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Sample records for activated carbon sorcion

  1. Sorption of a phenols mixture in aqueous solution with activated carbon; Sorcion de una mezcla de fenoles en solucion acuosa con carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia M, D

    2004-07-01

    The constant population growth and the quick industrialization have caused severe damages to our natural aquifer resources for a great variety of organic and inorganic pollutants. Among these they are those phenol compounds that are highly toxic, resistant (to the degradation chemistry) and poorly biodegradable. The phenolic compounds is used in a great variety of industries, like it is the production of resins, nylon, plastifiers, anti-oxidants, oil additives, drugs, pesticides, colorants, explosives, disinfectants and others. The disseminated discharges or effluents coming from the industrial processes toward lakes and rivers are causing a growing adverse effect in the environment, as well as a risk for the health. Numerous studies exist on the phenols removal and phenols substituted for very varied techniques, among them they are the adsorption in activated carbon. This finishes it has been used successfully for the treatment of residual waters municipal and industrial and of drinking waters and it is considered as the best technique available to eliminate organic compounds not biodegradable and toxic present in aqueous solution (US EPA, 1991). However a little information exists on studies carried out in aqueous systems with more of a phenolic compound. The activated carbon is broadly used as adsorbent due to its superficial properties in the so much treatment of water as of aqueous wastes, adsorbent for the removal of organic pollutants. The main objective of this work is the adsorption of a aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in activated carbon of mineral origin of different meshes and to diminish with it their presence in water. The experiments were carried out for lots, in normal conditions of temperature and pressure. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the superficial properties of the sorbent like of the physical properties and chemical of the sorbate. The isotherms were carried

  2. Sorption of a mixture of phenols in aqueous solution with activated carbon; Sorcion de una mezcla de fenoles en solucion acuosa con carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia M, D.; Lopez M, B.E.; Iturbe G, J.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this work is the sorption of an aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in a molar relationship 1:1 in activated carbon of mineral origin of different nets (10, 20 and 30) and to diminish with it its presence in water. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the surface properties of the sorbent like of the physical and chemical properties of the sorbate. In all the cases it was observed that in the aqueous systems of low concentration the 4-chloro phenol are removed in an approximate proportion of 1.2-4 times greater to than phenol, however to concentrations but high both they are removed approximately in the same proportion. (Author)

  3. EFFECT OF DRYING METHODS ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF BLACKBERRY PULP POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA I. GIRALDO GÓMEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron cuatros clases de polvos deshidratados de mora encapsulados con maltodextrina utilizando secado por vibro-fluidizacion (VF, por aspersion (SD vacio (VD y liofilizacion (FD. Se determinaron los datos de de humedad de equilibrio de los polvos de pulpa de mora con 18% de maltodextrina a temperaturas de 20, 30, 40 y 50°C usando el metodo estatico gravimetrico para el intervalo de actividad de agua entre 0.06.0.90. Los valores experimentales del contenido de humedad de equilibrio en funcion de la actividad de agua fueron ajustados con el modelo de Guggenheim.Anderson.de Boer (GAB hallandose una buena concordancia entre los valores experimentales y los calculados. El calor isosterico de sorcion, calculado utilizando la ecuacion de Clausius.Clapeyron a partir de los datos de equilibrio, se incremento con el aumento de la temperatura y fue ajustado con una relacion exponencial. Para muestras de polvos liofilizadas, vibrofluidizadas y a vacio, el calor de sorcion fue menor (mas negativo que los calculados para muestras secas en el secador por aspersion. La teoria de la compensacion entalpia-entropia fue aplicada a las isotermas de sorcion y de las graficas de AH contra AS se obtuvieron las temperaturas isocineticas, indicando un proceso de sorcion controlado por la entalpia.

  4. Activated carbon from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  5. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  6. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  7. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  8. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  9. Activated carbon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards

  10. In vitro adsorption study of fluoxetine in activated carbons and activated carbon fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabais, J.M. Valente; Mouquinho, A.; Galacho, C.; Carrott, P.J.M.; Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L. [Centro de Quimica de Evora e Departamento de Quimica da Universidade de Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho no. 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)

    2008-05-15

    We study the in vitro adsorption of fluoxetine hydrochloride by different adsorbents in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, pH 1.2 and 7.5, respectively. The tested materials were two commercial activated carbons, carbomix and maxsorb MSC30, one activated carbon fibre produced in our laboratory and also three MCM-41 samples, also produced by us. Selected samples were modified by liquid phase oxidation and thermal treatment in order to change the surface chemistry without significant modifications to the porous characteristics. The fluoxetine adsorption follows the Langmuir model. The calculated Q{sub 0} values range from 54 to 1112 mg/g. A different adsorption mechanism was found for the adsorption of fluoxetine in activated carbon fibres and activated carbons. In the first case the most relevant factors are the molecular sieving effect and the dispersive interactions whereas in the activated carbons the mechanism seams to be based on the electrostatic interactions between the fluoxetine molecules and the charged carbon surface. Despite the different behaviours most of the materials tested have potential for treating potential fluoxetine intoxications. (author)

  11. Characterization of Activated Carbons from Oil-Palm Shell by CO2 Activation with No Holding Carbonization Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Herawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons can be produced from different precursors, including coals of different ranks, and lignocellulosic materials, by physical or chemical activation processes. The objective of this paper is to characterize oil-palm shells, as a biomass byproduct from palm-oil mills which were converted into activated carbons by nitrogen pyrolysis followed by CO2 activation. The effects of no holding peak pyrolysis temperature on the physical characteristics of the activated carbons are studied. The BET surface area of the activated carbon is investigated using N2 adsorption at 77 K with selected temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C. These pyrolysis conditions for preparing the activated carbons are found to yield higher BET surface area at a pyrolysis temperature of 700°C compared to selected commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons thus result in well-developed porosities and predominantly microporosities. By using this activation method, significant improvement can be obtained in the surface characteristics of the activated carbons. Thus this study shows that the preparation time can be shortened while better results of activated carbon can be produced.

  12. Production of palm kernel shell-based activated carbon by direct physical activation for carbon dioxide adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nor Adilla; Yusup, Suzana

    2018-05-09

    The feasibility of biomass-based activated carbons has received a huge attention due to their excellent characteristics such as inexpensiveness, good adsorption behaviour and potential to reduce a strong dependency towards non-renewable precursors. Therefore, in this research work, eco-friendly activated carbon from palm kernel shell that has been produced from one-stage physical activation by using the Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology is highlighted. The effect of three input parameters-temperature, dwell time and gas flow rate-towards product yield and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake at room temperature and atmospheric pressure are studied. Model accuracy has been evaluated through the ANOVA analysis and lack-of-fit test. Accordingly, the optimum condition in synthesising the activated carbon with adequate CO 2 adsorption capacity of 2.13 mmol/g and product yield of 25.15 wt% is found at a temperature of 850 °C, holding time of 60 min and CO 2 flow rate of 450 cm 3 /min. The synthesised activated carbon has been characterised by diverse analytical instruments including thermogravimetric analyser, scanning electron microscope, as well as N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The characterisation analysis indicates that the synthesised activated carbon has higher textural characteristics and porosity, together with better thermal stability and carbon content as compared to pristine palm kernel shell. Activated carbon production via one-step activation approach is economical since its carbon yield is within the industrial target, whereas CO 2 uptake is comparable to the synthesised activated carbon from conventional dual-stage activation, commercial activated carbon and other published data from literature.

  13. Preparation of very pure active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloot, H.A. van der; Hoede, D.; Zonderhuis, J.; Meijer, C.

    1980-02-01

    The preparation of very pure active carbon is described. Starting from polyvinylidene chloride active carbon is prepared by carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere, grinding, sieving and activation of the powder fraction with CO 2 at 950 0 to approximately 50% burn-off. The concentrations of trace and major elements are reduced to the ppb and ppm level, respectively. In the present set-up 100 g of carbon grains and approximately 50 g of active carbon powder can be produced weekly

  14. High-surface-area active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, T.M.; Wennerberg, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and properties of a unique active carbon having exceptionally high surface areas, over 2500 m 2 /gm, and extraordinary adsorptive capacities. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 400 0 to 500 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 800 0 to 900 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts. These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product. A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques. Typical properties of the carbon include Iodine Numbers of 3000 to 3600, methylene blue adsorption of 650 to 750 mg/gm, pore volumes of 2.0 to 2.6 cc/gm and less than 3.0% ash. This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area, purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc

  15. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Wang Geun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-Do 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Balathanigaimani, M.S., E-mail: msbala@rgipt.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Ratapur Chowk, Rae Bareli, 229316 Uttar Pradesh (India); Moon, Hee, E-mail: hmoon@jnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly porous carbon materials from Mongolian anthracite by chemical activation. • Cheaper and eco-friendly activation process has been employed. • Activated carbons with graphitic structure and energetically heterogeneous surface. • Surface hydrophobicity and porosity of the activated carbons can be controlled. - Abstract: Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816–2063 m{sup 2}/g and of 0.55–1.61 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  16. Carbon tetrachloride desorption from activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, L.A.; Sansone, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride was desorbed from a granular activated carbon subsequent to its adsorption under various vapor exposure periods. The varied conditions of exposure resulted in a range of partially saturated carbon beds which, when followed by a constant flow rate for desorption, generated different forms of the desorbing concentration versus time curve. A method of analyzing the desorption curves is presented which permits extraction of the various desorbing rates from the different desorption and to relate this to the time required for such regeneration. The Wheeler desorption kinetic equation was used to calculate the pseudo first order desorption rate constant for the carbon. The desorption rate constant was found to increase monotonically with increasing saturation of the bed, permitting the calculation of the maximum desorption rate constant for the carbon at 100% saturation. The Retentivity Index of the carbon, defined as the dimensionless ratio of the adsorption to the desorption rate constant, was found to be 681

  17. Adsorption characteristics of activated carbon hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Kaludjerović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hollow fibers were prepared with regenerated cellulose or polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using sodium phosphate dibasic followed by the carbonization process. The activation process increases the adsorption properties of fibers which is more prominent for active carbone fibers obtained from the cellulose precursor. Chemical activation with sodium phosphate dibasic produces an active carbon material with both mesopores and micropores.

  18. Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Al-Qodah

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated sludge was used as a precursor to prepare activated carbon using sulfuric acid as a chemical activation agent. The effect of preparation conditions on the produced activated carbon characteristics as an adsorbent was investigated. The results indicate that the produced activated carbon has a highly porous structure and a specific surface area of 580 m²/g. The FT-IR analysis depicts the presence of a variety of functional groups which explain its improved adsorption behavior against pesticides. The XRD analysis reveals that the produced activated carbon has low content of inorganic constituents compared with the precursor. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to three adsorption isotherm models and found to closely fit the BET model with R² equal 0.948 at pH 3, indicating a multilayer of pesticide adsorption. The maximum loading capacity of the produced activated carbon was 110 mg pesticides/g adsorbent and was obtained at this pH value. This maximum loading was found experimentally to steeply decrease as the solution pH increases. The obtained results show that activated sludge is a promising low cost precursor for the production of activated carbon.

  19. Structural and adsorptive properties of activated carbons prepared by carbonization and activation of resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboda, R; Skubiszewska-Zieba, J; Tomaszewski, W; Gun'ko, V M

    2003-07-15

    Four activated carbons (S1-S4) possessing different structural characteristics were prepared by carbonization of commercial resins (used for ion exchange) and subsequent activation. Their textural parameters were determined on the basis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77.4 K, analyzed by applying several local and overall adsorption isotherm equations. The nature of carbon surface functionalities was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The GC and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques were applied to study the influence of the texture of carbonaceous materials on their adsorptive properties. The adsorption efficiency of synthesized carbons with respect to alkylhalides used as probe compounds in the GC measurements varied over a range from 28% (C(2)H(3)Cl(3)/S2) to 85% (CHBr(3)/S1) depending on the type of adsorbates and adsorbents. The concentrating efficiency of these carbons in SPE of explosive materials changed over a larger range from 12% (trinitroglycerin/S4) and 13% (trinitrotoluene/S2) up to 100% (octogen/S1). Active carbon prepared using Zerolite 225x8 as a precursor demonstrated better results than other carbons in two types of adsorption with average values of the efficiency of 75.4% for explosives and 60.8% for alkylhalides.

  20. Composite supercapacitor electrodes made of activated carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon/PEDOT:PSS and activated carbon/doped PEDOT. T S SONIA, P A MINI, ... polymeric anodes for organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes (Pingree et al ... looked upon are carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and activated carbon.

  1. Biological activation of carbon filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bozena; Tomaszewska, Maria; Janus, Magdalena; Morawski, Antoni W

    2006-01-01

    To prepare biological activated carbon (BAC), raw surface water was circulated through granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Biological activity of carbon filters was initiated after about 6 months of filter operation and was confirmed by two methods: measurement of the amount of biomass attached to the carbon and by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) test. The effect of carbon pre-washing on WG-12 carbon properties was also studied. For this purpose, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra analyses were performed. Moreover, iodine number, decolorizing power and adsorption properties of carbon in relation to phenol were studied. Analysis of the results revealed that after WG-12 carbon pre-washing its BET surface increased a little, the pH value of the carbon water extract decreased from 11.0 to 9.4, decolorizing power remained at the same level, and the iodine number and phenol adsorption rate increased. In preliminary studies of the ozonation-biofiltration process, a model phenol solution with concentration of approximately 10mg/l was applied. During the ozonation process a dose of 1.64 mg O(3)/mg TOC (total organic carbon) was employed and the contact time was 5 min. Four empty bed contact times (EBCTs) in the range of 2.4-24.0 min were used in the biofiltration experiment. The effectiveness of purification was measured by the following parameters: chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), TOC, phenol concentration and UV(254)-absorbance. The parameters were found to decrease with EBCT.

  2. Activated carbon for incinerator uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Seman Mahmood; Norhayati Alias; Mohd Puad Abu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the activated carbon from palm oil kernel shell for use as absorbent and converter for incinerator gas. The procedure is developed in order to prepare the material in bulk quantity and be used in the incinerator. The effect of the use of activating chemicals, physical activation and the preparation parameter to the quality of the carbon products will be discussed. (Author)

  3. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  4. Adsorption uptake of synthetic organic chemicals by carbon nanotubes and activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. J.; Lim, Hyung-nam; Kilduff, James E.

    2012-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise as high performance materials for adsorbing priority pollutants from water and wastewater. This study compared uptake of two contaminants of interest in drinking water treatment (atrazine and trichloroethylene) by nine different types of carbonaceous adsorbents: three different types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), three different sized multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs), two granular activated carbons (GACs) and a powdered activated carbon (PAC). On a mass basis, the activated carbons exhibited the highest uptake, followed by SWNTs and MWNTs. However, metallic impurities in SWNTs and multiple walls in MWNTs contribute to adsorbent mass but do not contribute commensurate adsorption sites. Therefore, when uptake was normalized by purity (carbon content) and surface area (instead of mass), the isotherms collapsed and much of the CNT data was comparable to the activated carbons, indicating that these two characteristics drive much of the observed differences between activated carbons and CNT materials. For the limited data set here, the Raman D:G ratio as a measure of disordered non-nanotube graphitic components was not a good predictor of adsorption from solution. Uptake of atrazine by MWNTs having a range of lengths and diameters was comparable and their Freundlich isotherms were statistically similar, and we found no impact of solution pH on the adsorption of either atrazine or trichloroethylene in the range of naturally occurring surface water (pH = 5.7-8.3). Experiments were performed using a suite of model aromatic compounds having a range of π-electron energy to investigate the role of π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions on organic compound uptake by SWNTs. For the compounds studied, hydrophobic interactions were the dominant mechanism in the uptake by both SWNTs and activated carbon. However, comparing the uptake of naphthalene and phenanthrene by activated carbon and SWNTs, size exclusion effects

  5. Adsorption uptake of synthetic organic chemicals by carbon nanotubes and activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A J; Kilduff, James E; Lim, Hyung-nam

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise as high performance materials for adsorbing priority pollutants from water and wastewater. This study compared uptake of two contaminants of interest in drinking water treatment (atrazine and trichloroethylene) by nine different types of carbonaceous adsorbents: three different types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), three different sized multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs), two granular activated carbons (GACs) and a powdered activated carbon (PAC). On a mass basis, the activated carbons exhibited the highest uptake, followed by SWNTs and MWNTs. However, metallic impurities in SWNTs and multiple walls in MWNTs contribute to adsorbent mass but do not contribute commensurate adsorption sites. Therefore, when uptake was normalized by purity (carbon content) and surface area (instead of mass), the isotherms collapsed and much of the CNT data was comparable to the activated carbons, indicating that these two characteristics drive much of the observed differences between activated carbons and CNT materials. For the limited data set here, the Raman D:G ratio as a measure of disordered non-nanotube graphitic components was not a good predictor of adsorption from solution. Uptake of atrazine by MWNTs having a range of lengths and diameters was comparable and their Freundlich isotherms were statistically similar, and we found no impact of solution pH on the adsorption of either atrazine or trichloroethylene in the range of naturally occurring surface water (pH = 5.7–8.3). Experiments were performed using a suite of model aromatic compounds having a range of π-electron energy to investigate the role of π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions on organic compound uptake by SWNTs. For the compounds studied, hydrophobic interactions were the dominant mechanism in the uptake by both SWNTs and activated carbon. However, comparing the uptake of naphthalene and phenanthrene by activated carbon and SWNTs, size exclusion

  6. Activated carbon from peach stones using phosphoric acid activation at medium temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Su

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the activation features of phosphoric acid have been investigated using waste peach stones as the raw material in the production of granular activated carbon. Thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis was conducted to characterize the thermal behavior of peach stone and titration method was used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the produced activated carbon. It was observed that the iodine value of the activated carbon increased with activation temperature. However, temperatures higher than 500 degrees C caused a thermal destruction, which resulted in the decrease of the adsorption capacity. Activation longer than 1.5 h at 500 degrees C resulted in thermal degradation of the porous structure of the activated carbon. The adsorption capacity was enhanced with increasing of amounts of phosphoric acid, however, excessive phosphoric acid caused a decrease in the iodine value. In addition, it was found that the carbon yields generally decreased with activation temperature and activation time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to observe the changes in the poros structure of the activated carbon produced in different temperatures. Activation of carbon by phosphoric acid was found to be superior to that by CaCl2 and gas activation. The activated carbon produced from peach stone was applied as an adsorbent in the treatment of synthesized wastewater containing cadmium ion and its adsorption capacity was found to be as good as that of the commercial one.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  8. Promoting effect of active carbons on methanol dehydrogenation on sodium carbonate - hydrogen spillover

    OpenAIRE

    Su, S.; Prairie, M.; Renken, A.

    1993-01-01

    Methanol dehydrogenation to formaldehyde was conducted in a fixed-bed flow reactor with sodium carbonate catalyst mixed with active carbons or transition metals. The additives promoted the reaction rate at 880-970 K without modifying formaldehyde selectivity. This effect increases with increasing carbon content in the carbon-carbonate mixture. Activation energy of methanol conversion is the same for the mixture and the carbonate alone. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments showed that...

  9. Development of activated carbon pore structure via physical and chemical activation of biomass fibre waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Paul T.; Reed, Anton R.

    2006-01-01

    Biomass waste in the form of biomass flax fibre, produced as a by-product of the textile industry was processed via both physical and chemical activation to produce activated carbons. The surface area of the physically activated carbons were up to 840 m 2 g -1 and the carbons were of mesoporous structure. Chemical activation using zinc chloride produced high surface area activated carbons up to 2400 m 2 g -1 and the pore size distribution was mainly microporous. However, the process conditions of temperature and zinc chloride concentration could be used to manipulate the surface area and porosity of the carbons to produce microporous, mesoporous and mixed microporous/mesoporous activated carbons. The physically activated carbons were found to be a mixture of Type I and Type IV carbons and the chemically activated carbons were found to be mainly Type I carbons. The development of surface morphology of physically and chemically activated carbons observed via scanning electron microscopy showed that physical activation produced activated carbons with a nodular and pitted surface morphology whereas activated carbons produced through chemical activation had a smooth surface morphology. Transmission electron microscopy analysis could identify mesopore structures in the physically activated carbon and microporous structures in the chemically activated carbons

  10. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  11. Evaluation of single-step steam pyrolysis-activated carbons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Activated carbon has been widely used worldwide as an effective filtration or adsorption ... of producing activated carbon (AC) from local agroforestry residues by ..... impurities from waste water. .... Production of granular activated carbon.

  12. Activation and micropore structure determination of activated carbon-fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1997-09-05

    Rigid, high surface area activated carbon fiber composites have been produced with high permeabilities for environmental applications in gas and water purification. These novel monolithic adsorbents can be produced in single pieces to a given size and shape. The project involves a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), University of Kentucky. The carbon fiber composites are produced at the ORNL and activated at the CAER using different methods, with the aims of producing a uniform degree of activation, and of closely controlling pore structure and adsorptive properties. The main focus of the present work has been to find a satisfactory means to uniformly activate large samples of carbon fiber composites and produce controlled pore structures. Several environmental applications have been explored for the activated carbon fiber composites. One of these was to evaluate the activated composites for the separation of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures, and an apparatus was constructed specifically for this purpose. The composites were further evaluated in the cyclic recovery of volatile organics. The activated carbon fiber composites have also been tested for possible water treatment applications by studying the adsorption of sodium pentachlorophenolate, PCP.

  13. A novel activated carbon for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Haijie [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Liu, Enhui, E-mail: liuenhui99@sina.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Xiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Zhengzheng; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yuhu; Wu, Zhilian; Xie, Hui [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel activated carbon was prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon has large surface area with microporous, and high heteroatom content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteroatom-containing functional groups can improve the pseudo-capacitance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: A novel activated carbon has been prepared by simple carbonization and activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin which is synthesized by the condensation polymerization method. The morphology, thermal stability, surface area, elemental composition and surface chemical composition of samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L{sup -1} potassium hydroxide. The activated carbon shows good capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance is up to 210 F g{sup -1}, which indicates that it may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  14. Measurement of carbon thermodynamic activity in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Alekseev, V V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    The report presents the brief outline on system of carbon activity detecting system in sodium (SCD), operating on the carbon-permeable membrane, of the methods and the results of testing it under the experimental circulating loop conditions. The results of carbon activity sensor calibration with the use of equilibrium samples of XI8H9, Fe -8Ni, Fe -12Mn materials are listed. The behaviour of carbon activity sensor signals in sodium under various transitional conditions and hydrodynamic perturbation in the circulating loop, containing carbon bearing impurities in the sodium flow and their deposits on the surfaces flushed by sodium, are described. (author)

  15. Acid-base characteristics of powdered-activated-carbon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, B.E. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States)); Jensen, J.N.; Matsumoto, M.R. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States))

    Adsorption of heavy metals onto activated carbon has been described using the surface-complex-formation (SCF) model, a chemical equilibrium model. The SCF model requires a knowledge of the amphoteric nature of activated carbon prior to metal adsorption modeling. In the past, a single-diprotic-acid-site model had been employed to describe the amphoteric nature of activated-carbon surfaces. During this study, the amphoteric nature of two powdered activated carbons were investigated, and a three-monoprotic site surface model was found to be a plausible alternative. The single-diprotic-acid-site and two-monoprotic-site models did not describe the acid-base behavior of the two carbons studied adequately. The two-diprotic site was acceptable for only one of the study carbons. The acid-base behavior of activated carbon surfaces seem to be best modeled as a series of weak monoprotic acids.

  16. Behaviour of waterborne radon in activated carbon filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, K.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the behaviour of radon in adsorption/desorption processes in filter systems with different activated carbon types, measurements were focused on adsorption capacity, adsorption velocity, retain capability, interaction with ions (poisoning of active centers) and adsorption of radon daughters. Various activated carbon types derived from hard coal, brown coal, peat and wood, were used in adsorption tests runs with activated carbons which are frequently applied in water treatment facilities. In laboratory tests, water facility filter conditions were simulated using pilot plant columns filled with different carbon types. Finally, a small scale laboratory column was installed at a natural water source with elevated activity. Long-time filter runs were conducted under varying flow rates and with different amounts of the in waterworks wide-spread used activated carbon F-300. The main results observed were: 1. The amount of radioactivity adsorbed depends upon the type of carbon, its granular size and the contact time between the activated carbon and water. The decontamination capacity was between 19% and 94. 2. The DOC-levels of water influences the adsorbable radioactivity due to the poisoning of the active centres of the carbon. The adsorption velocity decreased down to 15%. 3. The maximum decontamination rate of the water under waterworks conditions was 60%. (orig.) [de

  17. ACTIVATED CARBON (CHARCOAL OBTAINING . APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CIOFU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The activated carbon is a microporous sorbent with a very large adsorption area that can reach in some cases even 1500sqm / gram. Activated carbon is produced from any organic material with high carbon content: coal, wood, peat or moor coal, coconut shells. The granular activated charcoal is most commonly produced by grinding the raw material, adding a suitable binder to provide the desired hardness and shape. Enabling coal is a complete process through which the raw material is fully exposed to temperatures between 600-900 degrees C, in the absence of oxygen, usually in a domestic atmosphere as gases such as nitrogen or argon; as material that results from this process is exposed in an atmosphere of oxygen and steam at a temperature in the interval from 600 - 1200 degrees C.

  18. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N.; Rinaldi, A.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300° C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550° C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  19. Behaviour of natural radionuclides on activated carbon filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, K.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.; Dahlheimer, A.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the behaviour of radon in adsorption/desorption processes at filter systems based on different activated carbon types, measurements were focused on adsorption capacity, adsorption velocity, retain capability, interaction with ions (poisoning of active centers) and adsorption of radon daughters. Various activated carbon types derived from hard coal, brown coal, peat and wood, were used in adsorption tests runs with activated carbons which are applied in water treatment facilities. In laboratory tests, water facility filter conditions were simulated using pilot plant columns filled with different carbon types. A small scale laboratory column was installed at a natural water source with elevated activity. Tests runs were conducted under varying flow rates and with different amounts of carbon. A full-scale waterworks filter system operated for 6 months was investigated for radon decay products adsorbed on the carbon. The main results observed were: 1. The amount of radioactivity adsorbed depends upon the type of carbon, its granular size and the contact time between the activated carbon and water. The decontamination capacity was between 19% and 94%. 2. The DOC-levels of water influences the adsorbable radioactivity due to the poisoning of the active centers of the carbon. The adsorption velocity decreased down to 15%. 3. The maximum decontamination rate of the water under waterworks conditions was 60%. (orig.) [de

  20. Production of activated carbons from almond shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabais, Joao M. Valente; Laginhas, Carlos Eduardo C.; Carrott, P.J.M.; Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L. [Evora Univ. (Portugal). Centro de Quimica de Evora

    2011-02-15

    The production of activated carbons from almond shell, using physical activation by CO{sub 2} is reported in this work. The used method has produced activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas and micropore volume as high as 1138 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.49 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. The activated carbons produced have essentially primary micropores and only a small volume of wider micropores. By FTIR analysis it was possible to identify, in the surface of the activated carbons, several functional groups, namely hydroxyls (free and phenol), ethers, esters, lactones, pyrones and Si-H bonds. By the analysis of the XRD patterns it was possible to calculate the microcrystallites dimensions with height between 1.178 and 1.881 nm and width between 3.106 and 5.917 nm. From the XRD it was also possible to identify the presence of traces of inorganic heteroatoms such as Si, Pb, K, Fe and P. All activated carbons showed basic characteristics with point of zero charge between 9.42 and 10.43. (author)

  1. Biogas pre-upgrading by adsorption of trace compounds onto granular activated carbons and an activated carbon fiber-cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulinguiez, B; Le Cloirec, P

    2009-01-01

    The study assesses the adsorption onto activated carbon materials of selected volatile organic compounds -VOCs- (dichloromethane, 2-propanol, toluene, siloxane D4) in a biogas matrix composed of methane and carbon dioxide (55:45 v/v). Three different adsorbents are tested, two of them are granular activated carbon (GAC), and the last is an activated carbon fiber-cloth (ACFC). The adsorption isotherm data are fitted by different models by nonlinear regression. The Langmuir-Freundlich model appears to be the adequate one to describe the adsorption phenomena independently of the VOC considered or the adsorbent. The adsorbents present attractive adsorption capacity of the undesirable compounds in biogas atmosphere though the maximum adsorption capacities for a VOC are quite different from each other. The adsorption kinetics are characterized through three coefficients: the initial adsorption coefficient, the external film mass transfer coefficient and the internal diffusion coefficient of Weber. The ACFC demonstrates advanced kinetic yields compared to the granular activated carbon materials whatever VOC is considered. Therefore, pre-upgrading of biogas produced from wastewater sludge or co-digestion system by adsorption onto activated carbon appears worth investigating. Especially with ACFC material that presents correct adsorption capacities toward VOCs and concrete regeneration process opportunity to realize such process.

  2. Preparation and characterisation of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badri bin Muhammad; Karen binti Badri; Mohd Zobir bin Hussein; Zulkarnain bin Zainal; W.M. Daud bin W Yunus; Ramli bin Ibrahim

    1994-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from Agricultural wastes, such as coconut shell, Palm oil Shell and mangrove trunk by destructive distillation under vakuum. Chemical and Physical properties of the activated carbon were studied and some potentially useful application in the fields of chemistry was also carried out

  3. Production of activated carbon from peanut hill using phosphoric acid and microwave activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawat Clowutimon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from peanut hulls by phosphoric acid and microwave activation were studied. Factors investigated in this study were temperature of carbonization at 300, 350, 400 and 450๐ C, and time of carbonization at 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The optimum yield was observed that carbonization temperature of 400๐ C and time at 60 minutes, respectively. The yield of charcoal was 39% and the f ix carbon was 69%. Then the charcoal was activated by phosphoric acid and microwave irradiation, respectively. The effect of the weight per volume ratios of charcoal to activating acid (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1(W/V, microwave power at (activated 300, 500 and 700 watts, and activated time (30, 60 and 90 seconds were studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions for activating peanut charcoal were 1:2 (W/V charcoal per activating acid, microwave power 700 watts for 90 seconds. The results yielding maximum surface area by BET method was 303.1 m2 /g and pore volume was 0.140 cm3 /g. An efficiency of maximum iodine adsorption was 418 mg iodine/g activated carbon. Comparing the adsorption efficiency of non- irradiated and irradiated activated carbon, the efficiency of irradiated activated carbon improved up to 31%, due to its larger surface area and pore volume.

  4. Adsorption and desorption of pertechnetate on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dano, M.; Galambos, M.; Rajec, P.; Viglasova, E.; Krajnak, A.; Novak, I.

    2014-01-01

    High surface area, a microporous structure, and a high degree of surface reactivity make activated carbons versatile adsorbents, particularly effective in the adsorption of radionuclides from aqueous solutions. The most important property of activated carbon, the property that determines its usage, is the pore structure. The total number of pores, their shape and size determine the adsorption capacity and even the dynamic adsorption rate of the activated carbon. This report is dedicated to sorption properties of new activated carbon sorbents. (authors)

  5. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  6. SAXS study on activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bota, A.; Heringer, D.; Mihalffy, T.

    1999-01-01

    SAXS fractal analysis of activated carbons is presented. It gives very useful information about the structural changes of the carbon skeleton. From the fact, that the sequence of the activation and the heat treatment affect the fractal behaviours more drastically than the particle size distribution of the structural units, it follows that all changes in the pore and matrix structure may reduce principally to the bonding of the crystallite units. (K.A.)

  7. Reuse performance of granular-activated carbon and activated carbon fiber in catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiying; Li, Lei; Xiao, Tuo; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Xueting

    2017-03-01

    Recently, activated carbon was investigated as an efficient heterogeneous metal-free catalyst to directly activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for degradation of organic compounds. In this paper, the reuse performance and the possible deactivation reasons of granular-activated carbon (GAC) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) in PMS activation were investigated. As results indicated, the reusability of GAC, especially in the presence of high PMS dosage, was relatively superior to ACF in catalyzed PMS oxidation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), which is much more easily adsorbed by ACF than by GAC. Pre-oxidation experiments were studied and it was demonstrated that PMS oxidation on ACF would retard ACF's deactivation to a big extent. After pre-adsorption with AO7, the catalytic ability of both GAC and ACF evidently diminished. However, when methanol was employed to extract the AO7-spent ACF, the catalytic ability could recover quite a bit. GAC and ACF could also effectively catalyze PMS to degrade Reactive Black 5 (RB5), which is very difficult to be adsorbed even by ACF, but both GAC and ACF have poor reuse performance for RB5 degradation. The original organic compounds or intermediate products adsorbed by GAC or ACF would be possibly responsible for the deactivation.

  8. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  9. Quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guannan; Guo, Mingxin

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a source material for generating activated carbon is a value-added and environmentally beneficial approach to recycling organic waste. In this study, the overall quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon was systematically evaluated based on its various physical and chemical properties. Granular activated carbon generated from pelletized poultry litter following a typical steam-activation procedure possessed numerous micropores in the matrix. The product exhibited a mean particle diameter of 2.59 mm, an apparent density of 0.45 g cm(-3), a ball-pan hardness of 91.0, an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1), and a BET surface area of 403 m(2) g(-1). It contained high ash, nitrogen, phosphorus contents and the trace elements Cu, Zn, and As. Most of the nutrients and toxic elements were solidified and solution-unextractable. In general, poultry litter-based activated carbon demonstrated overall quality comparable to that of low-grade commercial activated carbon derived from coconut shell and bituminous coal. It is promising to use poultry litter as a feedstock to manufacture activated carbon for wastewater treatment.

  10. Measurement of carbon activity in sodium and steel and the behaviour of carbon-bearing species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran Pillai, S.; Ranganathan, R.; Mathews, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    Carburization or decarburization of structural materials in a sodium system depends on the local differences in carbon activity. The behaviour of carbon-bearing species in sodium influences its carbon activity. In order to understand the behaviour of carbon in these systems, an electrochemical carbon meter was fabricated in our laboratory. The original version of this meter was capable of operating in the temperature range of 850-980 K. Studies are carried out to extend this lower limit of temperature. Employing the carbon meter, experiments were carried out to understand the behaviour of carbon-bearing species. Gas equilibration experiments were also carried out with the same view. A new method for measuring the carbon activity in steels are described which employs the carbon meter. A review on these investigations and the conclusions reached on the behaviour of carbon in fast reactor loops are described

  11. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Gani Haji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties to decompose organic waste can be handled naturally by pyrolisis so it can  decomposes quickly that produces charcoal as the product. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of activated carbon from urban organic waste. Charcoal results of pyrolysis of organic waste activated with KOH 1.0 M at a temperature of 700 and 800oC for 60 to 120 minutes. Characteristics of activated carbon were identified by Furrier Transform Infra Red (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. However, their quality is determined yield, moisture content, ash, fly substances, fixed carbon, and the power of adsorption of iodine and benzene. The identified functional groups on activated carbon, such as OH (3448,5-3436,9 cm-1, and C=O (1639,4 cm-1. In general, the degree and distance between the layers of active carbon crystallites produced activation in all treatments showed no significant difference. The pattern of activated carbon surface topography structure shows that the greater the pore formation in accordance with the temperature increase the more activation time needed. The yield of activated carbon obtained ranged from 72.04 to 82.75%. The results of characterization properties of activated carbon was obtained from 1.11 to 5.41% water, 13.68 to 17.27% substance fly, 20.36 to 26.59% ash, and 56.14 to 62.31% of fixed carbon . Absorption of activated carbon was good enough at 800oC and 120 minutes of activation time, that was equal to 409.52 mg/g of iodine and 14.03% of benzene. Activated carbon produced has less good quality, because only the water content and flying substances that meet the standards.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94 [How to cite this article: Haji, A.G., Pari, G., Nazar, M., and Habibati.  (2013. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste . International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,89-94. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94

  12. Paracrystalline structure of activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygielska, A.; Burian, A.; Dore, J. C.

    2001-06-01

    Structural studies by means of neutron diffraction of activated carbons, prepared from a polymer of phenol formaldehyde resin by carbonization and activation processes, with variable porosity, are presented. The neutron scattering data were recorded over the range of the scattering vector Q from 2.5 to 500 nm-1. The structure of activated carbons has been described in terms of disordered graphite-like layers with very weak interlayer correlations. The model has been generated by computer simulations and its validity has been tested by comparison of the experimental and calculated intensity functions. Modelling studies have shown that the model containing 3-4 layers each about 2 nm in diameter accounts for the experimental data and that graphite layers are randomly translated and rotated, according to the turbostratic structure. Near-neighbour carbon-carbon distances of about 0.139 nm and 0.154 nm have been determined. The Debye-Waller factor exp (-Q2σ2/2) with σ = σ0(r)1/2 suggests a paracrystalline structure within a single layer. The value of the interlayer spacing of 0.36 nm has been found from paracrystalline simulations of the layer arrangement in the c-axis direction. The high quality of the experimental data has enabled determination of the coordination numbers, the interatomic distances and their standard deviations using a curve-fitting procedure over the Q-range from 250 nm to 500 nm, providing structural information about short- and intermediate-range ordering.

  13. Adsorption of phenol by activated carbon: Influence of activation methods and solution pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beker, Ulker; Ganbold, Batchimeg; Dertli, Halil; Guelbayir, Dilek Duranoglu

    2010-01-01

    Cherry stone based activated carbon derived from a canning industry was evaluated for its ability to remove phenol from an aqueous solution in a batch process. A comparative adsorption on the uptake of phenol by using commercial activated carbon (Chemviron CPG-LF), and two non-functional commercial polymeric adsorbents (MN-200 and XAD-2) containing a styrene-divinylbenzene macroporous hyperreticulated network have been also examined. Equilibrium studies were conducted in 25 mg L -1 initial phenol concentrations, 6.5-9 solution pH and at temperature of 30 deg. C. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Besides, the cherry stone based activated carbons were carried out by using zinc chloride and KOH activation agents at different chemical ratios (activating agent/precursor), to develop carbons with well-developed porosity. The cherry stone activated carbon prepared using KOH as a chemical agent showed a high surface area. According to the results, activated carbons had excellent adsorptive characteristics in comparison with polymeric sorbents and commercial activated carbon for the phenol removal from the aqueous solutions.

  14. Grafting of activated carbon cloths for selective adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gineys, M.; Benoit, R.; Cohaut, N.; Béguin, F.; Delpeux-Ouldriane, S., E-mail: delpeux@cnrs-orleans.fr

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A controlled grafting of carboxylic functions on activated carbon fibers. • The carbon material nanotextural properties preservation after grafting. • An identification of the grafting mechanism through ToF SIMS analysis. • A chemical mapping of the grafted surface using ToF SIMS technique and imaging. - Abstract: Chemical functionalization of an activated carbon cloth with 3-aminophthalic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid groups by the in situ formation of the corresponding diazonium salt in aqueous acidic solution is reported. The nature and amount of selected functions on an activated carbon surface, in particular the grafted density, were determined by potentiometric titration, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanotextural properties of the modified carbon were explored by gas adsorption. Functionalized activated carbon cloth was obtained at a discrete grafting level while preserving interesting textural properties and a large porous volume. Finally, the grafting homogeneity of the carbon surface and the nature of the chemical bonding were investigated using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) technique.

  15. Activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles: a hybrid material for carbon dioxide adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruban, Cansu; Esenturk, Emren Nalbant

    2018-03-01

    Activated carbon-supported copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple impregnation method to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity of the support. The structural and chemical properties of the hybrid material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (https://www.google.com.tr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.intertek.com%2Fanalytical-laboratories%2Fxrd%2F&ei=-5WZVYSCHISz7Aatqq-IAw&usg=AFQjCNFBlk-9wqy49foh8tskmbD-GGbG9g&sig2=eKrhYjO75rl_Id2sLGpq4w&bvm=bv.96952980,d.bGg) (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The analyses showed that CuO nanoparticles are well-distributed on the activated carbon surface. The CO2 adsorption behavior of the activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles was observed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and BET analyses. The results showed that CuO nanoparticle loading on activated carbon led to about 70% increase in CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon under standard conditions (1 atm and 298 K). The main contributor to the observed increase is an improvement in chemical adsorption of CO2 due to the presence of CuO nanoparticles on activated carbon.

  16. Pollutants removal onto novel activated carbons made from lignocellulosic precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Valente Nabais, Joao; Laginhas, Carlos; Carrott, Manuela; Carrott, Peter; Gomes, Jose; Suhas, Suhas; Ramires, Ana; Roman, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of phenol and mercury from dilute aqueous solutions onto new activated carbons was studied. These included activated carbons produced from novel precursors, namely rapeseed, vine shoots and kenaf, and samples oxidised with nitric acid in liquid phase. The results have shown the significant potential of rapeseed, vine shoots and kenaf for the activated carbon production. The activated carbons produced by carbon dioxide activation were mainly microporous with BET apparent surface...

  17. Activated carbons employed to remove ionic liquids from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Tufail, M.

    2011-01-01

    Imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids (ILs) have been separated from aqueous solutions by adsorption using a raw Chinese activated carbon (CAC), a bleached Chinese activated carbon (BAC) and an acid treated Chinese activated carbon (AAC) as adsorbent. Adsorption isotherms data of ionic liquids on activated carbons has been obtained. The influence of both cations and anions was analyzed by studying three different ILs. The role of surface chemistry of the adsorbent was also examined using activated carbons modified by oxidative treatments. The BET surface area of activated carbons was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The results of this work indicate that activated carbon is an attractive adsorbent to remove ionic liquids from water streams. It has also been demonstrated that the adsorption of hydrophilic ionic liquids can be improved by modifying the amount and nature of oxygen groups on the activated carbon surface specially by increasing basic groups. The adsorption data for isotherms was studied at acidic, neutral and basic pH values. (author)

  18. Design of activated carbon/activated carbon asymmetric capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-Prado, Isabel; Salinas-Torres, David; Ruiz Rosas, Ramiro; Morallon, Emilia; Cazorla-Amoros, Diego

    2016-03-01

    Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that offer a high power density and a low energy density in comparison with batteries. Their limited energy density can be overcome by using asymmetric configuration in mass electrodes, where each electrode works within their maximum available potential window, rendering the maximum voltage output of the system. Such asymmetric capacitors must be optimized through careful electrochemical characterization of the electrodes for accurate determination of the capacitance and the potential stability limits. The results of the characterization are then used for optimizing mass ratio of the electrodes from the balance of stored charge. The reliability of the design largely depends on the approach taken for the electrochemical characterization. Therefore, the performance could be lower than expected and even the system could break down, if a well thought out procedure is not followed. In this work, a procedure for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors based on activated carbons is detailed. Three activated carbon materials with different textural properties and surface chemistry have been systematically characterized in neutral aqueous electrolyte. The asymmetric configuration of the masses of both electrodes in the supercapacitor has allowed to cover a higher potential window, resulting in an increase of the energy density of the three devices studied when compared with the symmetric systems, and an improved cycle life.

  19. Design of activated carbon/activated carbon asymmetric capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel ePiñeiro-Prado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that offer a high power density and a low energy density in comparison with batteries. Their limited energy density can be overcome by using asymmetric configuration in mass electrodes, where each electrode works within their maximum available potential window, rendering the maximum voltage output of the system. Such asymmetric capacitors must be optimized through careful electrochemical characterization of the electrodes for accurate determination of the capacitance and the potential stability limits. The results of the characterization are then used for optimizing mass ratio of the electrodes from the balance of stored charge. The reliability of the design largely depends on the approach taken for the electrochemical characterization. Therefore, the performance could be lower than expected and even the system could break down, if a well thought out procedure is not followed.In this work, a procedure for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors based on activated carbons is detailed. Three activated carbon materials with different textural properties and surface chemistry have been systematically characterized in neutral aqueous electrolyte. The asymmetric configuration of the masses of both electrodes in the supercapacitor has allowed to cover a higher potential window, resulting in an increase of the energy density of the three devices studied when compared with the symmetric systems, and an improved cycle life.

  20. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  1. Role of activated carbon on micropollutans degradation by different radiation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Velo Gala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of the presence of activated carbon on radiation processes. The triiodinated contrast medium diatrizoate was chosen as the contaminant model. We selected four commercial activated carbons and sixteen gamma radiation-modified carbons derived from these. The different advanced oxidation/reduction processes that have been studied were improved through the addition of activated carbon in the UV light and gamma radiating processes. In the UV/activated carbon process, the synergic activity of the activated carbon is enhanced in the samples with higher percentages of surface oxygen, ester/anhydride groups and carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization. Band gap determination of activated carbons revealed that they behave as semiconductor materials and, therefore, as photoactive materials in the presence of UV radiation, given that all band gap values are <4 eV. We also observed that the gamma radiation treatment reduces the band gap values of the activated carbons and that, in a single series of commercial carbons, lower band gap values correspond to higher contaminant removal rate values. We observed that the activity of the reutilized activated carbons is similar to that of the original carbons. Based on these results, we proposed that the activated carbon acts as a photocatalyst, promoting electrons of the valence band to the conduction band and increasing the generation of HO• radicals in the medium. Similarly, there was a synergic effect made by the presence of activated carbon in gamma radiation system, which favours pollutant removal. This synergic effect is independent of the textural but not the chemical characteristics of the activated carbon, observing a higher synergic activity for carbons with a higher surface content of oxygen, specifically quinone groups. We highlight that the synergic effect of the activated carbon requires adsorbent–adsorbate electrostatic interaction and is absent

  2. Carbon monoxide and methane adsorption of crude oil refinery using activated carbon from palm shells as biosorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Afdhol, M. K.; Sanal, Alristo

    2018-03-01

    Carbon monoxide and methane gas are widely present in oil refineries. Off-potential gas is used as raw material for the petrochemical industry. In order for this off-gas to be utilized, carbon monoxide and methane must be removed from off-gas. This study aims to adsorb carbon monoxide and methane using activated carbon of palm shells and commercial activated carbon simultaneously. This research was conducted in 2 stages: 1) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon, 2) Carbon monoxide and methane adsorption test. The activation experiments using carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 150 ml/min yielded a surface area of 978.29 m2/g, Nitrogen at flow rate 150 ml/min yielded surface area 1241.48 m2/g, and carbon dioxide and nitrogen at a flow rate 200 ml/min yielded a surface area 300.37 m2/g. Adsorption of carbon monoxide and methane on activated carbon of palm shell systems yielded results in the amount of 0.5485 mg/g and 0.0649 mg/g and using commercial activated carbon yielded results in the amount of 0.5480 mg/g and 0.0650 mg/g

  3. The physical nature and manufacture of activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.J. (NCP, Bedfordview (South Africa))

    1991-04-01

    After defining activated carbon, the author describes its structure and outlines the physical characteristics distinguishing one type of activated carbon from another. The adsorptive properties of these carbons, the raw materials used, and the manufacturing processes - chemical activation, and physical or thermal activation - are eoutlined. The high-temperature thermal route (which is the most important for the products employed in gold recovery) using coconut shells or coals as the raw material is then discussed in some detail. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Unburnt carbon from coal fly ashes as a precursor of activated carbon for nitric oxide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Begoña; Izquierdo, M Teresa; Mayoral, M Carmen; Bona, M Teresa; Andres, Jose M

    2007-05-08

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the characteristics of an activated carbon obtained from unburnt carbon in coal fly ashes to be used in the removal of NO. Carbon-rich fraction was obtained by mechanical sieving of fly ashes. The mineral matter was removed by conventional HCl and HF demineralization procedure. Activation was carried out with steam at 900 degrees C in order to develop porosity onto the sample. Characterization of samples was performed by several techniques with a main objective: to follow the mineral matter content, composition and distribution on the samples in order to better understand how to remove it from unburnt carbon in fly ashes. To study the use of this unburnt carbon as a precursor for the preparation of activated carbons for gas cleaning, the NO removal by ammonia using activated carbon as a catalyst at low temperature was performed. Results show a good performance of activated carbon in this reaction that is in relationship with BET surface area.

