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Sample records for activated carbon modified

  1. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

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    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  2. Active carbon production from modified asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhi, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    A granular activated carbons (GACs) have been prepared from some local raw materials such as Qiayarah asphalt (QA) after some modification treatments of this asphalt by various ratios of its original constituents (asphaltenes and maltens) at 180 degree C. Thermal carbonization method by sulfur and steam physical activation have been used for AC preparation. The carbons thus prepared were characterized in the term of iodine, methylene blue (MB), P-nitro phenol (PNP) and CCl4 adsorption. The BET surface area of the prepared ACs has been estimated via a calibration curve between iodine numbers and surface area determined from N2 adsorption isotherm from previous studies, also, the surface area of the prepared ACs were determined through another methods such as retention method by ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME), adsorption from vapor phase using acetone vapor and adsorption from solution method using PNP and MB as solutes. The results referred to the success of modification method for preparing ACs of good micro porosity as compared with the AC from the untreated asphalt as well as the commercial sample. (author)

  3. ADSORPTION OF STRONTIUM IONS FROM WATER ON MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBONS

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    Mihai Ciobanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of strontium ions from aqueous solutions on active carbons CAN-7 and oxidized CAN-8 has been studied. It has been found that allure of the adsorption isotherms for both studied active carbons are practically identical. Studies have shown that the adsorption isotherms for strontium ions from aqueous solutions are well described by the Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations, respectively. The surface heterogeneity of activated carbons CAN-7 and oxidized CAN-8 has been assessed by using Freundlich equation.

  4. Gemini Surfactant-Modified Activated Carbon for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium from Water

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    Yingying Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants, with double hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, offer potentially orders of magnitude greater surface activity compared to similar single unit molecules. A cationic Gemini surfactant (Propyl didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide, PDDDAB and a conventional cationic surfactant (Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide, DTAB were used to pre-treat and generate activated carbon. The removal efficiency of the surfactant-modified activated carbon through adsorption of chromium(VI was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to investigate the surface changes of surfactant-modified activated carbon. The effect of important parameters such as adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength and contact time were also investigated. The chromium(VI was adsorbed more significantly on the Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon than on the conventional surfactant-modified activated carbon. The correlation coefficients show the data best fit the Freundlich model, which confirms the monolayer adsorption of chromium(VI onto Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon. From this assessment, the surfactant-modified (especially Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon in this study showed promise for practical applications to treat water pollution.

  5. Photocatalytic Activity and Characterization of Carbon-Modified Titania for Visible-Light-Active Photodegradation of Nitrogen Oxides

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    Chun-Hung Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of carbon-modified titania powders were prepared by impregnation method using a commercial available titania powder, Hombikat UV100, as matrix material while a range of alcohols from propanol to hexanol were used as precursors of carbon sources. Rising the carbon number of alcoholic precursor molecule, the modified titania showed increasing visible activities of NOx photodegradation. The catalyst modified with cyclohexanol exhibited the best activities of 62%, 62%, 59%, and 54% for the total NOx removal under UV, blue, green, and red light irradiation, respectively. The high activity with long wavelength irradiation suggested a good capability of photocatalysis in full visible light spectrum. Analysis of UV-visible spectrum indicated that carbon modification promoted visible light absorption and red shift in band gap. XPS spectroscopic analysis identified the existence of carbonate species (C=O, which increased with the increasing carbon number of precursor molecule. Photoluminescence spectra demonstrated that the carbonate species suppressed the recombination rate of electron-hole pair. As a result, a mechanism of visible-light-active photocatalyst was proposed according to the formation of carbonate species on carbon-modified TiO2.

  6. Modified granular activated carbon: A carrier for the recovery of nickel ions from aqueous wastes

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    Satapathy, D.; Natarajan, G.S.; Sen, R. [Central Fuel Research Inst., Nagpur (India)

    2004-07-01

    Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) is widely used for the removal and recovery of toxic pollutants including metals because of its low cost and high affinity towards the scavenging of metal ions. Activated carbon derived from bituminous coal is preferred for wastewater treatment due to its considerable hardness, a characteristic needed to keep down handling losses during re-activation. Commercial grade bituminous coal based carbon, viz. Filtrasorb (F-400), was used in the present work. The scavenging of precious metals such as nickel onto GAC was studied and a possible attempt made to recover the adsorbed Ni{sup 2+} ions through the use of some suitable leaching processes. As part of the study, the role of complexing agents on the surface of the carbon was also investigated. The use of organic complexing agents such as oxine and 2-methyloxine in the recovery process was found to be promising. In addition, the surface of the carbon was modified with suitable oxidising agents that proved to be more effective than chelating agents. Several attempts were made to optimise the recovery of metal ions by carrying out experiments with oxidising agents in order to obtain maximum recovery from the minimum quantity of carbon. Experiments with nitric acid indicated that not only was the carbon surface modified but such modification also helped in carbon regeneration.

  7. Three modified activated carbons by different ligands for the solid phase extraction of copper and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Ahmadi, F.; Tavakoli, Z.; Montazerozohori, M.; Khanmohammadi, A.; Soylak, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the presented work, 5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (phenytoin) (DFTD), 5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2-thione-,4-one (thiophenytoin) (DFID) and 2-(4'-methoxy-benzylidenimine) thiophenole (MBIP) modified activated carbons have been used for the solid phase extraction of copper and lead ions prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The influences of the various analytical parameters including pH, amounts of reagent, sample volume and eluent type, etc. on the recovery efficiencies of copper and lead ions were investigated. The influences of alkaline, earth alkaline and some transition metals on the adsorption of the analytes were also examined. The detection limits by three sigma for analyte ions were 0.65 and 0.42 μg L -1 using activated carbon modified with DFID; 0.52 and 0.37 μg L -1 using activated carbon modified with DFTD and 0.46 and 0.31 μg L -1 using activated carbon modified with MBIP for Pb(II) and Cu(II), respectively. The procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in natural waters, soil, and blood samples with satisfactory results (recoveries greater than 95%, R.S.D.'s lower than 4%)

  8. Three modified activated carbons by different ligands for the solid phase extraction of copper and lead

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    Ghaedi, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Yasouj, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir; Ahmadi, F.; Tavakoli, Z. [Gachsaran Azad University, Gachsaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazerozohori, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Yasouj, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanmohammadi, A. [Young Researchers Club, Gachsaran Azad University, Gachsaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soylak, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Erciyes, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    In the presented work, 5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (phenytoin) (DFTD), 5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2-thione-,4-one (thiophenytoin) (DFID) and 2-(4'-methoxy-benzylidenimine) thiophenole (MBIP) modified activated carbons have been used for the solid phase extraction of copper and lead ions prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The influences of the various analytical parameters including pH, amounts of reagent, sample volume and eluent type, etc. on the recovery efficiencies of copper and lead ions were investigated. The influences of alkaline, earth alkaline and some transition metals on the adsorption of the analytes were also examined. The detection limits by three sigma for analyte ions were 0.65 and 0.42 {mu}g L{sup -1} using activated carbon modified with DFID; 0.52 and 0.37 {mu}g L{sup -1} using activated carbon modified with DFTD and 0.46 and 0.31 {mu}g L{sup -1} using activated carbon modified with MBIP for Pb(II) and Cu(II), respectively. The procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in natural waters, soil, and blood samples with satisfactory results (recoveries greater than 95%, R.S.D.'s lower than 4%)

  9. Adsorption characteristics of N-nitrosodimethylamine from aqueous solution on surface-modified activated carbons

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    Xiaodong, Dai [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061, Shandong (China); Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia); Zou, Linda [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA5095 (Australia); Zifeng, Yan [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061, Shandong (China); Millikan, Mary [Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia)

    2009-08-30

    This study investigated the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by an adsorption mechanism using commercially available activated carbons and surface-modified activated carbons. The effects of the modification on the properties of the activated carbon were studied by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transmission (DRIFT) analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption experiments revealed that the activated carbons demonstrated a greater capacity for NDMA adsorption capacity than can be achieved using zeolite. The equilibrium data was fitted to the Freundlich equation and it was found that the adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by the micropore size, relative pore volume and surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments were conducted using unmodified and modified activated carbons. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of NDMA can be significantly improved by heat treatment and doping of TiO{sub 2} particles. This was because the surface treatments yielded more hydrophobic sites and fewer oxygen-containing surface functional groups, and consequently an increased capacity for NDMA adsorption.

  10. Adsorption characteristics of N-nitrosodimethylamine from aqueous solution on surface-modified activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaodong; Zou, Linda; Yan Zifeng; Millikan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by an adsorption mechanism using commercially available activated carbons and surface-modified activated carbons. The effects of the modification on the properties of the activated carbon were studied by N 2 adsorption/desorption, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transmission (DRIFT) analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption experiments revealed that the activated carbons demonstrated a greater capacity for NDMA adsorption capacity than can be achieved using zeolite. The equilibrium data was fitted to the Freundlich equation and it was found that the adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by the micropore size, relative pore volume and surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments were conducted using unmodified and modified activated carbons. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of NDMA can be significantly improved by heat treatment and doping of TiO 2 particles. This was because the surface treatments yielded more hydrophobic sites and fewer oxygen-containing surface functional groups, and consequently an increased capacity for NDMA adsorption.

  11. Adsorption of Arsenate by Nano Scaled Activated Carbon Modified by Iron and Manganese Oxides

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    George P. Gallios

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of arsenic in water supplies is a major problem for public health and still concerns large parts of population in Southeast Asia, Latin America and Europe. Removal of arsenic is usually accomplished either by coagulation with iron salts or by adsorption with iron oxides or activated alumina. However, these materials, although very efficient for arsenic, normally do not remove other undesirable constituents from waters, such as chlorine and organo-chlorine compounds, which are the results of water chlorination. Activated carbon has this affinity for organic compounds, but does not remove arsenic efficiently. Therefore, in the present study, iron modified activated carbons are investigated as alternative sorbents for the removal of arsenic(V from aqueous solutions. In addition, modified activated carbons with magnetic properties can easily be separated from the solutions. In the present study, a simple and efficient method was used for the preparation of magnetic Fe3(Mn2+O4 (M:Fe and/or Mn activated carbons. Activated carbons were impregnated with magnetic precursor solutions and then calcinated at 400 °C. The obtained carbons were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements. Their adsorption performance for As(V was evaluated. The iron impregnation presented an increase in As(V maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax from about 4 mg g−1 for the raw carbon to 11.05 mg g−1, while Mn incorporation further increased the adsorption capacity at 19.35 mg g−1.

  12. Efficient adsorption of Hg (II) ions in water by activated carbon modified with melamine

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    Qin, Hangdao; Meng, Jingling; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Removal of Hg (II) ions from industrial wastewater is important for the water treatment, and adsorption is an efficient treatment process. Activated carbon (AC) was modified with melamine, which introduced nitrogen-containing functional groups onto AC surface. Original AC and melamine modified activated carbon (ACM) were characterized by elemental analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption, determination of the pH of the point of zero charge (pHpzc) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and their performance in the adsorption of Hg(II) ions was investigated. Langmuir model fitted the experimental data of equilibrium isotherms well. ACM showed the higher Hg (II) ions adsorption capacity, increasing more than more than 1.8 times compared to the original one. Moreover, ACM showed a wider pH range for the maximum adsorption than the parent AC.

  13. Development of the removal technology for toxic heavy metal ions by surface-modified activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Song, Kee Chan; Kim, Kwang Wook; Kim, In Tae; Cho, Il Hoon; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption capacities of both radionuclides(uranium, cobalt) and toxic heavy metals (lead, cadmium and chromium) using double surface-modified activated carbon in wide pH ranges are extensively evaluated. Surface-modified activated carbons are classified as AC(as-received carbon), OAC(single surface-modified carbon with nitric acid solution) and OAC-Na(double surface-modified carbon with various alkali solutions). It is established that optimal condition for the second surface modification of OAC is to use the mixed solution of both NaOH and NaCl with total concentration of 0.1 N based on adsorption efficiencies of uranium and cobalt. Variations of adsorption efficiencies in pH ranges of 2∼10 and the adsorption capacities in batch adsorber and fixed bed for removal of both radionuclides and toxic heavy metals using OAC-Na were shown to be superior to that of the AC and OAC even in a low pH range. Capacity factors of OAC-Na for the removal of various metal ions are also excellent to that of AC or OAC. Quantitative analysis of capacity factors for each ions showed that adsorption capacity of OAC-Na increased by 30 times for uranium, 60 times for cobalt, 9 times for lead, 30 times for cadmium, 3 times for chromium compared to that of AC at pH 5, respectively. Adsorption capacity of OAC-Na is comparable to that of XAD-16-TAR used as commercial ion exchange resin

  14. Removal of 226Ra, Fe3+ and Mn2+ from ground water using modified activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifullah, A.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A locally available biomass material, rice husk, was carbonized and activated in a steam/nitrogen flow by the use of a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor. The virgin carbon prepared from rice husk was further treated chemically using an alkali (e.g.10% NaOH and 10% KOH) in order to change the surface basicity of the carbon or oxidized with 30%H 2 O 2 and 10% HNO 3 in order to introduce different oxygen surface complexes. The modified carbons were characterized by FTIR and elemental analysis and investigated for removing unacceptably high concentrations of 326 Ra from ground water. The results showed that the best removal was obtained by the virgin carbon. The effect of process variables such as: contact time, Ph, carbon mass, sorbent surface modification and cation interference (e.g.iron and manganese) on the removal efficiency by the virgin carbon was studied. The data was fitted to Freundlich adsorption equation. Recommended procedures were adapted for complete removal of 226 Ra, Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ from ground water. Treated water quality remained good and no significant external radiation dose was caused to the residents

  15. Substitution of Acetylene Black by Using Modified Flake Graphite Applied in Activated Carbon Supercapacitors

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    Zhao Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flake graphite was mechanically modified at different times in N-methyl pyrrolidone under normal pressure. The results of the scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the structure of the flake graphite was modified. The crystallinity of the flake graphite, and many defects were introduced into the material. The evaluation of capacitor performance by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also performed. Results showed that the electrochemical performance of flake graphite was strongly enhanced, particularly when it was exfoliated for 6 h. Moreover, the electrochemical capacitive properties of activated carbon were obviously enhanced through the substitution of acetylene black by flake graphite modified for 6 h.

  16. Catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and 4-chlorophenol in the presence of modified activated carbons.

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    Huang, Hsu-Hui; Lu, Ming-Chun; Chen, Jong-Nan; Lee, Cheng-Te

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the heterogeneous catalytic decomposition of H(2)O(2) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) in the presence of activated carbons modified with chemical pretreatments. The decomposition of H(2)O(2) was suppressed significantly by the change of surface properties including the decreased pH(pzc) modified with oxidizing agent and the reduced active sites occupied by the adsorption of 4-CP. The apparent reaction rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition was dominated by the intrinsic reaction rates on the surface of activated carbon rather than the mass transfer rate of H(2)O(2) to the solid surface. By the detection of chloride ion in suspension, the reduction of 4-CP was not only attributed to the advanced adsorption but also the degradation of 4-CP. The catalytic activity toward 4-CP for the activated carbon followed the inverse sequence of the activity toward H(2)O(2), suggesting that acidic surface functional group could retard the H(2)O(2) loss and reduce the effect of surface scavenging resulting in the increase of the 4-CP degradation efficiency. Few effective radicals were expected to react with 4-CP for the strong effect of surface scavenging, which could explain why the degradation rate of 4-CP observed in this study was so slow and the dechlorination efficiency was independent of the 4-CP concentration in aqueous phase. Results show that the combination of H(2)O(2) and granular activated carbon (GAC) did increase the total removal of 4-CP than that by single GAC adsorption.

  17. Removal of Chlorinated Chemicals in H2 Feedstock Using Modified Activated Carbon

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    Prapaporn Luekittisup

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon (GAC was impregnated by sodium and used as adsorbent to remove chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC gases contaminated in H2 feedstock. The adsorption was carried out in a continuous packed-bed column under the weight hourly space velocity range of 0.8–1.0 hr−1. The adsorption capacity was evaluated via the breakthrough curves. This modified GAC potentially adsorbed HCl and VCM of 0.0681 gHCl/gadsorbent and 0.0026 gVCM/gadsorbent, respectively. It showed higher adsorption capacity than SiO2 and Al2O3 balls for both organic and inorganic CHCs removal. In addition, the kinetic adsorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons on modified GAC fit well with Yoon-Nelson model.

  18. Improved hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH{sub 4} solution using cobalt catalysts supported on modified activated carbon

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    Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie; Yue, Xuehai [College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Dai, Ping [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Hydrogen production from alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution via hydrolysis process over activated carbon supported cobalt catalysts is studied. Activated carbons are used in their original form and after liquid phase oxidation with HNO{sub 3}. The changes in surface functional groups of the activated carbon are detected by FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of HNO{sub 3} oxidation on the properties of the activated carbon and the resulting catalyst performance are investigated. FTIR analysis reveals that the oxidative treatment leads to the formation of various functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon. Cobalt catalysts supported on the modified activated carbon are found to exhibit higher activity and stability. (author)

  19. Redox poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon electrode in electrochemical supercapacitors

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    Gao Fei [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Li Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.c [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Yakun; Wang Xindong [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang Feiyu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-08-01

    The complex (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediaminebis(salicylideneaminato))-nickel(II), [Ni(saldMp)], was oxidatively electropolymerized on activated carbon (AC) electrode in acetonitrile solution. The poly[Ni(saldMp)] presented an incomplete coated film on the surface of carbon particles of AC electrode by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon (PAC) electrode were evaluated in different potential ranges by cyclic voltammetry. Counterions and solvent swelling mainly occurred up to 0.6 V for PAC electrode by the comparison of D{sup 1/2}C values calculated from chronoamperometry experiments. Both the Ohmic resistance and Faraday resistance of PAC electrode gradually approached to those of AC electrode when its potential was ranging from 1.2 V to 0.0 V. Galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments indicated that both the specific capacitance and energy density were effectively improved by the reversible redox reaction of poly[Ni(saldMp)] film under the high current density up to 10 mA cm{sup -2} for AC electrode. The specific capacitance of PAC electrode decreased during the first 50 cycles but thereafter it remained constant for the next 200 cycles. This study showed the redox polymer may be an attractive material in supercapacitors.

  20. Adsorption mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid onto nitric-acid-modified activated carbon fiber.

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    Li, Qun; Sun, Jie; Ren, Tianhao; Guo, Lin; Yang, Zhilin; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hai

    2018-04-01

    Adsorption by carbon materials is one of the relatively fast methods in present research, which is widely used in emergency events. Activated carbon fiber (ACF) modified by nitric acid (N-ACF) was studied in this research to determine the adsorption performance for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Subsequently, influence factors, adsorption isotherm models, kinetics and thermodynamic were investigated in a batch system to realize this adsorption. Experimental results showed that ACF modified by 0.1M nitric acid had a better removal ability than 2,4-D. Removal rate of 2,4-D by N-ACF was greatly influenced by pH with the optimum pH at 2. The superiority of the Langmuir isotherm model in describing the adsorption equilibrium was revealed by correlation coefficients R2 (R 2  ≥ 0.997). Furthermore, adsorption kinetics was well described by pseudo-second-order model. The results of thermodynamic showed that adsorption was a spontaneous, endothermic process with randomness increasing. Additionally, surface structure properties of adsorbent were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Specific surface area analysis of Brunauer, Emmett and Teller and Boehm's titration. It turned out that the micropore structure and functional groups on N-ACF all can contribute to the removal of 2,4-D.

  1. Enhancement of methylbenzene adsorption capacity through cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-modified activated carbon derived from Astragalus residue

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    Feng, Ningchuan; Zhang, Yumei; Fan, Wei; Zhu, Meilin

    2018-02-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from astragalus residue by KOH and then treated with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and used for the removal of methylbenzene from aqueous solution. The samples were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and Boehm titration. The results showed that CTAB changed the physicochemical properties of activated carbon significantly. The isotherm adsorption studies of methylbenzene onto the astragalus residue activated carbon (ASC) and CTAB-modified astragalus residue activated carbon (ASCCTAB) were examined by using batch techniques and agreed well with the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of ASC and ASC-CTAB for methylbenzene determined from the Langmuir model was183.56 mg/g and 235.18 mg/g, respectively. The results indicated that using CTAB as a modifier for ASC modification could markedly enhance the methylbenzene removal from water.

  2. Low-cost metal oxide activated carbon prepared and modified by microwave heating method for hydrogen storage

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    Moradi, S. E. [Islamic Azad University, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Novel microporous activated carbon (MAC) with high surface area and pore volume has been synthesized by microwave heating. Iron oxide nanoparticles were loaded into MAC by using Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O followed by microwave irradiation for up to five minutes. The surface modified microporous activated carbon was characterized by BET, XRD, SEM and thermogravimetric examinations. Adsorption data of H{sub 2} on the unmodified and modified MACs were collected with PCT method for a pressure range up to 120 bar at 303 K. Greater hydrogen adsorption was observed on the carbon adsorbents doped with 1.45 wt% of iron oxide nanoparticle loaded due to the joint properties of hydrogen adsorption on the carbon surface and the spill-over of hydrogen molecules into carbon structures.

  3. Electrochemical and DFT study of an anticancer and active anthelmintic drug at carbon nanostructured modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalkhani, Masoumeh; Beheshtian, Javad; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical response of mebendazole (Meb), an anticancer and effective anthelmintic drug, was investigated using two different carbon nanostructured modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Although, compared to unmodified GCE, both prepared modified electrodes improved the voltammetric response of Meb, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified GCE showed higher sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the CNTs-GCE was chosen as a promising candidate for the further studies. At first, the electrochemical behavior of Meb was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse and square wave voltammetry. A one step reversible, pH-dependent and adsorption-controlled process was revealed for electro-oxidation of Meb. A possible mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of Meb was proposed. In addition, electronic structure, adsorption energy, band gap, type of interaction and stable configuration of Meb on the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT). Obtained results revealed that Meb is weakly physisorbed on the CNTs and that the electronic properties of the CNTs are not significantly changed. Notably, CNTs could be considered as a suitable modifier for preparation of the modified electrode for Meb analysis. Then, the experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of Meb were optimized. Under optimal conditions, high sensitivity (b(Meb) = dI p,a (Meb) / d[Meb] = 19.65 μA μM −1 ), a low detection limit (LOD (Meb) = 19 nM) and a wide linear dynamic range (0.06–3 μM) was resulted for the voltammetric quantification of Meb. - Highlights: • Electrochemical oxidation mechanism of Meb was investigated. • A carbon nanostructure modified electrode was developed for the determination of Meb. • The modified electrode surface was characterized by SEM and impedance studies. • This study provides an effective chemically modified electrode with satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility

  4. Nitrate sorption on activated carbon modified with CaCl2: Equilibrium, isotherms and kinetics

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    Zanella Odivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nitrate (NO3- removal from aqueous solutions was investigated using granular activated carbon (GAC modified with CaCl2. Batch sorption studies were performed as a function of sorbent dose, initial nitrate concentration and pH. Sorption was maximized between pH 3 and 9. Studies on the effect of pH showed that the ion exchange mechanism might be involved in the sorption process. The percentage of nitrate removed increased with increasing sorbent concentration, and the ideal sorbent dose was found to be 20 g•L-1. Four isotherm models-Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips-were used to fit the experimental data. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model explained the sorption process well and showed the best coefficient of determination (0.9979 and Chi-square test statistic (0.0079. Using the Sips isotherm model, the sorption capacity (qe was found to be 1.93 mg nitrate per g of sorbent. Kinetic experiments indicated that sorption was a fast process, reaching equilibrium within 120 min. The nitrate sorption kinetic data were successfully fitted to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The overall results demonstrated potential applications of modified GAC for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions.

  5. Effect of one step KOH activation and CaO modified carbon in transesterification reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Abd Rahim; Zaki, Muhammad Azam Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    In this work, one step activation was introduced using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and calcium oxide (CaO) modified palm kernel shells. Various concentration of calcium oxide was used as catalyst while maintaining the same concentration of potassium hydroxide to activate and impregnate the palm kernel shell before calcined at 500°C for 5 hours. All the prepared samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). FTIR analysis of raw palm kernel shell showed the presence of various functional groups. However, after activation, most of the functional groups were eliminated. The basic strength of the prepared samples were determined using back titration method. The samples were then used as base heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification reaction of rice bran oil with methanol. Analysis of the products were performed using Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) to calculate the percentage conversion of the biodiesel products. This study shows, as the percentage of one step activation potassium and calcium oxide doped carbon increases thus, the basic strength also increases followed by the increase in biodiesel production. Optimization study shows that the optimum biodiesel production was at 8 wt% catalyst loading, 9:1 methanol: oil molar ratio at 65°C and 6 hours which gives a conversion up to 95%.

  6. The electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate in water on Pd/Sn-modified activated carbon fiber electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Qu, Jiuhui; Wu, Rongcheng; Lei, Pengju

    2006-03-01

    The Pd/Sn-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrodes were successfully prepared by the impregnation of Pd2+ and Sn2+ ions onto ACF, and their electrocatalytic reduction capacity for nitrate ions in water was evaluated in a batch experiment. The electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The capacity for nitrate reduction depending on Sn content on the electrode and the pH of electrolyte was discussed at length. The results showed that at an applied current density of 1.11 mA cm(-2), nitrate ions in water (solution volume: 400 mL) were reduced from 110 to 3.4 mg L(-1) after 240 min with consecutive change of intermediate nitrite. Ammonium ions and nitrogen were formed as the main final products. The amount of other possible gaseous products (including NO and N2O) was trace. With the increase of Sn content on the Pd/Sn-modified ACF electrode, the activity for nitrate reduction went up to reach a maximum (at Pd/Sn = 4) and then decreased, while the selectivity to N2 was depressed. Higher pH value of electrolyte exhibited more suppression effect on the reduction of nitrite than that of nitrate. However, no significant influence on the final ammonia formation was observed. Additionally, Cu ion in water was found to cover the active sites of the electrode to make the electrode deactivated.

  7. Effect of Solution pH on the Adsorption of Paracetamol on Chemically Modified Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bernal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol adsorption in acidic, neutral and basic media on three activated carbons with different chemistry surfaces was studied. A granular activated carbon (GAC was prepared from coconut shell; starting from this sample, an oxidized activated carbon (GACo was obtained by treating the GAC with a boiling solution of 6 M nitric acid, so to generate a greater number of oxygenated surface groups. In addition, a reduced activated carbon (GACr was obtained by heating the GAC at 1173 K, to remove the oxygenated surface groups. Paracetamol adsorption was higher for GACr due to the lower presence of oxygenated surface functional groups. Moreover, adsorption was highest at neutral pH. The magnitude of the interactions between paracetamol molecules and activated carbons was studied by measuring the immersion enthalpies of activated carbons in solution of paracetamol at different concentrations and pH values and by calculating the interaction enthalpy. The highest value was obtained for GACr in a paracetamol solution of 1000 mg L−1 at pH 7, confirming that paracetamol adsorption is favoured on basic activated carbons at pH values near to neutrality. Finally, the Gibbs energy changes confirmed the latter result, allowing explaining the different magnitudes of the interactions between paracetamol and activated carbons, as a function of solution pH.

  8. Adsorption of ibuprofen from aqueous solution on chemically surface-modified activated carbon cloths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Guedidi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the performance of an activated carbon cloth for adsorption of ibuprofen. The cloth was oxidized by a NaOCl solution (0.13 mol L−1 or thermally treated under N2 (700 °C for 1 hour. The raw and modified cloths were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption measurement at 77 K, CO2 adsorption at 273 K, Boehm titrations, pHPZC measurements, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis, and by infrared spectroscopy. The NaOCl treatment increases the acidic sites, mostly creating phenolic and carboxylic groups and decreases both the specific surface area and slightly the micropore volume. However, the thermal treatment at 700 °C under N2 induced a slight increase in the BET specific surface area and yielded to the only increase in the carbonyl group content. Ibuprofen adsorption studies of kinetics and isotherms were carried out at pH = 3 and 7. The adsorption properties were correlated to the cloth porous textures, surface chemistry and pH conditions. The isotherms of adsorption were better reproduced by Langmuir–Freundlich models at 298, 313 and 328 K. The adsorption of ibuprofen on the studied activated carbon cloths at pH 3 was an endothermic process. The pore size distributions of all studied ibuprofen-loaded fabrics were determined by DFT method to investigate the accessible porosity of the adsorbate. Both treatments do not influence the kind of micropores where the adsorption of ibuprofen occurred.

  9. Adsorption of a reactive dye on chemically modified activated carbons--influence of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfão, J J M; Silva, A I M; Pereira, J C V; Barata, S A; Fonseca, I M; Faria, P C C; Pereira, M F R

    2006-04-15

    The surface chemistry of a commercial activated carbon with a slightly basic nature was modified by appropriate treatments in order to obtain two additional samples, respectively with acidic and basic properties, without changing its textural parameters significantly. Different techniques (N2 adsorption at 77 K, temperature programmed desorption, and determination of acidity, basicity, and pH at the point of zero charge) were used to characterize the adsorbents. Kinetic and equilibrium adsorption data of a selected textile reactive dye (Rifafix Red 3BN, C.I. reactive red 241) on the mentioned materials were obtained at the pH values of 2, 7, and 12. The kinetic curves are fitted using the second-order model. The respective rate constants seem to diminish progressively with the initial concentration for the more diluted solutions tested, reaching a constant value at higher concentrations, which depends on the experimental system under consideration (adsorbent and pH). In general, the Langmuir model provides the best fit for the equilibrium data. The different uptakes obtained are discussed in relation to the surface chemical properties of the adsorbents. It is shown that the adsorption of the reactive (anionic) dye on the basic sample (prepared by thermal treatment under H2 flow at 700 degrees C) is favored. This conclusion is explained on the basis of the dispersive and electrostatic interactions involved. Moreover, it is also shown that the optimal adsorption condition for all the activated carbons tested corresponds to solution pH values not higher than the pH(pzc) of the adsorbents, which may be interpreted by taking into account the electrostatic forces present.

  10. Tartrazine modified activated carbon for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monser, Lotfi; Adhoum, Nafaâ

    2009-01-15

    A two in one attempt for the removal of tartrazine and metal ions on activated carbon has been developed. The method was based on the modification of activated carbon with tartrazine then its application for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) ions at different pH values. Tartrazine adsorption data were modelled using both Langmuir and Freundlich classical adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacities qm were 121.3, 67 and 56.7mgg(-1) at initial pH values of 1.0, 6.0 and 10, respectively. The adsorption of tartrazine onto activated carbon followed second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium time was found to be 240min at pH 1.0 and 120min at pH 10 for 500mgL(-1) tartrazine concentration. A maximum removal of 85% was obtained after 1h of contact time. The presence of tartrazine as modifier enhances attractive electrostatic interactions between metal ions and carbon surface. The adsorption capacity for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) ions has been improved with respect to non-modified carbon reaching a maximum of 140%. The adsorption capacity was found to be a pH dependent for both modified and non-modified carbon with a greater adsorption at higher pH values except for Cr(III). The enhancement percent of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) at different pH values was varied from 28% to 140% with respect to non-modified carbon. The amount of metal ions adsorbed using static regime was 11-40% higher than that with dynamic mode. The difference between adsorption capacities could be attributed to the applied flow rate.

  11. Electrochemical and DFT study of an anticancer and active anthelmintic drug at carbon nanostructured modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalkhani, Masoumeh; Beheshtian, Javad; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical response of mebendazole (Meb), an anticancer and effective anthelmintic drug, was investigated using two different carbon nanostructured modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Although, compared to unmodified GCE, both prepared modified electrodes improved the voltammetric response of Meb, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified GCE showed higher sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the CNTs-GCE was chosen as a promising candidate for the further studies. At first, the electrochemical behavior of Meb was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse and square wave voltammetry. A one step reversible, pH-dependent and adsorption-controlled process was revealed for electro-oxidation of Meb. A possible mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of Meb was proposed. In addition, electronic structure, adsorption energy, band gap, type of interaction and stable configuration of Meb on the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT). Obtained results revealed that Meb is weakly physisorbed on the CNTs and that the electronic properties of the CNTs are not significantly changed. Notably, CNTs could be considered as a suitable modifier for preparation of the modified electrode for Meb analysis. Then, the experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of Meb were optimized. Under optimal conditions, high sensitivity (b(Meb)=dIp,a(Meb)/d[Meb]=19.65μAμM(-1)), a low detection limit (LOD (Meb)=19nM) and a wide linear dynamic range (0.06-3μM) was resulted for the voltammetric quantification of Meb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Retention of gaseous fission products by pure and modified activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmova, L.; Cejnar, F.

    1975-01-01

    The results are reported of research into Czechoslovak-made activated carbon Desorex DB-2 and Supersorbon HS-1 and their retention properties. Krypton, xenon and helium of spectral purity were used in the investigation. The effect of surface impregnation was also studied on the retention efficiency of the activated carbon. It was found that the impregnation with alkali metal fluorides, such as RbF and CsF favourably affected the retention properties of the activated carbon as concerns gaseous fission products. (L.O.)

  13. Perchlorate adsorption by granular activated carbon modified with cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin-Xian, P.; Lu, Z.; Cui-Yun, C.; Ming-Long, Z.; Yang, Z.; Chun-Du, W.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the adsorption of perchlorate (ClO/sub 4/ in contaminated water, granular activated carbon (GAC) was modified with cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC). To investigate the adsorption mechanism of perchlorate the structure of GAC-CTAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. Then the GAC-CTAC was used for the adsorption of perchlorate in water. The effects of the adsorption time, pH, initial ClO/sub 4/ concentration, and co-existed anions on perchlorate adsorbed by GAC-CTAC were studied. The results show that the GAC-CTAC could absorb perchlorate better in water. The adsorption capacity of perchlorate on GAC-CTAC decreases in the alkaline solution, and increases with increasing the - initial concentration. The competitive adsorption exists between co-existed anions and ClO/sub 4/ on GAC-CTAC. In addition, adsorption of ClO/sub 4/ on GAC-CTAC fits the Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isothermal models in the range of the experimental concentration. The adsorption process follows pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  14. Synergistic effect of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies and carbon species on the visible light photocatalytic activity of carbon-modified TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Xiaogang; Xing, Xing; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-modified TiO 2 (CT) nanoparticles were prepared via a two-step method of heat treatment without the resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) polymer. As-prepared CT nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis/DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, thermal analysis (TA), electron spin resonance (ESR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The visible light photocatalytic activities were evaluated on the basis of the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The synergistic effect of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies (SETOVs) and the carbon species on the visible light photocatalytic activities of the CT nanoparticles were discussed. It was found that the crystalline phase, the morphology, and particle size of the CT nanoparticles depended on the second heat-treatment temperature instead of the first heat-treatment temperature. The visible light photocatalytic activities were attributed to the synergistic effect of SETOVs and the carbon species, and also depended on the specific surface area of the photocatalysts. - Highlights: • Carbon-modified TiO 2 particles have been prepared without RF polymer. • The visible light photocatalytic activities of the particles have been evaluated. • The band gap energy structure of the carbon-modified TiO 2 has been proposed. • Synergistic effect of SETOVs and carbon species has been discussed. • The activities also depend on the specific surface area of the catalysts

  15. Copper separation using modified active carbon before the polarographic determination of Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Fe in wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, S.; Lada, Z.M.; Golimowski, J.

    1977-01-01

    The investigations on the selective separation of Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions from the excess of copper were carried out. For this purpose active carbon modified by Na-diethyldithiocarbamate was used. The manner of DDTK-Na deposition on active carbon has been elaborated. The influence of pH was investigated and it was found that at pH 1(HNO 3 ) copper ions are quantitavely bound on modified carbon whereas other ions (Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ ) remain in the solution and can be determined polarographically. The elaborated method was applied to the determination of mentioned ions in the samples of wastes containing even 100-fold excess of copper. The concentration of copper can not exceed 100 mg/dm 3 . (author)

  16. Oxidized multi walled carbon nanotubes for improving the electrocatalytic activity of a benzofuran derivative modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mazloum-Ardakani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the use of a novel carbon paste electrode modified by 7,8-dihydroxy-3,3,6-trimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,d]furan-1(2H-one (DTD and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OCNTs is described for determination of levodopa (LD, acetaminophen (AC and tryptophan (Trp by a simple and rapid method. At first, the electrochemical behavior of DTD is studied, then, the mediated oxidation of LD at the modified electrode is investigated. At the optimum pH of 7.4, the oxidation of LD occurs at a potential about 330 mV less positive than that of an unmodified carbon paste electrode. Based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, the oxidation current of LD exhibits a linear range between 1.0 and 2000.0 μM of LD with a detection limit (3σ of 0.36 μM. DPV was also used for simultaneous determination of LD, AC and Trp at the modified electrode. Finally, the proposed electrochemical sensor was used for determinations of these substances in human serum sample.

  17. Preparation of granular activated carbons from composite of powder activated carbon and modified β-zeolite and application to heavy metals removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedein Ghannad, S M R; Lotfollahi, M N

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metals are continuously contaminating the surface and subsurface water. The adsorption process is an attractive alternative for removing the heavy metals because of its low cost, simple operation, high efficiency, and flexible design. In this study, influences of β-zeolite and Cu-modified β-zeolite on preparation of granular activated carbons (GACs) from a composite of powder activated carbon (PAC), methylcellulose as organic binder, bentonite as inorganic binder, and water were investigated. A number of granular samples were prepared by controlling the weight percentage of binder materials, PAC and zeolites as a reinforcing adsorbent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to characterize zeolite, modified zeolite and produced GAC. The produced GACs were used as the adsorbent for removal of Zn +2 , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions from aqueous solutions. The results indicated that the adsorption of metals ions depended on the pH (5.5) and contact time (30 min). Maximum adsorption of 97.6% for Pb 2+ , 95.9% for Cd 2+ and 91.1% for Zn +2 occurred with a new kind of GAC made of Cu-modified β-zeolite. The Zn +2 , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions sorption kinetics data were well described by a pseudo-second order model for all sorbents. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyze the experimental equilibrium data.

  18. Role of surface chemistry in modified ACF (activated carbon fiber)-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shiying, E-mail: ysy@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Geological Engineering (MEGE), Qingdao 266100 (China); Li, Lei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Xiao, Tuo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); China City Environment Protection Engineering Limited Company, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Di; Zhang, Yitao [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • ACF can efficiently activate peroxymonosulfate to degrade organic pollutants. • Basic functional groups may mainly increase the adsorption capacity of ACF. • C1, N1, N2 have promoting effect on the ACF catalyzed PMS oxidation. • Modification by heat after nitric acid is also a way of ACF regeneration. - Abstract: A commercial activated carbon fiber (ACF-0) was modified by three different methods: nitration treatment (ACF-N), heat treatment (ACF-H) and heat treatment after nitration (ACF-NH), and the effects of textural and chemical properties on the ability of the metal-free ACF-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5), an azo dye being difficultly adsorbed onto ACF, in aqueous solution were investigated in this work. Surface density of functional groups, surface area changes, surface morphology and the chemical state inside ACF samples were characterized by Boehm titration, N{sub 2} adsorption, scanning electron microscopy in couple with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. XPS spectra deconvolution was applied to figure out the importance of surface nitrogen-containing function groups. We found that π-π, pyridine and amine have promoting effect on the catalytic oxidation while the −NO{sub 2} has inhibitory effect on the ACF/PMS systems for RB5 destroy. Sustainability and renewability of the typical ACF-NH for catalytic oxidation of RB5 were also discussed in detail. Information about our conclusions are useful to control and improve the performance of ACF-catalyzed PMS oxidation for organic pollutants in wastewater treatment.

  19. Manganese-modified activated carbon fiber (Mn-ACF): Novel efficient adsorbent for Arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhumei; Yu, Yichang; Pang, Shiyu; Du, Dongyun, E-mail: dydu666@yahoo.com.cn

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a novel adsorbent, manganese-modified activated carbon fiber (Mn-ACF), was prepared and used for removal of As(V) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption of As(V) onto the as-prepared adsorbent from aqueous solutions was investigated and discussed. The adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation can better describe the adsorption kinetics. Furthermore, adsorption equilibrium data of As(V) on the as-prepared adsorbent were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models, which suggested that the Langmuir model provides a better correlation of the experimental data. The adsorption capacities (q{sub max}) of As(V) on Mn-ACF at various temperatures, determined using the Langmuir equation, are 23.77, 33.23 and 36.53 mg g{sup −1} at 303, 313 and 323 K, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this adsorption capacity for As(V) is much larger than those reported in literatures (7.50–16.58 mg g{sup −1}). Notably, the q{sub max} increases with increasing temperature, suggesting that adsorption of As(V) on Mn-ACF surface is an endothermic process, which is further confirmed by the calculated thermodynamic parameters including free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of adsorption process. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH and dosage of adsorbent on adsorption of As(V) were also studied. The present work will be useful in purification of groundwater.

  20. Determination of Rhodium(III) Ions by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Preconcentration with Modified Magnetic Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Fayazi; Masoud Ghanei-Motlagh; Mohammad Ali Taher; Raziyeh Fayazi

    2016-01-01

    A new method for analysis of trace amount of Rh(III) ions by magnetic activated carbon modified with 2,3,5,6-tetra(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (MAC/TPPZ) as the magnetic sorbent has been proposed. The proposed adsorbent was found to be advantageous over conventional solid phase extraction (SPE) in terms of operational simplicity and low time-consuming. The experimental parameters affecting the extraction/preconcentration and determination of the analyte were systematically examined. In order to invest...

  1. Adsorption of mercury (II from liquid solutions using modified activated carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Soé Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic metals present in the environment. Adsorption has been proposed among the technologies for mercury abatement. Activated carbons are universal adsorbents which have been found to be a very effective alternative for mercury removal from water. The effectiveness with which a contaminant is adsorbed by the solid surface depends, among other factors, on the charge of the chemical species in which the contaminant is in solution and on the net charge of the adsorbent surface which depend on the pH of the adsorption system. In this work, activated carbon from carbonized eucalyptus wood was used as adsorbent. Two sulphurization treatments by impregnation with sulphuric acid and with carbon disulphide, have been carried out to improve the adsorption capacity for mercury entrapment. Batch adsorption tests at different temperatures and pH of the solution were carried out. The influence of the textural properties, surface chemistry and operation conditions on the adsorption capacity, is discussed.

  2. Modifiers in rhodium catalysts for carbon monoxide hydrogenation: Structure-activity relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhore, N. A.

    1989-05-01

    This report is aimed at identifying interesting modified rhodium systems and elucidating structure-activity relationships in these systems with the overall goal of understanding the scientific issues in the catalytic conversion of syngas to oxygenates. Specific additives (sodium and molybdenum) are selected based on the scoping experiments. The effect of the additives on supported rhodium catalysts is then investigated. Throughout the investigation, experiments and analysis were performed on real systems instead of ideal systems. 374 refs., 82 figs., 57 tabs.

  3. Enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity of silver and mesoporous carbon co-modified Bi2WO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Qian; Gong, Ming; Liu, Wangping; Mao, Yulin; Le, Shukun; Ju, Shang; Long, Fei; Liu, Xiufang; Liu, Kai; Jiang, Tingshun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver and mesoporous carbon co-modified Bi 2 WO 6 (Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3) composite was prepared. • Photocatalytic activity of Bi 2 WO 6 was remarkably enhanced by co-modification of silver and mesoporous carbon. • The degradation rate of MB can reach ca. 95.1% under visible light irradiation. • The Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3 composite has good stability and potential application prospects. - Abstract: Ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 was prepared by hard template method using SBA-15 as template, sucrose as carbon source. Flower/sphere-like Bi 2 WO 6 and CMK-3/Bi 2 WO 6 photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method, and then Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 and Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3 composite photocatalysts were prepared via a photoreduction process. The samples were characterized by XRD, UV–vis, TEM (HR-TEM), SEM, N 2 physical adsorption and PL and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results show that both incorporating of CMK-3 and Ag loading greatly improved the photocatalytic activity of Bi 2 WO 6 , and the content of CMK-3 and silver have an impact on the photocatalytic activity of Bi 2 WO 6 . The photocatalytic activity of Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3 photocatalyst is superior to the activities of CMK-3/Bi 2 WO 6 and Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 under comparable conditions, and Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3 photocatalyst has high stability and is easy to be recycled. Also, the mechanism for the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of CMK-3 and Ag co-modified Bi 2 WO 6 was also investigated

  4. Water treatment with exceptional virus inactivation using activated carbon modified with silver (Ag) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabuku, Quelen Letícia; Arakawa, Flávia Sayuri; Fernandes Silva, Marcela; Ferri Coldebella, Priscila; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia Regina; Bergamasco, Rosangela

    2017-08-01

    Continuous flow experiments (450 mL min -1 ) were performed in household filter in order to investigate the removal and/or inactivation of T4 bacteriophage, using granular activated carbon (GAC) modified with silver and/or copper oxide nanoparticles at different concentrations. GAC and modified GAC were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, specific surface area, pore size and volume, pore average diameter, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The antiviral activity of the produced porous media was evaluated by passing suspensions of T4 bacteriophage (∼10 5  UFP/mL) through filters. The filtered water was analyzed for the presence of the bacteriophage and the release of silver and copper oxide. The porous media containing silver and copper oxide nanoparticles showed high inactivation capacity, even reaching reductions higher than 3 log. GAC6 (GAC/Ag0.5%Cu1.0%) was effective in the bacteriophage inactivation, reaching 5.53 log reduction. The levels of silver and copper released in filtered water were below the recommended limits (100 ppb for silver and 1000 ppb for copper) in drinking water. From this study, it is possible to conclude that activated carbon modified with silver and copper oxide nanoparticles can be used as a filter for virus removal in the treatment of drinking water.

  5. Oxidation of limonene using activated carbon modified in dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonek, Karolina; Wróblewska, Agnieszka; Makuch, Edyta; Ulejczyk, Bogdan; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Rafał. J.; Koren, Zvi C.; Michalkiewicz, Beata

    2017-10-01

    The waste from industrial fruits processing is utilized for the extraction of limonene, a renewable terpene biomass compound obtained from orange peels. This was followed by limonene oxidation, which produces highly useful oxygenated derivatives (carveol, and perillyl alcohol, 1,2-epoxylimonene and its diol). New catalysts were obtained by treating relatively inexpensive commercially available EuroPh and FPV activated carbons with plasma. These catalysts were characterized by the following instrumental methods XRD, sorption of N2 and CO2, SEM, EDS, TEM, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. The activities of the plasma-treated catalysts were measured in the oxidation of limonene by means of either hydrogen peroxide or t-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidizing agents. During the oxidation with hydrogen peroxide the new plasma-treated catalysts were more active than their untreated counterparts. This effect was noticeable in the considerable increase in the conversion of limonene. The mechanism explaining this property is proposed, and it takes into account the role of the appropriate functional groups on the surface of the catalysts. This work has shown for the first time that the commercial EuroPh and FPV activated carbons, after having been treated by plasma, are active catalysts for the selective limonene oxidation for the production of value-added industrial products.

  6. On the reactive adsorption of ammonia on activated carbons modified by impregnation with inorganic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandosz, T.J.; Petit, C. [CUNY City College, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-10-15

    Ammonia adsorption was studied under dynamic conditions, at room temperature, on activated carbons of different origins (coal-based, wood-based and coconut-shell-based carbons) before and after their impregnation with various inorganic compounds including metal chlorides, metal oxides and polycations. The role of humidity was evaluated by running tests in both dry and moist conditions. Adsorbents were analyzed before and after exposure to ammonia by thermal analyses, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Results of breakthrough tests show significant differences in terms of adsorption capacity depending on the parent carbon, the impregnates and the experimental conditions. It is found that surface chemistry governs ammonia adsorption on the impregnated carbons. More precisely, it was demonstrated that a proper combination of the surface pH, the strength, type and amount of functional groups present on the adsorbents' surface is a key point in ammonia uptake. Water can have either positive or negative effects on the performance of adsorbents. It can enhance NH{sub 3} adsorption capacity since it favors ammonia dissolution and thus enables reaction between ammonium ions and carboxylic groups from the carbons' surface. On the other hand, water can also reduce the performance from the strength of adsorption standpoint. It promotes dissolution of ammonia and that ammonia is first removed from the system when the adsorbent bed is purged with air. Ammonia, besides adsorption by van der Waals forces and dissolution in water, is also retained on the surface via reactive mechanisms such as acid-base reactions (Bronsted and Lewis) or complexation. Depending on the materials used and the experimental conditions, 6-47% ammonia adsorbed is strongly retained on the surface even when the bed is purged with air.

  7. A study on optimal pore development of modified commercial activated carbons for electrode materials of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Hye-Min; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to understand the impact of CO2 activation of commercial activated carbons (AC) on the changes in pore characteristics and the electrochemical property. The surface structure of manufactured AC was observed with a X-ray diffraction (XRD); the pore characteristics were analyzed at N2/77 K isothermal absorption using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equations. In addition, the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed by means of an electrolyte of 1 M (C2H5)4NBF4/propylene carbonate, using a charge/discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and impedance. The N2/77 K isothermal absorption curve of the manufactured AC falls under Type I in the classification of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and was found to largely comprise micropores. The specific surface area increased from 1690 m2/g to 2290 m2/g, and the pore volume grew from 0.80 cm3/g to 1.10 cm3/g. The analysis of electrochemical characteristics also found that the specific capacity increased from 17 F/g to 20 F/g (in a full cell condition). Based on these results, we were able to determine the pore characteristics of commercial AC through an additional activation process, which consequently allowed us to manufacture the AC with an advanced electrochemical property.

  8. Palladium nanoparticles decorated on activated fullerene modified screen printed carbon electrode for enhanced electrochemical sensing of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Thirumalraj, Balamurugan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Ali, M Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-06-15

    In the present work, an enhanced electrochemical sensor for dopamine (DA) was developed based on palladium nanoparticles decorated activated fullerene-C60 (AC60/PdNPs) composite modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis confirmed the formation of PdNPs on AC60. The fabricated AC60/PdNPs composite modified electrode exhibited an enhanced electrochemical response to DA with a lower oxidation potential than that of SPCE modified with PdNPs and C60, indicating the excellent electrooxidation behavior of the AC60/PdNPs composite modified electrode. The electrochemical studies confirmed that the electrooxidation of DA at the composite electrode is a diffusion controlled electrochemical process. The differential pulse voltammetry was employed for the determination of DA; under optimum conditions, the electrochemical oxidation signal of DA increased linearly at the AC60/PdNPs composite from 0.35 to 133.35 μM. The limit of detection was found as 0.056 μM with a sensitivity of 4.23 μA μM(-1) cm(-2). The good recovery of DA in the DA injection samples further revealed the good practicality of AC60/PdNPs modified electrode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoecotoxicity assessment of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse modified with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Suely Patricia Costa; Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabricio Souza; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro, E-mail: suely.goncalves@lnnano.cnpem.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Clemente, Zaira; Castro, Vera Lucia Scherholz Salgado [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work, we performed the preparation and characterization of the activated carbon obtained from pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (ACBP) and its modification with silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35 nm (ACBP-AgNPs). The focus was on the correlations between the material physico-chemical properties and its adverse effects/ecotoxicity on three environmental exposure bioindicators (i.e. E. coli, Hydra attenuata, and Lycopersicum esculentum) based on its possible life cycle. The materials were well characterized using integrated techniques (e.g. TEM, SEM-EDS, XPS, BET, DLS, and ICP-OES). The presence of AgNPs on the activated carbon surface was responsible for microbial growth inhibition (E. coli). Besides, ACBP modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its high adsorption capacity of organic pollutant models (i.e. phenol and methylene blue), making this material promising to environmental remediation and water purification. However, ACPB-AgNPs showed environmental risks, caused a moderate toxicity to the aquatic organism (H. attenuata, 1.94 mg L{sup -1}, LC50) and delayed the tomato (L. esculentum) root development, including oxidative stress induction. Finally, to develop efficient, innovative and safe nanomaterials for environmental remediation technologies, the combination/integration of material physical and chemical methodologies with biological assays (ecotoxicity assessment) appears as a promising and necessary strategy towards a sustainable nanotechnology. (author)

  10. Nanoecotoxicity assessment of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse modified with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Suely Patricia Costa; Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabricio Souza; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro; Clemente, Zaira; Castro, Vera Lucia Scherholz Salgado

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In this work, we performed the preparation and characterization of the activated carbon obtained from pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (ACBP) and its modification with silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35 nm (ACBP-AgNPs). The focus was on the correlations between the material physico-chemical properties and its adverse effects/ecotoxicity on three environmental exposure bioindicators (i.e. E. coli, Hydra attenuata, and Lycopersicum esculentum) based on its possible life cycle. The materials were well characterized using integrated techniques (e.g. TEM, SEM-EDS, XPS, BET, DLS, and ICP-OES). The presence of AgNPs on the activated carbon surface was responsible for microbial growth inhibition (E. coli). Besides, ACBP modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its high adsorption capacity of organic pollutant models (i.e. phenol and methylene blue), making this material promising to environmental remediation and water purification. However, ACPB-AgNPs showed environmental risks, caused a moderate toxicity to the aquatic organism (H. attenuata, 1.94 mg L -1 , LC50) and delayed the tomato (L. esculentum) root development, including oxidative stress induction. Finally, to develop efficient, innovative and safe nanomaterials for environmental remediation technologies, the combination/integration of material physical and chemical methodologies with biological assays (ecotoxicity assessment) appears as a promising and necessary strategy towards a sustainable nanotechnology. (author)

  11. Ceria modified activated carbon: an efficient arsenic removal adsorbent for drinking water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Radha; Somasundar, Yogesh; Iyer, Venkatesh Shankar; Baruwati, Babita

    2017-06-01

    Ceria (CeO2) coated powdered activated carbon was synthesized by a single step chemical process and demonstrated to be a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of both As(III) and As(V) from water without any pre-oxidation process. The formation of CeO2 on the surface of powdered activated carbon was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The percentage of Ce in the adsorbent was confirmed to be 3.5 % by ICP-OES. The maximum removal capacity for As(III) and As(V) was found to be 10.3 and 12.2 mg/g, respectively. These values are comparable to most of the commercially available adsorbents. 80 % of the removal process was completed within 15 min of contact time in a batch process. More than 95 % removal of both As(III) and As(V) was achieved within an hour. The efficiency of removal was not affected by change in pH (5-9), salinity, hardness, organic (1-4 ppm of humic acid) and inorganic anions (sulphate, nitrate, chloride, bicarbonate and fluoride) excluding phosphate. Presence of 100 ppm phosphate reduced the removal significantly from 90 to 18 %. The equilibrium adsorption pattern of both As(III) and As(V) fitted well with the Freundlich model with R 2 values 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The material shows reusability greater than three times in a batch process (arsenic concentration reduced below 10 ppb from 330 ppb) and a life of at least 100 L in a column study with 80 g material when tested under natural hard water (TDS 1000 ppm, pH 7.8, hardness 600 ppm as CaCO3) spiked with 330 ppb of arsenic.

