of CA as an activator in weathering, thus the contribution of weathering to the atmospheric CO2 sink is also underestimated. This finding also shows the need to examine the situ distribution and activity of CA in different waters and to investigate the role of CA in weathering.``

  9. Micromechanism of sulfurizing activated carbon and its ability to adsorb mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guofang; Xu, Minren; Liu, Qingcai; Yang, Jian; Ma, Dongran; Lu, Cunfang; Lan, Yuanpei

    2013-11-01

    To eliminate mercury from coal-fired flue gas, sulfurization of carbons has been found to be the most inexpensive approach to solve the problem of environment contamination by mercury. This study focuses on improving the adsorption capacity of activate carbon loaded with elemental sulfur as an active phase and further use in the removal of mercury vapors from fuel gas. In this paper, equipment such as the scanning electron microscope, specific surface area test machine and fluorescence spectrophotometer are employed to study the ability of the S-loaded activated carbon. The results show that unmodified activate carbon has smooth hole surface and uneven distributed hole size. Pore walls of activate carbon modified became rougher and the hole size distribution is asymmetrical. Sulfur is uniformly distributed and is mainly bonded on the surface of the skeleton of activate carbon. In addition, a small amount of granular sulfur was loaded on the surface of the pore walls. Higher temperature creates smaller pore size and larger microporous volume. Improving the process temperature is conducive to the development of micropore and the distribution of sulfur, and a larger amount of small molecular weight sulfur are created, which is helpful in the removal of HgO through chemical adsorption. The optimum modification temperature and holding time is 550 °C and 60 min, which creates the adsorbents of the max absorption capability of 1227.5 μg Hg/g.

  10. Adsorption properties of biomass-based activated carbon prepared with spent coffee grounds and pomelo skin by phosphoric acid activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Ouyang, Feng

    2013-03-01

    Activated carbon prepared from spent coffee grounds and pomelo skin by phosphoric acid activation had been employed as the adsorbent for ethylene and n-butane at room temperature. Prepared activated carbon was characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. It was confirmed that pore structure played an important role during the adsorption testes. Adsorption isotherms of ethylene and n-butane fitted well with Langmuir equation. The prepared samples owned better adsorption capacity for n-butane than commercial activated carbon. Isosteric heats of adsorptions at different coverage were calculated through Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Micropore filling effect was explained in a thermodynamic way.

  11. Adsorption/oxidation of sulfur-containing gases on nitrogen-doped activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Qiang; Ke Ming; Yu Pei; Hu Hai Qiang; Yan Xi Ming

    2016-01-01

    Coconut shell-based activated carbon (CAC) was used for the removal of methyl mercaptan (MM). CAC was modified by urea impregnation and calcined at 450°C and 950°C. The desulfurization activity was determined in a fixed bed reactor under room temperature. The results showed that the methyl mercaptan adsorption/oxidation capacity of modified carbon caicined at 950°C is more than 3 times the capacity of original samples. On the other hand, the modified carbon caicined at 950°C also has a high c...

  12. Preparation and adsorption performances of mesopore-enriched bamboo activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxin WANG; Congmin LIU; Yaping ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon with high specific surface area and considerable mesopores was prepared from bam-boo scraps by phosphoric acid activation. The effect of activation conditions was studied. Under the conditions of impregnating bamboo with 80% H3PO4 at 80℃ for 9 days and activation at 500℃ for 4 h, the prepared acti-vated carbon had the highest mesopore volume of 0.67 cm3/g, a specific surface area of 1567 m2/g, and the mesopore ratio reached 47.18%. The study on adsorption isotherms of CH4, CO2, N2 and O2on the activated carbon were carried out at 298 K. The considerable difference in the adsorption capacity between CO2 and the other gases was observed, which would be of interest for the adsorp-tive separation/purification of gaseous CO2 from its mix-tures, especially from mixtures with N2 and/or O2.

