WorldWideScience

Sample records for action semantic equivalences

  1. Potential role of monkey inferior parietal neurons coding action semantic equivalences as precursors of parts of speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yumiko; Yokochi, Hiroko; Tanaka, Michio; Okanoya, Kazuo; Iriki, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    The anterior portion of the inferior parietal cortex possesses comprehensive representations of actions embedded in behavioural contexts. Mirror neurons, which respond to both self-executed and observed actions, exist in this brain region in addition to those originally found in the premotor cortex. We found that parietal mirror neurons responded differentially to identical actions embedded in different contexts. Another type of parietal mirror neuron represents an inverse and complementary property of responding equally to dissimilar actions made by itself and others for an identical purpose. Here, we propose a hypothesis that these sets of inferior parietal neurons constitute a neural basis for encoding the semantic equivalence of various actions across different agents and contexts. The neurons have mirror neuron properties, and they encoded generalization of agents, differentiation of outcomes, and categorization of actions that led to common functions. By integrating the activities of these mirror neurons with various codings, we further suggest that in the ancestral primates' brains, these various representations of meaningful action led to the gradual establishment of equivalence relations among the different types of actions, by sharing common action semantics. Such differential codings of the components of actions might represent precursors to the parts of protolanguage, such as gestural communication, which are shared among various members of a society. Finally, we suggest that the inferior parietal cortex serves as an interface between this action semantics system and other higher semantic systems, through common structures of action representation that mimic language syntax. PMID:20119879

  2. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  3. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  4. Semantic activation in action planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, Oliver; Stenneken, Prisca; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments investigated activation of semantic information in action preparation. Participants either prepared to grasp and use an object (e.g., to drink from a cup) or to lift a finger in association with the object's position following a go/no-go lexical-decision task. Word stimuli were cons

  5. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  6. Semantic equivalences in Romanian medical terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Lungu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to underline some aspects concerning the presence of synonymy semantic relationship in specialized medical terminology, having as object of study Romanian medical terms. For this study we use a descriptive, conceptual and lexical semantic research method to provide the understanding of different couples, groups or synonymic series where medical terms have several variations: specialized/common terms, syntagms and patronyms of French or different origin. We propose a classification scheme of synonyms of medical lexicon, terms or synonymic syntagms, total and partial, in order to meet the accessibility needs in scientific communication.

  7. Uncovering the architecture of action semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2014-10-01

    Despite research suggesting that stored sensorimotor information about tool use is a component of the semantic representations of tools, little is known about the action features or organizing principles that underlie this knowledge. We used methods similar to those applied in other semantic domains to examine the "architecture" of action semantic knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants sorted photographs of tools into groups according to the similarity of their associated "use" actions and rated tools on dimensions related to action. The results suggest that the magnitude of arm movement, configuration of the hand, and manner of motion during tool use play a role in determining how tools cluster in action "semantic space." In Experiment 2, we validated the architecture uncovered in Experiment 1 using an implicit semantic task for which tool use knowledge was not ostensibly relevant (blocked cyclic word-picture matching). Using stimuli from Experiment 1, we found that participants performed more poorly during blocks of trials containing tools used with similar versus unrelated actions, and the amount of semantic interference depended on the magnitude of action similarity among tools. Thus, the degree of featural overlap between tool use actions plays a role in determining the overall semantic similarity of tools.

  8. A Model for Semantic Equivalence Discovery for Harmonizing Master Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piprani, Baba

    IT projects often face the challenge of harmonizing metadata and data so as to have a "single" version of the truth. Determining equivalency of multiple data instances against the given type, or set of types, is mandatory in establishing master data legitimacy in a data set that contains multiple incarnations of instances belonging to the same semantic data record . The results of a real-life application define how measuring criteria and equivalence path determination were established via a set of "probes" in conjunction with a score-card approach. There is a need for a suite of supporting models to help determine master data equivalency towards entity resolution—including mapping models, transform models, selection models, match models, an audit and control model, a scorecard model, a rating model. An ORM schema defines the set of supporting models along with their incarnation into an attribute based model as implemented in an RDBMS.

  9. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  10. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics.

  11. Action Semantics and ASF+SDF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2002-01-01

    Modularity and tool support are crucial features for practical use of formal descriptions of programming languages. The combination of unrestricted context-free grammars with action semantics allows complete language descriptions with exceptionally good modularity. Moreover, by specifying the des...... the descriptions in ASF+SDF, the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment can be used to provide appropriate tool support....

  12. Comparison of Semantics of Disjunctive Logic Programs Based on Model-Equivalent Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Shun Zhao; Yu-Ping Shen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that stable model semantics, perfect model semantics, and partial stable model semantics of disjunctive logic programs have the same expressive power with respect to the polynomial-time model-equivalent reduction. That is, taking perfect model semantics and stable model semantic as an example, any logic program P can be transformed in polynomial time to another logic program p' such that perfect models (resp. stable models) of P 1-1 correspond to stable models (resp. perfect models) of P', and the correspondence can be computed also in polynomial time. However, the minimal model semantics has weaker expressiveness than other mentioned semantics, otherwise, the polynomial hierarchy would collapse to NP.

  13. An Abstract Coalgebraic Approach to Process Equivalence for Well- Behaved Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek

    -called bialgebraic framework of Turi and Plotkin is an abstract generalization of the well-known structural operational semantics format GSOS, and provides a theory of operational semantic rules for which bisimulation equivalence is a congruence. The first part of this thesis aims at extending that framework...... is then specialized to the case of trace equivalence, completed trace equivalence and failures equivalence. In the two latter cases, novel congruence formats are obtained, extending the current state of the art in this area of research. The second part of the thesis aims at extending the bialgebraic framework......This thesis is part of the programme aimed at finding a mathematical theory of well-behaved structural operational semantics. General and basic results shown in 1997 in a seminal paper by Turi and Plotkin are extended in two directions, aiming at greater expressivity of the framework. The so...

  14. Action and Semantics of Time in Agro-Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Pierre; Libourel Rouge, Thérèse; Reitz, Philippe; Clouvel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Soumis à la Conférence TIMES'2010; In the systemic approach, the system is perceived as an action or a collection of overlapping actions expressed in reference to Time, Space, and Morphology (or Energy). When the system is studied by different disciplines, the referentials differ, as well as the semantics of terms used to describe the action. In order to establish the vocabulary of a collection of actions involving several disciplines, we propose a formal method for describing each action. Th...

  15. Orbit equivalence and actions of F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we show that there are "E many" orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups F, 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions.......In this paper we show that there are "E many" orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups F, 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions....

  16. Training Of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically-Related Action Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLocatelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce.In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs.Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training.The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

  17. Action Algebras and Model Algebras in Denotational Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Luiz Carlos Castro; Haeusler, Edward Hermann

    the same way as that for functional denotational types. For example, PASCAL arrays belong to the “language inherent” aspect, while the Store domain seems to belong to the “model dependent” aspect. This distinction was important because it focussed attention on optimizing the model dependent semantic domains to obtain a more efficient implementation.) The research led to a nice conclusion: The guidelines of Action Semantics induce a clear separation of the model and language inherent aspects of a language’s semantics. A good implementation of facets, particularly the model dependent ones, leads to generation of an efficient compiler. In this article we discuss the separation of the language inherent and model-inherent domains at the theoretical and conceptual level. In doing so, the authors hope to show how Professor Mosses’s influence extended beyond his technical advice to his professional and personal examples on the supervision of PhD research.

  18. [Semantic and conceptual equivalence of the observable indicatorsof Nursing Home Care Quality Instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Wagner Ivan Fonseca de; Hernández, Pedro Jesus Saturno; Sousa, Kelienny de Meneses; Piuvezam, Grasiela; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) for the elderly are an important health care alternative in the world, though Brazil does not yet have a valid instrument to monitor the quality of these institutions. This study sought to describe the initial stages of the cross-cultural adaptation of the Observable Indicators of Nursing Home Care Quality (OIQ) instrument used to assess the quality of care in LTCFs. Conceptual equivalence was conducted to assess the relevance and feasibility of the OIQ within the Brazilian context, using the Content Validity Index (CVI). The operational, idiomatic and semantic equivalence was then performed. This item consisted of 5 phases: (1) two translations; (2) the respective back translations; (3) formal appraisal; (4) review; and (5) application of the pre-test in three LTCFs. Significant changes were made to ensure the validity of the OIQ. The CVI instrument for the Brazilian contextwas 94.3% (viability) and 95.3% (relevance). The OIQ proved to be easy to understand and apply in the pre-test. Cross-cultural adaptation of the OIQ contributes to assessing and improving quality in Brazilian LTCFs, though the findings should be complemented by a psychometric evaluation of the instrument.

  19. Grasp it loudly! Supporting actions with semantically congruent spoken action words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargier, Raphaël; Ménoret, Mathilde; Boulenger, Véronique; Nazir, Tatjana A; Paulignan, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for cross-talk between motor and language brain structures has accumulated over the past several years. However, while a significant amount of research has focused on the interaction between language perception and action, little attention has been paid to the potential impact of language production on overt motor behaviour. The aim of the present study was to test whether verbalizing during a grasp-to-displace action would affect motor behaviour and, if so, whether this effect would depend on the semantic content of the pronounced word (Experiment I). Furthermore, we sought to test the stability of such effects in a different group of participants and investigate at which stage of the motor act language intervenes (Experiment II). For this, participants were asked to reach, grasp and displace an object while overtly pronouncing verbal descriptions of the action ("grasp" and "put down") or unrelated words (e.g. "butterfly" and "pigeon"). Fine-grained analyses of several kinematic parameters such as velocity peaks revealed that when participants produced action-related words their movements became faster compared to conditions in which they did not verbalize or in which they produced words that were not related to the action. These effects likely result from the functional interaction between semantic retrieval of the words and the planning and programming of the action. Therefore, links between (action) language and motor structures are significant to the point that language can refine overt motor behaviour.

  20. Grasp it loudly! Supporting actions with semantically congruent spoken action words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Fargier

    Full Text Available Evidence for cross-talk between motor and language brain structures has accumulated over the past several years. However, while a significant amount of research has focused on the interaction between language perception and action, little attention has been paid to the potential impact of language production on overt motor behaviour. The aim of the present study was to test whether verbalizing during a grasp-to-displace action would affect motor behaviour and, if so, whether this effect would depend on the semantic content of the pronounced word (Experiment I. Furthermore, we sought to test the stability of such effects in a different group of participants and investigate at which stage of the motor act language intervenes (Experiment II. For this, participants were asked to reach, grasp and displace an object while overtly pronouncing verbal descriptions of the action ("grasp" and "put down" or unrelated words (e.g. "butterfly" and "pigeon". Fine-grained analyses of several kinematic parameters such as velocity peaks revealed that when participants produced action-related words their movements became faster compared to conditions in which they did not verbalize or in which they produced words that were not related to the action. These effects likely result from the functional interaction between semantic retrieval of the words and the planning and programming of the action. Therefore, links between (action language and motor structures are significant to the point that language can refine overt motor behaviour.

  1. On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Leksykon odpowiedniości semantycznych w języku polskim, bułgarskim i rosyjskim [The Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian] is the first Polish dictionary which compares semantic equivalents in the largest languages of each Slavic subgroup: The West Slavic group (Polish, the South Slavic group (Bulgarian and the East Slavic group (Russian. The content of the dictionary reflects the social processes, changes and trends which have taken place over recent years. The dictionary consists of 5 volumes, with approximately 5000 entries for each language. What sets it apart from other dictionaries is that it ventures beyond the standard vocabulary one might expect from a dictionary of this sort. Leksykon also contains neologisms as well as realogisms - words which do not often have perfect equivalents in other languages because they are so deeply embedded in a nation’s culture. Each entry in the dictionary offers state-of-the-art semantic and syntactic categorisers, developed by Polish experts in Slavic semantics and aspectology. We consider the dictionary to be an innovation in lexicography, because its open structure enables more languages to be added in the future, including non-Slavic languages. Developed with the use of the most recent methodologies available, the dictionary will constitute a sound basis for lexicographic research in the future, in particular for the development of multilingual electronic dictionaries. In the 21st century, we face two great challenges: to make academic research more interdisciplinary and to build an integrated multinational European community. We hope that our dictionary will help address these challenges by promoting multilingualism and facilitating intercultural communication.The primary language of the dictionary is Polish - the largest Slavic language in the European Union. During the Polish

  2. ERP correlates of priming in language and stimulus equivalence: evidence of similar N400 effects in absence of semantic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabullo, Angel; Yorio, Alberto; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    Semantic priming has been widely observed at both behavioral and electrophysiological levels as reductions in response times and N400 magnitudes respectively. However, the possibility that stimulus relations derived from associative learning elicit N400 priming effects comparable to those found in language has not been properly addressed yet. Equivalence relations emerge after establishing a set of arbitrary and intra-experimentally defined relations through associative learning, thus allowing the study of derived stimulus relations in the absence of semantic content. The present study aimed to compare ERP correlates of priming in semantically related words and pseudowords related through equivalence. We found similar behavioral and N400 effects when comparing unrelated vs related prime-target pairs in language and stimulus equivalence tasks, suggesting that priming engages at least partially overlapping neural mechanisms in both contexts. In addition, we found a posteriorly distributed late positivity in the semantic priming task only, which may be reflecting language-specific processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Naming Action in Japanese: Effects of Semantic Similarity and Grammatical Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Noriko; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Watanabe, Masumi; Arciuli, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether the semantic similarity and grammatical class of distracter words affects the naming of pictured actions (verbs) in Japanese. Three experiments used the picture-word interference paradigm with participants naming picturable actions while ignoring distracters. In all three experiments, we manipulated the semantic…

  4. Event-Based Operational Semantics and a Consistency Result for Real-Time Concurrent Processes with Action Refinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Li Sun; Wen-Yin Zhang; Jin-Zhao Wu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an event-based operational interleaving semantics is proposed for real-time processes, for which action refinement and a denotational true concurrency semantics are developed and defined in terms of timed event structures. The authors characterize the timed event traces that are generated by the operational semantics in a denotational way, and show that this operational semantics is consistent with the denotational semantics in the sense that they generate the same set of timed event traces, thereby eliminating the gap between the true concurrency and interleaving semantics.

  5. The Study of Semantic Functional Equivalence of Predicates in Xi Youji and Its English Version Journey to the West-From the Perspective of Transitivity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    问露

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence in translation was first put forward by Firth.It has been the nuclear topic of translation studies in western countries."Functional equivalence",Eugene Nida's key notion of translation theories,advocated the receptor-oriented translation standard.Through the contrastive study between Xi Youji and its English version Journey to the West,the content focuses on the translation of the verbal predicates and aims at studying the application of transitivity theory into Chinese-English translation and finding out the improved translations of Chinese and English examples of different processes.Due to limited article,this paper only discusses three of six processes in the concrete context and provides new translations for the questioned ones.Finally,the last part summarizes that the functional equivalence can be achieved when verbs referring to process of action share the same semantic attribute with the Chinese originals,so the English version of Xi Youji should be further perfected according to transitivity theory.

  6. The Problems of Semantic Equivalence in Different Types of Ukrainian-Polish and Polish-Ukrainian Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kononenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Problems of Semantic Equivalence in Different Types of Ukrainian-Polish and Polish-Ukrainian Dictionaries This article deals with the problems of semantic equivalence that authors of various types of dictionaries, including bilingual ones, are faced with. Words and phraseological units of common Polish and Ukrainian origin separately developed their systems of meanings in both languages, making it difficult to identify analogues that adequately reflect the semantic structure of linguistic units. In general, the author’s assumptions are based on experience of publishing Polish-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Polish dictionaries of various types.   Problemy ekwiwalencji semantycznej w ukraińsko-polskich i polsko-ukraińskich słownikach różnych typów Artykuł porusza problem ekwiwalencji semantycznej, który napotykają autorzy słowników różnych typów, w tym dwujęzycznych. Polskie i ukraińskie wyrazy i jednostki frazeologiczne o wspólnym pochodzeniu rozwijają w każdym języku swoje własne systemy znaczeń, utrudniając określenie odpowiedników i adekwatne odzwierciedlenie struktury semantycznej jednostek. Ogólne założenia autorki są oparte na jej doświadczeniu w publikowaniu polsko-ukraińskich i ukraińsko-polskich słowników różnych typów.

  7. Latent Semantic Learning with Structured Sparse Representation for Human Action Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel latent semantic learning method for extracting high-level features (i.e. latent semantics) from a large vocabulary of abundant mid-level features (i.e. visual keywords) with structured sparse representation, which can help to bridge the semantic gap in the challenging task of human action recognition. To discover the manifold structure of midlevel features, we develop a spectral embedding approach to latent semantic learning based on L1-graph, without the need to tune any parameter for graph construction as a key step of manifold learning. More importantly, we construct the L1-graph with structured sparse representation, which can be obtained by structured sparse coding with its structured sparsity ensured by novel L1-norm hypergraph regularization over mid-level features. In the new embedding space, we learn latent semantics automatically from abundant mid-level features through spectral clustering. The learnt latent semantics can be readily used for human action recognition with ...

  8. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  9. Hands typing what hands do: Action-semantic integration dynamics throughout written verb production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-04-01

    Processing action verbs, in general, and manual action verbs, in particular, involves activations in gross and hand-specific motor networks, respectively. While this is well established for receptive language processes, no study has explored action-semantic integration during written production. Moreover, little is known about how such crosstalk unfolds from motor planning to execution. Here we address both issues through our novel "action semantics in typing" paradigm, which allows to time keystroke operations during word typing. Specifically, we created a primed-verb-copying task involving manual action verbs, non-manual action verbs, and non-action verbs. Motor planning processes were indexed by first-letter lag (the lapse between target onset and first keystroke), whereas execution dynamics were assessed considering whole-word lag (the lapse between first and last keystroke). Each phase was differently delayed by action verbs. When these were processed for over one second, interference was strong and magnified by effector compatibility during programming, but weak and effector-blind during execution. Instead, when they were processed for less than 900ms, interference was reduced by effector compatibility during programming and it faded during execution. Finally, typing was facilitated by prime-target congruency, irrespective of the verbs' motor content. Thus, action-verb semantics seems to extend beyond its embodied foundations, involving conceptual dynamics not tapped by classical reaction-time measures. These findings are compatible with non-radical models of language embodiment and with predictions of event coding theory.

  10. Feature activation during word recognition: Action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam Jia Yoong, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Rüschemeyer, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain

  11. A Neuroanatomical Examination of Embodied Cognition: Semantic Generation to Action-Related Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie eEsopenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The theory of embodied cognition postulates that the brain represents semantic knowledge as a function of the interaction between the body and the environment. The goal of our research was to provide a neuroanatomical examination of embodied cognition using action-related pictures and words. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine whether there were shared and/or unique regions of activation between an ecologically valid semantic generation task and a motor task in the parietal-frontocentral network (PFN, as a function of stimulus format (pictures versus words for two stimulus types (hand and foot. Unlike other methods for neuroimaging analyses involving subtractive logic or conjoint analyses, this method first isolates shared and unique regions of activation within-participants before generating an averaged map. The results demonstrated shared activation between the semantic generation and motor tasks, which was organized somatotopically in the PFN, as well as unique activation for the semantic generation tasks in proximity to the hand or foot motor cortex. We also found unique and shared regions of activation in the PFN as a function of stimulus format (pictures versus words. These results further elucidate embodied cognition in that they show that brain regions activated during actual motor movements were also activated when an individual verbally generates action-related semantic information. Disembodied cognition theories and limitations are also discussed.