  5. Resorcinol adsorption from aqueous solution over activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Diego A; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the adsorption behavior of Resorcinol a monohydroxylated phenol, poorly acid to 298 K, over activated carbon is analyzed by studying the solution's pH influence and the surface reduction in the adsorption process. To do this, an activated carbon of lignocellulose origin and a reduced activated carbon was used. The interaction solid solution is characterized by the analyses of adsorption in the isotherms to 298 K and pH values of 7. 00, 9.00 and 11.00 for a period of 48 hours. The capacity adsorption of activated carbons increases when the solution's pH decreases and the retained amount increases in the reduced coal to the pH of maximum adsorption.

  6. Production of activated carbons from coffee endocarp by CO2 and steam activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabais, Joao M. Valente; Nunes, Pedro; Carrott, Peter J.M.; Ribeiro Carrott, M. Manuela L.; Garcia, A. Macias; Diaz-Diez, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the use of coffee endocarp as precursor for the production of activated carbons by steam and CO 2 was studied. Activation by both methods produces activated carbons with small external areas and microporous structures having very similar mean pore widths. The activation produces mainly primary micropores and only a small volume of larger micropores. The CO 2 activation leads to samples with higher BET surface areas and pore volumes when compared with samples produced by steam activation and with similar burn-off value. All the activated carbons produced have basic characteristics with point of zero charge between 10 and 12. By FTIR it was possible to identify the formation on the activated carbon's surface of several functional groups, namely ether, quinones, lactones, ketones, hydroxyls (free and phenol); pyrones and Si-H bonds. (author)

  7. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Deep Eutectic Solvent Impregnated Sea Mango Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkurnai, N. Z.; Ali, U. F. Md.; Ibrahim, N.; Manan, N. S. Abdul

    2018-03-01

    The increment amount of the CO2 emission by years has become a major concern worldwide due to the global warming issue. However, the influence modification of activated carbon (AC) has given a huge revolution in CO2 adsorption capture compare to the unmodified AC. In the present study, the Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) modified surface AC was used for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) capture in the fixed-bed column. The AC underwent pre-carbonization and carbonization processes at 519.8 °C, respectively, with flowing of CO2 gas and then followed by impregnation with 53.75% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at 1:2 precursor-to-activant ratios. The prepared AC known as sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) was impregnated with DES at 1:2 solid-to-liquid ratio. The DES is composing of choline chloride and urea with ratio 1:2 choline chloride to urea. The optimum adsorption capacity of SMAC was 33.46 mgco2/gsol and 39.40 mgco2/gsol for DES modified AC (DESAC).

  8. Minimizing activated carbons production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavropoulos, G.G.; Zabaniotou, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed economic evaluation of activated carbons production process from various raw materials is undertaken using the conventional economic indices (ROI, POT, and NPV). The fundamental factors that affect production cost were taken into account. It is concluded that for an attractive investment in activated carbons production one should select the raw material with the highest product yield, adopt a chemical activation production scheme and should base product price on product-surface area (or more generally on product adsorption capacity for the adsorbate in consideration). A raw material that well meets the above-mentioned criteria is petroleum coke but others are also promising (charcoals, and carbon black). Production cost then can be optimized by determining its minimum value of cost that results from the intercept between the curves of plant capacity and raw material cost - if any. Taking into account the complexity of such a techno-economic analysis, a useful suggestion could be to start the evaluations from a plant capacity corresponding to the break-even point, i. e. the capacity at which income equals production cost. (author)

  9. Sorption studies of nickel ions onto activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Parth; Vyas, Meet; Patel, Chirag

    2018-05-01

    Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. The use of low-cost activated carbon derived from azadirachta indica, an agricultural waste material, has been investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods of removing nickel ions from wastewater. The temperature variation study showed that the nickel ions adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness at the solid solution interface. Significant effect on adsorption was observed on varying the pH of the nickel ion solutions. Therefore, this study revealed that azadirachta indica can serve as a good source of activated carbon with multiple and simultaneous metal ions removing potentials and may serve as a better replacement for commercial activated carbons in applications that warrant their use.

  10. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated; Caracterizacion volumetrica y superficial de carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  11. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  12. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrnes, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs) will

  13. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2010-09-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Impregnated Commercial Rice Husks Activated Carbon with Piperazine for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum Raman, S. N.; Ismail, N. A.; Jamari, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    Development of effective materials for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology is a fundamental importance to reduce CO2 emissions. This work establishes the addition of amine functional group on the surface of activated carbon to further improve the adsorption capacity of CO2. Rice husks activated carbon were modified using wet impregnation method by introducing piperazine onto the activated carbon surfaces at different concentrations and mixture ratios. These modified activated carbons were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The results from XRD analysis show the presence of polyethylene butane at diffraction angles of 21.8° and 36.2° for modified activated carbon with increasing intensity corresponding to increase in piperazine concentration. BET results found the surface area and pore volume of non-impregnated activated carbon to be 126.69 m2/g and 0.081 cm3/g respectively, while the modified activated carbons with 4M of piperazine have lower surface area and pore volume which is 6.77 m2/g and 0.015 cm3/g respectively. At 10M concentration, the surface area and pore volume are the lowest which is 4.48 m2/g and 0.0065 cm3/g respectively. These results indicate the piperazine being filled inside the activated carbon pores thus, lowering the surface area and pore volume of the activated carbon. From the FTIR analysis, the presence of peaks at 3312 cm-1 and 1636 cm-1 proved the existence of reaction between carboxyl groups on the activated carbon surfaces with piperazine. The surface morphology of activated carbon can be clearly seen through FESEM analysis. The modified activated carbon contains fewer pores than non-modified activated carbon as the pores have been covered with piperazine.

  15. Sorption of {sup 60} Co on inorganic solids; Sorcion de {sup 60} Co en solidos inorganicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados C, F.; Bulbulian G, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mardel V, B. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The behavior of sorption of the {sup 60} Co in aqueous solution under static conditions to different values of pH of the aqueous solution (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10) on MgO, MnO{sub 2}, SnO, TiO{sub 2}, activated carbon and calcinate hydrotalcite was investigated. It was found that the best sorbents of the {sup 60} Co was the MnO{sub 2}, activated carbon and TiO{sub 2} whose sorption was incremented when increasing the pH value of the aqueous solutions, in the one case of the hydrated oxides, the {sup 60} Co interacted with the electrically charged surface of the sorbents that depends on the pH of the solution and of the point of zero charge (zpc) of the sorbent. (Author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from pomegranate seeds by ZnCl 2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Erdem, Murat; Tay, Turgay; Karagöz, Selhan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, pomegranate seeds, a by-product of fruit juice industry, were used as precursor for the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation with ZnCl 2. The influence of process variables such as the carbonization temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons was studied. When using the 2.0 impregnation ratio at the carbonization temperature of 600 °C, the specific surface area of the resultant carbon is as high as 978.8 m 2 g -1. The results showed that the surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbons at the lowest impregnation ratio and the carbonization temperature were achieved as high as 709.4 m 2 g -1 and 0.329 cm 3 g -1. The surface area was strongly influenced by the impregnation ratio of activation reagent and the subsequent carbonization temperature.

  17. Adsorption kinetics of surfactants on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnelli; Aditama, WP; Fikriani, Z.; Astuti, Y.

    2018-04-01

    A study on the adsorption of both cationic and anionic surfactants using activated carbon as well as the investigation of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics has been conducted. The results showed that the adsorption of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) by activated carbon was Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm while its adsorption kinetics showed pseudo-second order with an adsorption rate constant of 2.23 x 103 g mg-1 hour-1. Meanwhile, the adsorption of HDTMA-Br by activated carbon showed that the isotherm adsorption tended to follow Freundlich’s isotherm and was pseudo-second order with an adsorption rate constant of 89.39 g mg-1 hour-1.

  18. Production and characterization of activated carbon from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of a bituminous coal for the production of activated carbons with chemical activation was investigated. The effects of process variables such as chemical reagents, activation temperature, impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature were investigated to optimize these parameters. The resultant ...

  19. Activated carbons from KOH-activation of argan (Argania spinosa) seed shells as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmouwahidi, Abdelhakim; Zapata-Benabithe, Zulamita; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco; Moreno-Castilla, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by KOH-activation of argan seed shells (ASS). The activated carbon with the largest surface area and most developed porosity was superficially treated to introduce oxygen and nitrogen functionalities. Activated carbons with a surface area of around 2100 m(2)/g were obtained. Electrochemical measurements were carried out with a three-electrode cell using 1M H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte and Ag/AgCl as reference electrode. The O-rich activated carbon showed the lowest capacitance (259 F/g at 125 mA/g) and the lowest capacity retention (52% at 1A/g), due to surface carboxyl groups hindering electrolyte diffusion into the pores. Conversely, the N-rich activated carbon showed the highest capacitance (355 F/g at 125 mA/g) with the highest retention (93% at 1A/g), due to its well-developed micro-mesoporosity and the pseudocapacitance effects of N functionalities. This capacitance performance was among the highest reported for other activated carbons from a large variety of biomass precursors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rubber-seed shell by physical activation with steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kang; Jiang, Jian chun

    2010-01-01

    The use of rubber-seed shell as a raw material for the production of activated carbon with physical activation was investigated. The produced activated carbons were characterized by Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, Scanning electron microscope, Thermo-gravimetric and Differential scanning calorimetric in order to understand the rubber-seed shell activated carbon. The results showed that rubber-seed shell is a good precursor for activated carbon. The optimal activation condition is: temperature 880 o C, steam flow 6 kg h -1 , residence time 60 min. Characteristics of activated carbon with a high yield (30.5%) are: specific surface area (S BET ) 948 m 2 g -1 , total volume 0.988 m 3 kg -1 , iodine number of adsorbent (q iodine ) 1.326 g g -1 , amount of methylene blue adsorption of adsorbent (q mb ) 265 mg g -1 , hardness 94.7%. It is demonstrated that rubber-seed shell is an attractive source of raw material for producing high capacity activated carbon by physical activation with steam.

  1. Preparation and characterization of active carbon using palm kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were prepared from Palm kernel shells. Carbonization temperature was 6000C, at a residence time of 5 min for each process. Chemical activation was done by heating a mixture of carbonized material and the activating agents at a temperature of 700C to form a paste, followed by subsequent cooling and ...

  2. Kinetic Study of Water Contaminants Adsorption by Bamboo Granular Activated and Non-Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opololaoluwa Oladimarun Ijaola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorptive capacity of metal ions from surface water with activated and non-activated carbon derived from bamboo was investigated. The validation of adsorption kinetics of Cl, PO4 and Pb was done by pseudo-first and second order model while adsorption isotherms was proved by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model for activated and non- activated bamboo granular carbon. Generally, the amount of metal ions uptake increases with time and activation levels and the pH of bamboo granular carbon increase with activation. Similarly, the pore space of the activated carbon also increases with activation levels. The correlation coefficients (R2 show that the pseudo-second order model gave a better fit to the adsorption process with 0.9918 as the least value and 1.00 as the highest value as compared with the pseudo-first order with 0.813 as the highest value and 0 as the least. The Freundlich isotherm was more favorable when compared with the Langmuir isotherm in determining the adsorptive capacity of bamboo granular activated carbon. The study has shown that chemical activation increases the pore space, surface area and the pH of bamboo granular carbon which ultimately increases the adsorption rate of metal ions in the contaminated surface water.

  3. Preparation And Characterization Of Cr/Activated Carbon Catalyst From Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Fanani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of Cr/activated carbon catalyst from palm empty fruit bunch had been done. The research were to determine the effect of carbonization temperature towards adsorption of ammonia, iodine number, metilen blue number, and porosity of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst. The determination of porosity include surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume. The results showed the best carbonization temperature activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst at 700°C. The adsorption ammonia of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 6.379 mmol/g and 8.1624 mmol/g. The iodine number of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 1520.16 mg/g and 1535.67 mg/g. The metilen blue number of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 281.71 mg/g and 319.18 mg/g. The surface area of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 1527.80 m2/g and 1652.58 m2/g. The micropore volume of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 0.7460 cm3/g and 0.8670 cm3/g. The total pore volume of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 0.8243 cm3/g and 0.8970 cm3/g.

  4. Adsorption Study of Cobalt on Treated Granular Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Y. V. Hete; S. B. Gholase; R. U. Khope

    2012-01-01

    This study is carried out for the removal of cobalt from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon in combination with p-nitro benzoic acid at temperature 25±1 °C. The adsorption isotherm of cobalt on granular activated carbon has been determined and the data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm for activated carbon.

  5. Removal of imidacloprid using activated carbon produced from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Ricinodendron heudelotii (akpi) shells are used as precursor to prepare activated carbon via chemical activation using phosphoric acid. The characterization of the obtained activated carbon is performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Boehm titration method and adsorption of acetic acid. The results show that ...

  6. Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofiber and Carbon Nanotube Supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum carbide was supported on three types of carbon support—activated carbon; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; and carbon nanofibers—using ammonium molybdate and molybdic acid as Mo precursors. The use of activated carbon as support afforded an X-ray amorphous Mo phase, whereas crystalline molybdenum carbide phases were obtained on carbon nanofibers and, in some cases, on carbon nanotubes. When the resulting catalysts were tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol in dodecane, catechol and phenol were obtained as the main products, although in some instances significant amounts of cyclohexane were produced. The observation of catechol in all reaction mixtures suggests that guaiacol was converted into phenol via sequential demethylation and HDO, although the simultaneous occurrence of a direct demethoxylation pathway cannot be discounted. Catalysts based on carbon nanofibers generally afforded the highest yields of phenol; notably, the only crystalline phase detected in these samples was Mo2C or Mo2C-ζ, suggesting that crystalline Mo2C is particularly selective to phenol. At 350 °C, carbon nanofiber supported Mo2C afforded near quantitative guaiacol conversion, the selectivity to phenol approaching 50%. When guaiacol HDO was performed in the presence of acetic acid and furfural, guaiacol conversion decreased, although the selectivity to both catechol and phenol was increased.

  7. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, P.; Centeno, T. A.; Urones-Garrote, E.; Ávila-Brande, D.; Otero-Díaz, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 °C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet-like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp2 content ≈ 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm3 (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m2/g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3-1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm2) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  8. Adsorption Study of Cobalt on Treated Granular Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Hete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out for the removal of cobalt from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon in combination with p-nitro benzoic acid at temperature 25±1 °C. The adsorption isotherm of cobalt on granular activated carbon has been determined and the data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm for activated carbon.

  9. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-García, P.; Centeno, T.A.; Urones-Garrote, E.; Ávila-Brande, D.; Otero-Díaz, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Activated carbons were produced by KOH activation at 700 °C. ► The observed nanostructure consists of highly disordered graphene–like layers with sp 2 bond content ≈ 95%. ► Textural parameters show high surface area (≈ 1000 m 2 /g) and pore width of 1.3–1.8 nm. ► Specific capacitance reaches values as high as 161 F/g. - Abstract: Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 °C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet–like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene–like layers with sp 2 content ≈ 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm 3 (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m 2 /g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3–1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm 2 ) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  10. Chemical activation of gasification carbon residue for phosphate removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpimaa, Sari; Runtti, Hanna; Lassi, Ulla; Kuokkanen, Toivo

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of waste materials provides an economical and environmentally significant method to reduce the amount of waste. Bioash formed in the gasification process possesses a notable amount of unburned carbon and therefore it can be called a carbon residue. After chemical activation carbon residue could be use to replace activated carbon for example in wastewater purification processes. The effect of chemical activation process variables such as chemical agents and contact time in the chemical activation process were investigated. This study also explored the effectiveness of the chemically activated carbon residue for the removal of phosphate from an aqueous solution. The experimental adsorption study was performed in a batch reactor and the influence of adsorption time, initial phosphate concentration and pH was studied. Due to the carbon residue's low cost and high adsorption capacity, this type of waste has the potential to be utilised for the cost-effective removal of phosphate from wastewaters. Potential adsorbents could be prepared from these carbonaceous by-products and used as an adsorbent for phosphate removal.

  11. Carbon fiber/SiC composite for reduced activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, T.; Araki, H.; Abe, F.; Okada, M.

    1991-01-01

    A carbon fiber/SiC composite fabricated by a chemical vapor infiltration process at 1173-1623 K was studied to develop a low-activation material. A high-purity composite was obtained with the total amount of impurities less than 0.02 wt%. The microstructure and the mechanical properties using a bend test were examined. A composite with woven carbon yarn showed both high strength and toughness. Further, the induced activity of the material was evaluated by calculations simulating fusion neutron irradiation. The carbon fiber/SiC composite shows an excellent low-activation behavior. (orig.)

  12. Studies of activated carbon and carbon black for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, R; Mueller, S; Koetz, R; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Carbon Black and activated carbon materials providing high surface areas and a distinct pore distribution are prime materials for supercapacitor applications at frequencies < 0.5 Hz. A number of these materials were tested for their specific capacitance, surface and pore size distribution. High capacitance electrodes were manufactured on the laboratory scale with attention to ease of processability. (author) 1 fig., 1 ref.

  13. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  14. Modeling and preparation of activated carbon for methane storage II. Neural network modeling and experimental studies of the activated carbon preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namvar-Asl, Mahnaz; Soltanieh, Mohammad; Rashidi, Alimorad

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the activated carbon (AC) preparation for methane storage. Due to the need for the introduction of a model, correlating the effective preparation parameters with the characteristic parameters of the activated carbon, a model was developed by neural networks. In a previous study [Namvar-Asl M, Soltanieh M, Rashidi A, Irandoukht A. Modeling and preparation of activated carbon for methane storage: (I) modeling of activated carbon characteristics with neural networks and response surface method. Proceedings of CESEP07, Krakow, Poland; 2007.], the model was designed with the MATLAB toolboxes providing the best response for the correlation of the characteristics parameters and the methane uptake of the activated carbon. Regarding this model, the characteristics of the activated carbon were determined for a target methane uptake. After the determination of the characteristics, the demonstrated model of this work guided us to the selection of the effective AC preparation parameters. According to the modeling results, some samples were prepared and their methane storage capacity was measured. The results were compared with those of a target methane uptake (special amount of methane storage). Among the designed models, one of them illustrated the methane storage capacity of 180 v/v. It was finally found that the neural network modeling for the assay of the efficient AC preparation parameters was financially feasible, with respect to the determined methane storage capacity. This study could be useful for the development of the Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology

  15. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Palm Shells Using KOH and ZnCl2 as the Activating Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Afdhol, M. K.; Amiliana, R. A.; Hanafi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Palm shell is a potential source of raw materials for the produce of activated carbon as biosorbent for quite large numbers. The purpose of this study is to produce activated carbon qualified Indonesian Industrial Standard (SNI), which will be used as biosorbent to purify the impurities in the off gas petroleum refinery products. Stages of manufacture of activated carbon include carbonization, activation of chemistry and physics. Carbonization of activated carbon is done at a temperature of 400°C followed by chemical activation with active agent KOH and ZnCl2. Then the physical activation is done by flowing N2 gas for 1 hour at 850°C and followed by gas flow through the CO2 for 1 hour at 850°C. Research results indicate that activation of the active agent KOH produce activated carbon is better than using the active agent ZnCl2. The use of KOH as an active agent to produce activated carbon with a water content of 13.6%, ash content of 9.4%, iodine number of 884 mg/g and a surface area of 1115 m2/g. While the use of ZnCl2 as the active agent to produce activated carbon with a water content of 14.5%, total ash content of 9.0%, iodine number 648 mg/g and a surface area of 743 m2/g.

  16. Diclofenac removal from water with ozone and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Pocostales, Pablo; Alvarez, Pedro; Oropesa, Ana

    2009-04-30

    Diclofenac (DCF) has been treated in water with ozone in the presence of various activated carbons. Activated carbon-free ozonation or single ozonation leads to a complete degradation of DCF in less than 15 min while in the presence of activated carbons higher degradation rates of TOC and DCF are noticeably achieved. Among the activated carbons used, P110 Hydraffin was found the most suitable for the catalytic ozonation of DCF. The influence of pH was also investigated. In the case of the single ozonation the increasing pH slightly increases the TOC removal rate. This effect, however, was not so clear in the presence of activated carbons where the influence of the adsorption process must be considered. Ecotoxicity experiments were performed, pointing out that single ozonation reduces the toxicity of the contaminated water but catalytic ozonation improved those results. As far as kinetics is concerned, DCF is removed with ozone in a fast kinetic regime and activated carbon merely acts as a simple adsorbent. However, for TOC removal the ozonation kinetic regime becomes slow. In the absence of the adsorbent, the apparent rate constant of the mineralization process was determined at different pH values. On the other hand, determination of the rate constant of the catalytic reaction over the activated carbon was not possible due to the effect of mass transfer resistances that controlled the process rate at the conditions investigated.

  17. Decontamination System Development of Radioative Activated Carbon using Micro-bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jong seon; Kim, Wi soo [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Byoung sub. [Enesys Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This study was aimed to develop a decontamination system by applying such technical characteristics that minimizes a generation of secondary wastes while decontaminating radiation wastes. The radioactive activated carbon is removed from the end-of-life air cleaning filter in replacement or decommission of nuclear power plant or nuclear facility. By removing radioactive activated carbon, the filter would be classified as a low radioactive contaminant. And thus the amount of radioactive wastes and the treatment cost would be decreased. We are in development of the activated carbon cleaning technique by utilizing micro-bubbles, which improve efficiency and minimize damage of activated carbon. The purpose of using micro-bubbles is to decontamination carbon micropore, which is difficult to access, by principle of cavitation phenomenon generated in collapse of micro-bubbles. In this study, we introduced the micro-bubble decontamination system developed to decontaminate activated carbon. For further researches, we will determine carbon weight change and the decontamination rate under the experimental conditions such as temperature and pH.

  18. Decontamination System Development of Radioative Activated Carbon using Micro-bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jong seon; Kim, Wi soo; Han, Byoung sub.

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to develop a decontamination system by applying such technical characteristics that minimizes a generation of secondary wastes while decontaminating radiation wastes. The radioactive activated carbon is removed from the end-of-life air cleaning filter in replacement or decommission of nuclear power plant or nuclear facility. By removing radioactive activated carbon, the filter would be classified as a low radioactive contaminant. And thus the amount of radioactive wastes and the treatment cost would be decreased. We are in development of the activated carbon cleaning technique by utilizing micro-bubbles, which improve efficiency and minimize damage of activated carbon. The purpose of using micro-bubbles is to decontamination carbon micropore, which is difficult to access, by principle of cavitation phenomenon generated in collapse of micro-bubbles. In this study, we introduced the micro-bubble decontamination system developed to decontaminate activated carbon. For further researches, we will determine carbon weight change and the decontamination rate under the experimental conditions such as temperature and pH

  19. Phenol adsorption by activated carbon produced from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cínthia S; Abreu, Anelise L; Silva, Carmen L T; Guerreiro, Mário C

    2011-01-01

    The present work highlights the preparation of activated carbons (ACs) using spent coffee grounds, an agricultural residue, as carbon precursor and two different activating agents: water vapor (ACW) and K(2)CO(3) (ACK). These ACs presented the microporous nature and high surface area (620-950 m(2) g(-1)). The carbons, as well as a commercial activated carbon (CAC) used as reference, were evaluated as phenol adsorbent showing high adsorption capacity (≈150 mg g(-1)). The investigation of the pH solution in the phenol adsorption was also performed. The different activating agents led to AC with distinct morphological properties, surface area and chemical composition, although similar phenol adsorption capacity was verified for both prepared carbons. The production of activated carbons from spent coffee grounds resulted in promising adsorbents for phenol removal while giving a noble destination to the residue.

  20. Mesoporous activated carbon from corn stalk core for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Li, Chun; Qi, Hui; Yu, Kaifeng; Liang, Ce

    2018-04-01

    A novel mesoporous activated carbon (AC) derived from corn stalk core is prepared via a facile and effective method which including the decomposition and carbonization of corn stalk core under an inert gas atmosphere and further activation process with KOH solution. The mesoporous activated carbon (AC) is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. These biomass waste derived from activated carbon is proved to be promising anode materials for high specific capacity lithium ion batteries. The activated carbon anode possesses excellent reversible capacity of 504 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C. Compared with the unactivated carbon (UAC), the electrochemical performance of activated carbon is significantly improved due to its mesoporous structure.

  1. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Singh, Kunwar P.; Singh, Vinod K.

    2006-01-01

    An efficient adsorption process is developed for the decontamination of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A low cost activated carbon (ATFAC) was prepared from coconut shell fibers (an agricultural waste), characterized and utilized for Cr(III) removal from water/wastewater. A commercially available activated carbon fabric cloth (ACF) was also studied for comparative evaluation. All the equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted at different temperatures, particle size, pHs, and adsorbent doses in batch mode. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model best fit the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacities of ATFAC and ACF at 25 deg. C are 12.2 and 39.56 mg/g, respectively. Cr(III) adsorption increased with an increase in temperature (10 deg. C: ATFAC-10.97 mg/g, ACF-36.05 mg/g; 40 deg. C: ATFAC-16.10 mg/g, ACF-40.29 mg/g). The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of temperature, initial adsorbate concentration, particle size of the adsorbent, and solid to liquid ratio. The adsorption of Cr(III) follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and entropy of activation were evaluated. The sorption capacity of activated carbon (ATFAC) and activated carbon fabric cloth is comparable to many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of trivalent chromium from water/wastewater

  3. Measurement of carbon activity of sodium using nickel tabs and the Harwell Carbon Meter - Preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, A.; Thorley, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon can have an important effect on the mechanical properties of certain constructional materials likely to be used in the LMFBRs. Transfer of carbon will occur between the metal and the sodium at any particular location to bring the chemical potential of carbon in both components to the sam: value. Thus, in a mixed system containing austenitic stainless steel and unstabilized ferritic steel, carbon could be transferred by the sodium from the high carbon activity ferritic to the lower activity austenitic steel. Loss of carbon from the unstabilized ferritic steel leads to a weaker, more ductile material, while carburization of the stainless steel could lead to its embrittlement. Similarly carbon entering the coolant in the form of oil from leaking mechanical pumps could have similar effects on the mechanical property of stainless steels. In the light of these possibilities it is essential to measure the carbon activity of the sodium so that its effect on materials properties can be predicted

  4. Measurement of carbon activity of sodium using nickel tabs and the Harwell Carbon Meter - Preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundell, A; Thorley, A W [UKAEA, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1980-05-01

    Carbon can have an important effect on the mechanical properties of certain constructional materials likely to be used in the LMFBRs. Transfer of carbon will occur between the metal and the sodium at any particular location to bring the chemical potential of carbon in both components to the sam: value. Thus, in a mixed system containing austenitic stainless steel and unstabilized ferritic steel, carbon could be transferred by the sodium from the high carbon activity ferritic to the lower activity austenitic steel. Loss of carbon from the unstabilized ferritic steel leads to a weaker, more ductile material, while carburization of the stainless steel could lead to its embrittlement. Similarly carbon entering the coolant in the form of oil from leaking mechanical pumps could have similar effects on the mechanical property of stainless steels. In the light of these possibilities it is essential to measure the carbon activity of the sodium so that its effect on materials properties can be predicted.

  5. Nickel adsorption by sodium polyacrylate-grafted activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewecharoen, A. [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Thiravetyan, P., E-mail: paitip@hotmail.com [Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 83 Moo 8 Thakham, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Wendel, E.; Bertagnolli, H. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    A novel sodium polyacrylate grafted activated carbon was produced by using gamma radiation to increase the number of functional groups on the surface. After irradiation the capacity for nickel adsorption was studied and found to have increased from 44.1 to 55.7 mg g{sup -1}. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that the adsorbed nickel on activated carbon and irradiation-grafted activated carbon was coordinated with 6 oxygen atoms at 2.04-2.06 A. It is proposed that this grafting technique could be applied to other adsorbents to increase the efficiency of metal adsorption.

  6. Adsorption of aromatic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: a comparative study on granular activated carbon, activated carbon fiber, and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Shao, Ting; Kose, H Selcen; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-08-15

    Adsorption of three aromatic organic compounds (AOCs) by four types of carbonaceous adsorbents [a granular activated carbon (HD4000), an activated carbon fiber (ACF10), two single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT, SWNT-HT), and a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)] with different structural characteristics but similar surface polarities was examined in aqueous solutions. Isotherm results demonstrated the importance of molecular sieving and micropore effects in the adsorption of AOCs by carbonaceous porous adsorbents. In the absence of the molecular sieving effect, a linear relationship was found between the adsorption capacities of AOCs and the surface areas of adsorbents, independent of the type of adsorbent. On the other hand, the pore volume occupancies of the adsorbents followed the order of ACF10 > HD4000 > SWNT > MWNT, indicating that the availability of adsorption site was related to the pore size distributions of the adsorbents. ACF10 and HD4000 with higher microporous volumes exhibited higher adsorption affinities to low molecular weight AOCs than SWNT and MWNT with higher mesopore and macropore volumes. Due to their larger pore sizes, SWNTs and MWNTs are expected to be more efficient in adsorption of large size molecules. Removal of surface oxygen-containing functional groups from the SWNT enhanced adsorption of AOCs.

  7. Understanding mercury binding on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padak, B.; Wilcox, J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Understanding the mechanism by which mercury adsorbs on activated carbon is crucial to the design and fabrication of effective capture technologies. In this study, the possible binding mechanism of mercury (Hg) and its species, i.e., HgCl and HgCl{sub 2} on activated carbon is investigated using ab initio-based energetic calculations. The activated carbon surface is modeled by a single graphene layer in which the edge atoms on the upper side are unsaturated in order to simulate the active sites. in some cases, chlorine atoms are placed at the edge sites to examine the effect of chlorine on the binding of Hg, HgCl and HgCl{sub 2}. It has been concluded that both HgCl and HgCl{sub 2} can be adsorbed dissociatively or non-dissociatively. In the case of dissociative adsorption, it is energetically favorable for atomic Hg to desorb and energetically favorable for it to remain on the surface in the Hg{sup 1+} state, HgCl. The Hg{sup 2+}, oxidized compound, HgCl2 was not found to be stable on the surface. The most probable mercury species on the surface was found to be HgCl.

  8. Activated carbons from Mongolian coals by thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ariunaa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian different rank coals were used as raw material to prepare activatedcarbons by physical activation method. The coal derived carbons were oxidized with nitric acid in order to introduce surface oxygen groups. The ultimate elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, surface area, pore size distribution analysis and selective neutralization method were used to characterize the surface properties of activated carbons, oxidizedcarbons and raw coals. The effect of coal grade on the adsorption properties of the carbons were studied. It was concluded that Naryn sukhait bituminous coal could be serve as suitable raw material for production of activated carbons for removal of heavy metal ions from solution.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.174 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 60-64

  9. Self-activation of cellulose: A new preparation methodology for activated carbon electrodes in electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommier, Clement; Xu, Rui; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xingfeng; Wen, David; Lu, Jun; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-04-01

    Current synthetic methods of biomass-derived activated carbon call for a costly chemical or physical activation process. Herein, we report a simple one-step annealing synthesis yielding a high surface area cellulose-derived activated carbon. We discover that simply varying the flow rate of Argon during pyrolysis enables ‘self-activation’ reactions that can tune the specific surface areas of the resulting carbon, ranging from 98 m2/g to values as high as 2600 m2/g. Furthermore, we, for the first time, observe a direct evolution of H2 from the pyrolysis, which gives strong evidence towards an in situ self-activation mechanism. Surprisingly, the obtained activated carbon is a crumbled graphene nanostructure composed of interconnected sheets, making it ideal for use in an electrochemical capacitor. The cellulose-derived nanoporous carbon exhibits a capacitance of 132 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, a performance comparable to the state-of-the-art activated carbons. This work presents a fundamentally new angle to look at the synthesis of activated carbon, and highlights the importance of a controlled inert gas flow rate during synthesis in general, as its contributions can have a very large impact on the final material properties.

  10. THE ROLE OF ACTIVATED CARBON IN SOLVING ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Mukhin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a brief analysis of the current global situation concerning the utilization of activated carbon in various fields. The article presents data concerning the synthesis and adsorption and structure properties of new activated carbons, used for solving ecological problems. The authors investigated the newly obtained activated carbons in comparison with several AC marks known in the world. It has been shown that currently synthesized AC are competitive with foreign marks.

  11. Calculation of Binary Adsorption Equilibria: Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Krøll, A.

    1999-01-01

    Binary adsorption equilibria are calculated by means of a mathematical model for multicomponent mixtures combined with the SPD (Spreading Pressure Dependent) model for calculation of activity coefficients in the adsorbed phase. The model has been applied successfully for the adsorption of binary ...... mixtures of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide on activated carbons. The model parameters have been determined, and the model has proven to be suited for prediction of adsorption equilibria in the investigated systems....

  12. Electrochemical behavior of pitch-based activated carbon fibers for electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kwac, Lee-Ku; An, Kay-Hyeok; Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors were developed using pitch-based activated carbon fibers with steam activation. • Activated carbon fibers showed enhanced specific surface area from 1520 to 3230 m 2 /g. • The increase in the specific capacitance of the samples was determined by charged pore structure during charging and discharging. - Abstract: In the present study, electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors were developed using pitch-based activated carbon fibers with steam activation. The surface and structural characteristics of activated carbon fibers were observed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Pore characteristics were investigated using N 2 /77 K adsorption isotherms. The activated carbon fibers were applied as electrodes for electrical double-layer capacitors and analyzed in relation to the activation time. The specific surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbon fibers were determined to be 1520–3230 m 2 /g and 0.61–1.87 cm 3 /g, respectively. In addition, when the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed, the specific capacitance was confirmed to have increased from 1.1 F/g to 22.5 F/g. From these results, it is clear that the pore characteristics of pitch-based activated carbon fibers changed considerably in relation to steam activation and charge/discharge cycle; therefore, it was possible to improve the electrochemical characteristics of the activated carbon fibers.

  13. REMOVAL OF IMIDACLOPRID USING ACTIVATED CARBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Chemical activation, Adsorption, Activated carbon, Pesticide ..... density solvent based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for quantitative extraction of ... El-Hamouz, A.; Hilal, H.S.; Nassar, N.; Mardawi, Z. Solid olive waste in ...

  14. Determination of chromium in water samples by neutron activation analysis after preconcentration on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Sloot, H A [Stichting Reactor Centrum Nederland, Petten

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of chromium in sea- and fresh water. Chromium is concentrated on activated carbon from a neutral solution after a previous reduction of chromate with sodium sulfite at pH 1.5. The adsorption conditions, acidity, concentrations, amount of carbon, stirring-time, sample-volume, salinity, the influence of storage on the ratio of tervalent to hexavalent chromium, were investigated. The final determination of the total chromium content is performed by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. By preconcentration on activated carbon, a differentiation between tervalent and hexavalent chromium is possible. A separate determination of both species is not yet feasible due to the high carbon blank and to the necessity of measuring the adsorption percentage on carbon. The lower limit of determination, which depends on the value of the carbon blank, is 0.05 ..mu..g Cr/l with a precision of 20%. The determination is hampered by the considerable blank from the carbon. The use of activated carbon prepared from recrystallized sugar will probably improve the lower limit of determination and possibly allow the determination of chromate.

  15. FENTON-DRIVEN REGENERATION OF GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON: A TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Fenton-driven mechanism for regenerating spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two reliable and well established treatment technologies - adsorption onto activated carbon and Fenton oxidation. During carbon adsorption treatment, enviro...

  16. The regeneration of polluted active carbon by radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Hu Longxin; Zhou Riumin; Zhu Jinliang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the regeneration of polluted active carbon from monosodium glutamate factory by combination of radiation and acid-alkali chemical techniques. The experimental results show that the polluted active carbon will be highly regenerated on the conditions of process concentration 3%, process time 0.5 hour and the adjustment process concentration 2%, time 0.5 hour, radiation dose 5kGy. As regeneration times increase, the regenerated active carbon behaves with good repetition and stable property

  17. Preparation of mesoporous carbon from fructose using zinc-based activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Setianingsih

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous carbons were synthesized from fructose using activators of zinc silicate (ZS, zinc borate (ZB, and zinc borosilicate (ZBS. The synthesis involves 3 steps, including caramelization of sugar, carbonization of caramel, and washing of carbon to separate the activator from the carbon. The solid products were characterized by N2 gas adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectrophotometry, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The pore characterizations of the carbons indicate that in ZBS system, ZB may have the role as mesopore size controller, whereas silica component may improve porosity created by ZB without changing the size. This role of ZB may be connected to it’s performance as catalyst of caramelization and it’s crystalinity, as supported by measurement of caramel intermediete and characterization of the activators with X-ray diffraction. The infrared spectra confirms that the carbons’s surfaces have C=O, C-O, and O-H functional groups. The XRD patterns of the carbons show that all activators create the turbotratic carbons.

  18. Removal of dye by immobilised photo catalyst loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkarnain Zainal; Chan, Sook Keng; Abdul Halim Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The ability of activated carbon to adsorb and titanium dioxide to photo degrade organic impurities from water bodies is well accepted. Combination of the two is expected to enhance the removal efficiency due to the synergistic effect. This has enabled activated carbon to adsorb more and at the same time the lifespan of activated carbon is prolonged as the workload of removing organic pollutants is shared between activated carbon and titanium dioxide. Immobilisation is selected to avoid unnecessary filtering of adsorbent and photo catalyst. In this study, mixture of activated carbon and titanium dioxide was immobilised on glass slides. Photodegradation and adsorption studies of Methylene Blue solution were conducted in the absence and presence of UV light. The removal efficiency of immobilised TiO 2 / AC was found to be two times better than the removal by immobilised AC or immobilised TiO 2 alone. In 4 hours and with the concentration of 10 ppm, TiO 2 loaded activated carbon prepared from 1.5 g/ 15.0 mL suspension produced 99.50 % dye removal. (author)

  19. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  20. Comparison tests, in a pilot plant, of the performance of a coal-derived granular activated carbon: a comparison with coconut husk derived activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, S.; Kasahara, A.; Tsuruzono, Y.; Gotoh, M.

    1986-01-01

    A 160 m/sup 3//d pilot plant has been used in a series of comparison tests of the performance of coal-derived and coconut husk derived activated carbons. Activated carbons are used to remove trihalomethane precursors and malodorous substances from city water. A higher mean removal of coloration and COD/sub M//sub n/ was achieved with the coal-derived carbon (by factors of 1.5 and 1.8, respectively). The two activated carbons gave similar performances as regards turbidity, alkalinity, total iron and total manganese. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Activated carbon from thermo-compressed wood and other lignocellulosic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capart, R.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermo-compression on the physical properties such as bulk density, mass yield, surface area, and also adsorption capacity of activated carbon were studied. The activated carbon samples were prepared from thermo-compressed and virgin fir-wood by two methods, a physical activation with CO2 and a chemical activation with KOH. A preliminary thermo-compression method seems an easy way to confer to a tender wood a bulk density almost three times larger than its initial density. Thermo-compression increased yield regardless of the mode of activation. The physical activation caused structural alteration, which enhanced the enlargement of micropores and even their degradation, leading to the formation of mesopores. Chemical activation conferred to activated carbon a heterogeneous and exclusively microporous nature. Moreover, when coupled to chemical activation, thermo-compression resulted in a satisfactory yield (23%, a high surface area (>1700 m2.g-1, and a good adsorption capacity for two model pollutants in aqueous solution: methylene blue and phenol. Activated carbon prepared from thermo-compressed wood exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for both the pollutants than did a commercial activated carbon.

  2. Production of activated carbon from peat. A techno-economic feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K; Asplund, D; Ekman, E

    1984-05-01

    The production of activated carbon from peat was studied both with laboratory and pilot plant experiments in a fluidized-bed furnace. Peat coke was mainly used as raw material, and it was gasified partially with steam to granular activated carbon. The activated carbon grades produced were evaluated on the basis of physical characteristics, for example, volume weight, hardness, specific surface, and pore structure. The proximated analysis of activated carbon crush produced from peat coke: volume weight 220-260 g/l, specific surface 700-1100 msup/g, ash content 13-15%. The physical properties of the produced activated carbon grades were equal to those of commercial carbon brands. On the basis of these trial runs, an activated carbon plant for capacities of 400 t/a and 1500 t/a was preliminary designed adn the use of the fluidized-bed furnace for regenerating activated carbon was evaluated. The initial investment in the production plant was estimated to amount to FIM 3.5 mill. and FIM 5.9 mill. The refund periods of the basic alternatives would be 26 and 2 years, and the minimum capacity of profitable production 900 t/a.

  3. Optimization of activated carbon from sewage sludge using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Salleh Abustan; Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge cake was used to prepare activated carbon using physical activation method. The effects of three preparation variables; the activation temperature, activation time and carbon dioxide gas flow rate on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal from leachate solutions were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD), two quadratic models were developed to correlate the preparation variables to the COD and ammonia removal. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the significant factors on each experimental design response were identified. The optimum activated carbon prepared from wastewater sludge cake was obtained by using activation temperature of 510 degree Celsius, activation time of 30 min and carbon dioxide flow rate of 500 ml/ min. The optimum activated carbon showed COD and ammonia removal of 26 and 13 %, respectively. (author)

  4. Production and characterization of activated carbon from indigenous coal (lakhra coal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, H.; Hussain, S.N.; Asghar, A.; Butt, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, indigenous coal has been exploited for the preparation of activated carbon by physical. activation and characterization of if was done by using available techniques. Physical activation involved two steps; Carbonization and CO; activation. For different temperatures, carbonization was carried out for 4 hours in an oven and it was observed that percent yield and iodine number was maximum at 600 degree C. The carbonized material of 600 C was activated at different intervals of time and different temperatures for constant flow of CO/sub 2/; (activating gas). The optimum temperature and time for CO/sub 2/; activation was observed to be 750 C and 3 hours respectively, which gave lower percent yield of active carbon but of higher iodine number and methylene blue values. (author)

  5. ACTIVATED CARBON/REFRIGERANT COMBINATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2001-03-01

    Mar 1, 2001 ... to solar adsorption refrigeration machines are estimated. ... heat, activated carbon/ammonia requires the use of advanced flat-plate collectors such as those with multiple ... the thermodynamic performance of zeolite-water.

  6. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II) on activated carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and ... in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame ... KEY WORDS: Copper(II), Solid phase extraction, Activated carbon, Flame ...

  7. Influence of coal preoxidation on the porosity of the activated carbons with steam activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuwen; Gao, Jihui; Sun, Fei; Li, Yang; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Activated carbons have been prepared from a low ash content anthracite preoxidized in air to different degrees. Steam has been used as activating agent to prepare different burn-off samples. The preoxidation effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting chars and activated carbons were comparatively studied. The surface area and porosity of sample was studied by N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 0A0;K. The results show that introduced oxygen in coal structure had a great influence on the carbonization and subsequent activation process. The carbonization of oxidized coal exhibited a broader volatile evolution with respect to temperature, and the resulting chars had a larger microporosity. The porosity of the char is a primary foundation to develop more microporosity upon activation. Activation of char from oxidized coal facilitated development of small scale micropore, however, the micropore widening was also observed at high burn-offs. Compared with development of supermicropore, the evolution of mesoporosity is hindered strongly by preoxidation treatment. The quantity of basic surface sites in activated carbons increased with an increase in oxidation degree, while the quantity of acidic sites appeared equivalent. It seemed that the amount of surface groups and the microporosity mainly developed in a parallel way.

  8. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Frederick S

    2013-02-19

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  9. Role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon prepared by potassium carbonate activation of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto, E-mail: tsubon@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Nishio, Megumi; Mochizuki, Yuuki

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon prepared from a lignin/urea/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixture provides a high specific surface area and a large pore volume. • Part of the urea nitrogen present in the mixture is retained as heterocyclic nitrogen in the solid phase after activation/carbonization. • Pore development is thought to proceed through interactions between K-species and C–N forms. - Abstract: The present work focuses on the role of nitrogen in the development of pores in activated carbon produced from lignin by K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} activation, employing a fixed bed reactor under a high-purity He stream at temperatures of 500–900 °C. The specific surface area and pore volume obtained by activation of lignin alone are 230 m{sup 2}/g and 0.13 cm{sup 3}/g at 800 °C, and 540 m{sup 2}/g and 0.31 cm{sup 3}/g at 900 °C, respectively. Activation of a mixture of lignin and urea provides a significant increase in the surface area and volume, respectively reaching 3300–3400 m{sup 2}/g and 2.0–2.3 cm{sup 3}/g after holding at 800–900 °C for 1 h. Heating a lignin/urea/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixture leads to a significant decrease in the yield of released N-containing gases compared to the results for urea alone and a lignin/urea mixture, and most of the nitrogen in the urea is retained in the solid phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses clearly show that part of the remaining nitrogen is present in heterocyclic structures (for example, pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen), and the rest is contained as KOCN at ≤600 °C and as KCN at ≥700 °C, such that the latter two compounds can be almost completely removed by water washing. The fate of nitrogen during heating of lignin/urea/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon are discussed on the basis of the results mentioned above.

  10. Disinfection of bacteria attached to granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeChevallier, M W; Hassenauer, T S; Camper, A K; McFeters, G A

    1984-01-01

    Heterotrophic plate count bacteria, coliform organisms, and pathogenic microorganisms attached to granular activated carbon particles were examined for their susceptibility to chlorine disinfection. When these bacteria were grown on carbon particles and then disinfected with 2.0 mg of chlorine per liter (1.4 to 1.6 mg of free chlorine residual per liter after 1 h) for 1 h, no significant decrease in viable counts was observed. Washed cells attached to the surface of granular activated carbon particles showed similar resistance to chlorine, but a progressive increase in sublethal injury was found. Observations made by scanning electron microscope indicated that granular activated carbon was colonized by bacteria which grow in cracks and crevices and are coated by an extracellular slime layer. These data suggest a possible mechanism by which treatment and disinfection barriers can be penetrated and pathogenic bacteria may enter drinking water supplies. Images PMID:6508306

  11. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Surface Properties of Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Belhachemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effect of heat treatment on the porosity and surface chemistry of two series of activated carbons prepared from a local agricultural biomass material, date pits, by physical activation with carbon dioxide and steam. Both series samples were oxidized with nitric acid and subsequently heat treated under N2 at 973 K in order to study the effect of these treatments in porosity and surface functional groups of activated carbons. When the activated carbons were heat treated after oxidation the surface area and the pore volume increase for both activated carbons prepared by CO2 and steam activations. However the amount of surface oxygen complexes decreases, the samples keep the most stable oxygen surface groups evolved as CO by temperature-programmed desorption experiments at high temperature. The results show that date pits can be used as precursors to produce activated carbons with a well developed porosity and tailored oxygen surface groups.

  12. Fixation Of Mo In Uranium Leach Liquor By Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainar, S.; Guswita, A.; Erni, R.A.; Susilaningtyas

    1996-01-01

    The use of activated carbon for Mo fixation by bulk system is reported. Several factors influencing the fixation process were examined, including contact time, carbon particle size, carbon porosity and the effect of other elements present in Mo containing solutions. Experimental data showed that an adsorption equilibrium of Mo on of activated carbon and 0,85 to 1,18 mm of carbon particle size under forced-convection mass transfer in 100 ml solution that contains + 0,56 m mol of Mo and +. 0,25 m mol Of U was reached after 6 hours period. Under those conditions, about 0,50 m mol of Mo and 0,026 m mol of U were adsorbed into carbon. High concentration of rare earth elements decreased Mo adsorption, hence, the use of activated carbon was not effective to separate Mo from the digestion liquor of Rirang are where Mo was adsorbed, into the carbon + 34,5 %

  13. Low-temperature preparation and microwave photocatalytic activity study of TiO2-mounted activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yazi; Yang Shaogui; Hong Jun; Sun Cheng

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films were deposited on granular activated carbon by a dip-coating method at low temperature (373 K), using microwave radiation to enhance the crystallization of titania nanoparticles. Uniform and continuous anatase titania films were deposited on the surface of activated carbon. BET surface area of TiO 2 -mounted activated carbon (TiO 2 /AC) decreased a little in comparison with activated carbon. TiO 2 /AC possessed strong optical absorption capacity with a band gap absorption edge around 360 nm. The photocatalytic activity did not increase when the as-synthesized TiO 2 /AC was thermally treated, but was much higher than commercial P-25 in degradation of phenol by irradiation of electrodeless discharge lamps (EDLs)

  14. Production and characterization of activated carbon using indigenous waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Ibrahim, F.