  13. Removal of micro pollutants using activated biochars and powdered activated carbon in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Jung, C.; Han, J.; Son, A.; Yoon, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that emerging micropollutants containing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); bisphenol A, 17 α-ethinylestradiol, 17 β-estradiol and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs); sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, atenolol, benzophenone, benzotriazole, caffeine, gemfibrozil, primidone, triclocarban in water have been linked to ecological impacts, even at trace concentrations (sub ug/L). Adsorption with adsorbent such as activated carbon having a high-binding affinity has been widely used to eliminate various contaminants in the aqueous phase. Recently, an efficient treatment strategy for EDCs and PPCPs has been considered by using cost effective adsorption particularly with biochar in aqueous environmentIn this study, the objective of this study is to determine the removal of 13 target EDCs/PPCPs having different physicochemical properties by a biochar at various water quality conditions (pH (3.5, 7, and 10.5), background ions (NaCl, CaCl2, Na₂SO₄), ionic strength, natural organic matter (NOM)). The activated biochar produced in a laboratory was also characterized by using conventional analytical methods as well as advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, which answer how these properties determine the competitive adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of EDCs and PPCPs.The primary findings suggest that micropollutants can be removed more effectively by the biochar than the commercially available powdered activated carbon. At pH values below the pKa of each compound, the adsorption affinity toward adsorbents increased significantly with the pH, whereas the adsorption affinity decreased significantly at the pH above the pKa values. Na+ did not significantly impact adsorption, while increasing the concentration of Ca2+lead to increase in the adsorption of these micropollutants. NOM adsorption with humic acids on these adsorbents disturbed adsorption capacity of the target compounds as

  14. Activated carbon/ZnO composites prepared using hydrochars as intermediate and their electrochemical performance in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a new methodology to prepare activated carbon and activated carbons/ZnO composites from walnut shell-derived hydrothermal carbons (hydrochars), which were prepared under hydrothermal condition in presence of ZnCl2. For this method, activated carbon/ZnO composites were prepared via heat treatment of hydrochars under inert environment and activated carbons were prepared by removing the ZnO in activated carbon/ZnO composites. The chemical structure of walnut shell, hydrochars, activated carbon/ZnO and activated carbon was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N2 adsorption/desorption measurements. It is found ZnCl2 plays multiple roles, i.e., helping to remove the oxygen-containing groups during hydrothermal stage, improving the surface area of activated carbon and acting as the precursor of ZnO in heat-treatment stage. The specific surface areas up to 818.9 and 1072.7 m2 g−1 have been achieved for activated carbon/ZnO composites and activated carbon, respectively. The activated carbon/ZnO as electrode materials for supercapacitors showed that specific capacitance of up to 117.4 F g−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1 in KOH aqueous solution can be achieved and keeps stable in 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Hydrochars as intermediate to prepare activated carbon/ZnO composites. • Activated carbon/ZnO showed excellent electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. • Activated carbon with large surface area can be obtained by removing ZnO

  15. Multicomponent click synthesis of potentially biologically active triazoles catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon in water

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Valdés, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina; Radivoy, Gabriel; Yus Astiz, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    A variety of potentially biologically active 1,2,3-triazoles, derived from (–)-menthol, lactic acid, D-glucose, oestrone, cholesterol, and phenacetin, have been synthesised through the multicomponent alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon in neat water.

  16. Magnetically Active and Coated Gadolinium-Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Fidiani, Elok

    2013-08-15

    Gd-filled carbon nanotubes (which include the so-called gadonanotubes(1)) have been attracting much interest due to their potential use in medical diagnostic applications. In the present work, a vacuum filling method was performed to confine gadolinium(III) iodide in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filling yields in excess of 50% were obtained. Cleaning and dosing of the external walls was undertaken, as well as the study of the filled CNT magnetic properties. Overall, we found that the encapsulating procedure can lead to reduction of the lanthanide metal and induce disorder in the initial GdI3-type structure. Notwithstanding, the magnetic response of the material is not compromised, retaining a strong paramagnetic response and an effective magnetic moment of similar to 6 mu B. Our results may entice further investigation into whether an analogous Gd3+ to Gd2+ reduction takes place in other Gd-filled CNT systems.