  12. Action semantics and movement characteristics engage distinct processing streams during the observation of tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeren, Markus; Kaller, Christoph P; Glauche, Volkmar; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Rijntjes, Michel; Hamzei, Farsin; Weiller, Cornelius

    2013-08-01

    The cortical motor system follows a modular organization in which different features of executed movements are supported by distinct streams. Accordingly, different levels of action recognition, such as movement characteristics or action semantics may be processed within distinct networks. The present study aimed to differentiate areas related to the analysis of action features involving semantic knowledge from regions concerned with the evaluation of movement characteristics determined by structural object properties. To this end, the assessment of (i) tool-associated actions in relation to semantically, but not functionally inappropriate recipients (factor "Semantics"), and the evaluation of (ii) tool-associated movements performed with awkward versus correct hand postures (factor "Hand") were experimentally manipulated in an fMRI study with an event-related 2 × 2 factorial design. The videos used as stimuli displayed actions performed with the right hand in third-person perspective. Conjunction analysis of all four experimental conditions showed that observing videos depicting tool-related actions compared to rest was associated with widespread bilateral activity within the frontal lobes, inferior and superior parietal lobules, parts of the temporal lobes, as well as the occipital lobes. Viewing actions executed with incorrect compared to correct hand postures (factor "Hand") elicited significantly more activity within right primary sensory cortex (Brodmann area 2) and superior parietal lobule. Conversely, tool-associated actions displayed after semantically incorrect compared to correct recipients elicited higher activation within a left-lateralized network comprising the ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), parts of the intraparietal sulcus and the angular gyrus (AG), as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography revealed two distinct fiber connections between AG and the frontal

  13. Dissociation between Semantic Representations for Motion and Action Verbs: Evidence from Patients with Left Hemisphere Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Evans, Carys; Greer, Joanna; Senior, Carl; Coventry, Kenny R.; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This multiple single case study contrasted left hemisphere stroke patients (N = 6) to healthy age-matched control participants (N = 15) on their understanding of action (e.g., holding, clenching) and motion verbs (e.g., crumbling, flowing). The tasks required participants to correctly identify the matching verb or associated picture. Dissociations on action and motion verb content depending on lesion site were expected. As predicted for verbs containing an action and/or motion content, modified t-tests confirmed selective deficits in processing motion verbs in patients with lesions involving posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, deficits in verbs describing motionless actions were found in patients with more anterior lesions sparing posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. These findings support the hypotheses that semantic representations for action and motion are behaviorally and neuro-anatomically dissociable. The findings clarify the differential and critical role of perceptual and motor regions in processing modality-specific semantic knowledge as opposed to a supportive but not necessary role. We contextualize these results within theories from both cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience that make claims over the role of sensory and motor information in semantic representation. PMID:28261070

  14. Dissociation between Semantic Representations for Motion and Action Verbs: Evidence from Patients with Left Hemisphere Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence J; Evans, Carys; Greer, Joanna; Senior, Carl; Coventry, Kenny R; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This multiple single case study contrasted left hemisphere stroke patients (N = 6) to healthy age-matched control participants (N = 15) on their understanding of action (e.g., holding, clenching) and motion verbs (e.g., crumbling, flowing). The tasks required participants to correctly identify the matching verb or associated picture. Dissociations on action and motion verb content depending on lesion site were expected. As predicted for verbs containing an action and/or motion content, modified t-tests confirmed selective deficits in processing motion verbs in patients with lesions involving posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, deficits in verbs describing motionless actions were found in patients with more anterior lesions sparing posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. These findings support the hypotheses that semantic representations for action and motion are behaviorally and neuro-anatomically dissociable. The findings clarify the differential and critical role of perceptual and motor regions in processing modality-specific semantic knowledge as opposed to a supportive but not necessary role. We contextualize these results within theories from both cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience that make claims over the role of sensory and motor information in semantic representation.

  15. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kevin J Y; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language.

  16. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J.Y. Lam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1 action features, (2 visual features, or (3 semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms, and 1,000 ms to determine the relative time course of the different features . Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100 ms, 250 ms, and 1,000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1,000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1 demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2 provides new evidence for embodied theories of language.

  17. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing...... already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 X 20 emotion, face, and hand related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using...... levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect...

  18. A continuous semantic space describes the representation of thousands of object and action categories across the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Alexander G; Nishimoto, Shinji; Vu, An T; Gallant, Jack L

    2012-12-20

    Humans can see and name thousands of distinct object and action categories, so it is unlikely that each category is represented in a distinct brain area. A more efficient scheme would be to represent categories as locations in a continuous semantic space mapped smoothly across the cortical surface. To search for such a space, we used fMRI to measure human brain activity evoked by natural movies. We then used voxelwise models to examine the cortical representation of 1,705 object and action categories. The first few dimensions of the underlying semantic space were recovered from the fit models by principal components analysis. Projection of the recovered semantic space onto cortical flat maps shows that semantic selectivity is organized into smooth gradients that cover much of visual and nonvisual cortex. Furthermore, both the recovered semantic space and the cortical organization of the space are shared across different individuals.

  19. Semantic memory: Nouns and action verbs in cognitively unimpaired individuals and frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Lessa Mansur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the instruments to evaluate semantic memory, the Pyramids and Palm Trees (PPT and the Kissing and Dancing (KDT tests are widely used but none have a performance referential for cognitively normal and impaired Brazilian populations. Objective: [A] To study these two tests in a sample of young healthy Brazilian individuals living in São Paulo; [B] To apply the results to the evaluation of two cases diagnosed with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Methods: We evaluated 50 normal participants (41 females and 9 males aged between 20-63 years, with schooling level of 14-20 years. In addition, two individuals diagnosed with frontotemporal lobar degeneration were examined, one with behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia and the other with semantic dementia. Results: On the two tests, no effects of age, gender and schooling on the performance of normal individuals were observed. According to the performance of the sample of controls, scores below 46 points on the PPT and below 47 on the KDT are suggestive of deficits in semantic memory. The analyses of both cases indicated double dissociation in establishing associations between nouns and action verbs. Although the two patients had low scores on both tests, the patient with behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia performed better on the PPT compared to the KDT, while the patient with semantic dementia showed the reverse, performing better on the KDT. Conclusion: The PPT and KDT are suitable tests for use in the Brazilian population, with minimal need for adjustments. They are applicable tools both for cognitive assessment and research in semantic memory. In the present study, we obtained representative values of performance for cognitively unimpaired individuals and demonstrated the utility of these instruments for cognitive assessment of patients with FTLD.

  20. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  1. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kai Petersen

    Full Text Available Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  2. Brain connections of words, perceptions and actions: A neurobiological model of spatio-temporal semantic activation in the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Rosario; Garagnani, Max; Wennekers, Thomas; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2017-04-01

    Neuroimaging and patient studies show that different areas of cortex respectively specialize for general and selective, or category-specific, semantic processing. Why are there both semantic hubs and category-specificity, and how come that they emerge in different cortical regions? Can the activation time-course of these areas be predicted and explained by brain-like network models? In this present work, we extend a neurocomputational model of human cortical function to simulate the time-course of cortical processes of understanding meaningful concrete words. The model implements frontal and temporal cortical areas for language, perception, and action along with their connectivity. It uses Hebbian learning to semantically ground words in aspects of their referential object- and action-related meaning. Compared with earlier proposals, the present model incorporates additional neuroanatomical links supported by connectivity studies and downscaled synaptic weights in order to control for functional between-area differences purely due to the number of in- or output links of an area. We show that learning of semantic relationships between words and the objects and actions these symbols are used to speak about, leads to the formation of distributed circuits, which all include neuronal material in connector hub areas bridging between sensory and motor cortical systems. Therefore, these connector hub areas acquire a role as semantic hubs. By differentially reaching into motor or visual areas, the cortical distributions of the emergent 'semantic circuits' reflect aspects of the represented symbols' meaning, thus explaining category-specificity. The improved connectivity structure of our model entails a degree of category-specificity even in the 'semantic hubs' of the model. The relative time-course of activation of these areas is typically fast and near-simultaneous, with semantic hubs central to the network structure activating before modality-preferential areas carrying

  3. The developmental cognitive neuroscience of action: semantics, motor resonance and social processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Choisdealbha, Áine; Reid, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    The widespread use of EEG methods and the introduction of new brain imaging methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy have made cognitive neuroscience research with infants more feasible, resulting in an explosion of new findings. Among the long-established study of the neural correlates of face and speech perception in infancy, there has been an abundance of recent research on infant perception and production of action and concomitant neurocognitive development. In this review, three significant strands of developmental action research are discussed. The first strand focuses on the relationship of diverse social cognitive processes, including the perception of goals and animacy, and the development of precursors to theory of mind, to action perception. The second investigates the role of motor resonance and mirror systems in early action development. The third strand focuses on the extraction of meaning from action by infants and discusses how semantic processing of action emerges early in life. Although these strands of research are pursued separately, many of the findings from each strand inform all three theoretical frameworks. This review will evaluate the evidence for a synthesised account of infant action development.

  4. Conjugacy, orbit equivalence and classification of measure-preserving group actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2009-01-01

    . Further, we obtain that the measure-preserving almost-everywhere-free ergodic actions of such a G cannot be classified up to orbit equivalence by a reasonable assignment of countable structures as complete invariants. We also obtain a strengthening and a new proof of a non-classification result of Foreman......We prove that if G is a countable discrete group with property (T) over an infinite subgroup HG which contains an infinite Abelian subgroup or is normal, then G has continuum-many orbit-inequivalent measure-preserving almost-everywhere-free ergodic actions on a standard Borel probability space...... and Weiss for conjugacy of measure-preserving ergodic almost-everywhere-free actions of discrete countable groups. © 2008 Cambridge University Press....

  5. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain.

  6. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain.

  7. Equivalence considerations for orally inhaled products for local action-ISAM/IPAC-RS European Workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carole; Cipolla, David; Chesworth, Tim; Agurell, Eva; Ahrens, Richard; Conner, Dale; Dissanayake, Sanjeeva; Dolovich, Myrna; Doub, William; Fuglsang, Anders; García Arieta, Afredo; Golden, Michael; Hermann, Robert; Hochhaus, Günther; Holmes, Susan; Lafferty, Paul; Lyapustina, Svetlana; Nair, Parameswaran; O'Connor, Dennis; Parkins, David; Peterson, Ilse; Reisner, Colin; Sandell, Dennis; Singh, Gur Jai Pal; Weda, Marjolein; Watson, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to document the discussions at the 2010 European Workshop on Equivalence Determinations for Orally Inhaled Drugs for Local Action, cohosted by the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) and the International Pharmaceutical Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS). The article summarizes current regulatory approaches in Europe, the United States, and Canada, and presents points of consensus as well as ongoing debate in the four major areas: in vitro testing, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, and device similarity. Specific issues in need of further research and discussion are also identified.

  8. Thematic knowledge, artifact concepts, and the left posterior temporal lobe: Where action and object semantics converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2016-09-01

    Converging evidence supports the existence of functionally and neuroanatomically distinct taxonomic (similarity-based; e.g., hammer-screwdriver) and thematic (event-based; e.g., hammer-nail) semantic systems. Processing of thematic relations between objects has been shown to selectively recruit the left posterior temporoparietal cortex. Similar posterior regions have also been shown to be critical for knowledge of relationships between actions and manipulable human-made objects (artifacts). Based on the hypothesis that thematic relationships for artifacts rely, at least in part, on action relationships, we assessed the prediction that the same regions of the left posterior temporoparietal cortex would be critical for conceptual processing of artifact-related actions and thematic relations for artifacts. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated processing of taxonomic and thematic relations for artifacts and natural objects as well as artifact action knowledge (gesture recognition) abilities in a large sample of 48 stroke patients with a range of lesion foci in the left hemisphere. Like control participants, patients identified thematic relations faster than taxonomic relations for artifacts, whereas they identified taxonomic relations faster than thematic relations for natural objects. Moreover, response times (RTs) for identifying thematic relations for artifacts selectively predicted performance in gesture recognition. Whole brain Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analyses and Region of Interest (ROI) regression analyses further demonstrated that lesions to the left posterior temporal cortex, overlapping with LTO and visual motion area hMT+, were associated both with relatively slower RTs in identifying thematic relations for artifacts and poorer artifact action knowledge in patients. These findings provide novel insights into the functional role of left posterior temporal cortex in thematic knowledge, and suggest that the close association between thematic

  9. Semantic processing of actions at 9months is linked to language proficiency at 9 and 18months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduk, Katharina; Bakker, Marta; Juvrud, Joshua; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Westermann, Gert; Lunn, Judith; Reid, Vincent M

    2016-11-01

    The current study uses event-related potential methodologies to investigate how social-cognitive processes in preverbal infants relate to language performance. We assessed 9-month-olds' understanding of the semantic structure of actions via an N400 event-related potential (ERP) response to action sequences that contained expected and unexpected outcomes. At 9 and 18months of age, infants' language abilities were measured using the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI). Here we show that 9-month-olds' understanding of the semantic structure of actions, evidenced in an N400 ERP response to action sequences with unexpected outcomes, is related to language comprehension scores at 9months and is related to language production scores at 18months of age. Infants who showed a selective N400 response to unexpected action outcomes are those who are classed as above mean in their language proficiency. The results provide evidence that language performance is related to the ability to detect and interpret human actions at 9months of age. This study suggests that some basic cognitive mechanisms are involved in the processing of sequential events that are shared between two conceptually different cognitive domains and that pre-linguistic social understanding skills and language proficiency are linked to one another. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Andrei; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.4

    2011-01-01

    Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS) for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS). The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems. The first result is its equivalence with the so-called Borrowed Context technique. Unfortunately, the axiomatization is not compositional in the expected manner as no rule captures "internal" communication of sub-systems. The main result states that such a rule is derivable if the given graph transformation system enjoys a certain property, which we call "complementarity of actions". Archetypal examples of such systems are interacti...

  11. Interactions between auditory and visual semantic stimulus classes: evidence for common processing networks for speech and body actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Georg F; Greenlee, Mark; Wuerger, Sophie

    2011-09-01

    Incongruencies between auditory and visual signals negatively affect human performance and cause selective activation in neuroimaging studies; therefore, they are increasingly used to probe audiovisual integration mechanisms. An open question is whether the increased BOLD response reflects computational demands in integrating mismatching low-level signals or reflects simultaneous unimodal conceptual representations of the competing signals. To address this question, we explore the effect of semantic congruency within and across three signal categories (speech, body actions, and unfamiliar patterns) for signals with matched low-level statistics. In a localizer experiment, unimodal (auditory and visual) and bimodal stimuli were used to identify ROIs. All three semantic categories cause overlapping activation patterns. We find no evidence for areas that show greater BOLD response to bimodal stimuli than predicted by the sum of the two unimodal responses. Conjunction analysis of the unimodal responses in each category identifies a network including posterior temporal, inferior frontal, and premotor areas. Semantic congruency effects are measured in the main experiment. We find that incongruent combinations of two meaningful stimuli (speech and body actions) but not combinations of meaningful with meaningless stimuli lead to increased BOLD response in the posterior STS (pSTS) bilaterally, the left SMA, the inferior frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule, and the anterior insula. These interactions are not seen in premotor areas. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that pSTS and frontal areas form a recognition network that combines sensory categorical representations (in pSTS) with action hypothesis generation in inferior frontal gyrus/premotor areas. We argue that the same neural networks process speech and body actions.

  12. Compactness theorems of fuzzy semantics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship among diverse fuzzy semantics vs. the corresponding logic consequence operators has been analyzed systematically. The results that compactness and logical compactness of fuzzy semantics are equivalent to compactness and continuity of the logic consequence operator induced by the semantics respectively have been proved under certain conditions. A general compactness theorem of fuzzy semantics have been established which says that every fuzzy semantics defined on a free algebra with members corresponding to continuous functions is compact.

  13. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora; HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements...... versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing...

  14. On the Interacting Chiral Gauge Field Theory in D=6 and the Off-Shell Equivalence of Dual Born-Infeld-Like Actions

    CERN Document Server

    De Castro, A S

    1999-01-01

    A canonical action describing the interaction of chiral gauge fields in D=6 Minkowski space-time is constructed. In a particular partial gauge fixing it reduces to the action found by Perry and Schwarz. The additional gauge symmetries are used to show the off-shell equivalence of the dimensional reduction to D=5 Minkowski space-time of the chiral gauge field canonical action and the Born-Infeld canonical action describing an interacting D=5 Abelian vector field. Its extension to improve the on-shell equivalence arguments of dual D-brane actions to off-shell ones is discussed.

  15. Semantic memory for actions as assessed by the Kissing and Dancing Test: Education and age effects in cognitively healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roque Baradel

    Full Text Available Action semantics is a relevant part of cognitive-linguistic assessment and the "Kissing and Dancing Test" (KDT has been used extensively for this purpose, evidencing clinical distinctions among brain-damaged patients. To enhance its use, reference values are necessary, especially for populations with heterogeneous educational levels and socioeconomic backgrounds.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of schooling and age on the KDT in cognitively unimpaired individualMETHODS: The KDT was applied to seventy-four healthy subjects. Sociodemographic factors were investigated through correlational and between-group analyses. Reference values according to age and schooling were provided.RESULTSKDT performance correlated significantly with schooling (r=0.757, p<0.01, age (r=-0.496, p<0.01 and socioeconomic status (r=0.418 p<0.01 but these variables were intercorrelated. Correlation with schooling and age remained signifi when controlling for age and socioeconomic status (r=0.530, p<0.01, and for schooling (-0.305,<0.01, respectively. When controlling for schooling, correlation between socioeconomic status and KDT was not significant (p=0.164. Between-group analyses revealed no age effects. Significant differences were found in performance according to educational level. Scores below 39/52 and below 47/52 (percentile 25 for individuals with 8 or less years of schooling and for individuals with 9 or more years of schooling, respectively, seem suggestive of an impairment in Action Semantics Processing and shall be further investigatedCONCLUSION KDT performance was influenced both by age and schooling, indicating the need to consider these demographic features as covariates when analyzing performance on the test and to adjust cut-off scores according to these demographic characteristics in clinical practice.

  16. Motor cognition-motor semantics: action perception theory of cognition and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Moseley, Rachel L; Egorova, Natalia; Shebani, Zubaida; Boulenger, Véronique

    2014-03-01

    A new perspective on cognition views cortical cell assemblies linking together knowledge about actions and perceptions not only as the vehicles of integrated action and perception processing but, furthermore, as a brain basis for a wide range of higher cortical functions, including attention, meaning and concepts, sequences, goals and intentions, and even communicative social interaction. This article explains mechanisms relevant to mechanistic action perception theory, points to concrete neuronal circuits in brains along with artificial neuronal network simulations, and summarizes recent brain imaging and other experimental data documenting the role of action perception circuits in cognition, language and communication.

  17. Equivalence between the Lovelock-Cartan action and a constrained gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, O.C.; Sadovski, G.; Santos, T.R.S.; Sobreiro, R.F. [UFF-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, A.D. [UERJ-Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tomaz, A.A. [UFF-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); CBPF-Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    We show that the four-dimensional Lovelock-Cartan action can be derived from a massless gauge theory for the SO(1, 3) group with an additional BRST trivial part. The model is originally composed of a topological sector and a BRST exact piece and has no explicit dependence on the metric, the vierbein or a mass parameter. The vierbein is introduced together with a mass parameter through some BRST trivial constraints. The effect of the constraints is to identify the vierbein with some of the additional fields, transforming the original action into the Lovelock-Cartan one. In this scenario, the mass parameter is identified with Newton's constant, while the gauge field is identified with the spin connection. The symmetries of the model are also explored. Moreover, the extension of the model to a quantum version is qualitatively discussed. (orig.)

  18. Speeding Up Exact Solutions of Interactive Dynamic Influence Diagrams Using Action Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Prashant, Doshi

    2009-01-01

    Interactive dynamic influence diagrams (I-DIDs) are graphical models for sequential decision making in partially observable settings shared by other agents. Algorithms for solving I-DIDs face the challenge of an exponentially growing space of candidate models ascribed to other agents, over time. ...... at a single time step. We show how to update these augmented classes and prove that our method is exact. The new approach enables us to bound the aggregated model space by the cardinality of other agents' actions. We evaluate its performance and provide empirical results in support....