  12. Electrochemical behavior of ruthenium-hexacyanoferrate modified glassy carbon electrode and catalytic activity towards ethanol electro oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Wendell M.; Marques, Aldalea L.B., E-mail: aldalea.ufma@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Tecnologica; Cardoso, William S.; Marques, Edmar P.; Bezerra, Cicero W.B. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Departamento de Qumica; Ferreira, Antonio Ap. P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Song, Chaojie; Zhang, Jiujun [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Ruthenium-based hexacyanoferrate (RuHCF) thin film modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by drop evaporation method. The RuHCF modified electrode exhibited four redox couples in strong acidic solution (pH 1.5) attributed to Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} ion and three ruthenium forms (Ru(II), Ru(III) and Ru(IV)), characteristic of ruthenium oxide compounds. The modified electrode displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in the potential region where electrochemical processes Ru(III)-O-Ru(IV) and Ru(IV)-O-Ru(VI) occur. Impedance spectroscopy data indicated that the charge transfer resistance decreased with the increase of the applied potential and ethanol concentration, indicating the use of the RuHCF modified electrode as an ethanol sensor. Under optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly and rapidly to ethanol concentration between 0.03 and 0.4 mol L{sup -1} with a limit of detection of 0.76 mmol L{sup -1}, suggesting an adequate sensitivity in ethanol analyses. (author)

  13. Experimental data for aluminum removal from aqueous solution by raw and iron-modified granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Mahdavi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset deals with the modification of granular activated carbon (GAC with FeCl3 under basic conditions (pH ≈ 12 for removal of aluminium (Al from aqueous solution. The structural properties and operational parameters including Al ion concentration (2.15 and 10.3 mg/L, pH solution (2–10, adsorbent dosage (0.1–5 g/L, and contact time (0–10 h was investigated for raw and modified GAC. This dataset provides information about Al removal by GAC and modified GAC at conditions including: pH = 8, contact time = 6 h, initial Al concentration = 2.15 mg/L. The characterization data of the adsorbents was analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET test. The data showed that Freundlich isotherm with and Pseudo second order kinetic model were the best models for describing the Al adsorption reactions. The acquired data indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GAC and modified GAC to uptake Al (C0 = 10.3 mg/L was 3 and 4.37 mg/g respectively. Keywords: Aluminium removal, Adsorption, Iron-modified GAC, Water treatment

  14. Simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil and its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid, by differential pulse voltammetry using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh, E-mail: madrakian@basu.ac.ir; Soleimani, Mohammad; Afkhami, Abbas

    2014-09-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil (MPM) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) was fabricated by multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE). The electrochemical behavior of these two drugs was studied at the modified electrode using cyclic voltammetry and adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry. MPM and MPA were oxidized at the GCE during an irreversible process. DPV analysis showed two oxidation peaks at 0.87 V and 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPM and an oxidation peak at 0.87 V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPA in phosphate buffer solution of pH 5.0. The MWCNTs/GCE displayed excellent electrochemical activities toward oxidation of MPM and MPA relative to the bare GCE. The experimental design algorithm was used for optimization of DPV parameters. The electrode represents linear responses in the range 5.0 × 10{sup −6} to 1.6 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1} and 2.5 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} to 6.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} for MPM and MPA, respectively. The detection limit was found to be 9.0 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} and 4.0 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} for MPM and MPA, respectively. The modified electrode showed a good sensitivity and stability. It was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of MPM and MPA in plasma and urine samples. - Highlights: • A new modified electrochemical sensor was constructed and used. • Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as the modifiers. • MPM and MPA were measured simultaneously at the low levels. • The sensor was used to the determination of MPA and MPM in real samples.

  15. PRE-CONCENTRATION AND DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS ON MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBON IN REAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and simple method for the simultaneous pre-concentration of nutritionally important minerals in real samples has been reported. The method is based on the formation of metal complexes by N, N'-diacetyl-4-bromo-2, 6-di (aminomethyl phenol (DBDP loaded on activated carbon. The metals content on the complexes are then eluted using 6mL 4M HNO3, which are detected by AAS at resonance line. In this procedure, minerals such as Ni, Cu, Co, Pb Zn and Cd can be analyzed in one run by caring out the simultaneous separation and quantification of them. At optimum condition the response are linear over concentration range of for 0.03-1.1 µg mL-1 for Ni2+ , 0.03-1.0 µg mL-1 for Cu2+, 0.02-1.0 µg mL-1 for  Pb2+ , 0.02-1.0 µg mL-1 for  Co2+,0.02-1.1 µg mL-1 Zn2+ and 0.05-1.3 µg mL-1for Cd2+. The detection limits of each element are expressed as the amount of analytes in µg mL-1 giving a signal to noise ratio of 3 are equal to 2.5, 2.4, 1.6, 2.4, 1.9 and 2.1 for Ni2+ , Cu2+, Pb2+ , Co2+,Zn2+ and Cd2+. The ability of method for repeatable recovery of trace ion are 99.9, 98.7, 99.2 , 98.7, 98.5and 95.6 with R.S.D of 1.3, 1.4, 1.2, 1.4, 1.7 and 1.4 for Ni2+ , Cu2+, Pb2+ , Co2+,Zn2+ and Cd2+. The method has been successfully applied for these metals content evaluation in some real samples including natural water and vegetable.     Keywords: Heavy Metals, N, N'-diacetyl-4-bromo-2,6-di(aminomethyl phenol (DBDP, Activated Carbon

  16. Use of Pyrolyzed Iron Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Modified Activated Carbon as Air–Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Xue

    2013-08-28

    Activated carbon (AC) is a cost-effective catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To enhance the catalytic activity of AC cathodes, AC powders were pyrolyzed with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA) at a weight ratio of FeEDTA:AC = 0.2:1. MFCs with FeEDTA modified AC cathodes and a stainless steel mesh current collector produced a maximum power density of 1580 ± 80 mW/m2, which was 10% higher than that of plain AC cathodes (1440 ± 60 mW/m 2) and comparable to Pt cathodes (1550 ± 10 mW/m2). Further increases in the ratio of FeEDTA:AC resulted in a decrease in performance. The durability of AC-based cathodes was much better than Pt-catalyzed cathodes. After 4.5 months of operation, the maximum power density of Pt cathode MFCs was 50% lower than MFCs with the AC cathodes. Pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species likely contributed to the increased activity of FeEDTA modified AC. These results show that pyrolyzing AC with FeEDTA is a cost-effective and durable way to increase the catalytic activity of AC. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Adsorption of Cd (II on Modified Granular Activated Carbons: Isotherm and Column Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez-Estupiñán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, equilibrium and dynamic adsorption tests of cadmium Cd (II on activated carbons derived from different oxidation treatments (with either HNO3, H2O2, or NaOCl, corresponding to GACoxN, GACoxP, and GACoxCl samples are presented. The oxidation treatments determined an increase in the surface functional groups (mainly the acidic ones and a decrease in the pHPZC (except for the GACoxCl sample. A slight alteration of the textural parameters was also observed, which was more significant for the GACoxCl sample, in terms of a decrease of both Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area and micropore volume. Adsorption isotherms were determined for all the adsorbents and a significant increase in the adsorption performances of the oxidized samples with respect to the parent material was observed. The performances ranking was GACoxCl > GACoxP > GACoxN > GAC, likely due to the chemical surface properties of the adsorbents. Dynamic tests in a fixed bed column were carried out in terms of breakthrough curves at constant Cd inlet concentration and flow rate. GACoxCl and GACoxN showed a significantly higher value of the breakpoint time, likely due to the higher adsorption capacity. Finally, the dynamic tests were analyzed in light of a kinetic model. In the adopted experimental conditions, the results showed that mass transfer is controlled by internal pore diffusion, in which surface diffusion plays a major role.

  18. Adsorption of Cd (II) on Modified Granular Activated Carbons: Isotherm and Column Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Estupiñán, Paola; Erto, Alessandro; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos

    2017-12-20

    In this work, equilibrium and dynamic adsorption tests of cadmium Cd (II) on activated carbons derived from different oxidation treatments (with either HNO₃, H₂O₂, or NaOCl, corresponding to GACoxN, GACoxP, and GACoxCl samples) are presented. The oxidation treatments determined an increase in the surface functional groups (mainly the acidic ones) and a decrease in the pH PZC (except for the GACoxCl sample). A slight alteration of the textural parameters was also observed, which was more significant for the GACoxCl sample, in terms of a decrease of both Brunauer-Emmett-Teller ( BET ) surface area and micropore volume. Adsorption isotherms were determined for all the adsorbents and a significant increase in the adsorption performances of the oxidized samples with respect to the parent material was observed. The performances ranking was GACoxCl > GACoxP > GACoxN > GAC, likely due to the chemical surface properties of the adsorbents. Dynamic tests in a fixed bed column were carried out in terms of breakthrough curves at constant Cd inlet concentration and flow rate. GACoxCl and GACoxN showed a significantly higher value of the breakpoint time, likely due to the higher adsorption capacity. Finally, the dynamic tests were analyzed in light of a kinetic model. In the adopted experimental conditions, the results showed that mass transfer is controlled by internal pore diffusion, in which surface diffusion plays a major role.

  19. Surface chemistry of a viscose-based activated carbon cloth modified by treatment with ammonia and steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, J.P. [University of Paris, Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    The influence of ammonia treatment at 800{sup o}C on the catalytic activity of a viscose-based activated carbon cloth (ACC) was evaluated for the oxidative retention of H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} at room temperature. Change in the surface chemistry was observed by X-ray spectroscopy of nitrogen (N1s) and by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Dynamic adsorption of H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} in moist air onto a packed bed of activated carbon cloth was monitored by measurement of the breakthrough curves at room temperature. ACC modified by ammonia showed noteworthy enhanced SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S loading relative to the untreated ACC. Improved SO{sub 2} retention rate could be replicated several times after regeneration by washing at room temperature, in contrast to the case with H{sub 2}S. The likely reasons for the behavior of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} on the ammonia-treated ACC are discussed with reference to the recent literature.

  20. Performance-Enhanced Activated Carbon Electrodes for Supercapacitors Combining Both Graphene-Modified Current Collectors and Graphene Conductive Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Qian, Yuting; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Shoupu; Liu, Fengkui; Guo, Yufen; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Qi; Liu, Liwei

    2018-05-15

    Graphene has been widely used in the active material, conductive agent, binder or current collector for supercapacitors, due to its large specific surface area, high conductivity, and electron mobility. However, works simultaneously employing graphene as conductive agent and current collector were rarely reported. Here, we report improved activated carbon (AC) electrodes (AC@G@NiF/G) simultaneously combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene-modified nickel foams (NiF/Gs) current collectors and high quality few-layer graphene conductive additive instead of carbon black (CB). The synergistic effect of NiF/Gs and graphene additive makes the performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes superior to those of electrodes with CB or with nickel foam current collectors. The performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes show that for the few-layer graphene addition exists an optimum value around 5 wt %, rather than a larger addition of graphene, works out better. A symmetric supercapacitor assembled by AC@G@NiF/G electrodes exhibits excellent cycling stability. We attribute improved performances to graphene-enhanced conductivity of electrode materials and NiF/Gs with 3D graphene conductive network and lower oxidation, largely improving the electrical contact between active materials and current collectors.

  1. Performance-Enhanced Activated Carbon Electrodes for Supercapacitors Combining Both Graphene-Modified Current Collectors and Graphene Conductive Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Qian, Yuting; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Shoupu; Liu, Fengkui; Guo, Yufen; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Qi; Liu, Liwei

    2018-01-01

    Graphene has been widely used in the active material, conductive agent, binder or current collector for supercapacitors, due to its large specific surface area, high conductivity, and electron mobility. However, works simultaneously employing graphene as conductive agent and current collector were rarely reported. Here, we report improved activated carbon (AC) electrodes (AC@G@NiF/G) simultaneously combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene-modified nickel foams (NiF/Gs) current collectors and high quality few-layer graphene conductive additive instead of carbon black (CB). The synergistic effect of NiF/Gs and graphene additive makes the performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes superior to those of electrodes with CB or with nickel foam current collectors. The performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes show that for the few-layer graphene addition exists an optimum value around 5 wt %, rather than a larger addition of graphene, works out better. A symmetric supercapacitor assembled by AC@G@NiF/G electrodes exhibits excellent cycling stability. We attribute improved performances to graphene-enhanced conductivity of electrode materials and NiF/Gs with 3D graphene conductive network and lower oxidation, largely improving the electrical contact between active materials and current collectors. PMID:29762528

  2. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Esther; Lemus, Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Palomar, José; Martin, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • HNO 3 oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O 3 oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO 3 oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions

  3. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: Effect of oxygen functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Esther, E-mail: esther@lequia.udg.cat [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Lemus, Jesús [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain); Palomar, José [Universidad de Madrid, Sección de Ingeniería Química, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Martin, María J. [LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona, Catalonia E-17071 (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • HNO{sub 3} oxidation incorporates a higher amount of functionalities than O{sub 3} oxidation. • The loss of porosity is compensated by the massive incorporation of oxygen groups. • HNO{sub 3} oxidation increases OH groups in AC and the ETM and DMS adsorption capacities. • The oxygen functional groups in the AC surface did not affect the DMDS adsorption. • COSMO-RS predicts the important role of OH groups for VSC adsorption. -- Abstract: The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions.

  4. Effect of telechelic ionic groups on the dispersion of organically modified clays in bisphenol A polycarbonate nanocomposites by in-situ polymerization using activated carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Colonna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of bisphenol A polycarbonate with organically modified clays have been prepared for the first time by in-situ polymerization using bis(methyl salicyl carbonate as activated carbonate. The use of the activated carbonate permits to conduct the polymerization reaction at lower temperature and with shorter polymerization time with respect to those necessary for traditional melt methods that uses diphenyl carbonate, affording a nanocomposite with improved color. Moreover, an imidazolium salt with two long alkyl chains has been used to modify the montmorillonite, providing an organically modified clay with high thermal stability and wide d-spacing. The addition of ionic groups at the end of the polymer chain increases the interaction between the clay surface and the polymer producing a better dispersion of the clay. The presence of the clay increases the thermal stability of the polymer.

  5. Eriochrome Blue Black modified activated carbon as solid phase extractor for removal of Pb(II ions from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Albishri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a sensitive and simple method for the removal of lead Pb(II, from water samples prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, was investigated. The method utilized activated carbon (AC physically modified with Eriochrome Blue Black (EBB as a solid-phase extractant. Surface properties of the AC-EBB phase were characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The separation parameters for effective adsorption of lead Pb(II, including effects of pH, initial concentration of Pb(II, coexisting ions and shaking time using batch method were studied. The optimum pH value for the separation of Pb(II on the new sorbent was 7.0, and the maximum static adsorption capacity of Pb(II onto the AC-EBB was 127.896 mg/g at this pH and after 1 h contact time. The Pb(II adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb(II onto activated carbon followed pseudo second-order kinetic model.

  6. Long-Term Performance of Chemically and Physically Modified Activated Carbons in Air Cathodes of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-31

    © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Activated carbon (AC) is a low-cost and effective catalyst for oxygen reduction in air cathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but its performance must be maintained over time. AC was modified by three methods: 1)pyrolysis with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (AC-Fe), 2)heat treatment (AC-heat), and 3)mixing with carbon black (AC-CB). The maximum power densities after one month with these AC cathodes were 35% higher with AC-Fe (1410±50mW m-2) and AC-heat (1400±20mW m-2), and 16% higher with AC-CB (1210±30mW m-2) than for plain AC (1040±20mW m-2), versus 1270±50mW m-2 for a Pt control. After 16months, the Pt cathodes produced only 250±10mW m-2. However, the AC-heat and AC-CB cathodes still produced 960-970mW m-2, whereas plain AC produced 860±60mW m-2. The performance of the AC cathodes was restored to >85% of the initial maximum power densities by cleaning with a weak acid solution. Based on cost considerations among the AC materials, AC-CB appears to be the best choice for long-term performance.

  7. Evaluation of ammonia modified and conventionally activated biomass based carbons as CO2 adsorbents in postcombustion conditions

    OpenAIRE

    González Plaza, Marta; García López, Susana; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Pevida García, Covadonga

    2011-01-01

    Low cost carbons obtained from biomass residues, olive stones and almond shells, were evaluated as CO2 adsorbents in postcombustion conditions (low CO2 partial pressure). These carbons were prepared from biomass chars by means of two different methods: physical activation with CO2 and amination. All the prepared carbons present a high CO2 adsorption capacity at 303 K, although carbons developed from almond shells show a superior CO2/N2 selectivity (lower N2 adsorption) than those obtained fro...

  8. Assembly of Modified Ferritin Proteins on Carbon Nanotubes and its Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Lillehei, Peter T.; Park, Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Highly effective dispersions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be made using a commercially available buffer solution. Buffer solutions of 3-(N-morpholino)-propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), which consists of a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms, a charged group, and an alkyl chain greatly enhance the dispersibility and stability of CNTs in aqueous solutions. Additionally, the ability of biomolecules, especially cationized Pt-cored ferritins, to adhere onto the well-dispersed CNTs in the aqueous buffer solution is also improved. This was accomplished without the use of surfactant molecules, which are detrimental to the electrical, mechanical, and other physical properties of the resulting products. The assembled Pt-cored ferritin proteins on the CNTs were used as an electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction

  9. Chemically modified carbon fibers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolenko, I.N.; Lyubliner, I.P.; Gulko, N.V.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive review about chemically modified carbon fibers (e.g. by incorporation of other elements) and is structured as follows: 1. Types of carbon fibers, 2. Structure of carbon fibers, 3. Properties of carbon fibers, 4. The cellulose carbonization process, 5. Formation of element-carbon fiber materials, 6. Surface modification of carbon fibers, and 7. Applications of carbon fibers (e.g. adsorbents, catalysts, constituents of composites). (MM)

  10. Oxyanion flux characterization using passive flux meters: Development and field testing of surfactant-modified granular activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimi; Rao, P. S. C.; Poyer, Irene C.; Toole, Robyn M.; Annable, M. D.; Hatfield, K.

    2007-07-01

    We report here on the extension of Passive Flux Meter (PFM) applications for measuring fluxes of oxyanions in groundwater, and present results for laboratory and field studies. Granular activated carbon, with and without impregnated silver (GAC and SI-GAC, respectively), was modified with a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), to enhance the anion exchange capacity (AEC). Langmuir isotherm sorption maxima for oxyanions measured in batch experiments were in the following order: perchlorate >> chromate > selenate, consistent with their selectivity. Linear sorption isotherms for several alcohols suggest that surfactant modification of GAC and SI-GAC reduced (˜ 30-45%) sorption of alcohols by GAC. Water and oxyanion fluxes (perchlorate and chromate) measured by deploying PFMs packed with surfactant-modified GAC (SM-GAC) or surfactant-modified, silver-impregnated GAC (SM-SI-GAC) in laboratory flow chambers were in close agreement with the imposed fluxes. The use of SM-SI-GAC as a PFM sorbent was evaluated at a field site with perchlorate contamination of a shallow unconfined aquifer. PFMs packed with SM-SI-GAC were deployed in three existing monitoring wells with a perchlorate concentration range of ˜ 2.5 to 190 mg/L. PFM-measured, depth-averaged, groundwater fluxes ranged from 1.8 to 7.6 cm/day, while depth-averaged perchlorate fluxes varied from 0.22 to 1.7 g/m 2/day. Groundwater and perchlorate flux distributions measured in two PFM deployments closely matched each other. Depth-averaged Darcy fluxes measured with PFMs were in line with an estimate from a borehole dilution test, but much smaller than those based on hydraulic conductivity and head gradients; this is likely due to flow divergence caused by well-screen clogging. Flux-averaged perchlorate concentrations measured with PFM deployments matched concentrations in groundwater samples taken from one well, but not in two other wells, pointing to the need for additional field testing. Use of

  11. Sensitivity enhancement for nitrophenols using cationic surfactant-modified activated carbon for solid-phase extraction surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C; Tsai, M F

    2000-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that a combination of solid-phase extraction with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPE-SALDI) mass spectrometry can be applied to the determination of trace nitrophenols in water. An improved method to lower the detection limit of this hyphenated technique is described in this present study. Activated carbon powder is used as both the SPE adsorbent and the SALDI solid in the analysis by SPE-SALDI. The surface of the activated carbon is modified by passing an aqueous solution of a cationic surfactant through the SPE cartridge. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity for nitrophenols in the analysis by SPE-SALDI can be improved by using cationic surfactants to modify the surface of the activated carbon. The detection limit for nitrophenols is about 25 ppt based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 by sampling from 100 mL of solution. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Zincon-modified activated carbon for solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace lead and chromium from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Chang, Xijun; Hu, Zheng; Huang, Xinping; Zou, Xiaojun; Wu, Qiong; Nie, Rong

    2009-07-15

    A new method that utilizes zincon-modified activated carbon (AC-ZCN) as a solid-phase extractant has been developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace Cr(III) and Pb(II) prior to the measurement by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The separation/preconcentration conditions of analytes were investigated, including effects of pH, the shaking time, the sample flow rate and volume, the elution condition and the interfering ions. At pH 4, the maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(III) and Pb(II) onto the AC-ZCN were 17.9 and 26.7 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorbed metal ions were quantitatively eluted by 1 mL of 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl. Common coexisting ions did not interfere with the separation. According to the definition of IUPAC, the detection limits (3 sigma) of this method for Cr(III) and Pb(II) were 0.91 and 0.65 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation under optimum condition is less than 3.5% (n=8). The method has been applied for the determination of Cr(III) and Pb(II) in biological materials and water samples with satisfactory results.

  13. Selective solid-phase extraction using oxidized activated carbon modified with triethylenetetramine for preconcentration of metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chang, Xijun; Li, Zhenhua; He, Qun

    2010-02-01

    A new selective solid-phase extractant using activated carbon as matrix which was purified, oxidized and modified by triethylenetetramine (AC-TETA) was prepared and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. At pH 4, quantitative extraction of trace Cr(III), Fe(III) and Pb(II) was obtained and determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Complete elution of the adsorbed metal ions from the sorbent surface was carried out using 0.5 mol L -1 HCl. The maximum static adsorption capacity of sorbent for Cr(III), Fe(III) and Pb(II) was 34.6, 36.5 and 51.9 mg g -1, respectively. The time of quantitative adsorption was less than 2 min. The detection limits of the method was found to be 0.71, 0.35 and 0.45 ng mL -1 for Cr(III), Fe(III) and Pb(II), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.7%, 2.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Moreover, the method was free from interference with common coexiting ions. The method was also successfully applied to the preconcentration of trace Cr(III), Fe(III) and Pb(II) in synthetic samples and a real sample with satisfactory results.

  14. Preconcentration of Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions from food and vegetable samples using modified activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Tavallali, H; Montazerozohori, M; Zahedi, E; Amirineko, M; Khodadoust, S; Karimipour, G

    2012-11-01

    In this work, two N/S-containing chelating agents 2-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)thiophenol (2-4-MBAT) and 2-(4-chlorobenzylideneamino) benzenethiol (2-4-CBABT) were synthesized as new sorbents and were used for preconcentration of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions in food and vegetable samples. In the proposed procedure, the trace amount of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions from 250 mL of sample solution at pH = 5.0 was preconcentrated by 1 g of activated carbon (AC) loaded with 15 mg of 2-4-MBAT and 2-4-CBABT separately. The breakthrough volumes (maximum sample volume that their metal ions quantitatively can be enriched) for solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure based on the AC modified with 2-4-MBAT and 2-4-CBABT were 800 and 750 mL, respectively. The sorbed Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions were efficiently eluted by 8 mL of 4 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and preconcentration factor of 112.5 and 93.7 and experimental enhancement factor of 30 and 35 ions were obtained for Zn(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. The application of this enrichment procedure allowed the extraction of trace metal ions with recoveries exceeding of 90%.

  15. Determination of Rhodium(III Ions by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Preconcentration with Modified Magnetic Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fayazi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method for analysis of trace amount of Rh(III ions by magnetic activated carbon modified with 2,3,5,6-tetra(2-pyridylpyrazine (MAC/TPPZ as the magnetic sorbent has been proposed. The proposed adsorbent was found to be advantageous over conventional solid phase extraction (SPE in terms of operational simplicity and low time-consuming. The experimental parameters affecting the extraction/preconcentration and determination of the analyte were systematically examined. In order to investigate the selectivity of this magnetic sorbent, the effect of a variety of ions on preconcentration and recovery of Rh(III ions were also investigated. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear for the concentration range of 0.8-650 µg l-1. The limit of detection (LOD, 3Sb/m and the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 8, c = 50 µg l-1 were 0.1 µg l-1 and 3.6%, respectively. The maximum sorption capacity of the adsorbent for rhodium was found to be 21.6 mg g-1. The presented procedure was applied to monitoring rhodium in water and synthetic samples.

  16. Decolourisation of dye solutions by oxidation with H2O2 in the presence of modified activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, V.P.; Pereira, M.F.R.; Faria, P.C.C.; Orfao, J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The decolourisation of dye solutions by oxidation with H 2 O 2 , using activated carbon as catalyst, is studied. For this purpose, three different samples, mainly differing in the respective surface chemistries, were prepared and characterized. Moreover, this work involved three pH levels, corresponding to acid, neutral and alkaline solutions, and six dyes belonging to several classes. The catalytic decolourisation tests were performed in a laboratorial batch reactor. Adsorption on activated carbon and non-catalytic peroxidation kinetic experiments were also carried out in the same reactor, in order to compare the efficiencies of the three processes. The non-catalytic reaction is usually inefficient and, typically, adsorption presents a low level of decolourisation. In these cases, the combination of activated carbon with hydrogen peroxide may significantly enhance the process, since the activated carbon catalyses the decomposition of H 2 O 2 into hydroxyl radicals, which are very reactive. Based on the experiments with the different activated carbon samples, which have similar physical properties, it is proved that the surface chemistry of the catalyst plays a key role, being the basic sample the most active. This is discussed considering the involvement of the free electrons on the graphene basal planes of activated carbon as active centres for the catalytic reaction. Additionally, it is shown that the decolourisation is enhanced at high pH values, and a possible explanation for this observation, based on the proposed mechanism, is given

  17. Enzymatic activity of Glucose Oxidase from Aspergillus niger IPBCC.08.610 On Modified Carbon Paste Electrode as Glucose Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmayanti, T.; Ambarsari, L.; Maddu, A.

    2017-03-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) has been developed as glucose sensor for measuring blood glucose level because of its specificity to glucose oxidation. This research aimed to determine kinetic parameters of GOx activity voltametrically and further test its potential as a glucose biosensor. GOx, in this research, was produced by local fungi Aspergillus niger IPBCC.08.610 which was isolated from local vine in Tarakan, East Borneo, Indonesia. GOx was immobilized with glutaraldehyde, which cross-linked onto modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) nanofiber polyaniline. Intracellular GOx activity was higher than extracellular ones. Immobilized GOx used glutaraldehyde 2.5% and dripped on the surface of MCPE nanofiber polyaniline. MCPE have a high conductance in copper with the diameter of 3 mm. The concentration of glucose in the lowest concentration of 0.2 mM generated a current value of 0.413 mA while 2 mM of glucose induced a current of 3,869 mA value. Km and Imax of GOx in MCPE activities polyaniline nanofiber were 2.88 mM and 3.869 mA,respectively, with turnover (Kcat) of 13 s-1. Sensitivity was 1.09 mA/mM and response time to produce a maximum peak current was 25 seconds. Km value was then converted into units of mg/dL and obtained 56.4 mg/dL. GOximmo-IPB|MCPE electrode is potential to be able to detect blood glucose level in a normal condition and hypoglycemia conditions

  18. Chemically-modified activated carbon with ethylenediamine for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Chang, Xijun; Zou, Xiaojun; Zhu, Xiangbing; Nie, Rong; Hu, Zheng; Li, Ruijun

    2009-01-26

    A new method that utilizes ethylenediamine-modified activated carbon (AC-EDA) as a solid-phase extractant has been developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace Cr(III), Fe(III), Hg(II) and Pb(II) prior to the measurement by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The new sorbent was prepared by oxidative surface modification. Experimental conditions for effective adsorption of trace levels of Cr(III), Fe(III), Hg(II) and Pb(II) were optimized with respect to different experimental parameters using batch and column procedures in detail. The optimum pH value for the separation of metal ions simultaneously on the new sorbent was 4.0. Complete elution of absorbed metal ions from the sorbent surface was carried out using 3.0 mL of 2% (%w/w) thiourea and 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl solution. Common coexisting ions did not interfere with the separation and determination of target metal ions. The maximum static adsorption capacity of the sorbent at optimum conditions was found to be 39.4, 28.9, 60.5 and 49.9 mg g(-1) for Cr(III), Fe(III), Hg(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The time for 94% adsorption of target metal ions was less than 2 min. The detection limits of the method was found to be 0.28, 0.22, 0.09 and 0.17 ng mL(-1) for Cr(III), Fe(III), Hg(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The precision (R.S.D.) of the method was lower 4.0% (n=8). The prepared sorbent as solid-phase extractant was successfully applied for the preconcentration of trace Cr(III), Fe(III), Hg(II) and Pb(II) in natural and certified samples with satisfactory results.

  19. Citrate- and Succinate-Modified Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles with Loaded Doxorubicin Exhibit Potent Anticancer Activity against Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Mehbuba Hossain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable inorganic apatite-based particle complex is popular for its pH-sensitivity at the endosomal acidic environment to facilitate drug release following cellular uptake. Despite being a powerful anticancer drug, doxorubicin shows severe off-target effects and therefore would need a carrier for the highest effectiveness. We aimed to chemically modify carbonate apatite (CA with Krebs cycle intermediates, such as citrate and succinate in order to control the growth of the resultant particles to more efficiently carry and transport the anticancer drug into the cancer cells. Citrate- or succinate-modified CA particles were synthesized with different concentrations of sodium citrate or sodium succinate, respectively, in the absence or presence of doxorubicin. The drug loading efficiency of the particles and their cellular uptake were observed by quantifying fluorescence intensity. The average diameter and surface charge of the particles were determined using Zetasizer. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Citrate-modified carbonate apatite (CMCA exhibited the highest (31.38% binding affinity for doxorubicin and promoted rapid cellular uptake of the drug, leading to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration 1000 times less than that of the free drug in MCF-7 cells. Hence, CMCA nanoparticles with greater surface area enhance cytotoxicity in different breast cancer cells by enabling higher loading and more efficient cellular uptake of the drug.

  20. Use of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for determination of active surface area of modified carbon-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Leticia Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-based electrodes as well the ion exchange electrodes among others have been applied mainly in the treatment of industrial effluents and radioactive wastes. Carbon is also used in fuel cells as substrate for the electrocatalysts, having high surface area which surpasses its geometric area. The knowledge of the total active area is important for the determination of operating conditions of an electrochemical cell with respect to the currents to be applied (current density). In this study it was used two techniques to determine the electrochemical active surface area of glassy carbon, electrodes and ion exchange electrodes: cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experiments were carried out with KNO 3 0.1 mol.L -1 solutions in a three-electrode electrochemical cell: carbon-based working electrode, platinum auxiliary electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The glassy carbon and porous carbon electrodes with geometric areas of 3.14 x 10 -2 and 2.83 X 10 -1 cm 2 , respectively, were used. The ion exchange electrode was prepared by mixing graphite, carbon, ion exchange resin and a binder, and this mixture was applied in three layers on carbon felt, using a geometric area of 1.0 cm 2 during the experiments. The capacitance (Cd) of the materials was determined by EIS using Bode diagrams. The value of 172 μF.cm -2 found for the glassy carbon is consistent with the literature data (∼ 200 μF.cm'- 2 ). By VC, varying the scan rate from 0.2 to 2.0 mV.s-1, the capacitance CdS (S = active surface area) in the region of the electric double layer (EDL) of each material was determined. By EIS, the values of C d , 3.0 x 10 -5 μF.cm'- 2 and 11 x 10 3 μF.cm-2, were found for the porous carbon and ion exchange electrodes, respectively, which allowed the determination of active surface areas as 3.73 x 106 cm 2 and 4.72 cm 2 . To sum up, the combined use of EIS and CV techniques is a valuable tool for the calculation of active surface

  1. Small-angle neutron scattering study of activated carbon cloth and ammonium persulfate-modified activated carbon cloth: Effect of oxygen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, Phillip; Chen Lin

    2006-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) patterns of as-received, oxidized, and thermally reduced FM1/250 activated carbon cloth (ACC) samples are compared to determine the effects of surface chemistry on scattering. Porosity analyses show minimal effect on pore size distribution from oxidation, but an increase in micropore volume on heat treatment. SANS suggests an increase in localized order within the treated samples when compared with graphite cloth patterns. The ACC exhibits Porod scattering at q-ranges -1 ; the graphite cloth exhibits the same at q-ranges>1.0 nm -1 . A cylindrical model reproduces the scattering patterns in the micropore equivalent dimensions, q>0.5 nm -1

  2. Removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenolyxacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide in the aqueous phase using modified granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Nasseri, Simin; Karamimanesh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-10

    Low cost 2,4-Dichlorophenolyxacetic acid (2,4-D) widely used in controlling broad-leafed weeds is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on evaluating the feasibility of using granular activated carbon modified with acid to remove 2,4-D from aqueous phase, determining its removal efficiency and assessing the adsorption kinetics. The present study was conducted at bench-scale method. The influence of different pH (3-9), the effect of contact time (3-90 min), the amount of adsorbent (0.1-0.4 g), and herbicide initial concentration (0.5-3 ppm) on 2,4-D removal efficiency by the granular activated carbon were investigated. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 3 and contact time of 60 min is optimal for 2,4-D removal. 2,4-D reduction rate increased rapidly by the addition of the adsorbent and decreased by herbicide initial concentration (63%). The percent of 2,4-D reduction were significantly enhanced by decreasing pH and increasing the contact time. The adsorption of 2,4-D onto the granular activated carbon conformed to Langmuir and Freundlich models, but was best fitted to type II Langmuir model (R2 = 0.999). The second order kinetics was the best for the adsorption of 2,4-D by modified granular activated carbon with R2 > 0.99. Regression analysis showed that all of the variables in the process have been statistically significant effect (p granular activated carbon modified with acid is an appropriate method for reducing the herbicide in the polluted water resources.

  3. Adsorption of Pb(II) using silica gel composite from rice husk ash modified 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-activated carbon from coconut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusmaniar, Purwanto, Agung; Putri, Elfriyana Awalita; Rosyidah, Dzakiyyatur

    2017-03-01

    Silica gel modified by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was synthesized from rice husk ash combined with activated carbon from coconut shell yielded the composite adsorbent. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Electron Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), Surface Area Analyzer (SAA) and adsorption test by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). This composite adsorbent has been used moderately for the removal of lead ions from metal solutions and compared with silica gel modified APTES and activated carbon. The adsorption experiments of Pb -ions by adsorbents were performed at different pH and contact time with the same metal solutions concentration, volume solution, and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pH for the adsorption was found to be 5.0 and the equilibrium was achieved for Pb with 20 min of contact time. Pb ions adsorption by composite silica gel modified APTES-activated carbon followed by Langmuir isotherm model with qmax value of 46.9483 mg/g that proved an adsorbent mechanism consistent to the mechanism of monolayer formation.

  4. 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance study of pitch-based activated carbon modified by air oxidation/pyrolysis cycles: a new approach to probe the micropore size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Konstantin V; Py, Xavier; d'Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Lapina, Olga B; Fraissard, Jacques

    2006-02-23

    (129)Xe NMR has been used to study a series of homologous activated carbons obtained from a KOH-activated pitch-based carbon molecular sieve modified by air oxidation/pyrolysis cycles. A clear correlation between the pore size of microporous carbons and the (129)Xe NMR of adsorbed xenon is proposed for the first time. The virial coefficient delta(Xe)(-)(Xe) arising from binary xenon collisions varied linearly with the micropore size and appeared to be a better probe of the microporosity than the chemical shift extrapolated to zero pressure. This correlation was explained by the fact that the xenon collision frequency increases with increasing micropore size. The chemical shift has been shown to vary very little with temperature (less than 9 ppm) for xenon trapped inside narrow and wide micropores. This is indicative of a smooth xenon-surface interaction potential.

  5. Activated carbon-modified knotted reactor coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for sensitive determination of arsenic species in medicinal herbs and tea infusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Martinis, Estefanía M. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Research and Development (QUIANID), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Padre J. Contreras 1300, (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lascalea, Gustavo E. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Research and Development (QUIANID), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Padre J. Contreras 1300, (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-01-01

    A flow injection system based on a modified polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) knotted reactor (KR) was developed for arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] species preconcentration and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Activated carbon (AC) was immobilized on the inner walls of a PTFE KR by a thermal treatment. A significant increase in analyte retention was obtained with the AC-modified KR (100%) as compared to the regular PTFE KR (25%). The preconcentration method involved the on-line formation of As(III)-ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (As-APDC) complex, followed by its adsorption onto the inner walls of the AC-modified KR. After analyte retention, the complex was eluted with acetone directly into the graphite furnace of ETAAS. The parameters affecting the flow injection system were evaluated with a full central composite face centered design with three center points. Under optimum conditions, a preconcentration factor of 200 was obtained with 10 ml of sample. The detection limit was 4 ng L{sup −1} and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate measurements at 0.2 μg L{sup −1} of As were 4.3% and 4.7% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The developed methodology was highly selective towards As(III), while As(V), monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic [DMA(V)] were not retained in the AC-modified KR. The proposed method was successfully applied for As speciation analysis in infusions originated from medicinal herbs and tea. - Highlights: • We report an efficient method for As speciation. • We have modified a knotted reactor with activated carbon for high sorption capacity. • We provide a simple procedure for surface modification of a PTFE knotted reactor. • We have selectively separated inorganic As species from complex matrix samples. • We have implemented a modified KR in a flow injection system coupled to ETAAS.

  6. Activated carbon-modified knotted reactor coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for sensitive determination of arsenic species in medicinal herbs and tea infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Martinis, Estefanía M.; Lascalea, Gustavo E.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-01-01

    A flow injection system based on a modified polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) knotted reactor (KR) was developed for arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] species preconcentration and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Activated carbon (AC) was immobilized on the inner walls of a PTFE KR by a thermal treatment. A significant increase in analyte retention was obtained with the AC-modified KR (100%) as compared to the regular PTFE KR (25%). The preconcentration method involved the on-line formation of As(III)-ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (As-APDC) complex, followed by its adsorption onto the inner walls of the AC-modified KR. After analyte retention, the complex was eluted with acetone directly into the graphite furnace of ETAAS. The parameters affecting the flow injection system were evaluated with a full central composite face centered design with three center points. Under optimum conditions, a preconcentration factor of 200 was obtained with 10 ml of sample. The detection limit was 4 ng L −1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate measurements at 0.2 μg L −1 of As were 4.3% and 4.7% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The developed methodology was highly selective towards As(III), while As(V), monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic [DMA(V)] were not retained in the AC-modified KR. The proposed method was successfully applied for As speciation analysis in infusions originated from medicinal herbs and tea. - Highlights: • We report an efficient method for As speciation. • We have modified a knotted reactor with activated carbon for high sorption capacity. • We provide a simple procedure for surface modification of a PTFE knotted reactor. • We have selectively separated inorganic As species from complex matrix samples. • We have implemented a modified KR in a flow injection system coupled to ETAAS

  7. mwnts composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: A poly p-aminosalicylic acid (Poly(p-ASA)) and multiwall carbon nanotubes. (MWCNTs) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed by casting the MWNTs on the GC electrode surface followed by electropolymerization of the p-ASA on the MWCNTs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviours ...

  8. Pyrolysis of polystyrene waste in the presence of activated carbon in conventional and microwave heating using modified thermocouple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathiba, R; Shruthi, M; Miranda, Lima Rose

    2018-06-01

    Pyrolysis process was experimented using two types of heating source, namely conventional and microwave. Polystyrene (PS) plastic waste was used as feedstock in a batch reactor for both the conventional (slow pyrolysis) and microwave pyrolysis. The effect of activated carbon to polystyrene ratio on (i) yield of oil, gas and residues (ii) reaction temperature (iii) reaction time were studied. Quality of oil from pyrolysis of polystyrene were assessed for the possible applicability in fuel production. Microwave power of 450 W and polymer to activated carbon ratio of 10:1, resulted in the highest oil yield of 93.04 wt.% with a higher heating value of 45 MJ kg -1 and a kinematic viscosity of 2.7 cSt. Microwave heating when compared to conventional heating method, exhibits a reaction temperature and time of 330 °C in 5.5 min, whereas in conventional heating system it was 418 °C in 60 min. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of liquid oil from microwave pyrolysis predominantly yields alkenes of 8.44 wt.%, α-methyl styrene 0.96 wt.%, condensed ring aromatics 23.21 wt.% and benzene derivatives 26.77 wt.% when the polystyrene to activated carbon ratio was 10:1. Significant factor of using microwave heating is the amount of energy converted (kWh) is lesser than conventional heating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustuendag, Zafer; Solak, Ali Osman

    2009-01-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb 2+ ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  10. Experimental investigation of adsorption of NO and SO2 on modified activated carbon sorbent from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.L.; Wang, Y.H.; Zhang, J.C.; Ma, R.Y.

    2005-01-01

    It is indicated that modified carbon is a practical sorbent for removal of NO and SO 2 from waste gases by the adsorption method. The ideal compositions for the prepared sorbent were 4.0 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% Na 2 CO 3 and KOH at the experimental conditions, respectively, shortened as ACNaK 2.5 . Experimental investigation showed that the sorbent had a comparatively high breakthrough adsorption capacity of NO and SO 2 , about 5.8 g (NO + SO 2 )/100 g sorbent. It is indicated that a relatively high adsorption temperature would benefit the sorbent adsorption capacities on NO and SO 2 at a certain space velocity and pressure. Further study revealed that the ACNaK 2.5 sorbent had good regenerability at the experimental conditions, which implied that the ACNaK 2.5 sorbent would be a useful sorbent for simultaneous removal of NO and SO 2 from waste gases by adsorption

  11. Removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenolyxacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide in the aqueous phase using modified granular activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Nasseri, Simin; Karamimanesh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Background Low cost 2,4-Dichlorophenolyxacetic acid (2,4-D) widely used in controlling broad-leafed weeds is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on evaluating the feasibility of using granular activated carbon modified with acid to remove 2,4-D from aqueous phase, determining its removal efficiency and assessing the adsorption kinetics. Results The present study was conducted at bench-scale method. The influence of different pH (3–9), the ...

  12. Adsorption characteristics of trace levels of bromate in drinking water by modified bamboo-based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chuang, Yen Hsun; Hsu, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Winn-Jung

    2017-09-19

    This study was undertaken to investigate the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of bromate (BrO 3 - ) on bamboo charcoals that are activated with nitrogen and water vapor. Bamboo-based activated carbon (AC) was dipped in acid and oxidized in a mixture of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid. Oxidation treatment considerably improved the physicochemical properties of AC, including purity, pore structure and surface nature, significantly enhancing BrO 3 - adsorption capacity. AC with many oxygenated groups and a high mesopore volume exhibited a particularly favorable tendency for BrO 3 - adsorption. Its adsorption of BrO 3 - is best fitted using Langmuir isotherm, and forms a monolayer. A kinetic investigation revealed that the adsorption of BrO 3 - by the ACs involved chemical sorption and was controlled by intra-particle diffusion. The competitive effects of natural organic matter (NOM) on AC were evaluated, and found to reduce the capacity of carbon to adsorb BrO 3 - . Residual dissolved ozone reacted with AC, reducing its capacity to absorb BrO 3 - . Proper dosing and staging of the ozonation processes can balance the ozone treatment efficiency, BrO 3 - formation, and the subsequent removal of BrO 3 - .

  13. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali A. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Ghaderi, Ali R. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 {mu}g of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.

  14. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Ghaderi, Ali R.

    2007-01-01

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5 M HNO 3 and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 μg of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5 M HNO 3 solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ng mL -1 Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ng mL -1 Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments

  15. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Ghaderi, Ali R

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5M HNO(3) and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 microg of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5M HNO(3) solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ngmL(-1) Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ngmL(-1) Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.

  16. Cyclovoltammetric acetylcholinesterase activity assay after inhibition and subsequent reactivation by using a glassy carbon electrode modified with palladium nanorods composited with functionalized C60 fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Cui; Zhong, Xia; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Wang, Min-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a nanocomposite consisting of tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB), C 60 fullerene, and palladium nanorods (PdNRs). The PdNRs were hydrothermally prepared and had a typical width of 20 ± 2 nm. The nanocomposite forms stable films on the GCE and exhibits a reversible redox pair for the C 60 /C 60 − system while rendering the surface to be positively charged. The modified GCE was applied to fabricate an electrochemical biosensor for detecting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by measurement of the amount of thiocholine formed from acetylthiocholine, best at a working voltage of −0.19 V (vs. SCE). The detection scheme is based on (a) measurement of the activity of ethyl paraoxon-inhibited AChE, and (b) measurement of AChE activity after reactivation with pralidoxime (2-PAM). Compared to the conventional methods using acetylthiocholine as a substrate, the dual method presented here provides data on the AChE activity after inhibition and subsequent reactivation, thereby yielding credible data on reactivated enzyme activity. The linear analytical range for AChE activity extends from 2.5 U L −1 to 250 kU·L −1 , and the detection limit is 0.83 U L −1 . (author)

  17. Effects of surface chemical properties of activated carbon modified by amino-fluorination for electric double-layer capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Jung; Jeong, Euigyung; Cho, Seho; Yeo, Sang Young; Lee, Young-Seak

    2012-09-01

    The surface of phenol-based activated carbon (AC) was seriatim amino-fluorinated with solution of ammonium hydroxide and hydrofluoric acid in varying ratio to fabricate electrode materials for use in an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The specific capacitance of the amino-fluorinated AC-based EDLC was measured in a 1 M H(2)SO(4) electrolyte, in which it was observed that the specific capacitances increased from 215 to 389 Fg(-1) and 119 and 250 Fg(-1) with the current densities of 0.1 and 1.0 Ag(-1), respectively, in comparison with those of an untreated AC-based EDLC when the amino-fluorination was optimized via seriatim mixed solution of 7.43 mol L(-1) ammonium hydroxide and 2.06 mol L(-1) hydrofluoric acid. This enhancement of capacitance was attributed to the synergistic effects of an increased electrochemical activity due to the formation of surface N- and F-functional groups and increased, specific surface area, and mesopore volumes, all of which resulted from the amino-fluorination of the electrode material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of Pb(II) from water by the activated carbon modified by nitric acid under microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Shen, Dekui; Xiao, Rui; Gu, Sai; Zhao, Ming; Liang, Junyu

    2016-02-01

    The rice husk based activated carbon (RH-AC) was treated by nitric acid under microwave heating, in order to improve its capability for the removal of heavy metal ions from water. The optimal conditions for the modification of RH-AC (M-RH-AC) were determined by means of orthogonal array experimental design, giving those as the concentration of nitric acid of 8mol/L, modification time of 15min, modification temperature of 130°C and microwave power of 800W. The characteristics of the M-RH-AC and RH-AC were examined by BET, XRD, Raman spectrum, pH titration, zeta potential, Boehm titration and FTIR analysis. The M-RH-AC has lower pore surface area, smaller crystallite, lower pHIEP and more oxygen-containing functional groups than the RH-AC. Removal capacity of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC and RH-AC from water solution was estimated concerning the influence of contact time, pH value, and initial concentration. The equilibrium time of Pb(II) removal was found to be around 90min after modification process. Two kinetic models are adopted to describe the possible Pb(II) adsorption mechanism, finding that the adsorption rate of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC is larger than that of RH-AC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solution using iron-zirconium modified activated carbon nanofiber: Performance and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiping; Tong, Jing; Yang, Zhaohui; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Wang, Dongbo; Song, Peipei; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2017-05-01

    Phosphate (P) removal is significant for the prevention of eutrophication in natural waters. In this paper, a novel adsorbent for the removal of P from aqueous solution was synthesized by loading zirconium oxide and iron oxide onto activated carbon nanofiber (ACF-ZrFe) simultaneously. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that P adsorption was highly pH dependent and the optimum pH was found to be 4.0. The isotherm of adsorption could be well described by the Langmuir model and the maximum P adsorption capacity was estimated to be 26.3mgP/g at 25°C. The kinetic data were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation, indicating that chemical sorption was the rate-limiting step. Moreover, co-existing ions including sulfate (SO 4 2- ), chloride (Cl - ), nitrate (NO 3 - ) and fluoride (F - ) exhibited a distinct effect on P adsorption with the order of F - >NO 3 - >Cl - >SO 4 2- . Further investigations by FT-IR spectroscopy and pH variations associated with the adsorption process revealed that ligands exchange and electrostatic interactions were the dominant mechanisms for P adsorption. The findings reported in this work highlight the potential of using ACF-ZrFe as an effective adsorbent for the removal of P in natural waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 by peroxymonosulfate activated with the recyclable nanocomposites of g-C3N4 modified magnetic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Furong; Lu, Jiahua; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Aiqing; Cai, Yingjie; Wang, Qiang

    2018-08-01

    Carbon-based catalysts have attracted high attention since they are greener and cheaper, while magnetic nanomaterials are very useful in environmental application because of the easy recovery and operation given by the magnetic separability. Therefore, graphitic carbon nitride modified magnetic carbon nanocomposites Fe 3 O 4 @C/g-C 3 N 4 was prepared herein for the first time as a new carbon-based catalyst for the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS). The catalytic properties of Fe 3 O 4 @C/g-C 3 N 4 in activating PMS for the degradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO 7), a model organic pollutant, were investigated. AO 7 degradation efficiency was significantly enhanced after modification of Fe 3 O 4 @C with g-C 3 N 4 , and the composite Fe 3 O 4 @C/g-C 3 N 4 from loading of 5 wt% g-C 3 N 4 and calcined at 300 °C for 30 min exhibited the best performance. AO 7 could be efficiently decolorized using the "Fe 3 O 4 @C/C 3 N 4 (5%) + PSM" system within the pH range of 2-6, and 97% of AO 7 could be removed in 20 min without pH adjustment (pH = 4). Radical quenching and EPR studies confirmed that both sulfate and hydroxyl radicals produced from PMS activation were the active species responsible for the oxidation of AO 7. The degradation mechanism was suggested based on the experimental results and XPS analyses. It was proposed that the CO groups on the carbon surface of Fe 3 O 4 @C rather than the CO in g-C 3 N 4 played a key role as the active sites for PMS activation. The catalyst was magnetically separable and displayed good stability and reusability, thus providing a potentially green catalyst for sustainable remediation of organic pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of CaCl2 as an agent that modifies the surface of activated carbon used in sorption/treatment cycles for nitrate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zanella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the application of a chemically-modified activated carbon surface was investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of treatment with CaCl2 solution at a concentration of 2000 mg.L-1 on the sorption of nitrate ions from aqueous solutions in successive sorption/t reatment cycles. The sorbent was initially subjected to chemical treatment with CaCl2 and subsequently to the sorption process. Nine sorption cycles were performed. The concentrations of nitrate ions in the solution were measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry before and after sorption. The results show that treatment with CaCl2 caused a significant increase in the percentage removal for each treatment step, reaching a removal rate of 80% of nitrate in the solution after nine cycles.

  2. Optimization of hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solution using acid-modified granular activated carbon as adsorbent through response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, Waseem; Ebadi, Taghi; Fahimifar, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effect of the main operational variables, including initial pH, initial chromium ion concentration, bulk density of GAC and time on the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(Ⅵ) from contaminated groundwater by permeable reactive barriers (PRB) with acid-modified granular activated carbon (GAC) as an adsorbent material. The removal rates of Cr(Ⅵ) under different values of these parameters were investigated and results indicated high adsorption capacity at low pH and low initial metal ion concentration of Cr(Ⅵ), but the bulk density of GAC slightly influenced the process efficiency. According to the ANOVA (analysis of variance) results, the model presents high R 2 values of 94.35% for Cr(Ⅵ) removal efficiency, which indicates that the accuracy of the polynomial models was good. Also, quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the pollutant removals

  3. Optimization of hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solution using acid-modified granular activated carbon as adsorbent through response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, Waseem; Ebadi, Taghi; Fahimifar, Ahmad [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effect of the main operational variables, including initial pH, initial chromium ion concentration, bulk density of GAC and time on the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(Ⅵ) from contaminated groundwater by permeable reactive barriers (PRB) with acid-modified granular activated carbon (GAC) as an adsorbent material. The removal rates of Cr(Ⅵ) under different values of these parameters were investigated and results indicated high adsorption capacity at low pH and low initial metal ion concentration of Cr(Ⅵ), but the bulk density of GAC slightly influenced the process efficiency. According to the ANOVA (analysis of variance) results, the model presents high R{sup 2} values of 94.35% for Cr(Ⅵ) removal efficiency, which indicates that the accuracy of the polynomial models was good. Also, quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the pollutant removals.