  17. Elimination of textile dyes using activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Cid, Alejandra-Alicia; Herrera-González, Ana-María; Salazar-Villanueva, Martín; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, three mesoporous activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues were used to remove acid, basic, and direct dyes from aqueous solutions, and reactive and vat dyes from textile wastewater. Granular carbons obtained by chemical activation at 673 K with phosphoric acid from prickly pear peels (CarTunaQ), broccoli stems (CarBrocQ), and white sapote seeds (CarZapQ) were highly efficient for the removal of dyes. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out in batch systems and treated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherms ranged between 131.6 and 312.5 mg/g for acid dyes, and between 277.8 and 500.0 mg/g for basic dyes at 303 K. Our objective in this paper was to show that vegetable wastes can serve as precursors for activated carbons that can be used for the adsorption of dyes. Specifically CarBrocQ was the best carbon produced for the removal of textile dyes. The color removal of dyes present in textile wastewaters was compared with that of a commercial powdered carbon, and it was found that the carbons produced using waste material reached similar efficiency levels. Carbon samples were characterized by bulk density, point of zero charge, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, methylene blue adsorption isotherms at 303 K, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (SBET). The results show that the activated carbons possess a large specific surface area (1025-1177 m(2)/g) and high total pore volume (1.06-2.16 cm(3)/g) with average pore size diameters between 4.1 and 8.4 nm. Desorption and regeneration tests were made to test the viability of reusing the activated carbons. PMID:27372249

  18. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from castor de-oiled cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana M. Ospina-Guarín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass residues have been used to produce activated carbons. On this process, the activation method and the raw composition determine the properties as porosity and surface area of the charcoal. After the extraction of castor oil, there is a solid byproduct (cake of low added value, which was used in the production of activated carbon to add value to this waste. For this purpose two traditional methods were used, first, physical activation using as activating agents steam, CO2 and mixture of both, and additionally chemical activation using K2CO3 as the activating agent. Some activated carbons were characterized using N2 adsorption isotherms, BET surface areas varied between 255.98 (m2/g and 1218.43 (m2/g. By SEM and EDS analysis was possible to observe that materials obtained by the two types of activation are principally amorphous and morphological characteristics of the carbon obtained by physical activation are very different from those obtained by chemical activation. Finally, through impregnation of inorganic phases of Ni and Mo was revealed that the high dispersion characteristics, these carbonaceous materials will have potential to be used as catalyst support.

  19. Effects of Citric Acid Concentration and Activation Temperature on the Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengyi Li; Minwei Wang; Rongbin Zhang; Renzhong Wei; Niancai Peng

    2004-01-01

    A series of Ni-La-Mg catalyst samples were prepared by citric acid complex method, and carbon nanotubes were synthesized by catalytic decomposition of CH4 on these catalysts. The effects of the citric acid concentration and the activation temperature on catalytic activity were investigated by CO adsorption,TEM and XRD techniques. The experimental results showed that the particle size of the catalysts prepared through gel auto-combustion varied with the concentration of citric acid. Therefore carbon nanotubes with different diameters were obtained correspondingly. The effect of activation temperature on the activity of catalyst was negligible from 500 to 700 ℃, but it became pronounced at lower or higher temperatures.