  19. Intention, emotion, and action: a neural theory based on semantic pointers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Tobias; Stewart, Terrence C; Thagard, Paul

    2014-06-01

    We propose a unified theory of intentions as neural processes that integrate representations of states of affairs, actions, and emotional evaluation. We show how this theory provides answers to philosophical questions about the concept of intention, psychological questions about human behavior, computational questions about the relations between belief and action, and neuroscientific questions about how the brain produces actions. Our theory of intention ties together biologically plausible mechanisms for belief, planning, and motor control. The computational feasibility of these mechanisms is shown by a model that simulates psychologically important cases of intention. © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Semantic repository and ontology mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, J.; Trna, M.; Lozano, E.; Nguyen, T.T.; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Montaña, C.; Liem, J.

    2010-01-01

    This document discusses the core Semantic Technologies in DynaLearn: i) The semantic repository, which supports the online storage and access of qualitative reasoning models, ii) the grounding process, which establishes semantic equivalences between the concepts in the models and the concepts in a

  1. The time course of auditory-visual processing of speech and body actions: evidence for the simultaneous activation of an extended neural network for semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Georg F; Harrison, Neil R; Wuerger, Sophie M

    2013-08-01

    An extensive network of cortical areas is involved in multisensory object and action recognition. This network draws on inferior frontal, posterior temporal, and parietal areas; activity is modulated by familiarity and the semantic congruency of auditory and visual component signals even if semantic incongruences are created by combining visual and auditory signals representing very different signal categories, such as speech and whole body actions. Here we present results from a high-density ERP study designed to examine the time-course and source location of responses to semantically congruent and incongruent audiovisual speech and body actions to explore whether the network involved in action recognition consists of a hierarchy of sequentially activated processing modules or a network of simultaneously active processing sites. We report two main results:1) There are no significant early differences in the processing of congruent and incongruent audiovisual action sequences. The earliest difference between congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli occurs between 240 and 280 ms after stimulus onset in the left temporal region. Between 340 and 420 ms, semantic congruence modulates responses in central and right frontal areas. Late differences (after 460 ms) occur bilaterally in frontal areas.2) Source localisation (dipole modelling and LORETA) reveals that an extended network encompassing inferior frontal, temporal, parasaggital, and superior parietal sites are simultaneously active between 180 and 420 ms to process auditory–visual action sequences. Early activation (before 120 ms) can be explained by activity in mainly sensory cortices. . The simultaneous activation of an extended network between 180 and 420 ms is consistent with models that posit parallel processing of complex action sequences in frontal, temporal and parietal areas rather than models that postulate hierarchical processing in a sequence of brain regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Dorman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS. The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems. The first result is its equivalence with the so-called Borrowed Context technique. Unfortunately, the axiomatization is not compositional in the expected manner as no rule captures "internal" communication of sub-systems. The main result states that such a rule is derivable if the given graph transformation system enjoys a certain property, which we call "complementarity of actions". Archetypal examples of such systems are interaction nets. We also discuss problems that arise if "complementarity of actions" is violated.

  3. Equivalência semântica da versão brasileira da Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS Semantic equivalence of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Nigri Levitan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: É crescente a produção científica brasileira na adaptação de instrumentos internacionais da fobia social. A adaptação transcultural é o primeiro passo na realização de comparações entre diferentes populações e se apresenta como um método que envolve pouco custo financeiro. O presente estudo consistiu no processo de equivalência semântica da Social Avoidance and Distress Scale para sua utilização na população brasileira de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODOS: O processo envolve duas traduções e retrotraduções realizadas por avaliadores independentes, avaliação das versões com elaboração de uma versão sínteses e pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Para cada item do instrumento, apresentam-se os resultados das quatro etapas. A maioria dos participantes não apresentou dificuldades na compreensão do instrumento. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de duas versões de tradução e retrotradução, discussão sobre a versão síntese e a interlocução com a população-alvo proporciona maior segurança ao processo de equivalência semântica.INTRODUCTION: There has been a growing scientific production on the adaptation of international instruments for social phobia. The cross-cultural adaptation is the first stage on the comparisons between different populations and presents the advantage of a low financial cost. This paper consisted in the process of semantic equivalence of the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale for the Brazilian population of different sociocultural levels. METHODS: The semantic equivalence involved two translations and back-translations performed by two independent evaluators, an evaluation of the versions and the development of a synthetic version, and a commented pretest. RESULTS: The results of the four stages were showed for each item of the instrument. Most participants had no difficulties in understanding the instrument. CONCLUSION: Use of two versions of translations, critical

  4. Equivalência semântica da versão em português da Escala de Experiência de Quase-Morte Semantic equivalence of the Portuguese version of the Near-Death Experience Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barcellos Serralta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura internacional, a experiência de quase-morte (EQM é avaliada principalmente por meio do instrumento The Near-Death Experience Scale (NDE, elaborado por Bruce Greyson, em 1983. O objetivo do presente estudo é verificar a existência de equivalência semântica entre a versão original da escala (em inglês e a versão traduzida ao português do Brasil, avaliando os significados geral e referencial. Após as diversas etapas de avaliação da equivalência semântica, a escala foi pré-testada em seis pacientes internados após alta de um Centro de Tratamento Intensivo (CTI de um Hospital Universitário. Na avaliação realizada por dois psicólogos e dois psiquiatras, constatou-se existir equivalência semântica entre a versão final em português e o original. Na aplicação da escala na população-alvo, verificou-se boa compreensão dos itens. Portanto, a escala está adequada à cultura brasileira, podendo ser utilizada para pesquisas sobre Experiências de Quase-Morte neste contexto.In the international literature, near-death experiences are often measured by The Near-Death Experience Scale (NDE, developed by Bruce Greyson in 1983. The aim of this study is to verify the existence of the semantic equivalence between the original version (in English and the translated version to Brazilian Portuguese, evaluating both the general and the referential meaning. The semantic evaluation was conducted according to the several steps. Thereafter, a pre-testing was performed in six post Intensive Care Unit patients of a University Hospital. The evaluations of two psychologists and two psychiatrists have found existence of semantic equivalence between the Brazilian and the original version of the scale. The pre-test applied on the target population proved the items were intelligible. Our findings suggest that the Brazilian version of the NDE might be used in the investigation of near-death experience in Brazilian culture.

  5. Electrophysiological evidence for the action of a center-surround mechanism on semantic processing in the left hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eDeacon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physiological evidence was sought for a center-surround attentional mechanism (CSM, which has been proposed to assist in the retrieval of weakly activated items from semantic memory. The CSM operates by facilitating strongly related items in the center of the weakly activated area of semantic memory, and inhibiting less strongly related items in its surround. In this study weak activation was created by having subjects acquire the meanings of new words to a recall criterion of only 50%. Subjects who attained this approximate criterion level of performance were subsequently included in a semantic priming task, during which ERPs were recorded. Primes were newly learned rare words, and targets were either synonyms, nonsynonymously related words, or unrelated words. All stimuli were presented to the RVF/LH (right visual field/left hemisphere or the LVF/RH (left visual field/right hemisphere. Under RVF/LH stimulation the newly learned word primes produced facilitation on N400 for synonym targets, and inhibition for related targets. No differences were observed under LVF/RH stimulation. The LH thus, supports a CSM, whereby a synonym in the center of attention focused on the newly learned word is facilitated, whereas a related word in the surround is inhibited. The data are consistent with the view of this laboratory that semantic memory is subserved by a spreading activation system in the LH. Also consistent with our view, there was no evidence of spreading activation in the RH. The findings are discussed in the context of additional recent theories of semantic memory. Finally, the adult right hemisphere may require more learning than the LH in order to demonstrate evidence of meaning acquisition.

  6. The Functional Equivalence of "wh- indefintes" in Chinese and English:A Reconstructed Semantic Map Approach%汉英“wh-不定词”功能等值性的新构语义图研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕公礼

    2012-01-01

    The study of the grammaticalization of the "wh-indefinites" in Chinese has provoked renewed interest in the "noninterrogative use" of interrogative words, a very controversial issue in the research tradition of Chinese grammar. The comparison of the classification and demarcation by Chinese linguists in the earlier part of the 20th Century and the functional-typological studies recently done by Haspelmath of indefinite pronouns in English are shown to exhibit maximal functional equivalence and crosslinguistic universality between "wh-indefinites" in the two genetically unrelated languages. In an attempt to resolve the inconsistence and inadequacy of Hapelmath' s semantic map in its explanations of "wh-indefinites" in the two languages, the paper proposes a reconstructed semantic map model, in which functions are defined in a broad sense of moods consisting of three dimensions: cognitive, realis, and attitudinal statuses. The reconstructed model is shown to be more adequate in incorporating ideas as fietive reference in the Chinese linguistic tradition, which is not covered in Haspelmath' s study of indefinite pronouns in languages of the world.%随着汉语语法化研究的发展,汉语特殊疑问句、特别是疑问代词的"非疑问用法"再度成为热点。汉语和英语"wh-不定词"形态差异显著,但却包含着最大功能等值性和跨语言共性。从"认知性"、"现实性"及"情态性"三维度对汉英语"wh-不定词"进行广义语气分析,使Haspelmath关于世界语言"不定代词"的功能蕴含等级解释力得到更为充分扩展,也有助于汉语"虚指"等描述性概念上升到认知和功能语言学理论层面。

  7. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  8. Equivalência semântica da versão em português do instrumento Abuse Assessment Screen para rastrear a violência contra a mulher grávida Semantic equivalence of the Portuguese version of the Abuse Assessment Screen tool used for the screening of violence against pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Reichenheim

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Programas de investigação epidemiológica e de ação no âmbito da violência familiar estão em franca ascensão, requerendo instrumentos de aferição adaptados e vertidos para o português. O objetivo do estudo é avaliar a equivalência semântica entre o original em inglês e duas versões para o português do instrumento Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS usado no rastreamento de casos de violência contra a mulher grávida e recomendar uma versão-síntese para uso corrente. MÉTODOS: O processo de avaliação de equivalência semântica envolveu quatro etapas: tradução, retradução, apreciação formal de equivalência e crítica final através de consultas com especialista na área temática. RESULTADOS: Para cada item do instrumento apresentam-se os resultados relativos às quatro etapas. O texto cobre cada passo do processo que levou à versão final. As duas versões mostraram-se bastante semelhantes, com 14 das 15 assertivas similares, embora a segunda versão tenha se mostrado mais adequada, ainda que para alguns itens tenha sido decidido juntar as duas versões ou mesmo utilizar um item oriundo da versão um. CONCLUSÃO: É importante usar mais de uma versão no processo, em várias etapas de avaliação e de crítica, e discutir a pertinência de se acrescentar uma etapa adicional de interlocução do instrumento com membros da população-alvo.INTRODUCTION: Research programs and actions regarding family violence have been growing steadily. Therefore, there's a need to develop data collection tools. In Brazil, further problems come up since tools that have been developed elsewhere need to be adapted and translated. This study focuses on the Abuse Assessment Screening (AAS used to detect violence against pregnant women. The objective is to evaluate the semantic equivalence between the original tool in English and two Portuguese versions, and propose a synthetic version to be used in the field. METHODS: The evaluation

  9. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle, people have different opinions. The principle of equivalent translation may be is one of the most reason-able ones in today's translation world in my eyes. This paper focuses on the possibility and thec ondition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic, pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle. Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  10. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle,people have different opinions.The principle of equivalent translation maybe is one of the most reasonable ones in today’s translation world in my eyes.This paper focuses on the possibility and the condition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic,pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle.Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  11. Changes of right-hemispheric activation after constraint-induced, intensive language action therapy in chronic aphasia: fMRI evidence from auditory semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eMohr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of the two hemispheres in the neurorehabilitation of language is still under dispute. This study explored the changes in language-evoked brain activation over a two-week treatment interval with intensive constraint induced aphasia therapy (CIAT, which is also called intensive language action therapy (ILAT. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to assess brain activation in perilesional left hemispheric and in homotopic right hemispheric areas during passive listening to high and low-ambiguity sentences and non-speech control stimuli in chronic non-fluent aphasia patients. All patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements of language functions after therapy. In an event-related fMRI experiment, a significant increase of BOLD signals was manifest in right inferior frontal and temporal areas. This activation increase was stronger for highly ambiguous sentences than for unambiguous ones. These results suggest that the known language improvements brought about by intensive constraint-induced language action therapy at least in part relies on circuits within the right-hemispheric homologues of left-perisylvian language areas, which are most strongly activated in the processing of semantically complex language.

  12. Changes of right-hemispheric activation after constraint-induced, intensive language action therapy in chronic aphasia: fMRI evidence from auditory semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Bettina; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Harrington, Karen; Evans, Samuel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in the neurorehabilitation of language is still under dispute. This study explored the changes in language-evoked brain activation over a 2-week treatment interval with intensive constraint induced aphasia therapy (CIAT), which is also called intensive language action therapy (ILAT). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain activation in perilesional left hemispheric and in homotopic right hemispheric areas during passive listening to high and low-ambiguity sentences and non-speech control stimuli in chronic non-fluent aphasia patients. All patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements of language functions after therapy. In an event-related fMRI experiment, a significant increase of BOLD signal was manifest in right inferior frontal and temporal areas. This activation increase was stronger for highly ambiguous sentences than for unambiguous ones. These results suggest that the known language improvements brought about by intensive constraint-induced language action therapy at least in part relies on circuits within the right-hemispheric homologs of left-perisylvian language areas, which are most strongly activated in the processing of semantically complex language.

  13. A semi-quantitative equivalence for abstracting from fast reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Galpin, Vashti; Ciocchetta, Federica; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.5

    2011-01-01

    Semantic equivalences are used in process algebra to capture the notion of similar behaviour, and this paper proposes a semi-quantitative equivalence for a stochastic process algebra developed for biological modelling. We consider abstracting away from fast reactions as suggested by the Quasi-Steady-State Assumption. We define a fast-slow bisimilarity based on this idea. We also show congruence under an appropriate condition for the cooperation operator of Bio-PEPA. The condition requires that there is no synchronisation over fast actions, and this distinguishes fast-slow bisimilarity from weak bisimilarity. We also show congruence for an operator which extends the reactions available for a species. We characterise models for which it is only necessary to consider the matching of slow transitions and we illustrate the equivalence on two models of competitive inhibition.

  14. Discovering Classes of Strongly Equivalent Logic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Lin, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply computer-aided theorem discovery technique to discover theorems about strongly equivalent logic programs under the answer set semantics. Our discovered theorems capture new classes of strongly equivalent logic programs that can lead to new program simplification rules that preserve strong equivalence. Specifically, with the help of computers, we discovered exact conditions that capture the strong equivalence between a rule and the empty set, between two rules, between t...

  15. Tradução, equivalência semântica e adaptação cultural do Marijuana Expectancy Questionnaire (MEQ Translation, semantic equivalence and cultural adaptation of Marijuana Expectancy Questionnaire (MEQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e verificar a equivalência semântica do Marijuana Expectancy Questionnaire (MEQ, o qual avalia as crenças em relação ao uso de maconha, podendo ser importante no tratamento e prognóstico dos dependentes químicos desta substância. O MEQ foi traduzido do inglês para o português, aplicado em 10 sujeitos e submetido ao brainstorming num grupo de 4 sujeitos para reprodução individual e verbal, item a item. Realizou-se o back-translation, uma versão para o idioma de origem, a partir da primeira tradução e do brainstorming. Logo após, traduziu-se novamente para o português. Todo o processo foi analisado por um comitê de juízes especialistas, os quais emitiram pareceres com as observações pertinentes. Realizou-se a análise descritiva interjuízes, verificando-se freqüências e porcentagens. Considerando-se os pareceres dos especialistas, construiu-se então a versão final do MEQ - adaptação brasileira.The objective of this study was to translate, to adapt culturally and verify the semantic equivalence of the Marijuana Expectancy Questionnaire (MEQ, which evaluates the beliefs to the marijuana’s use, which may be important in the treatment and prognostic of the chemical dependents of this substance. The MEQ was firstly translated from English to Portuguese, administered to 10 persons, and then submitted to brainstorming in a group of 4 persons for individual and verbal reproduction, item by item. Back-translation was executed based on first translation and from brainstorming to the origin language. Soon after, it was translated again into Portuguese. All the process was analyzed by a committee of specialists, which emitted a decision and the pertinent comments. The descriptive judges’ analysis was done verifying frequencies and percentages. Considering the decision of the specialists, the final version of the MEQ (Brazilian Adaptation was constructed.

  16. Semantic Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  17. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types.......Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  18. Action Refinement for Real-Time Concurrent Processes with Urgency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Ping Qin; Jin-Zhao Wu

    2005-01-01

    Action refinement for real-time concurrent processes with urgent interactions is studied, where a partial-order setting, i.e., timed bundle event structures, is used as the system model and a real-time LOTOS-like process algebra is used as the specification language. It is shown that the proposed refinement approaches have the commonly expected properties:(1) the behaviour of the refined process can be inferred compositionally from the behaviour of the original process and from the behaviour of the processes substituted for actions; (2) the timed extensions of pomset (partially ordered multiset) trace equivalence and history preserving bisimulation equivalence are both congruences under the refinement; (3) the syntactic and semantic refinements coincide up to the aforementioned equivalence relations with respect to a cpo-based denotational semantics.

  19. Topics in orbit equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Kechris, Alexander S

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  20. Generative Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  1. Knowledge Representation and Natural-Language Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    that employ "semantic nets" and "frames" [ Woods 1975:50]. While this analysis is rather inelegant, it does appear to account for two constraints on...any participant in the action as rendering the action "easy": (86) Yolanda easily shot the arrow into the bullseye. (87) This exam is difficult. (88...lished manuscript, SRI International). Woods , William, 1975: "What’s in a link: foundations for semantic net- works", Representation and Understanding

  2. Neural substrates of semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Anand, Raksha; Zoccoli, Sandra; Maguire, Mandy; Gamino, Jacque; Tillman, Gail; King, Richard; Kraut, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Semantic memory is described as the storage of knowledge, concepts, and information that is common and relatively consistent across individuals (e.g., memory of what is a cup). These memories are stored in multiple sensorimotor modalities and cognitive systems throughout the brain (e.g., how a cup is held and manipulated, the texture of a cup's surface, its shape, its function, that is related to beverages such as coffee, and so on). Our ability to engage in purposeful interactions with our environment is dependent on the ability to understand the meaning and significance of the objects and actions around us that are stored in semantic memory. Theories of the neural basis of the semantic memory of objects have produced sophisticated models that have incorporated to varying degrees the results of cognitive and neural investigations. The models are grouped into those that are (1) cognitive models, where the neural data are used to reveal dissociations in semantic memory after a brain lesion occurs; (2) models that incorporate both cognitive and neuroanatomical information; and (3) models that use cognitive, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiological data. This review highlights the advances and issues that have emerged from these models and points to future directions that provide opportunities to extend these models. The models of object memory generally describe how category and/or feature representations encode for object memory, and the semantic operations engaged in object processing. The incorporation of data derived from multiple modalities of investigation can lead to detailed neural specifications of semantic memory organization. The addition of neurophysiological data can potentially provide further elaboration of models to include semantic neural mechanisms. Future directions should incorporate available and newly developed techniques to better inform the neural underpinning of semantic memory models.

  3. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: fparra@mit.edu, E-mail: catto@psfc.mit.edu

    2009-06-15

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  4. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.

    2009-06-01

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  5. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194

  6. SEMANTIC TRANSFERS: CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskvin, V.P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is represented the general classification of semantic transfers. As the research has shown, transfers can be systematized based on four parameters: 1 the type of associations lying on their basis: similarity, contiguity and contrast, the associations by similarity and contrast being regarded as the basis for taxonomic transfers (from genus to species, from species to genus, from species to species, etc.; 2 the functional parameter: functionally relevant and irrelevant; 3 the sphere of action: transfer applies both to lexical and grammatical semantics; 4 the degree of ex-pressiveness: thus, the metonymic associations are more predictable than the metaphoric ones.