  4. Synthesis of N-doped microporous carbon via chemical activation of polyindole-modified graphene oxide sheets for selective carbon dioxide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Muhammad; Chandra, Vimlesh; Christian Kemp, K; Kim, Kwang S

    2013-01-01

    A polyindole-reduced graphene oxide (PIG) hybrid was synthesized by reducing graphene oxide sheets in the presence of polyindole. We have shown PIG as a material for capturing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The PIG hybrid was chemically activated at temperatures of 400–800 ° C, which resulted in nitrogen (N)-doped graphene sheets. The N-doped graphene sheets are microporous with an adsorption pore size of 0.6 nm for CO 2 and show a maximum (Brunauer, Emmet and Teller) surface area of 936 m 2 g −1 . The hybrid activated at 600 ° C (PIG6) possesses a surface area of 534 m 2 g −1 and a micropore volume of 0.29 cm 3 g −1 . PIG6 shows a maximum CO 2 adsorption capacity of 3.0 mmol g −1 at 25 ° C and 1 atm. This high CO 2 uptake is due to the highly microporous character of the material and its N content. The material retains its original adsorption capacity on recycling even after 10 cycles (within experimental error). PIG6 also shows high adsorption selectivity ratios for CO 2 over N 2 , CH 4 and H 2 of 23, 4 and 85 at 25 ° C, respectively. (paper)

  5. Polypyrrole/sargassum activated carbon modified stainless-steel sponge as high-performance and low-cost bioanode for microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gaoming; Bao, Han; Xia, Zheng; Yang, Bin; Lei, Lecheng; Li, Zhongjian; Liu, Chunxian

    2018-04-01

    Anode materials, as the core component of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), have huge impacts on power generation performance and overall cost. Stainless-steel sponge (SS) can be a promising material for MFC anodes, due to its open continuous three-dimensional structure, high conductivity and low cost. However, poor biocompatibility limits its application. In this paper, a polypyrrole/sargassum activated carbon modified SS anode (Ppy/SAC/SS) is developed by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on the SS with the SAC as a dopant. The maximum power density achieved with the Ppy/SAC/SS anode is 45.2 W/m3, which is increased by 2 orders of magnitude and 2.9 times compared with an unmodified SS anode and a solely Ppy modified SS anode (Ppy/SS), respectively. In addition, the Ppy/SAC layer effectively eliminates electrochemical corrosion of the SS substrate. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that Ppy/SAC modification decreases electron transfer resistance between the bacteria and the electrode. Furthermore, in vivo fluorescence imaging indicates that a more uniform biofilm is formed on the Ppy/SAC/SS compared to the unmodified SS and Ppy/SS. Due to the low cost of the materials, easy fabrication process and relatively high performance, our developed Ppy/SAC/SS can be a cost efficient anode material for MFCs in practical applications.

  6. Osteoblast cell response to surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Faming; Weidmann, Arne; Nebe, J. Barbara; Burkel, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the interaction of cells with modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for their potential biomedical applications, the MWCNTs were chemically modified with carboxylic acid groups (–COOH), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer and biomimetic apatite on their surfaces. Additionally, human osteoblast MG-63 cells were cultured in the presence of the surface-modified MWCNTs. The metabolic activities of osteoblastic cells, cell proliferation properties, as well as cell morphology were studied. The surface modification of MWCNTs with biomimetic apatite exhibited a significant increase in the cell viability of osteoblasts, up to 67.23%. In the proliferation phases, there were many more cells in the biomimetic apatite-modified MWCNT samples than in the MWCNTs–COOH. There were no obvious changes in cell morphology in osteoblastic MG-63 cells cultured in the presence of these chemically-modified MWCNTs. The surface modification of MWCNTs with apatite achieves an effective enhancement of their biocompatibility.

  7. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  8. Adsorption of H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} on an activated carbon cloth modified by ammonia treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, J.P.; Chehimi, M.; Broniek, E.; Siemieniewska, T.; Bimer, J. [University of Paris, Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate how ammonia treatment of the surface can influence the activity of a viscose-based activated carbon cloth (ACC) for the oxidative retention of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} in humid air at 25{sup o}C. Surface basic nitrogen groups were introduced either by treatment with ammonia/air at 300{sup o}C or with ammonia/steam at 800{sup o}C. The pore structure of the samples so prepared was examined by adsorption measurements. Changes in the surface chemistry were assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The change of ACC activity could not be merely attributed to surface nitrogen groups but to other changes in the support. Ammonia/steam treatment improved ACC performance the most, not only by introducing nitrogen surface groups, but also by extending the microporosity and by modifying the distribution of surface oxygen groups. Successive adsorption-regeneration cycles showed important differences between oxidative retention of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} and the subsequent catalyst/support regeneration process.

  9. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  10. Activated carbon from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  11. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunquan Li

    Full Text Available Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area. Keywords: Cotton stalk, Nitrogen content, Electrode, Surface area, Methylene blue

  12. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustuendag, Zafer [Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Kuetahya (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Degol Street, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){l_brace}2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl{r_brace}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb{sup 2+} ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  13. THE EFFECT OF WATER CAPACITY ON THE ACTIVITY OF PD(II-CU(II CATALYST ANCHORED TO ACID-MODIFIED CLINOPTILOLITE IN THE REACTION OF LOW-TEMPERATURE CARBON MONOXIDE OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The maximum activity of Pd(II-Cu(II catalyst anchored to acid modified clinoptilolite in the reaction of low-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation with air oxygen has been found at the water content in the range from 3.3 to 4.2 mmol/g.

  14. Sorption Characteristics of Mixed Molecules of Glutaraldehyde from Water on Mesoporous Acid-Amine Modified Low-Cost Activated Carbon: Mechanism, Isotherm, and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukosha Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental discharge of inefficiently treated waste solutions of the strong biocide glutaraldehyde (GA from hospitals has potential toxic impact on aquatic organisms. The adsorption characteristics of mixed polarized monomeric and polymeric molecules of GA from water on mesoporous acid-amine modified low-cost activated carbon (AC were investigated. It was found that the adsorption strongly depended on pH and surface chemistry. In acidic pH, the adsorption mechanism was elaborated to involve chemical sorption of mainly hydroxyl GA monomeric molecules on acidic surface groups, while in alkaline pH, the adsorption was elaborated to involve both chemical and physical sorption of GA polymeric forms having mixed functional groups (aldehyde, carboxyl, and hydroxyl on acidic and amine surface groups. The optimum pH of adsorption was about 12 with significant contribution by cooperative adsorption, elucidated in terms of hydrogen bonding and aldol condensation. Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were fitted to isotherm data. The adsorption kinetics was dependent on initial concentration and temperature and described by the Elovich model. The adsorption was endothermic, while the intraparticle diffusion model suggested significant contribution by film diffusion. The developed low-cost AC could be used to supplement the GA alkaline deactivation process for efficient removal of residual GA aquatic toxicity.

  15. Activated carbon modified with 4-(8-hydroxyquinoline-azo)benzamidine for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace lead from environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, H.; Chang, X.; Hu, Z.; Yang, K.; He, Q.; Zhang, L.; Tu, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon was chemically modified with 4-(8-hydroxyquinoline-azo)benzamidine and used for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of Pb(II) in environmental samples by solid-phase extraction prior to the measurement by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The effects of pH, shaking time, eluent concentration and volume, sample flow rate and potential interfering ions were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor was 100, the detection limits is 0. 43 ng mL -1 , and the relative standard deviations are <2. 1% (n = 8). The adsorption capacity of the sorbent is 53. 58 mg of lead(II) per gram of the material. The sorbent was successfully applied to the preconcentration of trace Pb(II) in the reference materials GBW 08301 (river sediment) and GBW 08302 (Tibet soil). The recovery of lead(II) from Yellow river water, Huangshui water, and tap water is in range of 99. 3-101. 6%. (author)

  16. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  17. Adsorptive properties and thermal stability of carbon fibers modified by boron and phosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malygin, A.A.; Postnova, A.M.; Shevchenko, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Sorptional characteristics as regards water vapors and thermal stability of carbon fibers modified by method of molecular superposition of borohydroxide groupings have been studied. Sorptional activity in the range of low and medium relative pressures of water vapors in modified samples increases several times, while thermal stability of carbon fiber increases, as well. 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  18. Activated carbon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards

  19. Direct electrochemistry with enhanced electrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin in hybrid modified electrodes composed of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 China (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Cao, Lili; Deng, Ying; Gong, Shixing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Shi, Fan; Li, Gaonan; Sun, Zhenfan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 China (China)

    2013-06-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was prepared. •Hemoglobin and nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated. •Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin was realized on the modified electrode. •Bioelectrocatalysis towards the reduction of different substrates was enhanced. -- Abstract: A graphene (GR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid was prepared and modified on a 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on GR-MWCNT/CILE surface with Nafion as the film forming material and the modified electrode was denoted as Nafion/Hb-GR-MWCNT/CILE. Spectroscopic results revealed that Hb molecules retained its native structure in the GR-MWCNT hybird. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb were carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks obtained, which indicated that direct electron transfer of Hb was realized in the hybrid modified electrode. The result could be attributed to the synergistic effects of GR-MWCNT hybrid with enlarged surface area and improved conductivity through the formation of a three-dimensional network. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized Hb on the electrode surface were further calculated with the results of the electron transfer number (n) as 1.03, the charge transfer coefficient (a) as 0.58 and the electron-transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) as 0.97 s{sup −1}. The Hb modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of different substrates such as trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.05 to 38.0 mmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.0153 mmol L{sup −1} (3σ), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the concentration range from 0.1 to 516.0 mmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 34.9 nmol/L (3σ) and NaNO{sub 2} in the concentration range from 0.5 to 650.0 mmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0

  20. Direct electrochemistry with enhanced electrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin in hybrid modified electrodes composed of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Cao, Lili; Deng, Ying; Gong, Shixing; Shi, Fan; Li, Gaonan; Sun, Zhenfan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was prepared. •Hemoglobin and nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated. •Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin was realized on the modified electrode. •Bioelectrocatalysis towards the reduction of different substrates was enhanced. -- Abstract: A graphene (GR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid was prepared and modified on a 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on GR-MWCNT/CILE surface with Nafion as the film forming material and the modified electrode was denoted as Nafion/Hb-GR-MWCNT/CILE. Spectroscopic results revealed that Hb molecules retained its native structure in the GR-MWCNT hybird. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb were carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks obtained, which indicated that direct electron transfer of Hb was realized in the hybrid modified electrode. The result could be attributed to the synergistic effects of GR-MWCNT hybrid with enlarged surface area and improved conductivity through the formation of a three-dimensional network. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized Hb on the electrode surface were further calculated with the results of the electron transfer number (n) as 1.03, the charge transfer coefficient (a) as 0.58 and the electron-transfer rate constant (k s ) as 0.97 s −1 . The Hb modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of different substrates such as trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.05 to 38.0 mmol L −1 with a detection limit of 0.0153 mmol L −1 (3σ), H 2 O 2 in the concentration range from 0.1 to 516.0 mmol L −1 with a detection limit of 34.9 nmol/L (3σ) and NaNO 2 in the concentration range from 0.5 to 650.0 mmol L −1 with a detection limit of 0.282 μmol L −1 (3σ). So the proposed

  1. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II) on activated carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and ... in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame ... KEY WORDS: Copper(II), Solid phase extraction, Activated carbon, Flame ...

  2. In vitro and in vivo comparative study of the phototherapy anticancer activity of hyaluronic acid-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Yuan, Yujie; Ren, Junxiao; Zhang, Yinling; Wang, Yongchao; Shan, Xiaoning; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2017-08-01

    In this work, carbon nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), graphene oxide (GO), and fullerene (C60) were modified by hyaluronic acid (HA) to obtain water-soluble and biocompatible nanomaterials with high tumor-targeting capacity and then the comparative study of these hyaluronic acid-modified carbon nanomaterials was made in vitro and in vivo. The conjugates of hyaluronic acid and carbon nanomaterials, namely, HA-SWNT, HA-GO, HA-C60, were confirmed by UV/Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). After HA modification, the sizes of HA-SWNT, HA-GO, and HA-C60 were in a range of 70 to 300 nm, and all the three HA-modified materials were at negative potential, demonstrating that HA modification was in favor of extravasation of carbon materials into a tumor site due to enhanced permeability and retention effect of tumor. Photothermal conversion in vitro test demonstrated excellent photothermal sensitivity of HA-SWNT and HA-GO. But the reactive oxygen yield of HA-C60 was the highest compared with the others under visible light irradiation, which proved the good photodynamic therapy effect of HA-C60. In addition, cytotoxicity experiments exhibited that the inhibitory efficacy of HA-SWNT was the lowest, the second was HA-C60, and the highest was HA-GO, which was consistent with the uptake degree of them. While under the laser irradiation, the cell inhibition of the HA-SWNT was the highest, the second was HA-GO, and the last was HA-C60. In vivo evaluation of the three targeting carbon nanomaterials was consistent with the cytotoxicity assay results. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HA-SWNT and HA-GO were suited for photothermal therapy (PTT) agents for their good photothermal property, while HA-C60 was used as a kind of photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent for its photodynamic effect.

  3. Direct electrochemistry with enhanced electrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin in hybrid modified electrodes composed of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Cao, Lili; Deng, Ying; Gong, Shixing; Shi, Fan; Li, Gaonan; Sun, Zhenfan

    2013-06-05

    A graphene (GR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid was prepared and modified on a 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on GR-MWCNT/CILE surface with Nafion as the film forming material and the modified electrode was denoted as Nafion/Hb-GR-MWCNT/CILE. Spectroscopic results revealed that Hb molecules retained its native structure in the GR-MWCNT hybird. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb were carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks obtained, which indicated that direct electron transfer of Hb was realized in the hybrid modified electrode. The result could be attributed to the synergistic effects of GR-MWCNT hybrid with enlarged surface area and improved conductivity through the formation of a three-dimensional network. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized Hb on the electrode surface were further calculated with the results of the electron transfer number (n) as 1.03, the charge transfer coefficient (a) as 0.58 and the electron-transfer rate constant (ks) as 0.97 s(-1). The Hb modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of different substrates such as trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.05 to 38.0 mmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0153 mmol L(-1) (3σ), H2O2 in the concentration range from 0.1 to 516.0 mmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 34.9 nmol/L (3σ) and NaNO2 in the concentration range from 0.5 to 650.0 mmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.282 μmol L(-1) (3σ). So the proposed electrode had the potential application in the third-generation electrochemical biosensors without mediator. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon nanofiber vs. carbon microparticles as modifiers of glassy carbon and gold electrodes applied in electrochemical sensing of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Briza; Del Valle, Manel; Alegret, Salvador; Merkoçi, Arben

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials (CMs), such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon microparticles (CMPs) are used as doping materials for electrochemical sensors. The efficiency of these materials (either before or after acidic treatments) while being used as electrocatalysts in electrochemical sensors is discussed for beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensitivity of the electrodes (glassy carbon (GC) and gold (Au)) modified with both treated and untreated materials have been deeply studied. The response efficiencies of the GC and Au electrodes modified with CNF and CMP, using dimethylformamide (DMF) as dispersing agent are significantly different due to the peculiar physical and chemical characteristics of each doping material. Several differences between the electrocatalytic activities of CMs modified electrodes upon NADH oxidation have been observed. The CNF film promotes better the electron transfer of NADH minimizing the oxidation potential at +0.352 V. Moreover higher currents for the NADH oxidation peak have been observed for these electrodes. The shown differences in the electrochemical reactivities of CNF and CMP modified electrodes should be with interest for future applications in biosensors.

  5. Poly-Alizarin red S/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode for the boost up of electrocatalytic activity towards the investigation of dopamine and simultaneous resolution in the presence of 5-HT: A voltammetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddaiah, K.; Madhusudana Reddy, T.; Venkata Ramana, D.K.; Subba Rao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Poly-Alizarin red S/multiwalled carbon nanotube film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (poly-AzrS/MWCNT/GCE) was synthesized by electrochemical process and was used for the sensitive and selective determination of dopamine (DA) by employing voltammetric techniques. The electrocatalytic response of the modified electrode was found to exhibit admirable activity. The simultaneous determination of dopamine in the presence of serotonin (5-HT) was found to exhibit very good response at poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE. The effect of pH, scan rate, accumulation time and concentration of dopamine was studied at the developed poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE. The poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited an efficient electron mediating behavior together with well resolved peaks for dopamine, in 0.1 mol/dm"3 phosphate buffer (PBS) solution of pH 7.0. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be as 1.89 × 10"−"7 mol/dm"3 and 6.312 × 10"−"7 mol/dm"3 respectively with a dynamic range from 1 × 10"−"6 to 1.8 × 10"−"5 mol/dm"3. The interfacial electron transfer behavior of DA was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); the studies showed that the charge transfer rate was enhanced at poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE when compared with bare GCE and poly-AzrS/GCE. - Highlights: • The poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE showed good sensitivity towards DA sensing. • The sensor reduced the overoxidation potentials for DA. • This electrode was successfully used for simultaneous sensing of DA and 5-HT. • The electrode was effectively used for the determination of DA in pharmaceutical formulations.

  6. Poly-Alizarin red S/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode for the boost up of electrocatalytic activity towards the investigation of dopamine and simultaneous resolution in the presence of 5-HT: A voltammetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddaiah, K. [Electrochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, S.V.U. College of Sciences, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Madhusudana Reddy, T., E-mail: tmsreddysvu@gmail.com [Electrochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, S.V.U. College of Sciences, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Venkata Ramana, D.K. [Department of Safety Engineering, Dongguk University, 123 Dongdae-ro, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780 714 (Korea, Republic of); Subba Rao, Y. [DST-PURSE Centre, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-01

    Poly-Alizarin red S/multiwalled carbon nanotube film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (poly-AzrS/MWCNT/GCE) was synthesized by electrochemical process and was used for the sensitive and selective determination of dopamine (DA) by employing voltammetric techniques. The electrocatalytic response of the modified electrode was found to exhibit admirable activity. The simultaneous determination of dopamine in the presence of serotonin (5-HT) was found to exhibit very good response at poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE. The effect of pH, scan rate, accumulation time and concentration of dopamine was studied at the developed poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE. The poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited an efficient electron mediating behavior together with well resolved peaks for dopamine, in 0.1 mol/dm{sup 3} phosphate buffer (PBS) solution of pH 7.0. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be as 1.89 × 10{sup −7} mol/dm{sup 3} and 6.312 × 10{sup −7} mol/dm{sup 3} respectively with a dynamic range from 1 × 10{sup −6} to 1.8 × 10{sup −5} mol/dm{sup 3}. The interfacial electron transfer behavior of DA was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); the studies showed that the charge transfer rate was enhanced at poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE when compared with bare GCE and poly-AzrS/GCE. - Highlights: • The poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE showed good sensitivity towards DA sensing. • The sensor reduced the overoxidation potentials for DA. • This electrode was successfully used for simultaneous sensing of DA and 5-HT. • The electrode was effectively used for the determination of DA in pharmaceutical formulations.

  7. Promoting effect of active carbons on methanol dehydrogenation on sodium carbonate - hydrogen spillover

    OpenAIRE

    Su, S.; Prairie, M.; Renken, A.

    1993-01-01

    Methanol dehydrogenation to formaldehyde was conducted in a fixed-bed flow reactor with sodium carbonate catalyst mixed with active carbons or transition metals. The additives promoted the reaction rate at 880-970 K without modifying formaldehyde selectivity. This effect increases with increasing carbon content in the carbon-carbonate mixture. Activation energy of methanol conversion is the same for the mixture and the carbonate alone. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments showed that...

  8. Hematoxylin multi-wall carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Hamid R.; Nasirizadeh, Navid

    2007-01-01

    A new hydrazine sensor has been fabricated by immobilizing hematoxylin at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The adsorbed thin films of hematoxylin on the MWCNT modified GCE show one pair of peaks with surface confined characteristics. The hematoxylin MWCNT (HMWCNT) modified GCE shows highly catalytic activity toward hydrazine electro-oxidation. The results show that the peak potential of hydrazine at HMWCNT modified GCE surface shifted by about 167 and 255 mV toward negative values compared with that at an MWCNT and activated modified GCE surface, respectively. In addition, at HMWCNT modified electrode surface remarkably improvement the sensitivity of determination of hydrazine. The kinetic parameters, such as the electron transfer coefficient, α, and the standard heterogeneous rate constant, k 0 , for oxidation of hydrazine at the HMWCNT modified GCE were determined and also is shown that the heterogeneous rate constant, k', is strongly potential dependent. The overall number of electron involved in the catalytic oxidation of hydrazine and the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining steps are 2 and 1, respectively. The amperometric detection of hydrazine is carried out at 220 mV in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7) with linear response range 2.0-122.8 μM hydrazine, detection limit of 0.68 μM and sensitivity of 0.0208 μA μM -1 . Finally the amperometric response for hydrazine determination is reproducible, fast and extremely stable, with no loss in sensitivity over a continual 400 s operation

  9. Carbon fibers and composites modified by intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherzynska, B.; Blazewicz, S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe ability to intercalation of laboratory prepared carbon composites and their constituents. In work the following materials were tested; pinch-based fibres of P-120 and K-1100 manufacturer's designations, carbon matrix and resulting composites. To prepare a matrix of composites, phenol-formaldehyde resin (Z) and pinch-based precursor (PAK) were used. After initial carbonization, the carbon matrix was heated to 2150 o C i to improve ability to the future intercalation. Three kinds of composites (P/Z, K/Z and K/PAK), with two directional reinforcement (2D), were prepared. All carbon samples were intercalated with copper chloride(II). To study the structure of all materials, before and after intercalation, X-ray diffraction method was used. It enabled to measure microstructure parameters (L c and L a ), interplanar distance (d 002 ) thickness of an intercalation layer (d i ). Before intercalation, graphite fibers are characterized by well developed graphite structure of three-dimensional order, different than carbon turbostratic structures. Graphite fibres show a tendency to intercalation, however this process proceeds harder than in a synthetic graphite, which is testified by diffraction spectra with visible complex stages of intercalation. Comparison of two kinds of graphite fibres show s that their structure significantly affects intercalation process. In the case of composite matrix, a better structure ordering was observed for carbon obtained from PAK than for carbon originating from Z precursor. During production of composites, after the heat treatment (2150 o C), carbon obtained from pyrolysis of Z precursor crystallises on the fibre surface, building a well-developed structure of matrix. The same process occurs during carbonization of pinch-based precursor in presence of graphite fibres. In both cases the composites contain well crystallized graphite phases. The study of carbon composite intercalation shows that the process

  10. Carbon materials modified by plasma treatment as electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lota, Grzegorz; Frackowiak, Elzbieta [Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Tyczkowski, Jacek; Kapica, Ryszard [Technical University of Lodz, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Division of Molecular Engineering, Wolczanska 213, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Lota, Katarzyna [Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals Branch in Poznan, Central Laboratory of Batteries and Cells, Forteczna 12, 61-362 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-11-15

    The carbon material was modified by RF plasma with various reactive gases: O{sub 2}, Ar and CO{sub 2}. Physicochemical properties of the final carbon products were characterized using different techniques such as gas adsorption method and XPS. Plasma modified materials enriched in oxygen functionalities were investigated as electrodes for supercapacitors in acidic medium. The electrochemical measurements have been carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical measurements have confirmed that capacity characteristics are closely connected with a type of plasma exposition. Modification processes have an influence on the kind and amount of surface functional groups in the carbon matrix. The moderate increase of capacity of carbon materials modified by plasma has been observed using symmetric two-electrode systems. Whereas investigations made in three-electrode system proved that the suitable selection of plasma modification parameters allows to obtain promising negative and positive electrode materials for supercapacitor application. (author)

  11. Photocatalytic, antimicrobial activities of biogenic silver nanoparticles and electrochemical degradation of water soluble dyes at glassy carbon/silver modified past electrode using buffer solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Khan, Amjad; Shah, Afzal; Chen, Yongmei; Wan, Pingyu; Khan, Arif Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Muhamma, Nawshad; Khan, Faheem Ullah; Shah, Hidayat Ullah

    2016-03-01

    In the present research work a novel, nontoxic and ecofriendly procedure was developed for the green synthesis of silver nano particle (AgNPs) using Caruluma edulis (C. edulis) extract act as reductant as well as stabilizer agents. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The small and spherical sizes of AgNPs were conformed from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis and were found in the range of 2-10nm, which were highly dispersion without any aggregation. The crystalline structure of AgNPs was conformed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. For the elemental composition EDX was used and FTIR helped to determine the type of organic compounds in the extract. The potential electrochemical property of modified silver electrode was also studied. The AgNPs showed prominent antibacterial motion with MIC values of 125 μg/mL against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus while 250 μg/mL against Escherichia coli. High cell constituents' release was exhibited by B. subtilis with 2 × MIC value of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles also showed significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This research would have an important implication for the synthesis of more efficient antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. The AgNP modified electrode (GC/AgNPs) exhibited an excellent electro-catalytic activity toward the redox reaction of phenolic compounds. The AgNPs were evaluated for electrochemical degradation of bromothymol blue (BTB) dyes which showed a significant activity. From the strong reductive properties it is obvious that AgNPs can be used in water sanitization and converting some organic perilous in to non-hazardous materials. The AgNPs showed potential applications in the field of electro chemistry, sensor, catalyst, nano-devices and medical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NITROANILINE FILM-HOLE MODIFIED GLASSY CARBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    substances (such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and so on) that exist together .... stirring the electrolytes in the cell, a small magnetic bar was used in BASi C3 ..... Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V. New electrochemical sensor based on Ni-doped .... Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Tang, L.; Lu, J.; Li, J. Application of graphene-modified electrode for.

  13. 1-ethanone modified carbon paste electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    7.00) in cyclic voltammetry, the oxidation of L-cysteic acid at the surface of 4FEPEMCPE is occurred at a potential about 220 mV less positive than that an unmodified carbon paste electrode. The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient, α, and catalytic reaction rate constant, K/ h, were also determined using.

  14. Carbon tetrachloride desorption from activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, L.A.; Sansone, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride was desorbed from a granular activated carbon subsequent to its adsorption under various vapor exposure periods. The varied conditions of exposure resulted in a range of partially saturated carbon beds which, when followed by a constant flow rate for desorption, generated different forms of the desorbing concentration versus time curve. A method of analyzing the desorption curves is presented which permits extraction of the various desorbing rates from the different desorption and to relate this to the time required for such regeneration. The Wheeler desorption kinetic equation was used to calculate the pseudo first order desorption rate constant for the carbon. The desorption rate constant was found to increase monotonically with increasing saturation of the bed, permitting the calculation of the maximum desorption rate constant for the carbon at 100% saturation. The Retentivity Index of the carbon, defined as the dimensionless ratio of the adsorption to the desorption rate constant, was found to be 681

  15. Electricity generation from banana peels in an alkaline fuel cell with a Cu2O-Cu modified activated carbon cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Xianhua; Dong, Feng; Lin, Qingxia; Tong, Yindong; Li, Yang; Zhang, Pingping

    2018-08-01

    Low-cost and highly active catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction is of great importance in the design of alkaline fuel cells. In this work, Cu 2 O-Cu composite catalyst has been fabricated by a facile laser-irradiation method. The addition of Cu 2 O-Cu composite in activated carbon air-cathode greatly improves the performance of the cathode. Our results indicate the enhanced performance is likely attributed to the synergistic effect of high conductivity of Cu and the catalytic activity of Cu 2 O towards the oxygen reduction reaction. Furthermore, an alkaline fuel cell equipped with the composite air-cathode has been built to turn banana peels into electricity. Peak power density of 16.12Wm -2 is obtained under the condition of 3M KOH and 22.04gL -1 reducing sugar, which is higher than other reported low-temperature direct biomass alkaline fuel cells. HPLC results indicate the main oxidation products in the alkaline fuel cell were small organic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction on nitrogen-containing multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikkisk, Merilin; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Joost, Urmas; Shulga, Eugene; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis in the presence of urea was used for nitrogen doping of carbon nanotubes. ► N-doped carbon nanotubes were used as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. ► N-doped carbon material showed a high catalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media. ► N-containing CNT material is an attractive cathode catalyst for alkaline membrane fuel cells. - Abstract: The electrochemical reduction of oxygen was studied on nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotube (NCNT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes employing the rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. Nitrogen doping was achieved by simple pyrolysis of the carbon nanotube material in the presence of urea. The surface morphology and composition of the NCNT samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed a rather uniform distribution of NCNTs on the GC electrode substrate. The XPS analysis showed a successful doping of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen species. The RDE results revealed that in alkaline solution the N-doped nanotube materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction. At low overpotentials the reduction of oxygen followed a two-electron pathway on undoped carbon nanotube modified GC electrodes, whereas on NCNT/GC electrodes a four-electron pathway of O 2 reduction predominated. The results obtained are significant for the development of nitrogen-doped carbon-based cathodes for alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  17. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  18. Carbon dioxide sorption on EDTA modified halloysite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waszczuk Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the sorption study of CO2 on EDTA surface modified halloysite was conducted. In the paper chemical modification of halloysite from the Dunino deposit (Poland and its influence on sorption of CO2 are presented. A halloysite samples were washed with water-EDTA 1% solution, centrifuged to separate liquid and impurities and dried. The samples were tested for the sorption capacity using a manometric method with pressure up to 3 MPa. A Langmuir adsorption model was fitted to the data. The results showed that EDTA had a limited effect on the increase of sorption potential at low pressure and the samples exhibited similar results to that ones treated solely with the water solution.

  19. Biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, J.; Kang, T.F.; Xue, R.; Ge, C.N.; Cheng, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a biosensor for phenolic compounds that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs possess excellent inherent electrical conductivity which enhances the electron transfer rate and results in good electrochemical catalytic activity towards the reduction of benzoquinone produced by enzymatic reaction. The biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, and the experimental conditions were optimized. The cathodic current is linearly related to the concentration of the phenols between 0.4 μM and 10 μM, and the detection limit is 0.2 μM. The method was applied to the determination of phenol in water samples (author)

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic activity over Cd{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}S with stacking fault structure combined with Cu{sup 2+} modified carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Beini; Lu, Yonghong [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Centre for Environment Risk Prevention and Emergency Disposal, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Zhujian; Zhu, Yajie; Dang, Zhi [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Nengwu [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Centre for Environment Risk Prevention and Emergency Disposal, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lu, Guining; Huang, Junyi [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdZnS with stacking faults was combined with Cu{sup 2+} modified carbon nanotubes. • Stacking faults and carbon nanotubes (Cu) synergized to promote charge separation. • The composite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: For enhanced photocatalytic performance of visible light responsive CdZnS, a series of Cd{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}S solid solutions were fabricated by different methods. It was found that the semiconductor obtained through the precipitation-hydrothermal method (CZS-PH) exhibited the highest photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of 2154 μmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1}. The enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production of CZS-PH was probably due to stacking fault formation as well as narrow bandgap, a large surface area and a small crystallite size. Based on this, carbon nanotubes modified with Cu{sup 2+} (CNTs (Cu)) were used as a cocatalyst for CZS-PH. The addition of CNTs (Cu) enhanced notably the absorption of the composites for visible light. The highest photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the Cd{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}S-CNTs (Cu) composite was 2995 μmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1} with 1.0 wt.% of CNTs (Cu). The improvement of the photocatalytic activity by loading of CNTs (Cu) was not due to alteration of bandgap energy or surface area, and was probably attributed to suppression of the electron-hole recombination by the CNTs, with Cu{sup 2+} anchored in the interface optimizing the photogenerated electron transfer pathway between the semiconductor and CNTs. We report here the successful combination of homojunction and heterojunction in CdZnS semiconductor, which resulted in promotion of charge separation and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  1. Adsorption of palladium ions by modified carbons from rice husks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Steam activated carbon of high surface area does not show palladium ions adsorption. Treatment of this carbon with HF acid increases to a great extent the gas adsorption capacity expressed as nitrogen surface area as well as the adsorption capacity of palladium ions from aqueous solution. HHB was loaded in different amounts on to these carbons. The acid sites represent the active fraction of the surface on which the adsorption palladium ions proceed. The uptake of palladium ions by HHB treated carbons is related to the total number of HHB molecules loaded on the carbon surface. (author)

  2. Layer by layer assembly of catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid onto titanium nitride nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode: Study of direct voltammetry and bioelectrocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadati, Shagayegh; Salimi, Abdollah; Hallaj, Rahman; Rostami, Amin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid were immobilized to GC/TiNnp with LBL assembly method. ► First a thin layer of NH 2 -IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation. ► With alternative assemble of IL and catalase with positive and negative charged, multilayer was formed. ► Immobilized catalase shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 reduction. ► Biosensor response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. - Abstract: A novel, simple and facile layer by layer (LBL) approach is used for modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrode with multilayer of catalase and nanocomposite containing 1-(3-Aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (amine terminated ionic liquid (NH 2 -IL)) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiNnp). First a thin layer of NH 2 -IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation method. Then, with alternative self assemble positively charged NH 2 -IL and negatively charged catalase a sensitive H 2 O 2 biosensor is constructed, whose response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active catalase per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and Michaelis–Menten constant (K M ) of immobilized catalase were 3.32 × 10 −12 mol cm −2 , 5.28 s −1 and 1.1 mM, respectively. The biosensor shows good stability, high reproducibility, long life-time, and fast amperometric response with the high sensitivity of 380 μA mM −1 cm −2 and low detection limit of 100 nM at concentration range up to 2.1 mM.

  3. Layer by layer assembly of catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid onto titanium nitride nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode: Study of direct voltammetry and bioelectrocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadati, Shagayegh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hallaj, Rahman; Rostami, Amin [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid were immobilized to GC/TiNnp with LBL assembly method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With alternative assemble of IL and catalase with positive and negative charged, multilayer was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized catalase shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biosensor response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. - Abstract: A novel, simple and facile layer by layer (LBL) approach is used for modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrode with multilayer of catalase and nanocomposite containing 1-(3-Aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (amine terminated ionic liquid (NH{sub 2}-IL)) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiNnp). First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation method. Then, with alternative self assemble positively charged NH{sub 2}-IL and negatively charged catalase a sensitive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} biosensor is constructed, whose response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active catalase per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}) of immobilized catalase were 3.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} mol cm{sup -2}, 5.28 s{sup -1} and 1.1 mM, respectively. The biosensor shows good stability, high reproducibility, long life-time, and fast amperometric response with the high sensitivity of 380 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and low detection limit of 100 nM at concentration range up to 2.1 mM.

  4. A study of nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode (Aunano/GCE) was employed for the determination of trace chromium(VI). To prepare Aunano/GCE, the GCE was immersed into KAuCl4 solution and electrodeposition was conducted at the potential of -0.4 V (vs Ag/AgCl) for 600 s. Scanning electron microscopy ...

  5. Copper nanoparticle modified carbon electrode for determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztekin, Yasemin; Tok, Mutahire; Bilici, Esra; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Yazicigil, Zafer; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and application of copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical determination of dopamine. Electrochemical measurements were performed using differently modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Bare, oxidized before modification and copper nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes (bare-GC, ox-GC and CuNP/GC electrodes, respectively) were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of redox probes. Atomic force microscopy was used for the visualization of electrode surfaces. The CuNP/GC electrode was found to be suitable for the selective determination of dopamine even in the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid, and p-acetamidophenol. The observed linear range of CuNP/GC for dopamine was from 0.1 nM to 1.0 μM while the detection limit was estimated to be 50 pM. It was demonstrated that here reported glassy carbon electrode modified by copper nanoparticles is suitable for the determination of dopamine in real samples such as human blood serum.

  6. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundie, P.; McLeod, N.

    1997-01-01

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation

  7. From ionic liquid-modified cellulose nanowhiskers to highly active metal-free nanostructured carbon catalysts for the hydrazine oxidation reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fragal, E.H.; Fragal, V.H.; Huang, X.; Martins, A.C.; Cellet, T.S.P.; Pereira, G.M.; Mikmeková, Eliška; Rubira, A.F.; Silva, R.; Asefa, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2017), s. 1066-1077 ISSN 2050-7488 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : carbonization * catalysts Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 8.867, year: 2016

  8. Optimization of interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via a modified polyacrylate emulsion sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaomin; Zhu, Bo; Cai, Xun; Liu, Jianjun; Qiao, Kun; Yu, Junwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved interfacial adhesion in CF/EP composite by FSMPA sizing was put forward. • Sized CFs featured promotions of wettability, chemical activity and mechanical property. • A sizing mechanism containing chemical interaction and physical absorption was proposed. - Abstract: The adhesion behavior of epoxy resin to carbon fibers has always been a challenge, on account of the inertness of carbon fibers and the lack of reactive functional groups. In this work, a modified polyacrylate sizing agent was prepared to modify the interface between the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were investigated to determine chemical composition, morphology, wettability, interfacial phase analysis and interfacial adhesion. Sized carbon fibers featured improved wettability and a slightly decreased surface roughness due to the coverage of a smooth sizing layer, compared with the unsized ones. Moreover, the content of surface activated carbon atoms increased from 12.65% to 24.70% and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber/epoxy composites raised by 14.2%, indicating a significant improvement of chemical activity and mechanical property. SEM images of the fractured surface of composites further proved that a gradient interfacial structure with increased thicknesses was formed due to the transition role of the sizing. Based on these results, a sizing mechanism consisting of chemical interaction bonding and physical force absorption was proposed, which provides an efficient and feasible method to solve the poor adhesion between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix.

  9. Optimization of interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via a modified polyacrylate emulsion sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaomin [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhu, Bo, E-mail: zhubo@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Cai, Xun, E-mail: caixunzh@sdu.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250101 (China); Liu, Jianjun [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qiao, Kun [Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yu, Junwei [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • An improved interfacial adhesion in CF/EP composite by FSMPA sizing was put forward. • Sized CFs featured promotions of wettability, chemical activity and mechanical property. • A sizing mechanism containing chemical interaction and physical absorption was proposed. - Abstract: The adhesion behavior of epoxy resin to carbon fibers has always been a challenge, on account of the inertness of carbon fibers and the lack of reactive functional groups. In this work, a modified polyacrylate sizing agent was prepared to modify the interface between the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were investigated to determine chemical composition, morphology, wettability, interfacial phase analysis and interfacial adhesion. Sized carbon fibers featured improved wettability and a slightly decreased surface roughness due to the coverage of a smooth sizing layer, compared with the unsized ones. Moreover, the content of surface activated carbon atoms increased from 12.65% to 24.70% and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber/epoxy composites raised by 14.2%, indicating a significant improvement of chemical activity and mechanical property. SEM images of the fractured surface of composites further proved that a gradient interfacial structure with increased thicknesses was formed due to the transition role of the sizing. Based on these results, a sizing mechanism consisting of chemical interaction bonding and physical force absorption was proposed, which provides an efficient and feasible method to solve the poor adhesion between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix.

  10. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Amare, Meareg; Aklog, Senait

    2017-01-01

    Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 ? 10?6 to 100 ? 10?6?mol?L?1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3?s/slope) of 0....

  11. Study on electroactive and electrocatalytic surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube-modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas-Torres, David [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Huerta, Francisco [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell, 1. E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Montilla, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.montilla@ua.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Morallon, Emilia [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2011-02-01

    An investigation of the electrocatalysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes has been performed in this work. Nanotube-modified electrodes present a surface area much higher than the bare glassy carbon surfaces as determined by capacitance measurements. Several redox probes were selected for checking the reactivity of specific sites at the carbon nanotube surface. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the electrode improves the kinetics for all the reactions studied compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode with variations of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant up to 5 orders of magnitude. The most important effects are observed for the benzoquinone/hydroquinone and ferrocene/ferricinium redox couples, which show a remarkable improvement of their electron transfer kinetics on SWCNT-modified electrodes, probably due to strong {pi}-{pi} interaction between the organic molecules and the walls of the carbon nanotubes. For many of the reactions studied, less than 1% of the nanotube-modified electrode surface is transferring charge to species in solution. This result suggests that only nanotube tips are active sites for the electron transfer in such cases. On the contrary, the electroactive surface for the reactions of ferrocene and quinone is higher indicating that the electron transfer is produced also from the nanotube walls.

  12. Study on electroactive and electrocatalytic surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube-modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Torres, David; Huerta, Francisco; Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the electrocatalysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes has been performed in this work. Nanotube-modified electrodes present a surface area much higher than the bare glassy carbon surfaces as determined by capacitance measurements. Several redox probes were selected for checking the reactivity of specific sites at the carbon nanotube surface. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the electrode improves the kinetics for all the reactions studied compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode with variations of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant up to 5 orders of magnitude. The most important effects are observed for the benzoquinone/hydroquinone and ferrocene/ferricinium redox couples, which show a remarkable improvement of their electron transfer kinetics on SWCNT-modified electrodes, probably due to strong π-π interaction between the organic molecules and the walls of the carbon nanotubes. For many of the reactions studied, less than 1% of the nanotube-modified electrode surface is transferring charge to species in solution. This result suggests that only nanotube tips are active sites for the electron transfer in such cases. On the contrary, the electroactive surface for the reactions of ferrocene and quinone is higher indicating that the electron transfer is produced also from the nanotube walls.

  13. The study of furfural removal from aqueous solutions using activated carbon and bentonite modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    M Leili; Gh Asgari; A. A Eskandari; L Borzoei; B Ramavandi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Furfural is one of the toxic chemical compounds used in many industries such as petrochemical, food, paper products, pharmaceutical, etc., due to having some characteristics. Therefore, furfural could be found at different concentrations in the effluent from these industries and can enter the environment. Hence, the aim of this study was the assessment the efficiency of a low cost bentonite modified with cationic surfactant in the removal of furfural from aqueous so...

  14. Modified glassy carbon electrodes based on carbon nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical determination of furazolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Leila [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghalkhani, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for advanced technology, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran, 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode modified with different carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), nanodiamond-graphite (NDG), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO-CNT hybrids (various ratios) using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results of voltammetric studies exhibited a considerable increase in the cathodic peak current of Fu at the RGO modified GCE, compared to other modified electrodes and also bare GCE. The surface morphology and nature of the RGO film was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The modified electrode showed two linear dynamic ranges of 0.001–2.0 μM and 2.0–10.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 nM for the voltammetric determination of Fu. This sensor was used successfully for Fu determination in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. - Highlights: • The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the modified electrode with different carbon nanomaterials by Linear sweep voltammetry. • Two linear dynamic ranges and a low detection limit were obtained. • The modified electrode was applied for the detection of Fu in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  15. Adsorption of Nickel (II) from Aqueous Solution by Bicarbonate Modified Coconut Oilcake Residue Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumari, N; Srinivasan, K

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption of Ni (II) on modified coconut oilcake residue carbon (bicarbonate treated coconut oilcake residue carbon-BCORC) was employed for the removal of Ni (II) from water and wastewater. The influence of various factors such as agitation time, pH and carbon dosage on the adsorption capacity has been studied. Adsorption isothermal data could be interpreted by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In order to understand the reaction mechanism, kinetic data has been studied using reversible first order rate equation. Similar studies were carried out using commercially available activated carbon--CAC, for comparison purposes. Column studies were conducted to obtain breakthrough capacities of BCORC and CAC. Common anions and cations affecting the removal of Ni (II) on both the carbons were also studied. Experiments were also done with wastewater containing Ni (II), to assess the potential of these carbons.

  16. Composite supercapacitor electrodes made of activated carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon/PEDOT:PSS and activated carbon/doped PEDOT. T S SONIA, P A MINI, ... polymeric anodes for organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes (Pingree et al ... looked upon are carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and activated carbon.

  17. Modified Activated Carbon Prepared from Acorn Shells as a New Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent for the Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Amounts of Nickel in Food Samples Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Bahram

    2017-03-01

    A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent was introduced based on acidic-modified (AM) activated carbon (AC) prepared from acorn shells of native oak trees in Kurdistan. Hydrochloric acid (15%, w/w) and nitric acid (32.5%, w/w) were used to condition and modify AC. The IR spectra of AC and AM-AC showed that AM lead to the formation of increasing numbers of acidic functional groups on AM-AC. AM-AC was used in the SPE method for the extraction and preconcentration of Ni+2 prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination at ng/mL levels in model and real food samples. Effective parameters of the SPE procedure, such as the pH of the solutions, sorbent dosage, extraction time, sample volume, type of eluent, and matrix ions, were considered and optimized. An enrichment factor of 140 was obtained. The calibration curve was linear with an R2 of 0.997 in the concentration range of 1-220 ng/mL. The RSD was 5.67% (for n = 7), the LOD was 0.352 ng/mL, and relative recoveries in vegetable samples ranged from 96.7 to 103.7%.

  18. Explosive compaction of aluminum oxide modified by multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzyurkin, A. E.; Kraus, E. I.; Lukyanov, Ya L.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents experiments and numerical research on explosive compaction of aluminum oxide powder modified by multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and modeling of the stress state behind the shock front at shock loading. The aim of this study was to obtain a durable low-porosity compact sample. The explosive compaction technology is used in this problem because the aluminum oxide is an extremely hard and refractory material. Therefore, its compaction by traditional methods requires special equipment and considerable expenses.

  19. Low temperature electrical transport in modified carbon nanotube fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekawa-Raus, Agnieszka; Walczak, Kamil; Kozlowski, Gregory; Hopkins, Simon C.; Wozniak, Mariusz; Glowacki, Bartek A.; Koziol, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube fibres are a new class of materials highly promising for many electrical/electronic applications. The range of applications could be extended through the modification of their electrical transport properties by inclusions of foreign materials. However, the changes in electrical transport are often difficult to assess. Here, we propose that the analysis of resistance–temperature dependencies of modified fibres supported by a recently developed theoretical model may aid research in this area and accelerate real life applications of the fibres

  20. Electrooxidation of Indomethacin at Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Modified GCE and Its Determination in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form and Human Biological Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Sataraddi, Sanjeevaraddi R.; Patil, Shreekant M.; Bagoji, Atmanand M.; Pattar, Vijay P.; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive electrochemical method for the direct determination of indomethacin was developed. The electrochemical behavior of indomethacin was carried at multiwalled carbon nanotube- (MWCNTs-) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that MWCNT-modified glassy carbon electrode remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of indomethacin in slightly acidic solutions. It led to a considerable improvem...

  1. Activated carbon for incinerator uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Seman Mahmood; Norhayati Alias; Mohd Puad Abu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the activated carbon from palm oil kernel shell for use as absorbent and converter for incinerator gas. The procedure is developed in order to prepare the material in bulk quantity and be used in the incinerator. The effect of the use of activating chemicals, physical activation and the preparation parameter to the quality of the carbon products will be discussed. (Author)

  2. Nanocomposite fibers and film containing polyolefin and surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu,Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-26

    Methods for modifying carbon nanotubes with organic compounds are disclosed. The modified carbon nanotubes have enhanced compatibility with polyolefins. Nanocomposites of the organo-modified carbon nanotubes and polyolefins can be used to produce both fibers and films having enhanced mechanical and electrical properties, especially the elongation-to-break ratio and the toughness of the fibers and/or films.

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid mediated by carbon nano tubes/ Li+/ carbon paste modified solid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, J.K.; Tan, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) was used to modify BPPG electrode because of its unique structure and extraordinary properties. MWCNT modified electrode exhibited obvious enhancing and electro catalyzing effects to the oxidation of ascorbic acid using cyclic voltammetry technique. MWCNT was bonded on BPPG electrode surface using carbon paste with ratio of 30 % (w/ W) carbon paste (binder): 70 % (w/ w) MWCNT. This method of modification has lowered the capacitance background current and enabled lower detection limit of ascorbic acid concentration. The electrical conductivity property of MWCNT modified electrode was further improved with the intercalation with lithium ion and resulted in current enhancement of 2 times on the oxidation current of ascorbic acid. Parameters of pH and temperature showed significant relation to the sensitivity of MWCNT modified electrode. Under the optimized parameters, the calibration curve constructed was linear up from 50 μM to 5 mM with sensitivity of 34.5 mA M -1 . The practical application of MWCNT modified electrode was demonstrated with Vitamin C pill and orange juice. Good reproducibility and recovery of ascorbic acid concentration showed the feasibility of MWCNT modified electrode to be used in the detection of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution. This also proposed MWCNT modified BPPG electrode possessed advantages such as low detection limit, high stability, low cost and simplicity in fabrication. (author)

  4. A self-assembled 2D/2D-type protonated carbon nitride-modified graphene oxide nanocomposite with improved photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linfang; Ni, Jie; Tang, Bo; He, Guangyu; Chen, Haiqun

    2018-03-01

    A surface charge modified g-C3N4 was successfully prepared by protonation of nitric acid. Combination of the protonated g-C3N4 (pCN) and graphene oxide (GO) layers created a 2D/2D-type composite (pCN/GO) under the synergistic effect of sonication-exfoliation and self-assembly. The obtained 2D nanostructure of pCN/GO was explored by electron microscopy analysis. The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) showed a distinctly high efficiency of pCN/GO-5% with excellent stability, which is superior not only to that of g-C3N4, pCN and g-C3N4/GO-5% nanocomposites we prepared, but also to what was reported previously. The optimized combination of GO and pCN afforded the pCN/GO composite intimate interfacial contact within the heterojunction, which promoted the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs as evidenced by zeta potential, photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements. A visible-light photocatalytic degradation mechanism associated with pCN/GO nanocomposites was also proposed.

  5. Anti-tumor response with immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Zhou, Feifan; Boarman, Ellen; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    While successes of different cancer therapies have been achieved in various degrees a systemic immune response is needed to effectively treat late-stage, metastatic cancers, and to establish long-term tumor resistance in the patients. A novel method for combating metastatic cancers has been developed using immunologically modified carbon nanotubes in conjunction with phototherapy. Glycated chitosan (GC) is a potent immunological adjuvant capable of increasing host immune responses, including antigen presentation by activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and causing T cell proliferation. GC is also an effective surfactant for nanomaterials. By combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and GC, immunologically modified carbon nanotubes (SWNT-GC) were constructed. The SWNT-GC suspension retains the enhanced light absorption properties in the near infrared (NIR) region and the ability to enter cells, which are characteristic of SWNTs. The SWNT-GC also retains the immunological properties of GC. Cellular SWNT-GC treatments increased macrophage activity, DC activation and T cell proliferation. When cellular SWNT-GC was irradiated with a laser of an appropriate wavelength, these immune activities could be enhanced. The combination of laser irradiation and SWNT-GC induced cellular toxicity in targeted tumor cells, leading to a systemic antitumor response. Immunologically modified carbon nanotubes in conjunction with phototherapy is a novel and promising method to produce a systemic immune response for the treatment of metastatic cancers.

  6. SAXS study on activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bota, A.; Heringer, D.; Mihalffy, T.

    1999-01-01

    SAXS fractal analysis of activated carbons is presented. It gives very useful information about the structural changes of the carbon skeleton. From the fact, that the sequence of the activation and the heat treatment affect the fractal behaviours more drastically than the particle size distribution of the structural units, it follows that all changes in the pore and matrix structure may reduce principally to the bonding of the crystallite units. (K.A.)

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT CARBON NANOTUBE MODIFIED ELECTRODES. (R830900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibiting a strong and stable electrocatalytic response towards sulfide are described. A substantial (400 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the sulfide oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is...

  8. Modifying the electronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Jesse M.

    The intrinsic electronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes make them promising candidates for circuit elements and LEDs in nanoscale devices. However, applied fields and interactions with the environment can modify these intrinsic properties. This dissertation is a theoretical study of perturbations to an ideal carbon nanotube. It illustrates how transport and optical properties of carbon nanotubes can be adversely affected or intentionally modified by the local environment. The dissertation is divided into three parts. Part I analyzes the effect of a transverse electric field on the single-electron energy spectrum of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Part II analyzes the effect of the local environment on selection rules and decay pathways relevant to dark excitons. Part III is a series of 26 appendices. Two different models for a transverse electric field are introduced in Part I. The first is a uniform field perpendicular to the nanotube axis. This model suggests the field has little effect on the band gap until it exceeds a critical value that can be tuned with strain or a magnetic field. The second model is a transverse field localized to a small region along the nanotube axis. The field creates a pair of exponentially localized bound states but has no effect on the band gap for particle transport. Part II explores the physics of dark excitons in carbon nanotubes. Two model calculations illustrate the effect of the local environment on allowed optical transitions and nonradiative recombination pathways. The first model illustrates the role of inversion symmetry in the optical spectrum. Broken inversion symmetry may explain low-lying peaks in the exciton spectrum of boron nitride nanotubes and localized photoemission around impurities and interfaces in carbon nanotubes. The second model in Part II suggests that free charge carriers can mediate an efficient nonradiative decay process for dark excitons in carbon nanotubes. The appendices in Part III

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Impregnated Commercial Rice Husks Activated Carbon with Piperazine for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum Raman, S. N.; Ismail, N. A.; Jamari, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    Development of effective materials for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology is a fundamental importance to reduce CO2 emissions. This work establishes the addition of amine functional group on the surface of activated carbon to further improve the adsorption capacity of CO2. Rice husks activated carbon were modified using wet impregnation method by introducing piperazine onto the activated carbon surfaces at different concentrations and mixture ratios. These modified activated carbons were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The results from XRD analysis show the presence of polyethylene butane at diffraction angles of 21.8° and 36.2° for modified activated carbon with increasing intensity corresponding to increase in piperazine concentration. BET results found the surface area and pore volume of non-impregnated activated carbon to be 126.69 m2/g and 0.081 cm3/g respectively, while the modified activated carbons with 4M of piperazine have lower surface area and pore volume which is 6.77 m2/g and 0.015 cm3/g respectively. At 10M concentration, the surface area and pore volume are the lowest which is 4.48 m2/g and 0.0065 cm3/g respectively. These results indicate the piperazine being filled inside the activated carbon pores thus, lowering the surface area and pore volume of the activated carbon. From the FTIR analysis, the presence of peaks at 3312 cm-1 and 1636 cm-1 proved the existence of reaction between carboxyl groups on the activated carbon surfaces with piperazine. The surface morphology of activated carbon can be clearly seen through FESEM analysis. The modified activated carbon contains fewer pores than non-modified activated carbon as the pores have been covered with piperazine.