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from shisham wood and coconut shell through chemical activation, using phosphoric acid and low temperature carbonization. Proximate analysis and characterization of the product were carried out and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area, total ash content, moisture content, pH value and iodine number were determined. The product characteristics were well comparable with those of the commercially available activated carbon. (author)

  15. Fenton-Driven Regeneration of MTBE-spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton-driven regeneration of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two treatment technologies: adsorption of organic chemicals onto activated carbon and Fenton-driven oxidation regeneration of the spent-GAC...

  16. Preparation of activated Carbons from extracted waste biomass by chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toteva, V.; Nickolov, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Novel biomass precursors for the production of activated carbons (ACs) were studied. ACs were prepared from extracted coffee husks and extracted spent ground coffee - separately or as mixtures with 10, 20 and 30 mass % Bulgarian lignite coal. Activation by potassium hydroxide was employed for all samples. The results obtained show that the surface and porous parameters of the ACs depend on the nature of the initial materials used. The specific surface areas (BET) and the microporosities of ACs obtained from extracted spent ground coffee mixed with 20 mass % Bulgarian lignite coals, are greater than those of the ACs from extracted coffee husks. It is likely that the reason for this result is the chemical composition of the precursors. The coffee husks have less lignin and more holocellulose. The latter undergoes more significant destructive changes in the process of chemical activation. On the contrary, waste ground coffee precursors contain more lignin and less holocellulose. As a result, after the chemical activation, the carbons prepared from extracted spent ground coffee exhibit better porous parameters and higher specific surface areas. key words: activated carbons, extraction, waste biomass

  17. Photoconductivity of Activated Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, K.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    1990-08-01

    The photoconductivity is measured on a high-surface-area disordered carbon material, namely activated carbon fibers, to investigate their electronic properties. Measurements of decay time, recombination kinetics and temperature dependence of the photoconductivity generally reflect the electronic properties of a material. The material studied in this paper is a highly disordered carbon derived from a phenolic precursor, having a huge specific surface area of 1000--2000m{sup 2}/g. Our preliminary thermopower measurements suggest that this carbon material is a p-type semiconductor with an amorphous-like microstructure. The intrinsic electrical conductivity, on the order of 20S/cm at room temperature, increases with increasing temperature in the range 30--290K. In contrast with the intrinsic conductivity, the photoconductivity in vacuum decreases with increasing temperature. The recombination kinetics changes from a monomolecular process at room temperature to a biomolecular process at low temperatures. The observed decay time of the photoconductivity is {approx equal}0.3sec. The magnitude of the photoconductive signal was reduced by a factor of ten when the sample was exposed to air. The intrinsic carrier density and the activation energy for conduction are estimated to be {approx equal}10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3} and {approx equal}20meV, respectively. The majority of the induced photocarriers and of the intrinsic carriers are trapped, resulting in the long decay time of the photoconductivity and the positive temperature dependence of the conductivity.

  18. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Vicente; Sanchez, Paula; Valverde, Jose Luis; Romero, Amaya

    2010-01-01

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N 2 /77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H 2 and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  19. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Vicente, E-mail: vicente.jimenez@uclm.es [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Sanchez, Paula; Valverde, Jose Luis [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Romero, Amaya [Escuela Tecnica Agricola, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N{sub 2}/77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H{sub 2} and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  20. Fabrication of novel micro-nano carbonous composites based on self-made hollow activated carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Yuxia; Qiu Tingting [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Qiu Jun, E-mail: qiujun@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Education of Ministry, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hollow pipe and porous HACF with solid carbon net framework structure were successfully prepared by template method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs were grown successfully on the self-made HACF substrate by CVD techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel tree-like micro-nano carbonous structure CNTs/HACF was fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanism of micro phase HACF and nano phase CNTs were respectively discussed. - Abstract: The hollow activated carbon fibers (HACF) were prepared by using commercial polypropylene hollow fiber (PPHF) as the template, and phenol-formaldehyde resin (PF) as carbon precursors. Final HACF was formed through the thermal decomposition and carbonization of PF at 700 Degree-Sign C under the nitrogen atmosphere, and activation at 800 Degree-Sign C with carbon dioxide as the activating agent, consecutively. Then, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques using the as-grown porous HACF as substrate. The growth process was achieved by pyrolyzing ethanol steam at 700 Degree-Sign C using nickel as catalyst. Finally, CNTs was grown successfully on the substrate, and a novel tree-like micro-nano carbonous structure CNTs/HACF was fabricated. The as-grown HACF and micro-nano CNTs/HACF were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. Moreover, the formation mechanisms were also discussed.

  1. Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, A. Micaela Ferro; Contreras, Edgardo M.; Zaritzky, Noemi E.

    2008-01-01

    The combined carbon-activated sludge process has been proposed as an alternative to protect the biomass against toxic substances in wastewaters; however, the information about the effect of powdered-activated carbon (PAC) addition in activated sludge reactors for the treatment of wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is limited. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the removal of hexavalent chromium by (i) activated sludge microorganisms in aerobic batch reactors, (ii) powdered-activated carbon, and (iii) the combined action of powdered-activated carbon and biomass; (b) to propose mathematical models that interpret the experimental results. Different Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: (S1) biomass (activated sludge), (S2) PAC, and (S3) the combined activated carbon-biomass system. A Monod-based mathematical model was used to describe the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal in the system S1. A first-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI) and PAC respectively, was proposed to model the removal of Cr(VI) in the system S2. Cr(VI) removal in the combined carbon-biomass system (S3) was faster than both Cr(VI) removal using PAC or activated sludge individually. Results showed that the removal of Cr(VI) using the activated carbon-biomass system (S3) was adequately described by combining the kinetic equations proposed for the systems S1 and S2

  2. Relation between interfacial energy and adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2013-03-01

    The adsorption efficacy of 16 pharmaceuticals on six different activated carbons is correlated to the thermodynamic work of adhesion, which was derived following the surface tension component approach. Immersion calorimetry was used to determine the surface tension components of activated carbon, while contact angle measurements on compressed plates were used to determine these for solutes. We found that the acid-base surface tension components of activated carbon correlated to the activated carbon oxygen content. Solute-water interaction correlated well to their solubility, although four solutes deviated from the trend. In the interaction between solute and activated carbon, van der Waals interactions were dominant and explained 65-94% of the total interaction energy, depending on the hydrophobicity of the activated carbon and solute. A reasonable relationship (r2 > 70) was found between the calculated work of adhesion and the experimentally determined activated carbon loading. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relation between interfacial energy and adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.; Verliefde, Arne R. D.; Schoutteten, K.; Van Der Linden, Bart Th; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Beurroies, Isabelle; Denoyel, Renaud O.; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption efficacy of 16 pharmaceuticals on six different activated carbons is correlated to the thermodynamic work of adhesion, which was derived following the surface tension component approach. Immersion calorimetry was used to determine the surface tension components of activated carbon, while contact angle measurements on compressed plates were used to determine these for solutes. We found that the acid-base surface tension components of activated carbon correlated to the activated carbon oxygen content. Solute-water interaction correlated well to their solubility, although four solutes deviated from the trend. In the interaction between solute and activated carbon, van der Waals interactions were dominant and explained 65-94% of the total interaction energy, depending on the hydrophobicity of the activated carbon and solute. A reasonable relationship (r2 > 70) was found between the calculated work of adhesion and the experimentally determined activated carbon loading. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ignition properties of nuclear grade activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.; Hunt, J.R.; Kovach, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ignition property of new activated carbons used in air cleaning systems of nuclear facilities has been evaluated in the past, however very little information has been generated on the behavior of aged, weathered carbons which have been exposed to normal nuclear facility environment. Additionally the standard procedure for evaluation of ignition temperature of carbon is performed under very different conditions than those used in the design of nuclear air cleaning systems. Data were generated evaluating the ageing of activated carbons and comparing their CH 3 131 I removal histories to their ignition temperatures. A series of tests were performed on samples from one nuclear power reactor versus use time, a second series evaluated samples from several plants showing the variability of atmospheric effects. The ignition temperatures were evaluated simulating the conditions existing in nuclear air cleaning systems, such as velocity, bed depth, etc., to eliminate potential confusion resulting from artifically set current standard conditions

  5. Photocatalytic Activity and Characterization of Carbon-Modified Titania for Visible-Light-Active Photodegradation of Nitrogen Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of carbon-modified titania powders were prepared by impregnation method using a commercial available titania powder, Hombikat UV100, as matrix material while a range of alcohols from propanol to hexanol were used as precursors of carbon sources. Rising the carbon number of alcoholic precursor molecule, the modified titania showed increasing visible activities of NOx photodegradation. The catalyst modified with cyclohexanol exhibited the best activities of 62%, 62%, 59%, and 54% for the total NOx removal under UV, blue, green, and red light irradiation, respectively. The high activity with long wavelength irradiation suggested a good capability of photocatalysis in full visible light spectrum. Analysis of UV-visible spectrum indicated that carbon modification promoted visible light absorption and red shift in band gap. XPS spectroscopic analysis identified the existence of carbonate species (C=O, which increased with the increasing carbon number of precursor molecule. Photoluminescence spectra demonstrated that the carbonate species suppressed the recombination rate of electron-hole pair. As a result, a mechanism of visible-light-active photocatalyst was proposed according to the formation of carbonate species on carbon-modified TiO2.

  6. Catalytic oxidation of NO to NO2 on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhancheng Guo; Yusheng Xie

    2001-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of NO to NO 2 over activated carbons PAN-ACF, pitch-ACF and coconut-AC at room temperature (30 o C) were studied to develop a method based on oxidative removal of NO from flue gases. For a dry gas, under the conditions of a gas space flow rate 1500 h -1 in the presence of oxygen of 2-20% in volume concentration, the activated coconut carbon with a surface area 1200 m 2 /g converted about 81-94% of NO with increasing oxygen concentration, the pitch based activated carbon fiber with a surface area 1000 m 2 /g about 44-75%, and the polyacrylonitrile-based activated carbon fiber with a surface area 1810 m 2 /g about 25-68%. The order of activity of the activated carbons was PAN-ACF c P NO P O2 β (F/W), where β is 0.042, 0.16, 0.31 for the coconut-AC, the pitch-ACF and the PAN-ACF respectively, and k c is 0.94 at 30 o C. (author)

  7. The production of activated carbon from nigerian mineral coal via steam activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwosu, F.O.; Owolabi, B.I.O.; Adebowale, O.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from Okpara sub-bituminous coal and Ogwashi brown lignite coal of Nigeria through steam activation at 900 degree C and 960 degree C each for 30 min and 60 min. Okpara and Ogwashi precursor coals had carbon content of 67.41 and 64.47%, respectively, whereas the bulk density and the ash content were 0.59 - 0.68 g/mL and 2.56-9.91%, respectively. The former exhibited up to 901.0 mg/g iodine number and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area of 604 m/sup 2/g while the latter, iodine number of 998.0 mg/g and 669 m/sup 2/g BET surface area. Both showed adequate porosity indicative of their potential for utilization for commercial production of active carbons. (author)

  8. Ammonia modification of activated carbon to enhance carbon dioxide adsorption: Effect of pre-oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafeeyan, Mohammad Saleh; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Houshmand, Amirhossein; Arami-Niya, Arash

    2011-02-01

    A commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) was subjected to thermal treatment with ammonia for obtaining an efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent. In general, CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon can be increased by introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities onto the carbon surface. In this work, the effect of oxygen surface groups before introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities to the carbon surface on CO2 adsorption capacity was investigated. For this purpose two different approaches of ammonia treatment without preliminary oxidation and amination of oxidized samples were studied. Modified carbons were characterized by elemental analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study the impact of changes in surface chemistry and formation of specific surface groups on adsorption properties. The texture of the samples was characterized by conducting N2 adsorption/desorption at -196 °C. CO2 capture performance of the samples was investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that in both modification techniques, the presence of nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface generally increased the CO2 adsorption capacity. The results indicated that oxidation followed by high temperature ammonia treatment (800 °C) considerably enhanced the CO2 uptake at higher temperatures.

  9. Microbial Enzyme Activity and Carbon Cycling in Grassland Soil Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, S. D.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes are necessary to degrade complex organic compounds present in soils. Using physical fractionation procedures, we tested whether old soil carbon is spatially isolated from degradative enzymes across a prairie restoration chronosequence in Illinois, USA. We found that carbon-degrading enzymes were abundant in all soil fractions, including macroaggregates, microaggregates, and the clay fraction, which contains carbon with a mean residence time of ~200 years. The activities of two cellulose-degrading enzymes and a chitin-degrading enzyme were 2-10 times greater in organic matter fractions than in bulk soil, consistent with the rapid turnover of these fractions. Polyphenol oxidase activity was 3 times greater in the clay fraction than in the bulk soil, despite very slow carbon turnover in this fraction. Changes in enzyme activity across the restoration chronosequence were small once adjusted for increases in soil carbon concentration, although polyphenol oxidase activity per unit carbon declined by 50% in native prairie versus cultivated soil. These results are consistent with a `two-pool' model of enzyme and carbon turnover in grassland soils. In light organic matter fractions, enzyme production and carbon turnover both occur rapidly. However, in mineral-dominated fractions, both enzymes and their carbon substrates are immobilized on mineral surfaces, leading to slow turnover. Soil carbon accumulation in the clay fraction and across the prairie restoration chronosequence probably reflects increasing physical isolation of enzymes and substrates on the molecular scale, rather than the micron to millimeter scale.

  10. Characterization and restoration of performance of 'aged' radioiodine removing activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-01-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these 'failed' carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Activated carbon derived from marine Posidonia Oceanica for electric energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Boukmouche

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of activated carbon from marine Posidonia Oceanica were studied. The activated carbon was prepared by a simple process namely pyrolysis under inert atmosphere. The activated carbon can be used as electrodes for supercapacitor devices. X-ray diffraction result revealed a polycrystalline graphitic structure. While scanning electron microscope investigation showed a layered structure with micropores. The EDS analysis showed that the activated carbon contains the carbon element in high atomic percentage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed a capacitive behavior (electrostatic phenomena. The specific capacity per unit area of the electrochemical double layer of activated carbon electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte was 3.16 F cm−2. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic chronopotentiometry demonstrated that the electrode has excellent electrochemical reversibility. It has been found that the surface capacitance was strongly related to the specific surface area and pore size.

  12. An assessment methodology for determining pesticides adsorption on granulated activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélemy J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, water suppliers add granular activated carbon reactor in the drinking water treatment notably in order to remove pesticides residues. In Europe, their concentrations must lie below the values imposed by the EU directives (98/83/EC. Acouple of years ago, some mini-column tests were developed to improve the use of the activated carbon reactor in relation with lab experiments. Modelling, which was elaborated to predict the lifetime of reactors, did not bring validated results. Nevertheless, this kind of experiment allows us to assess the adsorption performances of an activated carbon for different pesticides. Because of the lack of comparable available results, we have eveloped a standardized methodology based on the experiment in mini-column of granular activated carbon. The main experimental conditions are activated carbon: Filtrasorb 400 (Chemviron Carbon; water: mineral and organic reconstituted water (humic acid concentration: 0,5 mg/l; influent concentration 500 g . l -1 ; activated carbon weight: 200 mg; EBCT (Empty Bed Contact Time: 0.16 min.; linear speed: 0.15 m . s -1 . In these conditions, it appears that diuron is highly adsorbed in comparison with other active substances like chloridazon, atrazine or MCPA. From the ratio of effluent volume for the breakthrough point with respect to diuron, it is suggested that products of which the difference factor ratio is – (a below 0.40: may be reckoned as weakly adsorbed (MCPA; (b from 0.41 to 0.80: may be reckoned as moderately adsorbed (chloridazon and atrazine; (c above 0.80: as highly adsorbed on granular activated carbon. Active substances that are weakly adsorbed and have to be removed from drinking water, may highly reduce the lifetime of an activated carbon bed. This kind of information is particularly useful for water suppliers and for regulatory authorities.

  13. Surface modification, characterization and adsorptive properties of a coconut activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xincheng [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Jiang Jianchun, E-mail: lhs_ac2011@yahoo.cn [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Sun Kang; Xie Xinping; Hu Yiming [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2012-08-01

    A coconut activated carbon was modified using chemical methods. Different concentration of nitric acid oxidation of the conventional sample produced samples with weakly acidic functional groups. The oxidized samples were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, nitrogen absorption-desorption, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, Bothem method, pH titration, adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and the adsorption mechanism of activated carbons was investigated. The results showed that BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbons were decreased after oxidization process, while acidic functional groups were increased. The surface morphology of oxidized carbons looked clean and eroded which was caused by oxidization of nitric acid. The oxidized carbons showed high adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and chemical properties of activated carbon played an important role in adsorption of metal ions and organic pollutants.

  14. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    Butanol is considered a promising, infrastructure-compatible biofuel. Butanol has a higher energy content than ethanol and can be used in conventional gas engines without modifications. Unfortunately, the fermentation pathway for butanol production is restricted by its toxicity to the microbial strains used in the process. Butanol is toxic to the microbes, and this can slow fermentation rates and reduce butanol yields. Gas stripping technology can efficiently remove butanol from the fermentation broth as it is produced, thereby decreasing its inhibitory effects. Traditional butanol separation heavily depends on the energy intensive distillation method. One of the main issues in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation is that butanol concentrations in the fermentation broth are low, ranging from 1 to 1.2 percent in weight, because of its toxicity to the microorganisms. Therefore distillation of butanol is even worse than distillation of corn ethanol. Even new separation methods, such as solid- extraction methods involve adding substances, such as polymer resin and zeolite or activated carbon, to biobutanol fermentatioon broth did not achieve energy efficient separation of butanol due to low adsorption selectivity and fouling in broth. Gas-stripping - condensation is another new butanol recovery method, however, the butanol in gas-stripping stream is too low to be condensed without using expensive and energy intensive liquid nitrogen. Adsorption can then be used to recover butanol from the vapor phase. Activated carbon (AC) samples and zeolite were investigated for their butanol vapor adsorption capacities. Commercial activated carbon was modified via hydrothermal H2O2 treatment, and the specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of activated carbon were tested before and after treatment. Hydrothermal H2O 2 modification increased the surface oxygen content, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, micropore volume, and total pore volume of active carbon

  15. Waste Composite Sensor Designed by Cellulose and Activated Carbon as Ethylene Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was successfully derived from scrap tile waste from thermochemical conversion. Chemical and physical modifications were therefore employed to modify the specific surface area and porosity of activated carbon. Cellulose was successfully extracted from palm front. Designation of waste composite was prepared by cellulose and activated carbon. Less than 30 wt% of activated carbon was integrated into cellulose sheet matrix. It was important to note that there is no change in mechanical and morphological properties. Small amount of activated carbon was well dispersed. In order to investigate the feasibility of composite as active packaging, oxygen permeation rate and ethylene gas adsorption ability were preliminary investigated.

  16. Measurement of the activity coefficient of carbon in steels in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surville, G.

    1983-06-01

    In sodium cooled fast reactors carbon is both a carbon impurity and element of structural materials. Carbon transfert through liquid sodium can produce carburization or decarburization of structural materials. Carbon content in sodium is determined with thin foils of austenitic alloys, when equilibrium is reached thermodynamic activity of carbon in sodium is deduced from carbon activity in alloys. Studied alloys are FeMn 20%, FeNi 30%, Z2CN 18-10 and Z3CND17-13. Carbon activity of alloys in sodium was between 5.10 -3 and 10 -1 at 600 and 650 0 C. Calibration was obtained with the alloys FeNi 30% in gaseous mixtures He-CO-CO 2 of known activity [fr

  17. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  18. Obtention and characterization of activated carbons from seeds of Macuna sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Jaime E; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan C

    2008-01-01

    A series of activated carbons from a lignocellulosic material is obtained by a physical activation with water vapor. Mucuna sp is the scientific name of the seed used as a lignoocellulosic precursor. In this work the seeds are crushed and sieved before carbonizing them to obtain granular activated carbon. The effect of temperature (600-900 Celsius degrade) and time of activation (1-10 h) was studied as well as the relationship with the textural properties of the carbon. The activated carbons obtained with different percentages of Burn-off were characterized by physical adsorption of N 2 at 77K. We evaluated the ability of an adsorption in solution of the activated carbons by iodine index and the methylene blue index. We found a correlation between burn-off and the apparent surface area calculated by the BET method with values close to 1000 m 2 g -1 as well as microspore volumes between 0.060 and 0.400 cm 3 g -1 calculated by the DR method and the method alpha. The adsorption capacity in solution gives good results, because the results show good correlation with the porosity data. This is very important when determining the possible applications of the activated carbons

  19. Kinetics and equilibrium models for the sorption of tributyltin to nZnO, activated carbon and nZnO/activated carbon composite in artificial seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayanda, Olushola S.; Fatoki, Olalekan S.; Adekola, Folahan A.; Ximba, Bhekumusa J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Removal of tributyltin from artificial seawater using nZnO/activated carbon and its precursors was studied. • Detailed equilibrium and kinetic studies were reported. • Adsorption conditions were optimized and applied to natural seawater. • Higher removal efficiency of TBT was obtained for the composite and activated carbon except nZnO. • TBT concentration was determine by GC-FPD following derivatization. -- Abstract: The removal of tributyltin (TBT) from artificial seawater using nZnO, activated carbon and nZnO/activated carbon composite was systematically studied. The equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption were investigated in a batch adsorption system. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm models. Pseudo first- and second-order, Elovich, fractional power and intraparticle diffusion models were applied to test the kinetic data. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH° were also calculated to understand the mechanisms of adsorption. Optimal conditions for the adsorption of TBT from artificial seawater were then applied to TBT removal from natural seawater. A higher removal efficiency of TBT (>99%) was obtained for the nZnO/activated carbon composite material and for activated carbon but not for nZnO

  20. Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... good and cheap agricultural residue for the production of activated carbon, with carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen ... fuel-wood because household energy requirements are met with ..... Thin layer solar drying and mathematical.

  1. Gemini Surfactant-Modified Activated Carbon for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants, with double hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, offer potentially orders of magnitude greater surface activity compared to similar single unit molecules. A cationic Gemini surfactant (Propyl didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide, PDDDAB and a conventional cationic surfactant (Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide, DTAB were used to pre-treat and generate activated carbon. The removal efficiency of the surfactant-modified activated carbon through adsorption of chromium(VI was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to investigate the surface changes of surfactant-modified activated carbon. The effect of important parameters such as adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength and contact time were also investigated. The chromium(VI was adsorbed more significantly on the Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon than on the conventional surfactant-modified activated carbon. The correlation coefficients show the data best fit the Freundlich model, which confirms the monolayer adsorption of chromium(VI onto Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon. From this assessment, the surfactant-modified (especially Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon in this study showed promise for practical applications to treat water pollution.

  2. Ozonation of Cephalexin Antibiotic Using Granular Activated Carbon in a Circulating Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, N. S.; Akhtar, J.

    2015-01-01

    A circulating reactor was used to decompose cephalexin during catalytic ozonation. The effect of ozone supply and granular activated carbon (GAC) catalyst was investigated for removal of CEX and COD. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon was investigated during in-situ ozonation. According to results, ozone supply appeared as the most influencing variable followed by dosage of granular activated carbon. The BET surface area, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) curves indicated that solid phase regeneration of activated carbon using ozone gas followed by mild thermal decomposition was very effective. The adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbon was slightly lower than virgin activated carbon. The overall study revealed that catalytic ozonation was effective in removing cephalexin from solution and the method can be applied for in-situ ozonation processes. (author)

  3. Conclusions from fire tests in activated carbon filled adsorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathewes, W.

    1987-01-01

    Activated carbons as used in gas-phase adsorption may be subjected to heating, either from heat applied externally to the carbon bed, or heat generated by radioactive contaminants, or by the adsorption process itself. This report presents results of artificially ignited beds of activated carbon. This report also considers results concerning the self-ignition of non-contaminated carbon and such of solvent-contaminated carbon subjected to external heating in beds with an air flow and in beds without an air flow. An estimation is given for the heat generation caused by radioactive contaminants as well as by the adsorption process. Studies of handling of endangered components and studies of alarm indicating systems give guidance for the contemporary lay-out and design

  4. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube from coconut shells activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melati, A.; Hidayati, E.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been explored in almost every single cancer treatment modality, including drug delivery, lymphatic targeted chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and gene therapy. They are considered as one of the most promising nanomaterial with the capability of both detecting the cancerous cells and delivering drugs or small therapeutic molecules to the cells. CNTs have unique physical and chemical properties such as high aspect ratio, ultralight weight, high mechanical strength, high electrical conductivity, and high thermal conductivity. Coconut Shell was researched as active carbon source on 500 - 600°C. These activated carbon was synthesized becomes carbon nanotube and have been proposed as a promising tool for detecting the expression of indicative biological molecules at early stage of cancer. Clinically, biomarkers cancer can be detected by CNT Biosensor. We are using pyrolysis methods combined with CVD process or Wet Chemical Process on 600°C. Our team has successfully obtained high purity, and aligned MWCNT (Multi Wall Nanotube) bundles on synthesis CNT based on coconut shells raw materials. CNTs can be used to cross the mammalian cell membrane by endocytosis or other mechanisms. SEM characterization of these materials have 179 nm bundles on phase 83° and their materials compound known by using FTIR characterization.

  5. Granular activated carbons from broiler manure: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabel M; Marshall, Wayne E

    2005-04-01

    Broiler manure produced at large concentrated facilities poses risks to the quality of water and public health. This study utilizes broiler litter and cake as source materials for granular activated carbon production and optimizes conditions for their production. Pelletized manure samples were pyrolyzed at 700 degrees C for 1 h followed by activation in an inert atmosphere under steam at different water flow rates, for a period ranging from 15 to 75 min. Carbon physical and adsorptive properties were dependent on activation time and quantity of steam used as activant, yields varied from 18% to 28%, surface area varied from 253 to 548 m2/g and copper ion adsorption varied from 0.13 to 1.92 mmol Cu2+/g carbon. Best overall performing carbons were steam activated for 45 min at 3 ml/min. Comparative studies with commercial carbons revealed the broiler cake-based carbon as having the highest copper ion efficiency.

  6. Binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated carbon prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500 oC for 30 minutes. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the ...

  7. The determination of chromium in water samples by neutron activation analysis after preconcentration on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloot, H.A. van der

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of chromium in sea- and fresh water. Chromium is concentrated on activated carbon from a neutral solution after a previous reduction of chromate with sodium sulfite at pH 1.5. The adsorption conditions, acidity, concentrations, amount of carbon, stirring-time, sample-volume, salinity, the influence of storage on the ratio of tervalent to hexavalent chromium, were investigated. The final determination of the total chromium content is performed by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. By preconcentration on activated carbon, a differentiation between tervalent and hexavalent chromium is possible. A separate determination of both species is not yet feasible due to the high carbon blank and to the necessity of measuring the adsorption percentage on carbon. The lower limit of determination, which depends on the value of the carbon blank, is 0.05 μg Cr/l with a precision of 20%. The determination is hampered by the considerable blank from the carbon. The use of activated carbon prepared from recrystallized sugar will probably improve the lower limit of determination and possibly allow the determination of chromate. (T.G.)

  8. Separation of Th from aqueous solutions using activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutahyali, C.; Eral, M.

    2005-01-01

    Since the last century, thorium has been extensively used in a variety of applications. These applications produce various gaseous, liquid and solid wastes containing isotopes of thorium. Liquid wastes are freed into the surface or the underground waters of mines. Solid and liquid wastes are also produced during nuclear fuel production. Direct toxicity of thorium is low due to its stability at ambient temperatures; however thorium fine powder is self-ignitable to thorium oxide. When thorium nitrate enters living organisms it is mainly localized in liver, spleen and marrow and it precipitates in a hydroxide form. Investigations concerning the removal or minimization of the thorium concentration in the waste waters are of considerable importance environmental point of view. Adsorption is an important technique in separation and purification processes. Among many types of adsorbent materials, activated carbons are the most widely used, because of their large adsorptive capacity and low cost. Activated carbons are unique adsorbents because of their extended surface area, microporous structure, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Separation and purification processes based on adsorption technique are also important in nuclear industry where activated carbon is often used for the separation of metal ions from solutions, due to its selective adsorption, high radiation stability and high purity. The activated carbons used in this study were prepared by the chemical activation of acrylic fiber. The chemical composition of acrylic fiber is a copolymer of acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate is called also poliacrylonitryl fiber. The effects of carbonization conditions resulting activated carbon were examined. Precursor/activating agent (KOH and ZnCl 2 ) ratio and carbonization temperature were investigated for the preparation of adsorbent. Adsorption experiments were carried out by a batch technique. The adsorption of thorium was studied as a function of

  9. Study on regeneration of activated carbon by means of electron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guanghua; Arai, H.; Hosono, M.

    1991-01-01

    The results of regeneration of activated carbon adsorbing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) by 2 MeV electron radiation, and the dependence of the regeneration rate of activated carbon on the electron current intensity, the temperature of sample and the atmosphere were reported. It is shown that regeneration of activated carbon by electron radiation is full of promise

  10. High performance supercapacitor from activated carbon derived from waste orange skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sultan; Hussain, S.; Ahmed, Ahsan; Rafat, M.

    2018-05-01

    Activated carbon due to its inherent properties such as large surface area and low cost is most frequently used electrode material for supercapacitor. Activated carbon has been previously derived from various biomass such as coconut shell, coffee bean etc. Herein, we report the synthesis of activated carbon from waste orange skin. The material was synthesized employing chemical activation method and the success of synthesis was confirmed by its physical and electrochemical properties. The physical properties of the as-prepared sample were studied using the techniques of XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis while its electrochemical properties were studied in two-electrode assembly using liquid electrolyte (consisting of 1 M solution of LiTFSI dispersed in ionic liquid EMITFSI) and employing the techniques of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge- discharge. The synthesized sample of activated carbon exhibits high specific capacitance of 115 F g-1 at 10 mV s-1. Also, the activated carbon electrode shows the retention of ˜75% in initial capacitance value for more than 2000 initial cycles, indicating the as-prepared activated carbon can be profitably used as electrode material for energy storage devices.

  11. Kinetic studies on carbon dioxide capture using lignocellulosic based activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, Nor Adilla; Yusup, Suzana; Hameed, Bassim H.

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 (Carbon dioxide) emissions are one of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The power generation industry is one of the main emitters of CO 2 , and the emissions are expected to increase in the coming years as there seems to be no abatement in the consumption of fossil fuels for the production of electricity. Thus, there is a need for CO 2 adsorption technologies to mitigate the emissions. However, there are several disadvantages associated with the current adsorption technologies. One of the issues is corrosion and the need for specialized equipment. Therefore, alternative and more sustainable materials are sought after to improve the viability of the adsorption technology. In this study, several types of agricultural wastes were used as activated carbon precursors for CO 2 adsorption process in a TGA (thermogravimetric analyser). The adsorption was also modelled through a pseudo-first order and second order model, Elovich's kinetic model, and an intra-particle diffusion model. From the correlation coefficient, it was found that pseudo-second order model was well-fitted with the kinetic data. In addition, activation energy below than 42 kJ/mol confirmed that the physisorption process occurred. - Highlights: • Utilization of lignocellulosic wastes for production of activated carbon. • Single CO 2 activation that yields good adsorptive capacity of adsorbent. • Activation temperature has the most prominent effect on adsorptive properties. • CO 2 adsorption capacity reduces with increasing of adsorption temperature. • Pseudo-second order kinetic model shows best fits to the experimental data

  12. Development and environmental applications of activated carbon cloths

    OpenAIRE

    Cukierman, Ana Lea

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon cloths have received growing attention because they offer comparative advantages over the traditional powdered or granular forms of this well-known adsorbent, providing further potential uses for technological innovations in several fields. The present article provides an overview of research studies and advances concerned with the development of activated carbon cloths and their use as adsorbent in environmental applications, mostly reported in the last years. The influence ...

  13. Kinetic and Thermodynamics Studies the Adsorption of Phenol on Activated Carbon from Rice Husk Activated by ZnCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Muhammad Anshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption ability of activated carbon from rice husk in adsorbing phenol. Activated carbon used was in this studies burning risk husk at 300 and 400oC and then activated by 10% of ZnCl2. The from activated carbon was characterized using an Infrared Spectrometer, an X-ray diffraction, an Scanning Electron Microscope, and a gas sorption analyzer. The best activated carbon for adsorbing phenol was the activated carbon that prodused from the burning of rice husk at a temperature 400oC and activated with 10% of ZnCl2 for 24 hours. Adsorption capacity of the best activated carbon was 3.9370 mg/g adsorbent with Gibbs free energy of -25.493 kJ/mol.

  14. Activated Carbon Textile via Chemistry of Metal Extraction for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Do Van; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2016-12-27

    Carbothermic reduction in the chemistry of metal extraction (MO(s) + C(s) → M(s) + CO(g)) using carbon as a sacrificial agent has been used to smelt metals from diverse oxide ores since ancient times. Here, we paid attention to another aspect of the carbothermic reduction to prepare an activated carbon textile for high-rate-performance supercapacitors. On the basis of thermodynamic reducibility of metal oxides reported by Ellingham, we employed not carbon, but metal oxide as a sacrificial agent in order to prepare an activated carbon textile. We conformally coated ZnO on a bare cotton textile using atomic layer deposition, followed by pyrolysis at high temperature (C(s) + ZnO(s) → C'(s) + Zn(g) + CO(g)). We figured out that it leads to concurrent carbonization and activation in a chemical as well as mechanical way. Particularly, the combined effects of mechanical buckling and fracture that occurred between ZnO and cotton turned out to play an important role in carbonizing and activating the cotton textile, thereby significantly increasing surface area (nearly 10 times) compared with the cotton textile prepared without ZnO. The carbon textiles prepared by carbothermic reduction showed impressive combination properties of high power and energy densities (over 20-fold increase) together with high cyclic stability.

  15. Removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical (17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol) from wastewater effluent by activated carbon adsorption: Effects of activated carbon type and competitive adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ifelebuegu, A.O.; Lester, J.N.; Churchley, J.; Cartmell, E. [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). School of Water Science

    2006-12-15

    Granular activated carbon has been extensively used for the adsorption of organic micropollutants for potable water production. In this study the removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical from wastewater final effluent by three types of granular activated carbon (wood, coconut and coal based) has been investigated in batch adsorption experiments and correlated with the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and ultraviolet absorbance (UV). The results obtained demonstrated 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) removals of 98.6%, 99.3%, and 96.4% were achieved by the coal based (ACo), coconut based (ACn) and wood based (AWd) carbons respectively at the lowest dose of carbon (0.1 gl{sup -1}). The other adsorbates investigated all exhibited good removal. At an equilibrium concentration of 7 mgl{sup -1} the COD adsorption capacities were 3.16 mg g{sup -1}, 4.8 mg g{sup -1} and 7.1 mg g{sup -1} for the wood, coconut and coal based carbons respectively. Overall, the order of removal efficiency of EE2 and the other adsorbates for the three activated carbons was ACn {gt} ACo {gt} AWd. The adsorption capacities of the carbons were found to be reduced by the effects of other competing adsorbates in the wastewater effluent.

  16. ADSORPTION OF STRONTIUM IONS FROM WATER ON MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ciobanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of strontium ions from aqueous solutions on active carbons CAN-7 and oxidized CAN-8 has been studied. It has been found that allure of the adsorption isotherms for both studied active carbons are practically identical. Studies have shown that the adsorption isotherms for strontium ions from aqueous solutions are well described by the Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations, respectively. The surface heterogeneity of activated carbons CAN-7 and oxidized CAN-8 has been assessed by using Freundlich equation.

  17. Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae Gracilaria for the biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... This study shows the benefit of using activated carbon from marine red algae as a low cost sorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution wastewater.

  18. The removal of chloramphenicol from water through adsorption on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Joanna; Ociepa-Kubicka, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    The presented research investigated the removal of chloramphenicol from water solutions on selected activated carbon available in three grades with different porous structure and surface chemical composition. Two models of adsorption kinetics were examined, i.e. the pseudo-first order and the pseudo-second order models. For all examined cases, the results of tests with higher value of coefficient R2 were described by the equation for pseudo-second order kinetics. The adsorption kinetics was also investigated on the activated carbons modified with ozone. The measurements were taken from the solutions with pH values of 2 and 7. Chloramphenicol was the most efficiently adsorbed on the activated carbon F-300 from the solutions with pH=7, and on the activated carbon ROW 08 Supra from the solutions with pH=2. The adsorption of this antibiotic was in the majority of cases higher from the solutions with pH=2 than pH=7. The modification of the activated carbons with ozone enhanced their adsorption capacities for chloramphenicol. The adsorption is influenced by the modification method of activated carbon (i.e. the duration of ozonation of the activated carbon solution and the solution temperature). The results were described with the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations. Both models well described the obtained results (high R2 values).

  19. Adsorption Properties of Lignin-derived Activated Carbon Fibers (LACF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gallego, Nidia C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States); Karra, Reddy [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The object of this CRADA project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) is the characterization of lignin-derived activated carbon fibers (LACF) and determination of their adsorption properties for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Carbon fibers from lignin raw materials were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the technology previously developed at ORNL. These fibers were physically activated at ORNL using various activation conditions, and their surface area and pore-size distribution were characterized by gas adsorption. Based on these properties, ORNL did down-select five differently activated LACF materials that were delivered to UTRC for measurement of VOC adsorption properties. UTRC used standard techniques based on breakthrough curves to measure and determine the adsorption properties of indoor air pollutants (IAP) - namely formaldehyde and carbon dioxide - and to verify the extent of saturated fiber regenerability by thermal treatments. The results are summarized as follows: (1) ORNL demonstrated that physical activation of lignin-derived carbon fibers can be tailored to obtain LACF with surface areas and pore size distributions matching the properties of activated carbon fibers obtained from more expensive, fossil-fuel precursors; (2) UTRC investigated the LACF potential for use in air cleaning applications currently pursued by UTRC, such as building ventilation, and demonstrated their regenerability for CO2 and formaldehyde, (3) Both partners agree that LACF have potential for possible use in air cleaning applications.

  20. A brief review on activated carbon derived from agriculture by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Mohd Adib; Mansor, Muhammad Humaidi; Zolkarnaini, Wan Amani Auji Wan; Rusli, Nurul Shahnim; Aminuddin, Anisah; Mohamad, Khalidah; Sabhan, Fatin Aina Mohamad; Atik, Arif Abdallah Aboubaker; Ozair, Lailatun Nazirah

    2018-06-01

    A brief review focusing on preparation of the activated carbon derived from agriculture by-products is presented. The physical and chemical activation of activated carbon were also reviewed. The effects of various parameters including types of activating agents, temperature, impregnation ratio, were also discussed. The applications of activated carbon from agricultural by products were briefly reviewed. It is provenly evident in this review, the relatively inexpensive and renewable resources of the agricultural waste were found to be effectively being converted into wealth materials.

  1. Active carbon production from modified asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhi, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    A granular activated carbons (GACs) have been prepared from some local raw materials such as Qiayarah asphalt (QA) after some modification treatments of this asphalt by various ratios of its original constituents (asphaltenes and maltens) at 180 degree C. Thermal carbonization method by sulfur and steam physical activation have been used for AC preparation. The carbons thus prepared were characterized in the term of iodine, methylene blue (MB), P-nitro phenol (PNP) and CCl4 adsorption. The BET surface area of the prepared ACs has been estimated via a calibration curve between iodine numbers and surface area determined from N2 adsorption isotherm from previous studies, also, the surface area of the prepared ACs were determined through another methods such as retention method by ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME), adsorption from vapor phase using acetone vapor and adsorption from solution method using PNP and MB as solutes. The results referred to the success of modification method for preparing ACs of good micro porosity as compared with the AC from the untreated asphalt as well as the commercial sample. (author)

  2. High methanol oxidation activity of electrocatalysts supported by directly grown nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes on carbon cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-H.; Shih, H.-C.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Du, H.-Y.; Chen, L.-C.; Chen, K.-H.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and electrochemical activity of the Pt-Ru supported by nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CN x NTs) directly grown on the carbon cloth have been investigated. The CN x NTs directly grown on the carbon cloth (CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode) were synthesized using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition first and then use as the template to support the Pt-Ru nanoclusters subsequently sputtered on. The ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox reaction in cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed a faster electron transfer on the CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode than the one with carbon cloth alone. Comparing their methanol oxidation abilities, it is found that the Pt-Ru nanoclusters supported by the CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode have considerably higher electrocatalytic activity than the carbon cloth counterpart. This result suggests high performance of the CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode, and demonstrates its suitability for direct methanol fuel cell applications

  3. High methanol oxidation activity of electrocatalysts supported by directly grown nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes on carbon cloth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Shih, H.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Institue of Materials Science and Nano Technology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y.-T. [Institue of Materials Science and Nano Technology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Du, H.-Y. [Institue of Materials Science and Nano Technology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, K.-H. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) and Institue of Atomic and Molecular Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chenkh@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw

    2006-12-01

    The microstructure and electrochemical activity of the Pt-Ru supported by nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CN {sub x} NTs) directly grown on the carbon cloth have been investigated. The CN {sub x} NTs directly grown on the carbon cloth (CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode) were synthesized using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition first and then use as the template to support the Pt-Ru nanoclusters subsequently sputtered on. The ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox reaction in cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed a faster electron transfer on the CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode than the one with carbon cloth alone. Comparing their methanol oxidation abilities, it is found that the Pt-Ru nanoclusters supported by the CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode have considerably higher electrocatalytic activity than the carbon cloth counterpart. This result suggests high performance of the CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode, and demonstrates its suitability for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  4. Physical properties of activated carbon from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches by microwave assisted potassium hydroxide activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, Rakhmawati; Fatjrin, Delika; Awitdrus, Deraman, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    The activated carbon adsorption was influenced by the quality of activated carbon. The activated carbon quality can be improved by chemical activation and microwave irradiation. In this study, activated carbon has been made using biomass from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The microwave irradiation was applied at various irradiation times of 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, and at output power of 630 Watt. The physical properties of activated carbon were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and methylene blue adsorption. Analysis of microstructure showed that the activated carbon was semicrystalline with two peaks of 002 and 100 at 2θ around of 22° and 44°, respectively. The values of stack height (Lc) before and after irradiation increased from 2,799 nm to 3,860 nm, which indicated increasing surface area. Characteristics of surface morphology of activated carbon showed the pores number increased after microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation time of 15 minutes resulted the highest pores number justified in the activated carbon with their surface area of 319,60 m2/g and adsorption of methylene blue of 86,07 mg/g.

  5. Production of activated carbons from waste tyres for low temperature NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Waste tyres were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor and the product chars were chemically activated with alkali chemical agents, KOH, K2CO3, NaOH and Na2CO3 to produce waste tyre derived activated carbons. The activated carbon products were then examined in terms of their ability to adsorb NOx (NO) at low temperature (25°C) from a simulated industrial process flue gas. This study investigates the influence of surface area and porosity of the carbons produced with the different alkali chemical activating agents on NO capture from the simulated flue gas. The influence of varying the chemical activation conditions on the porous texture and corresponding NO removal from the flue gas was studied. The activated carbon sorbents were characterized in relation to BET surface area, micropore and mesopore volumes and chemical composition. The highest NO removal efficiency for the waste tyre derived activated carbons was ∼75% which was obtained with the adsorbent treated with KOH which correlated with both the highest BET surface area and largest micropore volume. In contrast, the waste tyre derived activated carbons prepared using K2CO3, NaOH and Na2CO3 alkali activating agents appeared to have little influence on NO removal from the flue gases. The results suggest problematic waste tyres, have the potential to be converted to activated carbons with NOx removal efficiency comparable with conventionally produced carbons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption and Pore of Physical-Chemical Activated Coconut Shell Charcoal Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Umiatin, U.; Nasbey, H.; Bintoro, R. A.; Wulandari, Fi; Erlina, E.

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of activated carbon of coconut shell charcoal on heavy metals (Cu and Fe) of the wastewater and its relation with the carbon pore structure was investigated. The coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours to produce charcoal and then shieved into milimeter sized granule particles. Chemical activation was done by immersing the charcoal into chemical solution of KOH, NaOH, HCl and H3PO4, with various concentration. The activation was followed by physical activation using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology of activated carbon were characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Wastewater was made by dissolving CuSO4.5H2O and FeSO4.7H2O into aquades. The metal adsorption was analized by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The result shows that in general, the increase of chemical concentration cause the increase of pore number of activated carbon due to an excessive chemical attack and lead the increase of adsorption. However it tend to decrease as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing. In general, the adsorption of Cu and Fe metal from wastewater by activated carbon increased as the activator concentration was increased.

  7. Brazilian natural fiber (jute as raw material for activated carbon production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA F.S. ROMBALDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jute fiber is the second most common natural cellulose fiber worldwide, especially in recent years, due to its excellent physical, chemical and structural properties. The objective of this paper was to investigate: the thermal degradation of in natura jute fiber, and the production and characterization of the generated activated carbon. The production consisted of carbonization of the jute fiber and activation with steam. During the activation step the amorphous carbon produced in the initial carbonization step reacted with oxidizing gas, forming new pores and opening closed pores, which enhanced the adsorptive capacity of the activated carbon. N2 gas adsorption at 77K was used in order to evaluate the effect of the carbonization and activation steps. The results of the adsorption indicate the possibility of producing a porous material with a combination of microporous and mesoporous structure, depending on the parameters used in the processes, with resulting specific surface area around 470 m2.g–1. The thermal analysis indicates that above 600°C there is no significant mass loss.

  8. Detailed Structural Analyses of KOH Activated Carbon from Waste Coffee Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Tomokazu; Toda, Ikumi; Ono, Hiroki; Ohshio, Shigeo; Akasaka, Hiroki; Himeno, Syuji; Kokubu, Toshinori; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2009-11-01

    The relationship of the detailed structural change of KOH activated carbon and hydrogen storage ability was investigated in activated carbon materials fabricated from waste coffee beans. The specific surface area of porous carbon materials calculated from N2 adsorption isotherms stood at 2070 m2/g when the weight ratio of KOH to carbon materials was 5:1, and pore size was in the range of approximately 0.6 to 1.1 nm as micropores. In the structural analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman spectroscopy indicated structural change in these carbon materials through KOH activation. The order of the graphite structure changed to a smaller scale with this activation. It is theorized that specific surface area increased using micropores provided by carbon materials developed from the descent of the graphite structure. Hydrogen storage ability improved with these structural changes, and reached 0.6 wt % at 2070 m2/g. These results suggest that hydrogen storage ability is conferred by the chemical effect on graphite of carbon materials.

  9. Analysis of the Interaction of Pulsed Laser with Nanoporous Activated Carbon Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.V. Kalucljerovic; M.S. Trtica; B.B. Radak; J.M. Stasic; S.S. Krstic Musovic; V.M. Dodevski

    2011-01-01

    Interaction of pulsed transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2-1aser radiation at 10.6 μm with nanoporous activated carbon cloth was investigated. Activated carbon cloth of different adsorption characteristics was used. Activated carbon cloth modifications were initiated by laser pulse intensities from 0.5 to 28 MW/cm^2, depending on the cloth adsorption characteristics. CO2 laser radiation was effectively absorbed by the used activated carbon cloth and largely converted into thermal energy. The type of modification depended on laser power density, number of pulses, but mostly on material characteristics such as specific surface area. The higher the surface area of activated carbon cloth, the higher the damage threshold.