  7. A logical foundation for the semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Zhongzhi; DONG Mingkai; JIANG Yuncheng; ZHANG Haijun

    2005-01-01

    The current research progresses and problems of the semantic Web are analyzed in this paper, and the insufficiency of using description logic to act as logical foundation for the semantic Web is analyzed too. According to the characteristics and requirement of the semantic Web, a kind of new dynamic description logic (DDL) framework is presented. The representation and reasoning of static knowledge and dynamic knowledge are integrated in this framework. Especially, a kind of action description method is proposed, and according to description logic theory, the action semantics is described, so DDL is a kind of formal logical framework which can process static knowledge and dynamic knowledge. The DDL has clear and formally defined semantics. It provides decidable reasoning services, and it can support effective representation and reasoning of the static knowledge, dynamic process and running mechanism (realization and subsumption relation of action). Therefore, the DDL provides reasonable logic foundation for the semantic Web, and overcomes the insufficiency of using description logic to act as logical foundation for the semantic Web.

  8. Preserved musical semantic memory in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2011-02-01

    To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Case study. Academic medical center. A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music.

  9. Inquisitive semantics and pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.; Roelofsen, F.; Larrazabal, J.M.; Zubeldia, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper starts with an informal introduction to inquisitive semantics. After that, we present a formal definition of the semantics, and introduce the basic semantic notions of inquisitiveness and informativeness, in terms of wich we define the semantic categories of questions, assertions, and hyb

  10. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  11. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  12. Between designer drugs and afterburners: A Lexicographic-Semantic Study of Equivalence Tussen designer drugs (ontwerpersdwelms en afterburners (naverbranders: 'n leksikografies-semantiese studie van ekwivalensie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Adamska-Sałaciak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The lexicons of natural languages are not isomorphic. Reasons for the anisomorphism can be sought on three interrelated planes: language structure, extralinguistic reality, and conceptualisation. Simply put, the relevant differences may reside in the language, the world, the mind, or any combination of these. As a result, what goes under the name of lexicographic equivalence is a rather heterogeneous category. Growing awareness of this fact has resulted over the years in the creation of several tentative typologies of equivalence, one of which is presented below, together with a brief discussion of some strategies for dealing with imperfect equivalence.

    The remaining part of the article comprises a detailed analysis of a single problem encountered while preparing a new edition of a bilingual dictionary for Polish learners of English. The task at hand involved choosing a viable counterpart for a (Polish semantic neologism from among a few (English equivalence candidates. In the discussion, reference is made both to the metalexicographic categories introduced earlier and to such concepts developed by lexical (especially cognitive semantics which may prove helpful in capturing the meaning differences between the source-language item and its competing target-language renditions.

    This micro-scale dissection of a single specimen demonstrates that we are still some way from being able to classify, let alone deal with, all the instances of imperfect interlingual correspondence that come our way. Persisting in the efforts to advance our understanding of the complex issues covered by the blanket term lexicographic equivalence thus seems crucial for improving the treatment of meaning in bilingual dictionaries.

    Die leksikons van natuurlike tale is nie isomorf nie. Redes vir die gebrek aan isomorfie kom op drie onderling verwante vlakke voor: taalstruktuur, die

  13. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  14. The semantic structure of gratitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern social and economic environment of Russia, gratitude might be considered an ambiguous phenomenon. It can have different meaning for a person in different contexts and can manifest itself differently as well (that is, as an expression of sincere feelings or as an element of corruption. In this respect it is topical to investigate the system of meanings and relationships that define the semantic space of gratitude. The goal of the study was the investigation and description of the content and structure of the semantic space of the gratitude phenomenon as well as the determination of male, female, age, and ethnic peculiarities of the expression of gratitude. The objective was achieved by using the semantic differential designed by the authors to investigate attitudes toward gratitude. This investigation was carried out with the participation of 184 respondents (Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Jews living in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Israel, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom and identifying themselves as representatives of one of these nationalities. The structural components of gratitude were singled out by means of exploratory factor analysis of the empirical data from the designed semantic differential. Gender, age, and ethnic differences were differentiated by means of Student’s t-test. Gratitude can be represented by material and nonmaterial forms as well as by actions in response to help given. The empirical data allowed us to design the ethnically nonspecified semantic structure of gratitude. During the elaboration of the differential, semantic universals of gratitude, which constitute its psychosemantic content, were distinguished. Peculiarities of attitudes toward gratitude by those in different age and gender groups were revealed. Differences in the degree of manifestation of components of the psychosemantic structure of gratitude related to ethnic characteristics were not discovered

  15. Maude Object-Oriented Action Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Maidl, André Murbach; Carvilhe, Cláudio,; Musicante, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    MAIDL, André Murbach; CARVILHE, Claudio; MUSICANTE, Martin A. Maude Object-Oriented Action Tool. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. [S.l:s.n], 2008. Object-Oriented Action Semantics (OOAS) incorporates object-oriented concepts to the Action Semantics formalism. Its main goal is to obtain more readable and reusable semantics specifications. Moreover, it supports syntax-independent specifications, due to the way classes are written. Maude Object-Oriented Action Tool (MOOAT)...

  16. Thalamic semantic paralexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hoffmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexia may be divided into different subtypes, with semantic paralexia being particularly rare. A 57 year old woman with a discreet left thalamic stroke and semantic paralexia is described. Language evalution with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Battery confirmed the semantic paralexia (deep alexia. Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning excluded other cerebral lesions. A good recovery ensued.

  17. Thalamic semantic paralexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Alexia may be divided into different subtypes, with semantic paralexia being particularly rare. A 57 year old woman with a discreet left thalamic stroke and semantic paralexia is described. Language evalution with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Battery confirmed the semantic paralexia (deep alexia). Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning excluded other cerebral lesions. A good recovery ensued. PMID:22593810

  18. Denotational semantics for unguarded recursion: the demonic case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Bruin (Arie); E.P. de Vink

    1990-01-01

    textabstractWe show that the technique to prove equivalence of operational and denotational cpo based semantics using retractions, as introduced in de Bruin & Vink [1989] for a sequential backtracking language, can be applied to parallel languages as well. We prove equivalence for a uniform language

  19. Semantic networks of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G A; Fellbaum, C

    1991-12-01

    Principles of lexical semantics developed in the course of building an on-line lexical database are discussed. The approach is relational rather than componential. The fundamental semantic relation is synonymy, which is required in order to define the lexicalized concepts that words can be used to express. Other semantic relations between these concepts are then described. No single set of semantic relations or organizational structure is adequate for the entire lexicon: nouns, adjectives, and verbs each have their own semantic relations and their own organization determined by the role they must play in the construction of linguistic messages.

  20. Semantic Text Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kaleta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a specific issue of the semantic analysis of texts in natural language – text indexing and describes one field of its application (web browsing.The main part of this article describes the computer system assigning a set of semantic indexes (similar to keywords to a particular text. The indexing algorithm employs a semantic dictionary to find specific words in a text, that represent a text content. Furthermore it compares two given sets of semantic indexes to determine texts’ similarity (assigning numerical value. The article describes the semantic dictionary – a tool essentialto accomplish this task and its usefulness, main concepts of the algorithm and test results.

  1. On Equivalence And Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贝

    2013-01-01

      Equivalence, a central and controversial issue in translation, has been studied, discussed and disputed by many scholars. For this reason, they employed various approaches and have yielded fruitful and remarkable theories. Three representative equivalence theories are selected in the thesis to elaborate equivalence:Nida’s reader-response based dynamic equivalence, Catford’s textual equivalence, Qiu Maoru’s empirical formula on equivalence. Equivalence is an applicable tool to analyze and evaluate translation.

  2. Action Theory Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Varzinczak, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction and establish their correctness w.r.t. our semantics. Finally we state postulates for action theory contraction and assess the behavior of our operators w.r.t. them. Moreover, we also address the revision counterpart of action theory change, showing that it benefits from our semantics for contraction.

  3. EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Chifane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  4. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  5. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  6. Semantics of sub-probabilistic programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixing CHEN; Hengyang WU

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to extend the probabil-istic choice in probabilistic programs to sub-probabilistic choice, i.e., of the form (p)P (q) Q where p + q ≤ 1. It means that program P is executed with probability p and program Q is executed with probability q. Then, start-ing from an initial state, the execution of a sub-probabil-istic program results in a sub-probability distribution. This paper presents two equivalent semantics for a sub-probabilistic while-programming language. One of these interprets programs as sub-probabilistic distributions on state spaces via denotational semantics. The other inter-prets programs as bounded expectation transformers via wp-semantics. This paper proposes an axiomatic systems for total logic, and proves its soundness and completeness in a classical pattern on the structure of programs.

  7. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  8. Towards semantic web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Berendt, Bettina; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd

    2002-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. The idea is to improve, on the one hand, the results of Web Mining by exploiting the new semantic structures in the Web; and to make use of Web Mining, on overview of where the two areas meet today, and sketches ways of how a closer integration could be profitable.

  9. Bootstrapping Object Coreferencing on the Semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hu; Yu-Zhong Qu; Xing-Zhi Sun

    2011-01-01

    An object on the Semantic Web is likely to be denoted with several URIs by different parties.Object coreferencing is a process to identify "equivalent" URIs of objects for achieving a better Data Web.In this paper,we propose a bootstrapping approach for object coreferencing on the Semantic Web.For an object URI,we firstly establish a kernel that consists of semantically equivalent URIs from the same-as,(inverse) functional properties and (max-)cardinalities,and then extend the kernel with respect to the textual descriptions (e.g.,labels and local names) of URIs.We also propose a trustworthiness-based method to rank the coreferent URIs in the kernel as well as a similarity-based method for ranking the URIs in the extension of the kernel.We implement the proposed approach,called ObjectCoref,on a large-scale dataset that contains 76 million URIs collected by the Falcons search engine until 2008.The evaluation on precision,relative recall and response time demonstrates the feasibility of our approach.Additionally,we apply the proposed approach to investigate the popularity of the URI alias phenomenon on the current Semantic Web.

  10. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  11. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  12. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  13. Derived equivalence of algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜先能

    1997-01-01

    The derived equivalence and stable equivalence of algebras RmA and RmB are studied It is proved, using the tilting complex, that RmA and RmB are derived-equivalent whenever algebras A and B are derived-equivalent

  14. Semantics and ambiguity of stochastic RNA family models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegerich, Robert; Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic models, such as hidden Markov models or stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) can fail to return the correct, maximum likelihood solution in the case of semantic ambiguity. This problem arises when the algorithm implementing the model inspects the same solution in different guises. It is a difficult problem in the sense that proving semantic nonambiguity has been shown to be algorithmically undecidable, while compensating for it (by coalescing scores of equivalent solutions) has been shown to be NP-hard. For stochastic context-free grammars modeling RNA secondary structure, it has been shown that the distortion of results can be quite severe. Much less is known about the case when stochastic context-free grammars model the matching of a query sequence to an implicit consensus structure for an RNA family. We find that three different, meaningful semantics can be associated with the matching of a query against the model--a structural, an alignment, and a trace semantics. Rfam models correctly implement the alignment semantics, and are ambiguous with respect to the other two semantics, which are more abstract. We show how provably correct models can be generated for the trace semantics. For approaches, where such a proof is not possible, we present an automated pipeline to check post factum for ambiguity of the generated models. We propose that both the structure and the trace semantics are worth-while concepts for further study, possibly better suited to capture remotely related family members.

  15. Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John

    The book, designed as a textbook for introductory study of semantics within college-level linguistics, focuses on the study of meaning as it is systematically encoded in the vocabulary and grammar of natural languages. The term "semantics" is presumed here to include pragmatics. An introductory section explains fundamental theoretical and…

  16. Semantics of Statebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj Lervad

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp.......Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp....

  17. The Semantic Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  18. Communication: General Semantics Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Lee, Ed.

    This book contains the edited papers from the eleventh International Conference on General Semantics, titled "A Search for Relevance." The conference questioned, as a central theme, the relevance of general semantics in a world of wars and human misery. Reacting to a fundamental Korzybski-ian principle that man's view of reality is distorted by…

  19. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...

  20. Semantic Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  1. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  2. On Quantifying Semantic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D’Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to look at some existing methods of semantic information quantification and suggest some alternatives. It begins with an outline of Bar-Hillel and Carnap’s theory of semantic information before going on to look at Floridi’s theory of strongly semantic information. The latter then serves to initiate an in-depth investigation into the idea of utilising the notion of truthlikeness to quantify semantic information. Firstly, a couple of approaches to measure truthlikeness are drawn from the literature and explored, with a focus on their applicability to semantic information quantification. Secondly, a similar but new approach to measure truthlikeness/information is presented and some supplementary points are made.

  3. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  4. Evidence of semantic processing impairments in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Grossman, Murray

    2017-09-13

    Category-specific impairments caused by brain damage can provide important insights into how semantic concepts are organized in the brain. Recent research has demonstrated that disease to sensory and motor cortices can impair perceptual feature knowledge important to the representation of semantic concepts. This evidence supports the grounded cognition theory of semantics, the view that lexical knowledge is partially grounded in perceptual experience and that sensory and motor regions support semantic representations. Less well understood, however, is how heteromodal semantic hubs work to integrate and process semantic information. Although the majority of semantic research to date has focused on how sensory cortical areas are important for the representation of semantic features, new research explores how semantic memory is affected by neurodegeneration in regions important for semantic processing. Here, we review studies that demonstrate impairments to abstract noun knowledge in behavioural variant frontotemporal degeneration (bvFTD) and to action verb knowledge in Parkinson's disease, and discuss how these deficits relate to disease of the semantic selection network. Findings demonstrate that semantic selection processes are supported by the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and basal ganglia, and that disease to these regions in bvFTD and Parkinson's disease can lead to categorical impairments for abstract nouns and action verbs, respectively.

  5. A Concrete Representation of Observational Equivalence for PCF

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, Martin; McCusker, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The full abstraction result for PCF using game semantics requires one to identify all innocent strategies that are innocently indistinguishable. This involves a quantification over all innocent tests, cf. quantification over all innocent contexts. Here we present a representation of innocent strategies that equates innocently indistinguishable ones, yielding a representation of PCF terms that equates precisely those terms that are observational equivalent.

  6. The Roles of Semantic Sense and Form-Meaning Connection in Translation Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xueying; Cheung, Him; Bel, David; Li, Li; Chen, Lin; Mo, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic sense and form-meaning connection across the bilingual's languages as factors behind translation priming asymmetry, which refers to semantic priming between translation equivalents with L1 (first language) primes and L2 (second language) targets, but the lack of it in the reverse direction. In Experiment 1, many-sense…

  7. The Roles of Semantic Sense and Form-Meaning Connection in Translation Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xueying; Cheung, Him; Bel, David; Li, Li; Chen, Lin; Mo, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic sense and form-meaning connection across the bilingual's languages as factors behind translation priming asymmetry, which refers to semantic priming between translation equivalents with L1 (first language) primes and L2 (second language) targets, but the lack of it in the reverse direction. In Experiment 1, many-sense…

  8. Action Theory Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Varzinczak, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of dis...

  9. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  10. Reasoning about Unreliable Actions

    CERN Document Server

    White, Graham

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the philosopher Davidson's semantics of actions, using a strongly typed logic with contexts given by sets of partial equations between the outcomes of actions. This provides a perspicuous and elegant treatment of reasoning about action, analogous to Reiter's work on artificial intelligence. We define a sequent calculus for this logic, prove cut elimination, and give a semantics based on fibrations over partial cartesian categories: we give a structure theory for such fibrations. The existence of lax comma objects is necessary for the proof of cut elimination, and we give conditions on the domain fibration of a partial cartesian category for such comma objects to exist.

  11. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  12. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  13. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  14. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  15. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  16. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

  17. On action theory change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Varzinczak, IJ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available revisit the semantics of action theory contraction proposed in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction...

  18. The left inferior parietal lobe represents stored hand-postures for object use and action prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.

    2014-01-01

    Action semantics enables us to plan actions with objects and to predict others' object-directed actions as well. Previous studies have suggested that action semantics are represented in a fronto-parietal action network that has also been implicated to play a role in action observation. In the

  19. An Equivalent Gauge and the Equivalence Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Wulzer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    I describe a novel covariant formulation of massive gauge theories in which the longitudinal polarization vectors do not grow with the energy. Therefore in the present formalism, differently from the ordinary one, the energy and coupling power-counting is completely transparent at the level of individual Feynman diagrams, with obvious advantages both at the conceptual and practical level. Since power-counting is transparent, the high-energy limit of the amplitudes involving longitudinal particles is immediately taken, and the Equivalence Theorem is easily demonstrated at all orders in perturbation theory. Since the formalism makes the Equivalence Theorem self-evident, and because it is based on a suitable choice of the gauge, we can call it an "Equivalent Gauge".

  20. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Larisa N; Nadis, Daniel; King, Ross D; Basu, Piyali S; Haddi, Emma; Baumlé, Véronique; Saunders, Nigel J; Marwan, Wolfgang; Rudkin, Brian B

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2)protocols. We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically-defined format.

  1. Semantics on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦

    2014-01-01

    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.

  2. Extended Fuzzy Logic Programs with Fuzzy Answer Set Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Emad

    This paper extends fuzzy logic programs [12, 24] to allow the explicit representation of classical negation as well as non-monotonic negation, by introducing the notion of extended fuzzy logic programs. We present the fuzzy answer set semantics for the extended fuzzy logic programs, which is based on the classical answer set semantics of classical extended logic programs [7]. We show that the proposed semantics is a natural extension to the classical answer set semantics of classical extended logic programs [7]. Furthermore, we define fixpoint semantics for extended fuzzy logic programs with and without non-monotonic negation, and study their relationship to the fuzzy answer set semantics. In addition, we show that the fuzzy answer set semantics is reduced to the stable fuzzy model semantics for normal fuzzy logic programs introduced in [42]. The importance of that is computational methods developed for normal fuzzy logic programs can be applied to the extended fuzzy logic programs. Moreover, we show that extended fuzzy logic programs can be intuitively used for representing and reasoning about actions in fuzzy environment.

  3. Pragmatic Equivalence in Different Translations of The Merchant of Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白婕

    2015-01-01

    Pragmatic equivalence, meaning to transfer the implied meaning of the source text to the target text, usually involves the receiver to whom the translation is directed. Two notions are crucial in translation to achieve pragmatic equivalence:context and optimal relevance. In light of these two element, the author in this paper conducts a case study by using Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice and two Chinese versions from Zhu Shenghao and Sun Dayu as data, by comparing these two versions to explore how pragmatic equivalence in translation can be achieve at lexical, semantic and cultural levels.

  4. On semantics and applications of guarded recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    chapter we study a simply typed calculus with additional "later" and "constant" modalities and a guarded fixed-point combinator. These are used for encoding and working with guarded recursive and coinductive types in a modular way. We develop a normalising operational semantics, provide an adequate...... denotational model and a logic for reasoning about program equivalence. In the last three chapters we study syntax and semantics of a dependent type theory with a family of later modalities indexed by the set of clocks, and clock quantifiers. In the fourth and fifth chapters we provide two model constructions......, one using a family of presheaf categories and one using a generalisation of the category of partial equilogical spaces. These model constructions are used to design the rules and prove consistency of the type theory presented in the last chapter. The type theory is a version of polymorphic dependent...

  5. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  6. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2016-03-01

    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory.

  7. A Modular Formal Semantics for Ptolemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    computation, both untimed and timed, to be composed hierarchically in an arbitrary fashion . This paper proposes a formal semantics for Ptolemy which is...0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET) and #0931843 (ActionWebs), the U. S. Army Research Office (ARO #W911NF-11-2-0038), the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the Multiscale...Finally, a number of component-oriented frameworks come from the fields of traditional pro- gramming and software engineering, e.g., object-oriented

  8. Image Semantic Automatic Annotation by Relevance Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tong-zhen; SHEN Rui-min

    2007-01-01

    A large semantic gap exists between content based index retrieval (CBIR) and high-level semantic, additional semantic information should be attached to the images, it refers in three respects including semantic representation model, semantic information building and semantic retrieval techniques. In this paper, we introduce an associated semantic network and an automatic semantic annotation system. In the system, a semantic network model is employed as the semantic representation model, it uses semantic keywords, linguistic ontology and low-level features in semantic similarity calculating. Through several times of users' relevance feedback, semantic network is enriched automatically. To speed up the growth of semantic network and get a balance annotation, semantic seeds and semantic loners are employed especially.