  10. Investigation of bioresistant dry building mixes modified by carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry construction mixes are today a product of high technologies. Depending on the purpose and requirements to the properties it is easy to produce dry construction mixes with different compositions and operating indicators in plant conditions using the necessary modifying additives. Cement, gypsum and other mineral binders are used in the construction mixes. Different types of cement are more heavily used in dry construction mixes. Such dry mixes are believed to be more effective materials comparing to traditional cement-sandy solutions of centralized preparation. The authors present the results of the investigations on obtaining biocidal cement-sand compositions. It was established, that introduction of sodium sulfate into the composition provides obtaining the materials with funginert and fungicide properties. The strength properties of the mixes modified by carbon nanotubes and biocide additive were investigated by mathematical planning methods. The results of the investigations showed that the modification of cement stone structure by carbon nanotubes positively influences their strength and technological properties. Nanomodifying of construction composites by introducing carbon nanotubes may be effectively used at different stages of structure formation of a construction material.

  11. Sensitive detection of hydroxylamine at a simple baicalin carbon nanotubes modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfang; Zheng, Jianbin

    2012-05-15

    A baicalin multi-wall carbon nanotubes (BaMWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the sensitive determination of hydroxylamine was described. The BaMWCNT/GCE with dramatic stability was firstly fabricated with a simple adsorption method. And it showed excellent catalytic activity toward the electrooxidation of hydroxylamine. The amperometric response at the BaMWCNT/GCE modified electrode increased linearly to hydroxylamine concentrations in the range of 0.5 μM to 0.4mM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM. The modified electrode was applied to detection hydroxylamine in the tap water, and the average recovery for the standards added was 96.0%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    Butanol is considered a promising, infrastructure-compatible biofuel. Butanol has a higher energy content than ethanol and can be used in conventional gas engines without modifications. Unfortunately, the fermentation pathway for butanol production is restricted by its toxicity to the microbial strains used in the process. Butanol is toxic to the microbes, and this can slow fermentation rates and reduce butanol yields. Gas stripping technology can efficiently remove butanol from the fermentation broth as it is produced, thereby decreasing its inhibitory effects. Traditional butanol separation heavily depends on the energy intensive distillation method. One of the main issues in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation is that butanol concentrations in the fermentation broth are low, ranging from 1 to 1.2 percent in weight, because of its toxicity to the microorganisms. Therefore distillation of butanol is even worse than distillation of corn ethanol. Even new separation methods, such as solid- extraction methods involve adding substances, such as polymer resin and zeolite or activated carbon, to biobutanol fermentatioon broth did not achieve energy efficient separation of butanol due to low adsorption selectivity and fouling in broth. Gas-stripping - condensation is another new butanol recovery method, however, the butanol in gas-stripping stream is too low to be condensed without using expensive and energy intensive liquid nitrogen. Adsorption can then be used to recover butanol from the vapor phase. Activated carbon (AC) samples and zeolite were investigated for their butanol vapor adsorption capacities. Commercial activated carbon was modified via hydrothermal H2O2 treatment, and the specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of activated carbon were tested before and after treatment. Hydrothermal H2O 2 modification increased the surface oxygen content, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, micropore volume, and total pore volume of active carbon

  13. Biological activation of carbon filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bozena; Tomaszewska, Maria; Janus, Magdalena; Morawski, Antoni W

    2006-01-01

    To prepare biological activated carbon (BAC), raw surface water was circulated through granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Biological activity of carbon filters was initiated after about 6 months of filter operation and was confirmed by two methods: measurement of the amount of biomass attached to the carbon and by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) test. The effect of carbon pre-washing on WG-12 carbon properties was also studied. For this purpose, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra analyses were performed. Moreover, iodine number, decolorizing power and adsorption properties of carbon in relation to phenol were studied. Analysis of the results revealed that after WG-12 carbon pre-washing its BET surface increased a little, the pH value of the carbon water extract decreased from 11.0 to 9.4, decolorizing power remained at the same level, and the iodine number and phenol adsorption rate increased. In preliminary studies of the ozonation-biofiltration process, a model phenol solution with concentration of approximately 10mg/l was applied. During the ozonation process a dose of 1.64 mg O(3)/mg TOC (total organic carbon) was employed and the contact time was 5 min. Four empty bed contact times (EBCTs) in the range of 2.4-24.0 min were used in the biofiltration experiment. The effectiveness of purification was measured by the following parameters: chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), TOC, phenol concentration and UV(254)-absorbance. The parameters were found to decrease with EBCT.

  14. Bioelectrocatalytic mediatorless dioxygen reduction at carbon ceramic electrodes modified with bilirubin oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogala, Wojciech; Celebanska, Anna; Szot, Katarzyna; Wittstock, Gunther; Opallo, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon ceramic electrodes were prepared by sol-gel processing of a hydrophobic precursor - methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) - together with dispersed graphite microparticles according to a literature procedure. Bilirubin oxidase (BOx) was adsorbed on this electrode from buffer solution and this process was followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrodes exhibited efficient mediatorless electrocatalytic activity towards dioxygen reduction. The activity depends on the time of adsorption of the enzyme and the pH. The electrode remains active in neutral solution. The bioelectrocatalytic activity is further increased when a fraction of the carbon microparticles is replaced by sulfonated carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). This additive enhances the electrical communication between the enzyme and the electronic conductor. At pH 7 the carbon ceramic electrode modified with bilirubin oxidase retains ca. half of its highest activity. The role of the modified nanoparticles is confirmed by experiments in which a film embedded in a hydrophobic silicate matrix also exhibited efficient mediatorless biocatalytic dioxygen reduction. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) of the studied electrodes indicated a rather even distribution of the catalytic activity over the electrode surface.

  15. Redox electrodes comprised of polymer-modified carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Emmett, Robert; Karakaya, Mehmet; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Physics Team; Clemson Chemical Engineering Team

    2013-03-01

    A shift in how we generate and use electricity requires new energy storage materials and systems compatible with hybrid electric transportation and the integration of renewable energy sources. Supercapacitors provide a solution to these needs by combining the high power, rapid switching, and exceptional cycle life of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Our research brings together nanotechnology and materials chemistry to address the limitations of electrode materials. Paper electrodes fabricated with various forms of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, are modified with redox-polymers to increase the electrode's energy density while maintaining rapid discharge rates. In these systems, the carbon nanomaterials provide the high surface area, electrical conductivity, nanoscale and porosity, while the redox polymers provide a mechanism for charge storage through Faradaic charge transfer. The design of redox polymers and their incorporation into nanomaterial electrodes will be discussed with a focus on enabling high power and high energy density electrodes.

  16. Hydrocarbon accumulation in deep fluid modified carbonate rock in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The activities of deep fluid are regionalized in the Tarim Basin. By analyzing the REE in core samples and crude oil, carbon isotope of carbon dioxide and inclusion temperature measurement in the west of the Tazhong Uplift in the western Tarim Basin, all the evidence confirms the existence of deep fluid. The deep fluid below the basin floor moved up into the basin through discordogenic fauit and volcanicity to cause corrosion and metaaomatosis of carbonate rock by exchange of matter and energy. The pore structure and permeability of the carbonate reservoirs were improved, making the carbonate reservoirs an excellent type of deeply buried modification. The fluorite ore belts discovered along the large fault and the volcanic area in the west of the Tazhong Uplift are the outcome of deep fluid action. Such carbonate reservoirs are the main type of reservoirs in the Tazhong 45 oilfield. The carbonate reservoirs in well YM 7 are improved obviously by thermal fluid dolomitization. The origin and territory of deep fluid are associated with the discordogenic fault and volcanicity in the basin. The discordogenic fault and volcanic area may be the pointer of looking for the deep fluid modified reservoirs. The primary characteristics of hydrocarbon accumulation in deep fluid reconstructed carbonate rock are summarized as accumulation near the large fault and volcano passage, late-period hydrocarbon accumulation after volcanic activity, and subtle trap reservoirs controlled by lithology.

  17. TiO2-anatase modified by carbon as the photo catalyst under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawski, A.W.; Janus, M.; Tryba, B.; Kalucki, K.; Tryba, B.; Inagaki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The photo-catalytic oxidation of phenol in water under a visible light over anatase-type titanium dioxide (Tytanpol A11, Poland), modified by carbon deposited via n-hexane carbonization, was investigated. The catalysts, which had small (0-0.2 mass%) and high (0.69-0.85 mass%) contents of carbon showed a little lower catalytic photo-activity than pristine TiO 2 . However, the catalyst with high content of carbon (0.85 mass%) gave almost 14-times lower turbidity in the phenol solution after the photo-catalyst sedimentation. These two factors depend on the carbon content and have an influence on the 'practical efficiency' of the catalysts. The 'practical efficiency' of the catalyst under visible light, calculated from these two factors, was therefore 14-times higher for the catalyst containing 0.85 mass% carbon (whereas for UV radiation, it was found to be lower - 0.2 mass% -; this is the result of a previous work). The surface modification of the catalyst with 0.85% carbon seemed to be stable under visible light. The deposition of carbon on TiO 2 by carbonization of n-hexane was supposed to lead to obtain the catalyst, which could be easily used in a water-treatment system under visible light. (authors)

  18. Modified glassy carbon electrodes based on carbon nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical determination of furazolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Naderi, Leila; Ghalkhani, Masoumeh

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode modified with different carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), nanodiamond-graphite (NDG), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO-CNT hybrids (various ratios) using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results of voltammetric studies exhibited a considerable increase in the cathodic peak current of Fu at the RGO modified GCE, compared to other modified electrodes and also bare GCE. The surface morphology and nature of the RGO film was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The modified electrode showed two linear dynamic ranges of 0.001-2.0 μM and 2.0-10.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 nM for the voltammetric determination of Fu. This sensor was used successfully for Fu determination in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemically modified activated carbon with 1-acylthiosemicarbazide for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ru; Hu, Zheng; Chang, Xijun; He, Qun; Zhang, Lijun; Tu, Zhifeng; Shi, Jianping

    2009-12-15

    A new sorbent 1-acylthiosemicarbazide-modified activated carbon (AC-ATSC) was prepared as a solid-phase extractant and applied for removing of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The separation/preconcentration conditions of analytes were investigated, including effects of pH, the shaking time, the sample flow rate and volume, the elution condition and the interfering ions. At pH 3, the maximum static adsorption capacity of Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) onto the AC-ATSC were 78.20, 67.80 and 48.56 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorbed metal ions were quantitatively eluted by 3.0 mL of 2% CS(NH2)2 and 2.0 mol L(-1) HCl solution. Common coexisting ions did not interfere with the separation. According to the definition of IUPAC, the detection limits (3sigma) of this method for Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) were 0.20, 0.12 and 0.45 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation under optimum conditions is less than 4.0% (n=8). The prepared sorbent was applied for the preconcentration of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) in certified and water samples with satisfactory results.

  20. Extraction of ultra-traces of lead, chromium and copper using ruthenium nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon and modified with N,N-bis-(α-methylsalicylidene)-2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-diamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfi, Behruz; Rajabi, Maryam; Zadeh, Mahboubeh Morshedi; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel adsorbent for effective extraction of lead(II), chromium(III) and copper(II). It consists of ruthenium nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon that were modified with N,N-bis-(α-methylsalicylidene)-2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-diamine. The sorbent was applied to solid-phase extraction combined with ionic-liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method. The effects of parameters such as amounts of adsorbent, type and volume of elution solvent, type and volume of extraction and dispersing solvents, etc. were evaluated. The ions were then quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Under the best conditions, limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges and enrichment factors for these ions ranged from 0.02 to 0.09 μg L −1 , 0.08 to 45 μg L −1 and 328 to 356, respectively. The results showed that the method, in addition to its sensitivity, selectivity and good enrichment factor, is simple and efficient. It was applied to the determination of the three ions in blood plasma, food (broccoli, coriander and spinach), and in (spiked) samples of tap, spring and river water. (author)

  1. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and fruit juice using modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Žabčíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrobic acid is key substance in the human metabolism and the rapid and accurate determination in food is of a great interest. Ascorbic acid is an electroactive compound, however poorly responded on the bare carbon paste electrodes. In this paper, brilliant cresyl blue and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode. Brilliant cresyl blue acts as a mediator improving the transition of electrons, whereas multiwalled carbon nanotubes increased the surface of the electrode. Both brilliant cresyl blue and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were added directly to the composite material. The electrochemical behavior of modified electode was determined in electrolyte at various pH, and the effect of the scan rate was also performed. It was shown that the electrochemical process on the surface of the modified carbon paste electrode was diffusion-controlled. The resulted modified carbon paste electrode showed a good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid at a reduced overpotential of +100 mV descreasing the risk of interferences. A linear response of the ascorbic acid oxidation current measured by the amperometry in the range of 0.1 - 350 µmol.L-1 was obtained applying the sensor for the standard solution. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.05 and 0.15 µmol.L-1, respectively. The novel method was applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical vitamin preparation and fruit juice, and the results were in good agreement with the standard HPLC method. The presented modification of carbon paste electrode is suitable for the fast, sensitive and very accurate determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices and pharmaceutical preparation.

  2. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen on Anthraquinone/Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in Neutral Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviors of monohydroxy-anthraquinone/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified glassy carbon (MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrodes in neutral medium were investigated; also reported was their application in the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. The resulting MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. It was found that the ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrode occurs irreversibly at a potential about 214 mV less negative than at a bare GC electrode in pH 7.0 buffer solution. Cyclic voltammetric and rotating disk electrode (RDE techniques indicated that the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid has high electrocatalytic activity for the two-electron reduction of oxygen in the studied potential range. The kinetic parameters of ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified GC electrode were also determined by RDE and EIS techniques.

  3. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo, Xiang-Jie; Ju, Jian; Guo, Li-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H2O2 at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H2O2. The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 μA mM-1), low detection limit (1.8 μM), fast response time tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  4. In vitro adsorption study of fluoxetine in activated carbons and activated carbon fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabais, J.M. Valente; Mouquinho, A.; Galacho, C.; Carrott, P.J.M.; Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L. [Centro de Quimica de Evora e Departamento de Quimica da Universidade de Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho no. 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)

    2008-05-15

    We study the in vitro adsorption of fluoxetine hydrochloride by different adsorbents in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, pH 1.2 and 7.5, respectively. The tested materials were two commercial activated carbons, carbomix and maxsorb MSC30, one activated carbon fibre produced in our laboratory and also three MCM-41 samples, also produced by us. Selected samples were modified by liquid phase oxidation and thermal treatment in order to change the surface chemistry without significant modifications to the porous characteristics. The fluoxetine adsorption follows the Langmuir model. The calculated Q{sub 0} values range from 54 to 1112 mg/g. A different adsorption mechanism was found for the adsorption of fluoxetine in activated carbon fibres and activated carbons. In the first case the most relevant factors are the molecular sieving effect and the dispersive interactions whereas in the activated carbons the mechanism seams to be based on the electrostatic interactions between the fluoxetine molecules and the charged carbon surface. Despite the different behaviours most of the materials tested have potential for treating potential fluoxetine intoxications. (author)

  5. Determination of specific capacitance of modified candlenut shell based carbon as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir, M.; Budi, P.; Raya, I.; Karim, A.; Wulandari, R.; Sobrido, A. B. J.

    2018-03-01

    Surface modification of candlenut shell carbon (CSC) using three chemicals: nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) has been carried out. Activation of CSC was performed using H3PO4 solution with different ratio between CSC and activator. Carbon surface area was determined by methylene blue adsorption method. Surface characterization was performed using FTIR spectroscopy and Boehm titration method. Specific capacitance of electrode prepared from CSAC (candlenuts shell activated carbon) materials was quantified by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) measurement. The surface area before and after activation are 105,127 m2/g, 112,488 m2/g, 124,190 m2/g, and 135,167 m2/g, respectively. Surface modification of CSAC showed the improvement in the chemical functionality of CSAC surface. Analyses using FTIR spectroscopy and Boehm titration showed that modifications with HNO3, H2SO4 and H2O2 on the surface of the CSAC increased the number of oxygen functional groups. As a consequence, the specific capacitance of CSAC modified with 65% HNO3 attained the highest value (127 μF/g). There is an incredible increase by a factor of 298% from electrode which was constructed with un-modified CSAC material. This increase correlates to the largest number of oxygen functional groups of CSAC modified with nitric acid (HNO3).

  6. Facile synthesis of tunable carbon modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2} for visible light photocatalytic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Long, E-mail: hlwang@dlut.edu.cn; Wang, Xin-Kui; Jiang, Wen-Feng

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Combined hydrothermal-calcination steps were used to prepare mesoporous C-TiO{sub 2}. • Polyacrylate was employed as the carbon source. • XPS revealed the interstitial carbon modifying mode through carbonate-like species. • C-TiO{sub 2} exhibited visible light activity towards dinitro butyl phenol degradation. - Abstract: In this paper, we describe a simple and novel approach for preparing tunable carbon-modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts by combining the in-situ carbonization of PAA-Ti/TiO{sub 2}, hydrothermal reaction process and post-calcination treatment. The synthesized carbon-modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2} powders were of high crystallinity, large specific surface area and good visible light response. The carbon species were formed by the carbonization of polyacrylate (PAA). The presence of carbonates was subsequently confirmed by the XPS spectra, which significantly narrow down the band gap of TiO{sub 2}. The organic group in polyacrylate served as the carbon source and carbon resulted from in-situ carbonization treatment could help to inhibit the excessive growth of TiO{sub 2} grain and enlarge the pore structure of TiO{sub 2}. The amount of carbon species could be feasibly modulated by adjusting the post-calcination temperature and the surface area of the photocatalyst was enlarged further after the partial removal of carbon species. The carbon-modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2} powders exhibit excellent reproducibility and photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation.

  7. Redox Response of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes to Hydrogen Peroxide and Hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Anzai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface of a glassy carbon (GC electrode was modified with reduced graphene oxide (rGO to evaluate the electrochemical response of the modified GC electrodes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydrazine. The electrode potential of the GC electrode was repeatedly scanned from −1.5 to 0.6 V in an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide (GO to deposit rGO on the surface of the GC electrode. The surface morphology of the modified GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. SEM and AFM observations revealed that aggregated rGO was deposited on the GC electrode, forming a rather rough surface. The rGO-modified electrodes exhibited significantly higher responses in redox reactions of H2O2 as compared with the response of an unmodified GC electrode. In addition, the electrocatalytic activity of the rGO-modified electrode to hydrazine oxidation was also higher than that of the unmodified GC electrode. The response of the rGO-modified electrode was rationalized based on the higher catalytic activity of rGO to the redox reactions of H2O2 and hydrazine. The results suggest that rGO-modified electrodes are useful for constructing electrochemical sensors.

  8. Biomass-derived porous carbon modified glass fiber separator as polysulfide reservoir for Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, Ramakrishnan Kalai; Zhu, Pei; Yan, Chaoi; Zhu, Jiadeng; Dirican, Mahmut; Shanmugavani, A; Lee, Yun Sung; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2018-03-01

    Biomass-derived porous carbon has been considered as a promising sulfur host material for lithium-sulfur batteries because of its high conductive nature and large porosity. The present study explored biomass-derived porous carbon as polysulfide reservoir to modify the surface of glass fiber (GF) separator. Two different carbons were prepared from Oak Tree fruit shells by carbonization with and without KOH activation. The KOH activated porous carbon (AC) provides a much higher surface area (796 m 2  g -1 ) than pyrolized carbon (PC) (334 m 2  g -1 ). The R factor value, calculated from the X-ray diffraction pattern, revealed that the activated porous carbon contains more single-layer sheets with a lower degree of graphitization. Raman spectra also confirmed the presence of sp 3 -hybridized carbon in the activated carbon structure. The COH functional group was identified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the polysulfide capture. Simple and straightforward coating of biomass-derived porous carbon onto the GF separator led to an improved electrochemical performance in Li-S cells. The Li-S cell assembled with porous carbon modified GF separator (ACGF) demonstrated an initial capacity of 1324 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C, which was 875 mAh g -1 for uncoated GF separator (calculated based on the 2nd cycle). Charge transfer resistance (R ct ) values further confirmed the high ionic conductivity nature of porous carbon modified separators. Overall, the biomass-derived activated porous carbon can be considered as a promising alternative material for the polysulfide inhibition in Li-S batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Activated carbons employed to remove ionic liquids from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Tufail, M.

    2011-01-01

    Imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids (ILs) have been separated from aqueous solutions by adsorption using a raw Chinese activated carbon (CAC), a bleached Chinese activated carbon (BAC) and an acid treated Chinese activated carbon (AAC) as adsorbent. Adsorption isotherms data of ionic liquids on activated carbons has been obtained. The influence of both cations and anions was analyzed by studying three different ILs. The role of surface chemistry of the adsorbent was also examined using activated carbons modified by oxidative treatments. The BET surface area of activated carbons was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The results of this work indicate that activated carbon is an attractive adsorbent to remove ionic liquids from water streams. It has also been demonstrated that the adsorption of hydrophilic ionic liquids can be improved by modifying the amount and nature of oxygen groups on the activated carbon surface specially by increasing basic groups. The adsorption data for isotherms was studied at acidic, neutral and basic pH values. (author)

  10. ACTIVATED CARBON (CHARCOAL OBTAINING . APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CIOFU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The activated carbon is a microporous sorbent with a very large adsorption area that can reach in some cases even 1500sqm / gram. Activated carbon is produced from any organic material with high carbon content: coal, wood, peat or moor coal, coconut shells. The granular activated charcoal is most commonly produced by grinding the raw material, adding a suitable binder to provide the desired hardness and shape. Enabling coal is a complete process through which the raw material is fully exposed to temperatures between 600-900 degrees C, in the absence of oxygen, usually in a domestic atmosphere as gases such as nitrogen or argon; as material that results from this process is exposed in an atmosphere of oxygen and steam at a temperature in the interval from 600 - 1200 degrees C.

  11. Cyclic Voltammetric Investigation of Dopamine at Poly-(Gabapentin Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Shreenivas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The poly (gabapentin film was prepared on the surface of carbon paste electrode by electrochemical method using cyclic voltammetric technique. The poly (gabapentin film-modified carbon paste electrode was calibrated with standard potassium ferrocyanide solution in 1 M KCl as a supporting electrolyte. The prepared poly (gabapentin film-coated electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of dopamine at physiological pH. The scan rate effect was found to be diffusion-controlled electrode process. The concentration effect of dopamine was studied, and the redox peak potentials of dopamine were dependant on pH.

  12. Modified Carbon Nanomaterials as Active Electrocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakkoli, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Water splitting (WS) has attracted increasing attention for producing highly pure hydrogen and oxygen. WS is also a promising technique to store intermittent electrical energy from renewable resources such as solar and wind energy in the form of H2 fuel. WS consists of two half-reactions: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). For HER, efficient non-precious catalysts are required to replace the rare and expensive Pt-based catalysts. For OER, more efficient low...

  13. Electrochemical determination of mesotrione at organoclay modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga Wagheu, Josephine; Forano, Claude; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Tonle, Ignas K; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Mousty, Christine

    2013-01-15

    A natural Cameroonian smectite-type clay (SaNa) was exchanged with cationic surfactants, namely cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) and didodecyldimethyl ammonium (DDA) modifying its physico-chemical properties. The resulting organoclays that have higher adsorption capacity for mesotrione than the pristine SaNa clay, have been used as modifiers of glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of this herbicide by square wave voltammetry. The stripping performances of SaNa, SaCTA and SaDDA modified electrodes were therefore evaluated and the experimental parameters were optimized. SaDDA gives the best results in deoxygenated acetate buffer solution (pH 6.0) after 2 min accumulation under open circuit conditions. Under optimal conditions, the reduction current is proportional to mesotrione concentration in the range from 0.25 to 2.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.26 μM. The fabricated electrode was also applied for the commercial formulation CALLISTO, used in European maize market. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Paracrystalline structure of activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygielska, A.; Burian, A.; Dore, J. C.

    2001-06-01

    Structural studies by means of neutron diffraction of activated carbons, prepared from a polymer of phenol formaldehyde resin by carbonization and activation processes, with variable porosity, are presented. The neutron scattering data were recorded over the range of the scattering vector Q from 2.5 to 500 nm-1. The structure of activated carbons has been described in terms of disordered graphite-like layers with very weak interlayer correlations. The model has been generated by computer simulations and its validity has been tested by comparison of the experimental and calculated intensity functions. Modelling studies have shown that the model containing 3-4 layers each about 2 nm in diameter accounts for the experimental data and that graphite layers are randomly translated and rotated, according to the turbostratic structure. Near-neighbour carbon-carbon distances of about 0.139 nm and 0.154 nm have been determined. The Debye-Waller factor exp (-Q2σ2/2) with σ = σ0(r)1/2 suggests a paracrystalline structure within a single layer. The value of the interlayer spacing of 0.36 nm has been found from paracrystalline simulations of the layer arrangement in the c-axis direction. The high quality of the experimental data has enabled determination of the coordination numbers, the interatomic distances and their standard deviations using a curve-fitting procedure over the Q-range from 250 nm to 500 nm, providing structural information about short- and intermediate-range ordering.

  15. Carbon fiber microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes as a new support for immobilization of glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.; Nallathambi, V.; Chakraborty, D.; Barton, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylated carbon nanotubes were coated onto carbon microfiber electrodes to create a micron-scale bioelectrode. This material has a high surface area and can serve as a support for immobilization of enzymes such as glucose oxidase. A typical carbon nanotube loading of 13 μg cm -1 yields a coating thickness of 17 μm and a 2000-fold increase in surface capacitance. The modified electrode was further coated with a biocatalytic hydrogel composed of a conductive redox polymer, glucose oxidase, and a crosslinker to create a glucose bioelectrode. The current density on oxidation of glucose is 16.6 mA cm-2 at 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in oxygen-free glucose solution. We consider this approach to be useful for designing and characterizing surface treatments for carbon mats and papers by mimicking their local microenvironment. (author)

  16. Electrochemical sensing of etoposide using carbon quantum dot modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Richtera, Lukas; Moulick, Amitava; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kudr, Jiri; Cernei, Natalia; Polanska, Hana; Heger, Zbynek; Masarik, Michal; Kopel, Pavel; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2016-04-25

    In this study, enhancement of the electrochemical signals of etoposide (ETO) measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is demonstrated. In comparison with a bare GCE, the modified GCE exhibited a higher sensitivity towards electrochemical detection of ETO. The lowest limit of detection was observed to be 5 nM ETO. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy (FM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed for the further study of the working electrode surface after the modification with CQDs. Finally, the GCE modified with CQDs under optimized conditions was used to analyse real samples of ETO in the prostate cancer cell line PC3. After different incubation times (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h), these samples were then prepared prior to electrochemical detection by the GCE modified with CQDs. High performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detection method was employed to verify the results from the GCE modified with CQDs.

  17. Electrocatalytic Study of Paracetamol at a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Nickel Nanocomposite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Sing Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, and sensitive method for the electrochemical determination of paracetamol was developed. A single-walled carbon nanotube/nickel (SWCNT/Ni nanocomposite was prepared and immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE surface via mechanical attachment. This paper reports the voltammetry study on the effect of paracetamol concentration, scan rate, pH, and temperature at a SWCNT/Ni-modified electrode in the determination of paracetamol. The characterization of the SWCNT/Ni/GCE was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectrometer were used to examine the surface morphology and elemental profile of the modified electrode, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry showed significant enhancement in peak current for the determination of paracetamol at the SWCNT/Ni-modified electrode. A linear calibration curve was obtained for the paracetamol concentration between 0.05 and 0.50 mM. The SWCNT/Ni/GCE displayed a sensitivity of 64 mA M−1 and a detection limit of 1.17 × 10−7 M in paracetamol detection. The proposed electrode can be applied for the determination of paracetamol in real pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory performance. Results indicate that electrodes modified with SWCNT and nickel nanoparticles exhibit better electrocatalytic activity towards paracetamol.

  18. Natural radiation exposure modified by human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1995-01-01

    We are now living in the radiation environment modified by our technology. It is usually called 'Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation' and have been discussed in the UNSCEAR Reports as an important source of exposure. The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations as well as the intensity of cosmic rays are considered to have been constant after our ancestors came down from trees and started walking on their two feet. However, we have been changing our environment to be more comfortable for our life and consequently ambient radiation levels are nomore what used to be. In this paper exposures due to natural radiation modified by our following activities are discussed: housing, balneology, cave excursion, mountain climbing, skiing, swimming, smoking and usage of mineral water, well water, coal, natural gas, phosphate rocks and minerals. In the ICRP Publication No. 39, it is clearly mentioned that even natural radiation should be controlled as far as it is controllable. We have to pay more attention to our activities not to enhance the exposure due to unnecessary, avoidable radiation. (author)

  19. Efficiency of bimetallic PtPd on polydopamine modified on various carbon supports for alcohol oxidations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinithchaisakula, A.; Ounnunkad, K.; Themsirimongkon, S.; Promsawan, N.; Waenkaew, P.; Saipanya, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the preparation, characterization, and electrocatalytic analysis of the catalysts on various carbon substrates for direct alcohol fuel cells were studied. Selected carbons were modified with/without polydopamine (labelled as PDA-C and C) and further metal electrodeposited incorporated onto the glassy carbon (labelled as 5Pt1Pd/PDA-C and 5Pt1Pd/C). Four various carbon materials were used e.g. graphite (G), carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene (GP) and graphene oxide (GO) and the carbons were modified with PDA denoted as PDA-G, PDA-CNT, PDA-GP and PDA-GO, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experimental observation showed narrow size distribution of metal anchored on the PDA-C and C materials. Chemical compositions and oxidation states of the catalysts were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The catalytic performances for small organic electro-oxidation (e.g. methanol and ethanol) were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Among different PDA-C and C catalysts, monometallic Pt showed less activity than the bimetallic catalysts. Among catalysts with PDA, the 5Pt1Pd/PDA-GO catalyst facilitated methanol and ethanol oxidations with high oxidation currents and If/Ib value and stability with low potentials while among catalysts without PDA, the 5Pt1Pd/CNT provides highest activity and stability. It was found that the catalysts with PDA provided high activity and stability than the catalysts without PDA. The improved catalytic performance of the prepared catalysts could be related to the higher active surface area from polymer modification and bimetallic catalyst system in the catalyst composites.

  20. Preparation of very pure active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloot, H.A. van der; Hoede, D.; Zonderhuis, J.; Meijer, C.

    1980-02-01

    The preparation of very pure active carbon is described. Starting from polyvinylidene chloride active carbon is prepared by carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere, grinding, sieving and activation of the powder fraction with CO 2 at 950 0 to approximately 50% burn-off. The concentrations of trace and major elements are reduced to the ppb and ppm level, respectively. In the present set-up 100 g of carbon grains and approximately 50 g of active carbon powder can be produced weekly

  1. Electrochemical parameters of ethamsylate at multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fu; Xu, Qiao

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, some electrochemical parameters of ethamsylate at a multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode, such as the charge number, exchange current density, standard heterogeneous rate constant and diffusion coefficient, were measured by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. The modified electrode exhibits good promotion of the electrochemical reaction of ethamsylate and increases the standard heterogeneous rate constant of ethamsylate greatly. The differential pulse voltammetry responses of ethamsylate were linearly dependent on its concentrations in a range from 2.0 x 10(-6) to 6.0 x 10(-5) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 4.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1).

  2. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.

  3. Electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen by cobalt porphyrin-modified glassy carbon electrode with single-walled carbon nanotubes and nafion in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ayoung; Jeong, Haesang; Kim, Songmi; Jo, Suhee; Jeon, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt porphyrin (CoP)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and Nafion demonstrated a higher electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of dioxygen in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 solution. Cyclic and hydrodynamic voltammetry at the CoP-SWNTs/GCE-modified electrodes in O 2 -saturated aqueous solutions was used to study the electrocatalytic pathway. Compared with the CoP/GCE-modified electrodes, the reduction potential of dioxygen at the CoP-SWNTs/GCE-modified electrodes was shifted to the positive direction and the limiting current was greatly increased. Especially, the Co(TMPP)-SWNTs/GCE-modified electrode was catalyzed effectively by the 4e - reduction of dioxygen to water, because hydrodynamic voltammetry revealed the transference of approximately four electrons for dioxygen reduction and the minimal generation of hydrogen peroxide in the process of dioxygen reduction

  4. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Glucose Oxidase on Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suroviec, Alice H

    2017-01-01

    The use of enzymatically modified electrodes for the detection of glucose or other non-electrochemically active analytes is becoming increasingly common. Direct heterogeneous electron transfer to glucose oxidase has been shown to be kinetically difficult, which is why electron transfer mediators or indirect detection is usually used for monitoring glucose with electrochemical sensors. It has been found, however, that electrodes modified with single or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) demonstrate fast heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics as compared to that found for traditional electrodes. Incorporating CNTs into the assembly of electrochemical glucose sensors, therefore, affords the possibility of facile electron transfer to glucose oxidase, and a more direct determination of glucose. This chapter describes the methods used to use CNTs in a layer-by-layer structure along with glucose oxidase to produce an enzymatically modified electrode with high turnover rates, increased stability and shelf-life.

  5. Application of N-doped graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Lifeng; Deng, Ying; Yu, Jianhua; Wang, Wencheng; Zhu, Qianqian

    2014-06-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) was synthesized and used for the investigation on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) with a carbon ionic liquid electrode as the substrate electrode. Due to specific characteristics of NG such as excellent electrocatalytic property and large surface area, direct electron transfer of Hb was realized with enhanced electrochemical responses appearing. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb on the NG modified electrode were carefully investigated with the electrochemical parameters calculated. The Hb modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward different substrates, such as trichloroacetic acid and H2O2, with wider dynamic range and lower detection limit. These findings show that NG can be used for the preparation of chemically modified electrodes with improved performance and has potential applications in electrochemical sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photoconductivity of Activated Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, K.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    1990-08-01

    The photoconductivity is measured on a high-surface-area disordered carbon material, namely activated carbon fibers, to investigate their electronic properties. Measurements of decay time, recombination kinetics and temperature dependence of the photoconductivity generally reflect the electronic properties of a material. The material studied in this paper is a highly disordered carbon derived from a phenolic precursor, having a huge specific surface area of 1000--2000m{sup 2}/g. Our preliminary thermopower measurements suggest that this carbon material is a p-type semiconductor with an amorphous-like microstructure. The intrinsic electrical conductivity, on the order of 20S/cm at room temperature, increases with increasing temperature in the range 30--290K. In contrast with the intrinsic conductivity, the photoconductivity in vacuum decreases with increasing temperature. The recombination kinetics changes from a monomolecular process at room temperature to a biomolecular process at low temperatures. The observed decay time of the photoconductivity is {approx equal}0.3sec. The magnitude of the photoconductive signal was reduced by a factor of ten when the sample was exposed to air. The intrinsic carrier density and the activation energy for conduction are estimated to be {approx equal}10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3} and {approx equal}20meV, respectively. The majority of the induced photocarriers and of the intrinsic carriers are trapped, resulting in the long decay time of the photoconductivity and the positive temperature dependence of the conductivity.

  7. Electrochemical impedance-based DNA sensor using a modified single walled carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jessica E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Pillai, Shreekumar [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States); Ram, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkram@usf.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Singh, Shree R. [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    2011-07-20

    Carbon nanotubes have become promising functional materials for the development of advanced electrochemical biosensors with novel features which could promote electron-transfer with various redox active biomolecules. This paper presents the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using chemically modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on a polished glassy carbon electrode. Hybridization with the corresponding complementary ssDNA has shown a shift in the impedance studies due to a higher charge transfer in ssDNA. The developed biosensor has revealed an excellent specificity for the appropriate targeted DNA strand. The methodologies to prepare and functionalize the electrode could be adopted in the development of DNA hybridization biosensor.

  8. Adsorption characteristics of activated carbon hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Kaludjerović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hollow fibers were prepared with regenerated cellulose or polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using sodium phosphate dibasic followed by the carbonization process. The activation process increases the adsorption properties of fibers which is more prominent for active carbone fibers obtained from the cellulose precursor. Chemical activation with sodium phosphate dibasic produces an active carbon material with both mesopores and micropores.

  9. Electrochemical Investigation of Catechol at Poly(niacinamide Modified Carbon Paste Electrode: A Voltammetric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Teradale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric thin film modified electrode, that is, poly(niacinamide modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE, was developed for the electrochemical determination of catechol (CC by using cyclic voltammetric technique. Compared to bare carbon paste electrode (BCPE, the poly(niacinamide MCPE shows good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of catechol in phosphate buffer solution (PBS of physiological pH 7.4. All experimental parameters were optimized. Poly(niacinamide modified carbon paste electrode gave a linear response between concentration of CC and its anodic peak current in the range within 20.6–229.0 μM. The limit of detection (3S/M and limit of quantification (10S/M were 1.497 μM and 4.99 μM, respectively. From the study of scan rate variation, the electrode process was found to be adsorption-controlled. The involvement of protons and electrons in the oxidation of CC was found to be equal. The probable electropolymerisation mechanism of niacinamide was proposed. Finally, this method can be used in development of a sensor for sensitive determination of CC.

  10. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Erika; Gardner, Toby A; Ferreira, Joice; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Camargo, Plínio B; Cerri, Carlos E; Durigan, Mariana; Oliveira Junior, Raimundo C; Vieira, Ima C G; Barlow, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil) in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH), which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85) whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor-an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human-modified forests

  11. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Berenguer

    Full Text Available Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH, which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85 whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor-an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human-modified

  12. Electrochemistry of metoclopramide at multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode and its voltammetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Geng, Mingjiang; Zhou, Lingyun

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and inexpensive electrochemical method was developed for the determination of metoclopramide (MCP) with a multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). MWNT was dispersed into polyacrylic acid (PAA); the aqueous suspension was then cast on GCE electrodes, forming MWNT-PAA films after evaporation of the solvent. The electrochemical behavior of MCP at the MWNT-modified electrode was investigated in detail. Compared with the bare GCE, the MWNT-modified electrode exhibits electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation of MCP because of the significant oxidation peak-current enhancement. Furthermore, various experimental parameters, such as the solution pH value, the amount of MWNT-PAA suspension and accumulation conditions were optimized for the determination of MCP. Based on the electrocatalytic effect of the MWNT-modified electrode, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) was developed for the determination of MCP with the linear response in the range from 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 5.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of MCP in commercial MCP tablets.

  13. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite on tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins/Nafion glassy carbon modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calfuman, Karla [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Aguirre, Maria Jesus [Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Canete-Rosales, Paulina; Bollo, Soledad [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Quimica Farmacologica y Toxicologica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Llusar, Rosa [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Isaacs, Mauricio, E-mail: misaacs@uchile.cl [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > Preparation and characterization of modified electrodes with M(II) Tetraruthenated porphyrins onto a Nafion film. > The electrodes were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM and SECM techniques. > The modified electrodes are active in the electrochemical reduction of nitrite at -660 mV vs Ag/AgCl. > GC/Nf/CoTRP modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. - Abstract: This paper describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrite ion in neutral aqueous solution mediated by tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins (Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)) electrostatically assembled onto a Nafion film previously adsorbed on glassy carbon or ITO electrodes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results have shown that on ITO electrodes the macrocycles forms multiple layers with a disordered stacking orientation over the Nafion film occupying hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites in the polyelectrolyte. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results demonstrated that the Nafion film is 35 nm thick and tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins layers 190 nm thick presenting a thin but compacted morphology. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) images shows that the Co(II) tetraruthenated porphyrins/Nf/GC modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. These modified electrodes are able to reduce nitrite at -660 mV showing enhanced reduction current and a decrease in the required overpotential compared to bare glassy carbon electrode. Controlled potential electrolysis experiments verify the production of ammonia, hydrazine and hydroxylamine at potentials where reduction of solvent is plausible demonstrating some selectivity toward the nitrite ion. Rotating disc electrode voltammetry shows that the factor that governs the kinetics of nitrite reduction is the charge propagation in the film.

  14. Minimizing activated carbons production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavropoulos, G.G.; Zabaniotou, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed economic evaluation of activated carbons production process from various raw materials is undertaken using the conventional economic indices (ROI, POT, and NPV). The fundamental factors that affect production cost were taken into account. It is concluded that for an attractive investment in activated carbons production one should select the raw material with the highest product yield, adopt a chemical activation production scheme and should base product price on product-surface area (or more generally on product adsorption capacity for the adsorbate in consideration). A raw material that well meets the above-mentioned criteria is petroleum coke but others are also promising (charcoals, and carbon black). Production cost then can be optimized by determining its minimum value of cost that results from the intercept between the curves of plant capacity and raw material cost - if any. Taking into account the complexity of such a techno-economic analysis, a useful suggestion could be to start the evaluations from a plant capacity corresponding to the break-even point, i. e. the capacity at which income equals production cost. (author)

  15. XPS analysis of the carbon fibers surface modified via HMDSO to carbon nanotube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, L.D.R.; Gomes, M.C.B.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Corat, E.J.; Lugo, D.C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers (CF) have been widely used to reinforce structural composites. Due to their strength-to-weight properties, CF composites are finding increased structural uses in areas such as aerospace, aeronautical, automobile and others. The strength of the fiber-resin interface bond has been found to be the limiting factor to the mechanical properties of CF-epoxy materials, due to their non-polar nature that limit the affinity of CF to bind chemically to any matrix. The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of CF is a promising approach for improving mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of structural composites. However growing CNTs on CF presents some obstacles, such as diffusion of metal catalyst particles on CF, uneven CNT growth and loss of mechanical properties of CF. To avoid the diffusion of catalyst particles we modified the CF surface with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) at low temperature (400 °C), also preventing the loss of mechanical properties and allowing uniform CNTs growth. We deposited CNTs via floating catalyst method, with ferrocene providing the catalyst particle and the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of acetylene providing the carbon. The CF surface modification was analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CNTs growth via scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun. The XPS analysis showed that HMDSO promotes the binding of oxygen to carbon and silicon present on CF surface, the chemical modification of the surface of the CF enables the uniform growth of carbon nanotubes. (author)

  16. Characterization of a surface modified carbon cryogel and a carbon supported Pt catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA M. BABIĆ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A carbon cryogel, synthesized by carbonization of a resorcinol/formaldehyde cryogel and oxidized in nitric acid, was used as catalyst support for Pt nano-particles. The Pt/C catalyst was prepared by a modified polyol synthesis method in an ethylene glycol (EG solution. Characterization by nitrogen adsorption showed that the carbon cryogel support and the Pt/C catalyst were mesoporous materials with high specific surface areas (SBET > 400 m2 g-1 and large mesoporous volumes. X-Ray diffraction of the catalyst demonstrated the successful reduction of the Pt precursor to metallic form. TEM Images of the Pt/C catalyst and Pt particle size distribution showed that the mean Pt particle size was about 3.3 nm. Cyclic voltammetry (CV experiments at various scan rates (from 2 to 200 mV s-1 were performed in 0.5 mol dm-3 HClO4 solution. The large capacitance of the oxidized carbon cryogel electrode, which arises from a combination of the double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, associated with the participation of surface redox-type reactions was demonstrated. For the oxidized carbon cryogel, the total specific capacitance determined by 1/C vs. ν0.5 extrapolation method was found to be 386 F g-1. The hydrogen oxidation reaction at the investigated Pt/C catalyst proceeded as an electrochemically reversible, two-electron direct discharge reaction.

  17. XPS analysis of the carbon fibers surface modified via HMDSO to carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, L.D.R.; Gomes, M.C.B.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Corat, E.J.; Lugo, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon fibers (CF) have been widely used to reinforce structural composites. Due to their strength-to-weight properties, CF composites are finding increased structural uses in areas such as aerospace, aeronautical, automobile and others. The strength of the fiber-resin interface bond has been found to be the limiting factor to the mechanical properties of CF-epoxy materials, due to their non-polar nature that limit the affinity of CF to bind chemically to any matrix. The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of CF is a promising approach for improving mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of structural composites. However growing CNTs on CF presents some obstacles, such as diffusion of metal catalyst particles on CF, uneven CNT growth and loss of mechanical properties of CF. To avoid the diffusion of catalyst particles we modified the CF surface with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) at low temperature (400 °C), also preventing the loss of mechanical properties and allowing uniform CNTs growth. We deposited CNTs via floating catalyst method, with ferrocene providing the catalyst particle and the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of acetylene providing the carbon. The CF surface modification was analyzed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CNTs growth via scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun. The XPS analysis showed that HMDSO promotes the binding of oxygen to carbon and silicon present on CF surface, the chemical modification of the surface of the CF enables the uniform growth of carbon nanotubes. (author)

  18. Surface modified carbon nanoparticle papers and applications on polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xilian

    Free-standing paper like materials are usually employed as protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, and electronic or optoelectric components. Free-standing papers made from carbon nanoparticles have drawn increased interest because they have a variety of superior chemical and physical characteristics, such as light weight, high intrinsic mechanical properties, and extraordinary high electrical conductivity. Nanopapers fabricated from 1- D shape carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising reinforcing materials for polymer composites, because the highly porous CNF and CNT nanopapers (porosity ˜80% and ˜70% respectively) can be impregnated with matrix polymers. In the first part of this work, polyaniline (PANI) was used to functionalize the surface of CNFs, and the resultant carbon nanopapers presented impressive mechanical strength and electrical conductivity that it could be used in the in-mold coating (IMC)/ injection molding process to achieve high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness. Aniline modified (AF) CNT nanopapers were used as a 3D network in gas separation membranes. The resultant composite membranes demonstrated better and stable CO2 permeance and CO 2/H2 selectivity in a high temperature (107°C) and high pressure (15-30 atm) gas separation process, not achievable by conventional polymer membranes. In the second part, we demonstrated that 2-D graphene (GP) or graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could be tightly packed into a film which was impermeable to most gases and liquids. GP or GO nanopapers could be coated on polymer composites. In order to achieve well-dispersed single-layer graphene in aqueous medium, we developed a facile approach to synthesize functional GP bearing benzenesulfonic acid groups which allow the preparation of nanopapers by water based assembly. With the optimized processing conditions, our best GP nanopapers could reach

  19. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  20. Simple electrochemical sensor for caffeine based on carbon and Nafion-modified carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A Carolina; Barsan, Madalina M; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-04-15

    A simple, economic, highly sensitive and highly selective method for the detection of caffeine has been developed at bare and Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The electrochemical behaviour of caffeine was examined in electrolyte solutions of phosphate buffer saline, sodium perchlorate, and in choline chloride plus oxalic acid, using analytical determinations by fixed potential amperometry, phosphate buffer saline being the best. Modifications of the GCE surface with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Nafion, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were tested in order to evaluate possible sensor performance enhancements, Nafion giving the most satisfactory results. The effect of interfering compounds usually found in samples containing caffeine was examined at GCE without and with Nafion coating, to exclude interferences, and the sensors were successfully applied to determine the caffeine content in commercial beverages and drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of tramadol and acetaminophen using carbon nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbani-Bidkorbeh, Fatemeh; Shahrokhian, Saeed; Mohammadi, Ali; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor was fabricated via the drop-casting of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) suspension onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The application of this sensor was investigated in simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACE) and tramadol (TRA) drugs in pharmaceutical dosage form and ACE determination in human plasma. In order to study the electrochemical behaviors of the drugs, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric studies of ACE and TRA were carried out at the surfaces of the modified GCE (MGCE) and the bare GCE. The dependence of peak currents and potentials on pH, concentration and the potential scan rate were investigated for these compounds at the surface of MGCE. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for the characterization of the film modifier and its morphology on the surface of GCE. The results of the electrochemical investigations showed that CNPs, via a thin layer model based on the diffusion within a porous layer, enhanced the electroactive surface area and caused a remarkable increase in the peak currents. The thin layer of the modifier showed a catalytic effect and accelerated the rate of the electron transfer process. Application of the MGCE resulted in a sensitivity enhancement and a considerable decrease in the anodic overpotential, leading to negative shifts in peak potentials. An optimum electrochemical response was obtained for the sensor in the buffered solution of pH 7.0 and using 2 μL CNPs suspension cast on the surface of GCE. Using differential pulse voltammetry, the prepared sensor showed good sensitivity and selectivity for the determination of ACE and TRA in wide linear ranges of 0.1-100 and 10-1000 μM, respectively. The resulted detection limits for ACE and TRA was 0.05 and 1 μM, respectively. The CNPs modified GCE was successfully applied for ACE and TRA determinations in pharmaceutical dosage forms and also for the determination of ACE in human plasma.

  2. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T)

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali; Venus Baghalabadi

    2017-01-01

    In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT) was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH) was investigated. The poly (EBT)-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak ...

  3. Design of activated carbon/activated carbon asymmetric capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-Prado, Isabel; Salinas-Torres, David; Ruiz Rosas, Ramiro; Morallon, Emilia; Cazorla-Amoros, Diego

    2016-03-01

    Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that offer a high power density and a low energy density in comparison with batteries. Their limited energy density can be overcome by using asymmetric configuration in mass electrodes, where each electrode works within their maximum available potential window, rendering the maximum voltage output of the system. Such asymmetric capacitors must be optimized through careful electrochemical characterization of the electrodes for accurate determination of the capacitance and the potential stability limits. The results of the characterization are then used for optimizing mass ratio of the electrodes from the balance of stored charge. The reliability of the design largely depends on the approach taken for the electrochemical characterization. Therefore, the performance could be lower than expected and even the system could break down, if a well thought out procedure is not followed. In this work, a procedure for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors based on activated carbons is detailed. Three activated carbon materials with different textural properties and surface chemistry have been systematically characterized in neutral aqueous electrolyte. The asymmetric configuration of the masses of both electrodes in the supercapacitor has allowed to cover a higher potential window, resulting in an increase of the energy density of the three devices studied when compared with the symmetric systems, and an improved cycle life.

  4. Design of activated carbon/activated carbon asymmetric capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel ePiñeiro-Prado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that offer a high power density and a low energy density in comparison with batteries. Their limited energy density can be overcome by using asymmetric configuration in mass electrodes, where each electrode works within their maximum available potential window, rendering the maximum voltage output of the system. Such asymmetric capacitors must be optimized through careful electrochemical characterization of the electrodes for accurate determination of the capacitance and the potential stability limits. The results of the characterization are then used for optimizing mass ratio of the electrodes from the balance of stored charge. The reliability of the design largely depends on the approach taken for the electrochemical characterization. Therefore, the performance could be lower than expected and even the system could break down, if a well thought out procedure is not followed.In this work, a procedure for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors based on activated carbons is detailed. Three activated carbon materials with different textural properties and surface chemistry have been systematically characterized in neutral aqueous electrolyte. The asymmetric configuration of the masses of both electrodes in the supercapacitor has allowed to cover a higher potential window, resulting in an increase of the energy density of the three devices studied when compared with the symmetric systems, and an improved cycle life.

  5. Selective oxidation of serotonin and norepinephrine over eriochrome cyanine R film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Hong; Li Shaoguang [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Tang Yuhai [Institute of Analytical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen Yan [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Chen Yuanzhong [Fujian Institute of Hematology, The Affiliated Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001 (China)], E-Mail: chenyz@pub3.fz.fj.cn; Lin Xinhua [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China)], E-mail: xhlin1963@sin.com

    2009-08-01

    A novel ECR-modified electrode is fabricated by electrodeposition of Eriochrome Cyanine R (ECR) at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in double-distilled water. The characterization of the ECR film modified electrode is carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectra (IR), spectroelectrochemistry and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that a slightly heterogeneous film formed on the surface of the modified electrode, and the calculated surface concentration of ECR is 2 x 10{sup -10} mol/cm{sup -2}. The ECR film modified GC electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, the modified electrode can separately detect 5-HT and NE, even in the presence of 200-fold concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and 25-fold concentration of uric acid (UA). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the peak currents of 5-HT and NE recorded in pH 7 solution are linearly dependent on their concentrations in the range of 0.05-5 {mu}M and 2-50 {mu}M, respectively. The limits of detection are 0.05 and 1.5 {mu}M for 5-HT and NE, respectively. The ECR film modified electrode can be stored stable for at least 1 week in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7) at 4 {sup o}C in a refrigerator. Owing to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, the modified electrode could provide a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of 5-HT and NE in complex biosamples.