  10. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara, E-mail: hmjena@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl{sub 2}. • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, and 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl{sub 2}/Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, and 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  11. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl 2 . • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, and 1.96 cm 3 /g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m 2 /g, 1.68 cm 3 /g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl 2 as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl 2 /Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, 1.96 cm 3 /g, and 1.68 cm 3 /g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  12. Novel Activated Carbons from Agricultural Wastes and their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthikeyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal has become a major problem in India, Either it has to be disposed safely or used for the recovery of valuable materials as agricultural wastes like turmeric waste, ferronia shell waste, jatropha curcus seed shell waste, delonix shell waste and ipomea carnia stem. Therefore these wastes have been explored for the preparation of activated carbon employing various techniques. Activated carbons prepared from agricultural solid wastes by chemical activation processes shows excellent improvement in the surface characteristics. Their characterization studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, matter soluble in water, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, phenol number, ion exchange capacity, ion content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in the water and wastewater. For anionic dyes (reactive, direct, acid a close relationship between the surface area and surface chemical groups of the modified activated carbon and percentage of dye removal by adsorption can be observed. Cationic dyes large amount of surface chemical groups present in the sample (mainly carboxylic, anhydrides, lactones and phenols etc. are good anchoring sites for adsorption. The present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

  13. Dynamic adsorption properties of xenon on activated carbons and their structure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suiqing; Liu Jing; Qian Yuan; Zeng Youshi; Du Lin; Pi Li; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, adsorption of radioactive xenon by activated carbon has been increasingly applied to the treatment of off-gas in nuclear power project. Though pore structure of activated carbon has a great impact on its dynamic adsorption coefficients for xenon, the concerned research is rare. Purpose: It is very necessary to figure out the relationship between the pore structure and the dynamic adsorption coefficients for the purpose of the selection and development of activated carbon. Methods: In this study, the dynamic adsorption coefficients of xenon on four kinds of activated carbons were measured on a dynamic adsorption platform under the condition of 25℃, OMPa (gauge pressure). And these four kinds of activated carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption and SEM. Results: The results show that the activated carbon of JH12-16 with the specific surface area of 991.9 m 2 ·g -1 has the largest xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient among these activated carbons. Conclusions: The dynamic adsorption coefficient of xenon on activated carbon doesn't increase with the specific surface area or the pore volume. The mesopore and macropore only play the role of passageway for xenon adsorption. The most suitable pore for xenon adsorption is the pore with the pore size ranged from 0.55 to 0.6 nm. (authors)

  14. Activated carbon from maize tassels and polymer composites for water decontamination

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ph.D. (Chemistry) This study presents work on the preparation, characterisation and application of agricultural waste residue, maize tassel in the production of activated carbon (AC) using both physical and chemical methods of activation in their production. The activated carbon produced from maize tassel (MTAC) or steam-produced activated carbon (STAC) were later added as a filler – together with beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and raw tassel (RT) – in the production of polyurethane composite a...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of chemically activated carbon derived from arecanut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Jadhav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon (AC was prepared from areca-nut shell (AS by chemical activation using phosphoric acid (PA. Activated carbon was prepared in three batches using phosphoric acid of 50 gm, 100 gm, and 300 gm with varying impregnation ratios by weight of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, 4:1 each. Characterization of the prepared activated carbon was done by methylene blue number (MBN, iodine number (IN, acid adsorption test (AAT, and elemental composition. Activation was carried out at 400 C. It was found that activated carbon derived from areca-nut shell shown improved results for methylene blue number (MBN, iodine number (IN, and acid adsorption test(AAT. Thermal analysis was carried out to know the weight loss and SEM was performed to know the morphology of AC.

  16. [Adsorption and desorption of dyes by waste-polymer-derived activated carbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Liu, Chang; Li, Guo-Guang; Liu, Yi-Fu; Li, Yong; Zhu, Ling-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons with high surface area were prepared from three waste polymers, i. e., tire rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), by KOH activation. The adsorption/desorption characteristics of dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) on the carbons were studied. The effects of pH, ionic strength and surface surfactants in the solution on the dye adsorption were also investigated. The results indicated that the carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited high surface area of 2 666 and 2 831 m2 x g(-1). Their mesopore volume were as high as 1.06 and 1.30 cm3 g(-1), respectively. 98.5% and 97.0% of methylene blue and methyl orange were removed in 15 min by PVC carbon, and that of 99.5% and 95.0% for PET carbon. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity to these dyes was more than 2 mmol x g(-1), much higher than that of commercial activated carbon F400. Compared with Freundlich model, the adsorption data was fitted better by Langmiur model, indicating monolayer coverage on the carbons. The adsorption was highly dependent on solution pH, ionic strength and concentration of surface surfactants. The activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption to methylene blue than that of methyl orange, and it was very hard for both of the dyes to be desorbed. The observation in this study demonstrated that activated carbons derived from polymer waste could be effective adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater with dyes.

  17. Determination of activities of human carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the activities of new curcumin analogs as carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) inhibitor. Methods: Carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) inhibition was determined by each ligand capability to inhibit the esterase activity of CA-II using 4-NPA as a substrate in 96-well plates. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used to dissolve each ...

  18. Highly Crumpled All-Carbon Transistors for Brain Activity Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Wenjing; Shi, Enzheng; Wei, Wenjing; Li, Xinming; Cao, Anyuan; Cao, Yanping; Fang, Ying

    2017-01-11

    Neural probes based on graphene field-effect transistors have been demonstrated. Yet, the minimum detectable signal of graphene transistor-based probes is inversely proportional to the square root of the active graphene area. This fundamentally limits the scaling of graphene transistor-based neural probes for improved spatial resolution in brain activity recording. Here, we address this challenge using highly crumpled all-carbon transistors formed by compressing down to 16% of its initial area. All-carbon transistors, chemically synthesized by seamless integration of graphene channels and hybrid graphene/carbon nanotube electrodes, maintained structural integrity and stable electronic properties under large mechanical deformation, whereas stress-induced cracking and junction failure occurred in conventional graphene/metal transistors. Flexible, highly crumpled all-carbon transistors were further verified for in vivo recording of brain activity in rats. These results highlight the importance of advanced material and device design concepts to make improvements in neuroelectronics.

  19. Optimization of chemical regeneration procedures of spent activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Ghasemzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical regeneration of granular activated carbon exhausted in a petrochemical wastewater unit was investigated. Gas chromatography and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that spent activated carbon carries large types of organic and inorganic materials. Diverse chemical solvents were adopted in comparison with traditional chemical solvents and regeneration efficiency was investigated for each approach. The optimum procedure and optimum condition including temperature, concentration of solvent, and time were determined. The regenerated activated carbon was used in the adsorption of methylene blue (MB in order to find its regeneration efficiency. The regeneration efficiency can be identified by comparing of amount of MB absorbed by the fresh and regenerated activated carbon. The best acidic regenerator was hydrofluoric acid. The higher the temperature causes the faster desorption rate and consequently, the higher regeneration efficiency. The regeneration efficiency increased by means of an increase in the time of regeneration and solvent concentration, but there was an optimum time and solvent concentration for regeneration. The optimum temperature, solvent concentration and regeneration time obtained was 80 ⁰C, 3 molar and 3 hours, respectively.

  20. A review of activated carbon technologies for reducing MSW incinerator emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Though activated carbon is, by no means, a newcomer to the pollution control field, having been used as a water purifier and more recently demonstrated as a flue gas cleaner on power plants, it is now attracting considerable attention in Europe as a means to reduce further the quantity of toxic organic and metal emissions from new and existing municipal waste combustors. Since activated carbon is a potentially important future emissions control technology for MWCs in the US, particularly for removal of mercury and dioxin, this paper discusses the impetus which has motivated the experimentation with various activated carbon technologies which is now taking place, will describe how some of the activated carbon systems (e.g., post-emissions control fixed carbon bed and injection of carbon with scrubber reagent) being tested now function and where they fit in existing pollution control trains, and will present available performance data and emissions reductions actually achieved for each system

  1. Polanyi Evaluation of Adsorptive Capacities of Commercial Activated Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Surma, Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial activated carbons from Calgon (207C and OVC) and Cabot Norit (RB2 and GCA 48) were evaluated for use in spacecraft trace contaminant control filters. The Polanyi potential plots of the activated carbons were compared using to those of Barnebey-Cheney Type BD, an untreated activated carbon with similar properties as the acid-treated Barnebey-Sutcliffe Type 3032 utilized in the TCCS. Their adsorptive capacities under dry conditions were measured in a closed loop system and the sorbents were ranked for their ability to remove common VOCs found in spacecraft cabin air. This comparison suggests that these sorbents can be ranked as GCA 48 207C, OVC RB2 for the compounds evaluated.

  2. Experimental study on solar-powered adsorption refrigeration cycle with activated alumina and activated carbon as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himsar Ambarita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical adsorbent applied in solar-powered adsorption refrigeration cycle is activated carbon. It is known that activated alumina shows a higher adsorption capacity when it is tested in the laboratory using a constant radiation heat flux. In this study, solar-powered adsorption refrigeration cycle with generator filled by different adsorbents has been tested by exposing to solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia. The generator is heated using a flat-plate type solar collector with a dimension of 0.5 m×0.5 m. Four cases experiments of solar-powered adsorption cycle were carried out, they are with generator filled by 100% activated alumina (named as 100AA, by a mixed of 75% activated alumina and 25% activated carbon (75AA, by a mixed of 25% activated alumina and 75% activated carbon (25AA, and filled by 100% activated carbon. Each case was tested for three days. The temperature and pressure history and the performance have been presented and analyzed. The results show that the average COP of 100AA, 75AA, 25AA, and 100AC is 0.054, 0.056, 0.06, and 0.074, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn is that for Indonesian condition and flat-plate type solar collector the pair of activated carbon and methanol is the better than activated alumina.

  3. SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas by activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilgun Karatepe; Ilkun Orbak; Reha Yavuz; Ayse Ozyuguran [Istanbul Technical University, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey). Institute of Energy

    2007-07-01

    Adsorption of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) onto activated carbons prepared from Tuncbilek lignite with different methods was investigated. Experimental results showed that the adsorption temperature, initial SO{sub 2} concentration, particle size of the activated carbon and H{sub 2}O content in the flue gas had significantly effect on the amounts of SO{sub 2} adsorbed. Textural (BET surface area, micropore surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume and average pore size) characteristics of activated carbons also played an important role on adsorption of SO{sub 2}. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Bayer, E.

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm 3 to 0.52 g.cm 3 . Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g -1 ), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g -1 ). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V micro ) was between 0.33cm 3 .g -1 - 0.40cm 3 .g -1 , while the mesopore volume(V meso ) was between 0.05 cm 3 .g -1 - 0.07 cm 3 .g -1 . The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m 2 .g -1 . All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  5. Experimental determination of boron and carbon thermodynamic activities in the carbide phase of the boron-carbon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froment, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    - The boron-carbon phase diagram presents a single phase area ranging from 9 to 20 atomic percent of carbon. The measurement of carbon activity, in this range of composition, has been measured according to the following methods: - quantitative analysis of the methane-hydrogen mixture in equilibrium with the carbide, - high temperature mass spectrometry measurements. The first method turned out to be a failure; however, the apparatus used enabled the elaboration of a B 4 C composition pure phase from a two-phase (B 4 C + graphite) industrial product. The results obtained with the other two methods are consistent and lead to a law expressing the increase of the carbon activity in relation with the amount of this element; the high temperature mass spectrometry method has also made it possible to measure the boron activity which decreases when the carbon activity increases, but with a variation of amplitude much lower, according to the theoretical calculations. These results are a first step towards the knowledge of the boron carbide thermodynamical data for compositions different from B 4 C [fr

  6. Characterization of Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) Treated Rice Husk Activated Carbon and Adsorption of Lead from Car Battery Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, F.; Bani, O.; Izdiharo, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    The use of rice husk as adsorbent would not only reduce its disposal problems, but would also produce value-added products, such as activated carbon derived from rice husk. This study aimed to determine the optimum carbonization temperature for activated carbon production from rice husk and its adsorption performance on Pb in car battery wastewater. In this study, activated carbon was produced by carbonizing rice husk 400-600 °C for 90-150 minutes followed by chemical activation using 5% Na2CO3 and sieving to 100 meshes. Lead adsorption was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results suggested that highest carbon yield of 47.75% was obtained for carbonization at 500 °C for 150 minutes. At that condition, produced activated carbon contained 3.35% moisture, 30.86% ash, 18.04% volatile matter. The adsorption capacity was found to be 0.6007 mg lead/g adsorbent with % adsorpsi 58.08%

  7. The Effect of CO2 Activation on the Electrochemical Performance of Coke-Based Activated Carbons for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Hong-Gun; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2015-11-01

    The present study developed electrode materials for supercapacitors by activating coke-based activated carbons with CO2. For the activation reaction, after setting the temperature at 1,000 degrees C, four types of activated carbons were produced, over an activation time of 0-90 minutes and with an interval of 30 minutes as the unit. The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons produced was evaluated to examine the effect of CO2 activation. The surface structure of the porous carbons activated through CO2 activation was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To determine the N2/77 K isothermal adsorption characteristics, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) equation were used to analyze the pore characteristics. In addition, charge and discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to analyze the electrochemical characteristics of the changed pore structure. According to the results of the experiments, the N2 adsorption isotherm curves of the porous carbons produced belonged to Type IV in the International Union of Pore and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) classification and consisted of micropores and mesopores, and, as the activation of CO2 progressed, micropores decreased and mesopores developed. The specific surface area of the porous carbons activated by CO2 was 1,090-1,180 m2/g and thus showed little change, but those of mesopores were 0.43-0.85 cm3/g, thus increasing considerably. In addition, when the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed, the specific capacity was confirmed to have increased from 13.9 F/g to 18.3 F/g. From these results, the pore characteristics of coke-based activated carbons changed considerably because of CO2 activation, and it was therefore possible to increase the electrochemical characteristics.

  8. A thermodynamic approach to assess organic solute adsorption onto activated carbon in water

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.; Verliefde, Arne R. D.; Heijman, Bas G J; Gelin, Simon; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro; Rocha, Raquel P.; Figueiredo, José Luí s M; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Hans C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the hydrophobicity of 13 activated carbons is determined by various methods; water vapour adsorption, immersion calorimetry, and contact angle measurements. The quantity and type of oxygen-containing groups on the activated carbon were measured and related to the methods used to measure hydrophobicity. It was found that the water-activated carbon adsorption strength (based on immersion calorimetry, contact angles) depended on both type and quantity of oxygen-containing groups, while water vapour adsorption depended only on their quantity. Activated carbon hydrophobicity measurements alone could not be related to 1-hexanol and 1,3-dichloropropene adsorption. However, a relationship was found between work of adhesion and adsorption of these solutes. The work of adhesion depends not only on activated carbon-water interaction (carbon hydrophobicity), but also on solute-water (solute hydrophobicity) and activated carbon-solute interactions. Our research shows that the work of adhesion can explain solute adsorption and includes the effect of hydrogen bond formation between solute and activated carbon. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A thermodynamic approach to assess organic solute adsorption onto activated carbon in water

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, the hydrophobicity of 13 activated carbons is determined by various methods; water vapour adsorption, immersion calorimetry, and contact angle measurements. The quantity and type of oxygen-containing groups on the activated carbon were measured and related to the methods used to measure hydrophobicity. It was found that the water-activated carbon adsorption strength (based on immersion calorimetry, contact angles) depended on both type and quantity of oxygen-containing groups, while water vapour adsorption depended only on their quantity. Activated carbon hydrophobicity measurements alone could not be related to 1-hexanol and 1,3-dichloropropene adsorption. However, a relationship was found between work of adhesion and adsorption of these solutes. The work of adhesion depends not only on activated carbon-water interaction (carbon hydrophobicity), but also on solute-water (solute hydrophobicity) and activated carbon-solute interactions. Our research shows that the work of adhesion can explain solute adsorption and includes the effect of hydrogen bond formation between solute and activated carbon. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon Obtained from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca Fruit Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ekpete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of carbon obtained from plantain (Musa paradisiaca stem was achieved at a temperature of 400°C for one hour. The carbonized carbon was divided into two parts to be activated separately. The activated carbon CPPAC (carbonized plantain phosphoric acid activated carbon and CPZAC (carbonized plantain zinc chloride activated carbon were produced via the chemical activation process using H3PO4 and ZnCl2. Characterization of pH, bulk density, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, iodine number, and oxygen functional group was conducted. When comparing the surface properties of both CPPAC and CPZAC with the untreated plantain carbon (UPC, it was observed that there existed significant differences in all properties with the exemption of carboxylic group for CPPAC and phenolic group for both CPPAC and CPZAC, thus signifying that a chemical transformation did occur. When comparing the results obtained from CPPAC to that of CPZAC, CPPAC was more preferable for adsorption due to its low bulk density, low ash content, and high iodine value, signifying thus that the activating agents both reacted differently with the plantain stem.

  11. Influence of activated carbon amended ASBR on anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Li; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of activated carbon amended ASBR on fermentative bio-hydgrogen production from glucose was evaluated at hydraulic retention time (HRTs) ranging from 48 h to 12 h with initial pH of 6.0 at the system temperature of 60°C. Experimental results showed that the performance of activated carbon...... amended anazrobic seguencs batch reactor (ASBRs) was more stable than that of ASBRs without activated carbon addition regarding on hydrogen production and pH. Higher hydrogen yield(HY) and hydrogen producing rate(HPR) were observed in the activated carbon amended ASBRs, with 65%, 63%, 54%, 56% enhancement...... of hydrogen yield in smaller size activated carbon amended reactor under the tested HRT ranges, and the maximum HPR of (7.09±0.31)L·(L·d)-1 and HY of (1.42±0.03) mol·mol-1 was obtained at HRT of 12h. The major soluble products form hydrogen fermentation were n-butyric acid and acetic acid, accounting for 46...

  12. Magnetite impregnation effects on the sorbent properties of activated carbons and biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhantao; Sani, Badruddeen; Mrozik, Wojciech; Obst, Martin; Beckingham, Barbara; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Werner, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the sorbent properties of magnetic activated carbons and biochars produced by wet impregnation with iron oxides. The sorbents had magnetic susceptibilities consistent with theoretical predictions for carbon-magnetite composites. The high BET surface areas of the activated carbons were preserved in the synthesis, and enhanced for one low surface area biochar by dissolving carbonates. Magnetization decreased the point of zero charge. Organic compound sorption correlated strongly with BET surface areas for the pristine and magnetized materials, while metal cation sorption did not show such a correlation. Strong sorption of the hydrophobic organic contaminant phenanthrene to the activated carbon or biochar surfaces was maintained following magnetite impregnation, while phenol sorption was diminished, probably due to enhanced carbon oxidation. Copper, zinc and lead sorption to the activated carbons and biochars was unchanged or slightly enhanced by the magnetization, and iron oxides also contributed to the composite metal sorption capacity. While a magnetic biochar with 219 ± 3.7 m(2)/g surface area nearly reached the very strong organic pollutant binding capacity of the two magnetic activated carbons, a magnetic biochar with 68 ± 2.8 m(2)/g surface area was the best metal sorbent. Magnetic biochars thus hold promise as more sustainable alternatives to coal-derived magnetic activated carbons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood revisited. II. Physical activation with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Idriss, A.; Cuerda-Correa, E.M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, C.; Alexandre-Franco, M.F.; Gomez-Serrano, V. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry; Stitou, M. [Univ. Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. de Chimie; Macias-Garcia, A. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Olive-tree has been grown in the Mediterranean countries for centuries. For an adequate development of the tree it must be subjected to different treatments such as trimming, large amounts of a woody residue being produced. Such a residue has been traditionally used as a domestic fuel or simply burnt in the landfield. In both cases greenhouse gases are generated to a large extent. Thus, the preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood appears as an attractive alternative to valorize this by-product. Commonly, two activation strategies are used with such an aim, namely chemical and physical activation. In this study, the optimization of the physical activation method with air for the production of activated carbon has been analyzed. The results obtained clearly show that if the preparation conditions are adequately controlled, it is possible to prepare activated carbons showing tailored properties in terms of micro- or mesoporous texture and surface area. (author)

  14. Characteristics of activated carbon resulted from pyrolysis of the oil palm fronds powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulina, S.; Iriansyah, M.

    2018-02-01

    Activated carbon is the product of a charcoal impregnation process that has a higher absorption capacity and has more benefits than regular char. Therefore, this study aims to cultivate the powder of oil palm fronds into activated carbon that meets the requirements of Standard National Indonesia 06-3730-1995. To do so, the carbonization process of the powder of oil palm fronds was carried out using a pyrolysis reactor for 30 minutes at a temperature of 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C in order to produce activated char. Then, the char was impregnated using Phosphoric Acid activator (H3PO4) for 24 hours. Characteristics of activated carbon indicate that the treatment of char by chemical activation of oil palm fronds powder has an effect on the properties of activated carbon. The activated carbons that has the highest absorption properties to Iodine (822.91 mg/g) were obtained from the impregnation process with 15% concentration of Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) at pyrolysis temperature of 200 °C. Furthermore, the activation process resulted in activated carbon with water content of 8%, ash content of 4%, volatile matter 39%, and fixed carbon 75%, Iodine number 822.91 mg/g.

  15. Removal efficiency of radioactive methyl iodide on TEDA-impregnated activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.M.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by different series of carbon dioxide and steam activation from walnut shells for their optimal use as radioactive methyl iodide adsorbents in Nuclear Plants. The knowledge of the most favourable textural characteristics of the activated carbons was possible by the previous study of the commercial activated carbon currently used for this purpose. In order to increase their methyl iodide affinity, the effect of triethylenediamine impregnation was studied at 5 and 10 wt.%. The results obtained indicated that in both cases the adsorption efficiency is markedly improved by the addition of impregnant, which allows the adsorbate uptake to occur not only by physical adsorption, via non-specific interactions (as in non-impregnated carbons) but also by the specific interaction of triethylenediamine with radioactive methyl iodide. Methyl iodide retention efficiencies up to 98.1% were achieved. (author)

  16. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.

  17. Determination of Activated Carbon Residual Life using a Microwave Cavity Resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, A; Wylie, S; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Thomas, A; Keele, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the continuation of work conducted jointly between Dstl and LJMU. This unique body of work has been, largely, concerned with detecting the residual life of high performance filter materials using electromagnetic (EM) waves within a resonant cavity. Past work has considered both HEPA [1] and ASZM-TEDA[2] activated carbon filter materials. This paper continues the later work, considering the response of ASZM-TEDA activated carbon through the co-ageing of two distinct batches of the material. The paper briefly introduces activated carbon, discusses theory relevant to the work and the methodology used for investigation. A comprehensive set of results is included which seek to validate this technique for determining the residual lifespan of activated carbon.

  18. Activation and micropore structure of carbon-fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1997-12-01

    Rigid, high surface area activated carbon fiber composites have been produced with high permeabilities for environmental applications in gas and water purification. The project involves a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), University of Kentucky. The main focus of recent work has been to find a satisfactory means to uniformly activate large samples of carbon fiber composites to produce controlled pore structures. Processes have been developed using activation in steam and CO{sub 2}, and a less conventional method involving oxygen chemisorption and subsequent heat treatment. Another objective has been to explore applications for the activated composites in environmental applications related to fossil energy production.

  19. Phenol removal onto novel activated carbons made from lignocellulosic precursors: Influence of surface properties

    OpenAIRE

    Valente Nabais, Joao; Gomes, Jose; Suhas, Suhas; Carrott, Peter; Laginhas, Carlos; Roman, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of phenol from dilute aqueous solutions onto new activated carbons (AC) was studied. The novel activated carbon was produced from lignocellulosic (LC) precursors of rapeseed and kenaf. Samples oxidised with nitric acid in liquid phasewere also studied. The results have shown the significant potential of rapeseed and kenaf for the activated carbon production. The activated carbons produced by carbon dioxide activation were mainly microporous with BET apparent surface...

  20. Electricity generation from wetlands with activated carbon bioanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudirjo, E.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Strik, D. P. B. T. B.

    2018-03-01

    Paddy fields are potential non-tidal wetlands to apply Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (PMFC) technology. World widely they cover about 160 million ha of which 13.3 million ha is located in Indonesia. With the PMFC, in-situ electricity is generated by a bioanode with electrochemically active bacteria which use primary the organic matter supplied by the plant (e.g. as rhizodeposits and plant residues). One of limitations when installing a PMFC in a non-tidal wetland is the usage of “expensive” large amounts of electrodes to overcome the poor conductivity of wet soils. However, in a cultivated wetland such as rice paddy field, it is possible to alter soil composition. Adding a conductive carbon material such as activated carbon is believed to improve soil conductivity with minimum impact on plant vitality. The objective of this research was to study the effect of activated carbon as an alternative bioanode material on the electricity output and plants vitality. Lab result shows that activated carbon can be a potential alternative for bioanode material. It can continuously deliver current on average 1.54 A/m3 anode (0.26 A/m2 PGA or 66 mW/m2 PGA) for 98 days. Based on this result the next step is to do a test of this technology in the real paddy fields.

  1. Bimodal activated carbons derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels prepared at different dilution ratios have been activated with phosphoric acid at 450 °C and compared with their carbonaceous counterparts obtained by pyrolysis at 900 °C. Whereas the latter were, as expected, highly mesoporous carbons, the former cryogels had very different pore textures. Highly diluted cryogels allowed preparation of microporous materials with high surface areas, but activation of initially dense cryogels led to almost non-porous carbons, with much lower surface areas than those obtained by pyrolysis. The optimal acid concentration for activation, corresponding to stoichiometry between molecules of acid and hydroxyl groups, was 2 M l−1, and the acid–cryogel contact time also had an optimal value. Such optimization allowed us to achieve surface areas and micropore volumes among the highest ever obtained by activation with H3PO4, close to 2200 m2 g−1 and 0.7 cm3 g−1, respectively. Activation of diluted cryogels with a lower acid concentration of 1.2 M l−1 led to authentic bimodal activated carbons, having a surface area as high as 1780 m2 g−1 and 0.6 cm3 g−1 of microporous volume easily accessible through a widely developed macroporosity. PMID:27877405

  2. Bimodal activated carbons derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Fierro, Vanessa; Celzard, Alain [Institut Jean Lamour-UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS-Nancy-Universite-UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces. ENSTIB, 27 rue Philippe Seguin, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Pizzi, Antonio, E-mail: Alain.Celzard@enstib.uhp-nancy.fr [ENSTIB-LERMAB, Nancy-Universite, 27 rue Philippe Seguin, BP1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France)

    2011-06-15

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels prepared at different dilution ratios have been activated with phosphoric acid at 450 deg. C and compared with their carbonaceous counterparts obtained by pyrolysis at 900 deg. C. Whereas the latter were, as expected, highly mesoporous carbons, the former cryogels had very different pore textures. Highly diluted cryogels allowed preparation of microporous materials with high surface areas, but activation of initially dense cryogels led to almost non-porous carbons, with much lower surface areas than those obtained by pyrolysis. The optimal acid concentration for activation, corresponding to stoichiometry between molecules of acid and hydroxyl groups, was 2 M l{sup -1}, and the acid-cryogel contact time also had an optimal value. Such optimization allowed us to achieve surface areas and micropore volumes among the highest ever obtained by activation with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, close to 2200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.7 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. Activation of diluted cryogels with a lower acid concentration of 1.2 M l{sup -1} led to authentic bimodal activated carbons, having a surface area as high as 1780 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.6 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} of microporous volume easily accessible through a widely developed macroporosity.

  3. Adsorption of Benzaldehyde on Granular Activated Carbon: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Thermodynamic

    OpenAIRE

    Rajoriya, R.K.; Prasad, B.; Mishra, I.M.; Wasewar, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of benzaldehyde from aqueous solutions onto granular activated carbon have been determined and studied the effect of dosage of granular activated carbon, contact time, and temperature on adsorption. Optimum conditions for benzaldehyde removal were found adsorbent dose 4 g l–1 of solution and equilibrium time t 4 h. Percent removal of benzaldehyde increases with the increase in adsorbent dose for activated carbon, however, it decreases with increase in benzaldehyde m...

  4. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  5. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds by pecan shell- and almond shell-based granular activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, R R; Losso, J N; Marshall, W E; Rao, R M; Portier, R J

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of using pecan and almond shell-based granular activated carbons (GACs) in the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of health concern and known toxic compounds (such as bromo-dichloromethane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloromethane, chloroform, and 1,1-dichloromethane) compared to the adsorption efficiency of commercially used carbons (such as Filtrasorb 200, Calgon GRC-20, and Waterlinks 206C AW) in simulated test medium. The pecan shell-based GACs were activated using steam, carbon dioxide or phosphoric acid. An almond shell-based GAC was activated with phosphoric acid. Our results indicated that steam- or carbon dioxide-activated pecan shell carbons were superior in total VOC adsorption to phosphoric acid-activated pecan shell or almond shell carbons, inferring that the method of activation selected for the preparation of activated carbons affected the adsorption of VOCs and hence are factors to be considered in any adsorption process. The steam-activated, pecan shell carbon adsorbed more total VOCs than the other experimental carbons and had an adsorption profile similar to the two coconut shell-based commercial carbons, but had greater adsorption than the coal-based commercial carbon. All the carbons studied adsorbed benzene more effectively than the other organics. Pecan shell, steam-activated and acid-activated GACs showed higher adsorption of 1,1,1-trichloroethane than the other carbons studied. Multivariate analysis was conducted to group experimental carbons and commercial carbons based on their physical, chemical, and adsorptive properties. The results of the analysis conclude that steam-activated and acid-activated pecan shell carbons clustered together with coal-based and coconut shell-based commercial carbons, thus inferring that these experimental carbons could potentially be used as alternative sources for VOC adsorption in an aqueous environment.

  6. Characterization and organic electric-double-layer-capacitor application of KOH activated coal-tar-pitch-based carbons: Effect of carbonization temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Poo Reum; Lee, Eunji; Kwon, Soon Hyung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Myung-Soo

    2015-12-01

    The present study reports the influence of pre-carbonization on the properties of KOH-activated coal tar pitch (CTP). The change of crystallinity and pore structure of pre-carbonized CTPs as well as their activated carbons (ACs) as function of pre-carbonization temperature are investigated. The crystallinity of pre-carbonized CTPs increases with increasing the carbonization temperature up to 600 °C, but a disorder occurs during the carbonization around 700 °C and an order happens gradually with increasing the carbonization temperatures in range of 800-1000 °C. The CTPs pre-carbonized at high temperatures are more difficult to be activated with KOH than those pre-carbonized at low temperatures due to the increase of micro-crystalline size and the decrease of surface functional groups. The micro-pores and meso-pores are well developed at around 1.0 nm and 2.4 nm, respectively, as the ACs are pre-carbonized at temperatures of 500-600 °C, exhibiting high specific capacitances as electrode materials for electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). Although the specific surface area (SSA) and pore volume of ACs pre-carbonized at temperatures of 900-1000 °C are extraordinary low (non-porous) as compared to those of AC pre-carbonized at 600 °C, their specific capacitances are comparable to each other. The large specific capacitances with low SSA ACs can be attributed to the structural change resulting from the electrochemical activation during the 1st charge above 2.0 V.

  7. Binder-less activated carbon electrode from gelam wood for use in supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANDINI A. TRIBIDASARI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the relation between the porous structure of activated carbon and its capacitive properties. Three types of activated carbon monoliths were used as the electrodes in a half cell electrochemical system. One monolith was produced from activated carbon and considered to be a binder-less electrode. Two others were produced from acid and high pressure steam oxidized activated carbon. The micrographs clearly indicate that three electrodes have different porous structures. Both porosity and surface area of carbons increased due to the formation of grains during oxidation. This fact specified that an acid oxidized carbon monolith will have relatively higher capacitance compared to non-oxidized and steam oxidized monoliths. Maximum capacitance values for acid, steam oxidized and non-oxidized electrodes were 27.68, 2.23 and 1.20 F g-1, respectively.

  8. Adsorption Isotherms of CH 4 on Activated Carbon from Indonesian Low Grade Coal

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Awaludin; Loh, Wai Soong; Rahman, Kazi Afzalur; Thu, Kyaw; Surayawan, Bambang; Alhamid, M. Idrus; Nasruddin,; Ng, Kim Choon

    2011-01-01

    ) apparatus, and two types of activated carbon have been investigated, namely, activated carbon derived from the low rank coal of the East of Kalimantan, Indonesia, and a Carbotech activated carbon. The isotherm results which cover temperatures from (300

  9. REMOVAL OF IMIDACLOPRID USING ACTIVATED CARBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    known to be in most cases limited, to use a long procedure or to be costly. ..... Figure 4. (A) Isotherm adsorption of imidacloprid onto akpi activated carbon, plots of .... such as wastewater treatment, chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Preparation of activated carbon from western Canadian high rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, G.; Wong, B.; Furimsky, E. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada). Coal and Hydrocarbon Processing Dept.

    1995-01-01

    Partial steam gasification of Mt. Klappan anthracite and Cascade semianthracite with char conversion greater than 60%, produced activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1000 m{sup 2}/g. The pore structures of the activated carbons were predominantly microporous and mesoporous. The proportions of macropores were of the order of 2%. Fuel gas produced during steam activation of chars contained predominantly combustible gases i.e. 45-55% H{sub 2} and 30-40% CO whereas the amount of CO{sub 2} ranged between 5 and 15%. Correlations of char conversion with operating parameters and surface areas were developed and used to predict the activation process. Selected samples of activated carbons were characterized for the water and wastewater treatment as well as for gold recovery. 7 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. The Influence of Calcium Carbonate Composition and Activated Carbon in Pack Carburizing Low Carbon Steel Process in The Review of Hardness and Micro Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafni; Hadi, Syafrul; Edison

    2017-12-01

    Carburizing is a way of hardening the surface by heating the metal (steel) above the critical temperature in an environment containing carbon. Steel at a temperature of the critical temperature of affinity to carbon. Carbon is absorbed into the metal form a solid solution of carbon-iron and the outer layer has high carbon content. When the composition of the activator and the activated charcoal is right, it will perfect the carbon atoms to diffuse into the test material to low carbon steels. Thick layer of carbon Depending on the time and temperature are used. Pack carburizing process in this study, using 1 kg of solid carbon derived from coconut shell charcoal with a variation of 20%, 10% and 5% calcium carbonate activator, burner temperature of 950 0C, holding time 4 hours. The test material is low carbon steel has 9 pieces. Each composition has three specimens. Furnace used in this study is a pack carburizing furnace which has a designed burner box with a volume of 1000 x 600 x 400 (mm3) of coal-fired. Equipped with a circulation of oxygen from the blower 2 inches and has a wall of refractory bricks. From the variation of composition CaCO3, microstructure formed on the specimen with 20% CaCO3, better diffusion of carbon into the carbon steel, it is seen by the form marten site structure after quenching, and this indicates that there has been an increase of or adding carbon to in the specimen. This led to the formation of marten site specimen into hard surfaces, where the average value of hardness at one point side (side edge) 31.7 HRC

  12. Ozonation of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene in the presence of activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaror, C; Soto, G; Valdés, H; Mansilla, H

    2001-01-01

    This work aims at obtaining experimental data on ozonation of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (DHB) in the presence of activated carbon, with a view to assessing possible changes in its surface chemical structure and adsorption capacity. Experiments were conducted in a 0.5 L reactor, loaded with 2 g Filtrasorb 400 granular activated carbon, and 1-5 mM DHB aqueous solution at pH 2-8. Ozone gas was generated with an Ozocav generator, and fed into the reactor for a given exposure time, in the range 0.5-240 min, at 25 degrees C and 1 atm. After each run, liquid and activated carbon samples were taken for chemical assays. Soluble organic groups present on the active carbon surface were desorbed and analysed by GC-MS and HPLC. Activated carbon chemical surface properties were analysed using TPD, FT-IR, and XPS techniques. Reactions between ozone and adsorbed DHB were shown to be fast, leading to formation of C-6, C-4 and C-2 by-products. Oxygenated surface groups, particularly, COOH and C = O, increased as a result of ozonation.

  13. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from castor de-oiled cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana M. Ospina-Guarín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass residues have been used to produce activated carbons. On this process, the activation method and the raw composition determine the properties as porosity and surface area of the charcoal. After the extraction of castor oil, there is a solid byproduct (cake of low added value, which was used in the production of activated carbon to add value to this waste. For this purpose two traditional methods were used, first, physical activation using as activating agents steam, CO2 and mixture of both, and additionally chemical activation using K2CO3 as the activating agent. Some activated carbons were characterized using N2 adsorption isotherms, BET surface areas varied between 255.98 (m2/g and 1218.43 (m2/g. By SEM and EDS analysis was possible to observe that materials obtained by the two types of activation are principally amorphous and morphological characteristics of the carbon obtained by physical activation are very different from those obtained by chemical activation. Finally, through impregnation of inorganic phases of Ni and Mo was revealed that the high dispersion characteristics, these carbonaceous materials will have potential to be used as catalyst support.

  14. Carbonation Characteristics of Alkali-Activated Blast-Furnace Slag Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Il Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated ground granulated blast-slag (AAS is the most obvious alternative material for ordinary Portland cement (OPC. However, to use it as a structural material requires the assessment and verification of its durability. The most important factor for a durability evaluation is the degree of carbonation resistance, and AAS is known to show lower performance than OPC. A series of experiments was conducted with a view to investigate the carbonation characteristics of AAS binder. As a consequence, it was found that the major hydration product of AAS was calcium silicate hydrate (CSH, with almost no portlandite, unlike the products of OPC. After carbonation, the CSH of AAS turned into amorphous silica gel which was most likely why the compressive strength of AAS became weaker after carbonation. An increase of the activator dosage leads AAS to react more quickly and produce more CSH, increasing the compaction, compressive strength, and carbonation resistance of the microstructure.

  15. Preparing activated carbon from charcoal and investigation of the selective uranium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuetahyali, C.; Eral, M.

    2001-01-01

    Preconcentration and separation procedures based on adsorption phenomena are important in nuclear and especially radiation chemistry, industry, medicine and daily life. Adsorption of uranium onto various solids is important from purification, environmental and radioactive waste disposal points of view . The treatment of aqueous nuclear waste solutions containing soluble metal ions requires concentration of the metal ions into smaller volume followed by recovery or secure disposal. For this purpose, many processes are being utilized such as precipitation, ion-exchange, solvent extraction and adsorption on solids etc. Interest in the adsorption of metal ions for recovery purposes has increased manyfold in recent years, because of its simplicity, selectivity and efficiency . The main advantage of adsorption is the separation of trace amount of elements from large volumes of solutions. In recent years, several studies have been made to recover radionuclides by adsorption using natural and synthetic adsorbents. Adsorption on charcoal is one of the most efficient techniques used in water treatment processes for the removal of organics and micropollutants from wastes and drinking waters. Adsorption processes have long been used in the removal of color, odor, and organic pollution. These processes are usually based on the use of activated carbon . Activated carbon consists mainly of carbon and is produced from every carbonaceous material. Activated carbon characterized by its high surface area and its wide distribution of porosity. The textural properties (surface area and porosity) of activated carbons play an important role in determining the capacity of the material in adsorption from aqueous solution. Chemistry of the surface is also important . Generally, activated carbons are mainly microporous, but in addition to micropores they contain meso- and macropores, which are very important in facilitating acces of the adsorbate molecules to the interior of carbon particles

  16. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebowale, K O [Department of Chemistry, University of lbadan, lbadan (Nigeria); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Bayer, E [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Forschungstelle Nukleinsaeure- und Peptidchemie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm{sup 3} to 0.52 g.cm{sup 3}. Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g{sup -1}), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g{sup -1}). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V{sub micro}) was between 0.33cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.40cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}, while the mesopore volume(V{sub meso}) was between 0.05 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.07 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}. The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}. All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  17. Enhanced adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate by bamboo-derived granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Nie, Yao; Du, Ziwen; Huang, Qian; Meng, Pingping; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-23

    A bamboo-derived granular activated carbon with large pores was successfully prepared by KOH activation, and used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from aqueous solution. The granular activated carbon prepared at the KOH/C mass ratio of 4 and activation temperature of 900°C had fast and high adsorption for PFOS and PFOA. Their adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 24h, which was attributed to their fast diffusion in the micron-sized pores of activated carbon. This granular activated carbon exhibited the maximum adsorbed amount of 2.32mmol/g for PFOS and 1.15mmol/g for PFOA at pH 5.0, much higher than other granular and powdered activated carbons reported. The activated carbon prepared under the severe activation condition contained many enlarged pores, favorable for the adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. In addition, the spent activated carbon was hardly regenerated in NaOH/NaCl solution, while the regeneration efficiency was significantly enhanced in hot water and methanol/ethanol solution, indicating that hydrophobic interaction was mainly responsible for the adsorption. The regeneration percent was up to 98% using 50% ethanol solution at 45°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tieshi He; Xue Ren; Junping Nie; Jun Ying; Kedi Cai

    2015-01-01

    Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC) of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′)-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distrib...

  19. Activation of magnesium rich minerals as carbonation feedstock materials for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Kuchta, M.E.; Zhang, Y.; Andresen, J.M.; Fauth, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral carbonation, the reaction of magnesium-rich minerals such as olivine and serpentine with CO 2 to form stable mineral carbonates, is a novel and promising approach to carbon sequestration. However, the preparation of the minerals prior to carbonation can be energy intensive, where some current studies have been exploring extensive pulverization of the minerals below 37 μm, heat treatment of minerals up to 650 o C, prior separation of CO 2 from flue gases, and carbonation at high pressures, temperatures and long reaction times of up to 125 atm, 185 o C and 6 h, respectively. Thus, the objective of the mineral activation concept is to promote and accelerate carbonation reaction rates and efficiencies through surface activation to the extent that such rigorous reaction conditions were not required. The physical activations were performed with air and steam, while chemical activations were performed with a suite of acids and bases. The parent serpentine, activated serpentines, and carbonation products were characterized to determine their surface properties and assess their potential as carbonation minerals. The results indicate that the surface area of the raw serpentine, which is approximately 8 m 2 /g, can be increased through physical and chemical activation methods to over 330 m 2 /g. The chemical activations were more effective than the physical activations at increasing the surface area, with the 650 o C steam activated serpentine presenting a surface area of only 17 m 2 /g. Sulfuric acid was the most effective acid used during the chemical activations, resulting in surface areas greater than 330 m 2 /g. Several of the samples produced underwent varying degrees of carbonation. The steam activated serpentine underwent a 60% conversion to magnesite at 155 o C and 126 atm in 1 h, while the parent sample only exhibited a 7% conversion. The most promising results came from the carbonation of the extracted Mg(OH) 2 solution, where, based on the amount of

  20. Removal Of Labeled ALPHA-Fetoprotein (AFP) Using Rice Husk-Based Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-MOUHTY, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass agricultural waste materials, rice husk (RH) or saw dust (SD), were used for the preparation of activated carbons. RH was activated by chemical activation using phosphoric acid or potassium hydroxide. The prepared activated carbons were characterized and used for the adsorption of labeled alpha-fetoprotein ( 125 I-AFP) from the lab waste of iodine labeled alpha-fetoprotein tracer. The effects of various factors, e.g. carbon type, carbon dosage, temperature, particle size of carbon, effect of different waste volumes on the adsorption capacity, were quantitatively determined. Desorption of activated carbon was also investigated. From the experimental results, it was found that SDK had the lowest ability for adsorption of 125I-AFP and the highest uptake was 83% by carbon RHH. The amount of adsorption accomplished per unit weight of a solid adsorbent was greater, the more finely divided and the more porous the solid. 0.5 g for RHH carbon was found to be optimum dose of adsorbent for the removal of 125I-AFP. The optimum volume of waste with 0.5 g dose of RHH was 15 ml. The increased adsorption with temperature may be due to the increase of the intra-particle diffusion rate of sorbate ions into the pores at higher temperature as diffusion is an endothermic process.

  1. Effect of high surface area activated carbon on thermal degradation of jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergova, K.; Eser, S.; Arumugam, R.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Different solid carbons added to jet fuel during thermal stressing cause substantial changes in pyrolytic degradation reactions. Activated carbons, especially high surface area activated carbons were found to be very effective in suppressing solid deposition on metal reactor walls during stressing at high temperatures (425 and 450{degrees}C). The high surface area activated carbon PX-21 prevented solid deposition on reactor walls even after 5h at 450{degrees}C. The differences seen in the liquid product composition when activated carbon is added indicated that the carbon surfaces affect the degradation reactions. Thermal stressing experiments were carried out on commercial petroleum-derived JPTS jet fuel. We also used n-octane and n-dodecane as model compounds in order to simplify the study of the chemical changes which take place upon activated carbon addition. In separate experiments, the presence of a hydrogen donor, decalin, together with PX-21 was also studied.

  2. Adsorption Of Blue-Dye On Activated Carbons Produced From Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activated carbons prepared were used for the adsorption of blue-dye of concentration ranging from 100 to 2000 mg/l from aqueous solution. The results obtained indicated that ferric chloride-activated carbons produced from coconut coirpith are better adsorbents for blue-dye than those prepared from rice husk.

  3. Heterogeneity of activated carbons in adsorption of aniline from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkościelny, P.; László, K.

    2007-08-01

    The heterogeneity of activated carbons (ACs) prepared from different precursors is investigated on the basis of adsorption isotherms of aniline from dilute aqueous solutions at various pH values. The APET carbon prepared from polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), as well as, commercial ACP carbon prepared from peat were used. Besides, to investigate the influence of carbon surface chemistry, the adsorption was studied on modified carbons based on ACP carbon. Its various oxygen surface groups were changed by both nitric acid and thermal treatments. The Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equation and Langmuir-Freundlich (LF) one have been used to model the phenomenon of aniline adsorption from aqueous solutions on heterogeneous carbon surfaces. Adsorption-energy distribution (AED) functions have been calculated by using an algorithm based on a regularization method. Analysis of these functions for activated carbons studied provides important comparative information about their surface heterogeneity.

  4. Activated Carbon from the Chinese Herbal Medicine Waste by H3PO4 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Mi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of Chinese herbal medicine wastes produced by the medicinal factories have been mainly landfilled as waste. In this study, via phosphoric acid activation, a Chinese herbal medicine waste from Magnolia officinalis (CHMW-MO was prepared for activated carbon (CHMW-MO-AC. The effect of preparation conditions (phosphoric acid/CHMW-MO impregnation ratio, activation temperature, and time of activated carbon on yield of CHMW-MO-AC was investigated. The surface area and porous texture of the CHMW-MO-ACs were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The SBET and pore volume were achieved in their highest value of 920 m2/g and 0.703 cm3/g, respectively. Thermal gravity analysis and scanning electron microscope images showed that CHMW-MO-ACs have a high thermal resistance and pore development. The results indicated that CHMW-MO is a good precursor material for preparing activated carbon, and CHMW-MO-AC with well-developed mesopore volume can be prepared by H3PO4 activation.

  5. Preparation of steam activated carbon from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) and its adsorption kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash Kumar, B.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Shivakamy, K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Miranda, Lima Rose [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Velan, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: velan@annauniv.edu

    2006-08-25

    Activated carbon was produced from a biowaste product, rubberwood sawdust (RWSD) using steam in a high temperature fluidized bed reactor. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of various process parameters such as activation time, activation temperature, particle size and fluidising velocity on the quality of the activated carbon. The activated carbon was characterized based on its iodine number, methylene blue number, Brauner Emmet Teller (BET) surface area and surface area obtained using the ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME) retention method. The best quality activated carbon was obtained at an activation time and temperature of 1 h and 750 deg. C for an average particle size of 0.46 mm. The adsorption kinetics shows that pseudo-second-order rate fitted the adsorption kinetics better than pseudo-first-order rate equation. The adsorption capacity of carbon produced from RWSD was found to be 1250 mg g{sup -1} for the Bismark Brown dye. The rate constant and diffusion coefficient for intraparticle transport were determined for steam activated carbon. The characteristic of the prepared activated carbon was found comparable to the commercial activated carbon.