  20. Hydrogenation of ortho-nitrochlorobenzene on activated carbon supported platinum catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Cheng-jun; YIN Hong; CHEN Zhi-rong

    2005-01-01

    Platinum/carbon catalyst is one of the most important catalysts in hydrogenation of ortho-nitrochlorobenzene to 2,2'-dichlorohydrazobenzene. The preparation process and the supports of catalysts are studied in this paper. Raw materials and preparation procedure of the activated carbon have great influences on the compositions and surface structure of platinum/carbon catalysts. Platinum catalysts supported on activated carbon with high purity, high surface area, large pore volume and appropriate pore structure usually exhibit higher activities for hydrogenation of ortho-nitrochlorobenzene to 2,2'-dichlorohydrazobenzene.The catalyst prepared from H2PtCl6 with pH=3 shows greater catalytic performance than those prepared under other conditions.

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of oxygen adsorbed on the surface of spherical and fibrous activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kawamura

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic susceptibilities of oxygen adsorbed on the surface of bead-shaped activated carbon and activated carbon fibers were evaluated as a function of temperature between 4.2 K and 300 K, and found to exhibit a sharp peak at around 50 K. This implies that the adsorbed oxygen molecules form an antiferromagnetic state. The relation between the susceptibility and the adsorbed mass suggest that the thickness of the adsorbed oxygen is thin enough to consider a two-dimensional structure for bead–shaped activated carbon and carbon fibers across the fiber axis but thick enough to regard it as three-dimensional along the fiber axis. The result is discussed with reference to the study on one-dimensional oxygen array.

  2. Carbon fibre-reinforced, alkali-activated slag mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, P.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of carbon fibre on alkaliactivated slag mortar (AAS mechanical strength, volume stability and reinforcing steel corrosion, compared to its effect on the same properties in Portland cement (PC properties. Mechanical strength and volume stability tests were performed as set out in the respective Spanish UNE standards. The corrosion rate of steel embedded in the specimens studied was determined from polarization resistance analysis. One of the findings of the study performed was that carbon fibre failed to improve AAS or CP mortar strength. As far as volume stability is concerned, the inclusion of carbon fibres in AAS with a liquid/solid ratio of 0.5 reduced drying shrinkage by about 50%. The effect of carbon fibre on PC mortars differed from its effect on AAS mortars. Studies showed that in the presence of carbonation, steel corrosion reached higher levels in carbon-fibre reinforced AAS mortars; the inclusion of 1% carbon fibre improved corrosion resistance perceptibly in these same mortars, however, when exposed to chloride attack.Se ha estudiado el efecto de la incorporación de fibras de carbón en el comportamiento mecánico, estabilidad de volumen y nivel de corrosión de la armadura en morteros de escorias activadas alcalinamente (AAS. Se evalúa la influencia de las fibras de carbón en el comportamiento de morteros alcalinos en comparación con el efecto que producen en morteros de Portland (CP. Los ensayos mecánicos y de estabilidad de volumen se han realizado según lo establecido en la norma UNE que los regula. Se ha utilizado la técnica de la Resistencia a la Polarización para determinar la velocidad de corrosión del acero embebido en las muestras estudiadas. Como consecuencia del estudio realizado, se ha podido concluir que la adición de fibras de carbón a morteros de AAS y CP no mejora las características resistentes de los mismos. En relación con la estabilidad de volumen, la incorporación de

  3. Activated carbon made from cow dung as electrode material for electrochemical double layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-09-01

    Cow dung is one of the most abundant wastes generated on earth and has been traditionally used as fertilizer and fuel in most of the developing countries. In this study activated carbon is synthesized from cow dung by a modified chemical activation method, where partially carbonized cow dung is treated with KOH in different ratio. The synthesized activated carbon possesses irregular surface morphology with high surface area in the range of 1500-2000 m2 g-1 with proper amount of micropore and mesopore volume. In particular, we demonstrate that the surface morphology and porosity parameters change with increase in KOH ratio. These activated carbons are tested as electrode material in two-electrode symmetric supercapacitor system in non-aqueous electrolyte and found to exhibit high specific capacitance with excellent retention of it at high current density and for long term operation. In particular, the activated carbon synthesized at 2:1 ratio of KOH and the pre-carbonized char shows the best performance with specific capacitance of 124 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and retains up to 117 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 current density. The performance is attributed to high surface area along with optimum amount of micropore and mesopore volume.