  9. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level.

  10. The Semantic SPASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  11. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  12. Semantic Changes of Gerund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, semantic models of gerund in the Lithuanian language are being investigated. Their productivity and the reasons of their change in the Lithuanian language are identified. The tendency to use gerund semantic structure in noun constructions is typical not only in Greek or Latin languages but also in English, Russian, etc. Regular polysemy is regarded as semantic derivation, i. e. shifting from main meanings to derivative ones. The object of this investigation is the usage patterns of gerunds which bear both the meaning of a verb and a noun. The examples for the present study have been gathered from the language of different Lithuanian dialects as well as from the Dictionary of the Lithuanian language (different volumes, etc. The research results reveal that semantic changes of object and result are the most productive, whereas mood or time semantic model proved to be not so productive. The productivity of regular models depends on the fact that there are suffix derivatives which have the meaning of a result. The research shows that scientific style and language of different dialects are rich in the use of gerund.

  13. Semantic home video categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Young Bok; De Neve, Wesley; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, a strong need exists for the efficient organization of an increasing amount of home video content. To create an efficient system for the management of home video content, it is required to categorize home video content in a semantic way. So far, a significant amount of research has already been dedicated to semantic video categorization. However, conventional categorization approaches often rely on unnecessary concepts and complicated algorithms that are not suited in the context of home video categorization. To overcome the aforementioned problem, this paper proposes a novel home video categorization method that adopts semantic home photo categorization. To use home photo categorization in the context of home video, we segment video content into shots and extract key frames that represent each shot. To extract the semantics from key frames, we divide each key frame into ten local regions and extract lowlevel features. Based on the low level features extracted for each local region, we can predict the semantics of a particular key frame. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with home video sequences, labeled by concepts part of the MPEG-7 VCE2 dataset. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with 70 home video sequences. For the home video sequences used, the proposed system produced a recall of 77% and an accuracy of 78%.

  14. Equivalence principles exotica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.S. UNNIKRISHNAN; George T. GILLIES

    2008-01-01

    This is a short review of the different prin-ciples of equivalence stated and used in the context of the gravitational interaction. We emphasize the need for precision in stating and differentiating these different equivalence principles, especially in the context of preva-lent confusion regarding the applicability of the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics. We discuss several empirical results pertaining to the validity of the equivalence principle in exotic physical sitautions not di-rectly amenable to experimental tests. We conclude with a section on the physical basis of the universal validity of the equivalence principle, as manifest in the universality of free fall, and discuss its link to cosmic gravity.

  15. The semantics of English Borrowings in Arabic Media Language: The case of Arab Gulf States Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the semantics of English loanwords in Arabic media language (AML. The loanword data are collected from a number of Arab Gulf states newspapers (AGSNs. They  are analyzed semantically from the points of view of semantic change, semantic domains, and the phenomenon of synonymy resulting from lexical borrowing. The semantic analysis has revealed that AML borrowings from English occur in fifteen distinctive semantic domains. Domains that are related to terms of technical and scientific nature are found ranking much higher (9% - 18% than those domains containing nontechnical elements (1% - 8% with the computer and technology category (18% is the most dominant domain. Almost all common mechanisms of semantic change (extension, restriction, amelioration, pejoration, and metaphorical extension are found at work in the context of AML borrowings. The tendency of semantic change in the overwhelming majority of AML borrowings is towards restriction.  Factors like need, semantic similarity, and factors of social and psychological considerations (e.g. prestige, taboo seem to be the potent factors at interplay in semantic change. The first two, i.e. need and semantic similarity, are the most common reasons in most types of semantic change. The problem of synonymy lies in those loanwords that have “Arabic equivalents” in the language. The study claims that this phenomenon could be attributed to the two simultaneous processes of lexical borrowing and?ištiqa:q (the modern efforts of deriving equivalent neologisms.Keywords: loanwords, semantic change, semantic domains, synonymy, Arabic media language

  16. Supporting Personal Semantic Annotations in P2P Semantic Wikis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Diego; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Díaz, Alicia; Molli, Pascal

    In this paper, we propose to extend Peer-to-Peer Semantic Wikis with personal semantic annotations. Semantic Wikis are one of the most successful Semantic Web applications. In semantic wikis, wikis pages are annotated with semantic data to facilitate the navigation, information retrieving and ontology emerging. Semantic data represents the shared knowledge base which describes the common understanding of the community. However, in a collaborative knowledge building process the knowledge is basically created by individuals who are involved in a social process. Therefore, it is fundamental to support personal knowledge building in a differentiated way. Currently there are no available semantic wikis that support both personal and shared understandings. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a P2P collaborative knowledge building process and extend semantic wikis with personal annotations facilities to express personal understanding. In this paper, we detail the personal semantic annotation model and show its implementation in P2P semantic wikis. We also detail an evaluation study which shows that personal annotations demand less cognitive efforts than semantic data and are very useful to enrich the shared knowledge base.

  17. Semantic Parameters of Split Intransitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Jr., Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper argues that split-intransitive phenomena are better explained in semantic terms. A semantic analysis is carried out in Role and Reference Grammar, which assumes the theory of verb classification proposed in Dowty 1979. (49 references) (JL)

  18. The semantic priming project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin

    2013-12-01

    Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies.

  19. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  20. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  1. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  2. On the Semantics of Purpose Requirements in Privacy Policies

    CERN Document Server

    Tschantz, Michael Carl; Wing, Jeannette M

    2011-01-01

    Privacy policies often place requirements on the purposes for which a governed entity may use personal information. For example, regulations, such as HIPAA, require that hospital employees use medical information for only certain purposes, such as treatment. Thus, using formal or automated methods for enforcing privacy policies requires a semantics of purpose requirements to determine whether an action is for a purpose or not. We provide such a semantics using a formalism based on planning. We model planning using a modified version of Markov Decision Processes, which exclude redundant actions for a formal definition of redundant. We use the model to formalize when a sequence of actions is only for or not for a purpose. This semantics enables us to provide an algorithm for automating auditing, and to describe formally and compare rigorously previous enforcement methods.

  3. Causal premise semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    The rise of causality and the attendant graph-theoretic modeling tools in the study of counterfactual reasoning has had resounding effects in many areas of cognitive science, but it has thus far not permeated the mainstream in linguistic theory to a comparable degree. In this study I show that a version of the predominant framework for the formal semantic analysis of conditionals, Kratzer-style premise semantics, allows for a straightforward implementation of the crucial ideas and insights of Pearl-style causal networks. I spell out the details of such an implementation, focusing especially on the notions of intervention on a network and backtracking interpretations of counterfactuals.

  4. Semantic Web status model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, AJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available for reasoning systems [Bech- hofer et al., 2004; McGuinness and van Harmelen, 2004; Smith et al., 2004]. DL is a set of knowledge representation formalisms with semantic characterisation based on stan- dard first-order logics. DL offers a formal foundation... is a knowledge representation language capturing the syntax (ontology) as well as the semantics (rules) of a specific domain [McGuin- ness et al., 2002; McGuinness and van Harmelen, 2004]. Currently, OWL is the W3C technology representing...

  5. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    a number of semantic properties associated with the meaning we read from the form, colour, texture and sound of the product. The purpose of working with these properties can be to make the use of the product more self-evident, to form or enhance the cultural meaning of the product and to give the product...... processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material...

  6. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  7. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  8. A Timed Semantics for SDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1996-01-01

    An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics...

  9. Semantic cognition or data mining?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.; Visser, I.

    2008-01-01

    We argue that neural networks for semantic cognition, as proposed by Rogers & McClelland (R&M), do not acquire semantics and therefore cannot be the basis for a theory of semantic cognition. The reason is that the neural networks simply perform statistical categorization procedures, and these do not

  10. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  11. Semantic cognition or data mining?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Borsboom; I. Visser

    2008-01-01

    We argue that neural networks for semantic cognition, as proposed by Rogers & McClelland (R&M), do not acquire semantics and therefore cannot be the basis for a theory of semantic cognition. The reason is that the neural networks simply perform statistical categorization procedures, and these do not

  12. Concepts within reach: Action performance predicts action language processing in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rutvik H; Herter, Troy; Riccardi, Nicholas; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between the brain's conceptual or semantic and sensory-motor systems remains controversial. Here, we tested manual and conceptual abilities of 41 chronic stroke patients in order to examine their relationship. Manual abilities were assed through a reaching task using an exoskeleton robot. Semantic abilities were assessed with implicit as well as explicit semantic tasks, for both verbs and nouns. The results show that that the degree of selective impairment for action word processing was predicted by the degree of impairment in reaching performance. Moreover, the implicit semantic measures showed a correlation with a global reaching parameter, while the explicit semantic similarity judgment task predicted performance in action initiation. These results suggest that action concepts are dynamically grounded through motoric simulations, and that more details are simulated for more explicit semantic tasks. This is evidence for a close and causal relationship between sensory-motor and conceptual systems of the brain.

  13. Equivalence problem for Bishop surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper has two parts. We first briefly survey recent studies on the equivalence problem for real submanifolds in a complex space under the action of biholomorphic transformations. We will mainly focus on some of the recent studies of Bishop surfaces, which, in particular, includes the work of the authors. In the second part of the paper, we apply the general theory developed by the authors to explicitly classify an algebraic family of Bishop surfaces with a vanishing Bishop invariant. More precisely, we let M be a real submanifold of C 2 defined by an equation of the form w = zz + 2Re(z s + az s+1 ) with s≥ 3 and a a complex parameter. We will prove in the second part of the paper that for s≥ 4 two such surfaces are holomorphically equivalent if and only if the parameter differs by a certain rotation. When s = 3, we show that surfaces of this type with two different real parameters are not holomorphically equivalent.

  14. Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-10-01

    More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference.

  15. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  16. A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory

    CERN Document Server

    Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

  17. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meij; M. Bron; L. Hollink; B. Huurnink; M. de Rijke

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide faci

  18. Semantically Grounded Briefings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    occurring relations. AeroText and consequently AeroDAML can be tailored to particular domains through training sessions with annotated corpuses...the complexities of semantic markup by using mnemonic names for URIs, hiding unnamed intermediate objects (represented by “ GenSym ” identifiers), and

  19. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  20. Semantic physical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray-Rust Peter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’. We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles.

  1. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material...

  2. Semantic embodiment, disembodiment or misembodiment? In search of meaning in modules and neuron circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-10-01

    "Embodied" proposals claim that the meaning of at least some words, concepts and constructions is grounded in knowledge about actions and objects. An alternative "disembodied" position locates semantics in a symbolic system functionally detached from sensorimotor modules. This latter view is not tenable theoretically and has been empirically falsified by neuroscience research. A minimally-embodied approach now claims that action-perception systems may "color", but not represent, meaning; however, such minimal embodiment (misembodiment?) still fails to explain why action and perception systems exert causal effects on the processing of symbols from specific semantic classes. Action perception theory (APT) offers neurobiological mechanisms for "embodied" referential, affective and action semantics along with "disembodied" mechanisms of semantic abstraction, generalization and symbol combination, which draw upon multimodal brain systems. In this sense, APT suggests integrative-neuromechanistic explanations of why both sensorimotor and multimodal areas of the human brain differentially contribute to specific facets of meaning and concepts.

  3. Comparative study of the impacts of hydroelectric power plants with impacts avoided by a Virtual Plants Equivalents (VPEs) through of energy efficiency actions; Estudo comparativo dos impactos das usinas hidreletricas com os impactos evitados por uma usina virtual equivalente atraves das acoes de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Roberto Perillo Barbosa da; Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], emails: rpbsilva@fem.unicamp.br, rsbarros@fem.unicamp.br Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. Engenharia Agricola], email: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a comparative study of the impacts caused by Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPPs) in relation to the impacts avoided through actions that promotes energy efficiency called Virtual Plants Equivalents (VPEs). To do so, it was considering the recent results presented by the National Program for Electric Energy Conservation (PROCEL) to the year 2008, which shows that the program actions' in this period resulted in a Virtual Plant Equivalent of 1049 MW. It was performed a survey of the values of wetland and families displaced by the construction of hydropower plants and, later, it was compared these data with the values found in the literature and, finally, it was established that the actions of energy efficiency are important instruments to avoid (or at least postpone) the social and environmental impacts directly and indirectly that affects the whole society. Thus, it is suggested that there is a stimulus in relation to energy efficiency actions, what is observed nowadays in Brazil is that these actions are negligible before the potential that exists at industrial, commercial and residential sectors. (author)

  4. Toward Agent Programs with Circuit Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    1992-01-01

    New ideas are presented for computing and organizing actions for autonomous agents in dynamic environments-environments in which the agent's current situation cannot always be accurately discerned and in which the effects of actions cannot always be reliably predicted. The notion of 'circuit semantics' for programs based on 'teleo-reactive trees' is introduced. Program execution builds a combinational circuit which receives sensory inputs and controls actions. These formalisms embody a high degree of inherent conditionality and thus yield programs that are suitably reactive to their environments. At the same time, the actions computed by the programs are guided by the overall goals of the agent. The paper also speculates about how programs using these ideas could be automatically generated by artificial intelligence planning systems and adapted by learning methods.

  5. Rethinking actions: implementation and association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Lorna C; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Action processing allows us to move through and interact with the world, as well as understand the movements performed by other people. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the semantics of actions as differentiated from the semantics of objects. However, as the understanding of action semantics has evolved, it is evident that the existing literature conflates two senses of the word 'action'-one that stems from studies of tool use and the other from event representation. In this paper, we suggest that this issue can be clarified by closely examining differences in how the human parietal and temporal cortices of the brain process action-related stimuli. By contrasting the posterior parietal cortex to the posterolateral temporal cortex, we characterize two complementary action systems in the human brain, each with its own specialization of function. We suggest that these two systems be referred to as the parietal Action Implementation System, and the posterolateral temporal Action Association System. While the frontoparietal system is concerned primarily with how we perform actions, and simulate others' actions, the temporal action system is more involved with processing actions from a third-person, conceptual standpoint. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience of perception and language, as well as the neuroanatomical organization of these brain regions support this distinction. We will discuss the implications of this work for cognition-, language-, and neuroscience-based action research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Challenges in Bridging Social Semantics and Formal Semantics on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Gandon, Fabien; Buffa, Michel; Cabrio, Elena; Corby, Olivier; Faron-Zucker, Catherine; Giboin, Alain; Le Thanh, Nhan; Mirbel, Isabelle; Sander, Peter; Tettamanzi, Andrea G. B.; Villata, Serena

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes several results of Wimmics, a research lab which names stands for: web-instrumented man-machine interactions, communities, and semantics. The approaches introduced here rely on graph-oriented knowledge representation, reasoning and operationalization to model and support actors, actions and interactions in web-based epistemic communities. The re-search results are applied to support and foster interactions in online communities and manage their res...

  7. On the Unification of Process Semantics: Logical Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Romero-Hernández, David; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.4

    2011-01-01

    We continue with the task of obtaining a unifying view of process semantics by considering in this case the logical characterization of the semantics. We start by considering the classic linear time-branching time spectrum developed by R.J. van Glabbeek. He provided a logical characterization of most of the semantics in his spectrum but, without following a unique pattern. In this paper, we present a uniform logical characterization of all the semantics in the enlarged spectrum. The common structure of the formulas that constitute all the corresponding logics gives us a much clearer picture of the spectrum, clarifying the relations between the different semantics, and allows us to develop generic proofs of some general properties of the semantics.

  8. Current Conveyor Equivalent Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An equivalence between a class of (current conveyor CC II+ and CC II- circuits is established. CC IIequivalent circuit uses one extra element. However, under certain condition, the extra element can be eliminated. As an illustration of the application of this equivalence, minimal first and second order all-pass filters are derived. Incertain cases, it is possible to compensate the effect of the input resistor of CC at port X. At the end, an open problem of realizing an Nth order (N > 2 minimal all-pass filter is stated.

  9. How neurons make meaning: brain mechanisms for embodied and abstract-symbolic semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-09-01

    How brain structures and neuronal circuits mechanistically underpin symbolic meaning has recently been elucidated by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and neurocomputational research. Modality-specific 'embodied' mechanisms anchored in sensorimotor systems appear to be relevant, as are 'disembodied' mechanisms in multimodal areas. In this paper, four semantic mechanisms are proposed and spelt out at the level of neuronal circuits: referential semantics, which establishes links between symbols and the objects and actions they are used to speak about; combinatorial semantics, which enables the learning of symbolic meaning from context; emotional-affective semantics, which establishes links between signs and internal states of the body; and abstraction mechanisms for generalizing over a range of instances of semantic meaning. Referential, combinatorial, emotional-affective, and abstract semantics are complementary mechanisms, each necessary for processing meaning in mind and brain.

  10. Causality in the Semantics of Esterel: Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavi, MohammadReza

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the challenges concerning causality in the semantics of Esterel and show that they pertain to the known issues in the semantics of Structured Operational Semantics with negative premises. We show that the solutions offered for the semantics of SOS also provide answers to the semantic challenges of Esterel and that they satisfy the intuitive requirements set by the language designers.

  11. Semantic Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Etter

    2011-01-01

    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

  12. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...... unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble that could be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media......, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools...

  13. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  14. Complex Semantic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

  15. Mass Equivalent Dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Bai, Shaoping; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how a general 2-DoF dyad can be designed mass equivalent to a general (1-DoF) link element. This is useful in the synthesis of balanced mechanisms, for instance to increase or reduce the number of DoFs of a balanced mechanism maintaining its balance. Also it can be used as

  16. Mass equivalent triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how a general 3-DoF triad can be designed mass equivalent to a general (1-DoF) link element. This is useful in the synthesis of shaking force balanced and statically balanced mechanisms, for instance to add or remove a number of DoFs of a balanced mechanism maintaining its

  17. Equivalence of Differential System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-xin Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Using refiecting function of Mironenko we construct some differential systems which are equivalent to the given differential system.This gives us an opportunity to find out the monodromic matrix of these periodi csystems which are not integrable in finite terms.

  18. Subliminal Semantic Priming in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Perrin, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test) were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction) and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT). Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets) and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets). This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime. PMID:21655277

  19. Subliminal semantic priming in speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Daltrozzo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT. Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets. This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

  20. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  1. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  2. Towards a Semantic Grid Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Goble, Carole

    2005-01-01

    The Semantic Grid is an extension of the current Grid in which information and services are given well defined and explicitly represented meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. In the last few years, several projects have embraced this vision and there are already successful pioneering applications that combine the strengths of the Grid and of semantic technologies. However, the Semantic Grid currently lacks a reference architecture, or a systematic approach for...

  3. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  4. A Common View on Strong, Uniform, and Other Notions of Equivalence in Answer-Set Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Woltran, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Logic programming under the answer-set semantics nowadays deals with numerous different notions of program equivalence. This is due to the fact that equivalence for substitution (known as strong equivalence) and ordinary equivalence are different concepts. The former holds, given programs P and Q, iff P can be faithfully replaced by Q within any context R, while the latter holds iff P and Q provide the same output, that is, they have the same answer sets. Notions in between strong and ordinary equivalence have been introduced as theoretical tools to compare incomplete programs and are defined by either restricting the syntactic structure of the considered context programs R or by bounding the set A of atoms allowed to occur in R (relativized equivalence).For the latter approach, different A yield properly different equivalence notions, in general. For the former approach, however, it turned out that any ``reasonable'' syntactic restriction to R coincides with either ordinary, strong, or uniform equivalence. I...

  5. Another Look at Semantic Relational Categories and Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Ida J.

    1992-01-01

    Types of utterances (with locative action utterances specifically differentiated) were evaluated in a language-impaired child tracked between one year, six months and three years of age. Comparison with utterances in other children suggests the importance of such a fine-grained analysis in detecting semantic properties of child language…

  6. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  7. Resource modalities in game semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Melliès, Paul-André

    2007-01-01

    The description of resources in game semantics has never achieved the simplicity and precision of linear logic, because of a misleading conception: the belief that linear logic is more primitive than game semantics. We advocate instead the contrary: that game semantics is conceptually more primitive than linear logic. Starting from this revised point of view, we design a categorical model of resources in game semantics, and construct an arena game model where the usual notion of bracketing is extended to multi- bracketing in order to capture various resource policies: linear, affine and exponential.