  6. Electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of polyoxometalate-ordered mesoporous carbon modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ming; Guo Liping; Lin Fanyun; Liu Haixia

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a convenient and efficient method for the functionalization of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) using polyoxometalate H 6 P 2 Mo 18 O 62 .xH 2 O (P 2 Mo 18 ). By the method, glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with P 2 Mo 18 which was immobilized on the channel surface of OMC was prepared and characterized for the first time. The large specific surface area and porous structure of the modified OMC particles result in high heteropolyacid loading, and the P 2 Mo 18 entrapped in this order matrix is stable. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to give insight into the intermolecular interaction between OMC and P 2 Mo 18 . The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was studied in detail, including pH-dependence, stability and so on. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry studies demonstrated that P 2 Mo 18 /OMC/GC electrode has high stability, fast response and good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of nitrite, bromate, idonate, and hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism of catalysis on P 2 Mo 18 /OMC/GC electrode was discussed. Moreover, the development of our approach for OMC functionalization suggests the potential applications in catalysis, molecular electronics and sensors

  7. Gold nanoparticles directly modified glassy carbon electrode for non-enzymatic detection of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Ji, Kai [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); Oyama, Munetaka [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Liu, Xiong [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); He, Yunbin, E-mail: ybhe@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2014-01-01

    This work describes controllable preparation of gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes by using the seed mediated growth method, which contains two steps, namely, nanoseeds attachment and nanocrystals growth. The size and the dispersion of gold nanoparticles grown on glassy carbon electrodes could be easily tuned through the growth time based on results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Excellent electrochemical catalytic characteristics for glucose oxidation were observed for the gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (AuNPs/GC), resulting from the extended active surface area provided by the dense gold nanoparticles attached. It exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 mM to 25 mM with the sensitivity of 87.5 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and low detection limit down to 0.05 mM for the sensing of glucose. The common interfering species such as chloride ion, ascorbic acid, uric acid and 4-acetamidophenol were verified having no interference effect on the detection of glucose. It is demonstrated that the seed mediated method is one of the facile approaches for fabricating Au nanoparticles modified substrates, which could work as one kind of promising electrode materials for the glucose nonenzymatic sensing.

  8. Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase on Modified-Carbon-Paste-Electrodes for Microfuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Ambarsari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase (GOx is being developed for many applications such as an implantable fuel cell, due to its attractive property of operating under physiological conditions. This study reports the functional immobilization of glucose oxidase onto polyaniline-nanofiber-modified-carbon-paste-electrodes (GOx/MCPE as bioanodes in fuel cell applications. In particular, GOx is immobilized onto the electrode surface via a linker molecule (glutaraldehyde. Polyaniline, synthesized by the interfacial polymerization method, produces a morphological form of nanofibers (100-120 nm which have good conductivity. The performance of the polyaniline-modified-carbon-paste-electrode (MCPE was better than the carbon- paste-electrode (CPE alone. The optimal pH and temperature of the GOx/MCPE were 4.5 (in 100 mM acetate buffer and 65 °C, respectively. The GOx/MCPE exhibit high catalytic performances (activation energy 16.4 kJ mol-1, have a high affinity for glucose (Km value 37.79 µM and can have a maximum current (Imax of 3.95 mA. The sensitivity of the bioelectrode also was high at 57.79 mA mM-1 cm-2.

  9. Sensing nitric oxide with a carbon nanofiber paste electrode modified with a CTAB and nafion composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dongyun; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Shanying; Cao, Huimin; Chen, Yaguang; Hu, Shengshui

    2015-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for nitric oxide that was obtained by modifying the surface of a nanofiber carbon paste microelectrode with a film composed of hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide and nafion. The modified microelectrode displays excellent catalytic activity in the electrochemical oxidation of nitric oxide. The mechanism was studied by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current at a working voltage of 0.75 V (vs. SCE) is related to the concentration of nitric oxide in the 2 nM to 0.2 mM range, and the detection limit is as low as 2 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of nitric oxide released from mouse hepatocytes. (author)

  10. Sensitive determination of buformin using poly-aminobenzoic acid modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Ying Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glassy carbon electrode, which is used to electrochemically determine the content of buformin, is modified with an electropolymerized film of p-aminobenzoic acid in pH 7.0 acetate buffer solution (ABS. The polymer showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of buformin. In pH 7.0 ABS, the cathodic peak current increased linearly over three concentration intervals of buformin, and the detection limit (S/N=3 was 2.0×10−9 g/mL. The method was successfully applied to directly determine buformin in tablets with standard addition recoveries of 95.8–102.5%. The proposed method is simple, cheap and highly efficient. Keywords: Chemically modified electrode, Aminobenzoic acid, Buformin

  11. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Kuanhong [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)], E-mail: khxue@njnu.edu.cn; Liu Jiamei [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Wei Ribing [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China); Chen Shaopeng [Chemistry Department, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Bio-medical Function Materials, 122 NingHai Road, Nanjing, JiangSu 210097 (China)

    2006-09-11

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials E {sub pa} and E {sub pc} shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k {sup 0} increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process.

  12. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kuan-Hong; Liu, Jia-Mei; Wei, Ri-Bing; Chen, Shao-Peng

    2006-09-01

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H 2SO 4, at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials Epa and Epc shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k0 increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process.

  13. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at the carbon atom wire modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Kuanhong; Liu Jiamei; Wei Ribing; Chen Shaopeng

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline at an electrode modified by carbon atom wires (CAWs), a new material, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-vis spectrometry, and forced convection method. As to the electrochemical response of redox of adrenaline/adrenalinequinone couple in 0.50 M H 2 SO 4 , at a nitric acid treated CAW modified electrode, the anodic and cathodic peak potentials E pa and E pc shifted by 87 mV negatively and 139 mV in the positive direction, respectively, and standard heterogeneous rate constant k 0 increased by 16 times compared to the corresponding bare electrode, indicating the extraordinary activity of CAWs in electrocatalysis for the process

  14. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  15. Electrochemical investigations of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction using graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes and a comparison to the performance of SWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, Jayashree; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kamat, J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of aqueous electrochemistry of Plutonium on graphene modified electrode. • Graphene is best electrocatalytic material for Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple among the reported modifiers viz. reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and SWCNT’s. • The electrochemical reversibility of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple improves significantly on graphene modified electrode compared to previously reported rGO & SWCNTs modified electrodes • Donnan interaction between plutonium species and graphene surface offers a possibility for designing a highly sensitive sensor for plutonium • Graphene modified electrode shows higher sensitivity for the determination of plutonium compared to glassy carbon and single walled carbon nanotube modified electrode - Abstract: The work reported in this paper demonstrates for the first time that graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Gr/GC) show remarkable electrocatalysis towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction and the results were compared with that of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified GC (SWCNTs/GC) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Graphene catalyzes the exchange of current of the Pu(IV)/Pu(III) couple by reducing both the anodic and cathodic overpotentials. The Gr/GC electrode shows higher peak currents (i p ) and smaller peak potential separation (ΔE p ) values than the SWCNTs/GC and GC electrodes. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k s ), charge transfer coefficients (α) and the diffusion coefficients (D) involved in the electrocatalytic redox reaction were determined. Our observations show that graphene is best electrocatalytic material among both the SWCNTs and GC to study Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction.

  16. Influence of nano-dispersive modified additive on cement activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazonova, Natalya, E-mail: n.a.sazonova@mail.ru; Badenikov, Artem, E-mail: rector@agta.ru; Ivanova, Elizaveta, E-mail: lisik-iva@mail.ru [Angarsk State Technical University, 60, Tchaykovsky St., 665835, Angarsk (Russian Federation); Skripnikova, Nelli, E-mail: nks2003@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    In the work the influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on the cement activity and the processes of structure formation of the hardened cement paste in different periods of hydration are studied. The changes in the kinetic curves of the sample strength growth modified with SWCNT in amount of 0.01 and 0.0005 % are stipulated by the results of differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electronic and ionic microscopy, X-ray-phase analysis. It was found that the nano-modified additive may increase in the axis compressive strength of the system by 1.4–6.3 fold relatively to the reference samples and may reach 179.6 MPa. It may intensify the hydration process of calcium silicates as well as influence on the matrix of hardened cement paste. The studies are conducted on the structural changes in the hardened cement paste, the time periods of increase and decrease of the compressive strength of the samples, the amount of the calcium hydroxide and tobermorite-like gel as well as the degree of hydration C{sub 3}S and β-C{sub 2}S.

  17. Electrochemical detection of carbidopa using a ferrocene-modified carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH KARIMI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemically modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE containing ferrocene (FC and carbon nanotubes (CNT was constructed. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the MCPE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electrocatalytic activity of the MCPE was investigated and it showed good characteristics for the oxidation of carbidopa (CD in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. A linear concentration range of 5 to 600 μM CD, with a detection limit of 3.6±0.17 μM CD, was obtained. The diffusion coefficient of CD and the transfer coefficient ( were also determined. The MCPE showed good reproducibility, remarkable long-term stability and especially good surface renewability by simple mechanical polishing. The results showed that this electrode could be used as an electrochemical sensor for the determination of CD in real samples, such as urine samples.

  18. Surface properties of activated carbon treated by cold plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norikazu, Kurano [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroshi [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yajima, Tatsuhiko [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusoiji, Okabe 3690293 (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuo [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Sakura-Ku, Saitama 3388570 (Japan)]. E-mail: sugi@apc.saitama-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-12

    To modify the surface properties of activated carbon powders, we have applied the cold plasma treatment method. The cold plasma was used to be generated in the evacuated reactor vessel by 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation. In this paper, changes of surface properties such as distribution of acidic functional groups and roughness morphology were examined. By the cold plasma treatment, activated carbons with large specific surface area of ca. 2000 m{sup 2}/g or more could be prepared in a minute. The amount of every gaseous organic compound adsorbed on the unit gram of treated activated carbons was more increased that on the unit gram of untreated carbons. Especially, the adsorbed amount of carbon disulfide was remarkably increased even if it was compared by the amount per unit surface area. These results suggest that the surface property of the sample was modified by the plasma treatment. It became apparent by observing SEM photographs that dust and impure particles in macropores of activated carbons were far more reduced by the plasma treatment than by the conventional heating in an electric furnace under vacuum. In addition, a bubble-like surface morphology of the sample was observed by AEM measurement. The amount of acidic functional groups at the surface was determined by using the Boehm's titration method. Consequently, the increase of lactone groups and the decrease of carboxyl groups were also observed.

  19. Adsorption-regeneration by heterogeneous Fenton process using modified carbon and clay materials for removal of indigo blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Sánchez, Perla Tatiana; Solache-Ríos, Marcos J; Linares-Hernández, Ivonne; Martínez-Miranda, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Indigo blue dye is mainly used in dyeing of denim clothes and its presence in water bodies could have adverse effects on the aquatic system; for this reason, the objective of this study was to promote the removal of indigo blue dye from aqueous solutions by iron and copper electrochemically modified clay and activated carbon and the saturated materials were regenerated by a Fenton-like process. Montmorillonite clay was modified at pH 2 and 7; activated carbon at pH 2 and pH of the system. The elemental X-ray dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the optimum pH for modification of montmorillonite with iron and copper was 7 and for activated carbon was 2. The dye used in this work was characterized by infrared. Unmodified and modified clay samples showed the highest removal efficiencies of the dye (90-100%) in the pH interval from 2 to 10 whereas the removal efficiencies decrease as pH increases for samples modified at pH 2. Unmodified clay and copper-modified activated carbon at pH 2 were the most efficient activated materials for the removal of the dye. The adsorption kinetics data of all materials were best adjusted to the pseudo-second-order model, indicating a chemisorption mechanism and the adsorption isotherms data showed that the materials have a heterogeneous surface. The iron-modified clay could be regenerated by a photo-Fenton-like process through four adsorption-regeneration cycles, with 90% removal efficiency.

  20. Amperometric sensing of anti-HIV drug zidovudine on Ag nanofilm-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir; Afraz, Ahmadreza

    2014-06-01

    The zidovudine (ZDV) is the first drug approved for the treatment of HIV virus infection. The detection and determination of this drug are very importance in human serum because of its undesirable effects. A new ZDV sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanocomposite of silver nanofilm (Ag-NF) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques. Results showed that the electrodeposited silver has a nanofilm structure and further electrochemical studies showed that the prepared nanocomposite has high electrocatalytic activity and is appropriate for using in sensors. The amperometric technique under optimal conditions is used for the determination of ZDV ranging from 0.1 to 400 ppm (0.37 μM–1.5 mM) with a low detection limit of 0.04 ppm (0.15 μM) (S/N = 3) and good sensitivity. The prepared sensor possessed accurate and rapid response to ZDV and shows an average recovery of 98.6% in real samples. - Highlights: • New anti-HIV drug sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanomaterials composite. • The GCE modified by prepared hydrophilic MWCNT silver nanoparticles. • Silver nanofilm electrodeposited on MWCNT/GCE and characterized by SEM, EDX, CV and LSV • Response of electrode to ZDV was thoroughly investigated by electrochemical techniques.

  1. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) electrochemistry at multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelster, Lindsey N.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electron transport chain is important to the understanding of metabolism in the living cell. ► Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase is a membrane bound complex of the electron transport chain (Complex III). ► The paper details the first bioelectrochemical characterization of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase at an electrode. - Abstract: Electron transport chain complexes are critical to metabolism in living cells. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) is responsible for carrying electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c, but the complex has not been evaluated electrochemically. This work details the bioelectrochemistry of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase of the electron transport chain of tuber mitochondria. The characterization of the electrochemistry of this enzyme is investigated in carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube/tetrabutyl ammonium bromide-modified Nafion ® modified glassy carbon electrodes by cyclic voltammetry. Increasing concentrations of cytochrome c result in a catalytic response from the active enzyme in the nanotube sandwich. The experiments show that the enzyme followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics with a K m for the immobilized enzyme of 2.97 (±0.11) × 10 −6 M and a V max of 6.31 (±0.82) × 10 −3 μmol min −1 at the electrode, but the K m and V max values decreased compared to the free enzyme in solution, which is expected for immobilized redox proteins. This is the first evidence of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase bioelectrocatalysis.

  2. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo Xiangjie; Ju Jian; Guo Liping

    2012-01-01

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H 2 O 2 at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H 2 O 2 . The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 μA mM −1 ), low detection limit (1.8 μM), fast response time m ) and the maximum current density (i max ) values for the biosensor were 10.94 mM and 887 μA cm −2 respectively. Furthermore, this biosensor showed an acceptable reproducibility and high stability. The interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid at concentration levels normally found in human blood were not much compared with the response to glucose. Blood serum samples were also tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  3. Relation Between the Adsorbed Quantity and the Immersion Enthalpy in Catechol Aqueous Solutions on Activated Carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Piraj?n, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Diego; Giraldo, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    An activated carbon, CarbochemTM—PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H2, in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-so...

  4. Waste Composite Sensor Designed by Cellulose and Activated Carbon as Ethylene Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was successfully derived from scrap tile waste from thermochemical conversion. Chemical and physical modifications were therefore employed to modify the specific surface area and porosity of activated carbon. Cellulose was successfully extracted from palm front. Designation of waste composite was prepared by cellulose and activated carbon. Less than 30 wt% of activated carbon was integrated into cellulose sheet matrix. It was important to note that there is no change in mechanical and morphological properties. Small amount of activated carbon was well dispersed. In order to investigate the feasibility of composite as active packaging, oxygen permeation rate and ethylene gas adsorption ability were preliminary investigated.

  5. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  6. Investigation of Ir-modified carbon felt as the positive electrode of an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.H.; Wang, X.D.

    2007-01-01

    Porous graphite felts have been used as electrode materials for all-vanadium redox flow batteries due to their wide operating potential range, stability as both an anode and a cathode, and availability in high surface area. In this paper, the carbon felt was modified by pyrolysis of Ir reduced from H 2 IrCl 6 . ac impedance and steady-state polarization measurements showed that the Ir-modified materials have improved activity and lowered overpotential of the desired V(IV)/V(V) redox process. Ir-modification of carbon felt enhanced the electro-conductivity of electrode materials. The Ir-material, when coated on the graphite felt electrode surface, lowered the cell internal resistance. A test cell was assembled with the Ir-modified carbon felt as the activation layer of the positive electrode, the unmodified raw felt as the activation layer of the negative electrode. At an operating current density of 20 mA cm -2 , a voltage efficiency of 87.5% was achieved. The resistance of the cell using Ir-modified felt decreased 25% compared to the cell using non-modified felt

  7. Effects of Activated Carbon Surface Property on Structure and Activity of Ru/AC Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S. K.; Li, L. M.; Guo, N. N.

    2018-05-01

    The activated carbon (AC) was modified by supercritical (SC) methanol, HNO3 oxidation, or HNO3 oxidation plus SC methanol, respectively. Then, the original and the modified AC were used as supports for Ru/AC catalysts prepared via the impregnation method. The results showed that the SC methanol modification decreased the content of surface acidic groups of AC. While HNO3 oxidation displayed the opposite behavior. Furthermore, the dispersion of ruthenium and the activity of catalysts were highly dependent on the content of surface acidic groups, and the SC methanol modified sample exhibited the highest activity for hydrogenation of glucose.

  8. Measurement of carbon thermodynamic activity in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Alekseev, V V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    The report presents the brief outline on system of carbon activity detecting system in sodium (SCD), operating on the carbon-permeable membrane, of the methods and the results of testing it under the experimental circulating loop conditions. The results of carbon activity sensor calibration with the use of equilibrium samples of XI8H9, Fe -8Ni, Fe -12Mn materials are listed. The behaviour of carbon activity sensor signals in sodium under various transitional conditions and hydrodynamic perturbation in the circulating loop, containing carbon bearing impurities in the sodium flow and their deposits on the surfaces flushed by sodium, are described. (author)

  9. Surface-treated carbon electrodes with modified potential of zero charge for capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Wang, Gang; Zhan, Fei; Dong, Qiang; Ren, Qidi; Wang, Jianren; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-04-15

    The potential of zero charge (Epzc) of electrodes can greatly influence the salt removal capacity, charge efficiency and cyclic stability of capacitive deionization (CDI). Thus optimizing the Epzc of CDI electrodes is of great importance. A simple strategy to negatively shift the Epzc of CDI electrodes by modifying commercial activated carbon with quaternized poly (4-vinylpyridine) (AC-QPVP) is reported in this work. The Epzc of the prepared AC-QPVP composite electrode is as negative as -0.745 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Benefiting from the optimized Epzc of electrodes, the asymmetric CDI cell which consists of the AC-QPVP electrode and a nitric acid treated activated carbon (AC-HNO3) electrode exhibits excellent CDI performance. For inverted CDI, the working potential window of the asymmetric CDI cell can reach 1.4 V, and its salt removal capacity can be as high as 9.6 mg/g. For extended voltage CDI, the salt removal capacity of the asymmetric CDI cell at 1.2/-1.2 V is 20.6 mg/g, which is comparable to that of membrane CDI using pristine activated carbon as the electrodes (19.5 mg/g). The present work provides a simple method to prepare highly positively charged CDI electrodes and may pave the way for the development of high-performance CDI cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrodeposited nickel oxide and graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for electrochemical myglobin biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Gong, Shixing; Deng, Ying; Li, Tongtong; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Wencheng; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    By using ionic liquid 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode, graphene (GR) and nickel oxide (NiO) were in situ electrodeposited step by step to get a NiO/GR nanocomposite modified CILE. Myoglobin (Mb) was further immobilized on the surface of NiO/GR/CILE with a Nafion film to get the electrochemical sensor denoted as Nafion/Mb/NiO/GR/CILE. Cyclic voltammetric experiments indicated that a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks appeared in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer solution with the formal peak potential (E 0′ ) located at − 0.188 V (vs. SCE), which was the typical characteristics of Mb Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. So the direct electron transfer of Mb was realized and promoted due to the presence of the NiO/GR nanocomposite on the electrode. Based on the cyclic voltammetric data, the electrochemical parameters of Mb on the modified electrode were calculated. The Mb modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of different substrates including trichloroacetic acid and H 2 O 2 . Therefore a third-generation electrochemical Mb biosensor based on NiO/GR/CILE was constructed with good stability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • Graphene and nickel oxide nanocomposites were prepared by electrodeposition. • Electrochemical myoglobin sensor was prepared on a nanocomposite modified electrode. • Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myglobin were realized

  11. Application of graphene oxide/lanthanum-modified carbon paste electrode for the selective determination of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Fengying; Feng, Chenqi; Fu, Ning; Wu, Huihui; Jiang, Jibo, E-mail: jibojiang0506@163.com; Han, Sheng, E-mail: hansheng654321@sina.com

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The effective surface area of the modified CPE has been expanded after self-assembly. • The GO–La composite exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward DA. • The GO–La/CPE presented high selectivity, sensitivity, excellent stability and repeatability. - Abstract: A home-made carbon paste electrode (CPE) was reformed by graphene oxide (GO)/lanthanum (La) complexes, and a modified electrode, called GO–La/CPE, was fabricated for the selective determination of dopamine (DA) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several factors affecting the electrocatalytic performance of the modified sensor were investigated. Owning to the combination of GO and La ions, the GO–La/CPE sensor exhibited large surface area, well selectivity, good repeatability and stability in the oxidation reaction of DA. At optimal conditions, the response of the GO–La/CPE electrode for determining DA was linear in the region of 0.01–0.1 μM and 0.1–400.0 μM. The limit of detection was down to 0.32 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, this modified electrode was successfully applied to the detection of DA in real urine and serum samples by using standard adding method, showing its promising application in the electroanalysis of real samples.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Behavior of Modified HKUST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Tang, Huamin; Zhou, Chaohua; Zhang, Hongpeng; Yan, Chunxiao; Hu, Xiaochun; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weiwei; Li, Yuming; He, Dehua

    2014-12-01

    A kind of typical metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) material, HKUST-1 was prepared by hydrothermal method and characterized by XRD and SEM. The results of characterizations manifested that HKUST-1 showed a regular octahedral crystal structure. The as-prepared HKUST-1 was modified by several kinds of organic base materials and the CO2 adsorption behaviors of modified HKUST-1 materials were evaluated. The CO2 adsorption capacities of different base modified HKUST-1 varied with the base intensity of modified organic base materials.

  13. Methanol oxidation at carbon paste electrodes modified with (Pt–Ru)/carbon aerogels nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, Carmen I., E-mail: iladiu@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Laboratory of Electrochemical Research and Nonconventional Materials, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cotet, Liviu C. [Laboratory of Electrochemical Research and Nonconventional Materials, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Vasiliu, Florin [The National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor str. 105 bis, PO Box MG. 7, Magurele, RO 077125, Bucharest (Romania); Marginean, Petre [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Danciu, Virginia; Popescu, Ionel C. [Laboratory of Electrochemical Research and Nonconventional Materials, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-04-01

    Mesoporous carbon aerogels (CAs) impregnated with (Pt–Ru) nanoparticles were prepared, incorporated into carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) and investigated as electrocatalysts for CH{sub 3}OH electro-oxidation. The sol–gel method, followed by supercritical drying with liquid CO{sub 2} and thermal pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere, was used to obtain high mesoporous CAs. (Pt–Ru)/CAs nanocomposites with various (Pt–Ru) loading were prepared by using Ru(AcAc){sub 3} and H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} as metal precursors and the impregnation method. The morpho-structural peculiarities of the so prepared (Pt–Ru)/CAs electrocatalysts were examined by using elemental analysis, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Cyclic voltammetry measurements, carried out at (Pt–Ru)/CA-CPEs incorporating nanocomposites with various Pt–Ru loading and different specific surface areas, showed that CA with the highest specific surface area (843 m{sup 2}/g) and impregnated with 6% (w/w) (Pt–Ru) nanoparticles exhibit the best CH{sub 3}OH electro-oxidation efficiency. The Michaelis–Menten formalism was used to describe the dependence of the oxidation peak current on the CH{sub 3}OH concentration, allowing the estimation of the modified electrodes sensitivities. Thus, for (Pt–Ru, 10%)/CA{sub 535}-CPE was observed the highest sensitivity (12.5 ± 0.8 mA/M) and, at the same time, the highest maximum current density ever reported (153.1 mA/cm{sup 2} for 2 M CH{sub 3}OH and an applied potential of 600 mV vs. SHE). - Highlights: • (Pt–Ru) nanoparticles were deposited on high mesoporous carbon aerogels (CAs). • (Pt–Ru)/CAs were characterized by TEM, EDX, SAED and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. • Carbon paste electrodes modified with (Pt–Ru)/CA were used for CH{sub 3}OH oxidation. • (Pt–Ru, 10

  14. The Ice Nucleation Activity of Surface Modified Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    The ice nucleation efficiency of many important atmospheric particles remains poorly understood. Since soot is ubiquitous in the Earth's troposphere, they might have the potential to significantly impact the Earth's climate (Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 2000; Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998). Here we present the ice nucleation activity (INA) in immersion freezing mode of different types of soot. Therefor a CAST (combustion aerosol standard) generator was used to produce different kinds of soot samples. The CAST generator combusts a propane-air-mixture and deposits thereby produced soot on a polyvinyl fluoride filter. By varying the propane to air ratio, the amount of organic portion of the soot can be varied from black carbon (BC) with no organic content to brown carbon (BrC) with high organic content. To investigate the impact of functional sites of ice nuclei (IN), the soot samples were exposed to NO2 gas for a certain amount of time (30 to 360 minutes) to chemically modify the surface. Immersion freezing experiments were carried out in a unique reaction gadget. In this device a water-in-oil suspension (with the soot suspended in the aqueous phase) was cooled till the freezing point and was observed through a microscope (Pummer et al., 2012; Zolles et al., 2015) It was found that neither modified nor unmodified BC shows INA. On the contrary, unmodified BrC shows an INA at -32˚ C, which can be increased up to -20˚ C. The INA of BrC depends on the duration of NO2- exposure. To clarify the characteristics of the surface modifications, surface sensitive analysis like infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. and Pitts, J. N. J.: Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere, Elsevier, New York, 2000. Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S., and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen, Atmos Chem Phys, 12, 2541-2550, 2012. Seinfeld, J

  15. Studies of activated carbon and carbon black for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, R; Mueller, S; Koetz, R; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Carbon Black and activated carbon materials providing high surface areas and a distinct pore distribution are prime materials for supercapacitor applications at frequencies < 0.5 Hz. A number of these materials were tested for their specific capacitance, surface and pore size distribution. High capacitance electrodes were manufactured on the laboratory scale with attention to ease of processability. (author) 1 fig., 1 ref.

  16. Mechanical, Rheological and Thermal Properties of Polystyrene/1-Octadecanol Modified Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Amr, Issam Thaher; Al-Amer, Adnan; Thomas, Selvin P.; Sougrat, Rachid; Atieh, Muataz Ali

    2014-01-01

    The results of the studies on the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with 1-octadecanol and its usage as reinforcing filler in the bulk polymerization of styrene are reported in this article. Both unmodified and modified CNTs

  17. Microstructure and mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah; Guessasma, Sofiane; Mecheri, Boubakeur; Eshtiaghi, Amir M.; Bennabi, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres is studied following various processing conditions. Hemp fibres combined with carbon nanotubes (CNT) are introduced in mortar and their effect is studied as function of curing time

  18. Grafting of activated carbon cloths for selective adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gineys, M.; Benoit, R.; Cohaut, N.; Béguin, F.; Delpeux-Ouldriane, S., E-mail: delpeux@cnrs-orleans.fr

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A controlled grafting of carboxylic functions on activated carbon fibers. • The carbon material nanotextural properties preservation after grafting. • An identification of the grafting mechanism through ToF SIMS analysis. • A chemical mapping of the grafted surface using ToF SIMS technique and imaging. - Abstract: Chemical functionalization of an activated carbon cloth with 3-aminophthalic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid groups by the in situ formation of the corresponding diazonium salt in aqueous acidic solution is reported. The nature and amount of selected functions on an activated carbon surface, in particular the grafted density, were determined by potentiometric titration, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanotextural properties of the modified carbon were explored by gas adsorption. Functionalized activated carbon cloth was obtained at a discrete grafting level while preserving interesting textural properties and a large porous volume. Finally, the grafting homogeneity of the carbon surface and the nature of the chemical bonding were investigated using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) technique.

  19. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of silver ion at a carbon paste electrode modified with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashkhourian, J.; Javadi, S.; Ana, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and successfully applied to the determination of silver ion by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Compared to a conventional CPE, a remarkably improved peak current response and sensitivity is observed. The analytical procedure consisted of an open circuit accumulation step for 2 min in -0.4 V, this followed by an anodic potential scan between +0.2 and + 0.6 V to obtain the voltammetric peak. The oxidation peak current is proportional to the concentration of silver ion in the range from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , with a detection limit of 1.8 x 10 -9 mol L -1 after an accumulation time of 120 s. The relative standard deviation for 7 successive determinations of Ag(I) at 0.1 μM concentration is 1.99%. The procedure was validated by determining Ag(I) in natural waters. (author)

  20. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  1. Electrocatalytic oxidation of deferiprone and its determination on a carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadegari, H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimian, K. [Arasto Pharmaceutical Chemicals Inc., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The electrochemical behavior of the anti-thalassemia and anti-HIV replication drug, deferiprone, was investigated on a carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon (GC-CNT) electrode in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.40 (PBS). During oxidation of deferiprone, two irreversible anodic peaks, with E{sub 1}{sup 0}=452 and E{sub 2}{sup 0}=906mV, appeared, using GC-CNT. Cyclic voltammetric study indicated that the oxidation process is irreversible and diffusion controlled. The number of exchanged electrons in the electro-oxidation process was obtained, and the data indicated that deferiprone is oxidized via two two-electron steps. The results revealed that carbon nanotube (CNT) promotes the rate of oxidation by increasing the peak current, so that deferiprone is oxidized at lower potentials, which thermodynamically is more favorable. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements. The diffusion coefficient, electron-transfer coefficient and heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant of deferiprone were found to be 1.49 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, 0.44, and 3.83 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1}, respectively. A sensitive, simple and time-saving differential-pulse voltammetric procedure was developed for the analysis of deferiprone. Using the proposed method, deferiprone can be determined with a detection limit of 5.25 x 10{sup -7} M. The applicability of the method to direct assays of spiked human serum and urine fluids is described.

  2. Electrochemical characteristics of Shewanella loihica on carbon nanotubes-modified graphite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Epifanio, Monica; Marsili, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We deposited CNT coatings on graphite electrode by electrophoretic deposition. • CNT coating increased extracellular electron transfer in Shewanella loihica biofilms. • Thick electroactive biofilms hinder the electroactivity of CNT coatings. -- Abstract: High specific surface and electrocatalytic activity of the electrode surface favour extracellular electron transfer from electrochemically active biofilms to polarized electrodes. We coated layer-by-layer carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphite electrodes through electrophoretic deposition, thus increasing the electrocatalytic activity. After determining the optimal number of CNT layers through electrochemical methods, we grew Shewanella loihica PV-4 biofilms on the CNT-coated electrodes to quantify the increase in extracellular electron transfer rate compared with unmodified electrodes. Current density on CNT-modified electrodes was 1.7 times higher than that observed on unmodified electrodes after 48 h from inoculation. Rapid microbial cells attachment on CNT-coated electrodes, as determined from scanning electronic microscopy, explained the rapid increase of the current. Also, the CNT reduced the charge transfer resistance of the graphite electrodes, as measured by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. However, the electrocatalytic activity of the CNT-coated electrode decreased as the biofilm grew thicker and covered the CNT-coating. These result confirmed that surface-modified electrodes improve the electron transfer rate in thin biofilms (<5 μm), but are not feasible for power production in microbial fuel cells, where the biofilm thickness is much higher

  3. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meareg Amare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6×10-6 to 100×10-6 mol L−1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope of 0.99925 and 8.37×10-7 mol L−1, respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79–102.17% validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w% of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users’ highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

  4. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Meareg; Aklog, Senait

    2017-01-01

    Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 × 10 -6 to 100 × 10 -6  mol L -1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope) of 0.99925 and 8.37 × 10 -7  mol L -1 , respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79-102.17% validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie) and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w%) of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users' highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

  5. Plasma-modified graphene nanoplatelets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes as fillers for advanced rubber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicinski, M; Gozdek, T; Bielinski, D M; Kleczewska, J; Szymanowski, H; Piatkowska, A

    2015-01-01

    In modern rubber industry, there still is a room for new fillers, which can improve the mechanical properties of the composites, or introduce a new function to the material. Modern fillers like carbon nanotubes or graphene nanoplatelets (GnP), are increasingly applied in advanced polymer composites technology. However, it might be hard to obtain a well dispersed system for such systems. The polymer matrix often exhibits higher surface free energy (SFE) level with the filler, which can cause problems with polymer-filler interphase adhesion. Filler particles are not wet properly by the polymer, and thus are easier to agglomerate. As a consequence, improvement in the mechanical properties is lower than expected. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and GnP surface were modified with low-temperature plasma. Attempts were made to graft some functionalizing species on plasma-activated filler surface. The analysis of virgin and modified fillers’ SFE was carried out. MWCNT and GnP rubber composites were produced, and ultimately, their morphology and mechanical properties were studied. (paper)

  6. Electrochemical behavior of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukkitgar, Shikandar D.; Shetti, Nagaraj P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel sensor for the determination of 5-fluorouracil was constructed by electrochemical deposition of methylene blue on surface of carbon paste electrode. The electrode surface morphology was studied using Atomic force microscopy and XRD. The electrochemical activity of modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse method. The developed sensor shows impressive enlargement in sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil determination. The peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry was linear with concentration of 5-fluorouracil in the range 4 × 10 −5 –1 × 10 −7 M and detection limit and quantification limit were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM respectively. Further, the sensor was successfully applied in pharmaceutical and biological fluid sample analysis. - Highlights: • Electrochemical oxidation of 5-fluorouracil has been investigated for first time at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode • The electrode process was irreversible and diffusion controlled • Probable electrochemical mechanism was proposed which involved two proton and two electron transfer reaction • The LOD and LOQ values were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM, respectively, with good selectivity and sensitivity. • Proposed method was applied to 5-Fluorouracil determination in pharmaceutical and spiked human urine samples

  7. Preparation of catechol-linked chitosan/carbon nanocomposite-modified electrode and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirimali, Harishchandra Digambar; Saravanakumar, Duraisamy; Shin, Woon Sup [Dept. of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (catechol)-linked chitosan (cat-chitosan) and the preparation of its composite with carbon (cat-chitosan/carbon) to construct a catechol-modified electrode. The synthesis is similar to our previous work on hydroquinone–chitosan/carbon composite electrode. We synthesized catechol-linked chitosan polymer and prepared the its composite electrode with carbon. The catchitosan/carbon composite electrode shows a reversible confined redox behavior by the catechol functional group. The electrode catalyzes the oxidation of NADH. It has Cu{sup 2+} ion-binding capability and its binding constant 8.7 μM.

  8. Preparation of catechol-linked chitosan/carbon nanocomposite-modified electrode and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirimali, Harishchandra Digambar; Saravanakumar, Duraisamy; Shin, Woon Sup

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (catechol)-linked chitosan (cat-chitosan) and the preparation of its composite with carbon (cat-chitosan/carbon) to construct a catechol-modified electrode. The synthesis is similar to our previous work on hydroquinone–chitosan/carbon composite electrode. We synthesized catechol-linked chitosan polymer and prepared the its composite electrode with carbon. The catchitosan/carbon composite electrode shows a reversible confined redox behavior by the catechol functional group. The electrode catalyzes the oxidation of NADH. It has Cu"2"+ ion-binding capability and its binding constant 8.7 μM.

  9. Nanowire modified carbon fibers for enhanced electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; (Bill) Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Ashiqur Rahaman Khan, Md.; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2013-09-01

    The study of electrochemical super-capacitors has become one of the most attractive topics in both academia and industry as energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles, and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities, leading to material systems with reduced volume and/or weight. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires, which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area thus fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction measurements are used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing is performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire carbon fiber hybrid provides 65.9% higher energy density than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  10. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter < 4 nm) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Deep Eutectic Solvent Impregnated Sea Mango Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkurnai, N. Z.; Ali, U. F. Md.; Ibrahim, N.; Manan, N. S. Abdul

    2018-03-01

    The increment amount of the CO2 emission by years has become a major concern worldwide due to the global warming issue. However, the influence modification of activated carbon (AC) has given a huge revolution in CO2 adsorption capture compare to the unmodified AC. In the present study, the Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) modified surface AC was used for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) capture in the fixed-bed column. The AC underwent pre-carbonization and carbonization processes at 519.8 °C, respectively, with flowing of CO2 gas and then followed by impregnation with 53.75% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at 1:2 precursor-to-activant ratios. The prepared AC known as sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) was impregnated with DES at 1:2 solid-to-liquid ratio. The DES is composing of choline chloride and urea with ratio 1:2 choline chloride to urea. The optimum adsorption capacity of SMAC was 33.46 mgco2/gsol and 39.40 mgco2/gsol for DES modified AC (DESAC).

  12. Preparation and characterisation of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badri bin Muhammad; Karen binti Badri; Mohd Zobir bin Hussein; Zulkarnain bin Zainal; W.M. Daud bin W Yunus; Ramli bin Ibrahim

    1994-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from Agricultural wastes, such as coconut shell, Palm oil Shell and mangrove trunk by destructive distillation under vakuum. Chemical and Physical properties of the activated carbon were studied and some potentially useful application in the fields of chemistry was also carried out

  13. Deposition of carbon nanotubes onto aramid fibers using as-received and chemically modified fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Uicab, O.; Avilés, F.; Gonzalez-Chi, P.I; Canché-Escamilla, G.; Duarte-Aranda, S.; Yazdani-Pedram, M.; Toro, P.; Gamboa, F.; Mazo, M.A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface of aramid fibers was functionalized by two acid treatments. • The treatment based on HNO_3/H_2SO_4 reduced the mechanical properties of the fibers. • CNTs were deposited on the aramid fibers, reaching electrical conductivity. • Homogeneous CNT distribution was achieved by using pristine fibers or chlorosulfonic acid. - Abstract: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) oxidized by an acid treatment were deposited on the surface of as-received commercial aramid fibers containing a surface coating (“sizing”), and fibers modified by either a chlorosulfonic treatment or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. The surface of the aramid fiber activated by the chemical treatments presents increasing density of CO, COOH and OH functional groups. However, these chemical treatments reduced the tensile mechanical properties of the fibers, especially when the nitric and sulfuric acid mixture was used. Characterization of the MWCNTs deposited on the fiber surface was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These characterizations showed higher areal concentration and more homogeneous distribution of MWCNTs over the aramid fibers for as-received fibers and for those modified with chlorosulfonic acid, suggesting the existence of interaction between the oxidized MWCNTs and the fiber coating. The electrical resistance of the MWCNT-modified aramid yarns comprising ∼1000 individual fibers was in the order of MΩ/cm, which renders multifunctional properties.

  14. Deposition of carbon nanotubes onto aramid fibers using as-received and chemically modified fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Uicab, O. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Gonzalez-Chi, P.I; Canché-Escamilla, G.; Duarte-Aranda, S. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Yazdani-Pedram, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, S. Livingstone 1007, Independencia, Santiago (Chile); Toro, P. [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Gamboa, F. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Mérida, Depto. de Física Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Mazo, M.A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The surface of aramid fibers was functionalized by two acid treatments. • The treatment based on HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} reduced the mechanical properties of the fibers. • CNTs were deposited on the aramid fibers, reaching electrical conductivity. • Homogeneous CNT distribution was achieved by using pristine fibers or chlorosulfonic acid. - Abstract: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) oxidized by an acid treatment were deposited on the surface of as-received commercial aramid fibers containing a surface coating (“sizing”), and fibers modified by either a chlorosulfonic treatment or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. The surface of the aramid fiber activated by the chemical treatments presents increasing density of CO, COOH and OH functional groups. However, these chemical treatments reduced the tensile mechanical properties of the fibers, especially when the nitric and sulfuric acid mixture was used. Characterization of the MWCNTs deposited on the fiber surface was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These characterizations showed higher areal concentration and more homogeneous distribution of MWCNTs over the aramid fibers for as-received fibers and for those modified with chlorosulfonic acid, suggesting the existence of interaction between the oxidized MWCNTs and the fiber coating. The electrical resistance of the MWCNT-modified aramid yarns comprising ∼1000 individual fibers was in the order of MΩ/cm, which renders multifunctional properties.

  15. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N.; Rinaldi, A.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300° C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550° C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  16. REMOVAL OF IMIDACLOPRID USING ACTIVATED CARBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Chemical activation, Adsorption, Activated carbon, Pesticide ..... density solvent based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for quantitative extraction of ... El-Hamouz, A.; Hilal, H.S.; Nassar, N.; Mardawi, Z. Solid olive waste in ...

  17. TAILORING ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR ENHANCED REMOVAL OF NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER FROM NATURAL WATERS. (R828157)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several pathways have been employed to systematically modify two granular activated carbons (GACs), F400 (coal-based) and Macro (wood-based), for examining adsorption of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) from natural waters. A total of 24 activated carbons with different ...

  18. Electrocatalytic behavior of carbon paste electrode modified with metal phthalocyanines nanoparticles toward the hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Norouz-sarvestani, Fatemeh; Mirahmadi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The new construction of a carbon paste electrode impregnated with nanoparticles of Zn and Ni phthalocyanine (nano ZnPc and nano NiPc). ► The decrease overpotential and higher current value obtained in nano ZnPc and nano NiPc compared to bulky ZnPc and bulky NiPc, respectively. ► Types of the catalyst and pH of the solution affect the electro catalytic proton reduction reaction considerably. - Abstract: This paper describes the construction of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) impregnated with nanoparticles of Zn and Ni phthalocyanine (nano ZnPc and nano NiPc). These new electrodes (nano ZnPc-CPE and nano NiPc-CPE) reveal interesting electrocatalytic behavior toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Voltammetric characteristics indicated that the proposed electrodes display better electrocatalytic activity compared to their corresponding bulky modified metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) in minimizing overpotential and increasing the reduction current of HER. Electrocatalytic activities irregularly change with the pH of the solution. However by increasing the pH while nano MPcs are still active, bulky MPcs are almost inactive, and their corresponding ΔE increase by increasing the pH.

  19. The ultrasound technology for modifying enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliza Lindsay Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are protein complexes compounds widely studied and used due to their ability to catalyze reactions. The food processing mainly a ims the inactivation of enzymes due to various undesirable effects. However, there are many processes that can be optimized by its catalytic activity. In this context, different technologies have been applied both to inactivate or to improve the enzymes ef ficiency. The Ultrasound technology emerges as an alternative mainly applied to achieve the enzyme inactivation. On the contrary, very few investigations show the ability of this technology under certain conditions to achieve the opposite effect (i.e. increase the catalytic activity of enzymes. The objective of this study was to correlate the ultrasonic energy delivered to the sample (J/mL with the residual enzymatic activity and explain the possible mechanisms which results in the enzymatic activation/in activation complex behavior. The activity of POD in coconut water was evaluated as a model. The enzymatic activity initially increased, followed by reduction with a trend to enzyme inactivation. This complex behavior is directly related to the applied ultr asonic energy and their direct mechanical effects on the product, as well as the effect in the enzymatic infinite intermediate states and its structural conformation changes. The obtained results are useful for both academic and industrial perspectives.

  20. A novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on single walled carbon nanotubes-manganese complex modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdioun, Monierosadat; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Amir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156/83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghavami, Raoof [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-30

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and phenazine derivative of Mn-complex. With immersing the GC/CNTs modified electrode into Mn-complex solution for a short period of time 20-100 s, a stable thin layer of the complex was immobilized onto electrode surface. Modified electrode showed a well defined redox couples at wide pH range (1-12). The surface coverages and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sub s}) of immobilized Mn-complex were approximately 1.58 x 10{sup -10} mole cm{sup -2} and 48.84 s{sup -1}. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. Detection limit, sensitivity, linear concentration range and k{sub cat} for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were, 0.2 {mu}M and 692 nA {mu}M{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, 1 {mu}M to 1.5 mM and 7.96({+-}0.2) x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. Compared to other modified electrodes, this electrode has many advantageous such as remarkable catalytic activity, good reproducibility, simple preparation procedure and long term stability.

  1. A novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on single walled carbon nanotubes-manganese complex modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Mahdioun, Monierosadat; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Ghavami, Raoof

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and phenazine derivative of Mn-complex. With immersing the GC/CNTs modified electrode into Mn-complex solution for a short period of time 20-100 s, a stable thin layer of the complex was immobilized onto electrode surface. Modified electrode showed a well defined redox couples at wide pH range (1-12). The surface coverages and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k s ) of immobilized Mn-complex were approximately 1.58 x 10 -10 mole cm -2 and 48.84 s -1 . The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 reduction. Detection limit, sensitivity, linear concentration range and k cat for H 2 O 2 were, 0.2 μM and 692 nA μM -1 cm -2 , 1 μM to 1.5 mM and 7.96(±0.2) x 10 3 M -1 s -1 , respectively. Compared to other modified electrodes, this electrode has many advantageous such as remarkable catalytic activity, good reproducibility, simple preparation procedure and long term stability.

  2. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo Xiangjie; Ju Jian; Guo Liping, E-mail: guolp078@nenu.edu.cn [Northeast Normal University, Faculty of Chemistry (China)

    2012-10-15

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 {mu}A mM{sup -1}), low detection limit (1.8 {mu}M), fast response time <3 s, and wide linear range (0.04-8.62 mM). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) and the maximum current density (i{sub max}) values for the biosensor were 10.94 mM and 887 {mu}A cm{sup -2} respectively. Furthermore, this biosensor showed an acceptable reproducibility and high stability. The interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid at concentration levels normally found in human blood were not much compared with the response to glucose. Blood serum samples were also tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  3. Improved fire retardancy of thermoset composites modified with carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhongfu; Gou Jan

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctional thermoset composites were made from polyester resin, glass fiber mats and carbon nanofiber sheets (CNS). Their flaming behavior was investigated with cone calorimeter under well-controlled combustion conditions. The heat release rate was lowered by pre-planting carbon nanofiber sheets on the sample surface with the total fiber content of only 0.38 wt.%. Electron microscopy showed that carbon nanofiber sheet was partly burned and charred materials were formed on the combusting surface. Both the nanofibers and charred materials acted as an excellent insulator and/or mass transport barrier, improving the fire retardancy of the composite. This behavior agrees well with the general mechanism of fire retardancy in various nanoparticle-thermoplastic composites.

  4. Screen-printed carbon electrode modified on its surface with amorphous carbon nitride thin film: Electrochemical and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamouss, F. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France); Tessier, P.-Y. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Djouadi, A. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Besland, M.-P. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Boujtita, M. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France)]. E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.fr

    2007-04-20

    The surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by using amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN {sub x}) thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterise respectively the morphology and the chemical structure of the a-CN {sub x} modified electrodes. The incorporation of nitrogen in the amorphous carbon network was demonstrated by X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The a-CN {sub x} layers were deposited on both carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and silicon (Si) substrates. A comparative study showed that the nature of substrate, i.e. SPCE and Si, has a significant effect on both the surface morphology of deposited a-CN {sub x} film and their electrochemical properties. The improvement of the electrochemical reactivity of SPCE after a-CN {sub x} film deposition was highlighted both by comparing the shapes of voltammograms and calculating the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant.

  5. Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode as a potentiometric sensor for uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Widati, Alfa Akustia; Fitri, Sarita Aulia

    2016-03-01

    Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode (carbon paste-IZ) has been developed and applied to determine uric acid by potentiometry. The imprinted zeolite (IZ) was synthesized by the mole ratio of uric acid/Si of 0.0306. The modified electrode was manufactured by mass ratio of carbon, IZ and solid paraffin was 40:25:35. The modified electrode had shown the measurement range of 10-5 M to 10-2 M with Nernst factor of 28.6 mV/decade, the detection limit of 5.86 × 10-6 M and the accuracy of 95.3 - 105.0%. Response time of the electrode for uric acid 10-5 M - 10-2 M was 25 - 44 s. The developed electrode showed the high selectivity toward uric acid in the urea matrix. Life time of the carbon paste-IZ electrode was 10 weeks.

  6. The ultrasound technology for modifying enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliza Lindsay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are protein complexes compounds widely studied and used due to their ability to catalyze reactions. The food processing mainly aims the inactivation of enzymes due to various undesirable effects. However, there are many processes that can be optimized by its catalytic activity. In this context, different technologies have been applied both to inactivate or to improve the enzymes efficiency. The Ultrasound technology emerges as an alternative mainly applied to achieve the enzyme inactivation. On the contrary, very few investigations show the ability of this technology under certain conditions to achieve the opposite effect (i.e. increase the catalytic activity of enzymes. The objective of this study was to correlate the ultrasonic energy delivered to the sample (J/mL with the residual enzymatic activity and explain the possible mechanisms which results in the enzymatic activation/inactivation complex behavior. The activity of POD in coconut water was evaluated as a model. The enzymatic activity initially increased, followed by reduction with a trend to enzyme inactivation. This complex behavior is directly related to the applied ultrasonic energy and their direct mechanical effects on the product, as well as the effect in the enzymatic infinite intermediate states and its structural conformation changes. The obtained results are useful for both academic and industrial perspectives.

  7. The use of simultaneous chemical precipitation in modified activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of simultaneous chemical precipitation in modified activated sludge systems exhibiting biological excess phosphate removal: Part 6: Modelling of simultaneous chemical-biological P removal - review of existing models.

  8. Application of mesoporous carbon and modified mesoporous carbon for treatment of DMF sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang, E-mail: liufangfw@163.com; Gao, Ya; Zhang, Shuang; Yan, Xi; Fan, Fengtao; Zhao, Chaocheng; Sun, Juan [China University of Petroleum(East China), Department of Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-02-15

    Mesoporous carbon (MC) was prepared in soft template, and potassium ferricyanide was added into MC to prepare the modified mesoporous carbon (MMC). TEM, SEM, FT-IR, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption were used to characterize the textural properties of mesoporous materials. The BET specific surface area, pore volume, and the pore size of MC and MMC were 607.6321 and 304.7475 m{sup 2}/g, 0.313552 and 0.603573 cm{sup 3}/g, and 5.4356 and 7.9227 nm, respectively. The adsorption capabilities of MC and MMC were compared with the silica mesoporous material MCM-41. The influences of different adsorption conditions were optimized. For MC, the optimums of adsorbent dose, DMF initial concentration, rotating speed, and pH were 0.002 mg/50 mL, 200 mg/L, 200 r/min, and 4, respectively. MMC showed the highest DMF adsorption capacity at adsorbent dose 0.002 g/50 mL, DMF initial concentration 1000 mg/L, rotating speed 1000 r/min, pH more than 9, and contact time of less than 20 min. Meanwhile for MC, MMC, Pseudo-second-order equation was used to fit adsorption kinetics data. And adsorption process could be well fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms of MC, MMC. The results showed that MMC was a perfect adsorbent for DMF, and it was easy to separation and recycle. The recycling property of MMC was still relatively better than other two adsorbents.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of chemically modified dextran derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchilus, Cristina G; Nichifor, Marieta; Mocanu, Georgeta; Stanciu, Magdalena C

    2017-04-01

    Cationic amphiphilic dextran derivatives with a long alkyl group attached to the reductive end of the polysaccharide chain and quaternary ammonium groups attached as pendent groups to the main dextran backbone were synthesized and tested for their antimicrobial properties against several bacteria and fungi strains. Dependence of antimicrobial activity on both polymer chemical composition (dextran molar mass, length of end alkyl group and chemical structure of ammonium groups) and type of microbes was highlighted by disc-diffusion method (diameter of inhibition zone) and broth microdilution method (minimum inhibitory concentrations). Polymers had antimicrobial activity for all strains studied, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The best activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Minimun Inhibitory Concentration 60μg/mL) was provided by polymers obtained from dextran with lower molecular mass (Mn=4500), C 12 H 25 or C 18 H 37 end groups, and N,N-dimethyl-N-benzylammonium pendent groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ammonia modification of activated carbon to enhance carbon dioxide adsorption: Effect of pre-oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafeeyan, Mohammad Saleh; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Houshmand, Amirhossein; Arami-Niya, Arash

    2011-02-01

    A commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) was subjected to thermal treatment with ammonia for obtaining an efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent. In general, CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon can be increased by introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities onto the carbon surface. In this work, the effect of oxygen surface groups before introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities to the carbon surface on CO2 adsorption capacity was investigated. For this purpose two different approaches of ammonia treatment without preliminary oxidation and amination of oxidized samples were studied. Modified carbons were characterized by elemental analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study the impact of changes in surface chemistry and formation of specific surface groups on adsorption properties. The texture of the samples was characterized by conducting N2 adsorption/desorption at -196 °C. CO2 capture performance of the samples was investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that in both modification techniques, the presence of nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface generally increased the CO2 adsorption capacity. The results indicated that oxidation followed by high temperature ammonia treatment (800 °C) considerably enhanced the CO2 uptake at higher temperatures.

  11. Driving factors behind carbon dioxide emissions in China: A modified production-theoretical decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qunwei; Chiu, Yung-Ho; Chiu, Ching-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Research on the driving factors behind carbon dioxide emission changes in China can inform better carbon emission reduction policies and help develop a low-carbon economy. As one of important methods, production-theoretical decomposition analysis (PDA) has been widely used to understand these driving factors. To avoid the infeasibility issue in solving the linear programming, this study proposed a modified PDA approach to decompose carbon dioxide emission changes into seven drivers. Using 2005–2010 data, the study found that economic development was the largest factor of increasing carbon dioxide emissions. The second factor was energy structure (reflecting potential carbon), and the third factor was low energy efficiency. Technological advances, energy intensity reductions, and carbon dioxide emission efficiency improvements were the negative driving factors reducing carbon dioxide emission growth rates. Carbon dioxide emissions and driving factors varied significantly across east, central and west China. - Highlights: • A modified PDA used to decompose carbon dioxide emission changes into seven drivers. • Two models were proposed to ameliorate the infeasible occasions. • Economic development was the largest factor of increasing CO_2 emissions in China.