  6. Preparation of porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk by leaching ash and chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiduzzaman, Md; Sadrul Islam, A K M

    2016-01-01

    Preparation porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk char study has been conducted in this study. Rice husk char contains high amount silica that retards the porousness of bio-char. Porousness of rice husk char could be enhanced by removing the silica from char and applying heat at high temperature. Furthermore, the char is activated by using chemical activation under high temperature. In this study no inert media is used. The study is conducted at low oxygen environment by applying biomass for consuming oxygen inside reactor and double crucible method (one crucible inside another) is applied to prevent intrusion of oxygen into the char. The study results shows that porous carbon is prepared successfully without using any inert media. The adsorption capacity of material increased due to removal of silica and due to the activation with zinc chloride compared to using raw rice husk char. The surface area of porous carbon and activated carbon are found to be 28, 331 and 645 m(2) g(-1) for raw rice husk char, silica removed rice husk char and zinc chloride activated rice husk char, respectively. It is concluded from this study that porous bio-char and activated carbon could be prepared in normal environmental conditions instead of inert media. This study shows a method and possibility of activated carbon from agro-waste, and it could be scaled up for commercial production.

  7. Retention of gaseous fission products by pure and modified activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmova, L.; Cejnar, F.

    1975-01-01

    The results are reported of research into Czechoslovak-made activated carbon Desorex DB-2 and Supersorbon HS-1 and their retention properties. Krypton, xenon and helium of spectral purity were used in the investigation. The effect of surface impregnation was also studied on the retention efficiency of the activated carbon. It was found that the impregnation with alkali metal fluorides, such as RbF and CsF favourably affected the retention properties of the activated carbon as concerns gaseous fission products. (L.O.)

  8. Supercapacitors from Activated Carbon Derived from Granatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiannan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Kexun; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-12-01

    Granatum carbon (GC) as electrode materials for supercapacitors is prepared via the chemical activation with different activating agent such as ZnC2 and KOH with an intention to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance. The structure and electrochemical properties of GC materials are characterized with N2 adsorption/desorption measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The obtained results show that the specific surface area of the granatum-based activated carbons increased obviously from 573 m2 x g(-1) to 1341 m2 x g(-1) by ZnC2 activation and to 930 m2 x g(-1) by KOH treatment. Furthermore, GCZ also delivers specific capacitance of 195.1 Fx g(-1) at the current density of 0.1 A x g(-1) in 30 wt.% KOH aqueous electrolyte and low capacitance loss of 28.5% when the current density increased by 10 times.

  9. Practical experiences with granular activated carbon (GAC) at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Practical experiences with granular activated carbon (GAC) at the Rietvlei Water Treatment Plant. ... The porosity was found to be 0.69 for the 12 x 40 size carbon and 0.66 for the 8 x 30 size carbon. By using a ... The third part of the study measured the physical changes of the GAC found at different points in the GAC cycle.

  10. Equilibrium curve determination of HF adsorption by activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrami, H.; Safdari, S. J.; Mousavian, S. M. A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the byproducts of uranium enrichment industry is hydrogen fluoride gas. Due to the toxicity and corrosivity of the molecule, it has adverse effects on the environment and the process. Therefore, it must be removed by adsorption towers. The activated carbon is one of the proposed sorbent for the adsorption. Hydrogen fluoride adsorption equilibrium curve gives important information for designing the adsorption towers. In this article, the hydrogen fluoride adsorption and adsorption factors were determined experimentally, and four different types of carbon have been used. The operating pressure in all tests was less than 30 mbar. Comparison between the obtained experimental equilibrium curves shows that the first, second and fourth types of activated carbon are suitable for the adsorption of hydrogen fluoride. The experimental data were fitted using mathematical models of Langmuir, Freundlich, Toth and Henry. The results show that Toth mathematical model is more suitable than other models. Also, the absolute error were predicted by the model of Toth for the first, second and fourth types of the activated carbon were 12.9, 16.5 and 34 percent, respectively.

  11. Thermal analysis of physical and chemical changes occuring during regeneration of activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Dejan B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature thermal process is a commercial way of regeneration of spent granular activated carbon. The paper presents results of thermal analysis conducted in order to examine high-temperature regeneration of spent activated carbon, produced from coconut shells, previously used in drinking water treatment. Results of performed thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis, enabled a number of hypotheses to be made about different phases of activated carbon regeneration, values of characteristic parameters during particular process phases, as well as catalytic impact of inorganic materials on development of regeneration process. Samples of activated carbon were heated up to 1000°C in thermogravimetric analyser while maintaining adequate oxidizing or reducing conditions. Based on diagrams of thermal analysis for samples of spent activated carbon, temperature intervals of the first intense mass change phase (180-215°C, maximum of exothermic processes (400-450°C, beginning of the second intense mass change phase (635-700°C, and maximum endothermic processes (800-815°C were deter-mined. Analysing and comparing the diagrams of thermal analysis for new, previously regenerated and spent activated carbon, hypothesis about physical and chemical transformations of organic and inorganic adsorbate in spent activated carbon are given. Transformation of an organic adsorbate in the pores of activated carbon, results in loss of mass and an exothermic reaction with oxygen in the vapour phase. The reactions of inorganic adsorbate also result the loss of mass of activated carbon during its heating and endothermic reactions of their degradation at high temperatures.

  12. A Review on Adsorption of Cationic Dyes using Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corda Nikita Chrishel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article efficiency of activated carbon as a potent adsorbent of cationic dyes has been reviewed. Non-biodegradable nature of pollutants and their removal in the present generation is a great challenge. Therefore, extensive study on adsorption of these classes of pollutants from water bodies is being carried out. Methylene blue (majorly a dye seen in the effluent streams of textile, printing, paper industries along with some of the commonly used cationic dyes in process industries and their sorption on activated carbon are reviewed here. High cost of commercially activated carbon which is a limitation to its extensive use have paved way for study of adsorption by naturally obtained and extracted activated carbon from agricultural wastes and various other sources. The purpose of this review paper is to summarize the available information on the removal of cationic dyes using naturally extracted and commercially obtained activated carbon. Various parameters such as temperature, initial dye concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, particle size, stirring, agitation etc. were studied and the optimum parameters were determined based on the experimental outcomes. Equilibrium data was examined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich and few other isotherm models. Kinetic studies also have been carried out to find the most suitable way of expressing the adsorption process.

  13. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sych, N.V.; Trofymenko, S.I.; Poddubnaya, O.I.; Tsyba, M.M.; Sapsay, V.I.; Klymchuk, D.O.; Puziy, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phosphoric acid activation results in formation of carbons with acidic surface groups. ► Maximum amount of surface groups is introduced at impregnation ratio 1.25. ► Phosphoric acid activated carbons show high capacity to copper. ► Phosphoric acid activated carbons are predominantly microporous. ► Maximum surface area and pore volume achieved at impregnation ratio 1.0. - Abstract: Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 °C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (S BET = 2081 m 2 /g, V tot = 1.1 cm 3 /g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0–2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7–5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7–7.4; 8.8–9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1–10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  14. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sych, N.V.; Trofymenko, S.I.; Poddubnaya, O.I.; Tsyba, M.M. [Institute for Sorption and Endoecology Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Sapsay, V.I.; Klymchuk, D.O. [M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Tereshchenkivska St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Puziy, A.M., E-mail: alexander.puziy@ispe.kiev.ua [Institute for Sorption and Endoecology Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activation results in formation of carbons with acidic surface groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum amount of surface groups is introduced at impregnation ratio 1.25. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activated carbons show high capacity to copper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activated carbons are predominantly microporous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum surface area and pore volume achieved at impregnation ratio 1.0. - Abstract: Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 Degree-Sign C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (S{sub BET} = 2081 m{sup 2}/g, V{sub tot} = 1.1 cm{sup 3}/g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0-2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7-5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7-7.4; 8.8-9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1-10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  15. Catalytic Effect of Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber in Non-Equilibrium Plasma-Based Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzong; Zheng, Jingtang; Qu, Xianfeng; Yu, Weizhao; Chen, Honggang

    2008-06-01

    Catalysis and regeneration efficiency of granular activated carbon (GAC) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) were investigated in a non-equilibrium plasma water treatment reactor with a combination of pulsed streamer discharge and GAC or ACF. The experimental results show that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) by the combined treatment can increase 22% (for GAC) and 24% (for ACF) respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone, indicating that the combined treatment has a synergetic effect. The MO degradation efficiency by the combined treatment with pulsed discharge and saturated GAC or ACF can increase 12% and 17% respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone. Both GAC and ACF show catalysis and the catalysis of ACF is prominent. Meanwhile, the regeneration of GAC and ACF are realized in this process. When H2O2 is introduced into the system, the utilization efficiency of ozone and ultraviolet light is improved and the regeneration efficiency of GAC and ACF is also increased.

  16. Catalytic Effect of Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber in Non-Equilibrium Plasma-Based Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanzong; Zheng Jingtang; Qu Xianfeng; Yu Weizhao; Chen Honggang

    2008-01-01

    Catalysis and regeneration efficiency of granular activated carbon (GAC) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) were investigated in a non-equilibrium plasma water treatment reactor with a combination of pulsed streamer discharge and GAC or ACF. The experimental results show that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) by the combined treatment can increase 22% (for GAC) and 24% (for ACF) respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone, indicating that the combined treatment has a synergetic effect. The MO degradation efficiency by the combined treatment with pulsed discharge and saturated GAC or ACF can increase 12% and 17% respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone. Both GAC and ACF show catalysis and the catalysis of ACF is prominent. Meanwhile, the regeneration of GAC and ACF are realized in this process. When H 2 O 2 is introduced into the system, the utilization efficiency of ozone and ultraviolet light is improved and the regeneration efficiency of GAC and ACF is also increased.

  17. Retention of elemental 131I by activated carbons under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1984-09-01

    Under simulated accident conditions (maximum temperature: 130 0 C) no significant difference was found in the retention of I-131 loaded as elemental iodine, by various fresh and aged commercial activated carbons. In all the cases, the I-131 passing through deep beds of activated carbon was in a non-elemental form. It is concluded that a minimum retention of 99.99% for elemental radioiodine, as required by the RSK guidelines for PWR accident filters, can be equally well achieved with various commercial activated carbons. (orig.) [de

  18. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  19. Adsorption Isotherms of CH 4 on Activated Carbon from Indonesian Low Grade Coal

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Awaludin

    2011-03-10

    This article presents an experimental approach for the determination of the adsorption isotherms of methane on activated carbon that is essential for methane storage purposes. The experiments incorporated a constant-volume- variable-pressure (CVVP) apparatus, and two types of activated carbon have been investigated, namely, activated carbon derived from the low rank coal of the East of Kalimantan, Indonesia, and a Carbotech activated carbon. The isotherm results which cover temperatures from (300 to 318) K and pressures up to 3.5 MPa are analyzed using the Langmuir, Tóth, and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) isotherm models. The heat of adsorption for the single component methane-activated carbon system, which is concentration- and temperature-dependent, is determined from the measured isotherm data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Intact tropical forests, new evidence they uptake carbon actively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a paper recently published on Nature, tropical forests play as active carbon sink, absorbing 1.3·109 tons of carbon per year on a global scale. Functional interpretation is not clear yet, but a point is quite easy to realize: tropical forests accumulate and contain more carbon than any other vegetation cover and, if their disruption goes on at current rates, these ecosystems could revert to be a “carbon bomb”, releasing huge amount of CO2 to the atmosphere.

  1. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Kim, Kwang S; Meyyappan, M

    2015-01-01

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m"2 g"−"1 and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm"3 g"−"1 and exhibits a stable CH_4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g"−"1 at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon. (paper)

  2. Surface properties of activated carbon treated by cold plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norikazu, Kurano [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroshi [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yajima, Tatsuhiko [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusoiji, Okabe 3690293 (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuo [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Sakura-Ku, Saitama 3388570 (Japan)]. E-mail: sugi@apc.saitama-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-12

    To modify the surface properties of activated carbon powders, we have applied the cold plasma treatment method. The cold plasma was used to be generated in the evacuated reactor vessel by 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation. In this paper, changes of surface properties such as distribution of acidic functional groups and roughness morphology were examined. By the cold plasma treatment, activated carbons with large specific surface area of ca. 2000 m{sup 2}/g or more could be prepared in a minute. The amount of every gaseous organic compound adsorbed on the unit gram of treated activated carbons was more increased that on the unit gram of untreated carbons. Especially, the adsorbed amount of carbon disulfide was remarkably increased even if it was compared by the amount per unit surface area. These results suggest that the surface property of the sample was modified by the plasma treatment. It became apparent by observing SEM photographs that dust and impure particles in macropores of activated carbons were far more reduced by the plasma treatment than by the conventional heating in an electric furnace under vacuum. In addition, a bubble-like surface morphology of the sample was observed by AEM measurement. The amount of acidic functional groups at the surface was determined by using the Boehm's titration method. Consequently, the increase of lactone groups and the decrease of carboxyl groups were also observed.

  3. Activated carbon/ZnO composites prepared using hydrochars as intermediate and their electrochemical performance in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yueming; Liu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    We report a new methodology to prepare activated carbon and activated carbons/ZnO composites from walnut shell-derived hydrothermal carbons (hydrochars), which were prepared under hydrothermal condition in presence of ZnCl 2 . For this method, activated carbon/ZnO composites were prepared via heat treatment of hydrochars under inert environment and activated carbons were prepared by removing the ZnO in activated carbon/ZnO composites. The chemical structure of walnut shell, hydrochars, activated carbon/ZnO and activated carbon was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements. It is found ZnCl 2 plays multiple roles, i.e., helping to remove the oxygen-containing groups during hydrothermal stage, improving the surface area of activated carbon and acting as the precursor of ZnO in heat-treatment stage. The specific surface areas up to 818.9 and 1072.7 m 2  g −1 have been achieved for activated carbon/ZnO composites and activated carbon, respectively. The activated carbon/ZnO as electrode materials for supercapacitors showed that specific capacitance of up to 117.4 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 in KOH aqueous solution can be achieved and keeps stable in 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Hydrochars as intermediate to prepare activated carbon/ZnO composites. • Activated carbon/ZnO showed excellent electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. • Activated carbon with large surface area can be obtained by removing ZnO

  4. Preparation of activated carbon aerogel and its application to electrode material for electric double layer capacitor in organic electrolyte: Effect of activation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon Hyung; Lee, Eunji; Kim, Myung-Soo; Jung, Ji Chul [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum-Soo; Kim, Sang-Gil; Lee, Byung-Jun [Vitzrocell Co., Yesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Carbon aerogel was chemically activated with KOH at various activation temperatures with the aim of improving the electrochemical performance of carbon aerogel for EDLC electrode. Electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel electrode was determined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods using coin-type EDLC cell in organic electrolyte. Activation temperature played an important role in determining the electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel for EDLC electrode. Specific capacitance of activated carbon aerogel at a high current density (5 A/g) showed a volcano-shaped curve with respect to activation temperature. Excessively high activation temperature could have an adverse effect on the electrochemical properties of activated carbon aerogel due to the low electrical conductivity caused by a collapse of characteristic structure of carbon aerogel. Among the carbon samples, carbon aerogel activated at 800 .deg. C with a high surface area and a well-developed porous structure exhibited the highest specific capacitance. In addition, carbon aerogel activated at 800 .deg. C retained a considerable specific capacitance at a high current density even after 1000 cycles of charge/discharge. Therefore, it is concluded that carbon aerogel activated with KOH at 800 .deg. C can serve as an efficient electrode material for commercial EDLC with a high power density.

  5. Removal of target odorous molecules on to activated carbon cloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Leuch, L M; Subrenat, A; Le Cloirec, P

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon materials are adsorbents whose physico-chemical properties are interesting for the treatment of odorous compounds like hydrogen sulfide. Indeed, their structural parameters (pore structure) and surface chemistry (presence of heteroatoms such as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus) play an important role in H2S removal. The cloth texture of these adsorbents (activated carbon cloths) is particularly adapted for dealing with high flows, often found in the treatment of odor emissions. Thus, this paper first presents the influence of these parameters through adsorption isothermal curves performed on several materials. Secondly, tests in a dynamic system are described. They highlight the low critical thickness of the fabric compared to granular activated carbon.

  6. Method for separation of uranium hexafluoride by specially activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, W.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention deals with the separation of urainium hexafluoride from gas streams on special activated carbon which can be released during an accident in nuclear plants. Those plants are concerned here in which as a rule uranium hexafluoride is handled in liquid aggregate state. The patent claims deal with the adsorption of UF 6 from gas mixtures in the temperature region of 70-200 0 C and the application of UF 6 adsorbing activated carbon of a certain grain based on petroleum and/or weight % and with a asch content of 4 to 6 weigt % and with a benzol yield of 50-60g benzene /100g activated carbon. (GG) [de

  7. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  8. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Preoxidation and Activation of the Lignin Char: Carbonization and Oxidation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloua Sebbahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive process of pretreatment and oxidation of lignin char was developed to optimize the production of activated carbon. The lignin char was obtained by carbonization of lignin under nitrogen at 600°C for 2 hours. The optimum time and temperature used to oxidize the char without destruction were, respectively, 6 hours and 245°C. The oxygen improves the reactivity of the sample in CO2 and evolved the sample of a thermoplastic behaviour to a thermosetting behaviour. The oxygenation in air of the lignin char does not change the mode of deformation acquired by the material during the carbonization. The preoxidized coal reacts more than the nonoxidized coal during the CO2 activation, whereas the reduction in volume in the first case is smaller than in the second. The preoxidized and then activated carbon shows the formation and the development of microporosity at the expense of macroporosity. This microstructure is one of the main characteristics of activated carbon, which can be used as adsorbent for different pollutants.

  10. Preparation and characterization of high surface area activated carbon from Fox nut (Euryale ferox shell by chemical activation with H3PO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared from Fox nutshell by chemical activation with H3PO4 in N2 atmosphere and their characteristics were studied. The effects of activation temperature and impregnation ratio were examined. N2 adsorption isotherms characterized the surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume and pore size distribution of activated carbons. Activated carbon was produced at 700 °C with a 1.5 impregnation ratio and one hour of activation time has found 2636 m2/g and 1.53 cm3/g of highest BET surface area and total pore volume, respectively. The result of Fourier-infrared spectroscopy analysis of the prepared activated carbon confirmed that the carbon has abundant functional groups on the surface. Field emission scanning electron micrographs of the prepared activated carbon showed that a porous structure formed during activation. Keywords: Activated carbons, Fox nutshell, Chemical activation, H3PO4, Activated carbon, Surface chemistry, Porous structure

  11. Applicability of Activated Carbon to Treatment of Waste Containing Iodine-Labeled Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, H.M.H.; El-Mouhty, N.R.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of activated carbon prepared from sawdust (SD) by one-step chemical activation process using H 3 PO 4 (H) to treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with iodine-labeled prolactin (I-PRL) has been investigated. Treatment processes were performed under the varying conditions; contact time, temperature, carbon type, carbon dosage, and different particle size of activated carbon (SDH). Effect of aqueous waste volume has been investigated to calculate the batch factor (V/M) and the distribution coefficient (K d ). The used activated carbon (SDH) was characterized by N 2 adsorption, FTIR, density, ph, point of zero charge ph p zc, moisture and ash content. Methylene blue (MB) and iodine number was calculated by adsorption from solution. In order to investigate the mechanism of sorption and potential rate controlling steps, pseudo first- and second-order equations, intra particle diffusion equation and the Elovich equation have been used to test experimental data. Kinetic analysis of the four models has been carried out for system variables in order to assess which model provides the best fit predicted data with experimental results. 7 M NaOH can be used for regeneration of spent SDH activated carbon with the efficiency of 99.6% and the regenerated carbon can be reused for five cycles effectively. The prospect of applying the SDH activated carbon prepared from agricultural by-product, sawdust, to treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with I-PRL appears promising and is considered highly applicable because of its high adsorption capacity, available at low cost, easily regenerated and reused

  12. Adsorption of mercury by activated carbon prepared from dried sewage sludge in simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Sang-Sup

    2018-04-25

    Conversion of sewage sludge to activated carbon is attractive as an alternative method to ocean dumping for the disposal of sewage sludge. Injection of activated carbon upstream of particulate matter control devices has been suggested as a method to remove elemental mercury from flue gas. Activated carbon was prepared using various activation temperatures and times and was tested for their mercury adsorption efficiency using lab-scale systems. To understand the effect of the physical property of the activated carbon, its mercury adsorption efficiency was investigated as a function of their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. Two simulated flue gas conditions: (1) without hydrogen chloride (HCl) and (2) with 20 ppm HCl, were used to investigate the effect of flue gas composition on the mercury adsorption capacity of activated carbon. Despite very low BET surface area of the prepared sewage sludge activated carbons, their mercury adsorption efficiencies were comparable under both simulated flue gas conditions to those of pinewood and coal activated carbons. After injecting HCl into the simulated flue gas, all sewage sludge activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption efficiencies, i.e., more than 87%, regardless of their BET surface area. IMPLICATIONS We tested activated carbons prepared from dried sewage sludge to investigate the effect of their physical properties on their mercury adsorption efficiency. Using two simulated flue gas conditions, we conducted mercury speciation for the outlet gas. We found that the sewage sludge activated carbon had comparable mercury adsorption efficiency to pinewood and coal activated carbons, and the presence of HCl minimized the effect of physical property of the activated carbon on its mercury adsorption efficiency.

  13. Removal of nitroimidazole antibiotics from aqueous solution by adsorption/bioadsorption on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Utrilla, J; Prados-Joya, G; Sánchez-Polo, M; Ferro-García, M A; Bautista-Toledo, I

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the behaviour of activated carbon with different chemical and textural properties in nitroimidazole adsorption, also assessing the combined use of microorganisms and activated carbon in the removal of these compounds from waters and the influence of the chemical nature of the solution (pH and ionic strength) on the adsorption process. Results indicate that the adsorption of nitroimidazoles is largely determined by activated carbon chemical properties. Application of the Langmuir equation to the adsorption isotherms showed an elevated adsorption capacity (X(m)=1.04-2.04 mmol/g) for all contaminants studied. Solution pH and electrolyte concentration did not have a major effect on the adsorption of these compounds on activated carbon, confirming that the principal interactions involved in the adsorption of these compounds are non-electrostatic. Nitroimidazoles are not degraded by microorganisms used in the biological stage of a wastewater treatment plant. However, the presence of microorganisms during nitroimidazole adsorption increased their adsorption on the activated carbon, although it weakened interactions between the adsorbate and carbon surface. In dynamic regime, the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon was markedly higher in surface water and groundwater than in urban wastewaters.

  14. Fractal analysis of granular activated carbons using isotherm data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalili, N.R.; Pan, M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Sandi, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Utilization of adsorption on solid surfaces was exercised for the first time in 1785. Practical application of unactivated carbon filters, and powdered carbon were first demonstrated in the American water treatment plant, and a municipal treatment plant in New Jersey, in 1883 and 1930, respectively. The use of activated carbon became widespread in the next few decades. At present, adsorption on carbons has a wide spread application in water treatment and removal of taste, odor, removal of synthetic organic chemicals, color-forming organics, and desinfection by-products and their naturally occurring precursors. This paper presents an analysis of the surface fractal dimension and adsorption capacity of a group of carbons.

  15. Porous carbon with a large surface area and an ultrahigh carbon purity via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Liu, Xin; Pi, Xinxin; Yang, Yuqi; Wu, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple templating carbonization method was developed to obtain porous carbons. • Surface etching by KOH activation greatly boosts surface area and carbon purity. • The as-obtained porous carbon delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g −1 . • Symmetric supercapacitor can achieved high energy density and power density. - Abstract: Large surface area and good structural stability, for porous carbons, are two crucial requirements to enable the constructed supercapacitors with high capacitance and long cycling lifespan. Herein, we successfully prepare porous carbon with a large surface area (3175 m 2 g −1 ) and an ultrahigh carbon purity (carbon atom ratio of 98.25%) via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation. As-synthesized MTC-KOH exhibits excellent performances as supercapacitor electrode materials in terms of high specific capacitance and ultrahigh cycling stability. In a three electrode system, MTC-KOH delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 and still 120 F g −1 at a high rate of 30 A g −1 . There is almost no capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, demonstrating outstanding cycling stability. In comparison, pre-activated MTC with a hierarchical pore structure shows a better rate capability than microporous MTC-KOH. Moreover, the constructed symmetric supercapacitor using MTC-KOH can achieve high energy densities of 8.68 Wh kg −1 and 4.03 Wh kg −1 with the corresponding power densities of 108 W kg −1 and 6.49 kW kg −1 , respectively. Our work provides a simple design strategy to prepare highly porous carbons with high carbon purity for supercapacitors application.

  16. Sorption of organic compounds to activated carbons. Evaluation of isotherm models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, I.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption to 'hard carbon' (black carbon, coal, kerogen) in soils and sediments is of major importance for risk assessment of organic pollutants. We argue that activated carbon (AC) may be considered a model sorbent for hard carbon. Here, we evaluate six sorption models on a literature dataset for

  17. Activated carbon/ZnO composites prepared using hydrochars as intermediate and their electrochemical performance in supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueming, E-mail: liyueming@ysu.edu.cn; Liu, Xi

    2014-11-14

    We report a new methodology to prepare activated carbon and activated carbons/ZnO composites from walnut shell-derived hydrothermal carbons (hydrochars), which were prepared under hydrothermal condition in presence of ZnCl{sub 2}. For this method, activated carbon/ZnO composites were prepared via heat treatment of hydrochars under inert environment and activated carbons were prepared by removing the ZnO in activated carbon/ZnO composites. The chemical structure of walnut shell, hydrochars, activated carbon/ZnO and activated carbon was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements. It is found ZnCl{sub 2} plays multiple roles, i.e., helping to remove the oxygen-containing groups during hydrothermal stage, improving the surface area of activated carbon and acting as the precursor of ZnO in heat-treatment stage. The specific surface areas up to 818.9 and 1072.7 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} have been achieved for activated carbon/ZnO composites and activated carbon, respectively. The activated carbon/ZnO as electrode materials for supercapacitors showed that specific capacitance of up to 117.4 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1} in KOH aqueous solution can be achieved and keeps stable in 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Hydrochars as intermediate to prepare activated carbon/ZnO composites. • Activated carbon/ZnO showed excellent electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. • Activated carbon with large surface area can be obtained by removing ZnO.

  18. Active carbon catalyst for heavy oil upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidetsugu; Terai, Satoshi [Technology Research Center, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 1818 Azafujimi, Togo, Mobara-shi, Chiba 297-00017 (Japan); Uchida, Masayuki [Business Planning and Exploring Department, Overseas Business Development and Marketing Division, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 2-8-1 Akanehama, Narashino-shi, Chiba 275-0024 (Japan); Cano, Jose L.; Ancheyta, Jorge [Maya Crude Treatment Project, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    The active carbon (AC) catalyst was studied by hydrocracking of Middle Eastern vacuum residue (VR) for heavy oil upgrading. It was observed that the active carbon has the affinity to heavy hydrocarbon compounds and adsorption selectivity to asphaltenes, and exhibits better ability to restrict the coke formation during the hydrocracking reaction of VR. The mesopore of active carbon was thought to play an important role for effective conversion of heavy hydrocarbon compounds into lighter fractions restricting carbon formation. The performance of the AC catalyst was examined by continuous hydrocracking by CSTR for the removal of such impurities as sulfur and heavy metals (nickel and vanadium), which are mostly concentrated in the asphaltenes. The AC catalyst was confirmed to be very effective for the removal of heavy metals from Middle Eastern VR, Maya/Istmo VR and Maya VR. The extruded AC catalysts were produced by industrial manufacturing method. The application test of the extruded AC catalyst for ebullating-bed reactor as one of the commercially applicable reactors was carried out at the ebullating-bed pilot plant for 500h. The ebullition of the extruded AC catalyst was successfully traced and confirmed by existing {gamma}-ray density meter. The extruded AC catalyst showed stable performance with less sediment formation at an equivalent conversion by conventional alumina catalyst at commercial ebullating-bed unit. The degradation of the AC catalyst at the aging test was observed to be less than that of the conventional alumina catalyst. Thus, the AC catalyst was confirmed to be effective and suitable for upgrading of heavy oil, especially such heavy oils as Maya, which contains much heavy metals.

  19. Adsorption of aqueous Cd(II) and Pb(II) on activated carbon nanopores prepared by chemical activation of doum palm shell

    OpenAIRE

    Gaya, Umar Ibrahim; Otene, Emmanuel; Abdullah, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniformly sized activated carbons were derived from doum palm shell, a new precursor, by carbonization in air and activation using KOH, NaOH and ZnCl2. The activated carbon fibres were characterised by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis and evaluated for Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal. The 40–50 nm size, less graphitic, mesoporous NaOH activated carbon yielded high adsorption efficiency, pointing largely to the influence surface ar...

  20. Energy storage applications of activated carbons: supercapacitors and hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Solís, Marta; Mokaya, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Porous carbons have several advantageous properties with respect to their use in energy applications that require constrained space such as in electrode materials for supercapacitors and as solid state hydrogen stores. The attractive properties of porous carbons include, ready abundance, chemical and thermal stability, ease of processability and low framework density. Activated carbons, which are perhaps the most explored class of porous carbons, have been traditionally employed as catalyst s...

  1. Water Pollutants Adsorption through an Enhanced Activated Carbon Derived from Agriculture Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Fazeli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: A high nitrate and arsenic concentration in water resources represent a potential risk to the environment and public health. The present work improved a chemo-physically modified activated carbon derived from walnut shells as an adsorbent to improve nitrate and arsenic removal ability from water. Materials & Methods: To increase removal efficiency, activated carbon surface characteristics were improved by acidification. Chemical activation was achieved when the carbon was mixed with water and 5% (v/v phosphoric acid. After adsorbent preparation, the contact time, pH and the initial concentration were studied as variables. Results:  The effective pH for adsorption onto activated carbon was 6.5. The results indicated that 70 s and 3 mins was the sufficient time to attain equilibrium for a maximum removal efficiency of 78.44% and 98% for nitrate and arsenic, respectively. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 10.60 mg nitrate/g carbon and 120 μg arsenic/g carbon. Removal obeyed the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Conclusion: The results showed a noticeable improvement in activated walnut-shell carbon absorbance (improvement in crystalline structure, chemical bonds, and morphology of micropores by chemo-physical activation. Chemo-physical activation increased the surface area of the adsorbent from 1067 to 1437 m2g‒1 and decreased the mean pore size from 3.28 to 2.08 nm. The characterization results showed the major reasons of adsorption could be structure, size and distributions of pores, high surface area and chemical bonds.

  2. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on activated carbon, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hisayoshi; Kamegawa, Katsumi; Arita, Seiji

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption effect of heavy metal ions Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Hg 2+ on activated carbon by adding EDTA is reported, utilizing the experimental data. The activated carbons used for the experiment are mostly D, and B, C and F partly. As for the experimental procedure, the solutions of 100 ml which are composed of activated carbon, pH adjusting liquid, EDTA solution and solutions of heavy metals Cd, Zn and Hg, are shaken for 24 hours at 20 deg C, and after the activated carbon is centrifuged and separated for 15 minutes at 3000 rpm, the remaining heavy metal concentrations and pH in the supernatant are measured. The experimental results showed the useful effect on the adsorption of heavy metal ions of Cd, Zn and Hg by adding about 1 mol ratio of (EDTA/heavy metals). The individual experimental results are presented in detail. Concerning the adsorption quantity, 83% of Cd ions remained in the supernatant without addition of EDTA, but less than 1% with addition of about 1 to 5 mol ratio of (EDTA/Cd), and this adsorption effect was almost similar to Zn and Hg, i.e. 100% to 1% in Zn and 70% to 2 or 3% in Hg, under the condition written above. As for the influence of pH on Cd adsorption, the remaining Cd ratio is less than 10%, when pH is 7 to 10.5 at the mol ratio of 1 and 5.5 to 9 at the mol ratio of 10. The adsorption effect was different according to the kinds of activated carbon. The influencing factors for adsorption effect are the concentration of coexisting cations in the solution and the mixing time, etc. The effects of pH on Zn and Hg adsorption were almost similar to Cd. (Nakai, Y.)

  3. Modeling boron separation from water by activated carbon, impregnated and unimpregnated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, M.; Grbavcic, Z. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy; Marinovic, V. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Ist. of Technical Science of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts

    2000-10-01

    The sorption of boron from boric acid water solution by impregnated activated carbon has been studied. Barium, calcium, mannitol, tartaric acid and citric acid were used as chemical active materials. All processes were performed in a chromatographic continuous system at 22{sup 0} C. Experimental results show that activated carbon impregnated with mannitol is effective in removing boron from water. The separation of boron from the wastewater from a factory for producing enameled dishes by activated carbon impregnated with mannitol was also performed. Two models have been applied to describe published and new data on boron sorption by impregnated activated carbon. Both of them are based on the analysis of boron concentration response to the step input function. This led to a mathematical model that quite successfully described impregnation effects on adsorption capacities. [Italian] E' stato studiato l'assorbimento del boro, mediante carbone attivo impregnato, da soluzioni acquose di acido borico. Quali materiali chimici attivi sono stati utilizzati: bario, calcio, mannitolo, acido tartarico ed acido citrico. Tutti i processi sono stati condotti in un sistema cromatografico continuo a 22{sup 0}C. I risultati sperimentali mostrano che il carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo e' efficace nella rimozione del boro dall'acqua. E' anche stata effettuata la separazione del boro da acque di scarico di un'industria per la produzione di piatti smaltati mediante carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo. Sono stati applicati due modelli per descrivere i risultati, pubblicati e nuovi, dell'assorbimento del boro mediante carbone attivo impregnato. Entrambi sono basati sull'analisi della risposta alla concentrazione di boro successivamente incrementata a stadi. Cio' porta ad un modello matematico che descrive abbastanza soddisfacentemente gli effetti dell'impregnazione sulla capacita' di assorbimento.

  4. Determination of Chemical States of Mercury on Activated Carbon Using XANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Tanaka, Tsunehiro; Uruga, Tomoya

    2007-01-01

    Although the adsorption of mercury vapor onto activated carbon is a widely used technology to prevent environmental release, the adsorption mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we determined the chemical states of mercury on two kinds of activated carbon using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption experiments of elemental mercury onto activated carbon were conducted under air and nitrogen atmospheres at temperatures of 20 and 160 deg. C. Two types of activated carbon were prepared. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements were carried out on beamline BL01B1 at SPring-8. Hg-LIII edge XANES spectra suggested that chemical adsorption of elemental mercury on the activated carbon occurred in the 20-160 deg. C temperature range. According to the XANES spectra, a difference occurred in the chemical states of mercury between AC no. 1 and AC no. 2. The Hg XANES spectra on AC no. 1 were similar to those of Hg2Cl2 and HgS, and the Hg XANES spectra on AC no. 2 were similar to that of HgO, which suggested that nitric acid treatment removed sulfur from AC no. 1 and functional groups that were strong oxidizers on the surface of AC no. 2 created HgO. According to the EXAFS oscillation, a difference occurred in the chemical states of mercury on AC no. 1 between 20 and 160 deg. C. We found that impurities and oxidant functional groups on activated carbon play key roles in mercury adsorption

  5. Activated carbon from flash pyrolysis of eucalyptus residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grima-Olmedo C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forestry waste (eucalyptus sp was converted into activated carbon by initial flash pyrolysis followed carbonization and CO2 activation. These residues were obtained from a pilot plant in Spain that produces biofuel, the biochar represented 10–15% in weight. It was observed that the highest activation was achieved at a temperature of 800 °C, the specific surface increased with time but, on the contrary, high loss of matter was observed. At 600 °C, although there was an important increase of the specific surface and the volume of micropores, at this temperature it was observed that the activation time was not an influential parameter. Finally, at 400 °C it was observed that the activation process was not very significant. Assessing the average pore diameter it was found that the lowest value corresponded to the activation temperature of 600 °C, which indicated the development of microporosity. When the activation temperature increases up to 800 °C the pore diameter increased developing mesoporosity.

  6. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment is a physicochemical process that removes a wide variety of contaminants by adsorbing them from liquid and gas streams [1, p. 6-3]. This treatment is most commonly used to separate organic contaminants from water or air; however, it can b...

  7. Removal of cobalt and europium radioisotopes using activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifullah, A.A.M.; Moloukhia, H.

    2002-01-01

    the phenomena of cobalt and europium sorption by activated carbon from aqueous solution was studied. Activated carbon prepared from locally available agricultural wastes; apricot stones; was used. The prepared carbon was characterized using different techniques. The chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon was also studied. Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate and optimize the various process variables i.e. equilibrium time, carbon dose, solution ph and the presence of competitive. Optimal conditions for the sorption of the radioisotopes have been identified. The sorption isotherm of Freundlich was the best fitting for the concentration range studied. Interference of oxalic acid, EDTA and phenol molecules were discussed. Percentages desorption of both acid, EDTA and phenol using bi-distilled water and IMHCI was determined. The data suggest the possible use of activated carbon of apricot stone (ACAS) for the concentration of these cations

  8. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from reedy grass leaves by chemical activation with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianzhong, E-mail: xjz8112@sina.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei (China); Chen, Lingzhi [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei (China); Department of Applied Chemistry, Hengshui University, Hengshui 053000, Hebei (China); Qu, Hongqiang; Jiao, Yunhong; Xie, Jixing [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei (China); Xing, Guangen [Department of Applied Chemistry, Hengshui University, Hengshui 053000, Hebei (China)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Activated carbons were produced from reedy grass leaves by activation with phosphoric acid. • The activated carbons have a large number of oxygen- and phosphorus-containing surface groups. • The structure of activated carbons was bight fibers features on the surface and the external surface of the activated carbons was slightly corrugated and abundant pores. - Abstract: Activated carbons were produced from reedy grass leaves by chemical activation with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2} atmosphere and their characteristics were investigated. The effects of activation temperature and time were examined. Adsorption capacity was demonstrated with BET and iodine number. Micropore volume and pore size distribution of activated carbons were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. The surface area and iodine number of the activated carbons produced at 500 °C for 2 h were 1474 m{sup 2}/g and 1128 mg/g, respectively. Thermal decomposition of pure reedy grass leaves and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-impregnated reedy grass leaves have been investigated with thermogravimetric/mass spectroscopy (TG–MS) technique. It was found that the temperature and intensity of maximum evolution of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-impregnated reedy grass leaves were lower than that of pure reedy grass leaves. This implies that H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as an activating reagent changed the thermal degradation of the reedy grass leaves, stabilized the cellulose structure, leading to a subsequent change in the evolution of porosity. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy analysis indicate that the produced activated carbons have rich functional groups on surface.

  9. Ligninolytic Activity of Ganoderma strains on Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TYPUK ARTININGSIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a phenylpropanoid polymers with only few carbon bonds might be hydrolized. Due to its complexity, lignin is particularly difficult to decompose. Ganoderma is one of white rot fungi capable of lignin degradation. The ligninolytic of several species Ganoderma growing under different carbon sources was studied under controlled conditions which P. chrysosporium was used as standard comparison.Three types of ligninolytic, namely LiP, MnP, and laccase were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Ratio between clear zone and diameter of fungal colony was used for measuring specific activity qualitatively.Four sspecies of Ganoderma showed positive ligninolytic qualitatively that G. lucidum KT2-32 gave the highest ligninolytic. Activity of LiP and MnP in different carbon sources was consistently resulted by G. lucidum KT2-32, while the highest activity of laccase was shown by G. ochrolaccatum SA2-14. Medium of Indulin AT affected production of protein extracellular and induced ligninolytic. Glucose, BMC, and pine sawdust did not affect the activity of ligninolytic. The specific activity of Ganoderma species was found to be higher than the one of P. chrysosporium.

  10. Hydrogen production using thermocatalytic decomposition of methane on Ni30/activated carbon and Ni30/carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srilatha, K; Viditha, V; Srinivasulu, D; Ramakrishna, S U B; Himabindu, V

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen is an energy carrier of the future need. It could be produced from different sources and used for power generation or as a transport fuel which mainly in association with fuel cells. The primary challenge for hydrogen production is reducing the cost of production technologies to make the resulting hydrogen cost competitive with conventional fuels. Thermocatalytic decomposition (TCD) of methane is one of the most advantageous processes, which will meet the future demand, hence an attractive route for COx free environment. The present study deals with the production of hydrogen with 30 wt% of Ni impregnated in commercially available activated carbon and carbon black catalysts (samples coded as Ni30/AC and Ni30/CB, respectively). These combined catalysts were not attempted by previous studies. Pure form of hydrogen is produced at 850 °C and volume hourly space velocity (VHSV) of 1.62 L/h g on the activity of both the catalysts. The analysis (X-ray diffraction (XRD)) of the catalysts reveals moderately crystalline peaks of Ni, which might be responsible for the increase in catalytic life along with formation of carbon fibers. The activity of carbon black is sustainable for a longer time compared to that of activated carbon which has been confirmed by life time studies (850 °C and 54 sccm of methane).

  11. Development of highly microporous activated carbon from the alcoholic beverage industry organic by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto-Delgado, C.; Terrones, M.; Rangel-Mendez, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work has the aim to employ the agave bagasse, a waste from Tequila and Mescal industries, to obtain a product of high commercial value such as activated carbon. The activated carbon production methodology was based on a chemical activation, by using ZnCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and agave bagasse as a natural source of carbon. The activation temperature (150-450 o C), activation time (0-60 min) and weight ratio of activating agent to precursor (0.2-4) were studied. The produced carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen physisorption at -196 o C. In addition, the activating agent recovery was evaluated. We were able to obtain highly microporous activated carbons with micropore volumes between 0.24 and 1.20 cm 3 /g and a surface area within 300 and 2139 m 2 /g. These results demonstrated the feasibility to treat the industrial wastes of the Tequila and Mescal industries, being this wastes an excellent precursor to produce highly microporous activated carbons that can be processed at low activation temperatures in short times, with the possibility of recycling the activating agent.

  12. Bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion using activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Bell, Alexandra H; Almustapha, M N; Andresen, John M

    2017-08-01

    There is an increasing global demand for carbon-neutral bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion (AD) to be injected into national gas grids. Bio-gas, a methane -rich energy gas, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic matter through an-aerobic conditions where the presence of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide affects its performance. Although the microbiological process in the AD can be tailored to enhance the bio-gas composition, physical treatment is needed to convert the bio-gas into bio-methane. Water washing is the most common method for upgrading bio-gas for bio-methane production, but its large use of water is challenging towards industrial scale-up. Hence, the present study focuses on scale-up comparison of water washing with activated-carbon adsorption using HYSYS and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. The models show that for plants processing less than 500 m 3 /h water scrubbing was cost effective compared with activated carbon. However, against current fossil natural-gas cost of about 1 p/kWh in the UK both relied heavily on governmental subsidies to become economically feasible. For plants operating at 1000 m 3 /hr, the treatment costs were reduced to below 1.5 p/kWh for water scrubbing and 0.9 p/kWh for activated carbon where the main benefits of activated carbon were lower capital and operating costs and virtually no water losses. It is envisioned that this method can significantly aid the production of sustainable bio-methane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trickle bed reactor for the oxidation of phenol over active carbon catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbiye, Nigus; Font Capafons, Josep; Fortuny Sanromá, Agustín; Bengoa, Christophe José; Fabregat Llangotera, Azael; Stüber, Frank Erich

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol using activated carbon has been performed in a laboratory trickle bed reactor over a wide range of operating variables (PO2, T, FL and Cph,o) and hydrodynamic conditions. The influence of different start-up procedures (saturation of activated carbon) has also been tested. Further improvement of activity and stability has been checked for by using dynamic TBR operation concept or impregnated Fe/carbon catalyst. The results obtained confi...

  14. Modeling equilibrium adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2010-05-01

    Solute hydrophobicity, polarizability, aromaticity and the presence of H-bond donor/acceptor groups have been identified as important solute properties that affect the adsorption on activated carbon. However, the adsorption mechanisms related to these properties occur in parallel, and their respective dominance depends on the solute properties as well as carbon characteristics. In this paper, a model based on multivariate linear regression is described that was developed to predict equilibrium carbon loading on a specific activated carbon (F400) for solutes reflecting a wide range of solute properties. In order to improve prediction accuracy, groups (bins) of solutes with similar solute properties were defined and solute removals were predicted for each bin separately. With these individual linear models, coefficients of determination (R2) values ranging from 0.61 to 0.84 were obtained. With the mechanistic approach used in developing this predictive model, a strong relation with adsorption mechanisms is established, improving the interpretation and, ultimately, acceptance of the model. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Vapor mercury uptake with sulphur impregnated active carbons derived using sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.; Methta, H.; Ahmed, I.; Morris, E.; Fuentes de Maria, L.; Jia, C.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Active carbon adsorption is the primary technology used for removal of vapour mercury from flue gases in coal-fired power plants, municipal solid waste combustors, and other sources. It can be carried out using two different processes, notably injection of powder active carbon into flue gas streams upstream of the particulate collection devices, and filtration with a granular active carbon fixed bed downstream of the flue gas desulphurization units and/or particulate collectors. This paper presented an investigation of vapour mercury uptake performance of laboratory-made sulphur impregnated active carbons (SIACs) using a fixed bed reactor in a temperature range of 25 to 200 degrees Celsius. The materials and methods as well as the properties of activated carbons studied were presented. The experimental set-up was also described. The paper discussed the effects of initial concentration, the flow rate, the loading amount of SIACs, temperature, and the sulphur impregnation on the mercury uptake performance. The study showed that SIACs produced with sulphur dioxide exhibited a more complicated behaviour when temperature was varied, implying a mixed adsorption mechanism. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  16. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, V.; Pandolfo, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m 2 g -1 , and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et 4 NBF 4 /ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size ( -1 at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg -1 and 38 kW kg -1 on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g -1 at current densities as high as 250 A g -1 . The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  17. Kinetics of diuron and amitrole adsorption from aqueous solution on activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha-Cámara, M A; López-Ramón, M V; Pastrana-Martínez, L M; Moreno-Castilla, C

    2008-08-15

    A study was conducted on the adsorption kinetics of diuron and amitrole from aqueous solutions on activated carbons of different particle sizes and on an activated carbon fiber. Different kinetic models were applied to the experimental results obtained. A pseudo-second-order rate equation fitted the adsorption kinetics data better than a pseudo-first-order rate equation. Amitrole showed faster adsorption kinetics compared with diuron because of the smaller size of the former herbicide, despite its lower driving force for adsorption. Both reaction rate constants increased when the particle size decreased. The activated carbon fiber and the activated carbon of smallest particle size (0.03 mm) showed similar adsorption kinetics. The intraparticle diffusion rate constant increased with higher initial concentration of herbicides in solution and with lower particle size of the adsorbent. This is because the rise in initial concentration increased the amount adsorbed at equilibrium, and the reduction in particle size increased the number of collisions between adsorbate and adsorbent particles. Demineralization of the activated carbon with particle size of 0.5mm had practically no effect on the adsorption kinetics.

  18. Porous carbon with a large surface area and an ultrahigh carbon purity via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui, E-mail: gaojh@hit.edu.cn; Liu, Xin; Pi, Xinxin; Yang, Yuqi; Wu, Shaohua

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Simple templating carbonization method was developed to obtain porous carbons. • Surface etching by KOH activation greatly boosts surface area and carbon purity. • The as-obtained porous carbon delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g{sup −1}. • Symmetric supercapacitor can achieved high energy density and power density. - Abstract: Large surface area and good structural stability, for porous carbons, are two crucial requirements to enable the constructed supercapacitors with high capacitance and long cycling lifespan. Herein, we successfully prepare porous carbon with a large surface area (3175 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and an ultrahigh carbon purity (carbon atom ratio of 98.25%) via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation. As-synthesized MTC-KOH exhibits excellent performances as supercapacitor electrode materials in terms of high specific capacitance and ultrahigh cycling stability. In a three electrode system, MTC-KOH delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1} and still 120 F g{sup −1} at a high rate of 30 A g{sup −1}. There is almost no capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, demonstrating outstanding cycling stability. In comparison, pre-activated MTC with a hierarchical pore structure shows a better rate capability than microporous MTC-KOH. Moreover, the constructed symmetric supercapacitor using MTC-KOH can achieve high energy densities of 8.68 Wh kg{sup −1} and 4.03 Wh kg{sup −1} with the corresponding power densities of 108 W kg{sup −1} and 6.49 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively. Our work provides a simple design strategy to prepare highly porous carbons with high carbon purity for supercapacitors application.