  8. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  9. Mu-calculus-based deontic logic for regular actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, Jan; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Meyer, John-Jules; Demolombe, R.; Hilpinen, R.

    This paper introduces deontic logic of regular actions as a fragment of the modal mu calculus Semantic characterizations of deontic notions for regular actions are given in terms of conditions on mu calculus structures and mu calculus formulas capturing this semantics are constructed

  10. GOOSE: semantic search on internet connected sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Klamer; Bomhof, Freek; Burghouts, Gertjan; van Diggelen, Jurriaan; Hiemstra, Peter; van't Hof, Jaap; Kraaij, Wessel; Pasman, Huib; Smith, Arthur; Versloot, Corne; de Wit, Joost

    2013-05-01

    More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as "Is there a person behind this building" or "Alert me when a vehicle approaches". The GOOSE concept has the ambition to provide the capability to search semantically for any relevant information within "all" (including imaging) sensor streams in the entire Internet of sensors. This is similar to the capability provided by presently available Internet search engines which enable the retrieval of information on "all" web pages on the Internet. In line with current Internet search engines any indexing services shall be utilized cross-domain. The two main challenge for GOOSE is the Semantic Gap and Scalability. The GOOSE architecture consists of five elements: (1) an online extraction of primitives on each sensor stream; (2) an indexing and search mechanism for these primitives; (3) a ontology based semantic matching module; (4) a top-down hypothesis verification mechanism and (5) a controlling man-machine interface. This paper reports on the initial GOOSE demonstrator, which consists of the MES multimedia analysis platform and the CORTEX action recognition module. It also provides an outlook into future GOOSE development.

  11. A Study on Semantic Searching, Semantic Search Engines and Technologies Used for Semantic Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Junaid Rashid; Muhammad Wasif Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Semantic search engines(SSE) are more efficient than other web engines because in this era of busy life everyone wants an exact answer to his question which only semantic engines can provide. The immense increase in the volume of data, traditional search engines has increased the number of answers to satisfy the user. This creates the problem to search for the desired answer. To solve this problem, the trend of developing semantic search engines is increasing day by da...

  12. From equivalence to adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Borowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  13. Atom interferometry and the Einstein equivalence principle

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Clande

    2011-01-01

    The computation of the phase shift in a symmetric atom interferometer in the presence of a gravitational field is reviewed. The difference of action-phase integrals between the two paths of the interferometer is zero for any Lagrangian which is at most quadratic in position and velocity. We emphasize that in a large class of theories of gravity the atom interferometer permits a test of the weak version of the equivalence principle (or universality of free fall) by comparing the acceleration of atoms with that of ordinary bodies, but is insensitive to that aspect of the equivalence principle known as the gravitational redshift or universality of clock rates.

  14. A Study on Semantic Searching, Semantic Search Engines and Technologies Used for Semantic Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Rashid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Semantic search engines(SSE are more efficient than other web engines because in this era of busy life everyone wants an exact answer to his question which only semantic engines can provide. The immense increase in the volume of data, traditional search engines has increased the number of answers to satisfy the user. This creates the problem to search for the desired answer. To solve this problem, the trend of developing semantic search engines is increasing day by day. Semantic search engines work to extract the best answer of user queries which exactly fits with it. Traditional search engines are keyword based which means that they do not know the meaning of the words which we type in our queries. Due to this reason, the semantic search engines super pass the conventional search engines because they give us meaningful and well-defined information. In this paper, we will discuss the background of Semantic searching, about semantic search engines; the technology used for the semantic search engines and some of the existing semantic search engines on various factors are compared.

  15. An Improved Technique for Ranking Semantic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Narayana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of the search techniques in the first generation of the Web is accessing relevant documents from the Web. Though it satisfies user requirements, but it is insufficient as the user sometimes wishes to access actionable information involving complex relationships between two given entities. Finding such complex relationships (also known as semantic associations is especially useful in applications such as National Security, Pharmacy, Business Intelligence etc. Therefore the next frontier is discovering relevant semantic associations between two entities present in large semantic metadata repositories. Given two entities, there exist a huge number of semantic associations between two entities. Hence ranking of these associations is required in order to find more relevant associations. For this Aleman Meza et al. proposed a method involving six metrics viz. context, subsumption, rarity, popularity, association length and trust. To compute the overall rank of the associations this method computes context, subsumption, rarity and popularity values for each component of the association and for all the associations. However it is obvious that, many components appears repeatedly in many associations therefore it is not necessary to compute context, subsumption, rarity, popularity, and trust values of the components every time for each association rather the previously computed values may be used while computing the overall rank of the associations. This paper proposes a method to reuse the previously computed values using a hash data structure thus reduce the execution time. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments were conducted on SWETO ontology. Results show that the proposed method is more efficient than the other existing methods.

  16. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  17. Developing Semantic Business Model for VO Construction on Semantic Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Wang; QIAN Depei

    2006-01-01

    This paper combines semantic web technology with business modeling and yields semantic business model that is semantically described in terms of roles and relationships. The semantic business model can be used to discover grid services by means of automation tools. The gap between business goals and grid services is bridged by role relationships and compositions of them, so that the virtual organization evolution is supported effectively. Semantic business model can support virtual organization validation at design stage rather than at run-time stage. The designers can animate their business model and make initial assessment of what interactions should occur between roles and in which order. The users can verify whether the grid service compositions satisfy business goals.

  18. The UMLS Semantic Network and the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vipul

    2003-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System is an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) and is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies on the Semantic Web, for representing the knowledge contained in the Semantic Network. Requirements specific to the Semantic Network, such as polymorphic relationships and blocking relationship inheritance are discussed and approaches to represent these in DAML+OIL are presented. Finally, conclusions are presented along with a discussion of ongoing and future work.

  19. Semantics and the crowd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark GREAVES

    2012-01-01

    One of the principal scientific challenges that drives my group is to understand the character of formal knowledge on the Web.By formal knowledge,I mean information that is represented on the Web in something other than natural language text—typically,as machine-readable Web data with a formal syntax and a specific,intended semantics.The Web provides a major counterpoint to our traditional artificial intelligence (AI) based accounts of formal knowledge.Most symbolic AI systems are designed to address sophisticated logical inference over coherent conceptual knowledge,and thus the underlying research is focused on characterizing formal properties such as entailment relations,time/space complexity of inference,monotonicity,and expressiveness.In contrast,the Semantic Web allows us to explore formal knowledge in a very different context,where data representations exist in a constantly changing,large-scale,highly distributed network of looselyconnected publishers and consumers,and are governed by a Web-derived set of social practices for discovery,trust,reliability,and use.We are particularly interested in understanding how large-scale Semantic Web data behaves over longer time periods:the way by which its producers and consumers shift their requirements over time;how uniform resource identifiers (URIs) are used to dynamically link knowledge together;and the overall lifecycle of Web data from publication,to use,integration with other knowledge,evolution,and eventual deprecation.We believe that understanding formal knowledge in this Web context is the key to bringing existing AI insights and knowledge bases to the level of scale and utility of the current hypertext Web.

  20. Universal semantic communication

    CERN Document Server

    Juba, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Is meaningful communication possible between two intelligent parties who share no common language or background? In this work, a theoretical framework is proposed in which it is possible to address when and to what extent such semantic communication is possible: such problems can be rigorously addressed by explicitly focusing on the goals of the communication. Under this framework, it is possible to show that for many goals, communication without any common language or background is possible using universal protocols. This work should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate-level knowled

  1. Semantic Web Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    the information out of various types of EXIF digital camera files and show it in a reasonably consistent way (schema), 2003. http://www.w3.org/2000...many documents are not expressible in logica at all, and many in logic but not in N3. However, we are building a system for which a prime goal is the...demonstrate that conventional logica programming tools are efficent and straightforwradly adapted to semantic web work. • Jena RDF toolkit now accepts N3 as

  2. Semantic and Process Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Oscar Fernández Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management systems support education at different levels of the education. This is very important for the process in which the higher education of Cuba is involved. Structural transformations of teaching are focused on supporting the foundation of the information society in the country. This paper describes technical aspects of the designing of a model for the integration of multiple knowledgemanagement tools supporting teaching. The proposal is based on the definition of an ontology for the explicit formal description of the semantic of motivations of students and teachers in the learning process. Its target is to facilitate knowledge spreading.

  3. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    kilimand faetem with the newly imported English word vaeolens (violence). My study provides newevidence for how cognitive and semantic change co-occur in the context of postcolonial linguisticcommunities, and my paper addresses an important, ongoing controversy related to the notion of“Anglocentric bias...... counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...

  4. Semantic Roles and Grammatical Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    The nature of semantic roles and grammatical relations are explored from the perspective of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). It is proposed that unraveling the relational aspects of grammar involves the recognition that semantic roles fall into two types, thematic relations and macroroles, and that grammatical relations are not universal and are…

  5. The Problem of Naturalizing Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Investigates conceptual barriers prevalent in the works of both proponents and opponents of semantic naturalism. Searches for a tenable definition of naturalism according to which one can be a realist, a non-reductionist, and a naturalist about semantic content. (Author/VWL)

  6. Geospatial semantics: beyond ontologies, towards an enactive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Di Donato, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches to semantics in the geospatial domain are mainly based on ontologies, but ontologies, since continue to build entirely on the symbolic methodology, suffers from the classical problems, e.g. the symbol grounding problem, affecting representational theories. We claim for an enactive approach to semantics, where meaning is considered to be an emergent feature arising context-dependently in action. Since representational theories are unable to deal with context, a new formalism is required toward a contextual theory of concepts. SCOP is considered a promising formalism in this sense and is briefly described.

  7. Comments on TNT Equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.W.

    1994-07-01

    The term ``TNT Equivalence`` is used throughout the explosives and related industries to compare the effects of the output of a given explosive to that of TNT. This is done for technical design reasons in scaling calculation such as for the prediction of blast waves, craters, and structural response, and is also used as a basis for government regulations controlling the shipping, handling and storage of explosive materials, as well as for the siting and design of explosive facilities. TNT equivalence is determined experimentally by several different types of tests, the most common of which include: plate dent, ballistic mortar, trauzl, sand crush, and air blast. All of these tests do not necessarily measure the same output property of the sample explosive. As examples of this, some tests depend simply upon the CJ pressure, some depend upon the PV work in the CJ zone and in the Taylor wave behind the CJ plane, some are functions of the total work which includes that from secondary combustion in the air mixing region of the fireball and are acutely effected by the shape of the pressure-time profile of the wave. Some of the tests incorporate systematic errors which are not readily apparent, and which have a profound effect upon skewing the resultant data. Further, some of the tests produce different TNT Equivalents for the same explosive which are a function of the conditions at which the test is run. This paper describes the various tests used, discusses the results of each test and makes detailed commentary on what the test is actually measuring, how the results may be interpreted, and if and how these results can be predicted by first principals based calculations. Extensive data bases are referred to throughout the paper and used in examples for each point in the commentaries.

  8. The semantic distinction between "risk" and "danger": a linguistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholm, Max

    2012-02-01

    The analysis combines frame semantic and corpus linguistic approaches in analyzing the role of agency and decision making in the semantics of the words "risk" and "danger" (both nominal and verbal uses). In frame semantics, the meanings of "risk" and of related words, such as "danger," are analyzed against the background of a specific cognitive-semantic structure (a frame) comprising frame elements such as Protagonist, Bad Outcome, Decision, Possession, and Source. Empirical data derive from the British National Corpus (100 million words). Results indicate both similarities and differences in use. First, both "risk" and "danger" are commonly used to represent situations having potential negative consequences as the result of agency. Second, "risk" and "danger," especially their verbal uses (to risk, to endanger), differ in agent-victim structure, i.e., "risk" is used to express that a person affected by an action is also the agent of the action, while "endanger" is used to express that the one affected is not the agent. Third, "risk," but not "danger," tends to be used to represent rational and goal-directed action. The results therefore to some extent confirm the analysis of "risk" and "danger" suggested by German sociologist Niklas Luhmann. As a point of discussion, the present findings arguably have implications for risk communication.

  9. A General Framework for Equivalences in Answer-Set Programming by Countermodels in the Logic of Here-and-There

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Different notions of equivalence, such as the prominent notions of strong and uniform equivalence, have been studied in Answer-Set Programming, mainly for the purpose of identifying programs that can serve as substitutes without altering the semantics, for instance in program optimization. Such semantic comparisons are usually characterized by various selections of models in the logic of Here-and-There (HT). For uniform equivalence however, correct characterizations in terms of HT-models can only be obtained for finite theories, respectively programs. In this article, we show that a selection of countermodels in HT captures uniform equivalence also for infinite theories. This result is turned into coherent characterizations of the different notions of equivalence by countermodels, as well as by a mixture of HT-models and countermodels (so-called equivalence interpretations). Moreover, we generalize the so-called notion of relativized hyperequivalence for programs to propositional theories, and apply the same ...

  10. Latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Semantics of Information

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Daegene

    2016-01-01

    Both the choice made by the observer and consciousness are discussed in terms of cyclical time. That is, while the process of classical choice evolves forward in time, the quantum reference frame evolves backward in time to equate itself with the classical choice made by the observer, such that at the end, this corresponds to the case of self-observation in consciousness in linear time. This indicates that discrete and finite information is accompanied by a continuous or infinite "semantic" quantum part. In particular, the continuous semantic aspect is considered to be related to universal grammar, a suggested innate structure in languages. This paper also argues that the cyclical time model can be considered to have both small and large cycles and will also argue that at the most basic level, consciousness is strongly connected to time. This means that another aspect is added, that is, a more detailed description of the ongoing proposal of the subjective model, in which the classical is just as fundamental a...

  12. Últimamente: functional and semantic shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Vidal Díez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The twenty-second edition of DRAE notes that últimamente has two adverbial type meanings, i. e. one adverbial meaning of manner - por ultimo - and another adverbial meaning of time that links with hace poco tiempo, recientemente. However, the time value does not appear in the dictionary until 1985, when, initially, the following formulation is used: hace poco, en el tiempo que acaba de transcurrir. This value, clearly the central or prototypical in modern Peninsular Spanish, contrasts, however, with the earlier functions assumed by this particle. Thus últimamente was equivalent to finalmente, por último término and therefore was used to insert either the closing segment of a multiple event chain arranged according to chronological criteria, or to indicate a sequence of elements in discourse without temporal marking. This research focuses on analyzing the changes in the particle últimamente until it acquired its current temporal function, i.e. recientemente, de un tiempo a esta parte. For the study we set up and analyzed a corpus formed ad hoc with samples taken from the CORDE and CREA (RAE, examining (i the potential connection between diachronic uses of últimamente and the tense of the sentence in which it appears, (ii its use as a discourse sequencing marker and (iii the semantic shift of these functions towards the contemporary meaning i.e. recientemente, de un tiempo a esta parte. The analysis provided shows the time at which the particle reaches the innovative semantic function and the semantic process of substitution or reduction of the original meaning.

  13. Switches and Jumps in Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1998-01-01

    An action system framework is a predicate transformer based method for modelling and analysing distributed and reactive systems. The actions are statements in Dijkstra's guarded command language, and their semantics is given by predicate transformers. We extend conventional action systems with a ...

  14. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  15. Moral asymmetries and the semantics of many

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Egré

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of four experiments concerning the evaluations people make of sentences involving many, showing that two sentences of the form many As are Bs and many As are Cs need not be equivalent when evaluated relative to a background in which B and C have the same cardinality and proportion to A, but in which B and C are predicates with opposite semantic and affective values. The data provide evidence that subjects lower the standard relevant to ascribe many for the more negatively valued predicate, and that judgments involving many are sensitive to moral considerations in a broad sense, namely to expectations involving a representation of the desirability as opposed to the mere probability of an outcome. We relate the results to similar semantic asymmetries discussed in the psychological literature, in particular to the Knobe effect and to framing effects. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.13 Supplementary materials, BibTeX info

  16. Enhancing Web Search with Semantic Identification of User Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Fathy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Personalized web search is able to satisfy individuals information needs by modeling long-term and short-term user interests based on user actions, browsed documents or past queries and incorporate these in the search process. In this paper, we propose a personalized search approach which models the user search preferences in an ontological user profile and semantically compares this model against user current query context to re-rank search results. Our user profile is based on the predefined ontology Open Directory Project (ODP so that after a user's search, relevant web pages are classified into topics in the ontology using semantic and cosine similarity measures. Moreover, interest scores are assigned to topics based on the users ongoing behavior. Our experiments show that re-ranking based on the semantic evidence of the updated user profile efficiently satisfies user information needs with the most relevant results being brought on to the top of the returned results.

  17. Pragma-semantic Analysis for Researching Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Weidemann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Ernst E. BOESCH's symbolic action theory (1991, the concept of relational hermeneutics (STRAUB & SHIMADA, 1999; STRAUB, 2006 and within the framework of grounded theory methodology (GLASER & STRAUSS, 1967; STRAUSS & CORBIN, 1990 this paper presents an integrative approach to the analysis of complex (intercultural action and meaning relations. The objective of pragma-semantic analysis is the identification, differentiation and contextualization of phenomena by analyzing performed as well as potentially possible actions and objectivations. Pragma-semantic analysis tries to reveal from which sources resp. pools of symbols individually as well as collectively available denotative and connotative aspects of actions derived. Further it can be utilized to show how these meanings come to bear in interactions that—through the analysis—have to be identified as intercultural in the first place. Using the empirical example of a German tourist's narrative of her interaction with beggars in India, the paper will outline the approach and show to what extent the pragma-semantic web also allows conclusions on action-possiblities and potential meanings with regard to specific (interactions, that is to determine the subjective as well as objective space of possibility. Furthermore, the implications of this approach are discussed with regard to research on intercultural communication as well as the research practice itself. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901373

  18. Toward a brain-based componential semantic representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R; Conant, Lisa L; Humphries, Colin J; Fernandino, Leonardo; Simons, Stephen B; Aguilar, Mario; Desai, Rutvik H

    2016-01-01

    Componential theories of lexical semantics assume that concepts can be represented by sets of features or attributes that are in some sense primitive or basic components of meaning. The binary features used in classical category and prototype theories are problematic in that these features are themselves complex concepts, leaving open the question of what constitutes a primitive feature. The present availability of brain imaging tools has enhanced interest in how concepts are represented in brains, and accumulating evidence supports the claim that these representations are at least partly "embodied" in the perception, action, and other modal neural systems through which concepts are experienced. In this study we explore the possibility of devising a componential model of semantic representation based entirely on such functional divisions in the human brain. We propose a basic set of approximately 65 experiential attributes based on neurobiological considerations, comprising sensory, motor, spatial, temporal, affective, social, and cognitive experiences. We provide normative data on the salience of each attribute for a large set of English nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and show how these attribute vectors distinguish a priori conceptual categories and capture semantic similarity. Robust quantitative differences between concrete object categories were observed across a large number of attribute dimensions. A within- versus between-category similarity metric showed much greater separation between categories than representations derived from distributional (latent semantic) analysis of text. Cluster analyses were used to explore the similarity structure in the data independent of a priori labels, revealing several novel category distinctions. We discuss how such a representation might deal with various longstanding problems in semantic theory, such as feature selection and weighting, representation of abstract concepts, effects of context on semantic retrieval, and

  19. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)

    1997-05-15

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  20. Sequence Semantics for Dynamic Predicate Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a semantics for dynamic predicate logic is developed that uses sequence valued assignments. This semantics is compared with the usual relational semantics for dynamic predicate logic: it is shown that the most important intuitions of the usual semantics are preserved. Then it is shown

  1. Semantic understanding of Image content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Dhobale

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of spatial data are becoming available today due to the rapid development of remote sensing techniques. Several retrieval systems are proposed to retrieve necessary, interested and effective information such as key- word based image retrieval and content based image retrieval. However, the results of these approaches are generally unsatisfactory, unpredictable and do not match human perception due to the well gap between visual features and semantic concepts. In this paper, we propose a new approach allowing semantic satellite image retrieval, describing the semantic image content and managing uncertain information. It is based on ontology model which represents spatial knowledge in order to provide semantic understanding of image content. Our retrieval system is based on two modules: ontological model merging and semantic strategic image retrieval. The first module allows developing ontological models which represent spatial knowledge of the satellite image, and managing uncertain information. The second module allows retrieving satellite images basing on their ontological model. In order to improve the quality of retrieval system and to facilitate the retrieval process, we propose two retrieval strategies which are the opportunist strategy and the hypothetic strategy. Our approach attempts to improve the quality of image retrieval, to reduce the semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts and to provide an automatic solution for efficient satellite image retrieval.