  12. Detection of Carbofuran with Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Based on Carbon Nano tubes-Chitosan Modified Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sh.; Li, Sh.; Ma, J.; Xiong, F.; Qu, S.; Zhang, Sh.; Li, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and stable enzyme biosensor based on efficient immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to MWNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with chitosan (CS) by layer-by-layer (LBL) technique for rapid determination of carbofuran has been devised. According to the inhibitory effect of carbamate pesticide on the enzymatic activity of AChE, we use carbofuran as a model pesticide. The inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the biosensor was proportional to concentration of carbofuran in the range from 10 -10  g/L to 10 -3  g/L with a detection limit of 10 -12  g/L. This biosensor is a promising new method for pesticide analysis

  13. Glucose oxidase-modified carbon-felt-reactor coupled with peroxidase-modified carbon-felt-detector for amperometric flow determination of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yue; Hasebe, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were covalently immobilized on a porous carbon-felt (CF) by using cyanuric chloride (CC) as a linking reagent. The resulting GOx-modified-CF (GOx-ccCF) was used as column-type enzyme reactor and placed on upstream of the HRP-ccCF-based H 2 O 2 flow-detector to fabricate amperometric flow-biosensor for glucose. Sensor setting conditions and the operational conditions were optimized, and the analytical performance characteristics of the resulting flow-biosensor were evaluated. The chemical modification of the GOx via CC was found to be effective to obtain larger catalytic activity as compared with the physical adsorption. Under the optimized conditions (i.e., volume ratio of the GOx-ccCF-reactor to the HRP-ccCF-detector is 1.0; applied potential is − 0.12 V vs. Ag/AgCl; carrier pH is 6.5; and carrier flow rate is 4.3 ml/min), highly selective and quite reproducible peak current responses toward glucose were obtained: the RSD for 30 consecutive injections of 3 mM glucose was 1.04%, and no serious interferences were observed for fructose, ethanol, uric acid, urea and tartaric acid for the amperometric measurements of glucose. The magnitude of the cathodic peak currents for glucose was linear up to 5 mM (sensitivity, 6.38 ± 0.32 μA/μM) with the limit detection of 9.4 μM (S/N = 3, noise level, 20 nA). The present GOx-ccCF-reactor and HRP-ccCF-detector-coupled flow-glucose biosensor was utilized for the determination of glucose in beverages and liquors, and the analytical results by the sensor were in fairly good agreement with those by the conventional spectrophotometry. - Highlights: ► Glucose oxidase (GOx) and peroxidase (HRP) were modified on carbon-felt. ► GOx-CF reactor and HRP-CF detector-coupled flow glucose biosensor was developed. ► This flow biosensor enabled the determination of glucose in beverages and liquors.

  14. Glucose oxidase-modified carbon-felt-reactor coupled with peroxidase-modified carbon-felt-detector for amperometric flow determination of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yue [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology LiaoNing, 185 Qianshan Middle Road, High-tech Zone, Anshan, LiaoNing, 114501 (China); Hasebe, Yasushi, E-mail: hasebe@sit.ac.jp [Department of Life Science and Green Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690, Fusaiji, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were covalently immobilized on a porous carbon-felt (CF) by using cyanuric chloride (CC) as a linking reagent. The resulting GOx-modified-CF (GOx-ccCF) was used as column-type enzyme reactor and placed on upstream of the HRP-ccCF-based H{sub 2}O{sub 2} flow-detector to fabricate amperometric flow-biosensor for glucose. Sensor setting conditions and the operational conditions were optimized, and the analytical performance characteristics of the resulting flow-biosensor were evaluated. The chemical modification of the GOx via CC was found to be effective to obtain larger catalytic activity as compared with the physical adsorption. Under the optimized conditions (i.e., volume ratio of the GOx-ccCF-reactor to the HRP-ccCF-detector is 1.0; applied potential is - 0.12 V vs. Ag/AgCl; carrier pH is 6.5; and carrier flow rate is 4.3 ml/min), highly selective and quite reproducible peak current responses toward glucose were obtained: the RSD for 30 consecutive injections of 3 mM glucose was 1.04%, and no serious interferences were observed for fructose, ethanol, uric acid, urea and tartaric acid for the amperometric measurements of glucose. The magnitude of the cathodic peak currents for glucose was linear up to 5 mM (sensitivity, 6.38 {+-} 0.32 {mu}A/{mu}M) with the limit detection of 9.4 {mu}M (S/N = 3, noise level, 20 nA). The present GOx-ccCF-reactor and HRP-ccCF-detector-coupled flow-glucose biosensor was utilized for the determination of glucose in beverages and liquors, and the analytical results by the sensor were in fairly good agreement with those by the conventional spectrophotometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucose oxidase (GOx) and peroxidase (HRP) were modified on carbon-felt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GOx-CF reactor and HRP-CF detector-coupled flow glucose biosensor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This flow biosensor enabled the determination of glucose in beverages and

  15. Role of activated carbon on micropollutans degradation by different radiation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Velo Gala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of the presence of activated carbon on radiation processes. The triiodinated contrast medium diatrizoate was chosen as the contaminant model. We selected four commercial activated carbons and sixteen gamma radiation-modified carbons derived from these. The different advanced oxidation/reduction processes that have been studied were improved through the addition of activated carbon in the UV light and gamma radiating processes. In the UV/activated carbon process, the synergic activity of the activated carbon is enhanced in the samples with higher percentages of surface oxygen, ester/anhydride groups and carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization. Band gap determination of activated carbons revealed that they behave as semiconductor materials and, therefore, as photoactive materials in the presence of UV radiation, given that all band gap values are <4 eV. We also observed that the gamma radiation treatment reduces the band gap values of the activated carbons and that, in a single series of commercial carbons, lower band gap values correspond to higher contaminant removal rate values. We observed that the activity of the reutilized activated carbons is similar to that of the original carbons. Based on these results, we proposed that the activated carbon acts as a photocatalyst, promoting electrons of the valence band to the conduction band and increasing the generation of HO• radicals in the medium. Similarly, there was a synergic effect made by the presence of activated carbon in gamma radiation system, which favours pollutant removal. This synergic effect is independent of the textural but not the chemical characteristics of the activated carbon, observing a higher synergic activity for carbons with a higher surface content of oxygen, specifically quinone groups. We highlight that the synergic effect of the activated carbon requires adsorbent–adsorbate electrostatic interaction and is absent

  16. Investigation of bioresistant dry building mixes modified by carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich; Erofeev Vladimir Trofimovich; Suraeva Ekaterina Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    Dry construction mixes are today a product of high technologies. Depending on the purpose and requirements to the properties it is easy to produce dry construction mixes with different compositions and operating indicators in plant conditions using the necessary modifying additives. Cement, gypsum and other mineral binders are used in the construction mixes. Different types of cement are more heavily used in dry construction mixes. Such dry mixes are believed to be more effective materials co...

  17. Cobalt oxide nanoparticle-modified carbon nanotubes as an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of 60 mV were observed at. 100 mV s. −1 for CoOx−MWNT/GCE. An anodic peak at. 100 mV attributed to Co(II)/Co(III) redox transition associated with the electrode surface. The cathodic peak at 20 mV corre- spond to the reduction of various cobalt oxide species formed during the anodic sweep. The stability of the modified ...

  18. Electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol at polycarbazole/N-doped graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuehua; Wu, Lihua; Lei, Wu; Xia, Xifeng; Xia, Mingzhu; Hao, Qingli

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polycarbazole/N-doping graphene (PCZ/N-GE) composite was fabricated. • The PCZ/N-GE composite shows good electrocatalytic activity to 4-nitrophenol. • PCZ/N-GE modified electrode was used for determination of 4-nitrophenol. • The proposed sensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: Polycarbazole (PCZ)/nitrogen-doped graphene (N-GE) composite was prepared by electropolymerization of carbazole on the N-GE modified glass carbon electrode (N-GE/GCE) for fabricating a novel electrochemical sensor for 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The PCZ/N-GE shows high conductivity and well-distributed nanostructure. The redox behavior of 4-NP at a PCZ/N-GE/GCE was investigated in acetate buffer solution by cyclic voltammetry (CV), compared with the bare GCE, reduced graphene oxide (RGO), N-GE and PCZ modified GCEs. The results indicate that all modified electrodes show the enhanced reduction peak currents. However, the PCZ/N-GE/GCE exhibits the highest peak current and most positive reduction potential of 4-NP, which reflects the PCZ/N-GE composite has the best electrocatalytic activity towards 4-NP. The enhanced electrochemical performance of PCZ/N-GE and the electrocatalytic activity to 4-NP are contributed to the synergic effect of PCZ and N-GE with highly conductivity and large surface area, which can greatly facilitate the electron-transfer processes between the electrolyte and electrode. An electrochemical sensor for 4-NP was developed based on the PCZ/N-GE modified electrode under the optimized conditions. The reduction peak current was linear with the concentration of 4-NP in the range of 8 × 10 -7 ∼2 × 10 -5 M. The low detection limit of the sensor was estimated to be 0.062 μM (S/N = 3). The sensor based on PCZ/N-GE/GCE was also applied to the detection of 4-NP in real water samples

  19. Strain-modified RKKY interaction in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, P. D.; Duffy, J. M.; Power, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    been shown that the interaction range depends on the conformation of the magnetic dopants in both graphene and nanotubes. Here we examine the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in carbon nanotubes in the presence of uniaxial strain for a range of different impurity configurations. We show......For low-dimensionalmetallic structures, such as nanotubes, the exchange coupling between localized magnetic dopants is predicted to decay slowly with separation. The long-range character of this interaction plays a significant role in determining the magnetic order of the system. It has previously...... that strain is capable of amplifying or attenuating the RKKY interaction, significantly increasing certain interaction ranges, and acting as a switch: effectively turning on or off the interaction. We argue that uniaxial strain can be employed to significantly manipulate magnetic interactions in carbon...

  20. Electrochemical Effect of Different Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes on the Values of Diffusion Coefficient for Some Heavy Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, M M; Alwan, S H; Amir, Y K A; Tee, T W

    2013-01-01

    Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT), C 60 and activated carbon (AC) by mechanical attachment method and solution evaporation technique to preparation CNT/GCE, C 60 /GCE and AC/GCE, these electrodes were modified in Li + solution via cyclic voltammetry (CV) potential cycling to preparing CNT/Li + /GCE, C 60 /Li + /GCE and AC/Li + /GCE. The sensing characteristics of the modified film electrodes, demonstrated in the application study for different heavy metal ions such as Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Mn 2+ . Cyclic voltammetric effect by chronoamperometry (CA) technique was investigated to determination the diffusion coefficient (D f ) values from Cottrell equation at these ions. Based on Cottrell equation (diffusion coefficient) of the redox current peaks of different heavy metal ions at different modified electrodes were studied to evaluate the sensing of these electrodes by the diffusion coefficient values. The modification of GCE with nano materials and Li + act an enhancement for the redox current peaks to observe that the diffusion process are high at CNT/Li + /GCE, C 60 /Li + /GCE and AC/Li+/GCE, but it has low values at unmodified GCE.

  1. Electrochemical Glucose Oxidation Using Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Au-Ag Nanoparticles: Influence of Ag Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Gabriela García-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of glassy carbon modified electrodes bearing Aux-Agy nanoparticles to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of glucose. In particular, the paper shows the influence of the Ag content on this oxidation process. A simple method was applied to prepare the nanoparticles, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. These nanoparticles were used to modify glassy carbon electrodes. The effectiveness of these electrodes for electrochemical glucose oxidation was evaluated. The modified glassy carbon electrodes are highly sensitive to glucose oxidation in alkaline media, which could be attributed to the presence of Aux-Agy nanoparticles on the electrode surface. The voltammetric results suggest that the glucose oxidation speed is controlled by the glucose diffusion to the electrode surface. These results also show that the catalytic activity of the electrodes depends on the Ag content of the nanoparticles. Best results were obtained for the Au80-Ag20 nanoparticles modified electrode. This electrode could be used for Gluconic acid (GA production.

  2. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mokhlesur M.; Adil, Mohd; Yusof, Alias M.; Kamaruzzaman, Yunus B.; Ansary, Rezaul H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II), lead(II) and chromium(VI). Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II) and lead(II) were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II) and lead(II). The removal of chromium(VI) was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cr(VI) by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:28788640

  3. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhlesur M. Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II, lead(II and chromium(VI. Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II and lead(II were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II and lead(II. The removal of chromium(VI was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II, Pb(II and Cr(VI by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  4. Evaluation of carbon fiber composites modified by in situ incorporation of carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Navarro de Miranda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are being thought to be used as multifunctional reinforcement in composites. The growing of carbon nanofiber at the carbon fiber/epoxy interface results in composites having better electrical properties than conventional carbon fiber/epoxy composites. In this work, carbon nanofibers were grown in situ over the surface of a carbon fiber fabric by chemical vapor deposition. Specimens of carbon fiber/nanofiber/epoxy (CF/CNF/epoxy composites were molded and electrical conductivity was measured. Also, the CF/CNF/epoxy composites were tested under flexure and interlaminar shear. The results showed an overall reduction in mechanical properties as a function of added nanofiber, although electrical conductivity increased up to 74% with the addition of nanofibers. Thus CF/CNF/epoxy composites can be used as electrical dissipation discharge materials.

  5. The electrocatalytical reduction of m-nitrophenol on palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qiaofang; Diao Guowang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The deposition of palladium on a GC electrode was performed by cyclic voltammetry. ► SEM images showed palladium nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. ► The Pd/GC electrode can effectively catalyze m-nitrophenol in aqueous media. ► The reduction of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode depended on potential and pH. ► XPS spectra of the Pd/GC electrodes demonstrated the presence of palladium. - Abstract: Palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (Pd/GC) were prepared via the electrodeposition of palladium on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode using cyclic voltammetry in different sweeping potential ranges. The scanning electron microscope images of palladium particles on the GC electrodes indicate that palladium particles with diameters of 20–50 nm were homogeneously dispersed on the GC electrode at the optimal deposition conditions, which can effectively catalyze the reduction of m-nitrophenol in aqueous solutions, but their catalytic activities are strongly related to the deposition conditions of Pd. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of the Pd/GC electrode confirmed that 37.1% Pd was contained in the surface composition of the Pd/GC electrode. The cyclic voltammograms of the Pd/GC electrode in the solution of m-nitrophenol show that the reduction peak of m-nitrophenol shifts towards the more positive potentials, accompanied with an increase in the peak current compared to the bare GC electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pd/GC electrode is affected by pH values of the solution. In addition, the electrolysis of m-nitrophenol under a constant potential indicates that the reduction current of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode is approximately 20 times larger than that on the bare GC electrode.

  6. Novel Activated Carbons from Agricultural Wastes and their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthikeyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal has become a major problem in India, Either it has to be disposed safely or used for the recovery of valuable materials as agricultural wastes like turmeric waste, ferronia shell waste, jatropha curcus seed shell waste, delonix shell waste and ipomea carnia stem. Therefore these wastes have been explored for the preparation of activated carbon employing various techniques. Activated carbons prepared from agricultural solid wastes by chemical activation processes shows excellent improvement in the surface characteristics. Their characterization studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, matter soluble in water, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, phenol number, ion exchange capacity, ion content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in the water and wastewater. For anionic dyes (reactive, direct, acid a close relationship between the surface area and surface chemical groups of the modified activated carbon and percentage of dye removal by adsorption can be observed. Cationic dyes large amount of surface chemical groups present in the sample (mainly carboxylic, anhydrides, lactones and phenols etc. are good anchoring sites for adsorption. The present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

  7. Evaluation of single-step steam pyrolysis-activated carbons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Activated carbon has been widely used worldwide as an effective filtration or adsorption ... of producing activated carbon (AC) from local agroforestry residues by ..... impurities from waste water. .... Production of granular activated carbon.

  8. Validity of the modified Reynolds equation for incompressible active lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    The modified Reynolds equation for active lubrication has been the cornerstone around which the theoretical investigations regarding actively lubricated bearings have evolved over the years. Introduced originally in 1994, it enables to calculate in a simplified manner the bearing pressure field...... as a function of servovalve controlled pressurized oil injection. This article deals with a preliminary critical review of the simplificatory assumptions that are introduced into the modified Reynolds equation in order to model the phenomena taking place in the interface between the injection nozzle...... and the bearing clearance. The analysis is performed by means of direct comparison of the results of the modified Reynolds equation model versus benchmark CFD calculations, applied to a geometry representative of the system analyzed. The results show that the modified Reynolds equation mathematical simplicity...

  9. Electrochemical selective detection of dopamine on microbial carbohydrate-doped multiwall carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Joon-Hyung; Cho, Eunae; Jung, Seunho

    2010-03-01

    Microbial carbohydrate-doped multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT)-modified electrodes were prepared for the purpose of determining if 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; dopamine) exists in the presence of 0.5 mM ascorbic acid, a representative interfering agent in neurotransmitter detection. The microbial carbohydrate dopants were alpha-cyclosophorohexadecaose (alpha-C16) from Xanthomonas oryzae and cyclic-(1 --> 2)-beta-d-glucan (Cys) from Rhizobium meliloti. The cyclic voltammetric responses showed that the highest sensitivity (5.8 x 10(-3) mA cm(-2) microM(-1)) is attained with the Cys-doped MWNT-modified ultra-trace carbon electrode, and that the alpha-C16-doped MWNT-modified glassy carbon electrode displays the best selectivity to dopamine (the approximate peak potential separation is 310 mV).

  10. Modified Active Videogame Play Results in Moderate-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Javier; McDonnell, Adam C; Keoghan, Melissa; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2014-08-01

    Large proportions of the population do not meet current American College of Sports Medicine physical activity recommendations, and innovative approaches are required. Most active videogames do not require a significant amount of energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to determine if modifying an active videogame increased exercise intensity to meet current physical activity recommendations. After completing a maximal oxygen uptake test, participants did a familiarization session on a separate day. Thirteen healthy participants 24.2±3.4 years of age played (1) a sedentary videogame, (2) an active videogame, and (3) a modified active videogame designed to increase physical activity for 46 minutes in a randomized order on separate days. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, heart rate reserve, percentage of maximal heart rate, metabolic equivalents of task, and energy expenditure were significantly higher during the modified active videogame trial than during the active videogame or sedentary videogame trials and also between the active videogame and sedentary videogame. A simple modification to an existing active videogame was sufficient to reach moderate exercise intensity. Active videogames could provide an important option for increasing daily physical activity and reducing sedentary time.

  11. REMOVAL OF IMIDACLOPRID USING ACTIVATED CARBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    known to be in most cases limited, to use a long procedure or to be costly. ..... Figure 4. (A) Isotherm adsorption of imidacloprid onto akpi activated carbon, plots of .... such as wastewater treatment, chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  12. ACTIVATED CARBON/REFRIGERANT COMBINATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2001-03-01

    Mar 1, 2001 ... to solar adsorption refrigeration machines are estimated. ... heat, activated carbon/ammonia requires the use of advanced flat-plate collectors such as those with multiple ... the thermodynamic performance of zeolite-water.

  13. High-surface-area active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, T.M.; Wennerberg, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and properties of a unique active carbon having exceptionally high surface areas, over 2500 m 2 /gm, and extraordinary adsorptive capacities. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 400 0 to 500 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 800 0 to 900 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts. These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product. A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques. Typical properties of the carbon include Iodine Numbers of 3000 to 3600, methylene blue adsorption of 650 to 750 mg/gm, pore volumes of 2.0 to 2.6 cc/gm and less than 3.0% ash. This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area, purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc

  14. Study and Electrochemical Determination of Tyrosine at Graphene Nanosheets Composite Film Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A graphene nanosheets (GNS film coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE was fabricated for sensitive determination of tyrosine (Tyr. The GNS-based sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscope and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The voltammetric techniques were employed to study electro-oxidation of Tyr. The results revealed that the modified electrode showed an electrocatalytic activity toward the anodic oxidation of Tyr by a marked enhancement in the current intensity and the shift in the oxidation potential to lower values (50 mV in comparison with the bare GCE. Some kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient (α were also determined for the Tyr oxidation. The detection limit  for Tyr was found to be 2.0×10-8 M (n=9, and the peak current increases linearly with the Tyr concentration within the molar concentration ranges of 5.0 ×10-6 to 1.2 ×10-4 M. The modified electrode shows good sensitivity, selectivity and stability. The prepared electrode was applied for the determination of Tyr in real sample.

  15. Methionine – Au Nanoparticle Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode: a Novel Platform for Electrochemical Detection of Hydroquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong HE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitive electrochemical sensor based on methionine/gold nanoparticles (MET/AuNPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE was fabricated for the quantitative detection of hydroquinone (HQ. The as-modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The electrochemical performance of the sensor to HQ was investigated by using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry, which revealed its excellent electrocatalytic activity and reversibility towards HQ. The separation of anodic and cathodic peak (∆Ep was decreased from 471 mV to 75 mV. The anodic peak current achieved under the optimum conditions was linear with the HQ concentration ranging from 8 μM to 400 μM with the detection limit 0.12 μM (3σ. The as-fabricated sensor also showed a good selectivity towards HQ without demonstrating interference from other coexisting species. Furthermore, the sensor showed a good performance for HQ detection in environmental water, which suggests its potential practical application. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6477

  16. Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine With a Nitrogen-doped Graphene Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencheng Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper nitrogen-doped graphene (NG nanosheets were used as the modifier on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The modified electrode (NG/GCE was further applied to the sensitive detection of dopamine (DA by voltammetric method. Due to the unique properties of NG such as large surface area and excellent electrocatalytic activity, electrochemical response of DA was greatly enhanced on NG/GCE with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared on cyclic voltammogram. Electrochemical behaviors of DA on NG/GCE were carefully investigated with the electrochemical parameters calculated. Under the selected conditions the oxidation peak currents of DA had a good linear relationship with its concentration in the range from 8.0×10–7 mol L–1 to 8.0×10–4 mol L–1 with a detection limit of 2.55×10–7 mol L–1 (3σ. The proposed method was further applied to the DA injection samples determination with satisfactory results. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  17. Chromium oxide over activated carbons as catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of isobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Agobardo; Acero Fabio N; Diaz, Jose de J

    2007-01-01

    The functional groups at the surface of an activated carbon Norit ROX 08 were modified through reaction with nitric acid, 8.8% 0 2 in N 2 and H 2 . the modified carbons were impregnated with a CrO 3 aqueous solution and used in the oxidative dehydrogenation of isobutane to isobutene (ODH). The formation of isobutene was observed at 443 k, with a maximum selectivity of 85% and a yield of 9%

  18. Mechanical Properties of Epoxy and Its Carbon Fiber Composites Modified by Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive properties are commonly weak parts in structural application of fiber composites. Matrix modification may provide an effective way to improve compressive performance of the composites. In this work, the compressive property of epoxies (usually as matrices of fiber composites modified by different types of nanoparticles was firstly investigated for the following study on the compressive property of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Carbon fiber/epoxy composites were fabricated by vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM technique using stitched unidirectional carbon fabrics, with the matrices modified with nanosilica, halloysite, and liquid rubber. Testing results showed that the effect of different particle contents on the compressive property of fiber/epoxy composites was more obvious than that in epoxies. Both the compressive and flexural results showed that rigid nanoparticles (nanosilica and halloysite have evident strengthening effects on the compression and flexural responses of the carbon fiber composite laminates fabricated from fabrics.

  19. Coulometric determination of dissolved hydrogen with a multielectrolytic modified carbon felt electrode-based sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroaki; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Sasaki, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Shunichi

    2013-06-01

    A multielectrolytic modified carbon electrode (MEMCE) was fabricated by the electrolytic-oxidation/reduction processes. First, the functional groups containing nitrogen atoms such as amino group were introduced by the electrode oxidation of carbon felt electrode in an ammonium carbamate aqueous solution, and next, this electrode was electroreduced in sulfuric acid. The redox waves between hydrogen ion and hydrogen molecule at highly positive potential range appeared in the cyclic voltammogram obtained by MEMCE. A coulometric cell using MEMCE with a catalytic activity of electrooxidation of hydrogen molecule was constructed and was used for the measurement of dissolved hydrogen. The typical current vs. time curve was obtained by the repetitive measurement of the dissolved hydrogen. These curves indicated that the measurement of dissolved hydrogen was finished completely in a very short time (ca. 10 sec). A linear relationship was obtained between the electrical charge needed for the electrooxidation process of hydrogen molecule and dissolved hydrogen concentration. This indicates that the developed coulometric method can be used for the determination of the dissolved hydrogen concentration.

  20. Thermal effects of carbonated hydroxyapatite modified by glycine and albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerk, S. A.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work calcium phosphate powders were obtained by precipitation method from simulated solutions of synovial fluid containing glycine and albumin. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy determined that all samples are single-phase and are presented by carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CHA). The thermograms of solid phases of CHA were obtained and analyzed; five stages of transformation in the temperature range of 25-1000°C were marked. It is shown that in this temperature range dehydration, decarboxylation and thermal degradation of amino acid and protein connected to the surface of solid phase occur. The tendency of temperature lowering of the decomposition of powders synthesized from a medium containing organic substances was determined. Results demonstrate a direct dependence between the concentration of the amino acid in a model solution and its content in the solid phase.

  1. Transition metal-modified polyoxometalates supported on carbon as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the coordinatively bonded water molecules without any noticeable anion degradation. The activity and ... reuse, and reduction in the generation of waste by-products.3 –5 ... water, street dust, street runoff, sediment, starry flounder liver and.

  2. Highly selective determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and serotonin at glassy carbon electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes dispersed in polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marcela C; Rubianes, María D; Rivas, Gustavo A

    2008-11-01

    We report the highly selective and sensitive voltammetric dopamine quantification in the presence of ascorbic acid and serotonin by using glassy carbon electrodes modified with a dispersion of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in polyethylenimine, PEI (GCE/MWCNT-PEI). The electrocatalytic activity of the MWCNT deposited on the glassy carbon electrode has allowed an important decrease in the overvoltages for the oxidation of ascorbic acid and dopamine, making possible a clear definition of dopamine, serotonin and ascorbic acid oxidation processes. The sensitivities for dopamine in the presence and absence of 1.0 mM ascorbic acid and serotonin were (2.18 +/- 0.03) x 10(5) microAM(-1) (r = 0.9998); and (2.10 +/- 0.07) x 10(5) miroAM(-1) (r=0.9985), respectively, demonstrating the excellent performance of the GCE/MWCNT-PEI. The detection limit for dopamine in the mixture was 9.2 x 10(-7) M. The R. S. D. for the determination of 50 microM dopamine using four different electrodes was 3.9% when modified with the same MWCNT/PEI dispersion, and 4.6% when using four different dispersions. The modified electrode has been successfully applied for recovery assays of dopamine in human blood serum. Therefore, the new sensor represents an interesting and promising alternative for the electrochemical quantification of neurotransmitters and other analytes of clinical interest.

  3. Application of modified stir bar with nickel:zinc sulphide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as a sorbent for preconcentration of losartan and valsartan and their determination by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Dadfarnia, Shayesteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Khodadoust, Saeid; Haghgoo, Soheila

    2016-03-11

    In this study, the stir bar was coated for the first time with the ​nicel:zins sulphide nanoparticles (Ni:ZnS NPs) loaded on activated carbon (AC) (Ni:ZnS-AC) as well as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid (IL) using sol gel technique and was used for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of losartan (LOS) and valsartan (VAL) as the model compounds. The extracted analytes were then quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with an ultra violet detector. The best extraction performance for LOS and VAL was obtained through the optimization of the parameters affecting SBSE including pH of sample solution, ionic strength, extraction time, volume of desorption solvent, desorption time, and stirring speed. The fractional factorial design (FFD) was used to find the most important parameters, which were then optimized by the central composite design (CCD) and the desirability function (DF). Under the optimal experimental conditions, wide linear ranges of 0.4-50μgL(-1) and 0.5-50μgL(-1) and good RSDs (at level of 5μgL(-1) and n=6) of 4.4 and 4.9% were obtained for LOS and VAL, respectively. With the enrichment factors (EFs) of 188.6 and 184.8-fold, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) of the developed method were found to be 0.12 and 0.15μgL(-1) for LOS and VAL, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of LOS and VAL in urine and plasma matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cells by using MnO_2/Halloysite nanotubes to modify carbon cloth anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yingwen; Chen, Liuliu; Li, Peiwen; Xu, Yuan; Fan, Mengjie; Zhu, Shemin; Shen, Shubao

    2016-01-01

    The modification of anode materials is important to enhance the power generation of MFCs (microbial fuel cells). A novel and cost-effective modified anode that is fabricated by dispersing manganese dioxide (MnO_2) and HNTs (Halloysite nanotubes) on carbon cloth to improve the MFCs' power production was reported. The results show that the MnO_2/HNT anodes acquire more bacteria and provide greater kinetic activity and power density compared to the unmodified anode. Among all modified anodes, 75 wt% MnO_2/HNT exhibits the highest electrochemical performance. The maximum power density is 767.3 mWm"−"2, which 21.6 higher than the unmodified anode (631 mW/m"2). Besides, CE (Coulombic efficiency) was improved 20.7, indicating that more chemical energy transformed to electricity. XRD (X-Ray powder diffraction) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) are used to characterize the structure and functional groups of the anode. CV (cyclic voltammetry) scans and SEM (scanning electron microscope) images demonstrate that the measured power density is associated with the attachment of bacteria, the microorganism morphology differed between the modified and the original anode. These findings demonstrate that MnO_2/HNT nanocomposites can alter the characteristics of carbon cloth anodes to effectively modify the anode for practical MFC applications. - Highlights: • Different contents of MnO_2/HNT composites were prepared and used to modify anodes in MFCs. • The performance of MFCs was improved by the anode modification. • 75% wt MnO_2/HNT modified anode showed the better capacity on power density. • Water contact angle, CV, SEM were determined to figure out the effect of modification on MFCs. • MnO_2/HNT modified anode in MFCs was first studied to push MFCs technology forward.

  5. New Electrochemically-Modified Carbon Paste Inclusion β-Cyclodextrin and Carbon Nanotubes Sensors for Quantification of Dorzolamide Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Ahmad Alarfaj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article introduces a new approach to fabricate carbon paste sensors, including carbon paste, modified carbon paste inclusion β-cyclodextrin, and carbon nanotubes for the quantification of dorzolamide hydrochloride (DRZ. This study is mainly based on the construction of three different carbon paste sensors by the incorporation of DRZ with phosphotungstic acid (PTA to form dorzolamide-phosphotungstate (DRZ-PT as an electroactive material in the presence of the solvent mediator ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE. The fabricated conventional carbon paste sensor (sensor I, as well as the other modified carbon paste sensors using β-cyclodextrin (sensor II and carbon nanotubes (sensor III, have been investigated. The sensors displayed Nernstian responses of 55.4 ± 0.6, 56.4 ± 0.4 and 58.1 ± 0.2 mV·decade−1 over concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10−5–1.0 × 10−2, 1.0 × 10−6–1.0 × 10−2, and 5.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−2 mol·L−1 with lower detection limits of 5.0 × 10−6, 5.0 × 10−7, and 2.5 × 10−9 mol·L−1 for sensors I, II, and III, respectively. The critical performance of the developed sensors was checked with respect to the effect of various parameters, including pH, selectivity, response time, linear concentration relationship, lifespan, etc. Method validation was applied according to the international conference on harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use ICH guidelines. The developed sensors were employed for the determination of DRZ in its bulk and dosage forms, as well as bio-samples. The observed data were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained from other published methods.

  6. Nano mechanical properties of carbon films modified by ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.E.; Serbena, F.C.; Lepienski, C.M.; Odo, G.Y.; Zawislak, F.C.; Lopes, J.M.J.; Baptista, D.L.; Garcia, I.T.S.

    2000-01-01

    In present work it is measured hardness, Young modulus and friction coefficient values for different types of carbon films. These films were submitted to different ion bombardment conditions (energy and fluencies). The mechanical behavior was obtained by nano indentation technique and analyzed by the Oliver/Pharr method. For friction coefficient determination the nano scratch procedure is used. Pristine C 60 films (fullerenes) has a hardness of 0.33 GPa. After irradiation with different ions (He, N and Bi), the hardness raise to about 14 GPa and the Young modulus change from 20 to about 200 GPa. For photoresist film AZ-1350J irradiation with Ar and He change the hardness from 0.4 to about 14 GPa and the Young modulus raise from 4 to 80 GPa. In a-C-H the hardness change from 3.5 to 11 GPa when submitted to N irradiation. In PPA films the hardness value raise from 0.5 to 11 GPa after irradiation with Ar. These mechanical and tribological results were analyzed in terms of deposited energy by the ion irradiation and compared with those presented in the literature. (author)

  7. Ionic liquid-functionalized graphene as modifier for electrochemical and electrocatalytic improvement: comparison of different carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meng; Yang, Tao; Ma, Suyan; Zhao, Changzhi; Jiao, Kui

    2011-04-01

    Electrochemical activities of typically electrochemical targets at three kinds of modified carbon electrodes, i.e. carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE), graphene/carbon paste electrode (CPE), and ionic liquid-functionalized graphene (IL-graphene)/CPE, were compared in detail. The redox processes of the probes at IL-graphene/CPE were faster than those at CILE and graphene/CPE from cyclic voltammetry. An electrochemical method for the simultaneous determination of guanine and adenine was described with detection limits of 6.5×10(-8) mol L(-1) (guanine) and 3.2×10(-8) mol L(-1) (adenine). Single A→G mutation of sequence-specific DNA could be discriminated by the IL-graphene/CPE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A sensitive electrochemical sensor for paracetamole based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xue; Wang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for paracetamole that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles. The functionalized nanospheres were prepared by a chemical route and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The well-dispersed gold nanoparticles were anchored on the dopamine nanosphere via a chemical reduction of the gold precursor. The stepwise fabrication of the modified electrode and its electrochemical response to paracetamole were evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode displayed improved electrocatalytic activity towards paracetamole, a lower oxidation potential (371 mV), and a larger peak current when compared to a bare electrode or other modified electrodes. The kinetic parameters governing the electro-oxidation of paracetamole were studied, and the analytical conditions were optimized. The peak current was linearly related to the concentration of paracetamole in 0.8–400 μM range, and the detection limit was 50 nM (at an SNR of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of paracetamole in spiked human urine samples and gave recoveries between 95.3 and 105.2 %. (author)

  9. Microbial electrolysis cells with polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube-modified biocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yingwen; Xu, Yuan; Chen, Liuliu; Li, Peiwen; Zhu, Shemin; Shen, Shubao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we modified biocathodes with PANI (Polyaniline)/MWCNT (Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube) composites to improve hydrogen production in single-chamber, membrane-free biocathode MECs. The results showed that the hydrogen production rates increased with an increase in applied voltage. At an applied voltage of 0.9 V, the modified biocathode MECs achieved a hydrogen production rate of 0.67m 3 m −3 d −1 , current density of 205 Am −3 , COD of 86.8%, coulombic efficiency of 72%, cathodic hydrogen recovery of 42%, and energy efficiency of 81% with respect to the electrical power input. LSV (Linear Sweep Voltammetry) scans, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) images and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) demonstrated that hydrogen production is catalyzed by the special biofilm attached on a modified biocathode, and the microorganism species and quantity present were significantly different between the modified biocathode and the non-modified biocathode. In general, the performance of MECs with modified biocathodes was improved in the presence of a higher current density and hydrogen generation rate. - Highlights: • Different PANI/MWCNT composites were prepared and used to modify biocathode in MECs. • The performance of MECs was improved by the modification. • 75% wt PANI/MWCNT modified biocathode showed the better capacity on hydrogen generation. • LVS, SEM, DGGE were determined to figure out the effect of modification on MECs. • PANI/MWCNT modified biocathode in MECs was first studied to push MECs technology forward

  10. Simultaneous electrochemical determination of dopamine and paracetamol on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite was prepared by homogenous dispersion of MWCNT and GO and used for the simultaneous voltammetric determination of dopamine (DA) and paracetamol (PA). The TEM results confirmed that MWCNT walls were wrapped well with GO sheets. The MWCNT/GO nanocomposite showed superior electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and PA, when compared with either pristine MWCNT or GO. The major reason for the efficient simultaneous detection of DA and PA at nanocomposite was the synergistic effect between MWCNT and GO. The electrochemical oxidation of DA and PA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and amperometry. The nanocomposite modified electrode showed electrocatalytic oxidation of DA and PA in the linear response range from 0.2 to 400 µmol L(-1) and 0.5 to 400 µmol L(-1) with the detection limit of 22 nmol L(-1) and 47 nmol L(-1) respectively. The proposed sensor displayed good selectivity, sensitivity, stability with appreciable consistency and precision. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of vanadium incorporated phosphomolybdate supported on the modified kaolinin synthesis of diphenyl carbonate by oxidative carbonylation with phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keggin-type molybdophosphoric acid, molybdophosphoric salt and vanadium incorporated molybdophosphoric salt supported on the modified kaolin (MK were investigated as redox co-catalysts for the oxidative carbonylation of phenol to diphenyl carbonate (DPC in the absence of solvent. The 20 wt.% of MnAMPV5 (one kind of vanadium incorporated molybdophosphoric salt loaded on MK showed the highest catalytic activity with the yield of 24.68% and a TON of 306, while the selectivity amounts to nearly 100% in all the carbonylation reactions. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS and H2-TPR. The reusability study showed that the catalysts were stable and active.

  12. Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Al-Qodah

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated sludge was used as a precursor to prepare activated carbon using sulfuric acid as a chemical activation agent. The effect of preparation conditions on the produced activated carbon characteristics as an adsorbent was investigated. The results indicate that the produced activated carbon has a highly porous structure and a specific surface area of 580 m²/g. The FT-IR analysis depicts the presence of a variety of functional groups which explain its improved adsorption behavior against pesticides. The XRD analysis reveals that the produced activated carbon has low content of inorganic constituents compared with the precursor. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to three adsorption isotherm models and found to closely fit the BET model with R² equal 0.948 at pH 3, indicating a multilayer of pesticide adsorption. The maximum loading capacity of the produced activated carbon was 110 mg pesticides/g adsorbent and was obtained at this pH value. This maximum loading was found experimentally to steeply decrease as the solution pH increases. The obtained results show that activated sludge is a promising low cost precursor for the production of activated carbon.

  13. Production of activated carbons from almond shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabais, Joao M. Valente; Laginhas, Carlos Eduardo C.; Carrott, P.J.M.; Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L. [Evora Univ. (Portugal). Centro de Quimica de Evora

    2011-02-15

    The production of activated carbons from almond shell, using physical activation by CO{sub 2} is reported in this work. The used method has produced activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas and micropore volume as high as 1138 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.49 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. The activated carbons produced have essentially primary micropores and only a small volume of wider micropores. By FTIR analysis it was possible to identify, in the surface of the activated carbons, several functional groups, namely hydroxyls (free and phenol), ethers, esters, lactones, pyrones and Si-H bonds. By the analysis of the XRD patterns it was possible to calculate the microcrystallites dimensions with height between 1.178 and 1.881 nm and width between 3.106 and 5.917 nm. From the XRD it was also possible to identify the presence of traces of inorganic heteroatoms such as Si, Pb, K, Fe and P. All activated carbons showed basic characteristics with point of zero charge between 9.42 and 10.43. (author)

  14. Thermal desorption of deuterium from modified carbon nanotubes and its correlation to the microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.F.; Keim, Enrico G.; van den Berg, A.H.J.; Smithers, Mark A.; Smithers, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The process of deuterium desorption from single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) modified by atomic (D) and molecular (D2) deuterium treatment was investigated in an ultrahigh vacuum environment using thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDMS). Microstructural and chemical analyses of SWNT material,

  15. Ignition properties of nuclear grade activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.; Hunt, J.R.; Kovach, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ignition property of new activated carbons used in air cleaning systems of nuclear facilities has been evaluated in the past, however very little information has been generated on the behavior of aged, weathered carbons which have been exposed to normal nuclear facility environment. Additionally the standard procedure for evaluation of ignition temperature of carbon is performed under very different conditions than those used in the design of nuclear air cleaning systems. Data were generated evaluating the ageing of activated carbons and comparing their CH 3 131 I removal histories to their ignition temperatures. A series of tests were performed on samples from one nuclear power reactor versus use time, a second series evaluated samples from several plants showing the variability of atmospheric effects. The ignition temperatures were evaluated simulating the conditions existing in nuclear air cleaning systems, such as velocity, bed depth, etc., to eliminate potential confusion resulting from artifically set current standard conditions

  16. Bismuth Modified Carbon-Based Electrodes for the Determination of Selected Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Rodić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of bismuth modified electrodes, a bismuth-film modified glassy carbon (BiF-GCE and a bismuth bulk modified carbon paste, were applied for the determination of selected nitroguanidine neonicotinoid insecticides. The method based on an ex situ prepared BiF-GCE operated in the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV mode was applied to determine clothianidin in the concentration range from 2.5 to 23 μg cm−3 with a relative standard deviation (RSD not exceeding 1.5%. The tricresyl phosphate-based carbon paste electrodes (TCP-CPEs, bulk modified with 5 and 20 w/w% of bismuth, showed a different analytical performance in the determination of imidacloprid, regarding the peak shape, potential window, and noise level. The TCP-CPE with 5% Bi was advantageous, and the developed DPV method based on it allowed the determination in the concentration range from 1.7 to 60 μg cm−3 with an RSD of 2.4%. To get a deeper insight into the morphology of the bismuth-based sensor surfaces, scanning electron microscopic measurements were performed of both the surface film and the bulk modified electrodes.

  17. Introducing a decomposition rate modifier in the Rothamsted Carbon Model to predict soil organic carbon stocks in saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Chittleborough, David; Smith, Jo

    2011-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) models such as the Rothamsted Carbon Model (RothC) have been used to estimate SOC dynamics in soils over different time scales but, until recently, their ability to accurately predict SOC stocks/carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions from salt-affected soils has not been assessed. Given the large extent of salt-affected soils (19% of the 20.8 billion ha of arable land on Earth), this may lead to miss-estimation of CO(2) release. Using soils from two salt-affected regions (one in Punjab, India and one in South Australia), an incubation study was carried out measuring CO(2) release over 120 days. The soils varied both in salinity (measured as electrical conductivity (EC) and calculated as osmotic potential using EC and water content) and sodicity (measured as sodium adsorption ratio, SAR). For soils from both regions, the osmotic potential had a significant positive relationship with CO(2)-C release, but no significant relationship was found between SAR and CO(2)-C release. The monthly cumulative CO(2)-C was simulated using RothC. RothC was modified to take into account reductions in plant inputs due to salinity. A subset of non-salt-affected soils was used to derive an equation for a "lab-effect" modifier to account for changes in decomposition under lab conditions and this modifier was significantly related with pH. Using a subset of salt-affected soils, a decomposition rate modifier (as a function of osmotic potential) was developed to match measured and modelled CO(2)-C release after correcting for the lab effect. Using this decomposition rate modifier, we found an agreement (R(2) = 0.92) between modelled and independently measured data for a set of soils from the incubation experiment. RothC, modified by including reduced plant inputs due to salinity and the salinity decomposition rate modifier, was used to predict SOC stocks of soils in a field in South Australia. The predictions clearly showed that SOC stocks are reduced in saline soils

  18. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tieshi He; Xue Ren; Junping Nie; Jun Ying; Kedi Cai

    2015-01-01

    Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC) of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′)-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distrib...

  19. Heterogeneity of activated carbons in adsorption of aniline from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkościelny, P.; László, K.

    2007-08-01

    The heterogeneity of activated carbons (ACs) prepared from different precursors is investigated on the basis of adsorption isotherms of aniline from dilute aqueous solutions at various pH values. The APET carbon prepared from polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), as well as, commercial ACP carbon prepared from peat were used. Besides, to investigate the influence of carbon surface chemistry, the adsorption was studied on modified carbons based on ACP carbon. Its various oxygen surface groups were changed by both nitric acid and thermal treatments. The Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equation and Langmuir-Freundlich (LF) one have been used to model the phenomenon of aniline adsorption from aqueous solutions on heterogeneous carbon surfaces. Adsorption-energy distribution (AED) functions have been calculated by using an algorithm based on a regularization method. Analysis of these functions for activated carbons studied provides important comparative information about their surface heterogeneity.

  20. Adsorption Efficiency of Iron Modified Carbons for Removal of Pb(II Ions from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Salmani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Lead causes severe damage to several systems of the body, especially to bony tissues. Until now, several low-cost biosorbents have been studied for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the present study, carbonized pomegranate peels modified with Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions and then it was investigated for removal of Pb(II ions from aqueous solution. Materials and methods: the washed granola of pomegranate peel was separately socked with FeCl3 and FeCl2 solutions for 24 h. Then, the granules were carbonized at 400 ºC for 3 h in a programmable furnace in the atmosphere of nitrogen. The adsorption experiments were carried out for two types of iron-modified carbons by batch adsorption using one variable at a time procedures. Results: The optimum conditions were found as contact time 90 min, initial concentration 50 mg/l, and adsorbent dose, 1.00 g/100 ml solution. Maximum removal efficiency was calculated as 84% and 89% for Fe3+ and Fe2+ impregnated pomegranate peel carbons respectively. Conclusion: The iron treatment pomegranate peel carbons modified their surfaces for adsorption of heavy metals. The results showed that chemical modification of the low-cost adsorbents originating from agricultural waste has stood out for metal removal capabilities.

  1. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine at overoxidized polypyrrole film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Mir Reza [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouyban, Abolghasem [Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: asadpour@tabrizu.ac.ir

    2007-06-20

    Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine (HZ) was studied on an overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) modified glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The OPPy-modified glassy carbon electrode has very high catalytic ability for electrooxidation of HZ, which appeared as a reduced overpotential in a wide operational pH range of 5-10. The overall numbers of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of HZ, the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining and diffusion coefficient of HZ were estimated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. It has been shown that using the OPPy-modified electrode, HZ can be determined by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with limit of detection 36 and 3.7 {mu}M, respectively. The results of the analysis suggest that the proposed method promises accurate results and could be employed for the routine determination of HZ.

  2. Electrochemical determination of serotonin in urine samples based on metal oxide nanoparticles/MWCNT on modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola E. Fayemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical response of serotonin on the modified electrode based on multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT doped respectively with nickel, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles coating on glassy carbon electrode (GCE at physiological pH 7 was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV. The modified GCE/MWCNT-metal oxide electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of serotonin at large peak current and lower oxidation potentials compared to other electrodes investigated. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was between 5.98 × 10−3 μM to 62.8 μM with detection limits 118, 129 and 166 nM for GCE/MWCNT-NiO, GCE/MWCNT-ZnO and GCE/MWCNT-Fe3O4 sensors respectively. GCE-MWCNT-NiO was the best electrode in terms of serotonin current response, electrode stability, resistance to fouling and limit of detection towards the analyte. The developed sensors were found to be electrochemically stable, reusable, economically effective due to their extremely low operational cost, and have demonstrated good limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity towards serotonin determination in urine samples. Keywords: Metal oxides nanoparticles, Multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Glassy carbon electrode, Serotonin, Cyclic voltammetry, Square wave voltammetry

  3. Heat exchange performance of stainless steel and carbon foams modified with carbon nano fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzovskaya, I.; Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Reed, C.P.; Lefferts, Leonardus; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNF), with fishbone and parallel wall structures, were grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on the surface of carbon foam and stainless steel foam, in order to improve their heat exchange performance. Enhancement in heat transfer efficiency between 30% and 75% was achieved

  4. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of ascorbic acid by square-wave voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode to enhance its electroactivity. Nafion served to immobilise the carbon nanotubes on the electrode surface. The modified electrode was used to develop an analytical method for the analysis of ascorbic acid (AA by square-wave voltammetry (SWV. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the modified glassy carbon electrode showed a peak potential at 315 mV, about 80 mV lower than that observed at the bare (unmodified electrode. The peak current was about threefold higher than the response at the bare electrode. Replicate measurements of peak currents showed good precision (3% rsd. Peak currents increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration (dynamic range = 0.0047–5.0 mmol/L and displayed good linearity (R2 = 0.994. The limit of detection was 1.4 μmol/L AA, while the limit of quantitation was 4.7 μmol/L AA. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of the amount of ascorbic acid in four brands of commercial orange-juice products. The measured content agreed well (96–104% with the product label claim for all brands tested. Recovery tests on spiked samples of orange juice showed good recovery (99–104%. The reliability of the SWV method was validated by conducting parallel experiments based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with absorbance detection. The observed mean AA contents of the commercial orange juice samples obtained by the two methods were compared statistically and were found to have no significant difference (P = 0.05.

  5. The Electrochemical Behavior of Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes Using a Two-Step Electroless Plating/Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longsheng Lu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME has been extensively applied in the biosensor and chemical sensor domains. In order to improve the electrochemical activity and sensitivity of the CFME, a new CFME modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs, denoted as CNTs/CFME, was fabricated and investigated. First, carbon fiber (CF monofilaments grafted with CNTs (simplified as CNTs/CFs were fabricated in two key steps: (i nickel electroless plating, followed by (ii chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Second, a single CNTs/CF monofilament was selected and encapsulated into a CNTs/CFME with a simple packaging method. The morphologies of as-prepared CNTs/CFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of CNTs/CFMEs were measured in potassium ferrocyanide solution (K4Fe(CN6, by using a cyclic voltammetry (CV and a chronoamperometry method. Compared with a bare CFME, a CNTs/CFME showed better CV curves with a higher distinguishable redox peak and response current; the higher the CNT content was, the better the CV curves were. Because the as-grown CNTs significantly enhanced the effective electrode area of CNTs/CFME, the contact area between the electrode and reactant was enlarged, further increasing the electrocatalytic active site density. Furthermore, the modified microelectrode displayed almost the same electrochemical behavior after 104 days, exhibiting remarkable stability and outstanding reproducibility.

  6. Electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid at p-phenylenediamine film-holes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olana Bikila Nagasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the determination of ascorbic acid (AA at glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with a perforated film produced by reduction of diazonium generated in situ from p-phenylenediamine (PD is reported. Holes were intentionally created in the modifier film by stripping a pre-deposited gold nanoparticles. The modified electrodes were electrochemically characterized by common redox probes: hydroquinone, ferrocyanide and hexamineruthenium(III. The cyclic voltammetric and amperometric response of AA using the modified electrodes was compared with that of bare GCE. The bare GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 mM to 45 mM with detection limit of 1.656 mM and the modified GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 μM to 45 μM with detection limit of 0.123 μM. The effect of potential intereferents on amperometric signal of AA at the modified GCE was examined and found to be minimal. The inter-electrode reproducibility, stability, and accuracy were determined. The modified electrode showed excellent inter-electrode reproducibility, accuracy and stability. The modified electrode reported is a promising candidate for use in electroanalysis of AA.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Modified Atmosphere Packaging Beef Shelf Life Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Ariani Basyamfar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The combination of O2, CO2, and low concentrations of CO in CO-MAP has repeatedly been shown to increase the shelf-life of red meat products. Concentrations of CO2 of 30% has been shown to slow microbial growth while O2 preserves the natural color of red meat. The addition of low concentrations of CO (<0.4% preserves the color stability of the meat while allowing for lower levels of O2 which reduces the oxidative spoilage of the product. Shelf-life extension of 5 to 10 days above traditional MAP has been seen with CO-MAP technologies. The addition of active/smart films such as antimicrobial films and/or the combination of irradiation further extends the shelf-life of red meat. Undetectable levels of E. coli at storage temperatures as high as 10oC at 28 days have been shown with CO-MAP and irradiation.

  8. The use of simultaneous chemical precipitation in modified activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The IAWQ Activated Sludge Model (ASM) No. 2 is a kinetic-based model and incorporates two simple processes for chemical precipitation and redissolution that are readily integrated with biological processes for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. This model was applied to experimental data collected as part of this ...

  9. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  10. A novel activated carbon for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Haijie [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Liu, Enhui, E-mail: liuenhui99@sina.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Xiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Zhengzheng; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yuhu; Wu, Zhilian; Xie, Hui [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel activated carbon was prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon has large surface area with microporous, and high heteroatom content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteroatom-containing functional groups can improve the pseudo-capacitance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: A novel activated carbon has been prepared by simple carbonization and activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin which is synthesized by the condensation polymerization method. The morphology, thermal stability, surface area, elemental composition and surface chemical composition of samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L{sup -1} potassium hydroxide. The activated carbon shows good capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance is up to 210 F g{sup -1}, which indicates that it may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  11. Adsorption kinetics of surfactants on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnelli; Aditama, WP; Fikriani, Z.; Astuti, Y.

    2018-04-01

    A study on the adsorption of both cationic and anionic surfactants using activated carbon as well as the investigation of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics has been conducted. The results showed that the adsorption of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) by activated carbon was Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm while its adsorption kinetics showed pseudo-second order with an adsorption rate constant of 2.23 x 103 g mg-1 hour-1. Meanwhile, the adsorption of HDTMA-Br by activated carbon showed that the isotherm adsorption tended to follow Freundlich’s isotherm and was pseudo-second order with an adsorption rate constant of 89.39 g mg-1 hour-1.

  12. Enhanced performance of electrospun carbon fibers modified with carbon nanotubes: promising electrodes for enzymatic biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A Both; Cherifi, A; Tingry, S; Cornu, D; Peigney, A; Laurent, Ch

    2013-06-21

    New nanostructured electrodes, promising for the production of clean and renewable energy in biofuel cells, were developed with success. For this purpose, carbon nanofibers were produced by the electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile solution followed by convenient thermal treatments (stabilization followed by carbonization at 1000, 1200 and 1400° C), and carbon nanotubes were adsorbed on the surfaces of the fibers by a dipping method. The morphology of the developed electrodes was characterized by several techniques (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, electrical conductivity measurement). The electrochemical properties were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry, where the influence of the carbonization temperature of the fibers and the beneficial contribution of the carbon nanotubes were observed through the reversibility and size of the redox peaks of K3Fe(CN)6 versus Ag/AgCl. Subsequently, redox enzymes were immobilized on the electrodes and the electroreduction of oxygen to water was realized as a test of their efficiency as biocathodes. Due to the fibrous and porous structure of these new electrodes, and to the fact that carbon nanotubes may have the ability to promote electron transfer reactions of redox biomolecules, the new electrodes developed were capable of producing higher current densities than an electrode composed only of electrospun carbon fibers.