  19. A gaseous measurement system for carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane: An analytical methodology to be applied in the evaluation of the carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane produced via microbial activity in volcanic tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a gaseous measurement system for the carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane produced via microbial activity or geochemical action on leachate in tuff; to determine the trapping efficiency of the system for carbon-14 dioxide; to determine the trapping efficiency of the system for carbon-14 methane; to apply the experimentally determined factors regarding the system's trapping efficiency for carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane to a trapping algorithm to determine the activity of the carbon-14 dioxide and carbon-14 methane in a mixed sample; to determine the minimum detectable activity of the measurement process in picocuries per liter; and to determine the lower limit or detection of the measurement process in counts per minute

  20. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento; Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Cuna, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO 3 Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  1. Metal adsorption process in activated carbon fiber from textile PAN fiber aim electrode production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Aline Castilho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: alinerodrigues_1@msn.com [Instituto Tecnologico Aeroespacial (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Elen Leal da; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cuna, Andres [Faculdade de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers have a variety of applications in industry and have been increasingly studied to explore their various characteristics. Studies show that the activated carbon fiber has been effective in removing small contaminants as well as activated carbon, because of its characteristic porosity. Other studies relate carbonaceous materials to the electrical conductivity devices application. This work is based on the use of an activated carbon fiber from textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) for metallic ion adsorption from aqueous solution. Consequently, it improves the electrical characteristics and this fact show the possibility to use this material as electrode. The work was performed by adsorption process in saline solution (NO{sub 3}Ag and ClPd) and activated carbon fiber in felt form as adsorbent. The metal adsorption on activated carbon fiber was characterized by textural analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that activated carbon fiber showed good adsorption capacity for the metals used. At the end of the process, the activated carbon fiber samples gained about 15% by weight, related to metallic fraction incorporated into the fiber and the process of adsorption does not changed the structural, morphological and chemistry inertness of the samples. The results indicate the feasibility of this metal incorporation techniques activated carbon fiber for the production of electrodes facing the electrochemical area. (author)

  2. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Maize Stems by Sulfuric Acids Activation and Their Application in Copper (II Ion Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ryantin Gunawan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared from maize (Zea mays L. stems by sulfuric acids activation or chemical methods. The dry maize stems are usually used as low-value energy resources in many countries, burned in the field, or discarded, which are unfavorable to environment. This motivates the investigation of producing value-added products from the dry maize stems, such as activated carbons, as well as solving some environmental problems. The preparation process consisted of sulfuric acid impregnation at different impregnation ratio followed by carbonization at 250-400 oC for 1-4 h. The results show that the impregnation ratio was 1.25, the optimum activation temperature was 300 oC and the activation time was 1 h. The sorption capacity of the activated carbon was 25.1 mg/g.

  3. Freundlich adsorption isotherms of agricultural by-product-based powdered activated carbons in a geosmin-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Chilton [Food and Drug Administration, Dept. of Health and Human Services, Lenexa, KS (United States); Losso, Jack N.; Rao, Ramu M. [Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Dept. of Food Science, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Marshall, Wayne E. [USDA-ARS, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The present study was designed to model the adsorption of geosmin from water under laboratory conditions using the Freundlich isotherm model. This model was used to compare the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse and pecan shell-based powdered activated carbon to the efficiency of a coal-based commercial activated carbon (Calgon Filtrasorb 400). When data were generated from Freundlich isotherms, Calgon Filtrasorb 400 had greater geosmin adsorption at all geosmin concentrations studied than the laboratory produced steam-activated pecan shell carbon, steam-activated bagasse carbon, and the CO{sub 2}-activated pecan shell carbon. At geosmin concentrations <0.07 {sup {mu}}g/l for the phosphoric acid-activated pecan shell carbon and below 0.08 {sup {mu}}g/l for a commercially produced steam-activated pecan shell carbon obtained from Scientific Carbons, these two carbons had a higher calculated geosmin adsorption than Filtrasorb 400. While the commercial carbon was more efficient than some laboratory prepared carbons at most geosmin concentrations, the results indicate that when the amount of geosmin was below the threshold level of human taste (about 0.10 {sup {mu}}g/l), the phosphoric acid-activated pecan shell carbon and the Scientific Carbons sample were more efficient than Filtrasorb 400 at geosmin removal. (Author)

  4. Removal of organochlorine pesticides from water using virgin and regenerated granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA B. NINKOVIĆ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Public water systems use granular activated carbon in order to eliminate pesticides. After saturation, the used activated carbon is regenerated and reused in order to reduce the costs of water production and minimize waste. In this study, the adsorption of 10 different chlorinated pesticides from water using columns packed with commercial virgin and regenerated granular activated carbon was simulated in order to compare their adsorption capacities for different chlorinated pesticides. The breakthrough curves showed that chlorinated pesticides from the group of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH were poorly adsorbed, followed by cyclodiens as averagely adsorbed and the derivatives of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (DDT as strongly adsorbed. However, the adsorption capacity of regenerated granular activated carbon was considerably lower for tested pesticides compared to the virgin granular carbon. In addition, rinsing of the pesticides after the saturation point is a far more efficient process on regenerated carbon.

  5. THE EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CARBON SURFACE MOISTURE ON LOW TEMPERATURE MERCURY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with elemental mercury (Hg0) adsorption by activated carbons were performed using a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor at room temperature (27 degrees C) to determine the role of surface moisture in capturing Hg0. A bituminous-coal-based activated carbon (BPL) and an activ...

  6. Adsorption of lignite-derived humic acids on coal-based mesoporous activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Gryglewicz, Grazyna

    2005-04-15

    The adsorption by a coal-based mesoporous activated carbon of humic acids (HAs) isolated from two Polish lignites was studied. For comparison, a commercial Aldrich humic acid was also included into this study. The differences in chemical structure and functional groups of HAs were determined by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy DRIFT. Two activated carbons used differed in terms of mesopore volume, mesopore size distribution, and chemical properties of the surface. The kinetics of adsorption of HAs have been discussed using three kinetic models, i.e., the first-order Lagergren model, the pseudo-second-order model, and the intraparticle diffusion model. It was found that the adsorption of HAs from alkaline solution on mesoporous activated carbon proceeds according to the pseudo-second-order model. The correlation coefficients were close to 1. The intraparticle diffusion of HA molecules within the carbon particle was identified to be the rate-limiting step. Comparing the two activated carbons, the carbon with a higher volume of pores with widths of 10-50 nm showed a greater removal efficiency of HA. An increase in the Freundlich adsorption capacity with decreasing carbon content of HA was observed. Among the HAs studied, S-HA shows characteristics indicating the highest contribution of small-size fraction. The S-HA was removed by both activated carbons to the highest extent. The effect of pH solution on the adsorption of HA was examined over the range pH 5.4-12.2. It was found that the extent of adsorption decreased with decreasing pH of the solution.

  7. Adsorption of methylene blue onto treated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin Yasin; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Faujan Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The potential feasibility of treated and untreated activated carbon for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of various experimental parameters such as contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dosage were investigated. The extent of methylene blue removal increased with the increased in contact time, solution pH and amount of adsorbent used. Adsorption data was better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The results in this study indicated that the treated activated carbon was an attractive candidate for removing organic dye of methylene blue which shows great reduction of colour while reducing the time contact to achieve equilibrium. (author)

  8. Influence of chemical agents on the surface area and porosity of active carbon hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA M. KLJAJEVIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Active carbon hollow fibers were prepared from regenerated polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using: disodium hydrogen phosphate 2-hydrate, disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate, hydrogen peroxide, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate. After chemical activation fibers were carbonized in an inert atmosphere. The specific surface area and porosity of obtained carbons were studied by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at 77 K, while the structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The activation process increases these adsorption properties of fibers being more pronounced for active carbon fibers obtained with disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate and hydrogen peroxide as activator. The obtained active hollow carbons are microporous with different pore size distribution. Chemical activation with phosphates produces active carbon material with small surface area but with both mesopores and micropores. X-ray diffraction shows that besides turbostratic structure typical for carbon materials, there are some peaks which indicate some intermediate reaction products when sodium salts were used as activating agent. Based on data from the electrochemical measurements the activity and porosity of the active fibers depend strongly on the oxidizing agent applied.

  9. Preparation of activated carbon from banana peel waste for reducing air pollutant from motorcycle muffler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafidz Achmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gas or emission from motor vehicle contains various pollutants and some of them are toxic and very harmful for human health. In the present work, we prepared an activated carbon to reduce the toxic pollutants (via adsorption process from the exhaust gas of the motor vehicle (particularly motorcycle in this work. The activated carbon was prepared from local banana peel which considered as an agricultural waste without economic value. To prepare the activated carbon, banana peel was carbonized using furnace at 500°C. Then the resulted carbon was activated using chemical activation with ZnCl2 and physical activation with either microwave (300 W or furnace (700°C. The prepared activated carbon was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR analysis. The SEM result showed that the pore of microwave induced ZnCl2 activated carbon (ACM was larger than the pore of virgin char/carbon and furnace induced ZnCl2 activataed carbon (ACF. The FT-IR spectrum of ACM showed some peaks at 3408.59 cm-1, 1589.25 cm-1, and 1093.63 cm-1. They are assigned to O-H stretching, C=O stretching, and C-OH stretching. Additionally, the adsorption performance of the prepared activation carbon to reduce the pollutants concentration (i.e. CO and CH from the exhaust gas of motor vehicle was investigated. The results showed that the activated carbon induced by microwave and ZnCl2 activation (ACM gave the best result. The adsorption or removal efficiency of gas CO reached approximately 97.64 %vol.

  10. Activated Carbon-Fly Ash-Nanometal Oxide Composite Materials: Preparation, Characterization, and Tributyltin Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties, nature, and morphology of composite materials involving activated carbon, fly ash, nFe3O4, nSiO2, and nZnO were investigated and compared. Nature and morphology characterizations were carried out by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Other physicochemical characterizations undertaken were CNH analysis, ash content, pH, point of zero charge, and surface area and porosity determination by BET. Experimental results obtained revealed that activated carbon, nSiO2, activated carbon-fly ash, activated carbon-fly ash-nFe3O4, activated carbon-fly ash-nSiO2, and activated carbon-fly ash-nZnO composite materials exhibited net negative charge on their surfaces while fly ash, nFe3O4, and nZnO possessed net positive charge on their surfaces. Relatively higher removal efficiency (>99% of TBT was obtained for all the composite materials compared to their respective precursors except for activated carbon. These composite materials therefore offer great potential for the remediation of TBT in wastewaters.

  11. Optimisation of entrapped activated carbon conditions to remove coloured compounds from winery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa-Rey, R; Bustos, G; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the entrapped conditions of activated carbon in calcium-alginate beads for the clarification of winery wastewaters. An incomplete 3(3) factorial design was carried out to study the efficiency of activated carbon (0.5-2%); sodium alginate (1-5%); and calcium chloride (0.050-0.900 M), on the following dependent variables: colour reduction at 280, 465, 530 and 665 nm. The activated carbon and calcium chloride were the most influential variables in the colour reduction. Nearly 100% colour reductions were found for the wavelengths assayed when employing 2% of activated carbon, 5% of sodium alginate and intermediate concentrations of calcium chloride (0.475 M). Instead, other conditions like, 2% of activated carbon, 4% of sodium alginate and 0.580 M of calcium chloride can also give absorbance reductions close to 100%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adsorption of aqueous Cd(II) and Pb(II) on activated carbon nanopores prepared by chemical activation of doum palm shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Umar Ibrahim; Otene, Emmanuel; Abdullah, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniformly sized activated carbons were derived from doum palm shell, a new precursor, by carbonization in air and activation using KOH, NaOH and ZnCl2. The activated carbon fibres were characterised by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis and evaluated for Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal. The 40-50 nm size, less graphitic, mesoporous NaOH activated carbon yielded high adsorption efficiency, pointing largely to the influence surface area. The performance of the KOH based activated carbon was arguably explained for the first time in terms of crystallinity. The efficiencies of the mesoporous ZnCl2-formulated activated carbon diminished due to the presence of larger particles. Batch adsorption of divalent metals revealed dependence on adsorbent dose, agitation time, pH and adsorbate concentrations with high adsorption efficiencies at optimum operating parameters. The equilibrium profiles fitted Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and kinetics favoured pseudo-second order model. The study demonstrated the practicability of the removal of alarming levels of cadmium and lead ions from industrial effluents.

  13. Utilization of spent dregs for the production of activated carbon for CO2 adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Jarosław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was preparation of activated carbon from spent dregs for carbon dioxide adsorption. A saturated solution of KOH was used as an activating agent. Samples were carbonized in the furnace at the temperature of 550°C. Textural properties of activated carbons were obtained based on the adsorption-desorption isotherms of nitrogen at −196°C and carbon dioxide at 0°C. The specific surface areas of activated carbons were calculated by the Brunauer – Emmett – Teller equation. The volumes of micropores were obtained by density functional theory method. The highest CO2 adsorption was 9.54 mmol/cm3 at 0°C – and 8.50 mmol/cm3 at 25°C.

  14. Activated carbon, biochar and charcoal: Linkages and synergies across pyrogenic carbon's ABC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar and activated carbon, both carbonaceous pyrogenic materials, are important products for environmental technology and intensively studied for a multitude of purposes. A strict distinction between these materials is not always possible, and also a generally accepted terminology is lacking. How...

  15. Nitrogen-enriched bituminous coal-based active carbons as materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Pietrzak; K. Jurewicz; P. Nowicki; K. Babel; H. Wachowska [A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Laboratory of Coal Chemistry and Technology

    2010-11-15

    The paper presents the results of a study on obtaining N-enriched active carbons from bituminous coal and on testing its use as an electrode material in supercapacitors. The coal was carbonised, activated with KOH and ammoxidised by a mixture of ammonia and air at the ratio 1:3 at 300{sup o}C or 350{sup o}C, at different stages of the production, that is, at those of precursor, carbonisate, and active carbon. The products were microporous N-enriched active carbon samples of well-developed surface area reaching from 1577 to 2510 m{sup 2}/g and containing 1.0 to 8.5 wt% of nitrogen. The XPS measurements have shown that in the active carbons enriched in nitrogen at the stage of precursor and at the stage of carbonisate, the dominant nitrogen species are the N-5 groups, while in the samples ammoxidised at the last stage of the treatment the dominant nitrogen species are the surface groups of imines and/or nitriles, probably accompanied by amines and amides. The paper reports the results of a comprehensive study of the effect of the structure and chemical composition of a series of active carbon samples of different properties on their capacity performance in water solutions of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or KOH, with the behaviour of positive and negative electrodes analysed separately. 33 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  17. Adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on activated carbons: effects of solution chemistry and presence of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Toledo, M I; Méndez-Díaz, J D; Sánchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; Ferro-García, M A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effectiveness of activated carbon in removing sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and to analyze the chemical and textural characteristics of the activated carbons that are involved in the adsorption process. Studies were also performed on the influence of operational variables (pH, ionic strength, and presence of microorganisms) and on the kinetics and interactions involved in the adsorption of this pollutant on activated carbon. The kinetics study of SDBS adsorption revealed no problems in its diffusion on any of the activated carbons studied, and Weisz-Prater coefficient (C WP) values were considerably lower than unity for all activated carbons studied. SDBS adsorption isotherms on these activated carbons showed that: (i) adsorption capacity of activated carbons was very high (260-470 mg/g) and increased with larger surface area; and (ii) dispersive interactions between SDBS and carbon surface were largely responsible for the adsorption of this pollutant. SDBS adsorption was not significantly affected by the solution pH, indicating that electrostatic adsorbent-adsorbate interactions do not play an important role in this process. The presence of electrolytes (NaCl) in the medium favors SDBS adsorption, accelerating the process and increasing adsorption capacity. Under the working conditions used, SDBS is not degraded by bacteria; however, the presence of bacteria during the process accelerates and increases SDBS adsorption on the activated carbon. Microorganism adsorption on the activated carbon surface increases its hydrophobicity, explaining the results observed.

  18. A doped activated carbon prepared from polyaniline for high performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Limin; Liu, Enhui; Li, Jian; Yang, Yanjing; Shen, Haijie; Huang, Zhengzheng; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Li, Wen [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2010-03-01

    A novel doped activated carbon has been prepared from H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-doped polyaniline which is prepared by the oxypolymerization of aniline. The morphology, surface chemical composition and surface area of the carbon have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunaner-Emmett-Teller measurement, respectively. Electrochemical properties of the doped activated carbon have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol l{sup -1} KOH. The specific capacitance of the carbon is as high as 235 F g{sup -1}, the specific capacitance hardly decreases at a high current density 11 A g{sup -1} after 10,000 cycles, which indicates that the carbon possesses excellent cycle durability and may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors. (author)

  19. Sulfur dioxide adsorption by activated carbons having different textural and chemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilgun Karatepe; Ilkun Orbak; Reha Yavuz; Ayse Ozyuguran [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Institute of Energy

    2008-11-15

    Activated carbons from Turkish lignite were prepared with different methods to investigate the influence of physico-chemical characteristics of the carbon materials on the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) adsorption. The effects of SO{sub 2} concentration, adsorption temperature, and sample particle size on adsorption were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis system. An intraparticle diffusion model based on Knudsen diffusion and Freundlich isotherm (or Henry isotherm) was applied for predicting the amount of SO{sub 2} adsorbed. The textural and chemical properties of the activated carbon samples, resulted from the effects of activation conditions and demineralization of the carbon precursor, on the SO{sub 2} adsorption were also analyzed. 30 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The use of Powdered Activated Carbon in reducing the Doc in water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikravesh, S. H.; Etemad-Shahidi, A.; Razeghi, N.

    2003-01-01

    Today as the technology improves and the application of energy and chemicals enhances, the organic pollutants increases in surface waters in which waste waters are discharged into. In order to reduce water-born diseases, necessary actions should be taken to decrease the pollutants. Common methods of surface water treatment are not sufficient anymore. Therefore complementary methods like using activated carbon, aeration, oxidation and reverse osmosis should be used. In this paper the use of powdered activated carbon, Total organic carbon test and jar test in reducing the concentration of organic carbons in water treatment is investigated. Initial experimental results showed large errors in total organic carbon evaluation so dissolved organic carbon was measured instead. The results showed that using the powdered activated carbon in addition to conventional treatment method using ferric chloride, greatly reduces organic pollutants. Adding about 60 mg/lit of powdered activated carbon may reduce dissolved organic carbon up to 90% in optimum conditions. However, different factors like the quality of surface water, experimental errors, instrumental errors and tool errors can influence the experimental results

  1. Production of activated carbon from cellulosic fibers for environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coq, L.; Faur, C.; Le Cloirec, P.; Phan Ngoc, H.

    2005-01-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) have received an increasing attention in recent years as an adsorbent for purifying polluted gaseous and aqueous streams. Their preparation, characterization and application have been reported in many studies [1], which show that the porosity of ACF is dependent on activation conditions, as temperature, time or gas. ACF provide adsorption rates 2 to 50 times higher than Granular Activated Carbon [2], because of their low diameter (∼10 m) providing a larger external surface area in contact with the fluid compared with that of granules. Furthermore, their potential for the removal of various pollutants from water was demonstrated towards micro-organics like phenols [3], pesticides or dyes [4]. Generally, fibrous activated carbons are produced from natural or synthetic precursors by carbonization at 600-1000 C followed by an activation step by CO 2 oe steam at higher temperature [2]. Another way to produce the fibrous activated carbons is chemical activation with H 3 PO 4 , HNO 3 , KOH...[5]. Different types of synthetic or natural fibers have been used as precursors of fibrous activated carbons since 1970: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyphenol, rayon, cellulose phosphate, pitch, etc. Each of them has its own applications and limitations. The synthetic fibers being generally expensive, it would be interesting to find out low-cost precursors from local material resources. This work is a part of a research exchange program between the Vietnamese National Center of Natural Sciences and Technology (Vietnam) and the Ecole des Mines de Nantes (Gepea, France), with the aim to find some economical solutions for water treatment. Fibrous activated carbons are produced from natural cellulose fibers, namely jute and coconut fibers, which are abundant in Vietnam as well as in other tropical countries, have a low ash content and a low cost in comparison with synthetic fibers. Two methods are compared to produce activated carbons: 1) a physical

  2. Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on properties of supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on electrochemical properties of organic supercapacitor was investigated. The results show that specific surface area and mesoporosity of activated carbon influence specific capacitance. If specific surface area is larger and mesoporosity is higher, the specific capacitance will become bigger. Specific surface area influences resistance of carbon electrode and consequently influences power property and pore size distribution. If specific surface area is smaller and mesoporosity is higher, the power property will become better. Ash influences leakage current and electrochemical cycling stability. If ash content is lower, the performance will become better. The properties of supercapacitor highly depend on the electrolyte. The compatibility of electrolyte and activated carbon is a determining factor of supercapacitor's working voltage. LiPF6/(EC+EMC+DMC) is inappropriate for double layer capacitor. MeEt3NPF4/PC has higher specific capacitance than EtnNPFn/PC because methyl's electronegativity value is lower than ethyl and MeEt3N+ has more positive charges and stronger polarizability than Et4N+ when an ethyl is substituted by methyl.

  3. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Y.; Su, D.; Murali, S.; Stoller, M.D.; Ganesh, K.J.; Cai, W.; Ferreira, P.J.; Pirkle, A.; Wallace, R.M.; Cychosz, K.A., Thommes, M.; Stach, E.A.; Ruoff, R.S.

    2011-06-24

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  4. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanwu; Murali, Shanthi; Stoller, Meryl D.; Ganesh, K. J.; Cai, Weiwei; Ferreira, Paulo J.; Pirkle, Adam; Wallace, Robert M.; Cychosz, Katie A.; Thommes, Matthias; Su, Dong; Stach, Eric A.; Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2011-06-01

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp2-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  5. Carbon-based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Zhu; S Murali; M Stoller; K Ganesh; W Cai; P Ferreira; A Pirkle; R Wallace; K Cychosz; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  6. Effect of commercial activated carbons in sulfur cathodes on the electrochemical properties of lithium/sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Icpyo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Won; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ho-Suk [Department of Material and Energy Engineering, Gyeongwoon University, 730, Gangdong-ro, Sandong-myeon, Gumi, Gyeongbuk, 39160 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The sulfur/activated carbon composite is fabricated using commercial activated carbons. • The sulfur/activated carbon composite with coal shows the best performance. • The Li/S battery has capacities of 1240 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C and 567 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 C. - Abstract: We prepared sulfur/active carbon composites via a simple solution-based process using the following commercial activated carbon-based materials: coal, coconut shells, and sawdust. Although elemental sulfur was not detected in any of the sulfur/activated carbon composites based on Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results confirmed its presence in the activated carbon. These results indicate that sulfur was successfully impregnated in the activated carbon and that all of the activated carbons acted as sulfur reservoirs. The sulfur/activated carbon composite cathode using coal exhibited the highest discharge capacity and best rate capability. The first discharge capacity at 1 C (1.672 A g{sup −1}) was 1240 mAh g{sup −1}, and a large reversible capacity of 567 mAh g{sup −1} was observed at 10 C (16.72 A g{sup −1}).

  7. Effect of Activation Temperature and Heating Duration on Physical Characteristics of Activated Carbon Prepared from Agriculture Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham Yee Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of activated carbon prepared from durian shell in varied heating durations from 10 min to 30 min and activation temperatures of 400C and 500C. Durian shells have been characterized in term of ultimate and proximate analysis, chemical composition and thermal behaviour with a view to be used as activated carbon precursor. Durian shell activated carbon was prepared by impregnating 10g of sample in 10% (v/v concentration of phosphoric acid for 24 h, followed by carbonization at 400C and 500C with different heating durations under nitrogen atmosphere. The results showed that various treatment conditions affect the percentage of yield, BET surface area, micropore volume, and average pore diameter. The highest surface area (SBET 1024 m2/g was obtained at 500C and 20 min of heating duration with 63% of yield and 0.21 cm3/g micropore volume.

  8. The investment funds in carbon actives: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominicis, A. de

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning in 1999 of the first funds by the World Bank, the purchase mechanisms of carbon actives, developed and reached today more than 1,5 milliards of euros. The landscape is relatively concentrated, in spite of the numerous initiatives. The author presents the situation since 1999, the importance of the european governmental investors, the purchase mechanisms management and an inventory of the carbon actives purchases. (A.L.B.)

  9. Use of grape must as a binder to obtain activated carbon briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiana A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on briquetting activated-carbon-based adsorbent materials, prepared from raw materials from the region of Cuyo, Argentina, are reported in this article. Several steps were carried out to obtain activated-carbon briquettes from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn wood. These steps included carbonization of wood to obtain char; blending of char and a novel binder, i.e., grape must; formation of cylinder-like briquettes by pressure; and activation of the resulting material. The material was activated with steam under different temperatures, activation times, and activating agent flow rates. Impact resistance index, axial compressive strength, tensile strength by diametrical compression, BET area, and pore volume were measured for product characterization. Satisfactory surface areas and mechanical strengths were found in the final products.

  10. Surface characteristics and antibacterial activity of a silver-doped carbon monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vukčević et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbon monolith with a silver coating was prepared and its antimicrobial behaviour in a flow system was examined. The functional groups on the surface of the carbon monolith were determined by temperature-programmed desorption and Boehm's method, and the point of zero charge was determined by mass titration. The specific surface area was examined by N2 adsorption using the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET method. As a test for the surface activity, the deposition of silver from an aqueous solution of a silver salt was used. The morphology and structure of the silver coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The resistance to the attrition of the silver deposited on the carbon monolith was tested. The antimicrobial activity of the carbon monolith with a silver coating was determined using standard microbiological methods. Carbon monolith samples with a silver coating showed good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and are therefore suitable for water purification, particularly as personal disposable water filters with a limited capacity.

  11. Cooked Food Waste-An Efficient and Less Expensive Precursor for the Generation of Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithiga, Thangavelu; Sabina, Xavier Janet; Rajesh, Baskaran; Ilbeygi, Hamid; Shetty, Adka Nityananda; Reddy, Ramanjaneya; Karthikeyan, Jayabalan

    2018-06-01

    Activated carbon was synthesized from cooked food waste, especially dehydrated rice kernels, by chemical activation method using NaOH and KOH as activating agents. It was then characterized by ultimate and proximate analysis, BET surface analysis, XRD, FTIR, Raman and SEM. The XRD patterns and Raman spectra confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared activated carbons. Ultimate analysis showed an increase in the carbon content after activation of the raw carbon samples. Upon activation with NaOH and KOH, the surface area of the carbon sample was found to have increased from 0.3424 to 539.78 and 306.83 m2g-1 respectively. The SEM images revealed the formation of heterogeneous pores on the surface of the activated samples. The samples were then tested for their adsorption activity using acetic acid and methylene blue. Based on the regression coefficients, the adsorption kinetics of methylene blue dye were fitted with pseudo-second order model for both samples. Similarly, the Freundlich isotherm was found to be a better fit than Langmuir isotherm for both samples. The activity of thus prepared activated carbons was found to be comparable with the commercial carbon.

  12. Carbon nanofibers grown on activated carbon fiber fabrics as electrode of supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T-H; Hung, K-H; Tzeng, S-S; Shen, J-W; Hung, C-H

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown directly on activated carbon fiber fabric (ACFF), which was then used as the electrode of supercapacitors. Cyclic voltammetry and ac impedance were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of ACFF and CNF/ACFF electrodes in both aqueous and organic electrolytes. ACFF electrodes show higher specific capacitance than CNF/ACFF electrodes due to larger specific surface area. However, the spaces formed between the CNFs in the CNF/ACFF electrodes are more easily accessed than the slit-type pores of ACFF, and much higher electrical-double layer capacitance was obtained for CNF/ACFF electrodes

  13. Adsorption of pertechnetate ion on various active carbons from mineral acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.

    1991-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) on active carbon has been studied for various acid solutions, taking as indicative value the distribution coefficient K d of Tc between active carbon surface and solution. In a system where the total anion concentration of the acid and its sodium salt was maintained constant, modifying the pH of the solution proved distinctly to influence the Tc adsorption behavior of active carbon: taking the case of active carbon derived from coconut shell, increasing the acidity raised K d ; around neutrality there occurred a level stage; in the alkali region, K d declined. The rise of K d in the acid region, however, was observed only with active carbon derived from coconut shell, from oil pitch or from saw dust; it failed to occur when the active carbon was derived from coal or from bone. With a hydrochloric acid system, the rise of K d started around 1 M (mol dm -1 ) HCl. Beyond 3 M, on the other hand, a breakthrough occurred, and K d declined with increasing acidity. With a nitric acid system, K d rose from 1 M, and the breakthrough occurred at 2 M. When the adsorption was left to equilibrate beyond 4 h, desorption displacement of TcO 4 - by a coexisting other anion was observed in the case of perchloric acid solutions of concentration above 0.1 M and with sulfuric acid solutions above 0.5 M. (author)

  14. Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse: Silver nanoparticle modification and ecotoxicity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Suely Patrícia C.; Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabrício S.; Clemente, Zaira; Castro, Vera L.; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T.

    2016-01-01

    Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse (ACPB) presented pore size ranges from 1.0 to 3.5 nm, and surface area between 1200 and 1400 m"2 g"−"1 that is higher than commonly observed to commercial activated carbon. The ACPB material was successfully loaded with of silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35 nm (0.81 wt.%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the material surface contains metallic/Ag"0 (93.60 wt.%) and ionic/Ag"+ states (6.40 wt.%). The adsorption capacity of organic model molecules (i.e. methylene blue and phenol) was very efficient to ACPB and ACPB loaded with silver nanoparticles (ACPB-AgNP), indicating that the material modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its adsorption capacity. ACPB-AgNP inhibited bacteria growth (Escherichia coli), it is a promising advantage for the use of these materials in wastewater treatment and water purification processes. However, ACPB-AgNP showed environmental risks, with toxic effect to the aquatic organism Hydra attenuata (i.e. LC50 value of 1.94 mg L"−"1), and it suppressed root development of Lycopersicum esculentum plant (tomato). Finally, this work draw attention for the environmental implications of activated carbon materials modified with silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Production of very efficient activated carbon by pyrolysis process of sugarcane bagasse. • Modification of activated carbon with silver nanoparticles to environmental remediation and water purification. • Activated carbon modified with silver nanoparticles showed acute ecotoxic effects.

  15. Adsorption characteristics of N-nitrosodimethylamine from aqueous solution on surface-modified activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodong, Dai [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061, Shandong (China); Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia); Zou, Linda [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA5095 (Australia); Zifeng, Yan [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061, Shandong (China); Millikan, Mary [Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia)

    2009-08-30

    This study investigated the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by an adsorption mechanism using commercially available activated carbons and surface-modified activated carbons. The effects of the modification on the properties of the activated carbon were studied by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transmission (DRIFT) analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption experiments revealed that the activated carbons demonstrated a greater capacity for NDMA adsorption capacity than can be achieved using zeolite. The equilibrium data was fitted to the Freundlich equation and it was found that the adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by the micropore size, relative pore volume and surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments were conducted using unmodified and modified activated carbons. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of NDMA can be significantly improved by heat treatment and doping of TiO{sub 2} particles. This was because the surface treatments yielded more hydrophobic sites and fewer oxygen-containing surface functional groups, and consequently an increased capacity for NDMA adsorption.

  16. Adsorption characteristics of N-nitrosodimethylamine from aqueous solution on surface-modified activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaodong; Zou, Linda; Yan Zifeng; Millikan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by an adsorption mechanism using commercially available activated carbons and surface-modified activated carbons. The effects of the modification on the properties of the activated carbon were studied by N 2 adsorption/desorption, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transmission (DRIFT) analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption experiments revealed that the activated carbons demonstrated a greater capacity for NDMA adsorption capacity than can be achieved using zeolite. The equilibrium data was fitted to the Freundlich equation and it was found that the adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by the micropore size, relative pore volume and surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments were conducted using unmodified and modified activated carbons. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of NDMA can be significantly improved by heat treatment and doping of TiO 2 particles. This was because the surface treatments yielded more hydrophobic sites and fewer oxygen-containing surface functional groups, and consequently an increased capacity for NDMA adsorption.

  17. The effect of gamma radiation on the properties of activated carbon cloth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIJELA R. SEKULIĆ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon cloth dressing is an appropriate wound healing material due to its biocompatibility and adsorption characteristics. The in-fluence of gamma radiation as a sterilization process on the adsorption and mechanical properties of activated carbon cloth was investigated. The specific surface area, micropore volume, pore size distribution, surface chemistry as well as the breaking load of activated carbon cloth before and after gamma radiation were examined. Characterization by nitrogen adsorption showed that the activated carbon cloth was a microporous material with a high specific surface area and micropores smaller than 1 nm. Gamma radiation decreased the specific surface area and micropore volume but increased the pore width. The sterilization process changed the surface chemistry quantitatively, but not qualitatively. In addition, the breaking load decreased but without any influence considering the further application of this material.

  18. Microbial biomass carbon and enzyme activities of urban soils in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meie; Markert, Bernd; Shen, Wenming; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2011-07-01

    To promote rational and sustainable use of soil resources and to maintain the urban soil quality, it is essential to assess urban ecosystem health. In this study, the microbiological properties of urban soils in Beijing and their spatial distribution patterns across the city were evaluated based on measurements of microbial biomass carbon and urease and invertase activities of the soils for the purpose of assessing the urban ecosystem health of Beijing. Grid sampling design, normal Kriging technique, and the multiple comparisons among different land use types were used in soil sampling and data treatment. The inherent chemical characteristics of urban soils in Beijing, e.g., soil pH, electronic conductivity, heavy metal contents, total N, P and K contents, and soil organic matter contents were detected. The size and diversity of microbial community and the extent of microbial activity in Beijing urban soils were measured as the microbial biomass carbon content and the ratio of microbial biomass carbon content to total soil organic carbon. The microbial community health measured in terms of microbial biomass carbon, urease, and invertase activities varied with the organic substrate and nutrient contents of the soils and were not adversely affected by the presence of heavy metals at p urban soils influenced the nature and activities of the microbial communities.

  19. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, V. [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia); Pandolfo, A.G., E-mail: tony.pandolfo@csiro.a [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)

    2010-10-30

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et{sub 4}NBF{sub 4}/ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size (<{approx}0.6 nm) exhibited electrolyte accessibility issues and an associated decrease in capacitance at high charging rates. PFA carbons with larger average pore sizes exhibited greatly improved performance, with specific electrode capacitances of 150 F g{sup -1} at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg{sup -1} and 38 kW kg{sup -1} on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g{sup -1} at current densities as high as 250 A g{sup -1}. The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  20. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mokhlesur M.; Adil, Mohd; Yusof, Alias M.; Kamaruzzaman, Yunus B.; Ansary, Rezaul H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II), lead(II) and chromium(VI). Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II) and lead(II) were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II) and lead(II). The removal of chromium(VI) was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cr(VI) by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:28788640

  1. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhlesur M. Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II, lead(II and chromium(VI. Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II and lead(II were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II and lead(II. The removal of chromium(VI was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II, Pb(II and Cr(VI by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  2. Influence of activated carbon characteristics on toluene and hexane adsorption: Application of surface response methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Mª Teresa; de Yuso, Alicia Martínez; Valenciano, Raquel; Rubio, Begoña; Pino, Mª Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of toluene and hexane over activated carbons prepared according an experimental design, considering as variables the activation temperature, the impregnation ratio and the activation time. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the adsorption capacity of the carbons regarding the preparation conditions that determine the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons. The methodology of preparation produced activated carbons with surface areas and micropore volumes as high as 1128 m2/g and 0.52 cm3/g, respectively. Moreover, the activated carbons exhibit mesoporosity, ranging from 64.6% to 89.1% the percentage of microporosity. The surface chemistry was characterized by TPD, FTIR and acid-base titration obtaining different values of surface groups from the different techniques because the limitation of each technique, but obtaining similar trends for the activated carbons studied. The exhaustive characterization of the activated carbons allows to state that the measured surface area does not explain the adsorption capacity for either toluene or n-hexane. On the other hand, the surface chemistry does not explain the adsorption results either. A compromise between physical and chemical characteristics can be obtained from the appropriate activation conditions, and the response surface methodology gives the optimal activated carbon to maximize adsorption capacity. Low activation temperature, intermediate impregnation ratio lead to high toluene and n-hexane adsorption capacities depending on the activation time, which a determining factor to maximize toluene adsorption.

  3. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: a comparative study of waste-polymer-based, coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Chang, Chun; Du, Yang; Zhu, Lingyan; Xing, Baoshan; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared. The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons, one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). The polymer-based activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR). Compared with F400 and MWNT, activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs, attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures. Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect. In contrast, due to the molecular sieving effect, their adsorption on HCH was lower. MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  4. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: A comparative study of waste-polymer-based,coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Lian; Chun Chang; Yang Du; Lingyan Zhu; Baoshan Xing; Chang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE),1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB),1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared.The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons,one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT).The polymerbased activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers:polyvinyl chloride (PVC),polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR).Compared with F400 and MWNT,activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs,attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures.Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect.In contrast,due to the molecular sieving effect,their adsorption on HCH was lower.MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  5. Mechanism of adsorption of gold and silver species on activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Y.F.; Steele, C.J.; Hayward, I.P.; Thomas, K.M. [University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom). Northern Carbon Research Labs., Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    The adsorption characteristics of gold and silver cyanide anionic species on a suite of active carbons derived from coal, coconut shell and polyacrylonitrile was investigated. The gold and silver cyanide adsorption capacities for both coconut shell and coal derived carbons correlated with total pore volume. Nitric acid treatment of the carbon was detrimental to gold adsorption in spite of the incorporation of oxygen into the carbon through oxidation. The influence of nitrogen functional groups in the carbon structure on gold and silver adsorption was investigated using carbons with very high nitrogen contents derived from polyacrylonitrile.

  6. Influence of various Activated Carbon based Electrode Materials in the Performance of Super Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, K. M.; Dinesh, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Various activated carbon based electrode materials with different surface areas was prepared on stainless steel based refillable super capacitor model using spin coating. Bio Synthesized Activated Carbon (BSAC), Activated Carbon (AC) and Graphite powder are chosen as electrode materials in this paper. Electrode materials prepared using binder solution which is 6% by wt. polyvinylidene difluoride, 94% by wt. dimethyl fluoride. 3M concentrated KOH solution is used as aqueous electrolyte with PVDF thin film as separator. It is tested for electrochemical characterizations and material characterizations. It is observed that the Specific capacitance of Graphite, Biosynthesized active carbon and Commercially available activated carbon are 16.1F g-1, 53.4F g-1 and 107.6F g-1 respectively at 5mV s-1 scan rate.

  7. Preparation of a New Adsorbent from Activated Carbon and Carbon Nanofiber (AC/CNF for Manufacturing Organic-Vacbpour Respirator Cartridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jahangiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbonnanofibers (CNF were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were activated by CO2 to recover the surface area and micropores.Surface and textural characterizations of the prepared composites were investigated using Brunauer, Emmett andTeller’s (BET technique and electron microscopy respectively. Prepared composite adsorbent was tested forbenzene, toluene and xylene (BTX adsorption and then employed in an organic respirator cartridge in granularform. Adsorption studies were conducted by passing air samples through the adsorbents in a glass column at an adjustable flow rate. Finally, any adsorbed species not retained by the adsorbents in the column were trapped in a charcoal sorbent tube and analyzed by gas chromatography. CNFs with a very thin diameter of about 10-20 nmwere formed uniformly on the AC/CNF. The breakthrough time for cartridges prepared with CO2 activated AC/CNF was 117 minutes which are significantly longer than for those cartridges prepared with walnut shell- based activated carbon with the same weight of adsorbents. This study showed that a granular form CO2 activated AC/CNF composite could be a very effective alternate adsorbent for respirator cartridges due to its larger adsorption capacities and lower weight.

  8. Removal of phenol from radioactive waste solutions using activated granular Carbon and activated vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El-Din, M.R.; Atta, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of both activated granular carbon (AGC) and activated vermiculite (AV) in removal of phenol from aqueous waste solutions is of great interest. The aim of the present study is to compare the absorbance capacities of both AGC and AV for the removal of phenol from radioactive waste solutions and to identify the factors affecting the sorption process. The experimental results were in the form of batch sorption measurements for the removal of phenol at ambient temperature (29 ± 1 degree C) and for times up to 40 min and 180 min for AGC and AV, respectively. The results indicated that activated carbon has good efficiency to adsorb phenol. Freundlich equation has been fitted to both AGC and AV for the contaminant removal. The adsorption capacities of both AGC and AV to phenol were 17.4 mg g-1 and 4.5 mg g-1, respectively. The maximum desorption percent of phenol from both loaded AGC and loaded AV were 9 % and 0 %, respectively, and it attained within about 200 min. accordingly, it is recommended that activated carbon is preferred in the applied field for removing phenol from radioactive aqueous wastes

  9. Effect of Solution pH on the Adsorption of Paracetamol on Chemically Modified Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bernal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol adsorption in acidic, neutral and basic media on three activated carbons with different chemistry surfaces was studied. A granular activated carbon (GAC was prepared from coconut shell; starting from this sample, an oxidized activated carbon (GACo was obtained by treating the GAC with a boiling solution of 6 M nitric acid, so to generate a greater number of oxygenated surface groups. In addition, a reduced activated carbon (GACr was obtained by heating the GAC at 1173 K, to remove the oxygenated surface groups. Paracetamol adsorption was higher for GACr due to the lower presence of oxygenated surface functional groups. Moreover, adsorption was highest at neutral pH. The magnitude of the interactions between paracetamol molecules and activated carbons was studied by measuring the immersion enthalpies of activated carbons in solution of paracetamol at different concentrations and pH values and by calculating the interaction enthalpy. The highest value was obtained for GACr in a paracetamol solution of 1000 mg L−1 at pH 7, confirming that paracetamol adsorption is favoured on basic activated carbons at pH values near to neutrality. Finally, the Gibbs energy changes confirmed the latter result, allowing explaining the different magnitudes of the interactions between paracetamol and activated carbons, as a function of solution pH.

  10. Effect of combined activation on the preparation of high porous active carbons from granulated post-consumer polyethyleneterephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sych, N.V.; Kartel, N.T.; Tsyba, N.N.; Strelko, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from granulated post-consumer PET by combined activation including heat treatment with sulphuric acid (chemical activation) followed by steam activation. The effect of activation time, temperature, impregnation coefficient in the activation process was studied in order to optimize those reception parameters. One of the most important parameter in combined activation of crushed PET was found to be impregnation coefficient. It was defined that the optimal impregnation coefficient is equal 28%. Activation temperature is another variability which has a significant effect on the pore volume evolution. The increasing of activation temperature enhances the surface area and pore volumes of active carbons. The yield of final product which composes of nearly 15% is the factor limited the activation temperature above 800 deg. C. Textural characteristics of the samples were carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherm at -196 deg. C. The obtained active carbons were mainly micro- and mesoporous and with BET apparent surface areas of up to 1030 m 2 /g. The adsorption capacity on methylene blue reaches 1.0 mmol/g, the sorption activity on iodine comes to 77%

  11. Adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate on granular activated carbon from date pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Z.; Nedjah, S.; Azoudj, Y.; Addoun, F. [Laboratoire d' etude physic-chimique des materiaux et application a l' environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB (Algeria)], E-mail: zmerzougi@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Activated carbons, thanks to their versatility, are being used in the water treatment sector to absorb pollutants. Several factors influence the adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the porous texture and chemical nature of activated carbons on the adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Activated carbons used in this study were prepared from date pits with ZnCl2, KOH and H3PO4 by carbonization without adjuvant and adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate was conducted at 298K. Results showed that activated carbons prepared from date pits have a great potential for removing organic and inorganic pollutants from water and that the adsorption potential depends on the degree of activation of the activated carbons and on the compounds to absorb. This study highlighted that an increase of the carbon surface area and porosity results in a better adsorption capacity.

  12. 76 FR 58246 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Locomotive Coal & Chemicals Co., Ltd.; Datong Tianzhao Activated Carbon Co., Ltd.; DaTong Tri-Star & Power... Activated Carbon; Huzhou Zhonglin Activated Carbon; Inner Mongolia Taixi Coal Chemical Industry Limited... Co., Ltd.; Ningxia Xingsheng Coal and Active Carbon Co., Ltd.; Ningxia Xingsheng Coke & Activated...

  13. Highly effective catalytic peroxymonosulfate activation on N-doped mesoporous carbon for o-phenylphenol degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jifei; Yang, Shasha; Wan, Haiqin; Fu, Heyun; Qu, Xiaolei; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong

    2018-04-01

    As a broad-spectrum preservative, toxic o-phenylphenol (OPP) was frequently detected in aquatic environments. In this study, N-doped mesoporous carbon was prepared by a hard template method using different nitrogen precursors and carbonization temperatures (i.e., 700, 850 and 1000 °C), and was used to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for OPP degradation. For comparison, mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) was also prepared. Characterization results showed that the N-doped mesoporous carbon samples prepared under different conditions were perfect replica of their template. In comparison with ethylenediamine (EDA) and dicyandiamide (DCDA) as the precursors, N-doped mesoporous carbon prepared using EDA and carbon tetrachloride as the precursors displayed a higher catalytic activity for OPP degradation. Increasing carbonization temperature of N-doped mesoporous carbon led to decreased N content and increased graphitic N content at the expense of pyridinic and pyrrolic N. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis showed that PMS activation on N-doped mesoporous carbon resulted in highly active species and singlet oxygen, and catalytic PMS activation for OPP degradation followed a combined radical and nonradical reaction mechanism. Increasing PMS concentration enhanced OPP degradation, while OPP degradation rate was independent on initial OPP concentration. Furthermore, the dependency of OPP degradation on PMS concentration followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, reflecting that the activation of adsorbed PMS was the rate controlling step. Based on the analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the degradation pathway of OPP was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regeneration of used activated carbon by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Hosono, M.; Zhu, G.; Miyata, T.

    1992-01-01

    The adsorbing power of granular activated carbons which adsorbed sodium laurylsulfate were most effectively recovered by irradiation of high energy electron beams in nitrogen stream, and the carbon was hardly lost by irradiation. The regeneration was induced mainly by microscopic heating of adsorption sites. Regeneration was also confirmed by adsorption endotherms. Regeneration cost was tentatively evaluated. (author)

  15. Preparation of activated carbon from sorghum pith and its structural and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, S.T.; Senthilkumar, B. [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Balaji, S. [Materials Laboratory, Thiagarajar Advanced Research Center, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai 625015 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003 (India); Kalai Selvan, R., E-mail: selvankram@buc.edu.in [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sorghum pith as the cost effective raw material for activated carbon preparation. {yields} Physicochemical method/KOH activation for preparation of activated carbon is inexpensive. {yields} Activated carbon having lower surface area surprisingly delivered a higher specific capacitance. {yields} Treated at 500 {sup o}C activated carbon exceeds maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s. -- Abstract: The cost effective activated carbon (AC) has been prepared from sorghum pith by NaOH activation at various temperatures, including 300 {sup o}C (AC1), 400 {sup o}C (AC2) and 500 {sup o}C (AC3) for the electrodes in electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) applications. The amorphous nature of the samples has been observed from X-ray diffraction and Raman spectral studies. Subsequently, the surface functional groups, surface morphology, pore diameter and specific surface area have been identified through FT-IR, SEM, histogram and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm methods. The electrochemical characterization of AC electrodes has been examined using cyclic voltammetry technique in the potential range of -0.1-1.2 V in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at different scan rates (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 mV/s). The maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s and 222.1 F/g at 100 mV/s have been obtained for AC3 electrode when compared with AC1 and AC2 electrodes. Based on the characterization studies, it has been inferred that the activated carbon prepared from sorghum pith may be one of the innovative carbon electrode materials for EDLC applications.