  4. Brazilian natural fiber (jute as raw material for activated carbon production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA F.S. ROMBALDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jute fiber is the second most common natural cellulose fiber worldwide, especially in recent years, due to its excellent physical, chemical and structural properties. The objective of this paper was to investigate: the thermal degradation of in natura jute fiber, and the production and characterization of the generated activated carbon. The production consisted of carbonization of the jute fiber and activation with steam. During the activation step the amorphous carbon produced in the initial carbonization step reacted with oxidizing gas, forming new pores and opening closed pores, which enhanced the adsorptive capacity of the activated carbon. N2 gas adsorption at 77K was used in order to evaluate the effect of the carbonization and activation steps. The results of the adsorption indicate the possibility of producing a porous material with a combination of microporous and mesoporous structure, depending on the parameters used in the processes, with resulting specific surface area around 470 m2.g–1. The thermal analysis indicates that above 600°C there is no significant mass loss.

  5. Textural and electronic characteristics of mechanochemically activated composites with nanosilica and activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, V. M.; Zaulychnyy, Ya. V.; Ilkiv, B. I.; Zarko, V. I.; Nychiporuk, Yu. M.; Pakhlov, E. M.; Ptushinskii, Yu. G.; Leboda, R.; Skubiszewska-Zięba, J.

    2011-11-01

    Nanosilicas (A-50, A-300, A-500)/activated carbon (AC, SBET = 1520 m2/g) composites were prepared using short-term (5 min) mechanochemical activation (MCA) of powder mixtures in a microbreaker. Smaller silica nanoparticles of A-500 (average diameter dav = 5.5 nm) can more easily penetrate into broad mesopores and macropores of AC microparticles than larger nanoparticles of A-50 (dav = 52.4 nm) or A-300 (dav = 8.1 nm). After MCA of silica/AC, nanopores of non-broken AC nanoparticles remained accessible for adsorbed N2 molecules. According to ultra-soft X-ray emission spectra (USXES), MCA of silica/AC caused formation of chemical bonds Si-O-C; however, Si-C and Si-Si bonds were practically not formed. A decrease in intensity of OKα band in respect to CKα band of silica/AC composites with diminishing sizes of silica nanoparticles is due to both changes in the surface structure of particles and penetration of a greater number of silica nanoparticles into broad pores of AC microparticles and restriction of penetration depth of exciting electron beam into the AC particles.

  6. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs). Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During previous studies, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon product. As much as a 130% increase in the humic acid sorption capacity of a PAC produced from a high-sodium-content lignite was observed. During this study, activated carbons were prepared from three coals representing high-sodium, low-sodium--low-calcium, and high-calcium compositions in two steps, an initial char formation followed by mild activation with steam to avoid excessive burnout. This set of carbons was characterized with respect to physical and chemical properties. The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) nitrogen adsorption isotherms gave relatively low surface areas (ranging from 245 to 370 m{sup 2}/g). The lowest-BET area was obtained for the high-sodium carbon, which can be attributed to enlargement of micropores as a result of sodium-catalyzed gasification reaction of the carbon structure. This hypothesis is consistent with the scanning electron microscopy microprobe analyses, which show that in both the coal and the activated carbon from this coal, the sodium is distributed over both the carbon structure and the mineral particles. Thus it is initially associated with carboxylate groups on the coal and then as sodium oxide or