  13. Chemically modified carboxypeptidase Y with increased amidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breddam, K.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of carboxypeptidase Y with 14 C-iodoacetamide caused a drastic reduction in the peptidase activity towards FA-Phe-Leu-OH while the esterase activity towards FA-Phe-OMe, the amidase activity towards FA-Phe-NH 2 and the peptidyl amino acid amide hydrolase activity towards FA-Phe-Gly-NH 2 were much less affected. The loss of peptidase activity could be correlated with the incorporation of a single equivalent of reagent and it was demonstrated that the site of reaction was a methionyl residue, thus forming a sulfonium derivative. Analogous methionyl modifications were performed: carboxypeptidase Y modified with phenacylbromide hydrolysed substrates with bulky leaving groups in the P position, i.e. -OEt, -OBzl, -Gly-NH 2 ,-Gly-OH, and -Leu-OH, at reduced rates while substrates with small groups in that position, i.e. -OMe and -NH 2 , were hydrolysed with increased rates. These results indicate that the methionyl residue modified by phenacylbromide is located in the S binding site of the enzyme. Similar results were obtained with carboxypeptidase Y modified with m-nitrophen- acylbromide and p-nitrophenacylbromide. The increase in amidase activity and decrease in peptidyl amino acid amide hydrolase activity of carboxypeptidase Y following modification with phenacylbromide, m-nitrophenacylbromide, and p-nitrophenacylbromide was exploited in deamidation of peptide amides. These modified enzymes deamidated peptide amides with the exception of those containing a C-terminal glycyl or seryl residue in yields of 80-100% which is significantly higher than with unmodified carboxypeptidase Y. (author)

  14. Pollutants removal onto novel activated carbons made from lignocellulosic precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Valente Nabais, Joao; Laginhas, Carlos; Carrott, Manuela; Carrott, Peter; Gomes, Jose; Suhas, Suhas; Ramires, Ana; Roman, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of phenol and mercury from dilute aqueous solutions onto new activated carbons was studied. These included activated carbons produced from novel precursors, namely rapeseed, vine shoots and kenaf, and samples oxidised with nitric acid in liquid phase. The results have shown the significant potential of rapeseed, vine shoots and kenaf for the activated carbon production. The activated carbons produced by carbon dioxide activation were mainly microporous with BET apparent surface...

  15. Layer-by-layer self-assembling copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine on carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode for electro-oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik, Mahabul; Rao, V.K.; Gupta, Manish; Pandey, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the electrocatalytic activity of layer-by-layer self-assembled copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPcTS) on carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. CuPcTS is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) layer and a CuPcTS layer. UV–vis absorption spectra and electrochemical measurements suggested the successive linear depositions of the bilayers of CuPcTs and PDDA on CNT. The surface morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The viability of this CuPcTS/PDDA/CNT modified GC electrode as a redox mediator for the anodic oxidation and sensitive amperometric determination of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) in alkaline conditions is described. The effect of number of bilayers of CuPcTS/PDDA and pH on electrochemical oxidation of 2-ME was studied. The proposed electrochemical sensor displayed excellent characteristics towards the determination of 2-ME in 0.1 M NaOH; such as low overpotentials (− 0.15 V vs Ag/AgCl), linear concentration range of 3 × 10 −5 M to 6 × 10 −3 M, and with a detection limit of 2.5 × 10 −5 M using simple amperometry. - Highlights: ► Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were drop-dried on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). ► Copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPcTS) was deposited on CNT/GCE. ► Layer-by-layer self-assembling method is used for depositing CuPcTS. ► Electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) was studied at this electrode ► The detection limit of ME at modified electrode was 25 μM by amperometry.

  16. Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofiber and Carbon Nanotube Supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum carbide was supported on three types of carbon support—activated carbon; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; and carbon nanofibers—using ammonium molybdate and molybdic acid as Mo precursors. The use of activated carbon as support afforded an X-ray amorphous Mo phase, whereas crystalline molybdenum carbide phases were obtained on carbon nanofibers and, in some cases, on carbon nanotubes. When the resulting catalysts were tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol in dodecane, catechol and phenol were obtained as the main products, although in some instances significant amounts of cyclohexane were produced. The observation of catechol in all reaction mixtures suggests that guaiacol was converted into phenol via sequential demethylation and HDO, although the simultaneous occurrence of a direct demethoxylation pathway cannot be discounted. Catalysts based on carbon nanofibers generally afforded the highest yields of phenol; notably, the only crystalline phase detected in these samples was Mo2C or Mo2C-ζ, suggesting that crystalline Mo2C is particularly selective to phenol. At 350 °C, carbon nanofiber supported Mo2C afforded near quantitative guaiacol conversion, the selectivity to phenol approaching 50%. When guaiacol HDO was performed in the presence of acetic acid and furfural, guaiacol conversion decreased, although the selectivity to both catechol and phenol was increased.

  17. Surface modification, characterization and adsorptive properties of a coconut activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xincheng [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Jiang Jianchun, E-mail: lhs_ac2011@yahoo.cn [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Sun Kang; Xie Xinping; Hu Yiming [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2012-08-01

    A coconut activated carbon was modified using chemical methods. Different concentration of nitric acid oxidation of the conventional sample produced samples with weakly acidic functional groups. The oxidized samples were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, nitrogen absorption-desorption, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, Bothem method, pH titration, adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and the adsorption mechanism of activated carbons was investigated. The results showed that BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbons were decreased after oxidization process, while acidic functional groups were increased. The surface morphology of oxidized carbons looked clean and eroded which was caused by oxidization of nitric acid. The oxidized carbons showed high adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and chemical properties of activated carbon played an important role in adsorption of metal ions and organic pollutants.

  18. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  19. Determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified glassy carbon electrode with immobilized silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles on multiwall carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noroozifar, Meissam; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Taheri, Aboozar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → GC electrode modified with silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (SHFNPs) immobilized on MWCNT. → Modified electrode use for determination of Cyanide in waste water. → The detection limit of the sensor is 8.3 nM. → The linear range is from 40.0 nM to 150.0 μM. - Abstract: The sensitive determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified GC electrode with silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (SHFNPs) immobilized on multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was reported. The immobilization of SHFNPs on MWCNT was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM image showed that the SHFNPs retained the spherical morphology after immobilized on MWCNT. The size of SHFNPs was examined around 27 nm. The GC/MWCNT-SHFNPs was used for the determination of cyanide in borax buffer (BB) solution (pH 8.0). Using square wave voltammetry, the current response of cyanide increases linearly while increasing its concentration from 40.0 nM to 150.0 μM and a detection limit was found to be 8.3 nM (S/N = 3). The present modified electrode was also successfully used for the determination of 5.0 μM cyanide in the presence of common contaminants at levels presenting in industrial wastewaters. The practical application of the present modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of cyanide in industrial wastewater samples. Moreover, the studied sensor exhibited high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability.

  20. Electrochemical behavior of cysteine at a CuGeO3 nanowires modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yongping; Pei Lizhai; Chu Xiangfeng; Zhang Wangbing; Zhang Qianfeng

    2010-01-01

    A CuGeO 3 nanowire modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveal that electron transfer through nanowire film is facile compared with that of bare glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode exhibited a novel electrocatalytic behavior to the electrochemical reactions of L-cysteine in neutral solution, which was not reported previously. Two pairs of semi-reversible electrochemical peaks were observed and assigned to the processes of oxidation/reduction and adsorption/desorption of cysteine at the modified electrode, respectively. The electrochemical response of cysteine is poor in alkaline condition and is enhanced greatly in acidic solution, suggesting that hydrogen ions participate in the electrochemical oxidation process of cysteine. The intensities of two anodic peaks varied linearly with the concentration of cysteine in the range of 1 x 10 -6 to 1 x 10 -3 mol L -1 , which make it possible to sensitive detection of cysteine with the CuGeO 3 nanowire modified electrode. Furthermore, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and stability.

  1. Surface Properties of PAN-based Carbon Fibers Modified by Electrochemical Oxidization in Organic Electrolyte Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Bo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PAN-based carbon fibers were modified by electrochemical oxidization using fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether phosphate (O3P, triethanolamine (TEOA and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether ammonium phosphate (O3PNH4 as organic electrolyte respectively. Titration analysis, single fiber fracture strength measurement and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM were used to evaluate the content of acidic functional group on the surface, mechanical properties and surface morphology of carbon fiber. The optimum process of electrochemical treatment obtained is at 50℃ for 2min and O3PNH4 (5%, mass fraction as the electrolyte with current density of 2A/g. In addition, the surface properties of modified carbon fibers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and single fiber contact angle test. The results show that the hydrophilic acidic functional groups on the surface of carbon fiber which can enhance the surface energy are increased by the electrochemical oxidation using O3PNH4 as electrolyte, almost without any weakening to the mechanical properties of carbon fiber.

  2. Electrocatalytic performance of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, J.S.; Kamat, J.V.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the analytical perspectives of graphene modified electrode utilising commercially available graphene, which is well characterised, completely free from surfactants and has not been purposely oxidised or treated. We compare and critically contrast the electro-analytical performance of graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes (Gr/GC) with that of unmodified GC electrode towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction, monitoring of which has considerable importance in a plethora of areas where electrochemistry is conveniently and beneficially utilised for determination of nuclear fuels

  3. Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine for Selective Sulfur Detection in Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc films were deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode using a simple drop coating method. The cyclic voltammogram of the resulting CoPc modified screen-printed electrode (CoPc/SPE prepared under optimum conditions shows a well-behaved redox couple due to the (CoI/CoII system. The CoPc/SPE surface demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of sulfur in a 0.01 mol·L−1 NaOH. A linear calibration curve with the detection limit (DL, S/N = 3 of 0.325 mg·L−1 was achieved by CoPc/SPE coupled with flow injection analysis of the sulfur concentration ranging from 4 to 1120 mg·L−1. The precision of the system response was evaluated (3.60% and 3.52% RSD for 12 repeated injections, in the range of 64 and 480 mg·L−1 sulfur. The applicability of the method was successfully demonstrated in a real sample analysis of sulfur in anti-acne creams, and good recovery was obtained. The CoPc/SPE displayed several advantages in sulfur determination including easy fabrication, high stability, and low cost.

  4. Polypyrrole/Co-tetraphenylporphyrin modified carbon fibre paper as a fuel cell electrocatalyst of oxygen reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weimin; Chen, Jun; Wagner, Pawel; Wallace, Gordon G. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522 (Australia); Swiegers, Gerhard F. [CSIRO Molecular and Health Technologies, Bag 10, Clayton VIC 3169 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    A thin-layer of polypyrrole (PPy) film, immobilized with neutral 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato cobalt (II) (Co-TPP), was successfully and uniformly deposited onto mesoporous carbon fibre paper (CFP) via vapor-phase polymerization. The resulting PPy/Co-TPP-modified carbon fibre paper (PPy/Co-TPP-CFP) electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, SEM and EDX-ray mapping. Its electrochemical stability and long-term electrocatalytic performance were investigated in a half-fuel cell testing system. The electrode displayed significant electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction at 0.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), with notable long-term stability. (author)

  5. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  6. USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for uses other than taste and odor control is poorly documented, the purpose of this article is to critically review uses that have been reported (i.e., pesticides and herbicides, synthetic organic chemicals, and trihalom...

  7. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment is a physicochemical process that removes a wide variety of contaminants by adsorbing them from liquid and gas streams [1, p. 6-3]. This treatment is most commonly used to separate organic contaminants from water or air; however, it can b...

  8. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a nickel(II) norcorrole complex and carbon nanotubes for simultaneous or individual determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Keqin; Li, Xiaofang; Huang, Haowen

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on the synthesis of a hybrid material consisting of the porphyrinoid metal complex nickel(II) norcorrole that was noncovalently bound to carbon nanotubes (CNT-NiNC). The hybrid was characterized by UV–vis, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The CNT-NiNC hybrid possesses high catalytic activity and selectivity toward the oxidation of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid. It was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode which then is shown to enable simultaneous or individual determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) at pH 6.5 and typical working potentials of −70, 200 and 380 mV (vs. SCE). The detection limits (at an SNR of 3) are 2.0 μM for AA, 0.1 μM for DA, and 0.4 μM for UA. (author)

  9. Modification of activated carbon using nitration followed by reduction for carbon dioxide capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafeeyan, Mohammad Saleh; Houshmand, Amirhossein; Arami-Niya, Arash; Daud, Wan Mohd AshiWan [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Razaghizadeh, Hosain [Dept. of Faculty of Environment and Energy, Research and Science Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Activated carbon (AC) samples were modified using nitration followed by reduction to enhance their CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities. Besides characterization of the samples, investigation of CO{sub 2} capture performance was conducted by CO{sub 2} isothermal adsorption, temperature-programmed (TP) CO{sub 2} adsorption, cyclic CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, and dynamic CO{sub 2} adsorption tests. Almost all modified samples showed a rise in the amount of CO{sub 2} adsorbed when the comparison is made in unit surface area. On the other hand, some of the samples displayed a capacity superior to that of the parent material when compared in mass unit, especially at elevated temperatures. Despite ⁓65% decrease in the surface area, TP-CO{sub 2} adsorption of the best samples exhibited increases of ⁓10 and 70% in CO{sub 2} capture capacity at 30 and 100 °C, respectively.

  10. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  11. A Modified Porous Titanium Sheet Prepared by Plasma-Activated Sintering for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukimichi Tamaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a contamination-free porous titanium scaffold by a plasma-activated sintering within an originally developed TiN-coated graphite mold. The surface of porous titanium sheet with or without a coated graphite mold was characterized. The cell adhesion property of porous titanium sheet was also evaluated in this study. The peak of TiC was detected on the titanium sheet processed with the graphite mold without a TiN coating. Since the titanium fiber elements were directly in contact with the carbon graphite mold during processing, surface contamination was unavoidable event in this condition. The TiC peak was not detectable on the titanium sheet processed within the TiN-coated carbon graphite mold. This modified plasma-activated sintering with the TiN-coated graphite mold would be useful to fabricate a contamination-free titanium sheet. The number of adherent cells on the modified titanium sheet was greater than that of the bare titanium plate. Stress fiber formation and the extension of the cells were observed on the titanium sheets. This modified titanium sheet is expected to be a new tissue engineering material in orthopedic bone repair.

  12. Highly sensitive amperometric sensor for micromolar detection of trichloroacetic acid based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Fe(II)–phtalocyanine modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd, Masoumeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Hallaj, Rahman

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is developed by subsequent immobilization of phthalocyanine (Pc) and Fe(II) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) electrode showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) with surface-confined characteristics. The surface coverage (Γ) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) of immobilized Fe(II)–Pc were calculated as 1.26 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 and 28.13 s −1 , respectively. Excellent electrocatalytic activity of the proposed GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) system toward TCA reduction has been indicated and the three consequent irreversible peaks for electroreduction of CCl 3 COOH to CH 3 COOH have been clearly seen. The observed chronoamperometric currents are linearly increased with the concentration of TCA at concentration range up to 20 mM. Detection limit and sensitivity of the modified electrode were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM −1 cm −2 , respectively. The applicability of the sensor for TCA detection in real samples was tested. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system can serve as a promising electrochemical platform for TCA detection. Highlights: ► Phthalocyanine (PC) and Fe(II) immobilized onto MWCNTs modified GC electrode. ► A pair of well-defined redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) observed. ► Modified electrode shows excellent catalytic activity to electroreduction of CCl 3 COOH. ► Amperometry and cyclic voltammetry techniques were used for detection of CCl 3 COOH. ► Detection limit and sensitivity were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM −1 cm −2 , respectively

  13. Electrocatalytical oxidation and sensitive determination of acetaminophen on glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene–chitosan composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meixia; Gao, Feng; Wang, Qingxiang; Cai, Xili; Jiang, Shulian; Huang, Lizhang; Gao, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of acetaminophen (ACOP) on a graphene–chitosan (GR–CS) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electrochemical characterization showed that the GR–CS nanocomposite had excellent electrocatalytic activity and surface area effect. As compared with bare GCE, the redox signal of ACOP on GR–CS/GCE was greatly enhanced. The values of electron transfer rate constant (k s ), diffusion coefficient (D) and the surface adsorption amount (Γ ⁎ ) of ACOP on GR–CS/GCE were determined to be 0.25 s −1 , 3.61 × 10 −5 cm 2 s −1 and 1.09 × 10 −9 mol cm −2 , respectively. Additionally, a 2e − /2H + electrochemical reaction mechanism of ACOP was deduced based on the acidity experiment. Under the optimized conditions, the ACOP could be quantified in the range from 1.0 × 10 −6 to 1.0 × 10 −4 M with a low detection limit of 3.0 × 10 −7 M based on 3S/N. The interference and recovery experiments further showed that the proposed method is acceptable for the determination of ACOP in real pharmaceutical preparations. Highlights: ► A chitosan–graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared. ► The modified electrode was electrochemically characterized by CV and EIS. ► Electro-oxidation of acetaminophen was examined on the modified electrode. ► Sensing analysis of the modified electrode toward acetaminophen was studied

  14. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A at ordered mesoporous carbon modified nano-carbon ionic liquid paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Zhai, Xiurong; Liu, Xinsheng; Wang, Ling; Liu, Herong; Wang, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    A simple bisphenol A (BPA) sensor was successfully fabricated based on ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 modified nano-carbon ionic liquid paste electrode (CMK-3/nano-CILPE). The nanostructure of CMK-3 and the surface morphologies of modified electrodes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical properties of the fabricated electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fabricated sensor displayed excellent electroactivity towards bisphenol A using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Experimental conditions influencing the analytical performance of the modified electrode were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to BPA concentration in the range from 0.2 μM to 150 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N=3). This method was successfully used for determination of BPA leached from drinking bottle and plastic bag with good recoveries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Facile preparation of molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode for rutin sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lite; Yang, Juan; Xu, Bingjie; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel molecularly imprinted composite film modified electrode was presented for rutin (RT) detection. The modified electrode was fabricated by electropolymerization of pyrrole on a graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite (G-MWCNTs) coated glassy carbon electrode in the presence of RT. The netlike G-MWCNTs composite, prepared by in situ hydrothermal process, had high conductivity and electrocatalytic activity. At the resulting MIP/G-MWCNTs/GCE electrode RT could produce a sensitive anodic peak in pH 1.87 Britton-Robinson buffer solution. The factors affecting the electrochemical behavior and response of RT on the modified electrode were carefully investigated and optimized. Under the selected conditions, the linear response range of RT was 0.01-1.0μmolL -1 and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 5.0nmolL -1 . The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of RT in buckwheat tea and orange juice samples, and the recoveries for standards added were 93.4-105%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Graphite Nanosheets Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Susu; He, Ping; Zhang, Guangli; Lei, Wen; He, Huichao

    2015-01-01

    Graphite nanosheets prepared by thermal expansion and successive sonication were utilized for the construction of a multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite nanosheets based amperometric sensing platform to simultaneously determine acetaminophen and dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid in physiological conditions. The synergistic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite nanosheets catalyzed the electrooxidation of acetaminophen and dopamine, leading to a remarkable potential difference up to 200 mV. The as-prepared modified electrode exhibited linear responses to acetaminophen and dopamine in the concentration ranges of 2.0 × 10(-6) - 2.4 × 10(-4) M (R = 0.999) and 2.0 × 10(-6) - 2.0 × 10(-4) M (R = 0.998), respectively. The detection limits were down to 2.3 × 10(-7) M for acetaminophen and 3.5 × 10(-7) M for dopamine (S/N = 3). Based on the simple preparation and prominent electrochemical properties, the obtained multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite nanosheets modified electrode would be a good candidate for the determination of acetaminophen and dopamine without the interference of ascorbic acid.

  17. Glassy carbon electrode modified with horse radish peroxidase/organic nucleophilic-functionalized carbon nanotube composite for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation and efficient voltammetric sensing of levodopa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoja, Yalda; Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir; Ghodsi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A novel and selective enzymatic biosensor was designed and constructed for voltammetric determination of levodopa (L-Dopa) in aqueous media (phosphate buffer solution, pH = 7). Biosensor development was on the basis of to physically immobilizing of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as electrochemical catalyst by sol–gel on glassy carbon electrode modified with organic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite which in this composite p-phenylenediamine (pPDA) as organic nucleophile chemically bonded with functionalized MWCNT (MWCNT-COOH). The results of this study suggest that prepared bioorganic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite (HRP/MWCNT-pPDA) shows fast electron transfer rate for electro oxidation of L-Dopa because of its high electrochemical catalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-Dopa, more −NH{sub 2} reactive sites and large effective surface area. Also in this work we measured L-Dopa in the presence of folic acid and uric acid as interferences. The proposed biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), FT-IR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for determination of L-Dopa from 0.1 μM to 1.9 μM with a low detection limit of 40 nM (for S/N = 3) and sensitivity was about 35.5 μA/μM. Also this biosensor has several advantages such as rapid response, high stability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • Glassy carbon electrode modified by a novel composite in which pPDA as nucleophile is chemically attached to MWCNTs. • The developed biosensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity in electrochemically determination of L-Dopa. • The biosensor showed acceptable sensitivity, reproducibility, detection limit, selectivity and stability. • MWCNT-pPDA provides a good electrical conductivity and large effective surface area for enzyme immobilization.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2014-04-01

    Mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres is studied following various processing conditions. Hemp fibres combined with carbon nanotubes (CNT) are introduced in mortar and their effect is studied as function of curing time. The cement phase is replaced by different percentages of dry or wet hemp fibres ranging from 1.1. wt% up to 3.1. wt% whereas carbon nanotubes are dispersed in the aqueous solution. Our experimental results show that compressive and flexural strengths of wet fibres modified mortar are higher than those for dry hemp-mortar material. The achieved optimal percentage of wet hemp fibres is 2.1. wt% allowing a flexural strength higher than that of reference mortar. The addition of an optimal CNT concentration (0.01. wt%) combined with wet hemp has a reinforcing effect which turns to be related to an improvement of compressive and flexural strengths by 10% and 24%, respectively, in comparison with reference condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effect of solvent on Se-modified ruthenium/carbon catalyst for oxygen reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanxiang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se-modified ruthenium supporting on carbon (Sex–Ru/C electrocatalyst was prepared by solvothermal one-step synthesis method. The reaction mechanism was revealed after discussing impact of different solvents (i-propanol and EG in solvotermal reaction. The result showed that the grain size of Se-modified ruthenium electrocatalyst was as small as 1 to 3 nm and highly dispersed on carbon surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS presented that selenium mainly existed in the catalyst in the form of elemental selenium and selenium oxides when the solvent was EG and i-propanol, respectively. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR performance was improved by appearance of selenium oxides.

  20. In-Situ Liquid Hydrogenation of m-Chloronitrobenzene over Fe-Modified Pt/Carbon Nanotubes Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In-situ liquid-phase hydrogenation of m-chloronitrobenzene (m-CNB based on aqueous-phase reforming (APR of ethanol and catalytic hydrogenation was carried out over Fe-modified Pt/carbon nanotubes (CNTs catalysts. The effects of Pt loading over CNTs and Fe modification on the catalytic performance of Pt/CNTs catalysts were studied. In-tube loading of Pt particles, compared with out-tube loading, considerably improved the catalytic activity. With in-tube loading, Fe-modified Pt/CNTs catalysts further improved the m-CNB in-situ hydrogenation performance. After Fe modification, Pt–Fe/CNTs catalysts formed, inside CNTs, a Pt–Fe alloy and iron oxides, which both improved catalytic hydrogenation performance and significantly enhanced ethanol APR hydrogen producing performance, thereby increasing the m-CNB in-situ hydrogenation reactivity.

  1. Human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells on polysulfone modified with carbon nanotubes or carbon nanohorns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staňková, Ľubica; Fraczek-Szczypta, A.; Blazewicz, M.; Filová, Elena; Blazewicz, S.; Lisá, Věra; Bačáková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, Feb 2014 (2014), s. 578-591 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1168 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : carbon * nanotubes * cells Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 6.196, year: 2014

  2. Electronic properties of pristine and modified single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamova, M V

    2013-01-01

    The current status of research on the electronic properties of filled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is reviewed. SWCNT atomic structure and electronic properties are described, and their correlation is discussed. Methods for modifying the electronic properties of SWCNTs are considered. SWCNT filling materials are systematized. Experimental and theoretical data on the electronic properties of filled SWCNTs are analyzed. Possible application areas for filled SWCNTs are explored. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. Electrochemical behavior of platinum nanoparticles on a carbon xerogel support modified with a [(trifluoromethyl)-benzenesulfonyl]imide electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Mei, Hua; DesMarteau, Darryl; Creager, Stephen E

    2014-12-11

    A monoprotic [(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonyl]imide (SI) superacid electrolyte was used to covalently modify a mesoporous carbon xerogel (CX) support via reaction of the corresponding trifluoromethyl aryl sulfonimide diazonium zwitterion with the carbon surface. Electrolyte attachment was demonstrated by elemental analysis, acid-base titration, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ion-exchange capacity of the fluoroalkyl-aryl-sulfonimide-grafted carbon xerogel (SI-CX) was ∼0.18 mequiv g(-1), as indicated by acid-base titration. Platinum nanoparticles were deposited onto the SI-grafted carbon xerogel samples by the impregnation and reduction method, and these materials were employed to fabricate polyelectrolyte membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) electrodes by the decal transfer method. The SI-grafted carbon-xerogel-supported platinum (Pt/SI-CX) was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy to determine platinum nanoparticle size and distribution, and the findings are compared with CX-supported platinum catalyst without the grafted SI electrolyte (Pt/CX). Platinum nanoparticle sizes are consistently larger on Pt/SI-CX than on Pt/CX. The electrochemically active surface area (ESA) of platinum catalyst on the Pt/SI-CX and Pt/CX samples was measured with ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) using both hydrogen adsorption/desorption and carbon monoxide stripping methods and by in situ CV within membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The ESA values for Pt/SI-CX are consistently lower than those for Pt/CX. Some possible reasons for the behavior of samples with and without grafted SI layers and implications for the possible use of SI-grafted carbon layers in PEMFC devices are discussed.

  4. Electrochemical behaviour of dopamine at covalent modified glassy carbon electrode with l-cysteine: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of glassy carbon (GC electrode has been modified by oxidation of L-cysteine. The covalent modified GC electrode with L-Cysteine has been studied, according the supporting electrolyte used. Favourable interactions between the L-cysteine film and DA enhance the current response compared to that at the Nafion GC and bare GC electrodes, achieving better performances than those other electrodes. This behaviour was as result of the adsorption of the cysteine layer film, compact and uniform formation; depending on L-cysteine solution (phosphate buffer or chloridric acid supporting electrolyte used for modifying GC surface. In cyclic voltammetric measurements, modified electrodes can successfully separate the oxidation/reduction DA peaks in different buffer solutions, but an evident dependence in the response was obtained as function of pH and modified electrode. The modified electrode prepared with L-cysteine/HCl solution was used to obtain the calibration curve and it exhibited a stable and sensitive response to DA. The results are described and discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  5. One-pot synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel double-modified derivatives of the polyether ionophore monensin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejborowska, Greta; Maj, Ewa; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Stefańska, Joanna; Huczyński, Adam

    2018-05-02

    Monensin A (MON) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic, which shows a wide spectrum of biological activity. New MON derivatives such as double-modified ester-carbonates and double-modified amide-carbonates were obtained by a new and efficient one-pot synthesis with triphosgene as the activating reagent and the respective alcohol or amine. All new derivatives were tested for their antiproliferative activity against two drug-sensitive (MES-SA, LoVo) and two drug-resistant (MES-SA/DX5, LoVo/DX) cancer cell lines, and were also studied for their antimicrobial activity against different Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial strains. For the first time, the activity of MON and its derivatives against MES-SA and MES-SA/DX5 were evaluated. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Relation between the adsorbed quantity and the immersion enthalpy in catechol aqueous solutions on activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Diego; Giraldo, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An activated carbon, Carbochem(TM)-PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H(2), in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis, at 298 K and pH 7, 9 and 11 in order to evaluate the adsorption value above and below that of the catechol pK(a). The adsorption capacity of carbons increases when the solution pH decreases. The retained amount increases slightly in the reduced carbon to maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. Similar conclusions are obtained from the immersion enthalpies, whose values increase with the solute quantity retained. In granular activated carbon (CAG), the immersion enthalpies obtained are between 21.5 and 45.7 J·g(-1) for catechol aqueous solutions in a range of 20 at 1500 mg·L(-1).

  7. Relation Between the Adsorbed Quantity and the Immersion Enthalpy in Catechol Aqueous Solutions on Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon, CarbochemTM—PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H2, in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis, at 298 K and pH 7, 9 and 11 in order to evaluate the adsorption value above and below that of the catechol pKa. The adsorption capacity of carbons increases when the solution pH decreases. The retained amount increases slightly in the reduced carbon to maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. Similar conclusions are obtained from the immersion enthalpies, whose values increase with the solute quantity retained. In granular activated carbon (CAG, the immersion enthalpies obtained are between 21.5 and 45.7 J·g−1 for catechol aqueous solutions in a range of 20 at 1500 mg·L−1.

  8. Removal of copper ions from water using chemical modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.J.; Yang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were modified by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solutions and were employed as adsorbents to study the adsorption characteristics of copper ions from water. The results show that adsorption capacity of CNTs treated by NaClO solution can be greatly enhanced. The adsorption capacity of Cu2+ on as received and modified CNTs increased with the increase of pH and CNTs mass, but it decreased with the temperature. Experimental data also indicated that the adsorption process could achieve equilibrium within 40 min. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the experimental data very well. According to the Langmuir model the maximum copper ions adsorption uptake onto modified CNTs was determined as 40.00 mg/g. Our results suggest that CNTs have profound potential application in environmental protection. (author)

  9. Voltammetric detection of bisphenol a by a chitosan–graphene composite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingxiang; Wang Yuhua; Liu Shengyun; Wang Liheng; Gao Feng; Gao Fei; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was fabricated and further modified with chitosan (CTS) and graphene (GR) composite film. The fabricated CTS-GR/CILE was further used for the investigation on the electrochemical behavior of bisphenol A (BPA) by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. A well-defined anodic peak appeared at 0.436 V in 0.1 mol/L pH 8.0 Britton–Robinson buffer solution, which was attributed to the electrooxidation of BPA on the modified electrode. The electrochemical parameters of BPA on the modified electrode were calculated with the results of the charge transfer coefficient (α) as 0.662 and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) as 1.36 s −1 . Under the optimal conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of BPA and its concentration can be obtained in the range from 0.1 μmol/L to 800.0 μmol/L with the limit of detection as 2.64 × 10 −8 mol/L (3σ). The CTS-GR/CILE was applied to the detection of BPA content in plastic products with satisfactory results. - Highlights: ► A graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated and characterized. ► Electrochemical behaviors of bisphenol A were investigated. ► Bisphenol A was detected by the proposed electrode.

  10. Direct electron transfer and electrocatalysis of glucose oxidase immobilized on glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and mesoporous carbon FDU-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kunqi; Yang Hua; Zhu Lin; Ma Zhongsu; Xing Shenyang; Lv Qiang; Liao Jianhui; Liu Changpeng; Xing Wei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, it was found that glucose oxidase (GOD) has been stably immobilized on glassy carbon electrode modified with mesoporous carbon FDU-15 (MC-FDU-15) and Nafion by simple technique. The sorption behavior of GOD immobilized on MC-FDU-15 matrix was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), FTIR, respectively, which demonstrated that MC-FDU-15 could facilitate the electron exchange between the active center of GOD and electrode. The direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis behavior of GOD on the modified electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammogram (CV) which indicated that GOD immobilized on Nafion and MC-FDU-15 matrices display direct, reversible and surface-controlled redox reaction with an enhanced electron transfer rate constant of 4.095 s -1 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) (pH 7.12). Furthermore, it was also discovered that, in the presence of O 2 , GOD immobilized on Nafion and MC-FDU-15 matrices could produce a linear response to glucose. Thus, Nafion/GOD-MC-FDU-15/GC electrode is hopeful to be used in glucose biosensor. In addition, GOD immobilized on MC-FDU-15 and Nafion matrices possesses an excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of O 2 . So, the Nafion/GOD-MC-FDU-15/GC electrode can be utilized as the cathode in biofuel cell.

  11. Fabrication of bimetallic Ag/Fe immobilized on modified biochar for removal of carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Wu; Qiyan Feng

    2017-01-01

    As an effective conventional absorbent,biochar exhibited limited adsorption ability toward small hydrophobic molecules.To enhance the adsorption capacity,a novel adsorbent was prepared by immobilizing nanoscale zero-valent iron onto modified biochar (MB) and then the elemental silver was attached to the surface of iron (Ag/Fe/MB).It's noted that spherical Ag/Fe nanoparticles with diameter of 51 nm were highly dispersed on the surface of MB.As the typical hydrophobic contaminant,carbon tetrachloride was selected for examining the removal efficiency of the adsorbent.The removal efficiencies of carbon tetrachloride by original biochar (OB),Ag/Fe,Ag/Fe/OB and Ag/Fe/MB were fully investigated.It's found that Ag/Fe/MB showed higher carbon tetrachloride removal efficiency,which is about 5.5 times higher than that of the OB sample due to utilizing the merits of high adsorption and reduction.Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the removal of carbon tetrachloride by Ag/Fe/MB was a spontaneous and exothermic process,which was affected by solution pH,initial carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature.The novel Ag/Fe/MB composites provided a promising material for carbon tetrachloride removal from effluent.

  12. Removal of Chromium (III from Water by Using Modified and Nonmodified Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muataz Ali Atieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the environmental application of modified and nonmodified carbon nanotubes through the experiment removal of chromium trivalent (III from water. The aim was to find the optimal condition of the chromium (III removal from water under different treatment conditions of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and agitation speed. Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes produced varied from 20–40 nm with average diameter of 24 nm and 10 micrometer in length. Adsorption isotherms were used to model the adsorption behavior and to calculate the adsorption capacity of the absorbents. The results showed that, 18% of chromium (III removal was achieved using modified carbon nanotubes (M-CNTs at pH 7, 150 rpm, and 2 hours for a dosage of 150 mg of CNTs. The removal of Cr (III is mainly attributed to the affinity of chromium (III to the physical and chemical properties of the CNTs. The adsorption isotherms plots were well fitted with experimental data.

  13. Electrochemical detection of nitrite based on the polythionine/carbon nanotube modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chunyan; Chen, Jinzhuo; Nie, Zhou; Yang, Minghui; Si, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, thionine was electro-polymerized onto the surface of carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) to fabricate the polythionine (PTH)/CNT/GC electrode. It was found that the electro-reduction current of nitrite was enhanced greatly at the PTH/CNT/GC electrode. It may be demonstrated that PTH was used as a mediator for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite, and CNTs as an excellent nanomaterial can improve the electron transfer between the electrode and nitrite. Therefore, based on the synergic effect of PTH and CNTs, the PTH/CNT/GC electrode was employed to detect nitrite, and the high sensitivity of 5.81 μA mM −1 , and the detection limit of 1.4 × 10 −6 M were obtained. Besides, the modified electrode showed an inherent stability, fast response time, and good anti-interference ability. These suggested that the PTH/CNT/GC electrode was favorable and reliable for the detection of nitrite. - Highlights: ► Polythionine (PTH) was used as a mediator for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite. ► Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) improve electron transfer between the electrode and nitrite. ► The PTH/CNT/glassy carbon electrode showed excellent nitrite detection performance.

  14. Electrocatalytic activity of electropolymerized cobalt tetraaminophthalocyanine film modified electrode towards 6-mercaptopurine and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jie-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Ying, Min

    2010-01-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of electropolymerized cobalt tetraaminophthalocyanine (poly-CoTAPc) film modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) towards 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI) was studied. Comparing with the case at the unmodified GCE, the poly-CoTAPc film decreased the overpotential of oxidation of 6MP (1.0 x 10-3 mol L-1) and MBI (1.0 x 10-3 mol L-1) by 335 and 189 mV, respectively, and increased the peak current by about 3 and 2 times, respectively, wh...

  15. Effect of Interface Modified by Graphene on the Mechanical and Frictional Properties of Carbon/Graphene/Carbon Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Luo, Ruiying; Hou, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we developed an interface modified by graphene to simultaneously improve the mechanical and frictional properties of carbon/graphene/carbon (C/G/C) composite. Results indicated that the C/G/C composite exhibits remarkably improved interfacial bonding mode, static and dynamic mechanical performance, thermal conductivity, and frictional properties in comparison with those of the C/C composite. The weight contents of carbon fibers, graphene and pyrolytic carbon are 31.6, 0.3 and 68.1 wt %, respectively. The matrix of the C/G/C composite was mainly composed of rough laminar (RL) pyrocarbon. The average hardness by nanoindentation of the C/G/C and C/C composite matrices were 0.473 and 0.751 GPa, respectively. The flexural strength (three point bending), interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), interfacial debonding strength (IDS), internal friction and storage modulus of the C/C composite were 106, 10.3, 7.6, 0.038 and 12.7 GPa, respectively. Those properties of the C/G/C composite increased by 76.4%, 44.6%, 168.4% and 22.8%, respectively, and their internal friction decreased by 42.1% in comparison with those of the C/C composite. Owing to the lower hardness of the matrix, improved fiber/matrix interface bonding strength, and self-lubricating properties of graphene, a complete friction film was easily formed on the friction surface of the modified composite. Compared with the C/C composite, the C/G/C composite exhibited stable friction coefficients and lower wear losses at simulating air-plane normal landing (NL) and rejected take-off (RTO). The method appears to be a competitive approach to improve the mechanical and frictional properties of C/C composites simultaneously. PMID:28773613

  16. Nafion/lead nitroprusside nanoparticles modified carbon ceramic electrode as a novel amperometric sensor for L-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, H; Heidari, H

    2009-05-01

    This work describes the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) modified with lead nitroprusside (PbNP) nanoparticles as a new electrocatalyst material. The structure of deposited film on the CCE was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cyclic voltammogram (CV) of the PbNP modified CCE showed two well-defined redox couples due to [Fe(CN)5NO](3-)/[Fe(CN)5NO](2-) and Pb(IV)/Pb(II) redox reactions. The modified electrode showed electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-cysteine and was used as an amperometric sensor. Also, to reduce the fouling effect of L-cysteine and its oxidation products on the modified electrode, a thin film of Nafion was coated on the electrode surface. The sensor response was linearly changed with L-cysteine concentration in the range of 1 x 10(-6) to 6.72 x 10(-5)mol L(-1) with a detection limit (signal/noise ratio [S/N]=3) of 0.46 microM. The sensor sensitivity was 0.17 microA (microM)(-1), and some important advantages such as simple preparation, fast response, good stability, interference-free signals, antifouling properties, and reproducibility of the sensor for amperometric determination of L-cysteine were achieved.

  17. Aspects of the Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube Modified Epoxy Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, Vahid

    Epoxy resins used in fibre reinforced composites exhibit a brittle fracture behaviour, because they show no sign of damage prior to a catastrophic failure. Rubbery materials and micro-particles have been added to epoxy resins to improve their fracture toughness, which reduces strength and elastic properties. In this research, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated as a potential toughening agent for epoxy resins and carbon fibre reinforced composites, which can also enhance strength and elastic properties. More specifically, the toughening mechanisms of CNTs are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The effect of aligned and randomly oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the fracture toughness of polymers was modelled using Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics. Toughening from CNT pull-out and rupture were considered, depending on the CNTs critical length. The model was used to identify the effect of CNTs geometrical and mechanical properties on the fracture toughness of CNT-modified epoxies. The modelling results showed that a uniform dispersion and alignment of a high volume fraction of CNTs normal to the crack growth plane would lead to the maximum fracture toughness enhancement. To achieve a uniform dispersion, the effect of processing on the dispersion of single walled and multi walled CNTs in epoxy resins was investigated. An instrumented optical microscope with a hot stage was used to quantify the evolution of the CNT dispersion during cure. The results showed that the reduction of the resin viscosity at temperatures greater than 100 °C caused an irreversible re-agglomeration of the CNTs in the matrix. The dispersion quality was then directly correlated to the fracture toughness of the modified resin. It was shown that the fine tuning of the ratio of epoxy resin, curing agent and CNT content was paramount to the improvement of the base resin fracture toughness. For the epoxy resin (MY0510 from Hexcel), an improvement of 38% was achieved with 0.3 wt

  18. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ji, E-mail: yangji@ecust.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  19. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ji; Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m 2 g -1 , the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  20. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Cao, Limei; Guo, Rui; Jia, Jinping

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m(2)g(-1), the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Bayer, E.

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm 3 to 0.52 g.cm 3 . Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g -1 ), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g -1 ). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V micro ) was between 0.33cm 3 .g -1 - 0.40cm 3 .g -1 , while the mesopore volume(V meso ) was between 0.05 cm 3 .g -1 - 0.07 cm 3 .g -1 . The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m 2 .g -1 . All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  2. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebowale, K O [Department of Chemistry, University of lbadan, lbadan (Nigeria); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Bayer, E [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Forschungstelle Nukleinsaeure- und Peptidchemie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm{sup 3} to 0.52 g.cm{sup 3}. Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g{sup -1}), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g{sup -1}). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V{sub micro}) was between 0.33cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.40cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}, while the mesopore volume(V{sub meso}) was between 0.05 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.07 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}. The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}. All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  3. Understanding mercury binding on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padak, B.; Wilcox, J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Understanding the mechanism by which mercury adsorbs on activated carbon is crucial to the design and fabrication of effective capture technologies. In this study, the possible binding mechanism of mercury (Hg) and its species, i.e., HgCl and HgCl{sub 2} on activated carbon is investigated using ab initio-based energetic calculations. The activated carbon surface is modeled by a single graphene layer in which the edge atoms on the upper side are unsaturated in order to simulate the active sites. in some cases, chlorine atoms are placed at the edge sites to examine the effect of chlorine on the binding of Hg, HgCl and HgCl{sub 2}. It has been concluded that both HgCl and HgCl{sub 2} can be adsorbed dissociatively or non-dissociatively. In the case of dissociative adsorption, it is energetically favorable for atomic Hg to desorb and energetically favorable for it to remain on the surface in the Hg{sup 1+} state, HgCl. The Hg{sup 2+}, oxidized compound, HgCl2 was not found to be stable on the surface. The most probable mercury species on the surface was found to be HgCl.

  4. Photogeneration of singlet oxygen by the phenothiazine derivatives covalently bound to the surface-modified glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacha-Grzechnik, Agata, E-mail: agata.blacha@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Piwowar, Katarzyna; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koscielniak, Piotr; Szuber, Jacek [Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Zak, Jerzy K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The selected group of four NH{sub 2}-derivatives of phenothiazine was grafted to Glassy Carbon (GC) surface. • The grafted phenothiazines are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the radiation. • Such modified solid surfaces may find their application in the wastewater treatment. - Abstract: The selected group of four amine-derivatives of phenothiazine was covalently grafted to the glassy carbon surface in the four-step procedure consisting of the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt followed by the electrochemical and chemical post-modification steps. The proposed strategy involves the bonding of linker molecule to which the photosensitizer is attached. The synthesized organic layers were characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, XPS and Raman Spectroscopy. It was shown that the phenothiazines immobilized via proposed strategy retain their photochemical properties and are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the laser radiation. The effectiveness of in situ singlet oxygen generation by those new solid photoactive materials was determined by means of UVVis spectroscopy. The reported, covalently modified solid surfaces may find their application as the singlet oxygen photogenerators in the fine chemicals’ synthesis or in the wastewater treatment.

  5. Mesoporous silica particles modified with graphitic carbon: interaction with human red blood cells and plasma proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro; Franqui, Lidiane Silva; Bettini, Jefferson; Strauss, Mathias, E-mail: diego.martinez@lnnano.cnpem.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Joao Paulo Vita; Mazali, Italo Odone [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work the interaction of the mesoporous silica particles (SBA-15, ∼700 nm) modified with graphitic carbon (SBA-15/C) on human red blood cells (hemolysis) and plasma proteins (protein corona formation) is studied. XPS and CHN analysis showed that the carbon content on the SBA-15/C samples varied from 2 to 10% and was tuned by the functionalization step. The formed carbon structures where associated to graphitic nanodomains coating the pores surface as verified by Raman spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR. Advanced TEM/EELS analysis showed that the carbon structures are distributed along the SBA-15 mesopores. SAXS and textural analyses were used to confirm that the porous structure of the silica support is kept after the modification procedure and to calculate the number of graphitic carbon stacked layers coating the mesopores. After incubation of SBA-15 with human red blood cells (RBCs), it was observed a dose-dependent hemolytic effect, probably, due to binding of the material silanol-rich surface to the phosphatidylcholine molecules from the RBC membrane. The graphitic carbon modifications have mitigated this effect, indicating that the graphitic carbon coating protected the silanol groups of the particle surface hindering the hemolysis. Considering the protein corona formation, selective biomolecular interaction of proteins was observed for the different materials using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Besides, graphitic carbon modification decreased the amount of proteins on the corona. Together, the in vitro hemolysis and protein corona assays are promising biological models to understand the influence of silica surface functionalization on their bionano-interactions. Finally, our work contributes to the development of fundamental research on such nanomaterials chemistry in the emerging field of nanobioscience and nanotoxicology. (author)

  6. Nitrogen-modified carbon nanostructures derived from metal-organic frameworks as high performance anodes for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Cai; Zhao, Chongchong; Xin, Fengxia; Cao, Can; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report preparation of nitrogen-modified nanostructure carbons through carbonization of Cu-based metal organic nanofibers at 700 °C under argon gas atmosphere. After removal of copper through chemical treatment with acids, pure N-modified nanostructure carbon with a nitrogen content of 8.62 wt% is obtained. When use as anodes for lithium-ion battery, the nanostructure carbon electrode has a discharge capacity of 853.1 mAh g −1 measured at a current of 500 mA g −1 after 800 cycles.

  7. Nano Copper Oxide-Modified Carbon Cloth as Cathode for a Two-Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Zhang, Peng; Li, Kexun; Liu, Xianhua; Zhang, Pingping

    2016-12-09

    In this work, Cu₂O nanoparticles were deposited on a carbon cloth cathode using a facile electrochemical method. The morphology of the modified cathode, which was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) tests, showed that the porosity and specific surface area of the cathode improved with longer deposition times. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results showed that cupric oxide and cuprous oxide coexisted on the carbon cloth, which improved the electrochemical activity of cathode. The cathode with a deposition time of 100 s showed the best performance, with a power density twice that of bare carbon cloth. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results revealed that moderate deposition of nano copper oxide on carbon cloth could dramatically reduce the charge transfer resistance, which contributed to the enhanced electrochemical performance. The mediation mechanism of copper oxide nanocatalyst was illustrated by the fact that the recycled conversion between cupric oxide and cuprous oxide accelerated the electron transfer efficiency on the cathode.

  8. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with hemin-carbon nanomaterial films for amperometric H2O2 and NO2− detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Federica; Cristofanelli, Lara; Carbone, Marilena; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In this work a new chemical sensor for the H 2 O 2 and nitrite amperometric detection was assembled, using a glassy carbon (GC) bare electrode modified by two different nanocomposite materials. The nanocomposite films were prepared by casting a functionalised carbon nanofiber (CNF-COOH) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-OH, for comparison) on the glassy carbon electrode surface; then an iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)P) was adsorbed on these modified surfaces. A morphological investigation of the nanocomposite layers was also carried out, using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical characterization, performed optimising several electro-analytical parameters (such as different medium, pH, temperature, scan rate, and potential window), demonstrated that the direct electrochemistry of the Fe(III)P/Fe(II)P redox couple involves 1e − /1H + process. A kinetic evaluation of the electron-transfer reaction mechanism was also carried out, demonstrating that the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant resulted higher at CNF/hemin/GC biosensor than that evaluated at SWCNT/hemin/GC modified electrode. Finally, the electrocatalytic activity toward the H 2 O 2 reduction was also demonstrated for both sensors but better results were observed working at CNF/hemin/GC modified electrode, especially in terms of an extended linearity (ranging from 50 to 1000 μM), a lower detection limit (L.O.D. = 3σ) of 2.0 × 10 −6 M, a higher sensitivity of 2.2 × 10 −3 A M −1 cm −2 , a fast response time (9 s), a good reproducibility (RSD% −3 to 2.5 × 10 −1 M), a lower detection limit (L.O.D. = 3σ) of 3.18 × 10 −4 M, a higher sensitivity of 1.2 × 10 −2 A M −1 cm −2 , a fast response time of 10 s, a good reproducibility (RSD% <1, n = 3) and finally a good operational stability.

  9. Preparation and characterization of diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether-modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbir, Aybueke A.; Solak, Ali Osman; Ustuendag, Zafer; Bilge, Selen; Kilic, Zeynel

    2006-01-01

    Diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether (DGAE) diazonium salt was covalently electrografted on a glassy carbon (GC) surface and behavior of this novel surface was investigated. Synthesis of DGAE diazonium salt (DGAE-DAS) and in situ modification of GC electrode were performed in aqueous media containing NaNO 2 , keeping the temperature below +4 deg. C. For the characterization of the modified electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry, dopamine (DA) was used to prove the attachment of the DGAE-DAS on the GC surface. Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to observe the molecular bound properties of the adsorbates at the DGAE-modified GC surface (GC-DGAE). The EIS results were analyzed using the Randles equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance on bare GC and the modified surface were calculated using the model equivalent circuit for the ferrocene redox system. Surface coverage was found as 0.4 showing the presence of high pinhole and defects in the modified electrode. The rate constant of electron transfer through the monolayer was calculated for ferrocene. Working potential range and the stability of the DGAE-modified GC electrode was also determined

  10. Preparation and characterization of diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbir, Aybueke A. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr; Ustuendag, Zafer [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Bilge, Selen [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Zeynel [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-07-28

    Diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether (DGAE) diazonium salt was covalently electrografted on a glassy carbon (GC) surface and behavior of this novel surface was investigated. Synthesis of DGAE diazonium salt (DGAE-DAS) and in situ modification of GC electrode were performed in aqueous media containing NaNO{sub 2}, keeping the temperature below +4 deg. C. For the characterization of the modified electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry, dopamine (DA) was used to prove the attachment of the DGAE-DAS on the GC surface. Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to observe the molecular bound properties of the adsorbates at the DGAE-modified GC surface (GC-DGAE). The EIS results were analyzed using the Randles equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance on bare GC and the modified surface were calculated using the model equivalent circuit for the ferrocene redox system. Surface coverage was found as 0.4 showing the presence of high pinhole and defects in the modified electrode. The rate constant of electron transfer through the monolayer was calculated for ferrocene. Working potential range and the stability of the DGAE-modified GC electrode was also determined.

  11. Structural and adsorptive properties of activated carbons prepared by carbonization and activation of resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboda, R; Skubiszewska-Zieba, J; Tomaszewski, W; Gun'ko, V M

    2003-07-15

    Four activated carbons (S1-S4) possessing different structural characteristics were prepared by carbonization of commercial resins (used for ion exchange) and subsequent activation. Their textural parameters were determined on the basis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77.4 K, analyzed by applying several local and overall adsorption isotherm equations. The nature of carbon surface functionalities was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The GC and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques were applied to study the influence of the texture of carbonaceous materials on their adsorptive properties. The adsorption efficiency of synthesized carbons with respect to alkylhalides used as probe compounds in the GC measurements varied over a range from 28% (C(2)H(3)Cl(3)/S2) to 85% (CHBr(3)/S1) depending on the type of adsorbates and adsorbents. The concentrating efficiency of these carbons in SPE of explosive materials changed over a larger range from 12% (trinitroglycerin/S4) and 13% (trinitrotoluene/S2) up to 100% (octogen/S1). Active carbon prepared using Zerolite 225x8 as a precursor demonstrated better results than other carbons in two types of adsorption with average values of the efficiency of 75.4% for explosives and 60.8% for alkylhalides.