  16. Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, R R; Losso, J N; Marshall, W E; Rao, R M; Portier, R J

    2004-09-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to compare the adsorption efficiency of pecan shell-based granular activated carbon with the adsorption efficiency of the commercial carbon Filtrasorb 200 with respect to uptake of the organic components responsible for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of municipal wastewater. Adsorption efficiencies for these two sets of carbons (experimental and commercial) were analyzed by the Freundlich adsorption model. The results indicate that steam-activated and acid-activated pecan shell-based carbons had higher adsorption for organic matter measured as COD, than carbon dioxide-activated pecan shell-based carbon or Filtrasorb 200 at all the carbon dosages used during the experiment. The higher adsorption may be related to surface area as the two carbons with the highest surface area also had the highest organic matter adsorption. These results show that granular activated carbons made from agricultural waste (pecan shells) can be used with greater effectiveness for organic matter removal from municipal wastewater than a coal-based commercial carbon. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse: Silver nanoparticle modification and ecotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Suely Patrícia C., E-mail: suely.goncalves@lnnano.cnpem.br [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabrício S. [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Clemente, Zaira [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Laboratory of Ecotoxicology and Biosafety, Embrapa, CEP 13820-000 Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Castro, Vera L. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology and Biosafety, Embrapa, CEP 13820-000 Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Martinez, Diego Stéfani T., E-mail: diego.martinez@lnnano.cnpem.br [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); School of Technology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), CEP 13484-332 Limeira, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse (ACPB) presented pore size ranges from 1.0 to 3.5 nm, and surface area between 1200 and 1400 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} that is higher than commonly observed to commercial activated carbon. The ACPB material was successfully loaded with of silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35 nm (0.81 wt.%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the material surface contains metallic/Ag{sup 0} (93.60 wt.%) and ionic/Ag{sup +} states (6.40 wt.%). The adsorption capacity of organic model molecules (i.e. methylene blue and phenol) was very efficient to ACPB and ACPB loaded with silver nanoparticles (ACPB-AgNP), indicating that the material modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its adsorption capacity. ACPB-AgNP inhibited bacteria growth (Escherichia coli), it is a promising advantage for the use of these materials in wastewater treatment and water purification processes. However, ACPB-AgNP showed environmental risks, with toxic effect to the aquatic organism Hydra attenuata (i.e. LC50 value of 1.94 mg L{sup −1}), and it suppressed root development of Lycopersicum esculentum plant (tomato). Finally, this work draw attention for the environmental implications of activated carbon materials modified with silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Production of very efficient activated carbon by pyrolysis process of sugarcane bagasse. • Modification of activated carbon with silver nanoparticles to environmental remediation and water purification. • Activated carbon modified with silver nanoparticles showed acute ecotoxic effects.

  18. Optimized preparation for large surface area activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stone biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish, Mohammed; Hashim, Rokiah; Ibrahim, M.N. Mohamad; Sulaiman, Othman

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from date stone treated with phosphoric acid was optimized using rotatable central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The chemical activating agent concentration and temperature of activation plays a crucial role in preparation of large surface area activated carbons. The optimized activated carbon was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the larger surface area of activated carbon from date stone can be achieved under optimum activating agent (phosphoric acid) concentration, 50.0% (8.674 mol L −1 ) and activation temperature, 900 °C. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of optimized activated carbon was found to be 1225 m 2  g −1 , and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that 55.2% mass of optimized activated carbon was found thermally stable till 900 °C. The leading chemical functional groups found in the date stone activated carbon were aliphatic carboxylic acid salt ν(C=O) 1561.22 cm −1 and 1384.52 cm −1 , aliphatic hydrocarbons ν(C–H) 2922.99 cm −1 (C–H sym./asym. stretch frequency), aliphatic phosphates ν(P–O–C) 1054.09 cm −1 , and secondary aliphatic alcohols ν(O–H) 3419.81 cm −1 and 1159.83 cm −1 . - Highlights: • RSM optimization was done for the production of large surface area activated carbon. • Two independent variables with two responses were selected for optimization. • Characterization was done for surface area, morphology and chemical constituents. • Optimized date stone activated carbon achieved surface area 1225 m 2  g −1

  19. An adsorption of carbon dioxide on activated carbon controlled by temperature swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Korinek; Karel, Frana

    2017-09-01

    This work deals with a method of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) in indoor air. Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) on solid adsorbent was chosen for CO2 capture. Commercial activated carbon (AC) in form of extruded pellets was used as a solid adsorbent. There was constructed a simple device to testing effectiveness of CO2 capture in a fixed bed with AC. The TSA cycle was also simulated using the open-source software OpenFOAM. There was a good agreement between results obtained from numerical simulations and experimental data for adsorption process.

  20. Elemental mercury vapor capture by powdered activated carbon in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrizio Scala; Riccardo Chirone; Amedeo Lancia [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, Napoli (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    A bubbling fluidized bed of inert material was used to increase the activated carbon residence time in the reaction zone and to improve its performance for mercury vapor capture. Elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100{sup o}C in a purposely designed 65 mm ID lab-scale pyrex reactor, that could be operated both in the fluidized bed and in the entrained bed configurations. Commercial powdered activated carbon was pneumatically injected in the reactor and mercury concentration at the outlet was monitored continuously. Experiments were carried out at different inert particle sizes, bed masses, fluidization velocities and carbon feed rates. Experimental results showed that the presence of a bubbling fluidized bed led to an increase of the mercury capture efficiency and, in turn, of the activated carbon utilization. This was explained by the enhanced activated carbon loading and gas-solid contact time that establishes in the reaction zone, because of the large surface area available for activated carbon adhesion/deposition in the fluidized bed. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the bed outlet during the runs were used to discriminate between the controlling phenomena in the process. Experimental data have been analyzed in the light of a phenomenological framework that takes into account the presence of both free and adhered carbon in the reactor as well as mercury saturation of the adsorbent. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Adsorption/oxidation of sulfur-containing gases on nitrogen-doped activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shell-based activated carbon (CAC was used for the removal of methyl mercaptan (MM. CAC was modified by urea impregnation and calcined at 450°C and 950°C. The desulfurization activity was determined in a fixed bed reactor under room temperature. The results showed that the methyl mercaptan adsorption/oxidation capacity of modified carbon caicined at 950°C is more than 3 times the capacity of original samples. On the other hand, the modified carbon caicined at 950°C also has a high capacity for the simultaneous adsorption/oxidation of methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide.The introduce of basic nitrogen groups siginificantly increases the desulfurization since it can facilitate the electron transfer process between sulfur and oxygen. The structure and chemical properties are characterized using Boehm titration, N2 adsorption-desorption method, thermal analysis and elemental analysis. The results showed that the major oxidation products were dimethyl disulfide and methanesulfonic acid which adsorbed in the activated carbon.

  2. Adsorption characteristics of benzene on biosolid adsorbent and commercial activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Yu; Choa, Ching-Guan; Hwu, Ching-Shyung; Lai, Nina

    2006-05-01

    This study selected biosolids from a petrochemical waste-water treatment plant as the raw material. The sludge was immersed in 0.5-5 M of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) solutions and pyrolyzed at different temperatures and times. Results indicated that the 1-M ZnCl2-immersed biosolids pyrolyzed at 500 degrees C for 30 min could be reused and were optimal biosolid adsorbents for benzene adsorption. Pore volume distribution analysis indicated that the mesopore contributed more than the macropore and micropore in the biosolid adsorbent. The benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was 65 and 55% of the G206 (granular-activated carbon) and BPL (coal-based activated carbon; Calgon, Carbon Corp.) activated carbons, respectively. Data from the adsorption and desorption cycles indicated that the benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was insignificantly reduced compared with the first-run capacity of the adsorbent; therefore, the biosolid adsorbent could be reused as a commercial adsorbent, although its production cost is high.

  3. USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for uses other than taste and odor control is poorly documented, the purpose of this article is to critically review uses that have been reported (i.e., pesticides and herbicides, synthetic organic chemicals, and trihalom...

  4. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, N. V.; Trofymenko, S. I.; Poddubnaya, O. I.; Tsyba, M. M.; Sapsay, V. I.; Klymchuk, D. O.; Puziy, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 °C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (SBET = 2081 m2/g, Vtot = 1.1 cm3/g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0-2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7-5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7-7.4; 8.8-9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1-10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  5. Production of activated carbon by using pyrolysis process in an ammonia atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indayaningsih, N.; Destyorini, F.; Purawiardi, R. I.; Insiyanda, D. R.; Widodo, H.

    2017-04-01

    Activated carbon is materials that have wide applications, including supercapacitor materials, absorbent in chemical industry, and absorbent material in the chemical industry. This study has carried out for the manufacturing of activated carbon from inexpensive materials through efficient processes. Carbon material was made from coconut fibers through pyrolysis process at temperature of 650, 700, 750 and 800°C. Aim of this study was to obtain carbon material that has a large surface area. Pyrolysis process is carried out in an inert atmosphere (N2 gas) at a temperature of 450°C for 30 minutes, followed by pyrolysis process in an ammonia atmosphere at 800°C for 2 hours. The pyrolysis results showed that the etching process in ammonia is occurred; as it obtained some greater surface area when compared with the pyrolisis process in an atmosphere by inert gas only. The resulted activated carbon also showed to have good properties in surface area and total pore volume.

  6. High-performance all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on two-step activated carbon cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shulan; Shi, Tielin; Zhan, Xiaobin; Long, Hu; Xi, Shuang; Hu, Hao; Tang, Zirong

    2014-12-01

    A simple and effective strategy is proposed to activate carbon cloth for the fabrication of flexible and high-performance supercapacitors. Firstly, the carbon cloth surface is exfoliated as nanotextures through wet chemical treatment, then an annealing process is applied at H2/N2 atmosphere to reduce the surface oxygen functional groups which are mainly introduced from the first step. The activated carbon cloth electrode shows excellent wettablity, large surface area and delivers remarkable electrochemical performance. A maximum areal capacitance of 485.64 mF cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 is achieved for the activated carbon cloth electrode, which is considerably larger than the resported results for carbon cloth. Furthermore, the flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor, which is fabricated based on the activated carbon cloth electrodes, shows high areal capacitance, superior cycling stability as well as stable electrochemical performance even under constant bending or twisting conditions. An areal capacitance of 161.28 mF cm-2 is achieved at the current density of 12.5 mA cm-2, and 104% of its initial capacitance is retained after 30,000 charging/discharging cycles. This study would also provide an effective way to boost devices' electrochemical performance by accommodating other active materials on the activated carbon cloth.

  7. The use of activated carbons for removing organic matter from groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Jadwiga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research results of the introduction of powdery activated carbon to the existing technological system of the groundwater treatment stations in a laboratory, pilot plant and technical scale. The aim of the research was to reduce the content of organic compounds found in the treated water, which create toxic organic chlorine compounds (THM after disinfection with chlorine. Nine types of powdery active carbons were tested in laboratory scale. The top two were selected for further study. Pilot plant scale research was carried out for the filter model using CWZ-30 and Norit Sa Super carbon. Reduction of the organic matter in relation to the existing content in the treated water reached about 30%. Research in technical scale using CWZ-30 carbon showed a lesser efficiency with respect to laboratory and pilot-plant scale studies. The organic matter decreased by 15%. Since filtration is the last process before the individual disinfection, an alternative solution is proposed, i.e. the second stage of filtration with a granular activated carbon bed, operating in combined sorption and biodegradation processes. The results of tests carried out in pilot scale were fully satisfactory with the effectiveness of 70–100%.

  8. Phenol removal onto novel activated carbons made from lignocellulosic precursors: influence of surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, J M Valente; Gomes, J A; Suhas; Carrott, P J M; Laginhas, C; Roman, S

    2009-08-15

    The adsorption of phenol from dilute aqueous solutions onto new activated carbons (AC) was studied. The novel activated carbon was produced from lignocellulosic (LC) precursors of rapeseed and kenaf. Samples oxidised with nitric acid in liquid phase were also studied. The results have shown the significant potential of rapeseed and kenaf for the activated carbon production. The activated carbons produced by carbon dioxide activation were mainly microporous with BET apparent surface area up to 1350 m(2)g(-1) and pore volume 0.5 cm(3)g(-1). The effects of concentration (0.1-2 mM) and pH (3-13) were studied. The phenol adsorption isotherms at 25 degrees C followed the Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacities of approximately 80 and 50 mg g(-1) for the pristine and oxidised activated carbons, respectively. The influence of pH on the adsorption has two trends for pH below and above 10. It was possible to conclude that when phenol is predominantly in the molecular form the most probable mechanism is based on the pi-pi dispersion interaction between the phenol aromatic ring and the delocalised pi electrons present in the activated carbon aromatic structure. When phenolate is the major component the electrostatic repulsion that occurs at high pH values is the most important aspect of the adsorption mechanism.

  9. Phenol removal onto novel activated carbons made from lignocellulosic precursors: Influence of surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente Nabais, J.M.; Gomes, J.A.; Suhas; Carrott, P.J.M.; Laginhas, C.; Roman, S.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of phenol from dilute aqueous solutions onto new activated carbons (AC) was studied. The novel activated carbon was produced from lignocellulosic (LC) precursors of rapeseed and kenaf. Samples oxidised with nitric acid in liquid phase were also studied. The results have shown the significant potential of rapeseed and kenaf for the activated carbon production. The activated carbons produced by carbon dioxide activation were mainly microporous with BET apparent surface area up to 1350 m 2 g -1 and pore volume 0.5 cm 3 g -1 . The effects of concentration (0.1-2 mM) and pH (3-13) were studied. The phenol adsorption isotherms at 25 deg. C followed the Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacities of approximately 80 and 50 mg g -1 for the pristine and oxidised activated carbons, respectively. The influence of pH on the adsorption has two trends for pH below and above 10. It was possible to conclude that when phenol is predominantly in the molecular form the most probable mechanism is based on the π-π dispersion interaction between the phenol aromatic ring and the delocalised π electrons present in the activated carbon aromatic structure. When phenolate is the major component the electrostatic repulsion that occurs at high pH values is the most important aspect of the adsorption mechanism.

  10. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Dinamics of BF3 sorption on activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoj, A.S.; Petrenko, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of BF 3 sorption on BAUAG-3 and SKT-4A carbons is studied by recording the curve of BF 3 concentration change in time at the outlet from the column filled with activated carbon when blowing it with a current of BF 3 and helium mixture. The effect of sorbent type, temperature and pressure of the gaseous mixture, BF 3 content in it and its partial pressure, BF 3 consumption on the width of sorption zone is studied. The results of studies can be used to calculate and optimize the conditions of sorption processes connected with the absorption of BF 3 by carbons from the gaseous flows in the dynamic mode

  12. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs

  13. Porosity and adsorption properties of activated carbon derived from palm oil waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Seman Mahmood; Nor Hayati Alias; Choo Thye Foo; Megat Harun Al-Rashid Megat Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon have extensively been used as adsorbents in industry for the removal of pollutant species from gases for the purpose of purification and recovery of chemicals. The adsorption properties of the carbons depend very much on the porosity and type of pore presents which can be generated and controlled during synthesis and activation steps. This paper reports the effect of chemical activation by ZnCl 3 , KOH and nh 4 OH on the porosity of carbon produced from palm oil industry waste. Type of pores will further be validated by the SEM micrograph. The amount of gas adsorbed, the adsorption capacities can also be estimated based on the BET experiments data. The applicability of the produced carbon materials for the removal and exchange of hazardous incinerator gas is discussed. (Author)

  14. Adsorption of methyl orange using activated carbon prepared from lignin by ZnCl2 treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, K.; Hamdi, N.; Kriaa, A.; Srasra, E.

    2012-08-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are good and cheap precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this study, activated carbons were prepared from the lignin at different temperatures (200 to 500°C) by ZnCl2. The effects influencing the surface area of the resulting activated carbon are activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio. The optimum condition, are found an impregnation ratio of 2, an activation temperature of 450°C, and an activation time of 2 h. The results showed that the surface area and micropores volume of activated carbon at the experimental conditions are achieved to 587 and 0.23 cm3 g-1, respectively. The adsorption behavior of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution onto activated lignin was investigated as a function of equilibrium time, pH and concentration. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. A maximum adsorption capacity of 300 mg g-1 of methyl orange by activated carbon was achieved.

  15. The Influence of the Activation Temperature on the Structural Properties of the Activated Carbon Xerogels and Their Electrochemical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Khanh Nguyen Quach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of activation temperature on the structural properties and the electrochemical performance of KOH-activated carbon xerogel was investigated in range of 700 to 1000°C. At a high temperature (1000°C, the chemical activation regenerated a more crystalline network structure of activated carbon xerogels, which was observed by Raman, XRD, and TEM images. Additionally, SEM images, BET, BJH, and t-plot were used to study the structural properties of carbon xerogels. The carbon xerogel sample activated at 900°C was found with the most appropriate structure, which has the high micropore area and a more-balanced porosity between the micropores and mesopores, for using as an electrode material. The highest obtained specific capacitance value was 270 Fg−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte at scan rate of 5 mVs−1 from the cyclic voltammetry.

  16. Natural gas adsorption on biomass derived activated carbons: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Usman D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon materials are good candidates for natural gas storage due excellent textural properties that are easy to enhance and modify. Natural gas is much cleaner fuel than coal and other petroleum derivatives. Storage of natural gas on porous sorbents at lower pressure is safer and cheaper compared to compressed and liquefied natural gas. This article reviews some works conducted on natural gas storage on biomass based activated carbon materials. Methane storage capacities and deliveries of the various sorbents were given. The effect of factors such as surface area, pore characteristic, heat of adsorption, packing density on the natural gas storage capacity on the activated carbons are discussed. Challenges, improvements and future directions of natural gas storage on porous carbonaceous materials are highlighted.

  17. Activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotube based electrochemical capacitor in 1 M LiPF6 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, M.A.; Jantan, N.H.; Dorah, N.; Seman, R.N.A.R.; Manaf, N.S.A.; Kudin, T.I.T.; Yahya, M.Z.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon and single-walled CNT based electrochemical capacitor. • Electrochemical analysis by means of CV, charge/discharge and impedance. • 1 M LiPF 6 non-aqueous solution as an electrolyte. • AC/SWCNT electrode exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g −1 . - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have been extensively studied because of their wide range of potential application such as in nanoscale electric circuits, textiles, transportation, health, and the environment. Carbon nanotubes feature extraordinary properties, such as electrical conductivities higher than those of copper, hardness and thermal conductivity higher than those of diamond, and strength surpassing that of steel, among others. This research focuses on the fabrication of an energy storage device, namely, an electrochemical capacitor, by using carbon materials, i.e., activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotubes, of a specific weight ratio as electrode materials. The electrolyte functioning as an ion carrier is 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate. Variations in the electrochemical performance of the device, including its capacitance, charge/discharge characteristics, and impedance, are reported in this paper. The electrode proposed in this work exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g −1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s −1

  18. Evaluation of activities of carbons in chemical equilibrium with uranium carbonitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Masahiro; Hirota, Masayuki; Miyake, Masanobu; Hamada, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    A mixture of uranium sesquinitride and carbon was prepared by the reaction of UC of UC 2 with N 2 in the temperature range from 700 to 1400degC. When the mixture of uranium sesquinitride and carbon is kept at temperatures above 1200degC in the atmosphere of N 2 at low pressure, the state where uranium carbonitride (UC 1-x N x ) and carbon are present together in chemical equilibrium will be established. A thermodynamic analysis suggests that, in the equilibrium state, the composition of UC 1-x N x is determined by the chemical activity of carbon, a c , which is related to the chemical potential of the carbon, μ c , by the equation, μ c = μ c deg + RT 1n a c . Here μ c deg refers to graphite, which is usually taken as the standard state of carbon (a c = 1). Mixtures of U 2 N 3 and carbon with several degrees of graphitization were heat-treated at 1400degC, and the composition of UC 1-x N x in the reaction product was determined. From these experimental results and the thermodynamic analysis, values of the activity of the carbon coexisting with UC 1-x N x were estimated. (author)

  19. Effect of activated carbon on microbial bioavailability of phenanthrene in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Hunter, W.; Tao, S.; Crowley, D.; Gan, J. [University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2009-11-15

    Bioavailability is a governing factor that controls the rate of biological degradation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soil. Among the solid phases that can adsorb hydrophobic organic contaminants in soil, black carbon (BC) exerts a particularly significant effect on phase distribution. However, knowledge on the effect of BC on the microbial availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil is still limited. In the present study, the effect of a coal-derived activated carbon on the bioavailability of phenanthrene (PHE) during its degradation by Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 was measured in three soils. The freely dissolved concentration of PHE was concurrently determined in soil solutions using disposable polydimethylsiloxane fibers. The results showed that PHE mineralization was significantly inhibited after addition of activated carbon in all test soils. After 216 h, only 5.20, 5.83, and 6.85% of PHE was degraded in the 0.5% BC-amended soils initially containing organic carbon at 0.23, 2.1, and 7.1%, respectively. Significant correlation was found between PHE degradability and freely dissolved concentration, suggesting that BC affected PHE bioavailability by decreasing chemical activity. The effect of activated carbon in the amended soils was attributed to its enhancement of soil surface areas and pore volumes. Results from the present study clearly highlighted the importance of BC for influencing the microbial availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils.

  20. An activated microporous carbon prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin for lithium ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Wu, Yuhu; Xie, Hui; Wu, Zhilian; Tian, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microporous carbon was prepared by chemical activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. ► Activation leads to high surface area, well-developed micropores. ► Micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion. ► Large surface area promotes to improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon anode materials were prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin by ZnCl 2 and KOH activation. The physicochemical properties of the obtained carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and elemental analysis. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode materials in lithium ion secondary batteries were evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g −1 , the carbon without activation shows a first discharge capacity of 515 mAh g −1 . After activation, the capacity improved obviously. The first discharge capacity of the carbon prepared by ZnCl 2 and KOH activation was 1010 and 2085 mAh g −1 , respectively. The reversible capacity of the carbon prepared by KOH activation was still as high as 717 mAh g −1 after 20 cycles, which was much better than that activated by ZnCl 2 . These results demonstrated that it may be a promising candidate as an anode material for lithium ion secondary batteries.

  1. 75 FR 48644 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...; Huaxin Active Carbon Plant; Huzhou Zhonglin Activated Carbon; Inner Mongolia Taixi Coal Chemical Industry... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-904] Certain Activated Carbon... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the...

  2. Activated carbon as a pseudo-reference electrode for electrochemical measurement inside concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The application of Kynol based activated carbon (KAC) as a pseudo-reference electrode for potentiometric measurement inside concrete is presented. Due to its high surface area the activated carbons has a large electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC > 50 F g(-1)) and are used as electrode material

  3. The effect of CO2 activation temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of activated carbon monolith from banana stem waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, E.; Susanti, Y.; Awitdrus, Sugianto, Taslim, R.; Setiadi, R. N.; Bahri, S.; Agustino, Dewi, P.; Kurniasih, B.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of CO2 activation on the synthesis of activated carbon monolith from banana stem waste has been studied. Physical characteristics such as density, degree of crystallinity, surface morphology and elemental content has been analyzed, supporting the finding of an excellent electrochemical properties for the supercapacitor. The synthesis of activated carbon electrode began with pre-carbonization process at temperature of 250°C for 2.5 h. Then the process was continued by chemical activation using KOH as activating agent with a concentration of 0.4 M. The pellets were formed with 8 ton hydrolic pressure. All the samples were carbonized at a temperature of 600°C, followed by physical activation using CO2 gas at a various temperatures ranging from 800°C, 850°C, 900°C and 950°C for 2 h. The carbon content was increased with increasing temperature and the optimum temperature was 900°C. The specific capacitance depends on the activation temperature with the highest specific capacitance of 104.2 F/g at the activation temperature of 900°C.

  4. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  5. Utilization of turkey manure as granular activated carbon: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabel; Marshall, Wayne E

    2005-01-01

    The high availability of large quantities of turkey manure generated from turkey production makes it an attractive feedstock for carbon production. Pelletized samples of turkey litter and cake were converted to granular activated carbons (GACs) by steam activation. Water flow rate and activation time were changed to produce a range of activation conditions. The GACs were characterized for select physical (yield, surface area, bulk density, attrition), chemical (pH, surface charge) and adsorptive properties (copper ion uptake). Carbon physical and adsorptive properties were dependent on activation time and quantity of steam used as activant. Yields varied from 23% to 37%, surface area varied from 248 to 472 m(2)/g and copper ion adsorption varied from 0.72 to 1.86 mmol Cu(2+)/g carbon. Copper ion adsorption greatly exceeded the values for two commercial GACs. GACs from turkey litter and cake show considerable potential to remove metal ions from water.

  6. Microbial activity in granular activated carbon filters in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezev, A.

    2015-01-01

    The investigations described are carried out to analyse the microbiological processes in relation to the GAC characteristics and the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in Granular Activated Carbon filters (GACFs) in water treatment. The main goal of the study was to obtain a qualitative

  7. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  8. Single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption on activated carbon of compounds used as plasticizers and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel daiem, Mahmoud M; Rivera-Utrilla, José; Sánchez-Polo, Manuel; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl

    2015-12-15

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the single, competitive, and dynamic adsorption of phthalic acid (PA), bisphenol A (BPA), diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D), and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on two activated carbons with different chemical natures and similar textural characteristics. The adsorption mechanism was also elucidated by analyzing the influence of solution pH and ionic strength. The activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption capacity to remove all micropollutants due to the presence of active sites on their surfaces, which increase dispersive interactions between the activated carbon graphene layers and the aromatic ring of pollutants. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons increased in the order: DPApH (pHactivated carbon decreased by around 50% and 70% in the presence of DPA and BPA, respectively, indicating that both compounds are adsorbed on the same adsorption sites of the activated carbon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hierarchical activated mesoporous phenolic-resin-based carbons for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Zhou, Min; Chen, Hao; Jiang, Jingui; Guan, Shiyou

    2014-10-01

    A series of hierarchical activated mesoporous carbons (AMCs) were prepared by the activation of highly ordered, body-centered cubic mesoporous phenolic-resin-based carbon with KOH. The effect of the KOH/carbon-weight ratio on the textural properties and capacitive performance of the AMCs was investigated in detail. An AMC prepared with a KOH/carbon-weight ratio of 6:1 possessed the largest specific surface area (1118 m(2) g(-1)), with retention of the ordered mesoporous structure, and exhibited the highest specific capacitance of 260 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1) in 1 M H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte. This material also showed excellent rate capability (163 F g(-1) retained at 20 A g(-1)) and good long-term electrochemical stability. This superior capacitive performance could be attributed to a large specific surface area and an optimized micro-mesopore structure, which not only increased the effective specific surface area for charge storage but also provided a favorable pathway for efficient ion transport. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Brief review: Preparation techniques of biomass based activated carbon monolith electrode for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, Erman; Taslim, Rika

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrode made from a biomass material using the hydrolytic pressure or the pelletization technique of pre-carbonized materials is one of standard reported methods. Several steps such as pre-carbonization, milling, chemical activation, hydraulic press, carbonization, physical activation, polishing and washing need to be accomplished in the production of electrodes by this method. This is relatively a long process that need to be simplified. In this paper we present the standard method and proceed with the introduction to several alternative methods in the synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrodes. The alternative methods were emphasized on the selection of suitable biomass materials. All of carbon electrodes prepared by different methods will be analyzed for physical and electrochemical properties. The density, degree of crystallinity, surface morphology are examples for physical study and specific capacitance was an electrochemical properties that has been analysed. This alternative method has offered a specific capacitance in the range of 10 to 171 F/g.

  11. Influence of aging on the retention of CH3131I by various empregnated activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1986-08-01

    Nuclear power plants are equipped with iodine filters containing impregnated activated carbons to keep the release of airborne radioiodine as low as reasonably achievable. Impregnated activated carbons are known to age, i.e. to deteriorate in performance with respect to the retention of radioiodine, particularly in iodine filters that are continuously operated (e.g. containment exhaust air filters of pressurized water reactors). The aging of carbons in iodine filters is essentially due to the adsorption of organic compounds (e.g. solvents) and of inorganic compounds (e.g. Osub(x), SO 2 , NOsub(x)). In the first case the effective surface of the carbon is lowered. In the second case reactions with carbon as well as with the impregnant can occur. In iodine filters various impregnated activated carbons are used differing e.g. in base material, grain size and impregnant. In recent years new impregnated activated carbons were developed. Therefore, investigations are performed to provide comparative data on the aging of a variety of commercial impregnated activated carbons from several countries under relevant conditions. The data relate to the retention of methyl iodide (CH 3 I-131). The investigations cover the aging of 15 different impregnated activated carbons in the containment exhaust air of a typical German pressurized water reactor over periods of up to 9 months

  12. Experiment of Industrial Waste Absorption using Activated Carbon from Coal of Tanjung Tabalong, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ulum Gani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.130Activated carbon made from Tanjung Tabalong coal was investigated its absorption capability to organic and inorganic elements in industrial waste. Coal was carbonized at low temperature of 600C to produce semicoke, and then was activated at temperature of 700C with activation time of 120 minutes with water steam flow. The absorption capability of activated carbon to chemical oxygen demand (COD was performed using 2.5 and 9.0 g activated carbon for 250 ml and 300 ml COD waste respectively. The agitation time of each experiment were 30, 60, and 90 minutes. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS was used to analyze the COD waste. The result shows that 2.5 g activated carbon could absorb COD waste ranging from 6.9-67.5 %, while the utilization of 9 g could absorb COD waste ranging from 88.9 - 100 %. The more activated carbon and the longer time of agitation used in this experiment, the more the absorption of COD waste.

  13. Carbon-enriched coal fly ash as a precursor of activated carbons for SO2 removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M T; Rubio, B

    2008-06-30

    Carbon-enriched coal fly ash was evaluated in this work as a low-cost adsorbent for SO2 removal from stack gases. The unburned carbon in coal fly ash was concentrated by mechanical sieving and vegetal oil agglomeration. The carbon concentrates were activated with steam at 900 degrees C in order to develop porosity onto the samples. The performance of these samples in the SO2 abatement was tested in the following conditions: 100 degrees C, 1000 ppmv SO2, 5% O2, 6% water vapor. A good SO2 removal capacity was shown by some of the studied samples that can be related to their textural properties. Cycles of SO2 adsorption/regeneration were carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of thermal regeneration and re-use of these carbons. Regeneration of the exhausted carbons was carried out at 400 degrees C of temperature and a flow of 25 ml/min of Ar. After each cycle, the SO2 removal capacity of the sample decreases.

  14. Production of activated carbon from TCR char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Heberlein, Markus; Klinner, Tobias; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of char for adsorptive purposes is known since the 18th century. At that time the char was made of wood or bones and used for decoloration of fluids. In the 20th century the production of activated carbon in an industrial scale was started. The today's raw materials for activated carbon production are hard coal, peat, wood or coconut shells. All these materials entail costs especially the latter. Thus, the utilization of carbon rich residues (biomass) is an interesting economic opportunity because it is available for no costs or even can create income. The char is produced by thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR®). This process is a combination of an intermediate pyrolysis and subsequently a reforming step. During the pyrolysis step the material is decomposed in a vapor and a solid carbon enriched phase. In the second step the vapor and the solid phase get in an intensive contact and the quality of both materials is improved via the reforming process. Subsequently, the condensables are precipitated from the vapor phase and a permanent gas as well as oil is obtained. Both are suitable for heat and power production which is a clear advantage of the TCR® process. The obtained biochar from the TCR® process has special properties. This material has a very low hydrogen and oxygen content. Its stability is comparable to hard coal or anthracite. Therefore it consists almost only of carbon and ash. The latter depends from input material. Furthermore the surface structure and area can be influenced during the reforming step. Depending from temperature and residence time the number of micro pores and the surface area can be increased. Preliminary investigations with methylene blue solution have shown that a TCR® char made of digestate from anaerobic digestion has adsorptive properties. The decoloration of the solution was achieved. A further influencing factor of the adsorption performance is the particle size. Based on the results of the preliminary tests a

  15. Utilization of oil palm fronds in producing activated carbon using Na2CO3 as an activator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulina, S.; Anwari, FN

    2018-02-01

    Oil Palm Frond is a waste in palm oil plantations that have the potential to be processed into more valuable products. This possibility is because of the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in oil palm fronds. Therefore, this study aimed to utilize oil palm fronds in manufacturing of activated carbon through pyrolysis and impregnation that meets the requirements of the Industrial National Standard 06-3730-1995. The palm-fringed oil palm fronds were pyrolyzed in reactors at 150°C, 200°C, and 250°C for 60 minutes. Subsequently, the charcoal produced from the pyrolysis was smoothed with a ball mill, sieved with a size of 140 meshes, and impregnated using a Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) for 24 hours at a concentration of 0 %, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5 % (w/v). The activated carbon has 35.13% of charcoal yield, 8.6% of water content, 14.25% of ash content, 24.75% of volatile matter, 72.75% of fixed carbon, and 492.29 of iodine number. Moreover, SEM analysis indicated that activated carbon porous are coarse and distributed.

  16. Catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction is sensitive to carbonic anhydrase I activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puscas I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the relationship between alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists and the activity of carbonic anhydrase I and II in erythrocyte, clinical and vessel studies. Kinetic studies were performed. Adrenergic agonists increased erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase as follows: adrenaline by 75%, noradrenaline by 68%, isoprenaline by 55%, and orciprenaline by 62%. The kinetic data indicated a non-competitive mechanism of action. In clinical studies carbonic anhydrase I from erythrocytes increased by 87% after noradrenaline administration, by 71% after orciprenaline and by 82% after isoprenaline. The increase in carbonic anhydrase I paralleled the increase in blood pressure. Similar results were obtained in vessel studies on piglet vascular smooth muscle. We believe that adrenergic agonists may have a dual mechanism of action: the first one consists of a catecholamine action on its receptor with the formation of a stimulus-receptor complex. The second mechanism proposed completes the first one. By this second component of the mechanism, the same stimulus directly acts on the carbonic anhydrase I isozyme (that might be functionally coupled with adrenergic receptors, so that its activation ensures an adequate pH for stimulus-receptor coupling for signal transduction into the cell, resulting in vasoconstriction.

  17. Activated carbon derived from rice husk by NaOH activation and its application in supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khu Le Van

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Four activated carbon (AC samples prepared from rice husk under different activation temperatures have been characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA–DTA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The specific surface area of AC sample reached 2681 m2 g−1 under activation temperature of 800 °C. The AC samples were then tested as electrode material; the specific capacitance of the as-prepared activated carbon electrode was found to be 172.3 F g−1 using cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 and 198.4 F g−1 at current density 1000 mA g−1 in the charge/discharge mode.

  18. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  19. Imaging active topological defects in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Kazu; Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Koshino, Masanori; Sato, Yuta; Urita, Koki; Iijima, Sumio

    2007-06-01

    A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is a wrapped single graphene layer, and its plastic deformation should require active topological defects-non-hexagonal carbon rings that can migrate along the nanotube wall. Although in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to examine the deformation of SWNTs, these studies deal only with diameter changes and no atomistic mechanism has been elucidated experimentally. Theory predicts that some topological defects can form through the Stone-Wales transformation in SWNTs under tension at 2,000 K, and could act as a dislocation core. We demonstrate here, by means of high-resolution (HR)-TEM with atomic sensitivity, the first direct imaging of pentagon-heptagon pair defects found in an SWNT that was heated at 2,273 K. Moreover, our in situ HR-TEM observation reveals an accumulation of topological defects near the kink of a deformed nanotube. This result suggests that dislocation motions or active topological defects are indeed responsible for the plastic deformation of SWNTs.

  20. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  1. Hierarchical porous carbons prepared by an easy one-step carbonization and activation of phenol-formaldehyde resins with high performance for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhoujun [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Graduate School, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao, Qiuming [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Graduate School, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Hierarchical porous carbons are prepared by an easy one-step process of carbonization and activation derived from phenol-formaldehyde resins, in which potassium hydroxide acts as both the catalyst of polymerization and the activation reagent. The simple one-step preparation saves the cost of carbons and leads to high yield. The porous carbons have high surface areas with abundant pore structures. The plenty of micropores and small mesopores increase the capacitance and make the electrolyte ions diffuse fast into the pores. These hierarchical porous carbons show high performance for supercapacitors possessing of the optimized capacitance of 234 F g{sup -1} in aqueous electrolyte and 137 F g{sup -1} in organic electrolyte with high capacitive retention. (author)

  2. Physicochemical properties of carbons prepared from pecan shell by phosphoric acid activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanping; Rockstraw, David A

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from pecan shell by phosphoric acid activation. The pore structure and acidic surface groups of these carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, Boehm titration and transmittance Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The characterization results demonstrated that the development of pore structure was apparent at temperatures 250 degrees C, and reached 1130m(2)/g and 0.34cm(3)/g, respectively, at 500 degrees C. Impregnation ratio and soaking time at activation temperature also affected the pore development and pore size distribution of final carbon products. At an impregnation ratio of 1.5, activated carbon with BET surface area and micropore volume as high as 861m(2)/g and 0.289cm(3)/g was obtained at 400 degrees C. Microporous activated carbons were obtained in this study. Low impregnation ratio (less than 1.5) and activation temperature (less than 300 degrees C) are favorable to the formation of acidic surface functional groups, which consist of temperature-sensitive (unstable at high temperature) and temperature-insensitive (stable at high temperature) two parts. The disappearance of temperature-sensitive groups was significant at temperature 300 degrees C; while the temperature-insensitive groups are stable even at 500 degrees C. FTIR results showed that the temperature-insensitive part was mostly phosphorus-containing groups as well as some carbonyl-containing groups, while carbonyl-containing groups were the main contributor of temperature-sensitive part.

  3. Detecting Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Joannalyn; Mikulski, Rose; Tu, Chingkuang; Li, Ying; Wang, Hai; Shiverick, Kathleen T.; Frost, Susan C.; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Silverman, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Current research into the function of carbonic anhydrases in cell physiology emphasizes the role of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases, such as carbonic anhydrase IX that has been identified in malignant tumors and is associated with extracellular acidification as a response to hypoxia. We present here a mass spectrometric method to determine the extent to which total carbonic anhydrase activity is due to extracellular carbonic anhydrase in whole cell preparations. The method is based on the biphasic rate of depletion of 18O from CO2 measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The slopes of the biphasic depletion are a sensitive measure of the presence of carbonic anhydrase outside and inside of the cells. This property is demonstrated here using suspensions of human red cells in which external carbonic anhydrase was added to the suspending solution. It is also applied to breast and prostate cancer cells which both express exofacial carbonic anhydrase IX. Inhibition of external carbonic anhydrase is achieved by use of a membrane impermeant inhibitor that was synthesized for this purpose, p-aminomethylbenzenesulfonamide attached to a polyethyleneglycol polymer. PMID:20417171

  4. Improvement of clayey soil characteristics by using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Soudany Kawther

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The clay soil is weak and unable to carry the applied loads as a result of the weight of buildings or vehicles on the load performing on the soil. In this research, clay soil was grained and mixed with different percentages of activated carbon additives to investigate its performance. One type of clay soil from Al-Taji city was used. The percentages of activated carbon 3, 5, 7 and 9% were added to the soil and the influence of the admixture was observed by comparing the results with the untreated soil. The selected properties for this comparison were specific gravity, consistency limits, compaction, static compaction, CBR, consolidation, swelling and unconfined compressive strength. The results showed that the plasticity index, maximum dry weight and specific gravity decreased as the percentage of additives increased. The unconfined compressive strength increased as the percentage of additives and curing periods (1, 7, 14 and 28days increased. The amount of increase in soil strength was even more than 100% for the 9% activatedcarbon. The results showed that the addition of activated carbon has a positive effect to the geotechnical properties.

  5. Determination of carbon in chromium by photon activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoroff, M; Loos-Neskovic, C; Revel, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique

    1975-01-01

    Carbon is determined in chromium by activation in 35 MeV photons. The sample is dissolved by a fused NaOH-NaNO/sub 3/ bath. Carbon dioxide is then extracted by acid dissolution of the solidified bath. A limit of detection of 0.03 ..mu..g of carbon is achieved. Chromium samples are irradiated in photons emitted from a platinum target submitted to an electron beam of 35 MeV produced by a linear accelerator at C.E.N. Saclay. Two graphite foils of some mg are irradiated at the same time and are used as standards. The radioactivities of absorbers and standards are measured on a NaI detector for the annihilation ..gamma..-ray of the ..beta../sup +/radiation.

  6. ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM VEGETAL RAW MATERIALS TO SOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mukhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for active carbons obtaining from vegetable byproducts such as straw, nut shells, fruit stones, sawdust, hydrolysis products of corn cobs and sunflower husks have been developed. The physico-chemical characteristics, structural parameters and sorption characteristics of obtained active carbons were determined. The ability of carbonaceous adsorbents for detoxification of soil against pesticides, purification of surface waters and for removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters has been evaluated. The obtained results reveal the effectiveness of their use in a number of environmental technologies.

  7. Catalytic and peroxidase-like activity of carbon based-AuPd bimetallic nanocomposite produced using carbon dots as the reductant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liuqing; Liu, Xiaoying; Lu, Qiujun; Huang, Na; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-01-01

    In this report, carbon-based AuPd bimetallic nanocomposite (AuPd/C NC) was synthesized using carbon dots (C-dots) as the reducing agent and stabilizer by a simple green sequential reduction strategy, without adding other agents. The as synthesized AuPd/C NC showed good catalytic activity and peroxidase-like property. The structure and morphology of these nanoparticles were clearly characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuPd/C NC catalyst exhibits noticeably higher catalytic activity than Pd and Au nanoparticles in catalysis reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Moreover, based on the high peroxidase-like property of AuPd/C NC, a new colorimetric detection method for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) has been designed using 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) as the substrate, which provides a simple and sensitive means to detect H 2 O 2 in wide linear range of 5 μM–500 μM and 500 μM–4 mM with low detection limit of 1.6 μM (S/N = 3). Therefore, the facile synthesis strategy for bimetallic nanoparticles by the mild reductant of carbon dot will provide some new thoughts for preparing of carbon-based metal nanomaterials and expand their application in catalysis and analytical chemistry areas. - Highlights: • Carbon-based AuPd bimetallic nanocomposite was synthesized using carbon dots. • The green sequential reduction strategy synthesis method is simple, green, convenient and effective. • The as synthesized AuPd/C NC showed good catalytic activity and peroxidase-like activity. • The AuPd/C NC exhibits noticeably higher catalytic activity in reduction of 4-nitrophenol. • A new colorimetric detection method for hydrogen peroxide based on AuPd/C NC was proposed.

  8. Catalytic and peroxidase-like activity of carbon based-AuPd bimetallic nanocomposite produced using carbon dots as the reductant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liuqing [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education, China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Liu, Xiaoying [College of Science, Science and Technological Innovation Platform, Hunan Agricultural University, Hunan, Changsha 410128 (China); Lu, Qiujun; Huang, Na [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education, China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Liu, Meiling, E-mail: liumeilingww@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education, China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education, China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2016-08-03

    In this report, carbon-based AuPd bimetallic nanocomposite (AuPd/C NC) was synthesized using carbon dots (C-dots) as the reducing agent and stabilizer by a simple green sequential reduction strategy, without adding other agents. The as synthesized AuPd/C NC showed good catalytic activity and peroxidase-like property. The structure and morphology of these nanoparticles were clearly characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuPd/C NC catalyst exhibits noticeably higher catalytic activity than Pd and Au nanoparticles in catalysis reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Moreover, based on the high peroxidase-like property of AuPd/C NC, a new colorimetric detection method for hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been designed using 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) as the substrate, which provides a simple and sensitive means to detect H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in wide linear range of 5 μM–500 μM and 500 μM–4 mM with low detection limit of 1.6 μM (S/N = 3). Therefore, the facile synthesis strategy for bimetallic nanoparticles by the mild reductant of carbon dot will provide some new thoughts for preparing of carbon-based metal nanomaterials and expand their application in catalysis and analytical chemistry areas. - Highlights: • Carbon-based AuPd bimetallic nanocomposite was synthesized using carbon dots. • The green sequential reduction strategy synthesis method is simple, green, convenient and effective. • The as synthesized AuPd/C NC showed good catalytic activity and peroxidase-like activity. • The AuPd/C NC exhibits noticeably higher catalytic activity in reduction of 4-nitrophenol. • A new colorimetric detection method for hydrogen peroxide based on AuPd/C NC was proposed.

  9. production and characterization of activated carbon from leather

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was prepared from leather buffing waste, sawdust and lignite by ... soil, air or water. (Baksi et al., 2006; ... anthracite and bituminous coal, lignite, lignocellulosic materials ..... waste water treatment: A review.

  10. Sorption of mercury by activated carbon in the presence of flue gas components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantopoulou, Ir.; Skodras, G.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the mercury removal ability of F400 and Norit FGD activated carbons, through fixed bed adsorption tests at inert atmosphere (Hg + N 2 ). Additionally, adsorption tests were realized on F400 activated carbon, in the presence of HCl, O 2 , SO 2 and CO 2 in nitrogen flow. The obtained results, revealed that F400 activated carbon, with a high-developed micropore structure and increased BET area, exhibit larger Hg adsorptive capacity compared to Norit. HCl and O 2 , can strongly affect mercury adsorption, owing to heterogeneous oxidation and chemisorption reactions, which is in accordance with the assumptions of some researchers. Additionally, SO 2 presence enhances mercury adsorption, in contrast with the conclusions evaluated in other studies. The above result could be attributed to the possible formation of sulphur spaces on activated carbon surface and consist of a clarification for the role of SO 2 on mercury adsorption. On the contrary, the mercury adsorption efficiency of F400 activated carbon showed a decrease at about 25%, with increasing CO 2 concentration from 0 to 12%. (author)

  11. Sorption of mercury by activated carbon in the presence of flue gas components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamantopoulou, Ir. [Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Skodras, G. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece); Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Laboratory of Energy and Environmental Processes, Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the mercury removal ability of F400 and Norit FGD activated carbons, through fixed bed adsorption tests at inert atmosphere (Hg + N{sub 2}). Additionally, adsorption tests were realized on F400 activated carbon, in the presence of HCl, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in nitrogen flow. The obtained results, revealed that F400 activated carbon, with a high-developed micropore structure and increased BET area, exhibit larger Hg adsorptive capacity compared to Norit. HCl and O{sub 2}, can strongly affect mercury adsorption, owing to heterogeneous oxidation and chemisorption reactions, which is in accordance with the assumptions of some researchers. Additionally, SO{sub 2} presence enhances mercury adsorption, in contrast with the conclusions evaluated in other studies. The above result could be attributed to the possible formation of sulphur spaces on activated carbon surface and consist of a clarification for the role of SO{sub 2} on mercury adsorption. On the contrary, the mercury adsorption efficiency of F400 activated carbon showed a decrease at about 25%, with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration from 0 to 12%. (author)

  12. Adsorption characteristics of benzene on biosolid adsorbent and commercial activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-Lung Chiang; Kuo-Hsiung Lin; Chih-Yu Chen; Ching-Guan Choa; Ching-Shyung Hwu; Nina Lai [China Medical University, Taichung (Taiwan). Department of Risk Management

    2006-05-15

    This study selected biosolids from a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant as the raw material. The sludge was immersed in 0.5-5 M of zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) solutions and pyrolyzed at different temperatures and times. Results indicated that the 1-M ZnCl{sub 2}-immersed biosolids pyrolyzed at 500{sup o}C for 30 min could be reused and were optimal biosolid adsorbents for benzene adsorption. Pore volume distribution analysis indicated that the mesopore contributed more than the macropore and micropore in the biosolid adsorbent. The benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was 65 and 55% of the G206 (granular-activated carbon) and BPL (coal-based activated carbon; Calgon, Carbon Corp.) activated carbons, respectively. Data from the adsorption and desorption cycles indicated that the benzene adsorption capacity of the biosolid adsorbent was insignificantly reduced compared with the first-run capacity of the adsorbent; therefore, the biosolid adsorbent could be reused as a commercial adsorbent, although its production cost is high. 18 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Removal of toxic chemicals from water with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, V.K.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Activated carbon was effective in removing fish toxicants and anesthetics from water solutions. Its capacity to adsorb 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), antimycin, NoxfishA? (5% rotenone), Dibrorms, juglone, MSa??222, and benzocaine ranged from 0.1 to 64 mg per gram of carbon. The adsorptive capacity (end point considered as a significant discharge) of activated carbon for removal of TFM was determined at column depths of 15, 30, and 60 cm; temperatures of 7, 12, 17, and 22 C; pH's of 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5; and flow rates of 50, 78, 100, 200, and 940 ml/min. Adsorptive capacity increased when the contact time was increased by reducing the flow rate or increasing the column depth. The adsorptive capacity was not significantly influenced by temperature but was substantially higher at pH 6.5 than at the other pH's tested. A practical and efficient filter for purifying chemically treated water was developed.