  7. Drinking water biotic safety of particles and bacteria attached to fines in activated carbon process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; LIN Tao; WANG Leilei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the drinking water biotic safety of particles and bacteria attached to fines in activated carbon process was investigated by actual treatment process and advanced treatment pilot trial with granular activated carbon.In the experiment,the particles were detected by IBR particle calculating instrument,the activated carbon fines were counted on the basis of the most probable number (MPN) with a microscope,the total number of bacteria was analyzed between the conventional agar culture medium and the one with R2A,and the bacteria attached to activated carbon fines was resolved by the homogenization technique.The experimental results showed that the average total number of particles was 205 CNT/mL in the activated carbon effluent during a filter cycle,of which the number of particles with sizes>2μm was 77 CNT/mL more than the present particle control criterion of the American drinking water product standard (50 CNT/mL).The backwash of low density and long duration lowered particle number in the effluent.The MPN of activated carbon frees in the effluent was between 400 and 600 CNT/L,which accounted for less than 5‰ of the total particles from activated carbon filtration for a poor relative level (R2= 0.34).The microorganisms in activated carbon effluent consisted mostly of heterotrophic bacillus and the total bacteria number was five times as high as that of the inflow,i.e.the effluent from sand filter.The actual bacteria number may be truly indicated by the detection technique with R2A culture medium compared with the traditional agar cultivation.The inactivation efficiency of bacteria attached to activated carbon fines was less than 40% under 1.1 mg/L of chlorine contacting for 40 min.Results showed that the particles and bacteria attached to activated carbon fines may influence drinking water biotic safety,and that the effective control measures need to be further investigated.

  8. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sych, N.V.; Trofymenko, S.I.; Poddubnaya, O.I.; Tsyba, M.M. [Institute for Sorption and Endoecology Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Sapsay, V.I.; Klymchuk, D.O. [M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Tereshchenkivska St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Puziy, A.M., E-mail: alexander.puziy@ispe.kiev.ua [Institute for Sorption and Endoecology Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activation results in formation of carbons with acidic surface groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum amount of surface groups is introduced at impregnation ratio 1.25. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activated carbons show high capacity to copper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activated carbons are predominantly microporous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum surface area and pore volume achieved at impregnation ratio 1.0. - Abstract: Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 Degree-Sign C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (S{sub BET} = 2081 m{sup 2}/g, V{sub tot} = 1.1 cm{sup 3}/g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0-2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7-5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7-7.4; 8.8-9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1-10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  9. Corn stalks char from fast pyrolysis as precursor material for preparation of activated carbon in fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jingli; He, Tao; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-09-01

    Corn stalks char from fast pyrolysis was activated by physical and chemical activation process in a fluidized bed reactor. The structure and morphology of the carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption and SEM. Effects of activation time and activation agents on the structure of activation carbon were investigated. The physically activated carbons with CO2 have BET specific surface area up to 880 m(2)/g, and exhibit microporous structure. The chemically activated carbons with H3PO4 have BET specific surface area up to 600 m(2)/g, and exhibit mesoporous structure. The surface morphology shows that physically activated carbons exhibit fibrous like structure in nature with long ridges, resembling parallel lines. Whereas chemically activated carbons have cross-interconnected smooth open pores without the fibrous like structure.

  10. Preparation of activated carbon from sorghum pith and its structural and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Sorghum pith as the cost effective raw material for activated carbon preparation. → Physicochemical method/KOH activation for preparation of activated carbon is inexpensive. → Activated carbon having lower surface area surprisingly delivered a higher specific capacitance. → Treated at 500 oC activated carbon exceeds maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s. -- Abstract: The cost effective activated carbon (AC) has been prepared from sorghum pith by NaOH activation at various temperatures, including 300 oC (AC1), 400 oC (AC2) and 500 oC (AC3) for the electrodes in electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) applications. The amorphous nature of the samples has been observed from X-ray diffraction and Raman spectral studies. Subsequently, the surface functional groups, surface morphology, pore diameter and specific surface area have been identified through FT-IR, SEM, histogram and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm methods. The electrochemical characterization of AC electrodes has been examined using cyclic voltammetry technique in the potential range of -0.1-1.2 V in 1.0 M H2SO4 electrolyte at different scan rates (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 mV/s). The maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s and 222.1 F/g at 100 mV/s have been obtained for AC3 electrode when compared with AC1 and AC2 electrodes. Based on the characterization studies, it has been inferred that the activated carbon prepared from sorghum pith may be one of the innovative carbon electrode materials for EDLC applications.