  2. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  3. A method exploiting syntactic patterns and the UMLS semantics for aligning biomedical ontologies: the case of OBO disease ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Gwenaëlle; Mosser, Jean; Burgun, Anita

    2007-12-01

    The OBO ontologies include more than 50 standard vocabularies that cover different domains, including genomics, chemistry, anatomy and phenotype. Ontology alignment is a means to build consistent biomedical ontologies compatible with standard vocabularies and dedicated to specific domains, such as cancer. An alignment is defined as a set of pairs of concepts, coming from two ontologies, related by a relation R, R not being restricted to the equivalence or subsumption relations. Alignment is performed in three major steps: first, the concepts that are equivalent in the ontologies are identified; second the pairs of concepts that are related although not equivalent are searched for; third the relations between the concepts are characterized. We have developed a method to align ontologies that exploits the compositionality of the terms in OBO ontologies, uses the UMLS to provide synonyms and relations, and defines syntactico-semantic patterns that characterize semantically the relations between concepts. We have applied it to four OBO phenotype ontologies: mouse pathology, human disease, mammalian phenotype, and PATO. We found 386 pairs of equivalent concepts and 20,461 pairs of concepts where one concept name is included in the other term. Among the 20,460 inclusions, we were able to provide a semantic categorization for 2682 relations. In 2552 cases, the relation was present and semantically defined in the UMLS Metathesaurus, in 131 cases the relation was characterized through semantic patterns. Our approach may help to find the semantic relations between concepts in ontologies.

  4. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  5. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

  6. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  7. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions...... and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...

  8. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  9. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2

    2011-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  10. Semantic perception for ground robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, M.; Bagnell, J. A.; Bajracharya, M.; Daniilidis, K.; Matthies, L. H.; Mianzo, L.; Navarro-Serment, L.; Shi, J.; Wellfare, M.

    2012-06-01

    Semantic perception involves naming objects and features in the scene, understanding the relations between them, and understanding the behaviors of agents, e.g., people, and their intent from sensor data. Semantic perception is a central component of future UGVs to provide representations which 1) can be used for higher-level reasoning and tactical behaviors, beyond the immediate needs of autonomous mobility, and 2) provide an intuitive description of the robot's environment in terms of semantic elements that can shared effectively with a human operator. In this paper, we summarize the main approaches that we are investigating in the RCTA as initial steps toward the development of perception systems for UGVs.

  11. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which...... are also rooted in the lexical-semantic classification of Russian nouns. The presentation focuses on semantics, both lexical and grammatical, and not least the connection between these two levels of content. The principal theoretical impact is the insight that grammar and lexis should not be seen...

  12. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Šimko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and extensive review of state-of-the-art in semantics acquisition game (SAG) design A set of design patterns for SAG designers A set of case studies (real SAG projects) demonstrating the use of SAG design patterns

  13. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  14. Stuttering Equivalence for Parity Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cranen, Sjoerd; Willemse, Tim A C

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering equivalence. While, at the outset, it might not be clear that this strategy should pay off, our experiments using typical verification problems illustrate that stuttering equivalence speeds up solving parity games in many cases.

  15. Semantator: Annotating Clinical Narratives with Semantic Web Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. ...

  16. Semantic Session Analysis for Web Usage Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; SONG Hantao; XU Xiaomei

    2007-01-01

    A semantic session analysis method partitioning Web usage logs is presented. Semantic Web usage log preparation model enhances usage logs with semantic. The Markov chain model based on ontology semantic measurement is used to identifying which active session a request should belong to. The competitive method is applied to determine the end of the sessions.Compared with other algorithms, more successful sessions are additionally detected by semantic outlier analysis.

  17. Deep Fusion of Multiple Semantic Cues for Complex Event Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xishan; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhang, Yongdong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Meng; Luan, Huanbo; Li, Jintao; Chua, Tat-Seng

    2016-03-01

    We present a deep learning strategy to fuse multiple semantic cues for complex event recognition. In particular, we tackle the recognition task by answering how to jointly analyze human actions (who is doing what), objects (what), and scenes (where). First, each type of semantic features (e.g., human action trajectories) is fed into a corresponding multi-layer feature abstraction pathway, followed by a fusion layer connecting all the different pathways. Second, the correlations of how the semantic cues interacting with each other are learned in an unsupervised cross-modality autoencoder fashion. Finally, by fine-tuning a large-margin objective deployed on this deep architecture, we are able to answer the question on how the semantic cues of who, what, and where compose a complex event. As compared with the traditional feature fusion methods (e.g., various early or late strategies), our method jointly learns the essential higher level features that are most effective for fusion and recognition. We perform extensive experiments on two real-world complex event video benchmarks, MED'11 and CCV, and demonstrate that our method outperforms the best published results by 21% and 11%, respectively, on an event recognition task.

  18. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  19. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The advantages of the formlism are shown with respect to a grammar for a fragment of German that deals with (i) quantifier scope ambiguities triggered by scrambling and/or movement and (ii) ambiguities that arise from the collective/distributive distinction of plural NPs. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative...

  20. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  1. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  2. Retrieval and Monitoring Processes during Visual Working Memory: An ERP Study of the Benefit of Visual Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined electrophysiological indices of episodic remembering whilst participants recalled novel shapes, with and without semantic content, within a visual working memory paradigm. The components of interest were the parietal episodic (PE; 400–800 ms and late posterior negativity (LPN; 500–900 ms, as these have previously been identified as reliable markers of recollection and post-retrieval monitoring, respectively. Fifteen young adults completed a visual matrix patterns task, assessing memory for low and high semantic visual representations. Matrices with either low semantic or high semantic content (containing familiar visual forms were briefly presented to participants for study (1500 ms, followed by a retention interval (6000 ms and finally a same/different recognition phase. The event-related potentials of interest were tracked from the onset of the recognition test stimuli. Analyses revealed equivalent amplitude for the earlier PE effect for the processing of both low and high semantic stimulus types. However, the LPN was more negative-going for the processing of the low semantic stimuli. These data are discussed in terms of relatively ‘pure’ and complete retrieval of high semantic items, where support can readily be recruited from semantic memory. However, for the low semantic items additional executive resources, as indexed by the LPN, are recruited when memory monitoring and uncertainty exist in order to recall previously studied items more effectively.

  3. Semantic Deviation in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康艺凡

    2016-01-01

    Dickens, with his adeptness with language, applies semantic deviation skillfully in his realistic novel Oliver Twist. However, most studies and comments home and abroad on it mainly focus on such aspects as humanity, society, and characters. Therefore, this thesis will take a stylistic approach to Oliver Twist from the perspective of semantic deviation, which is achieved by the use of irony, hyperbole, and pun and analyze how the application of the technique makes the novel attractive.

  4. Are Some Semantic Changes Predictable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Steen

    2010-01-01

      Historical linguistics is traditionally concerned with phonology and syntax. With the exception of grammaticalization - the development of auxiliary verbs, the syntactic rather than localistic use of prepositions, etc. - semantic change has usually not been described as a result of regular deve...... developments, but only as specific meaning changes in individual words. This paper will suggest some regularities in semantic change, regularities which, like sound laws, have predictive power and can be tested against recorded languages....

  5. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  6. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  7. Equivalence of the Symbol Grounding and Quantum System Identification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Fields

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The symbol grounding problem is the problem of specifying a semantics for the representations employed by a physical symbol system in a way that is neither circular nor regressive. The quantum system identification problem is the problem of relating observational outcomes to specific collections of physical degrees of freedom, i.e., to specific Hilbert spaces. It is shown that with reasonable physical assumptions these problems are equivalent. As the quantum system identification problem is demonstrably unsolvable by finite means, the symbol grounding problem is similarly unsolvable.

  8. The nature of semantic priming by subliminal spatial words: Embodied or disembodied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Roberto; Bucur, Madalina; Crepaldi, Davide

    2016-09-01

    Theories of embodied semantics (ES) suggest that a critical part of understanding what a word means consists of simulating the sensorimotor experience related to the word's referent. Some proponents of ES have suggested that sensorimotor activations are mandatory and highly automatic during semantic processing. Evidence supporting this claim comes from masked priming studies showing that unconsciously perceived spatial words (e.g., up, down) can directly modulate action performance on the basis of their meaning. However, a closer look reveals that such priming effects can be explained also in terms of symbolic (disembodied) semantic priming or nonsemantic mechanisms. In this study we sought to understand whether sensorimotor processing takes place during language understanding outside awareness. We used spatial words as a test bed and across 6 experiments we teased apart the possibility that action priming could be explained by: (a) nonsemantic mechanisms, (b) symbolic semantic priming, or (c) embodied semantic priming. The critical finding is that when symbolic and nonsemantic mechanisms were prevented, allowing only for a genuinely embodied semantic priming, no effect was found. Conversely, facilitation emerged in the same experimental paradigm when embodied priming was prevented and symbolic priming was allowed. Despite extensive testing, we found no evidence that unconsciously perceived words can activate sensorimotor processes, although these words are processed up to the semantic level. We thus conclude that sensorimotor activations might need conscious access to emerge during language understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Lexical-semantic body knowledge in 5- to 11-year-old children: How spatial body representation influences body semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Laurent; Jambaqué, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation between lexico-semantic body knowledge (i.e., body semantics) and spatial body representation (i.e., structural body representation) by analyzing naming performances as a function of body structural topography. One hundred and forty-one children ranging from 5 years 2 months to 10 years 5 months old were asked to provide a lexical label for isolated body part pictures. We compared the children's naming performances according to the location of the body parts (body parts vs. head features and also upper vs. lower limbs) or to their involvement in motor skills (distal segments, joints, and broader body parts). The results showed that the children's naming performance was better for facial body parts than for other body parts. Furthermore, it was found that the naming of body parts was better for body parts related to action. These findings suggest that the development of a spatial body representation shapes the elaboration of semantic body representation processing. Moreover, this influence was not limited to younger children. In our discussion of these results, we focus on the important role of action in the development of body representations and semantic organization.

  10. A Lexical Semantic Database for Verbmobil

    CERN Document Server

    Heinecke, J; Heinecke, Johannes; Worm, Karsten L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development and use of a lexical semantic database for the Verbmobil speech-to-speech machine translation system. The motivation is to provide a common information source for the distributed development of the semantics, transfer and semantic evaluation modules and to store lexical semantic information application-independently. The database is organized around a set of abstract semantic classes and has been used to define the semantic contributions of the lemmata in the vocabulary of the system, to automatically create semantic lexica and to check the correctness of the semantic representations built up. The semantic classes are modelled using an inheritance hierarchy. The database is implemented using the lexicon formalism LeX4 developed during the project.

  11. The role of semantic content of spoken words and the effect on serial recall

    OpenAIRE

    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    With relevance to auditory alarm design, the aim with this study was to investigate if semantic content of words (Negative, Neutral, Non-words and Action words) and the way words are spoken ("urgent" and "calm") interrupt performance in serial recall when applying a deviant paradigm. Subjective ratings of perceived "Urgency" and "Attention grabbing" were also measured. An interruption in recall was found caused by the words, but no effects were related to the semantic content or to the way th...

  12. Semantic Deficits in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Fiestas, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature and extent of semantic deficits in bilingual children with language impairment (LI). Method: Thirty-seven Spanish-English bilingual children with LI (ranging from age 7;0 [years;months] to 9;10) and 37 typically developing (TD) age-matched peers generated 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents in…

  13. The Indicative and Subjunctive "da"-complements in Serbian A Syntactic-Semantic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    A syntactic-semantic investigation of subjunctive and indicative "da"-complements in Serbian is conducted in this project. After a careful comparison of Serbian sentence constructions with "da"-complements to the equivalent sentence structures in languages of the Balkans as well as other Slavic languages, it is clearly…

  14. Why scalar-tensor equivalent theories are not physically equivalent?

    CERN Document Server

    Sk., Nayem

    2016-01-01

    Whether Jordan's and Einstein's frame descriptions of F(R) theory of gravity are physically equivalent, is a long standing debate. However, none questioned on true mathematical equivalence, since classical field equations may be translated from one frame to the other following a transformation relation. Nevertheless, true mathematical equivalence is only established, if all the mathematical results derived from one frame may be translated to the other. Here we show that, neither Noether equations, nor quantum equations may be translated from one frame to the other. The reason being the momenta can't be translated. This appears to be the cause for dynamical in-equivalence.

  15. Semantic photo synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Brostow, G. J.; Shotton, J.; Kwatra, V.; Cipolla, R.

    2007-02-01

    Composite images are synthesized from existing photographs by artists who make concept art, e.g. storyboards for movies or architectural planning. Current techniques allow an artist to fabricate such an image by digitally splicing parts of stock photographs. While these images serve mainly to "quickly" convey how a scene should look, their production is laborious. We propose a technique that allows a person to design a new photograph with substantially less effort. This paper presents a method that generates a composite image when a user types in nouns, such as "boat" and "sand." The artist can optionally design an intended image by specifying other constraints. Our algorithm formulates the constraints as queries to search an automatically annotated image database. The desired photograph, not a collage, is then synthesized using graph-cut optimization, optionally allowing for further user interaction to edit or choose among alternative generated photos. Our results demonstrate our contributions of (1) a method of creating specific images with minimal human effort, and (2) a combined algorithm for automatically building an image library with semantic annotations from any photo collection.

  16. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merced Montesinos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.

  17. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Montesinos, Merced; 10.3842/SIGMA.2011.103

    2011-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.

  18. Process-oriented semantic web search

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, DT

    2011-01-01

    The book is composed of two main parts. The first part is a general study of Semantic Web Search. The second part specifically focuses on the use of semantics throughout the search process, compiling a big picture of Process-oriented Semantic Web Search from different pieces of work that target specific aspects of the process.In particular, this book provides a rigorous account of the concepts and technologies proposed for searching resources and semantic data on the Semantic Web. To collate the various approaches and to better understand what the notion of Semantic Web Search entails, this bo

  19. A Semantic Matchmaker for Ranking Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Xu; Po Zhang; Juan-Zi Li; Wen-Jun Yang

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the matchmaker for ranking web services by using semantics. So far several methods of semantic matchmaker have been proposed. Most of them, however, focus on classifying the services into predefined categories rather than providing a ranking result. In this paper, a new method of semantic matchmaker is proposed for ranking web services. It is proposed to use the semantic distance for estimating the matching degree between a service and a user request. Four types of semantic distances are defined and four algorithms are implemented respectively to calculate them. Experimental results show that the proposed semantic matchmaker significantly outperforms the keywordbased baseline method.

  20. CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1998-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998....

  1. Theorem proving support in programming language semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertot, Yves

    2007-01-01

    We describe several views of the semantics of a simple programming language as formal documents in the calculus of inductive constructions that can be verified by the Coq proof system. Covered aspects are natural semantics, denotational semantics, axiomatic semantics, and abstract interpretation. Descriptions as recursive functions are also provided whenever suitable, thus yielding a a verification condition generator and a static analyser that can be run inside the theorem prover for use in reflective proofs. Extraction of an interpreter from the denotational semantics is also described. All different aspects are formally proved sound with respect to the natural semantics specification.

  2. Maximality-Based Structural Operational Semantics for Petri Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saīdouni, Djamel Eddine; Belala, Nabil; Bouneb, Messaouda

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this work is to exploit an implementable model, namely the maximality-based labeled transition system, which permits to express true-concurrency in a natural way without splitting actions on their start and end events. One can do this by giving a maximality-based structural operational semantics for the model of Place/Transition Petri nets in terms of maximality-based labeled transition systems structures.

  3. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-12-01

    and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6042, 203–212. Berlin, Germany: Springer.Carlson, Gregory N. 1977. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.Carlson, Gregory N. 1984. ‘Thematic roles and their role in semantic interpretation’. Linguistics 22: 259–279.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ling.1984.22.3.259Champollion, Lucas. 2010. Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Champollion, Lucas, Tauberer, Josh & Romero, Maribel. 2007. ‘The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical software for natural language semantics’. In Tracy Holloway King & Emily Bender (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks(GEAF 2007 Workshop’, Stanford, CA: CSLI Online Publications.Condoravdi, Cleo. 2002. ‘Punctual until as a scalar NPI’. In Sharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson (eds. ‘The nature of the word’, 631–654. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Csirmaz, Aniko. 2006. ‘Aspect, Negation and Quantifiers’. In Liliane Haegeman, Joan Maling, James McCloskey & Katalin E. Kiss (eds. ‘Event Structure And The Left Periphery’, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol. 68, 225–253. SpringerNetherlands.Davidson, Donald. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In Nicholas Rescher (ed. ‘The logic of decision and action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.de Swart, Henriëtte. 1996. ‘Meaning and use of not . . . until’. Journal of Semantics 13: 221–263.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/13.3.221de Swart, Henriëtte & Molendijk, Arie. 1999. ‘Negation and the temporal structure of narrative discourse’. Journal of Semantics 16: 1–42.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/16.1.1Dowty, David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel.Eckardt, Regine. 2010. ‘A Logic for Easy Linking Semantics’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de

  4. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  5. Semantics of Distinguishing Criteria: from Subjective to Intersubjective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Takac, Jan Sefranek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we are aiming to build cognitive semantics over a first person perspective. Our goal is to specify meanings connected to cognitive agents, rooted in their experience and separable from language, covering a wide spectrum of cognitions ranging from living organisms (animals, pre-verbal children and adult humans to artificial agents and that the cognitive semantics covers a broad, continuous, spectrum of meanings.As regards the used method, the first person perspective enables a kind of grounding of meanings in cognitions. An ability of cognitive agents to distinguish is a starting point of our approach, distinguishing criteria and schemata are the basic semantic constructs.The resulting construction is based on a projection of the environment into a cluster of current percepts and a similarity function on percepts. Situation schemata, more sophisticated similarity functions, event schemata and distinguishing criteria are built over that basis. Inference rules and action rules are components of our semantics.An interesting property of the proposed semantics is that it makes possible coexistence of subjective and intersubjective meanings. Subjective (first person perspective meanings are primary, and we have shown the way from them to collectively accepted (third person perspective meanings via observable behaviour and feedback about success/failure of actions. An abductive reasoning is an important tool on that way. A construct of an instrument, which represents a measure for using intersubjective meanings, is introduced. The instrument serves as a tool for an inclusion of sophisticated meanings, e.g. of scientific constructs, into our framework.

  6. Equivalence in the Vietnamese Translation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Nhan Luong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Equivalence has been the central concern in Translation Studies and always challenges the translator’s abilities. Equivalence is also the factor determining the closeness of target text (TT to the source text (ST. By applying the theories suggested by Vinay and Darbelnet, Nida and Taber, Catford, Baker, House and Pym, as well as the qualitative method to describe the semantic features of the ST and the TT, this study has investigated and compared the Shakespeare’s English and the Vietnamese translation of Romeo and Juliet by Dang The Binh to find out the levels of equivalence in regards to semantic features. It has been found that both objective and subjective factors, in which language differences, culture and the translator’s ability are the keys affecting the orientation of choosing equivalents of the translator. It is, therefore, no unique type of equivalence in the Vietnamese translation, but the mixture of dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence. As a result, the translation is partly covert and also partly overt.