  14. Granular activated carbon assisted ozonation of cephalexin antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.; Amin, N.S.; Imran, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates removal of cephalexin using ozonation in the presence of granular activated carbon. Initial experiments were carried out about adsorption of cephalexin onto granular activated carbon, effect of catalytic ozonation, and biodegradability of cephalexin solution. The effect of ozonation on pH, ozone utilization efficiency and decomposition byproducts, was observed. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize three operating parameters pH of solution, ozone supply and cephalexin concentration. GAC assisted ozonation, was found to be effective in decomposing COD (chemical oxygen demand) and cephalexin from solution. Optimum values of variables were pH from 7-8, ozone supply 30 mg/L and 100 mg/L of cephalexin solution. The complete removal of cephalexin and 60% COD removal was achieved at these optimum input values. (author)

  15. Preparation of a Carbon-Based Solid Acid Catalyst by Sulfonating Activated Carbon in a Chemical Reduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated (SO3H-bearing activated carbon (AC-SO3H was synthesized by an aryl diazonium salt reduction process. The obtained material had a SO3H density of 0.64 mmol·g-1 and a specific surface area of 602 m2·g-1. The catalytic properties of AC-SO3H were compared with that of two commercial solid acid catalysts, Nafion NR50 and Amberlyst-15. In a 10-h esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol, the acid conversion with AC-SO3H (78% was lower than that of Amberlyst-15 (86%, which could be attributed to the fact that the SO3H density of the sulfonated carbon was lower than that of Amberlyst-15 (4.60 mmol·g-1. However, AC-SO3H exhibited comparable and even much higher catalytic activities than the commercial catalysts in the esterification of aliphatic acids with longer carbon chains such as hexanoic acid and decanoic acid, which may be due to the large specific surface area and mesoporous structures of the activated carbon. The disadvantage of AC-SO3H is the leaching of SO3H group during the reactions.

  16. Preparation And Characterization Of Microporous Activated Carbon From Oil Palm Shell By Physical Activation Using Purified Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allwar Allwar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Oil palm shell, a byproduct of palm oil industry was successfully used as a raw material for the production of highly porous activated carbons. Preparation of activated carbon was carried out by physical activation under nitrogen at various activation temperatures. The nitrogen isotherms show Type I characteristics of microporous activated carbon. The maximum surface areas obtained at 900oC was 936 m2g-1. The morphology structure of the activated carbon indicated the existence of the porosities with different size pores. Keywords: Oil palm shell; Micropores; Physical activation; Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm

  17. Granular bamboo-derived activated carbon for high CO(2) adsorption: the dominant role of narrow micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Haoran; Deng, Shubo; Hu, Bingyin; Chen, Zhenhe; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2012-12-01

    Cost-effective biomass-derived activated carbons with a high CO(2) adsorption capacity are attractive for carbon capture. Bamboo was found to be a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation through KOH activation. The bamboo size in the range of 10-200 mesh had little effect on CO(2) adsorption, whereas the KOH/C mass ratio and activation temperature had a significant impact on CO(2) adsorption. The bamboo-derived activated carbon had a high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for CO(2) , and also the adsorption process was highly reversible. The adsorbed amount of CO(2) on the granular activated carbon was up to 7.0 mmol g(-1) at 273 K and 1 bar, which was higher than almost all carbon materials. The pore characteristics of activated carbons responsible for high CO(2) adsorption were fully investigated. Based on the analysis of narrow micropore size distribution of several activated carbons prepared under different conditions, a more accurate micropore range contributing to CO(2) adsorption was proposed. The volume of micropores in the range of 0.33-0.82 nm had a good linear relationship with CO(2) adsorption at 273 K and 1 bar, and the narrow micropores of about 0.55 nm produced the major contribution, which could be used to evaluate CO(2) adsorption on activated carbons. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Assessment of activated carbon prepared from corncob by chemical activation with phosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal O. El-Sayed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corncob, which is the main waste from corn agricultures in Egypt, has been used as a raw material for the preparation of different activated carbons. Activated carbons (ACs were prepared by chemical activation with concentrated H3PO4 acid; followed by pyrolysis at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Different ACs have been used for the removal of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed as a function of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. Adsorption data were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Adsorption of MB on AC1 (R2=0.9868 and AC2 (R2=0.9810 followed Langmuir model with maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 28.65 and 17.57 mg/g, respectively. Adsorption onto AC3 was better fitted to Freundlich isotherm model (R2=0.9823.

  19. Urea adsorption by activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chee-Heong; Sim, Yoke-Leng; Yeoh, Fei-Yee

    2017-07-01

    Dialysis treatment is crucial for patients suffer from renal failure. The dialysis system removes the uremic toxin to a safe level in a patient's body. One of the major limitations of the current hemodialysis system is the capability to efficiently remove uremic toxins from patient's body. Nanoporous materials can be applied to improve the treatment. Palm kernel shell (PKS) biomass generated from palm oil mills can be utilized to prepare high quality nanoporous activated carbon (AC) and applied for urea adsorption in the dialysis system. In this study, AC was prepared from PKS via different carbonization temperatures and followed by carbon dioxide gas activation processes. The physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied. The results show that the porous AC with BET surface areas ranging from 541 to 622 m2g-1 and with total pore volumes varying from 0.254 to 0.297 cm3g-1, are formed with different carbonization temperatures. The equilibrium constant for urea adsorption by AC samples carbonized at 400, 500 and 600 °C are 0.091, 0.287 and 0.334, respectively. The increase of carbonization temperatures from 400 to 600 °C resulted in the increase in urea adsorption by AC predominantly due to increase in surface area. The present study reveals the feasibility of preparing AC with good porosity from PKS and potentially applied in urea adsorption application.

  20. Immobilized acclimated biomass-powdered activated carbon for the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon loaded with phenol and o-cresol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Run-Hong; Lim, Poh-Eng; Seng, Chye-Eng; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to use immobilized acclimated biomass and immobilized biomass-powdered activated carbon (PAC) as a novel approach in the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, and to compare the efficiency and rate of the bioregeneration of the phenolic compound-loaded GAC using immobilized and suspended biomasses under varying GAC dosages. Bioregeneration of GAC loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, was conducted in batch system using the sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach. The results showed that the bioregeneration efficiency of GAC loaded with phenol or o-cresol was basically the same irrespective of whether the immobilized or suspended biomass was used. Nonetheless, the duration for bioregeneration was longer under immobilized biomass. The beneficial effect of immobilized PAC-biomass for bioregeneration is the enhancement of the removal rate of the phenolic compounds via adsorption and the shortening of the bioregeneration duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of Activated and Non-Activated Carbon from Conocarpus Pruning Waste as Low-Cost Adsorbent for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. El-Naggar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocarpus pruning waste, an agricultural byproduct, was converted into low-cost activated and non-activated carbons and used for the remediation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. The carbonization was carried out at 400 °C, while the activation was carried out in the presence of KOH and ZnCl2. Batch single-solute and multi-solute equilibrium and kinetic experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption capacities of the prepared activated and non-activated carbons, and these were further compared with commercially available activated carbon. The results showed that KOH-activated carbon (CK outperformed the other activated and non-activated carbons in terms of adsorption efficiency. CK removed >50% of the applied Cd2+ and Cu2+ and 100% of Pb2+ at the initial concentration of 40 mg L-1. Interestingly, the performance of Conocarpus-derived non-activated carbon was better than that of the commercial activated carbon, as observed from the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of 65.61, 66.12, and 223.05 µmol g-1 for Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+, respectively. The Pb2+ was the metal most easily removed from aqueous solution because of its large ionic radius. The kinetic dynamics were well described by the pseudo-second order and Elovich models.

  2. Aligned carbon nanotube with electro-catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yang, Junbing; Wang, Xiaoping

    2010-08-03

    A catalyst for an electro-chemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of a bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes having a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally in said nanotubes. A method of making an electro-chemical catalyst for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) having a bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes, where a substrate is in a first reaction zone, and a combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into the first reaction zone which is maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is then introduced to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes over the substrate with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

  3. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  4. Comparative study of selenite adsorption on carbon based adsorbents and activated alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegadeesan, G; Mondal, K; Lalvani, S B

    2003-08-01

    The sorption characteristics of carbon-based adsorbents such as activated carbon and chitin for the removal of selenite, Se (IV), an anionic, hazardous contaminant, are compared with those of alpha and gamma alumina. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the influence of pH, concentration of adsorbate, adsorbent loading and temperature on the sorption characteristics of the adsorbents. Generally, low pH of the solution resulted in favorable selenium removal. With the exception of activated carbon, uptakes decreased with increase in temperature. In comparison, chitin was found to be far less effective for the removal of Se (IV) from aqueous solutions. The data also showed that gamma alumina provided higher selenium removal percentages (99%) compared to alpha alumina (94%), activated carbon (87%) and chitin (49%). The selenite removal was found to decrease with increasing initial Se (IV) concentration in the solution. Adsorption capacities of the adsorbents are reported in terms of their Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity (on unit mass basis) of the adsorbents for selenite is in the order: chitin (specific area (sa) = 9.58 m2 g(-1)) activated carbon (sa = 96.37 m2 g(-1)) < alpha alumina (sa = 6 m2 g(-1)) < gamma alumina (sa = 150 m2 g(-1)).

  5. Porous structure evolution of cellulose carbon fibres during heating in the initial activation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babel, Krzysztof [Institute of Chemical Wood Technology, Agricultural Academy of Poznan, Ul. Wojska Polskiego 38/42, 60-637 Poznan (Poland)

    2004-01-15

    This paper is focused on the description of changes in the porous structure during fast heating to the activation temperature of the viscose fibres, pyrolysed to different final temperatures. Standard regenerated cellulose fibre structures were tested. Fabrics were subjected to pyrolysis, the samples being heated to final temperatures of 400, 600 and 850 C. Carbon fibres were subsequently heated to activation temperature (850 C) at a rate of 100 C/min, and then the samples were cooled down. The characteristics of obtained carbon preparations were examined. We have defined a level of restructuring and internal ordering of fibres which originated during slow pyrolysis as well as the range of temperature differences of pyrolysis and activation where fast increase of carbon fibre temperature before activation is advantageous for the development of porous structure. It allows for partial release of pores and fast rebuilding of structure accompanied by a considerable number of defects in the carbon matrix with higher reactivity to oxidiser which, in turn, promotes the development of pores in active carbon during oxidation. Temperature difference for viscose carbon fibres is approximately 150-300 C at pyrolysis temperature of 550-700 C.

  6. Exceptionally strong sorption of infochemicals to activated carbon reduces their bioavailability to fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van Mourik, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) to sediments is a relatively new approach to remediate contaminated sites. Activated carbon strongly sorbs hydrophobic organic contaminants, thereby reducing their bioavailability and uptake in organisms. Because of its high sorption capacity, AC might, however,

  7. Production of Biologically Activated Carbon from Orange Peel and Landfill Leachate Subsequent Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve adsorption of macromolecular contaminants and promote the growth of microorganisms, active carbon for biological wastewater treatment or follow-up processing requires abundant mesopore and good biophile ability. In this experiment, biophile mesopore active carbon is produced in one-step activation with orange peel as raw material, and zinc chloride as activator, and the adsorption characteristics of orange peel active carbon is studied by static adsorption method. BET specific surface area and pore volume reached 1477 m2/g and 2.090 m3/g, respectively. The surface functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The surface of the as-prepared activated carbon contained hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group. The analysis based on X-ray diffraction spectrogram (XRD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum indicated that the as-prepared activated carbon, with smaller microcrystalline diameter and microcrystalline thickness and enhanced reactivity, exhibited enhanced adsorption performance. This research has a deep influence in effectively controlling water pollution, improving area water quality, easing orange peel waste pollution, and promoting coordinated development among society, economy, and environment.

  8. Nanoporous Activated Carbon Derived from Rice Husk for High Performance Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxing Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous activated carbon material was produced from the waste rice husks (RHs by precarbonizing RHs and activating with KOH. The morphology, structure, and specific surface area were investigated. The nanoporous carbon has the average pore size of 2.2 nm and high specific area of 2523.4 m2 g−1. The specific capacitance of the nanoporous carbon is calculated to be 250 F g−1 at the current density of 1 A g−1 and remains 80% for 198 F g−1 at the current density of 20 A g−1. The nanoporous carbon electrode exhibits long-term cycle life and could keep stable capacitance till 10,000 cycles. The consistently high specific capacitance, rate capacity, and long-term cycle life ability makes it a potential candidate as electrode material for supercapacitor.

  9. Enhanced adsorption of chromium onto activated carbon by microwave-assisted H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} mixed with Fe/Al/Mn activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuanyuan [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yue, Qinyan, E-mail: qyyue58@aliyun.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Mao, Yanpeng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Lihui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • FeCl{sub 3}, AlCl{sub 3} and MnCl{sub 2} were used as the assisted activator to produce carbons. • Doping with MnCl{sub 2} was favorable for the enlargement of activated carbon. • The assisted activator had good performance for holding more fixed carbon. • The maximum adsorption capacities followed the order of AC-Fe > AC-Al > AC-Mn > AC. • The XPS analysis was used to confirm the adsorption/transformation mechanism. -- Abstract: FeCl{sub 3}, AlCl{sub 3} and MnCl{sub 2} were used as the assisted activation agent in activated carbon preparation by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} activation using microwave heating method. The physico-chemical properties of activated carbons were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, Boehm's titration, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To investigate the adsorption performances of chromium onto these newly developed activated carbons, a batch of experiments were performed under different adsorption conditions: solution pH, initial Cr(VI) ion concentration, contact time and co-existing ions. The results suggested that carbon with MnCl{sub 2} as assisted activation agent displayed the highest BET surface area (1332 m{sup 2}/g) and the highest pore volume (1.060 cm{sup 3}/g). FeCl{sub 3}, AlCl{sub 3} and MnCl{sub 2} had successfully improved Cr(VI) adsorption and activated carbon with FeCl{sub 3} as assisted activation agent exhibited the best uptake capacity. To study the transformation of Cr(VI) in adsorption process, total chromium in the aqueous solution was also recorded. The ratio of the amount of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) on each adsorbent was explained by XPS analysis results. Both the co-existing salts (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaNO{sub 3}) demonstrated promoted effects on Cr(VI) removal by four carbons. The pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich equation displayed a good correlation with

  10. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, W.P. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions on sulfurized activated carbon prepared from nut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouladi Tajar, Amir; Kaghazchi, Tahereh; Soleimani, Mansooreh

    2009-01-01

    Low-cost activated carbon, derived from nut shells, and its modified sample have been used as replacements for the current expensive methods of removing cadmium from aqueous solutions and waste waters. Adsorption of cadmium onto four kinds of activated carbons has been studied; prepared activated carbon (PAC), commercial activated carbon (CAC), and the sulfurized ones (SPAC and SCAC). The activated carbon has been derived, characterized, treated with sulfur and then utilized for the removal of Cd 2+ . Sulfurizing agent (SO 2 gas) was successfully used in adsorbents' modification process at the ambient temperature. Samples were then characterized and tested as adsorbents of cadmium. Effect of some parameters such as contact time, initial concentration and pH were examined. With increasing pH, the adsorption of cadmium ions was increased and maximum removal, 92.4% for SPAC, was observed in pH > 8.0 (C 0 = 100 mg/L). The H-type adsorption isotherms, obtained for the adsorbents, indicated a favorable process. Adsorption data on both prepared and commercial activated carbon, before and after sulfurization, followed both the Frendlich and Langmuir models. They were better fitted by Frendlich isotherm as compared to Langmuir. The maximum adsorption capacities were 90.09, 104.17, 126.58 and 142.86 mg/g for CAC, PAC, SCAC and SPAC, respectively. Accordingly, surface modification of activated carbons using SO 2 greatly enhanced cadmium removal. The reversibility of the process has been studied in a qualitative manner and it shows that the spent SPAC can be effectively regenerated for further use easily.

  12. Solid phase extraction of uranium(VI) onto benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongsheng; Liu Chunxia; Feng Miao; Chen Zhen; Li Shuqiong; Tian Gan; Wang Li; Huang Jingbo; Li Shoujian

    2010-01-01

    A new solid phase extractant selective for uranium(VI) based on benzoylthiourea anchored to activated carbon was developed via hydroxylation, amidation and reaction with benzoyl isothiocyanate in sequence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and total element analysis proved that benzoylthiourea had been successfully grafted to the surface of the activated carbon, with a loading capacity of 1.2 mmol benzoylthiourea per gram of activated carbon. The parameters that affect the uranium(VI) sorption, such as contact time, solution pH, initial uranium(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature, have been investigated. Results have been analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm; the former was more suitable to describe the sorption process. The maximum sorption capacity (82 mg/g) for uranium(VI) was obtained at experimental conditions. The rate constant for the uranium sorption by the as-synthesized extractant was 0.441 min -1 from the first order rate equation. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 = -46.2 kJ/mol; ΔS 0 = -98.0 J/mol K; ΔG 0 = -17.5 kJ/mol) showed the adsorption of an exothermic process and spontaneous nature, respectively. Additional studies indicated that the benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon (BT-AC) selectively sorbed uranyl ions in the presence of competing ions, Na + , Co 2+ , Sr 2+ , Cs + and La 3+ .

  13. 75 FR 51754 - Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Carbon Co., Ltd.; Datong Juqiang Activated Carbon Co., Ltd.; Datong Locomotive Coal & Chemicals Co., Ltd....; Xingtai Coal Chemical Co., Ltd; Zhejiang Xingda Activated Carbon Co., Ltd. \\1\\ See Memo to the File from... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-904] Certain Activated Carbon...

  14. Cellulase activity and dissolved organic carbon release from lignocellulose macrophyte-derived in four trophic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bottino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40 °C. Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively were quantified, the cellulase enzymatic activity was measured by releasing reducing sugars and immobilized carbon was analyzed by filtration. During the cellulose degradation indicated by the cellulase activity, the dissolved organic carbon daily rate and enzyme activity increased. It was related to a fast hydrolysable fraction of cellulose that contributed to short-term carbon immobilization (ca. 10 days. After approximately 20 days, the dissolved organic carbon and enzyme activity were inversely correlated suggesting that the respiration of microorganisms was responsible for carbon mineralization. Cellulose was an important resource in low nutrient conditions (oligotrophic. However, the detritus quality played a major role in the lignocelluloses degradation (i.e., enzyme activity and carbon release.

  15. The relationship between microbial metabolic activity and biocorrosion of carbon steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzewicz, Z; Cwalina, B; Chodurek, E; Wilczok, T

    1997-12-01

    The effect of metabolic activity (expressed by generation time, rate of H2S production and the activity of hydrogenase and adenosine phosphosulphate (APS)-reductase enzymes) of the 8 wild strains of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and of their resistance to metal ions (Hg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+) on the rate of corrosion of carbon steel was studied. The medium containing lactate as the carbon source and sulphate as the electron acceptor was used for bacterial metabolic activity examination and in corrosive assays. Bacterial growth inhibition by metal ions was investigated in the sulphate-free medium. The rate of H2S production was approximately directly proportional to the specific activities of the investigated enzymes. These activities were inversely proportional to the generation time. The rate of microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel was directly proportional to bacterial resistance to metal ions (correlation coefficient r = 0.95). The correlation between the MIC rate and the activity of enzymes tested, although weaker, was also observed (r = 0.41 for APS-reductase; r = 0.69 for hydrogenase; critical value rc = 0.30, p = 0.05, n = 40).

  16. The adsorption of molybdenum(VI) onto activated carbon from acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, H.F.

    1985-11-01

    The adsorption of molybdenum(VI) onto activated carbon is dependent on which nuclides are present in the solution. In this study the adsorption of Mo(VI) onto activated carbon is examined as a function of two variables, namely: the total molybdenum concentration and the pH. The equilibration time, the influence of ionic strength and the reversibility of the system was also examined. A series of solutions of a specified molybdenum concentration were equilibrated with activated carbon. In these experiments the pH varied from 5,5 to 0,9 while the temperature and ionic strength remained constant. The solutions were analysed colorimetrically and the pH equilibrium of each was measured. The molybdenum concentration for the series of experiments varied from 5x10 -4 M to 2x10 -2 M. 61 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs

  17. Investigation kinetics mechanisms of adsorption malachite green onto activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Y.; Akmil-Basar, C.; Sarici-Ozdemir, C.

    2007-01-01

    Lignite was used to prepare activated carbon (T3K618) by chemical activation with KOH. Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by t-plot based on N 2 adsorption isotherm. BET surface area of activated carbon is determined as 1000 m 2 /g. Adsorption capacity of malachite green (MG) onto T3K618 activated carbon was investigated in a batch system by considering the effects of various parameters like initial concentration (100, 150 and 200 mg/L) and temperature (25, 40 and 50 deg. C). The adsorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 20 min for 100, 150 mg/L at all adsorption temperature. Equilibrium time for 200 mg/L was determined as 20 min and 40 min at 298, 313 and 323 K, respectively. Simple mass and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of adsorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion. Pseudo second-order model was found to explain the kinetics of MG adsorption most effectively. It was found that both mass transfer and pore diffusion are important in determining the adsorption rates. The intraparticle diffusion rate constant, external mass transfer coefficient, film and pore diffusion coefficient at various temperatures were evaluated. The activation energy (E a ) was determined as 48.56, 63.16, 67.93 kJ/mol for 100, 150, 200 mg/L, respectively. The Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium studies at different temperatures. Langmiur isotherm shows better fit than Freundlich isotherm in the temperature range studied. The thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔS and ΔH o were calculated. The thermodynamics of dyes-T3K618 system indicates endothermic process

  18. Activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotube based electrochemical capacitor in 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M.A., E-mail: asyadi@utem.edu.my [Carbon Research Technology Research Group, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Jantan, N.H.; Dorah, N.; Seman, R.N.A.R.; Manaf, N.S.A. [Carbon Research Technology Research Group, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Kudin, T.I.T. [Ionics Materials & Devices Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, M.Z.A. [Ionics Materials & Devices Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); National Defence University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon and single-walled CNT based electrochemical capacitor. • Electrochemical analysis by means of CV, charge/discharge and impedance. • 1 M LiPF{sub 6} non-aqueous solution as an electrolyte. • AC/SWCNT electrode exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have been extensively studied because of their wide range of potential application such as in nanoscale electric circuits, textiles, transportation, health, and the environment. Carbon nanotubes feature extraordinary properties, such as electrical conductivities higher than those of copper, hardness and thermal conductivity higher than those of diamond, and strength surpassing that of steel, among others. This research focuses on the fabrication of an energy storage device, namely, an electrochemical capacitor, by using carbon materials, i.e., activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotubes, of a specific weight ratio as electrode materials. The electrolyte functioning as an ion carrier is 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate. Variations in the electrochemical performance of the device, including its capacitance, charge/discharge characteristics, and impedance, are reported in this paper. The electrode proposed in this work exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}.

  19. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vazquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-01-01

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1 year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized.

  20. Estimation of the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Diego; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-10-15

    The food production system as a whole is recognized as one of the major contributors to environmental impacts. Accordingly, food production, processing, transport and consumption account for a relevant portion of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with any country. In this context, there is an increasing market demand for climate-relevant information regarding the global warming impact of consumer food products throughout the supply chains. This article deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of seafood products as a key subgroup in the food sector. Galicia (NW Spain) was selected as a case study. The analysis is based on a representative set of species within the Galician fishing sector, including species obtained from coastal fishing (e.g. horse mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, European pilchard and blue whiting), offshore fishing (e.g. European hake, megrim and anglerfish), deep-sea fishing (skipjack and yellowfin tuna), extensive aquaculture (mussels) and intensive aquaculture (turbot). The carbon footprints associated with the production-related activities of each selected species were quantified following a business-to-business approach on the basis of 1year of fishing activity. These individual carbon footprints were used to calculate the carbon footprint for each of the different Galician fisheries and culture activities. Finally, the lump sum of the carbon footprints for coastal, offshore and deep-sea fishing and extensive and intensive aquaculture brought about the carbon footprint of the Galician fishing activity (i.e., capture and culture). A benchmark for quantifying and communicating emission reductions was then provided, and opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions associated with the Galician fishing activity could be prioritized. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions of xanthines with activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete Casas, R.; Garcia Rodriguez, A.; Rey Bueno, F.; Espinola Lara, A.; Valenzuela Calahorro, C.; Navarrete Guijosa, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we have studied the adsorption of xanthine derivatives by activated carbon sorbents in aqueous solutions. The study comprised both kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic aspects. The kinetic results were reported in a previous paper; the equilibrium-related results are discussed here. The two types of carbon used exhibit some differences but the equilibrium isotherms obtained are all of the H-3 type in the classification of Giles. This suggests a high affinity of the sorbents for the sorbates. We also found that the overall adsorption process comprises more than one individual adsorption-desorption process of which one leads to the formation of a 'monolayer' and the other to the 'precipitation' of the sorbate on the sorbent surface (multilayer adsorption); the amount of sorbate adsorbed in monolayer form was seemingly greater in C-A14

  2. Adsorption of aromatic compounds from the biodegradation of azo dyes on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, P. C. C.; Órfão, J. J. M.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Pereira, M. F. R.

    2008-03-01

    The adsorption of three selected aromatic compounds (aniline, sulfanilic acid and benzenesulfonic acid) on activated carbons with different surface chemical properties was investigated at different solution pH. A fairly basic commercial activated carbon was modified by means of chemical treatment with HNO 3, yielding an acid activated carbon. The textural properties of this sample were not significantly changed after the oxidation treatment. Equilibrium isotherms of the selected compounds on the mentioned samples were obtained and the results were discussed in relation to their surface chemistry. The influence of electrostatic and dispersive interactions involved in the uptake of the compounds studied was evaluated. The Freundlich model was used to fit the experimental data. Higher uptakes are attained when the compounds are present in their molecular form. In general, adsorption was disfavoured by the introduction of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of the activated carbon.

  3. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  4. Activated sludge and activated carbon treatment of a wood preserving effluent containing pentachlorophenol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, P. H. M

    1980-01-01

    ...; however, PCP removal averaged only 35% and the effluent was toxic to rainbow trout. Treatment of the activated sludge effluent by carbon adsorption resulted in effective PCP removal and non-toxic effluents...

  5. PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SILK COTTON WOOD AND COCONUT SHELL BY PYROLISIS WITH CERAMIC FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Haryadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of activated carbon from silk cotton wood and coconut shell has been done. Carbon was made by pyrolysis process in the Muchalal furnace with 3000 watt electric power. The electric power was increased gradually from 1000, 2000 and then 3000 watt with interval 2 hours during 7 hours. Carbon was activated in Muchalal furnace with 4000 watt electric power during 2 hours and flowed with nitrogen gas. Product of the activated carbon was compared to standart product with several analysis including the surface area, acetic acid adsorption, iod adsorption and vapour adsorption. The results of analysis showed that surface area for silk cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon, and E.Merck product were 288.8072 m2/g, 222.9387 m2/g and 610.5543 m2/g, respectively. Acetic acid adsorption for silk cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon, and standart product were 157.391 mg/g, 132.791 mg/g, and 186.911 mg/g, respectively. Iodine adsorption for cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon, and standart product were 251.685 mg/g, 207.270 mg/g and 310.905 mg/g, respectively. Vapour adsorption for cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon and standart product were 12%, 4%,and 14%., respectively Key words : Activated carbon, pyrolysis, Muchalal furnace

  6. Study of the Adsorbent-Adsorbate Interactions from Cd(II) and Pb(II) Adsorption on Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Doo Won; Kim, Bohye; Yang, Kap Seung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yongkyun; Park, Eun Nam [Microfilter Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption characteristics of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in aqueous solution using granular activated carbon (GAC), activated carbon fiber (ACF), modified ACF (NaACF), and a mixture of GAC and NaACF (GAC/NaACF) have been studied. The surface properties, such as morphology, surface functional groups, and composition of various adsorbents were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and pore size distribution were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods. In this study, NaACF showed a high adsorption capacity and rate for heavy metal ions due to the improvement of its ion-exchange capabilities by additional oxygen functional groups. Moreover, the GAC and NaACF mixture was used as an adsorbent to determine the adsorbent-adsorbate interaction in the presence of two competitive adsorbents.

  7. Study of the Adsorbent-Adsorbate Interactions from Cd(II) and Pb(II) Adsorption on Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Doo Won; Kim, Bohye; Yang, Kap Seung; Lim, Yongkyun; Park, Eun Nam

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in aqueous solution using granular activated carbon (GAC), activated carbon fiber (ACF), modified ACF (NaACF), and a mixture of GAC and NaACF (GAC/NaACF) have been studied. The surface properties, such as morphology, surface functional groups, and composition of various adsorbents were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and pore size distribution were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods. In this study, NaACF showed a high adsorption capacity and rate for heavy metal ions due to the improvement of its ion-exchange capabilities by additional oxygen functional groups. Moreover, the GAC and NaACF mixture was used as an adsorbent to determine the adsorbent-adsorbate interaction in the presence of two competitive adsorbents

  8. The Use of Zeolit and Activated Carbon on Packing System of Corydoras aenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Supriyono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem frequently found by Indonesian exporter in sending ornamental fish including Corydoras aenus to overseas is the low survival rate that caused by decrease in water quality during transportation.  Suitable and efficient packing technology is very needed to send live fish for long time transportation.  Two third of packing plastic volume was filled by oxygen, and Corydoras aenus 20 fish/pack.  Packing plastic was placed into styrofoam and ice was added to maintain at low temperature.  Zeolit and activated carbon was cover up by cloth and then placed into the pack.  Dosage treatment of zeolit and activated carbon was 20 gram zeolit, 15 gram zeolit and 5 gram activated carbon, 10 gram zeolit and 10 gram activated carbon, 5 gram zeolit and 15 gram activated carbon, 20 gram activated carbon, and no added zeolit and no activated carbon as control.  Fish condition was observed every 6 hours, while water quality measurement was performed every 24 hours for 120 hours.  The results of study showed that adding 20 gram zeolit without activated carbon in closed packing system of Corydoras aenus in 20oC could maintained in lower concentration of total nitrogen ammonia and unionized ammonia (NH3, reached of 7.83±0.13 mg/l and 0.046±0.003 mg/l, respectively.  The level of total nitrogen ammonia and unionized ammonia were relatively lower compared to mix of zeolit and activated carbon, and only activated carbon.  Survival rate of fish by this treatment was 100%, higher than other treatment (85-95%. Keywords: zeolit, activated carbon, packing, Corydoras   ABSTRAK Permasalahan yang sering dihadapi oleh para eksportir Indonesia dalam pengiriman ikan hias termasuk Corydoras aenus ke luar negeri adalah rendahnya survival rate diantaranya disebabkan oleh kualitas air yang memburuk selama pengangkutan. Teknologi pengepakan yang tepat dan efisien sangat dibutuhkan dalam rangka pengiriman ikan hidup untuk tempat tujuan yang membutuhkan waktu lama

  9. Subtropical urban turfs: Carbon and nitrogen pools and the role of enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling; Chu, L M

    2018-03-01

    Urban grasslands not only provide a recreational venue for urban residents, but also sequester organic carbon in vegetation and soils through photosynthesis, and release carbon dioxide through respiration, which largely contribute to carbon storage and fluxes at regional and global scales. We investigated organic carbon and nitrogen pools in subtropical turfs and found that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were regulated by several factors including microbial activity which is indicated by soil enzymatic activity. We observed a vertical variation and different temporal patterns in both soil DOC, DON and enzyme activities, which decreased significantly with increasing soil depths. We further found that concentration of soil DON was linked with turf age. There were correlations between grass biomass and soil properties, and soil enzyme activities. In particular, soil bulk density was significantly correlated with soil moisture and soil organic carbon (SOC). In addition, DOC correlated significantly with DON. Significant negative correlations were also observed between soil total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and grass biomass of Axonopus compressus and Zoysia matrella. Specifically, grass biomass was significantly correlated with the soil activity of urease and β-glucosidase. Soil NO 3 -N concentration also showed negative correlations with the activity of both β-glucosidase and protease but there were no significant correlations between cellulase and soil properties or grass biomass. Our study demonstrated a relationship between soil C and N dynamics and soil enzymes that could be modulated to enhance SOC pools through management and maintenance practices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Production of high quality adsorbent charcoal from Phil. Wood II. Granulated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arida, V.P.; Atienza, O.G.; Quilao, T.A.; Caballero, A.R.; Laxamana, J.S.; Pugal, D.L.; Guce, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    Two Philippine wood species out of twelve earlier studied in part I namely ''ipil-ipil'' Leucaena leucocephala (Lann) de Wit and coconut coir dust were selected for the production of good quality granulated activated carbon. Fluidization method was used in the study. The conditions for the granulation of the carbonized chars using molasses were established. An optimum ratio of 1:0.5 and 1:0.8 (char:binder) was used in the granulation process for ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust, respectively. Carbonization was done at gradually increasing temperature of 3 0 C/min at 600 0 C. Carbonized granules with particle sizes ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm were used for the activation study. The produced granules were activated in an external heat type stainless steel reactor as mentioned in Part I using steam as activating agent. The physical properties and adsorptive capacity of the activated granular products obtained at varying activation were determined and correlated. Methylene blue adsorption and internal surface area obtained at varying conditions were determined and correlated. Maximum values obtained for methylene blue adsorption and internal surface area are 290 mg/g AC and 1,200m 2 /g AC at 900 0 C, respectively for ''ipil-ipil'' and 390 mg/g AC and 1,000m 2 g AC at 850 0 C respectively for coir dust. Gas adsorption tests done using benzene acetone and carbon tetrachloride for both ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust activated granular char products showed that both exhibited maximum absorbability at 900 0 C. Results of the study have shown that good quality granulated activated carbon can be produced from ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust which find suitable applications in various adsorption processes such as organic solvent adsorption, gas adsorption, water purification, oil and sugar refining, among others. (auth.). 3 refs.; 4 tabs.; 14 figs

  11. Hydrogen Adsorption on Activated Carbon an Carbon Nanotubes Using Volumetric Differential Pressure Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanip, S. M.; Saidin, M. A. R.; Aziz, M.; Ismail, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    A simple hydrogen adsorption measurement system utilizing the volumetric differential pressure technique has been designed, fabricated and calibrated. Hydrogen adsorption measurements have been carried out at temperatures 298 K and 77 K on activate carbon and carbon nanotubes with different surface areas. The adsorption data obtained will be helpful in understanding the adsorption property of the studied carbon materials using the fundamentals of adsorption theory. The principle of the system follows the Sievert-type method. The system measures a change in pressure between the reference cell, R1 and the sample cell S1, S2, S3 over a certain temperature range, R1, S1, S2, and S3 having known fixed volume. The sample temperatures will be monitored by thermocouple TC while the pressures in R1 an S1, S2, S3 will be measured using a digital pressure transducer. The maximum operating pressure of the pressure transducer is 20 bar and calibrated with an accuracy of ±0.01 bar. High purity hydrogen is being used in the system and the amount of samples for the study is between 1.0-2.0 grams. The system was calibrated using helium gas without any samples in S1, S2 an S3. This will provide a correction factor during the adsorption process providing an adsorption free reference point when using hydrogen gas resulting in a more accurate reading of the adsorption process by eliminating the errors caused by temperature expansion effects and other non-adsorption related phenomena. The ideal gas equation of state is applied to calculate the hydrogen adsorption capacity based on the differential pressure measurements. Activated carbon with a surface area of 644.87 m 2 /g showed a larger amount of adsorption as compared to multiwalled nanotubes (commercial) with a surface area of 119.68 m 2 /g. This study als indicated that there is a direct correlation between the amounts of hydrogen adsorbed an surface area of the carbon materials under the conditions studied and that the adsorption

  12. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution.

  13. Properties of Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shells in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials commonly used for preparation of activated carbons include coal and coconut shells. Ghana generates over 30,000 tonnes of coconut shells annually from coconut oil processing activities but apart from a small percentage of the shells, which is burned as fuel, the remaining is usually dumped as waste.

  14. Resorcinol adsorption from aqueous solution on activated carbon: Relation adsorption isotherm and immersion enthalpy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Diago A; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    The resorcinol adsorption on a modified activated carbon, obtained from an activated commercial carbon Carbochem T M - PS30, CAG, modified by means of chemical treatment with HNO 3 7M oxidized activated carbon (CAO) and heat treatment under H 2 flow, reduced activated carbon (CAR) are studied. The influence of solution pH, the reduction and oxidation of the activated surface carbons in resorcinol aqueous solutions is determined. The interaction solid solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis at 298 K and at pHs of 7.9 and 11 in order to evaluate the system on and below the value of resorcinol pKa. The adsorption capacity of carbons increases with diminishing solution pH. The amount retained increases in the reduced carbon at maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. the experimental results of the adsorption isotherms are adjusted to the Freundlich and Langmuir models, obtaining values for the Q m ax parameter Langmuir model in the CAG of 179, 156 and 44 mgg - 1 For pH values of 7,9 and 11 respectively. In this case of modified carbons values of 233, 179 and 164 mgg - 1 Are obtained for CAR, CAG and CAO to pH 7 respectively, as general tendency the resorcinol adsorption increases in the following order CAR > CAG > CAO. Similar conclusions from immersion enthalpies are obtained, their values increase with the amount of solute retained. In the case of the CAG, immersion enthalpies between 25.8 to 40.9 Jg - 1, are obtained for resorcinol aqueous solutions in a range from 20 to 1500 mgL - 1

  15. Relation Between the Adsorbed Quantity and the Immersion Enthalpy in Catechol Aqueous Solutions on Activated Carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Piraj?n, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Diego; Giraldo, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    An activated carbon, CarbochemTM—PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H2, in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-so...

  16. Absorption and adsorption of methane and carbon dioxide in hard coal and active carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewska-Duda, J.; Duda, J.; Nodzenski, A.; Lakatos, J. [Stanislaw Staszic University of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Fuels and Energy

    2000-07-01

    The paper shows what can be deduced on sorption mechanisms in hard coals and active carbon by using a theoretical model of sorption of small molecules in elastic submicroporous materials. This multiple sorption model (MSM) describes both adsorption and absorption phenomena. Basic assumptions and formulae of the MSM are presented. The computations were performed for isotherms of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at elevated pressures on three coal samples of different rank and on an active carbon. Nonideality of the sorbates is handled by an original state equation providing consistent information on fugacity and cohesion energy corresponding to a given molar volume of sorbate molecules in the sorption system. Surface structure of the studied coals and energetic parameters of the systems determined with MSM are compared to those obtained by using BET and Dubinin-Radushkievitch equations.

  17. Characteristic of betel nuts activated carbon and its application to Jumputan wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, L.; Sari, K. F.; Anggraini, L.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater from Jumputan production contains synthetic dye which is harmful to the environment. The contaminant can be reduced by adsorption process using activated carbon. The activated carbon was prepared from betel nuts with carbonization temperature of 500°C and 0.5 M HCl as an activator. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effect of various factors, such as the size particle of adsorbent, the dosage of adsorbent, and the contact time on Jumputan’s dye adsorption. The volume of treated solution was 200 mL. This solution agitated using a Jar Test at 150 rpm. The objectives of this work were to analyze the characteristic of the betel nuts, to analyze the characteristic of the activated carbon and to determine adsorbent’s ability to dye adsorption. Betel nuts compositions were analyzed with proximate analysis method. The adsorbents were carried out by SEM-EDS analysis. The dye adsorptions were analyzed with a portable spectrophotometer. The result shows betel nuts contains 60.86% carbohydrate, 32.56% water, 2.17% fat, 3.35% protein, and 1.06% ash. The major component of the activated carbon is carbon (C) of 86.27%, and the rest is Oxygen (9.18%) and Aurum (4.55%). The best condition is the adsorbent that has a particle size of 250 pm (60 mesh), the dosage of 20 grams, and the contact time of 15 minutes with dye removal of 76.4%.

  18. Characterization of Activated Carbon from Coal and Its Application as Adsorbent on Mine Acid Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hardianti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracite and Sub-bituminous as activated carbon raw material had been utilized especially in mining field as adsorbent of dangerous heavy metal compound resulted in mining activity. Carbon from coal was activated physically and chemically in various temperature and particle sizes. Characterization was carried out in order to determine the adsorbent specification produced hence can be used and applied accordingly. Proximate and ultimate analysis concluded anthracite has fixed carbon 88.91% while sub-bituminous 49.05%. NaOH was used in chemical activation while heated at 400-500°C whereas physical activation was conducted at 800-1000°C. Activated carbon has high activity in adsorbing indicated by high iodine number resulted from analysis. SEM-EDS result confirmed that activated carbon made from coal has the quality in accordance to SNI and can be used as adsorbent in acid water treatment.

  19. Microwave absorbing properties of activated carbon fibre polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cations in the field of radar and electromagnetic compatibility. (Singh et al ... fibres have irregular-shaped cross sections (shown in fig- ure 1) ... Microwave absorbing properties of activated carbon fibre polymer composites. 77. 2. 4. 6. 8. 10. 12.

  20. Production of activated carbon from Victorian brown coal and its application in gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobson, G.; Swinbourne, D.

    1985-01-01

    A research grant was awarded by the Coal Council of Victoria to support investigations into the manufacture of a Victorian brown coal-based activated carbon suitable for Carbon-in-Pulp (CIP) gold recovery operations. This project was started on 31.1.84 and was completed by 27.9.85. The general aim of this study was to develop the technology needed for production of an indigenous activated carbon which could be a substitute for the carbons presently imported for use in CIP operations. There was a considerable economic incentive to achieve a carbon based on an inexpensive resource such as Victorian brown coal.

  1. Adsorption of organic stormwater pollutants onto activated carbon from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Li, Loretta Y

    2017-07-15

    Adsorption filters have the potential to retain suspended pollutants physically, as well as attracting and chemically attaching dissolved compounds onto the adsorbent. This study investigated the adsorption of eight hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) frequently detected in stormwater - including four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), two phthalates and two alkylphenols - onto activated carbon produced from domestic sewage sludge. Adsorption was studied using batch tests. Kinetic studies indicated that bulk adsorption of HOCs occurred within 10 min. Sludge-based activated carbon (SBAC) was as efficient as tested commercial carbons for adsorbing HOCs; adsorption capacities ranged from 70 to 2800 μg/g (C initial  = 10-300 μg/L; 15 mg SBAC in 150 mL solution; 24 h contact time) for each HOC. In the batch tests, the adsorption capacity was generally negatively correlated to the compounds' hydrophobicity (log K ow ) and positively associated with decreasing molecule size, suggesting that molecular sieving limited adsorption. However, in repeated adsorption tests, where competition between HOCs was more likely to occur, adsorbed pollutant loads exhibited strong positive correlation with log K ow . Sewage sludge as a carbon source for activated carbon has great potential as a sustainable alternative for sludge waste management practices and production of a high-capacity adsorption material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The potential of activated carbon derived from bio-char waste of bio-oil pyrolysis as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkania Ariany

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon from bio-char waste of bio oil pyrolysis of mixed sugarcane bagasse and Rambutan twigs was investigated. Bio-char as by-product of bio-oil pyrolysis has potential to be good adsorbed by activating process. Bio-chars waste was activated in fixed bed reactor inside furnace without presenting oxygen. Gas N2 and CO2 were employed to drive out oxygen from the reactor and as activator, respectively. One of the best activation treatments is achieved by performing activation in different temperature and time to produce standard activated carbon. The experiment was performed at different temperatures and activation time, i.e. 800, 850, and 900° C and 80 and 120 minutes, respectively, to determine the optimal operating condition. Activated carbon was characterized by analysis of moisture content, ash content pH, and methylene blue test. The results showed that optimum activation was at 850°C and 80 minute, where activated carbon produced indicated the best adsorption capacity. The ash content and pH had significant role in resulting good activated carbon.

  3. Physical and chemical properties of selected agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons and their ability to adsorb geosmin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.; Losso, J.N.; Rao, R.M. [Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Food Science; Marshall, W.E. [USDA-ARS, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate selected physical and chemical properties of agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons made from pecan shells and sugarcane bagasse, and compare those properties to a commercial coal-based activated carbon as well as to compare the adsorption efficiency of these carbons for geosmin. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of pecan shell- and bagasse-based carbons to the commercial carbon, Calgon Filtrasorb 400, showed that pecan shell carbon, but not the bagasse carbon, compared favorably to Filtrasorb 400, especially in terms of surface area, bulk density, ash and attrition. A carbon dosage study done in a model system showed the amount of geosmin adsorbed to be greater for Filtrasorb 400 and the bagasse-based carbon at low carbon concentrations than for the pecan shell carbons, but geosmin adsorption was similar in all carbons at higher carbon dosages. Application of the Freundlich isotherm model to the adsorption data showed that carbons made by steam activation of pecan shells or sugarcane bagasse had geosmin adsorption characteristics most like those of the commercial carbon. In terms of physical, chemical and adsorptive properties, steam-activated pecan shell carbon most resembled the commercial carbon and has the potential to replace Filtrasorb 400 in applications involving removal of geosmin from aqueous environments. (author)

  4. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yang [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lua, Aik Chong [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-12-10

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation.

  5. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ting; Lua, Aik Chong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation

  6. Synergized mechanistic and solar photocatalysis features of N-TiO2 functionalised activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Hon Leong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A TiO2 photocatalysts was successfully functionalised by employing nitrogen (N as a dopant on activated carbon (AC support as synergist. Two different types of activated carbon adopting namely Garcinia mangostana and palm shell as precursor were chosen as an activated carbon support. Thus the synthesized samples were examined for its physical and chemistry properties through advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The results revealed the contribution of adsorbent support through the rich surface area while doping of nitrogen contributed for effectively utilizing the incident photons by narrowing the band gap energy. The synergetic adsorption-photocatalytic activity was investigated by adopting batik dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue Dye (RBB as model pollutant. Thus the N-TiO2 functionalised activated carbon demonstrated excellent adsorption-photocatalytic activity with 80% removal efficiency in 6 h. The synergism of adsorption-photocatalysis portrayed the alternative for treating recalcitrant RBB a predominant dye found in batik textile industry wastewater.

  7. Comparative evaluation of adsorption kinetics of diclofenac and isoproturon by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrellas, Silvia A; Rodriguez, Araceli R; Escudero, Gabriel O; Martín, José María G; Rodriguez, Juan G

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption mechanism of diclofenac and isoproturon onto activated carbon has been proposed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption capacity and optimum adsorption isotherms were predicted by nonlinear regression method. Different kinetic equations, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion model and Bangham kinetic model, were applied to study the adsorption kinetics of emerging contaminants on activated carbon in two aqueous matrices.