  11. Production of Biologically Activated Carbon from Orange Peel and Landfill Leachate Subsequent Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve adsorption of macromolecular contaminants and promote the growth of microorganisms, active carbon for biological wastewater treatment or follow-up processing requires abundant mesopore and good biophile ability. In this experiment, biophile mesopore active carbon is produced in one-step activation with orange peel as raw material, and zinc chloride as activator, and the adsorption characteristics of orange peel active carbon is studied by static adsorption method. BET specific surface area and pore volume reached 1477 m2/g and 2.090 m3/g, respectively. The surface functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The surface of the as-prepared activated carbon contained hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group. The analysis based on X-ray diffraction spectrogram (XRD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum indicated that the as-prepared activated carbon, with smaller microcrystalline diameter and microcrystalline thickness and enhanced reactivity, exhibited enhanced adsorption performance. This research has a deep influence in effectively controlling water pollution, improving area water quality, easing orange peel waste pollution, and promoting coordinated development among society, economy, and environment.

  12. Preparation of activated carbons from mesophase pitch and their electrochemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influences of molar ratio of KOH to C and activated temperature on the pore structure and electrochemical property of porous activated carbon from mesophase pitch activated by KOH were investigated. The surface areas and the pore structures of activated carbons were analyzed by nitrogen adsorption, and the electrochemical properties of the activated carbons were studied using two-electrode capacitors in organic electrolyte. The results indicate that the maximum surface area of 3 190 m2/g is obtained at molar ratio of KOH to C of 5:1, the maximum specific capacitance of 122 F/g is attained at molar ratio of KOH to C of 4:1, and 800 ℃ is the proper temperature to obtain the maximum surface area and capacitance.

  13. CO2 Activated Carbon Aerogel with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance as a Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eo Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jeong Kwon; Hong, Ung Gi; Yi, Jongheop; Yoon, Jung Rag; Song, In Kyu

    2015-11-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared by a sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in ambient conditions. A series of activated carbon aerogels (ACA-X, X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h) were then prepared by CO2 activation of CA with a variation of activation time (X) for use as an electrode material for supercapacitor. Specific capacitances of CA and ACA-X electrodes were measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Among the samples, ACA-5 h showed the highest BET surface area (2574 m2/g) and the highest specific capacitance (100 F/g). It was found that CO2 activation was a very efficient method for enhancing physicochemical property and supercapacitive electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel.

  14. Production of activated carbon and its catalytic application for oxidation of hydrogen sulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azargohar, Ramin

    Hydrogen sulphide is an environmentally hazardous gas which is present in many gas streams associated with oil and gas industry. Oxidation of H 2S to sulphur in air produces no bulky or waste material and requires no further purification. Activated carbon is known as a catalyst for this reaction. In this research, a coal-based precursor (luscar char) and a biomass-based precursor (biochar) were used for production of activated carbons by two common methods of activation: physical and chemical activation in which steam and potassium hydroxide (KOH), respectively, were used. Experiments were designed by the statistical central composite design method. Two models were developed for the BET surface area and reaction yield of each activation process. These models showed the effects of operating conditions, such as activation temperature, mass ratio of activating agent to precursor, activation time, and nitrogen flowrate on the BET surface area and reaction yield for each activation method for each precursor. The optimum operating conditions were calculated using these models to produce activated carbons with relatively large BET surface area (> 500 m2/g) and high reaction yield (> 50 wt %). The BET surface area and reaction yield for activated carbons produced at optimum operating conditions showed maximum 7 and 7.4% difference, respectively, comparing to the values predicted by models. The activated carbons produced at optimum operating conditions were used as the base catalysts for the direct oxidation of 1 mol % hydrogen sulphide in nitrogen to sulphur at the temperature range of 160-205°C and pressure of 700 kPa. Originally activated carbons showed a good potential for oxidation of hydrogen sulphide by their selectivity for sulphur product and low amount of sulphur dioxide production. To improve the performance of steam-activated carbons, the catalysts were modified by acid-treatment followed by thermal desorption. This method increased the break-through times for

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  16. 75 FR 48644 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of... antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the... Reviews, 75 FR 29976-29980 (May 28, 2010) (``Initiation''). On June 15, 2010, Calgon Carbon...