  12. Cellobiose Dehydrogenase Aryl Diazonium Modified Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Enhanced Direct Electron Transfer through a Positively Charged Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in the field of biosensors and biofuel cells is to establish a highly efficient electron transfer rate between the active site of redox enzymes and electrodes to fully access the catalytic potential of the biocatalyst and achieve high current densities. We report on very efficient direct electron transfer (DET) between cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Phanerochaete sordida (PsCDH) and surface modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). Sonicated SWCNTs were adsorbed on the top of glassy carbon electrodes and modified with aryl diazonium salts generated in situ from p-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine, thus featuring at acidic pH (3.5 and 4.5) negative or positive surface charges. After adsorption of PsCDH, both electrode types showed excellent long-term stability and very efficient DET. The modified electrode presenting p-aminophenyl groups produced a DET current density of 500 μA cm−2 at 200 mV vs normal hydrogen reference electrode (NHE) in a 5 mM lactose solution buffered at pH 3.5. This is the highest reported DET value so far using a CDH modified electrode and comes close to electrodes using mediated electron transfer. Moreover, the onset of the electrocatalytic current for lactose oxidation started at 70 mV vs NHE, a potential which is 50 mV lower compared to when unmodified SWCNTs were used. This effect potentially reduces the interference by oxidizable matrix components in biosensors and increases the open circuit potential in biofuel cells. The stability of the electrode was greatly increased compared with unmodified but cross-linked SWCNTs electrodes and lost only 15% of the initial current after 50 h of constant potential scanning. PMID:21417322

  13. Highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles on carbon nanofiber heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yang; Fu, Renzhong; Yuan, Jianjun; Wu, Shiyuan; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) that is based on the use of a heterostructure composed of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). High-density Pt NPs were homogeneously loaded onto a three-dimensional nanostructured CNF matrix and then deposited in a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The resulting sensor synergizes the advantages of the conducting CNFs and the nanoparticle catalyst. The porous structure of the CNFs also favor the high-density immobilization of the NPs and the diffusion of water-soluble molecules, and thus assists the rapid catalytic oxidation of H 2 O 2 . If operated at a working voltage of −0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the modified GCE exhibits a linear response to H 2 O 2 in the 5 μM to 15 mM concentration range (total analytical range: 5 μM to 100 mM), with a detection limit of 1.7 μM (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The modified GCE is not interfered by species such as uric acid and glucose. Its good stability, high selectivity and good reproducibility make this electrode a valuable tool for inexpensive amperometric sensing of H 2 O 2 . (author)

  14. A modified GHG intensity indicator: Toward a sustainable global economy based on a carbon border tax and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi Moghaddam, Reza; Farrahi Moghaddam, Fereydoun; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    It will be difficult to gain the agreement of all the actors on any proposal for climate change management, if universality and fairness are not considered. In this work, a universal measure of emissions to be applied at the international level is proposed, based on a modification of the Greenhouse Gas Intensity (GHG-INT) measure. It is hoped that the generality and low administrative cost of this measure, which we call the Modified Greenhouse Gas Intensity measure (MGHG-INT), will eliminate any need to classify nations. The core of the MGHG-INT is what we call the IHDI-adjusted Gross Domestic Product (IDHIGDP), based on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IDHIGDP makes it possible to propose universal measures, such as MGHG-INT. We also propose a carbon border tax applicable at national borders, based on MGHG-INT and IDHIGDP. This carbon tax is supported by a proposed global Emissions Trading System (ETS). The proposed carbon tax is analyzed in a short-term scenario, where it is shown that it can result in a significant reduction in global emissions while keeping the economy growing at a positive rate. In addition to annual GHG emissions, cumulative GHG emissions over two decades are considered with almost the same results. - Highlights: ► An IHDI-adjusted GDP (IHDIGDP) is introduced to universally account the activities of nations. ► A modified GHG emission intensity (MGHG-INT) is introduced based on the IHDIGDP. ► Based on green and red scenarios, admissible emissions and RED percentage are introduced. ► The RED percentage is used to define a border carbon tax (BCT) and emission trading system. ► The MGHG-INT can provide a universal control on emissions while allowing high economical growth

  15. Hall Measurements on Carbon Nanotube Paper Modified With Electroless Deposited Platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwuoha Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotube paper, sometimes referred to as bucky paper, is a random arrangement of carbon nanotubes meshed into a single robust structure, which can be manipulated with relative ease. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to make the nanotube paper, and were subsequently modified with platinum using an electroless deposition method based on substrate enhanced electroless deposition. This involves the use of a sacrificial metal substrate that undergoes electro-dissolution while the platinum metal deposits out of solution onto the nanotube paper via a galvanic displacement reaction. The samples were characterized using SEM/EDS, and Hall-effect measurements. The SEM/EDS analysis clearly revealed deposits of platinum (Pt distributed over the nanotube paper surface, and the qualitative elemental analysis revealed co-deposition of other elements from the metal substrates used. When stainless steel was used as sacrificial metal a large degree of Pt contamination with various other metals was observed. Whereas when pure sacrificial metals were used bimetallic Pt clusters resulted. The co-deposition of a bimetallic system upon carbon nanotubes was a function of the metal type and the time of exposure. Hall-effect measurements revealed some interesting fluctuations in sheet carrier density and the dominant carrier switched from N- to P-type when Pt was deposited onto the nanotube paper. Perspectives on the use of the nanotube paper as a replacement to traditional carbon cloth in water electrolysis systems are also discussed.

  16. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  17. Sensitive electrochemical sensor of tryptophan based on Ag-C core–shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shuxian; Li Weifeng; Long Yumei; Tu Yifeng; Deng, Anping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag-C and Colloidal carbon sphere modified glassy carbon electrodes were prepared. It was clear that the Ag-C/GCE exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards Trp, which could result from the synergistic effect between Ag core and carbon shell. The Ag-C/GCE showed excellent analytical properties in the determination of Trp. Highlights: ► The electrochemical behavior of Ag-C core–shell nanocomposite was firstly proposed. ► Ag-C/GC electrode exhibited favorable electrocatalytic properties towards Trp. ► The good electrocatalysis was due to the synergistic effect of Ag-core and C-shell. ► The Ag-C/GC electrode displayed excellent analytical properties in determining Trp. - Abstract: We here reported a simple electrochemical method for the detection of tryptophan (Trp) based on the Ag-C modified glassy carbon (Ag-C/GC) electrode. The Ag-C core–shell structured nanoparticles were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrochemical behaviors of Trp on Ag-C/GC electrode were investigated and exhibited a direct electrochemical process. The favorable electrochemical properties of Ag-C/GC electrode were attributed to the synergistic effect of the Ag core and carbon shell. The carbon shell cannot only protect Ag core but also contribute to the enhanced substrate accessibility and Trp-substrate interactions, while nano-Ag core can display good electrocatalytic activity to Trp at the same time. Under the optimum experimental conditions the oxidation peak current was linearly dependent on the Trp concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10 −7 to 1.0 × 10 −4 M with a detection limit of 4.0 × 10 −8 M (S/N = 3). In addition, the proposed electrode was applied for the determination of Trp concentration in real samples and satisfactory results were obtained. The technique offers

  18. Sensitive electrochemical sensor of tryptophan based on Ag-C core-shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Shuxian [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li Weifeng, E-mail: liweifeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Long Yumei, E-mail: yumeilong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Tu Yifeng; Deng, Anping [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-08-13

    Graphical abstract: Ag-C and Colloidal carbon sphere modified glassy carbon electrodes were prepared. It was clear that the Ag-C/GCE exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards Trp, which could result from the synergistic effect between Ag core and carbon shell. The Ag-C/GCE showed excellent analytical properties in the determination of Trp. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrochemical behavior of Ag-C core-shell nanocomposite was firstly proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C/GC electrode exhibited favorable electrocatalytic properties towards Trp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The good electrocatalysis was due to the synergistic effect of Ag-core and C-shell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ag-C/GC electrode displayed excellent analytical properties in determining Trp. - Abstract: We here reported a simple electrochemical method for the detection of tryptophan (Trp) based on the Ag-C modified glassy carbon (Ag-C/GC) electrode. The Ag-C core-shell structured nanoparticles were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrochemical behaviors of Trp on Ag-C/GC electrode were investigated and exhibited a direct electrochemical process. The favorable electrochemical properties of Ag-C/GC electrode were attributed to the synergistic effect of the Ag core and carbon shell. The carbon shell cannot only protect Ag core but also contribute to the enhanced substrate accessibility and Trp-substrate interactions, while nano-Ag core can display good electrocatalytic activity to Trp at the same time. Under the optimum experimental conditions the oxidation peak current was linearly dependent on the Trp concentration in the range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M with a detection limit of 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M (S/N = 3). In addition

  19. Application of modified multiwall carbon nanotubes as a sorbent for zirconium (IV) adsorption from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, R.; Davarkhah, R.

    2013-01-01

    Modified multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by nitric acid solution were used to investigate the adsorption behavior of zirconium from aqueous solution. Pristine and oxidized MWCNTs were characterized using nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm, Boehm's titration method, thermogravimetry analysis, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the surface properties of MWCNTs such as specific surface area, total pore volume, functional groups and the total number of acidic and basic sites were improved after oxidation. These improvements are responsible for their hydrophobic properties and consequently an easy dispersion in water and suitable active sites for more adsorption of zirconium. The adsorption of Zr(IV) as a function of initial concentration of zirconium, contact time, MWCNTs dosage, HCl and HNO 3 concentration and also ionic strength was investigated using a batch technique under ambient conditions. The experimental results indicated that sorption of Zr(IV) was strongly influenced by zirconium concentrations, oxidized MWCNTs content and acid pH values. The calculated correlation coefficient of the linear regressions values showed that Langmuir model fits the adsorption equilibrium data better than the Freundlich model. Kinetic data of sorption indicated that equilibrium was achieved within 60 min and the adsorption process can be described by the pseudo second-order reaction rate model. Based on the experimental results, surface complexation is the major mechanism for adsorption of Zr(IV) onto MWCNTs. Also, Study on the desorption process of zirconium showed that the complete recovery can be obtained using nitric or hydrochloric acids of 4 M. (author)

  20. Adsorption and desorption of pertechnetate on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dano, M.; Galambos, M.; Rajec, P.; Viglasova, E.; Krajnak, A.; Novak, I.

    2014-01-01

    High surface area, a microporous structure, and a high degree of surface reactivity make activated carbons versatile adsorbents, particularly effective in the adsorption of radionuclides from aqueous solutions. The most important property of activated carbon, the property that determines its usage, is the pore structure. The total number of pores, their shape and size determine the adsorption capacity and even the dynamic adsorption rate of the activated carbon. This report is dedicated to sorption properties of new activated carbon sorbents. (authors)

  1. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co3O4 nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Dalkiran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kiliç, Esma

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed by combining the advantageous properties of MWCNTs and Co 3 O 4 . • Incorporating Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles into MWCNTs/gelatin film increased the electron transfer. • Co 3 O 4 /MWCNTs/gelatin/HRP/Nafion/GCE showed strong anti-interference ability. • Hydrogen peroxide was successfully determined in disinfector with an average recovery of 100.78 ± 0.89. - Abstract: In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10 −7 –1.9 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10 −7 . The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89

  2. Active carbon catalyst for heavy oil upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Hidetsugu; Terai, Satoshi [Technology Research Center, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 1818 Azafujimi, Togo, Mobara-shi, Chiba 297-00017 (Japan); Uchida, Masayuki [Business Planning and Exploring Department, Overseas Business Development and Marketing Division, Toyo Engineering Corporation, 2-8-1 Akanehama, Narashino-shi, Chiba 275-0024 (Japan); Cano, Jose L.; Ancheyta, Jorge [Maya Crude Treatment Project, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    The active carbon (AC) catalyst was studied by hydrocracking of Middle Eastern vacuum residue (VR) for heavy oil upgrading. It was observed that the active carbon has the affinity to heavy hydrocarbon compounds and adsorption selectivity to asphaltenes, and exhibits better ability to restrict the coke formation during the hydrocracking reaction of VR. The mesopore of active carbon was thought to play an important role for effective conversion of heavy hydrocarbon compounds into lighter fractions restricting carbon formation. The performance of the AC catalyst was examined by continuous hydrocracking by CSTR for the removal of such impurities as sulfur and heavy metals (nickel and vanadium), which are mostly concentrated in the asphaltenes. The AC catalyst was confirmed to be very effective for the removal of heavy metals from Middle Eastern VR, Maya/Istmo VR and Maya VR. The extruded AC catalysts were produced by industrial manufacturing method. The application test of the extruded AC catalyst for ebullating-bed reactor as one of the commercially applicable reactors was carried out at the ebullating-bed pilot plant for 500h. The ebullition of the extruded AC catalyst was successfully traced and confirmed by existing {gamma}-ray density meter. The extruded AC catalyst showed stable performance with less sediment formation at an equivalent conversion by conventional alumina catalyst at commercial ebullating-bed unit. The degradation of the AC catalyst at the aging test was observed to be less than that of the conventional alumina catalyst. Thus, the AC catalyst was confirmed to be effective and suitable for upgrading of heavy oil, especially such heavy oils as Maya, which contains much heavy metals.

  3. Mechanical performance of HMA-2 modified with purified and unpurified carbon nanotubes and nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodrigo Rubio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the mechanical performance of a Hot Mix Asphalt – Type II (HMA-2 modified with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers (CNTF. CNTF were made by means the Catalytic Vapor Deposition (CVD technique at 700° C using a Nickel, Copper and Aluminum (NiCuAl catalyst with a Cu/Ni molar relation of 0,33. In order to properly assess HMA-2 performance, three different mixtures were analyzed: 1 HMA-2 modified with purified CNTF; 2 HMA-2 modified with non-purified CNTF and, 3 a Conventional HMA-2 (control. Samples manufactured in accordance with the Marshall Mix Design were tested in the laboratory to study rutting, resilient modulus (Mr and fatigue. In addition to the aforementioned dynamic characterization, the effect of CNTF purification on the asphalt mixture’s mechanical properties was analyzed. In short, a comparative study was designed to determine whether or not CNTF should be purified before introduction into the HMA-2. This investigation responds to the growing demand for economical materials capable of withstanding traffic loads while simultaneously enhancing pavement durability and mechanical properties. Although purified CNTF increased HMA-2 stiffness and elastic modulus, non-purified CNTF increased the asphalt mixture’s elastic modulus without considerable increases in stiffness. Thus, the latter modification is deemed to help address fatiguerelated issues and improve the long-term durability of flexible pavements.

  4. Gene-diet-interactions in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism modify colon cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Amy Y; Scherer, Dominique; Poole, Elizabeth; Potter, John D; Curtin, Karen; Makar, Karen; Slattery, Martha L; Caan, Bette J; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-04-01

    The importance of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) in colorectal carcinogenesis is emphasized by observations that high dietary folate intake is associated with decreased risk of colon cancer (CC) and its precursors. Additionally, polymorphisms in FOCM-related genes have been repeatedly associated with risk, supporting a causal relationship between folate and colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated ten candidate polymorphisms with defined or probable functional impact in eight FOCM-related genes (SHMT1, DHFR, DNMT1, MTHFD1, MTHFR, MTRR, TCN2, and TDG) in 1609 CC cases and 1974 controls for association with CC risk and for interaction with dietary factors. No polymorphism was statistically significantly associated with overall risk of CC. However, statistically significant interactions modifying CC risk were observed for DNMT1 I311V with dietary folate, methionine, vitamin B2 , and vitamin B12 intake and for MTRR I22M with dietary folate, a predefined one-carbon dietary pattern, and vitamin B6 intake. We observed statistically significant gene-diet interactions with five additional polymorphisms. Our results provide evidence that FOCM-related dietary intakes modify the association between CC risk and FOCM allelic variants. These findings add to observations showing that folate-related gene-nutrient interactions play an important role in modifying the risk of CC. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH was investigated. The poly (EBT-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak current depends on the concentration of INH and solution pH. The number of electrons involved in the rate determining step was found 1. The diffusion coefficient of isoniazid was also estimated using chronoamperometry technique. The experimental results showed that the mediated oxidation peak current of isoniazid is linearly dependent on the concentration of isoniazid in the ranges of 8.0 × 10-6 – 1.18 × 10-3 M and 2.90 × 10-5 M – 1.67× 10-3 M with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and amperometry methods, respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3 were found to be 6.0 μM and 16.4 μM by DPV and amperometry methods, respectively. This developed method was applied to the determination of isoniazid in tablet samples with satisfactory results.

  6. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol at gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashkhourian, J., E-mail: tashkhourian@susc.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71456 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daneshi, M.; Nami-Ana, F. [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71456 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behbahani, M.; Bagheri, A. [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode was developed. • The electrode provides an accessible surface for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol. • Hydroquinone and catechol are highly toxic to both environment and human even at very low concentrations. - Abstract: A new electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs-MPS) was developed for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol. Morphology and structure of the AuNPs-MPS were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone and catechol were investigated using square wave voltammetry and the results indicate that the electrochemical responses are improved significantly at the modified electrode. The observed oxidative peaks separation of about 120 mV made possible the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol in their binary-mixture. Under the optimized condition, a linear dynamic range of 10.0 μM–1.0 mM range for hydroquinone with the detection limit of 1.2 μM and from 30.0 μM–1.0 mM for catechol with the detection limit of 1.1 μM were obtained. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the recovery studies of hydroquinone and catechol in spiked tap water samples.

  7. Effect of mediator added to modified paste carbon electrodes with immobilized laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Silva Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon paste electrodes based on the immobilization of laccase from Aspergillus oryzae were developed and voltammetric measurements were performed to evaluate the amperometric response. The 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt  (ABTS functions as substrate and mediator for the laccase enzyme. Electrodes were modified  in two different conditions: without mediator (EPC/laccase and with mediator (EPC/laccase/ABTS. The addition of ABTS as a mediator increased eight-fold the amperometric response. The electrode was sensitive to pH variation with best response at pH 4.0. Studies on different concentrations of laccase and ABTS at different pH rates revealed that the composition 187 U mL-1 in laccase and 200 µL of ABTS obtained the highest amperometric response. The carbon paste electrode modified with ABTS proved to be a good base for the immobilization of the laccase enzyme. Moreover, it is easy to manufacture and inexpensive to produce a modified electrode with potential application in biosensors.

  8. Resorcinol adsorption from aqueous solution on activated carbon: Relation adsorption isotherm and immersion enthalpy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Diago A; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    The resorcinol adsorption on a modified activated carbon, obtained from an activated commercial carbon Carbochem T M - PS30, CAG, modified by means of chemical treatment with HNO 3 7M oxidized activated carbon (CAO) and heat treatment under H 2 flow, reduced activated carbon (CAR) are studied. The influence of solution pH, the reduction and oxidation of the activated surface carbons in resorcinol aqueous solutions is determined. The interaction solid solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis at 298 K and at pHs of 7.9 and 11 in order to evaluate the system on and below the value of resorcinol pKa. The adsorption capacity of carbons increases with diminishing solution pH. The amount retained increases in the reduced carbon at maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. the experimental results of the adsorption isotherms are adjusted to the Freundlich and Langmuir models, obtaining values for the Q m ax parameter Langmuir model in the CAG of 179, 156 and 44 mgg - 1 For pH values of 7,9 and 11 respectively. In this case of modified carbons values of 233, 179 and 164 mgg - 1 Are obtained for CAR, CAG and CAO to pH 7 respectively, as general tendency the resorcinol adsorption increases in the following order CAR > CAG > CAO. Similar conclusions from immersion enthalpies are obtained, their values increase with the amount of solute retained. In the case of the CAG, immersion enthalpies between 25.8 to 40.9 Jg - 1, are obtained for resorcinol aqueous solutions in a range from 20 to 1500 mgL - 1

  9. Electrochemically modified sulfisoxazole nanofilm on glassy carbon for determination of cadmium(II) in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Atar, Necip; Solak, Ali Osman; Uzun, Lokman; Üstündağ, Zafer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulfisoxazole was grafted onto glassy carbon electrode. • The electrode was characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. • It has been used for the determination of Cd(II) ions in real samples in very low concentrations. -- Abstract: Sulfisoxazole (SO) was grafted to glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via the electrochemical oxidation of SO in acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 M tetrabutylammoniumtetra-fluoroborate (TBATFB). The prepared electrode was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ellipsometric thickness of SO nanofilm at the glassy carbon surface was obtained as 14.48 ± 0.11 nm. The stability of the SO modified GCE was studied. The SO modified GCE was also utilized for the determination of Cd(II) ions in water samples in the presence of Pb(II) and Fe(II) by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The linearity range and the detection limit of Cd(II) ions were 1.0 × 10 −10 to 5.0 × 10 −8 M and 3.3 × 10 −11 M (S/N = 3), respectively

  10. Cytokine Adsorption onto the Modified Carbon Sorbent Surface in vitro in Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Dolgikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of cytokine sorption with carbon with a locally aminocaproic acid-modified surface from the plasma of patients with general purulent peritonitis. Materials and methods. The material of the investigation was the plasma obtained during plasmapheresis in 10 patients with acute pancreatitis complicated by pancreonecrosis and general purulent peritonitis, which was used to estimate before and after sorption the content of the cytokines: interleukin (IL-1/8, IL-4, and IL-8 by enzyme immunoassay. The sorption properties of carbon hemosor-bent and aminocaproic acid-modified sorbent were comparatively evaluated. Results. Aminocaproic acid-induced modification of the carbon adsorbent surface with its further polycondensation results in the higher content of superficial functional groups (oxygen- and nitrogen-containing that enhance the hydrophility of the surface and the specific pattern of sorption, thus acting as a means for controlling and regulating the plasma concentration of regulatory proteins, primarily the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1^3, the chemokine IL-8 and the T-helper cell clone cytokine IL-4.

  11. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Wang Geun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-Do 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Balathanigaimani, M.S., E-mail: msbala@rgipt.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Ratapur Chowk, Rae Bareli, 229316 Uttar Pradesh (India); Moon, Hee, E-mail: hmoon@jnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly porous carbon materials from Mongolian anthracite by chemical activation. • Cheaper and eco-friendly activation process has been employed. • Activated carbons with graphitic structure and energetically heterogeneous surface. • Surface hydrophobicity and porosity of the activated carbons can be controlled. - Abstract: Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816–2063 m{sup 2}/g and of 0.55–1.61 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  12. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  13. Adsorption Study of Cobalt on Treated Granular Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Y. V. Hete; S. B. Gholase; R. U. Khope

    2012-01-01

    This study is carried out for the removal of cobalt from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon in combination with p-nitro benzoic acid at temperature 25±1 °C. The adsorption isotherm of cobalt on granular activated carbon has been determined and the data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm for activated carbon.

  14. Adsorption Study of Cobalt on Treated Granular Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Hete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out for the removal of cobalt from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon in combination with p-nitro benzoic acid at temperature 25±1 °C. The adsorption isotherm of cobalt on granular activated carbon has been determined and the data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm for activated carbon.

  15. Preparation and characterization of active carbon using palm kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were prepared from Palm kernel shells. Carbonization temperature was 6000C, at a residence time of 5 min for each process. Chemical activation was done by heating a mixture of carbonized material and the activating agents at a temperature of 700C to form a paste, followed by subsequent cooling and ...

  16. Fabrication of gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, Behzad; Khosravi, Mehdi; Barati, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Gallium hexacyanoferrate (GaHCFe) and graphite powder were homogeneously dispersed into n-dodecylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate and paraffin to fabricate GaHCFe modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode (CILPE). Mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the fabrication of GaHCFe modified CILPE (GaHCFe-CILPE). A pair of well-defined redox peaks due to the redox reaction of GaHCFe through one-electron process was observed for the fabricated electrode. The fabricated GaHCFe-CILPE exhibited good electrocatalytic activity towards reduction and oxidation of H 2 O 2 . The observed sensitivities for the electrocatalytic oxidation and reduction of H 2 O 2 at the operating potentials of + 0.8 and − 0.2 V were about 13.8 and 18.3 mA M −1 , respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) for H 2 O 2 was about 1 μM. Additionally, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on GaHCFe-CILPE using two methodology, entrapment into Nafion matrix and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin, in order to fabricate glucose biosensor. Linear dynamic rage, sensitivity and detection limit for glucose obtained by the biosensor fabricated using cross-linking methodology were 0.1–6 mM, 0.87 mA M −1 and 30 μM, respectively and better than those obtained (0.2–6 mM, 0.12 mA M −1 and 50 μM) for the biosensor fabricated using entrapment methodology. - Highlights: • Gallium hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ionic liquid paste electrode was fabricated. • Mixture experimental design was used to optimize electrode fabrication. • Response trace plot was used to show the effect of electrode materials on response. • The sensor exhibited electrocatalytic activity towards H 2 O 2 reduction and oxidation. • Glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of glucose oxidase on sensor

  17. Direct Electrochemistry of Horseradish Peroxidase on NiO Nanoflower Modified Electrode and Its Electrocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper nickel oxide (NiO nanoflower was synthesized and used for the realization of direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase (HRP. By using carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE as the substrate electrode, NiO-HRP composite was casted on the surface of CILE with chitosan (CTS as the film forming material and the modified electrode was denoted as CTS/NiO-HRP/CILE. UV-Vis absorption and FT-IR spectra confirmed that HRP retained its native structure after mixed with NiO nanoflower. Direct electron transfer of HRP on the modified electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of quasi-reversible redox waves appeared, indicating that the presence of NiO nanoflower on the electrode surface could accelerate the electron transfer rate between the electroactive center of HRP and the substrate electrode. Electrochemical behaviors of HRP on the modified electrode were carefully investigated. The HRP modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid with wider linear range and lower detection limit. Therefore the presence of NiO nanoflower could provide a friendly biocompatible interface for immobilizing biomolecules and keeping their native structure. The fabricated electrochemical biosensor displayed the advantages such as high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  18. Manganese oxide nanoflakes/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode as a novel electrochemical sensor for chromium (III) detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Pourbahram, Bahareh; Mansouri-Majd, Samira; Hallaj, Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CNTs/chitosan/GC electrode used as platform for electrodeposition of MnO x -nanoflakes. • Modified electrode has excellent catalytic activity for oxidation of Cr 3+ at pH 3–7. • Detection limit and sensitivity of sensor for Cr 3+ detection were 0.3 μM and 18.7 nA/μM. • Sensor has good stability and high selectivity in the presence of common interferences. • Sensor applied for the detection of Cr 3+ in real samples with satisfactory results. - Abstract: In this research a nanocomposite containing chitosan (Chit) and maltiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was applied as platform for immobilization of electrodeposited manganese oxide (MnOx) nanostructures. First, glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with thin film of Chitosan/MWCNTs nanocomposite. Then MnO x nanostructures was electrodeposited onto Chitosan/MWCNTs modified GC electrode using combination of constant potential step (0.6 V) and cyclic voltammetry(0.3–0.6 V) techniques. The XRD patterns and scanning electron microscope images indicated immobilization of uniformly MnOx nanoflakes with high crystallite onto MWCNTs/Chit film. The modified electrode shows a well-defined redox couple for Mn 2+ /MnO 2 system. Charge transfer coefficient (α), electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and surface concentration (Γ) were 0.394, 3.44 s −1 and 3.3 × 10 −11 mol cm −2 , respectively. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of chromium (III) at natural pH solutions. Cyclic voltammetry and hydrodynamic amperometery were applied as measuring techniques for chromium detection. Detection limit, sensitivity and linear concentration range of the sensor were, 0.3 (μM), 18.7 nAμ M −1 and 3 μM to 200 μM, respectively. Moreover, the sensor retained about 90% of its original response toward Cr(III) after storage three months in ambient condition. Furthermore, the sensor response toward different common interferences was negligible. Finally, the

  19. A novel immunosensor for Enterobacter sakazakii based on multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/thionine modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao; Dou Wenchao; Zhan Xuejia; Zhao Guangying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Constructed a novel immunosensor using MWCNT/[BMIM]PF 6 /thionine for E. sakazakii. ► Optimum conditions for the detection of E. sakazakii were investigated. ► The properties of proposed immunosensor were studied by AFM and CVs. ► The biosensor exhibited good specificity, reproducibility, stability and accuracy. - Abstract: A novel immunosensor for Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) based on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified by multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF 6 ) and thionine (Thi) was developed for the first time. The surface morphologies of modified electrodes were characterized by means of atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrochemical performance of the immunosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Horseradish peroxidase labeled antibody to E. sakazakii in [BMIM]PF 6 showed high activity and stability. Under optimal conditions, E. sakazakii could be detected in range of 10 3 –10 9 CFU/ml with detection limit of 7.7 × 10 1 CFU/ml. The proposed immunosensor exhibited excellent long-time storage stability and had potential use in clinical immunoassay of E. sakazakii.

  20. Interactions of xanthines with activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete Casas, R.; Garcia Rodriguez, A.; Rey Bueno, F.; Espinola Lara, A.; Valenzuela Calahorro, C.; Navarrete Guijosa, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we have studied the adsorption of xanthine derivatives by activated carbon sorbents in aqueous solutions. The study comprised both kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic aspects. The kinetic results were reported in a previous paper; the equilibrium-related results are discussed here. The two types of carbon used exhibit some differences but the equilibrium isotherms obtained are all of the H-3 type in the classification of Giles. This suggests a high affinity of the sorbents for the sorbates. We also found that the overall adsorption process comprises more than one individual adsorption-desorption process of which one leads to the formation of a 'monolayer' and the other to the 'precipitation' of the sorbate on the sorbent surface (multilayer adsorption); the amount of sorbate adsorbed in monolayer form was seemingly greater in C-A14

  1. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieshi He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distribution, and life cycle. The imbalanced supercapacitor with an AC weight ratio of 80 : 120 of positive to negative electrode has an average potential distribution in each electrode, and it revealed the best electrochemical performance: specific capacitor was 39.6 F·g−1, while the charge-discharge efficiency was 97.2% after 2000 life cycle tests.

  2. Modified eremophilanes and anti-inflammatory activity of Psacalium cirsiifolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Perez-Castorena, Ana L.; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Vivar Alfonso Romo de; Villasenor, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Four new modified eremophilanes, together with ten known cacalol derivatives, two caryophyllenes, one aromadendrene and one flavonoid were isolated from Psacalium cirsiifolium. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. The antiinflammatory activity of extracts and of seven of the isolated compounds was evaluated on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) model of induced acute inflammation. The new compound 2α-hydroxyadenostin B (4) showed a dose dependent activity (IC 50 0.41 μmol per ear) and a neutrophil inhibition effect as measured by the myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay similar to that of indomethacin at 0.31 and 1.0 μmol per ear. (author)

  3. Modified eremophilanes and anti-inflammatory activity of Psacalium cirsiifolium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Perez-Castorena, Ana L.; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Vivar Alfonso Romo de, E-mail: alperezc@unam.mx [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, D.F. (Mexico); Villasenor, Jose Luis [Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-01-15

    Four new modified eremophilanes, together with ten known cacalol derivatives, two caryophyllenes, one aromadendrene and one flavonoid were isolated from Psacalium cirsiifolium. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. The antiinflammatory activity of extracts and of seven of the isolated compounds was evaluated on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) model of induced acute inflammation. The new compound 2{alpha}-hydroxyadenostin B (4) showed a dose dependent activity (IC{sub 50} 0.41 {mu}mol per ear) and a neutrophil inhibition effect as measured by the myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay similar to that of indomethacin at 0.31 and 1.0 {mu}mol per ear. (author)

  4. Could Sirtuin Activities Modify ALS Onset and Progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2017-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a complex etiology. Sirtuins have been implicated as disease-modifying factors in several neurological disorders, and in the past decade, attempts have been made to check if manipulating Sirtuin activities and levels could confer benefit in terms of neuroprotection and survival in ALS models. The efforts have largely focused on mutant SOD1, and while limited in scope, the results were largely positive. Here, the body of work linking Sirtuins with ALS is reviewed, with discussions on how Sirtuins and their activities may impact on the major etiological mechanisms of ALS. Moving forward, it is important that the potentially beneficial effect of Sirtuins in ALS disease onset and progression are assessed in ALS models with TDP-43, FUS, and C9orf72 mutations.

  5. Dissolution of uranium dioxide in supercritical carbon dioxide modified with tri-n-butyl phosphate-hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Direct dissolution of uranium dioxide in supercritical carbon dioxide modified with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) has been attempted. The effects of TBP concentration and pressure on the extraction of uranium have been studied. Addition of hydrogen peroxide in the modifier enhances the dissolution/extraction of uranium. (author)

  6. Measurement of carbon activity in sodium and steel and the behaviour of carbon-bearing species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran Pillai, S.; Ranganathan, R.; Mathews, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    Carburization or decarburization of structural materials in a sodium system depends on the local differences in carbon activity. The behaviour of carbon-bearing species in sodium influences its carbon activity. In order to understand the behaviour of carbon in these systems, an electrochemical carbon meter was fabricated in our laboratory. The original version of this meter was capable of operating in the temperature range of 850-980 K. Studies are carried out to extend this lower limit of temperature. Employing the carbon meter, experiments were carried out to understand the behaviour of carbon-bearing species. Gas equilibration experiments were also carried out with the same view. A new method for measuring the carbon activity in steels are described which employs the carbon meter. A review on these investigations and the conclusions reached on the behaviour of carbon in fast reactor loops are described

  7. Norepinephrine-modified glassy carbon electrode for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, H.R.; Memarzadeh, F.; Ardakani, M. Mazloum; Namazian, M.; Golabi, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of norepinephrine (NE) on a preactivated glassy carbon electrode leads to the formation of a deposited layer of about 4.2 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 at the surface of the electrode. The electron transfer rate constant, k s , and charge transfer coefficient, α, for electron transfer between the electrode and immobilized NE film were calculated as 44 s -1 and 0.46, respectively. The NE-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited good electrocatalytic properties towards ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) with an overpotential of about 475 mV lower than that of the bare electrode. The electrocatalytic response was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, amperometry and rotating disk voltammetry. The overall number of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of AA and the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining step are 2 and 1, respectively. The rate constant for the catalytic oxidation of AA was evaluated by RDE voltammetry and an average value of k h was found to be 8.42 x 10 3 M -1 s -1 . Amperometric determination of AA in stirred solution exhibits a linear range of 2.0-1300.0 μM (correlation coefficient 0.9999) and a detection limit of 0.076 μM. The precision of amperometry was found to be 1.9% for replicate determination of a 49.0 μM solution of AA (n = 6). In differential pulse voltammetric measurements, the NE-modified glassy carbon electrode can separate the AA and uric acid (UA) signals. Ascorbic acid oxidizes at more negative potential than UA. Also, the simultaneous determination of UA and AA is achieved at the NE-modified electrode

  8. Laccase on Black Pearl 2000 modified glassy carbon electrode: Characterization of direct electron transfer and biological sensing properties for pyrocatechol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kunqi; Tang Juan; Zhang Zuoming; Gao Ying; Chen Gang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Laccase can complete direct electron transfer process on BP2000 matrices. ► Laccase immobilized on BP2000 matrices has catalytic oxidation effect to pyrocatechol. ► A pyrocatechol biosensor has constructed been using Nafion/Lac-BP2000/GC electrode. ► Detection limit and linear range of the biosensor are 0.003 mM and 0.003–5.555 mM. - Abstract: In this paper, it was found that Laccase (Lac) could be stably immobilized on the glassy carbon electrode modified with Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000) and Nafion by a simple technique. The adsorption behavior of Lac immobilized on BP2000 matrix was characterized by environment scanning electron microscope (ESEM), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), which demonstrated that BP2000 could facilitate the electron exchange between the active center of Lac and modified electrode. The direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis behavior of Lac on the modified electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammogram (CV) which indicated that Lac immobilized on the modified electrode displayed a direct, nearly reversible and surface-controlled redox reaction with an enhanced electron-transfer rate constant of 1.940 s −1 at the scan rate of 100 mV s −1 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) (pH 7.0). Furthermore, it was also discovered that, in the presence of O 2 , Lac immobilized on the modified electrode exhibited the electrocatalytic response to pyrocatechol, and the kinetic apparent Michaelis-constant (K M app ) obtained from the Lineweaver–Burk equation was 1.79 mM. The detection limit, linear range and sensitivity of the Lac biosensor were 0.003 mM, 0.003–5.555 mM and 99.84 μA mM −1 cm −2 , respectively.

  9. Supercapacitors from Activated Carbon Derived from Granatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiannan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Kexun; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-12-01

    Granatum carbon (GC) as electrode materials for supercapacitors is prepared via the chemical activation with different activating agent such as ZnC2 and KOH with an intention to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance. The structure and electrochemical properties of GC materials are characterized with N2 adsorption/desorption measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The obtained results show that the specific surface area of the granatum-based activated carbons increased obviously from 573 m2 x g(-1) to 1341 m2 x g(-1) by ZnC2 activation and to 930 m2 x g(-1) by KOH treatment. Furthermore, GCZ also delivers specific capacitance of 195.1 Fx g(-1) at the current density of 0.1 A x g(-1) in 30 wt.% KOH aqueous electrolyte and low capacitance loss of 28.5% when the current density increased by 10 times.

  10. Poly(amidosulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of isoniazid in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gongjun; Wang, Cunxiao; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Chenying; Qu, Qishu; Hu, Xiaoya

    2008-06-01

    Amidosulfonic acid was electropolymerized by cyclic voltammetry onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to fabricate the chemically modified electrode, which showed high stability, good selectivity and reproducibility for determination of isoniazid. The modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytical effect on the oxidation of isoniazid. Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between anodic peak current and isoniazid concentration in the range of 5.0 x 10(-8)- 1.0 x 10(-5) M, and a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-8) M (S/N = 3) was obtained after 120 s at the accumulation potential of - 0.2 V (vs. SCE). This developed method had been applied to the direct determination of isoniazid in injection and tablet samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Electrochemical Determination of Uric Acid at CdTe Quantum Dot Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Deng; Rong, Shengzhong; Zhang, Guangteng; Zhang, Yannan; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Fenghai; Li, Miaojing; Chang, Dong; Pan, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of uric acid (UA) at a CdTe quantum dot (QD) modified the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). CdTe QDs, as new semiconductor nanocrystals, can greatly improve the peak current of UA. The anodic peak current of UA was linear with its concentration between 1.0×10(-6) and 4.0×10(-4) M in 0.1 M pH 5.0 phosphate buffer solution. The LOD for UA at the CdTe electrode (1.0×10(-7) M) was superior to that of the GCE. In addition, we also determined the effects of scan rate, pH, and interferences of UA for the voltammetric behavior and detection. The results indicated that modified electrode possessed excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, a new and efficient electrochemical sensor for detecting UA was developed.

  12. Electrochemical sensor for hazardous food colourant quinoline yellow based on carbon nanotube-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Kangbing; Chen, Jianwei; Zhou, Yikai

    2011-09-15

    A novel electrochemical method using multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) film-modified electrode was developed for the detection of quinoline yellow. In pH 8 phosphate buffer, an irreversible oxidation peak at 0.71V was observed for quinoline yellow. Compared with the unmodified electrode, the MWNT film-modified electrode greatly increases the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow, showing notable enhancement effect. The effects of pH value, amount of MWNT, accumulation potential and time were studied on the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow. The linear range is from 0.75 to 20mgL(-1), and the limit of detection is 0.5mgL(-1). It was applied to the detection of quinoline yellow in commercial soft drinks, and the results consisted with the value that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and Characterizations of Poly(3-hexylthiophene and Modified Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexylthiophene and modified (functionalized and silanized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT nanocomposites have been prepared through in situ polymerization process in chloroform medium with FeCl3 oxidant at room temperature. The composites are characterized through Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements to probe the nature of interaction between the moieties. Optical properties of the composites are measured from ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Conductivity of the composites is followed by four probe techniques to understand the conduction mechanism. The change (if any in C=C symmetric and antisymmetric stretching frequencies in FT-IR, the shift in G band frequencies in Raman, any alterations in λmax of UV-Vis, and PL spectroscopic measurements are monitored with modified MWNT loading in the polymer matrix.

  14. Electrochemical properties of seamless three-dimensional carbon nanotubes-grown graphene modified with horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Kikuo; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized through sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the surface of a seamless three-dimensional hybrid of carbon nanotubes grown at the graphene surface (HRP-SDS/CNTs/G) and its electrochemical properties were investigated. Compared with graphene alone electrode modified with HRP via SDS (HRP-SDS/G electrode), the surface coverage of electroactive HRP at the CNTs/G electrode surface was approximately 2-fold greater because of CNTs grown at the graphene surface. Based on the increase in the surface coverage of electroactive HRP, the sensitivity to H2O2 at the HRP-SDS/CNTs/G electrode was higher than that at the HRP-SDS/G electrode. The kinetics of the direct electron transfer from the CNTs/G electrode to compound I and II of modified HRP was also analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of nitrite ion at schiff's base derivative of chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhongliang; Zhang Jianmei; Liu Shujuan; Peng Daofeng

    2007-01-01

    Chitosan react with salicyclaldehyde by schiff's base reaction in water, a polymer product S-CTS can be prepared. Glassy carbon electrode was modified with S-CTS by drop-coating method. Then, its electrocatalysis effect on the reduction of nitrite by the films of S-CTS was investigated. Experimental results showed that S-CTS modified electrode could reduce the oxidation overpotential of nitrite in pH4.5 B-R buffer solution, the peak current of reduction was proportional to the concentration of nitrite and a good linear relation from 0.20 to 81 mg/kg (r=0.9899) with a detection limit of 2.8 x 10 -7 mol/L was obtained. The methods have been applied to determining nitrite in some samples, satisfactory results were obtained. (authors)

  16. Using Poly-L-Histidine Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode to Trace Hydroquinone in the Sewage Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive voltammetric method for trace measurements of hydroquinone in the sewage water is described. The poly-L-histidine is prepared to modify the glassy carbon electrode in order to improve the electrochemical catalysis of interesting substances such as hydroquinone. The influence of the base solution, pH value, and scanning speed on the tracing of hydroquinone is discussed, and the experimental procedures and conditions are optimized. The laboratory results show that it is possible to construct a linear calibration curve between the peak current of hydroquinone on modified electrode and its concentration at the level of 0.00001 mol/L. The potential limitation of the method is suggested by a linear peaking shift model as well. The method was successfully applied to the determination of hydroquinone in the actual sample of industrial waste water.

  17. Titanium dioxide modified with various amines used as sorbents of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapica-Kozar, Joanna; Pirog, Ewa; Kusiak-Nejman, Ewelina; Wrobel, Rafal J.; Gesikiewicz-Puchalska, Andzelika; Morawski, Antoni W.; Narkiewicz, Urszula; Michalkiewicz, Beata

    2017-01-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide was modified with various amines through hydrothermal treatment for adsorption of CO_2. The carbon dioxide adsorption performance of the prepared samples was measured using an STA 449 C thermo-balance (Netzsch Company, Germany). The morphological structures, functional groups and elemental compositions of the unmodified and amine-modified titanium dioxide sorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR/DR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that modification of TiO_2 with amines through hydrothermal treatment is a simple method to prepare CO_2 sorbents with high adsorption capacities. Moreover, the results revealed that TEPA-modified titanium dioxide shoved the highest adsorption capacity, enabling an increase in CO_2 uptake from 0.45 mmol CO_2 g"-"1 in the case of raw TiO_2 to 1.63 mmol CO_2 g"-"1. This result could be indirectly related to the fact that TEPA has the highest amino group content among the three amines used in our research. Additionally, durability tests performed by cyclic adsorption-desorption revealed that TEPA modified titanium dioxide also possesses excellent stability, despite a slight decrease in adsorption capacity over time. (authors)

  18. Highly sensitive and selective determination of methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles composite modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalambate, Pramod K.; Rawool, Chaitali R.; Karna, Shashi P.; Srivastava, Ashwini K.

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric method for determination of Methylergometrine maleate (MM) in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples has been developed based on enhanced electrochemical response of MM at carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (CNF-AgNP-CPE). The electrode material was characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic response of MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical response towards MM. The DPV study shows greatly enhanced electrochemical signal for MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE lending high sensitivity to the proposed sensor for MM detection. The peak (I p ) current for MM is found to be rectilinear in the range 4.0 × 10 −8 –2.0 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 7.1 × 10 −9 M using DPV. The feasibility of the proposed sensor in analytical applications was investigated by conducting experiments on commercial pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and blood serum samples, which yielded satisfactory recoveries of MM. The proposed electrochemical sensor offers high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and practical utility. We recommend it as an authentic and productive electrochemical sensor for successful determination of MM. - Highlights: • Voltammetric sensor for methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticle - carbon paste electrode • Wide working range, good reproducibility, fast response and high stability were the main advantages of the proposed sensor • Analysis of methylergometrine maleate in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples • Lowest limit of detection obtained for methylergometrine maleate

  19. The effect of modified atmosphere packaging with carbon monoxide on the storage quality of master-packaged fresh pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, B.H.P.; Janz, J.A.M.; Morel, P.C.H.; Purchas, R.W.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging with carbon dioxide is effective for prolonging shelf-life of fresh meat. Addition of carbon monoxide to the system provides the advantage of enhancing meat colour. The study objective was to determine the effect of CO2-MAP + 0.4% CO, vs. 100% CO2-MAP, on the

  20. The electrochemical behavior of some podands at a benzo[c]cinnoline modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbir, Aybueke A.; Solak, Ali Osman; Uestuendag, Zafer; Bilge, Selen; Natsagdorj, Amgalan; Kilic, Emine; Kilic, Zeynel

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the grafting of benzo[c]cinnoline (BCC) molecules on glassy carbon (GC) electrode surface. The attachment of BCC molecules to carbon substrate is induced by the electrochemical reduction of the corresponding diazonium salt. The modification of GC with BCC diazonium salt was done in aprotic solution and proved by blocking of dopamine electron transfer. The presence of BCC at the GC surface was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). On modified surface, the electrochemical behavior of two different types of podands and the catalytic effects of the GC-BCC surface were studied. The XPS was used to monitor element characteristics of the adsorbates on the GC surface and confirm the attachment of BCC molecules to the GC surface

  1. Electrochemical Study of Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode with Carboxyphenyl Diazonium Salt in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem BOUROUROU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The covalent grafting of carboxyphenyl functionalities to planar carbon substrates by reaction with 2-carboxybenezenediazonium salt has been studied in aqueous acid solution. The surface was characterized, before and after the functionnalization process, by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV in order to control and to prove the formation of a coating on the carbon surface. The results indicate the presence of substituted phenyl groups on the investigated surface. Electrochemical impedance measurements show that the slowing down of the electron transfer kinetics was more evident by increasing the number of cycles resulting to higher DEp and RCT parameters. Besides, the effect of the pH on the electron transfer processes of the Fe(CN63-/4- at the modified electrode is studied. By changing the solution pH the terminal group’s charge state would vary, based on which the surface pKa value is estimated.

  2. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: Effect of pore size on carbon dioxide capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zelenak; M. Badanicova; D. Halamova; J. Cejka; A. Zukal; N. Murafa; G. Goerigk [P.J. Safarik University, Kosice (Slovak Republic)

    2008-10-15

    Three mesoporous silica materials with different pore sizes and pore connectivity were prepared and functionalized with aminopropyl (AP) ligands by post-synthesis treatment. The materials were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiments. The carbon dioxide sorption on modified mesoporous molecular sieves was investigated by using of microbalances at 25{sup o}C, and the influence of pore size and pore architecture on CO{sub 2} sorption was discussed. The large pore silica, SBA-15, showed the largest carbon dioxide sorption capacity (1.5 mmol/g), relating to highest amine surface density in this material. On the other hand, three-dimensional accessibility of amine sites inside the pores of SBA-12 silica resulted in a faster response to CO{sub 2} uptake in comparison with MCM-41 and SBA-15 molecular sieves

  3. Voltammetric determination of carbidopa and folic acid using a modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtkar Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of carbidopa in presence of large excess of folic acid at physiological pH was developed by the bulk modification of carbon paste electrode (CPE with carbon nanotubes (CNTs and vinylferrocene. Large peak separation, good sensitivity and stability allow this modified electrode to analyze carbidopa individually and simultaneously along with folic acid. Applying square wave voltammetry (SWV, a linear dynamic range of 1.0×10-6- 7.0×10-4 M with detection limit of 2.0×10-7 M was obtained for carbidopa. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the determination of carbidopa and folic acid in urine sample.

  4. Two-dimensional dopant profiling by electrostatic force microscopy using carbon nanotube modified cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.-C.; Chang, Y.-C.; Chang, C.-S.; Tsong, T T; Hsu, Chen-Chih; Wu, Chih-I; Lin, W-H; Woon, W-Y; Lin, L-T; Tao, H-J

    2008-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) dopant profiling technique is demonstrated in this work. We apply a unique cantilever probe in electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) modified by the attachment of a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT). Furthermore, the tip apex of the MWNT was trimmed to the sharpness of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). This ultra-sharp MWNT tip helps us to resolve dopant features to within 10 nm in air, which approaches the resolution achieved by ultra-high vacuum scanning tunnelling microscopy (UHV STM). In this study, the CNT-probed EFM is used to profile 2D buried dopant distribution under a nano-scale device structure and shows the feasibility of device characterization for sub-45 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect transistors

  5. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on the efficiency of P sequestration by a lanthanum modified clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Line; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Lundberg, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory scale experiment was set up to test the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as well as ageing of the La–P complex formed during phosphorus (P) sequestration by a La modified clay (Phoslock®). Short term (7 days) P adsorption studies revealed a significant negative effect of added...... DOC on the P sequestration of Phoslock®, whereas a long-term P adsorption experiment revealed that the negative effect of added DOC was reduced with time. The reduced P binding efficiency is kinetic, as evident from solid-state 31P magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy, who showed that the P...

  6. Backbone modified TBA analogues endowed with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Veronica; Russo, Annapina; Amato, Teresa; Varra, Michela; Vellecco, Valentina; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Russo, Giulia; Virgilio, Antonella; Galeone, Aldo

    2017-05-01

    The thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) is endowed with antiproliferative properties but its potential development is counteracted by the concomitant anticoagulant activity. Five oligonucleotides (ODNs) based on TBA sequence (GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG) and containing l-residues or both l-residues and inversion of polarity sites have been investigated by NMR and CD techniques for their ability to form G-quadruplex structures. Furthermore, their anticoagulant (PT assay) and antiproliferative properties (MTT assay), and their resistance in fetal bovine serum have been tested. CD and NMR data suggest that the investigated ODNs are able to form right- and left-handed G-quadruplex structures. All ODNs do not retain the anticoagulant activity characteristic of TBA but are endowed with a significant antiproliferative activity against two cancerous cell lines. Their resistance in biological environment after six days is variable, depending on the ODN. A comparison between results and literature data suggests that the antiproliferative activity of the TBA analogues investigated could depends on two factors: a) biological pathways and targets different from those already identified or proposed for other antiproliferative G-quadruplex aptamers, and b) the contribution of the guanine-based degradation products. Modified TBA analogues containing l-residues and inversion of polarity sites lose the anticoagulant activity but gain antiproliferative properties against two cancer cell lines. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemically modified carbon nanotubes as material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI) material in protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najam-ul-Haq, M.; Rainer, M.; Schwarzenauer, T.; Huck, C.W.; Bonn, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers play a potential role in the early detection and diagnosis of a disease. Our aim is to derivatize carbon nanotubes for exploration of the differences in human body fluids e.g. serum, through matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) that can be related to disease and subsequently to be employed in the biomarker discovery process. This application we termed as the material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI). The versatility of this technology is meant to increase the amount of information from biological samples on the protein level, which will have a major impact to serve the cause of diagnostic markers. Serum peptides and proteins are immobilized on derivatized carbon nanotubes, which function as binding material. Protein-loaded suspension is placed on a stainless steel target or buckypaper on aluminum target for direct analysis with MALDI-MS. The elution method to wash the bound proteins from carbon nanotubes was employed to compare with the direct analysis procedure. Elution is carried out by MALDI matrix solution to get them out of the entangled nanotubes, which are difficult to desorb by laser due to the complex nanotube structures. The advantage of these optimized methods compared to the conventional screening methods is the improved sensitivity, selectivity and the short analysis time without prior albumin and immunoglobulin depletion. The comparison of similarly modified diamond and carbon nanotubes exhibit differences in their nature to bind the proteins out of serum due to the differences in their physical characteristics. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provided hint for the presence of tertiary amine peak at the crucial chemical step of iminodiacetic acid addition to acid chloride functionality on carbon nanotubes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was utilized to quantitatively measure the copper capacity of these derivatized carbon nanotubes which is a direct measure of capacity of

  8. Macroscale porous carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile for application as electrode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lizhen; Zhao, Shaofei; He, Miao

    2018-02-01

    The anode material is a crucial factor that significantly affects the cost and performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a novel macroscale porous, biocompatible, highly conductive and low cost electrode, carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile (NC@CCT), is fabricated by using normal cheap waste cotton textiles as raw material via a simple in situ polymerization and carbonization treatment as anode of MFCs. The physical and chemical characterizations show that the macroscale porous and biocompatible NC@CCT electrode is coated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles and offers a large specific surface area (888.67 m2 g-1) for bacterial cells growth, accordingly greatly increases the loading amount of bacterial cells and facilitates extracellular electron transfer (EET). As a result, the MFC equipped with the NC@CCT anode achieves a maximum power density of 931 ± 61 mW m-2, which is 80.5% higher than that of commercial carbon felt (516 ± 27 mW m-2) anode. Moreover, making full use of the normal cheap waste cotton textiles can greatly reduce the cost of MFCs and the environmental pollution problem.

  9. Surface modification of coconut shell based activated carbon for the improvement of hydrophobic VOC removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Liu, Suqin; Liu, Junxin

    2011-08-30

    In this study, coconut shell based carbons were chemically treated by ammonia, sodium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and phosphoric acid to determine suitable modification for improving adsorption ability of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on granular activated carbons (GAC). The saturated adsorption capacities of o-xylene, a hydrophobic volatile organic compound, were measured and adsorption effects of the original and modified activated carbons were compared. Results showed that GAC modified by alkalis had better o-xylene adsorption capacity. Uptake amount was enhanced by 26.5% and reduced by 21.6% after modification by NH(3)H(2)O and H(2)SO(4), respectively. Compared with the original, GAC modified by acid had less adsorption capacity. Both SEM/EDAX and BET were used to identify the structural characteristics of the tested GAC, while IR spectroscopy and Boehm's titration were applied to analysis the surface functional groups. Relationships between physicochemical characteristics of GAC and their adsorption performances demonstrated that o-xylene adsorption capacity was related to surface area, pore volume, and functional groups of the GAC surface. Removing surface oxygen groups, which constitute the source of surface acidity, and reducing hydrophilic carbon surface favors adsorption capacity of hydrophobic VOCs on carbons. The performances of modified GACs were also investigated in the purification of gases containing complex components (o-xylene and steam) in the stream. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with polythionine and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Tang

    Full Text Available A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of -0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM(-1 cm(-2 and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3, with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors.

  11. Glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes sensor for the quantification of antihistamine drug pheniramine in solubilized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive electroanalytical method for quantification of pheniramine in pharmaceutical formulation has been investigated on the basis of the enhanced electrochemical response at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate. The experimental results suggest that the pheniramine in anionic surfactant solution exhibits electrocatalytic effect resulting in a marked enhancement of the peak current response. Peak current response is linearly dependent on the concentration of pheniramine in the range 200–1500 μg/mL with correlation coefficient 0.9987. The limit of detection is 58.31 μg/mL. The modified electrode shows good sensitivity and repeatability. Keywords: Pheniramine, Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, Glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (GCE-MWCNTs, Solubilized systems, Voltammetric quantification

  12. Gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2016-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry was used to characterize the nanostructure and performance of the sensor and the results were compared with those obtained at the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions diclofenac sodium gave linear response over the range of 0.03-200μmolL(-1). The lower detection limits were found to be 0.02μmolL(-1). The effect of common interferences on the current response of DS was investigated. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of diclofenac sodium in urine and