  17. Effects of thermal activation conditions on the microstructure regulation of corncob-derived activated carbon for hydrogen storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dabin Wang; Zhen Geng; Cunman Zhang; Xiangyang Zhou; Xupeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from corncob (CACs) were prepared by pyrolysis carbonization and KOH activation. Through modifying activation conditions, samples with large pore volume and ultrahigh BET specific surface area could be obtained. The sample achieved the highest hydrogen uptake capacity of 5.80 wt%at 40 bar and -196◦C. The as-obtained samples were characterized by N2-sorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides, thermogravimetric analysis was also employed to investigate the activation behavior of CACs. Detailed investigation on the activation parameters reveals that moderate activation temperature and heating rate are favorable for preparing CACs with high surface area, large pore volume and optimal pore size distribution. Meanwhile, the micropore volume between 0.65 nm and 0.85 nm along with BET surface area and total pore volume has great effects on hydrogen uptake capacities. The present results indicate that CACs are the most promising materials for hydrogen storage application.

  18. New and future developments in catalysis activation of carbon dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Suib, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    New and Future Developments in Catalysis is a package of books that compile the latest ideas concerning alternate and renewable energy sources and the role that catalysis plays in converting new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes will be discussed in a unified and comprehensive approach. There will be extensive cross-referencing within all volumes. This volume presents a complete picture of all carbon dioxide (CO2) sources, outlines the environmental concerns regarding CO2, and critica

  19. Large-Area, Highly Ordered Array of Graphitic Carbon Materials Using Surface Active Chitosan Prepatterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Dae Woo; Yang, Seung Bo; Lee, Jung-Goo; Kim, Young Kuk; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that chitosan prepatterns can generate not only highly periodic DNA pattern but also various types of graphitic carbon materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic results revealed that the graphitic carbon materials were selectively deposited on the surface of the periodic chitosan patterns by the electrostatic interaction between protonated amine groups of chitosan and the negative charged carbon materials. One proof-of-concept application of the system to the fabrication of electrical devices based on the micropatterns of SWNTs and RGO was also demonstrated. The strategy to use highly surface active chitosan pattern that can easily fabricate highly periodic pattern via a variety of lithographic tools may pave the way for the production of periodic arrays of graphitic carbon materials for large area device integration. PMID:26353637

  20. Development of a predictive model to determine micropollutant removal using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. de Ridder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of organic micropollutants in drinking water and its sources has opened up a field of study related to monitoring concentration levels in water sources, evaluating their toxicity and estimating their removal in drinking water treatment processes. Because a large number of organic micropollutants is currently present (although in relatively low concentrations in drinking water sources, a method should be developed to select which micropollutants has to be evaluated with priority. In this paper, a screening model is presented that can predict solute removal by activated carbon, in ultrapure water and in natural water. Solute removal prediction is based on a combination of solute hydrophobicity (expressed as log D, the pH corrected log Kow, solute charge and the carbon dose. Solute molecular weight was also considered as model input parameter, but this solute property appeared to relate insufficiently to solute removal.

    Removal of negatively charged solutes by preloaded activated carbon was reduced while the removal of positively charged solutes was increased, compared with freshly regenerated activated carbon. Differences in charged solute removal by freshly regenerated activated carbon were small, indicating that charge interactions are an important mechanism in adsorption onto preloaded carbon. The predicted solute removal was within 20 removal-% deviation of experimentally measured values.