  7. All in action

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, Arto

    2010-01-01

    The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which nature in its entirety and every detail is pictured in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiples of the most elementary action which corresponds to the Planck's constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span energy landscape, the Universe which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing density differences in least time. During the step-by-step evolution densely-curled actions unfold by opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The manifold's varieties process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to their dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental force...

  8. Brain structural substrates of semantic memory decline in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Simona; Cuetos, Fernando; Fasano, Fabrizio; Pellegrini, Francesca Ferrari; Marchi, Massimo; Venneri, Annalena; Caffarra, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    Semantic memory decline has been found in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study performance on a range of semantic tasks and structural brain patterns were examined in a group of MCI patients. Fourteen MCI and sixteen healthy elderly controls underwent semantic memory assessment and MRI brain scanning. The cognitive battery included visual naming and naming from definition tasks for objects, actions and famous people, semantic fluency for animals, fruits, tools, furniture, singers, politicians, actions, word-association task for early and late acquired words and a reading task. MCI patients performed worse on semantic fluency in all categories except for tools, produced a smaller number of words associated with early acquired nouns and a smaller total number of word-associations. Patients scored more poorly in all tasks of naming, naming of famous people, overall reading and reading of famous people's names. MCIs had fewer correct immediate recalls and more correct responses with cue in famous people naming, made more errors in naming and in the naming from definition task for famous people. Grey matter reduction in parahippocampus, frontal and cingulate cortices and amygdala was found in the MCI sample when compared with controls. Patients presented a different pattern of brain areas correlated with semantic tasks from that seen in controls, with more extensive involvement of subcortical regions in semantic fluency and word-association and more contribution of frontal than temporo-parietal areas in visual naming. This evidence suggests a reorganization of cortical associations of semantic processes in MCI that, following damage in the semantic circuit, explains its progressive breakdown.

  9. Equivalence of open/closed strings

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the open and closed strings are $O(D,D)$ equivalent. The equivalence requires an AdS geometry near the boundaries. The $O(D,D)$ invariance is introduced into the Polyakov action by the Tseytlin's action. Traditionally, there exist disconnected open-open or closed-closed configurations in the solution space of the Tseytlin's action. The open-closed configuration is ruled out by the mixed terms of the dual fields. We show that, under some very general guidances, the dual fields are consistently decoupled if and only if the near horizon geometry is $AdS_5$. We then have open-closed and closed-open configurations in different limits of the distances of the $D3$-brane pairs. Inherited from the definition of the theory, these four configurations are of course related to each other by $O(D,D)$ transformations. We therefore conclude that both the open/closed relation and open/closed duality can be derived from $O(D,D)$ symmetries. By analyzing the couplings of the configurations, the low ...

  10. Semantic graphs and associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

  11. Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Kristoffer Høgsbro

    1992-01-01

    Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ......Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

  12. The surplus value of semantic annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the costs of semantic annotation of textual documents to its benefits for information processing tasks. Semantic annotation can improve the performance of retrieval tasks and facilitates an improved search experience through faceted search, focused retrieval, better document summaries,

  13. Formal Language Decomposition into Semantic Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes FÄHNDRICH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for semantic decomposition. For that we surveys languages used to enrich contextual information with semantic descriptions. Such descriptions can be e.g. applied to enable reasoning when collecting vast amounts of information. In particular, we focus on the elements of the languages that make up their semantic. To do so, we compare the expressiveness of the well-known languages OWL, PDDL and MOF with a theory from linguistic called the Natural Semantic Metalanguage. We then analyze how the semantic of the language is build up and describe how semantic decomposition based on the semantic primes can be used for a so called mental lexicon. This mental lexicon can be used to reason upon semantic service description in the research domain of service match making.

  14. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  15. The semantics of biological forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language.

  16. A Semantic Web Blackboard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Craig; Preece, Alun; Gray, Peter

    In this paper, we propose a Blackboard Architecture as a means for coordinating hybrid reasoning over the Semantic Web. We describe the components of traditional blackboard systems (Knowledge Sources, Blackboard, Controller) and then explain how we have enhanced these by incorporating some of the principles of the Semantic Web to pro- duce our Semantic Web Blackboard. Much of the framework is already in place to facilitate our research: the communication protocol (HTTP); the data representation medium (RDF); a rich expressive description language (OWL); and a method of writing rules (SWRL). We further enhance this by adding our own constraint based formalism (CIF/SWRL) into the mix. We provide an example walk-though of our test-bed system, the AKTive Workgroup Builder and Blackboard(AWB+B), illustrating the interaction and cooperation of the Knowledge Sources and providing some context as to how the solution is achieved. We conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of the architecture.

  17. Semantics for Possibilistic Disjunctive Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, Juan Carlos; Cortés, Ulises

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a possibilistic disjunctive logic programming approach for modeling uncertain, incomplete and inconsistent information is defined. This approach introduces the use of possibilistic disjunctive clauses which are able to capture incomplete information and incomplete states of a knowledge base at the same time. By considering a possibilistic logic program as a possibilistic logic theory, a construction of a possibilistic logic programming semantic based on answer sets and the proof theory of possibilistic logic is defined. It shows that this possibilistic semantics for disjunctive logic programs can be characterized by a fixed-point operator. It is also shown that the suggested possibilistic semantics can be computed by a resolution algorithm and the consideration of optimal refutations from a possibilistic logic theory. In order to manage inconsistent possibilistic logic programs, a preference criterion between inconsistent possibilistic models is defined; in addition, the approach of cuts for re...

  18. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    CERN Document Server

    Poesio, M

    1995-01-01

    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language is specified as the translation language of a grammar covering sentences that display three classes of semantic ambiguity: lexical ambiguity, scopal ambiguity, and referential ambiguity. The expressions of this language denote sets of senses. A formalization of defeasible reasoning with underspecified representations is presented, based on Default Logic. Some issues to be confronted by such a formalization are discussed.

  19. 76 FR 62402 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods; Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the..., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of this new equivalent method is intended...

  20. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  1. 75 FR 30022 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  2. 76 FR 15974 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Four New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of four new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  3. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  4. 75 FR 22126 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... AGENCY Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  5. Unitary equivalence of quantum walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Sandeep K., E-mail: sandeep.goyal@ucalgary.ca [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa); Diósi, Lajos [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator.

  6. A framework for unifying ontology-based semantic similarity measures: a study in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harispe, Sébastien; Sánchez, David; Ranwez, Sylvie; Janaqi, Stefan; Montmain, Jacky

    2014-04-01

    Ontologies are widely adopted in the biomedical domain to characterize various resources (e.g. diseases, drugs, scientific publications) with non-ambiguous meanings. By exploiting the structured knowledge that ontologies provide, a plethora of ad hoc and domain-specific semantic similarity measures have been defined over the last years. Nevertheless, some critical questions remain: which measure should be defined/chosen for a concrete application? Are some of the, a priori different, measures indeed equivalent? In order to bring some light to these questions, we perform an in-depth analysis of existing ontology-based measures to identify the core elements of semantic similarity assessment. As a result, this paper presents a unifying framework that aims to improve the understanding of semantic measures, to highlight their equivalences and to propose bridges between their theoretical bases. By demonstrating that groups of measures are just particular instantiations of parameterized functions, we unify a large number of state-of-the-art semantic similarity measures through common expressions. The application of the proposed framework and its practical usefulness is underlined by an empirical analysis of hundreds of semantic measures in a biomedical context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards the Semantic Web Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Verhodubs, O; Grundspeņķis, J

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a conception of the Semantic Web Expert System which is the logical continuation of the expert system development. The Semantic Web Expert System emerges as the result of evolution of expert system concept and it means expert system moving toward the Web and using new Semantic Web technologies. The proposed conception of the Semantic Web Expert System promises to have new useful features that distinguish it from other types of expert systems

  8. A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting log...... of rewriting logic, and to verify CML programs using Maude's built-in LTL model checker. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic concepts of structural operational semantics and algebraic specifications....

  9. Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.32

    2010-01-01

    Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic systems and systems biology.

  10. SEMANTIC WEB MINING: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Karan Singh*, Anil kumar, Arun Kumar Yadav

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the two fast evolving scientific research areas “Semantic Web” and “Web Mining” are well-known as “Semantic Web Mining” in computer science. These two areas cover way for the mining of related and meaningful information from the web, by this means giving growth to the term “Semantic Web Mining”. The “Semantic Web” makes mining easy and “Web Mining” can construct new structure of Web. Web Mining applies ...

  11. SETL: A programmable semantic extract-transform-load framework for semantic data warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Rudra; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2017-01-01

    on Semantic Web (SW) standards and tools and supports developers by offering a number of powerful modules, classes, and methods for (dimensional and semantic) DW constructs and tasks. Thus it supports semantic data sources in addition to traditional data sources, semantic integration, and creating......” because they do not consider semantic issues in the integration processing. Current ETL tools neither support processing semantic data nor create a semantic Data Warehouse (DW), a repository of semantically integrated data. This paper describes our programmable Semantic ETL (SETL) framework. SETL builds...... or publishing a semantic (multidimensional) DW in terms of a knowledge base. A comprehensive experimental evaluation comparing SETL to a solution made with traditional tools (requiring much more hand-coding) on a concrete use case, shows that SETL provides better programmer productivity, knowledge base quality...

  12. Order effects in dynamic semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2014-01-01

    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from the crucial non-commutativity of mental operations upon the belief state of a cognitive agent.

  13. Semantic Presupposition in Advertisement Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芸芸

    2008-01-01

    Presupposition is. a very important linguistic concept that originates from philosophy. It is often considered as a kind of pragmatic inference. In linguistics it can be classified as semantic presupposition and Pragmatic presupposition. This article will deals with semantic presupposition. Besides the most important characteristics constancy under negation, presupposition boasts some other characteristics, namely unidirectionality, subjectiveness and latency, which exactly fulfill the demands of advertising. Because presupposition, used in advertising, can not possible risk caused by ostentation or direct assertion. On this account, presupposition is adopted into advertising as a pragmatic strategy.

  14. On Semantic Development of HAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎金娥

    2015-01-01

    The body-part term, HAND, ranks 48 in Swadesh's 100-Word List.This paper discusses the origin and meanings, and then the rules of semantic development in the HAND semantic field by comparing with other languages.The word itself does not only denote the body part but also things resembling hands in shape, position, function and things associated with hands.Plenty of linguistic evidence can be found to illustrate that all human beings regard their bodies as the basis and starting point of recognition of the whole world.

  15. A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting log...

  16. Applying Semantic Reasoning in Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Daniele, L.M.; Brandt, P.; Sappelli, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract—With the growth of open sensor networks, multiple applications in different domains make use of a large amount of sensor data, resulting in an emerging need to search semantically over heterogeneous datasets. In semantic search, an important challenge consists of bridging the semantic gap

  17. Applying Semantic Reasoning in Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Daniele, L.M.; Brandt, P.; Sappelli, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract—With the growth of open sensor networks, multiple applications in different domains make use of a large amount of sensor data, resulting in an emerging need to search semantically over heterogeneous datasets. In semantic search, an important challenge consists of bridging the semantic gap b

  18. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab Abd al-Hamed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

  19. Semantic heterogeneity: comparing new semantic web approaches with those of digital libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate that newer developments in the semantic web community, particularly those based on ontologies (simple knowledge organization system and others) mitigate common arguments from the digital library (DL) community against participation in the Semantic web. The approach is a semantic web discussion focusing on the weak structure of the Web and the lack of consideration given to the semantic content during indexing. The points criticised by the semantic web and ontology approaches ar...

  20. Equivalência semântica e avaliação da consistência interna da versão em português do Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 Semantic equivalence and internal consistency of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Soares Amaral

    2011-08-01

    Portuguese, with evidence of clear understanding and internal consistency. However, it is still necessary to assess its measurement equivalence, external validity, and reproducibility.

  1. Freedom and enforcement in action a study in formal action theory

    CERN Document Server

    Czelakowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Action theory is the object of growing attention in a variety of scientific disciplines, and this is the first volume to offer a synthetic view of the range of approaches possible in the topic. The volume focuses on the nexus of formal action theory with a startlingly diverse set of subjects, which range from logic, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and automata theory to jurisprudence, deontology, and economics. It covers semantic, mathematical and logical aspects of action, showing how the problem of action breaks the boundaries of traditional branches of logic located in syntactics and semantics and now lies on lies on the borderline between logical pragmatics and praxeology.   The chapters here focus on specialized tasks in formal action theory, beginning with a thorough description and formalization of the language of action, and moving through material on the differing models of action theory to focus on probabilistic models, the relations of formal action theory to deontic logic, and its key appl...

  2. The functional neuroanatomy of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christine E; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2011-04-19

    Our current understanding of the neural basis of semantic memory is informed primarily by studies of concrete objects. However, conceptual knowledge encompasses many other, albeit less concrete, domains. This article reviews evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies that speaks to the neural basis of action concepts and the words that refer to them. These data highlight 2 important principles governing the neural instantiation of semantic knowledge. First, the organization of conceptual representations in the brain parallels perception and action. Action concepts are at least partially represented within modality-specific areas responsible for the perception and execution of dynamic actions. Second, unimodal sensory and motor cortices act as "points of entry" for more abstract action knowledge. Increasingly abstract conceptual knowledge derived from these modalities is represented in brain areas located anterior and centripetal to modality-specific regions. Extending research on the neural basis of semantics to include dynamic and relational aspects of the world gives us a more complete appreciation of the range of cognitive and communication impairments that may be experienced by patients with neurologic disease.

  3. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-12-01

    Psychology’, 183–216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Chomsky, N. 1975. ‘Questions of form and interpretation’. In R. Austerlitz (ed. ‘The Scope of American Linguistics’, 159–196. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.Church, A. 1940. ‘A formulation of the simple theory of types’. Journal of Symbolic Logic 5: 56–68.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2266170Church, A. 1951. ‘A formulation of the logic of sense and denotation’. In P. Henle, H. Kallen & S. Langer (eds. ‘Structure, Method, and Meaning: Essays in Honor of H.M. Sheffer’, 3–24. New York: Liberal Arts Press.Cocchiarella, N. 1997. ‘Formally-oriented work in the philosophy of language’. In J.V. Canfield (ed. ‘Philosophy of Meaning, Knowledge and Value in the 20th Century’, 39–75. London; New York: Routledge.Cresswell, M. J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenthner-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation: Philosophical and Linguistic Approaches’, 9–43. London: Duckworth.Davidson, D. 1964. ‘Theories of meaning and learnable languages’. In ‘Proceedings of the 1964 International Congress for Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science’, Jerusalem: North-Holland.Davidson, D. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In N. Rescher (ed. ‘The Logic of Decision and Action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press.Davidson, D. 1970. ‘Semantics for natural languages’. In B. Visentini (ed. ‘Linguaggi nella Societa e nella Tecnica’, Milan: Edizioni di Comunita.Dowty, D. 1978a. A Guide to Montague’s PTQ. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club.Dowty, D. 1978b. ‘Governed transformations as lexical rules in a Montague Grammar’. Linguistic Inquiry 9: 393–426.Dowty, D., Wall, R. E. & Peters, S. Jr. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Feferman, A. Burdman & Feferman, S. 2004. Alfred Tarski: Life and Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Fodor, J. 1961. ‘Projection and paraphrase in

  4. SEMANTIC NETWORK PRESENTATION OF MECHANICAL MOTION SCHEME AND ITS MECHANISM TYPES SELECTION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zhigang; Zou Huijun; Zhang Qing; Tian Yongli

    2004-01-01

    The presentation method of the mechanical motion scheme must support the whole process of conceptual design.To meet the requirement,a semantic network method is selected to represent process level,action level,mechanism level and relationships among them.Computer aided motion cycle chart exploration can be realized by the representation and revision of time coordination of mechanism actions and their effect on the design scheme.The uncertain reasoning technology based on semantic network is applied in the mechanism types selection of the needle driving mechanism of industrial sewing mechanism,and the application indicated it is correct,useful and advance.

  5. Multimedia Semantics Metadata, Analysis and Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Troncy, Raphael; Schenk, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the latest research results in the multimedia and semantic web communities, bridging the "Semantic Gap" This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science,

  6. Query Optimization by Semantic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Haas, Doug Hofstadter, Elaine Kant, Peggy Karp , Fred Lakin, Ruth Andrea Levinson, Paul Martin, Larry Masinter, Thorne McCarty, Brian McCune, Charles...design. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977. [Wilson80) Wilson, Gerald A. A conceptual model for semantic integrity checking. In Proc. Sixth Itl. Conference on

  7. Genres, Semantics, and Classroom Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Jay

    1988-01-01

    Argues that competence in academic subjects depends on mastery of their specialized patterns of language use. These patterns are described in terms of: 1) the semantics underlying Halliday's functional linguistics and 2) the structural analysis of communication genres. A sample classroom episode illustrates relationships among semantic…

  8. A Note on Semantic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    The notions of categorical selection (c-selection) and semantic selection (s-selection) as outlined in recent research on generative grammar are discussed. The first section addresses the type of selectional constraint imposed on English small clauses (e.g., "John considers [Mary smart]"). In the second section, it is suggested that the constraint…

  9. Towards semantic software engineering enviroments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Natali, A.; Bertollo, G.; Ruy, F.; Mian, P.; Tortora, G.; Chang, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Software tools processing partially common set of data should share an understanding of what these data mean. Since ontologies have been used to express formally a shared understanding of information, we argue that they are a way towards Semantic SEEs. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based

  10. Towards semantic software engineering environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Natali, A.; Bertollo, G.; Ruy, F.; Mian, P.; Tortora, G.; Chang, S.-K.

    2002-01-01

    Software tools processing partially common set of data should share an understanding of what these data mean. Since ontologies have been used to express formally a shared understanding of information, we argue that they are a way towards Semantic SEEs. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based appr

  11. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  12. The Semantics of Query Modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; Tsikrika, T.; Vries, A.P. de

    2010-01-01

    We present a method that exploits `linked data' to determine semantic relations between consecutive user queries. Our method maps queries onto concepts in linked data and searches the linked data graph for direct or indirect relations between the concepts. By comparing relations between large number

  13. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  14. Denotational semantics for thread algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a denotational semantics for thread algebra (TA), an algebraic framework for the description and analysis of recent programming languages such as C# and Java [J.A. Bergstra, C.A. Middelburg, Thread algebra for strategic interleaving, Formal Aspects of Computing, in press.

  15. Semantic enrichment of GPS trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de Victor; Keulen, van Maurice; By, de Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Semantic annotation of GPS trajectories helps us to recognize the interests of the creator of the GPS trajectories. Automating this trajectory annotation circumvents the requirement of additional user input. To annotate the GPS traces automatically, two types of automated input are required: 1) a co

  16. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2010-01-01

    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of

  17. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  18. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  19. Literature Review of Semantic Presupposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷

    2012-01-01

    Since Gottlob Frege,the German philosopher and mathematician raises the concept of presupposition in his works On Sense and Reference at the end of the 19th century,to interpret some semantic phenomenon,the discussions of presupposition have become central in both linguistic field and the field of philosophy.Presupposition is a very important linguistic concept that originates from philosophy.

  20. Towards semantic software engineering enviroments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Natali, A.; Bertollo, G.; Ruy, F.; Mian, P.; Tortora, G.; Chang, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Software tools processing partially common set of data should share an understanding of what these data mean. Since ontologies have been used to express formally a shared understanding of information, we argue that they are a way towards Semantic SEEs. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based appr

  1. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  2. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  3. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery and/or the body (transdermal delivery. In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

  4. Neuroanatomical correlates of category-specific semantic disorders: a critical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, G; Silveri, M C; Daniele, A; Giustolisi, L

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies of category-specific semantic disturbances have focused their attention on the intrinsic cognitive structure of these disorders. The present survey aims to evaluate the relationships between disrupted semantic category and localisation of the underlying brain damage, in order to establish whether the injured brain areas house just those neurophysiological mechanisms that should have critically contributed to the acquisition of the disrupted semantic categories. We took into account in our review two double dissociations concerning respectively: (1) the impairment of a specific linguistic category--we contrast those disorders selectively affecting verbs (action names) with those selectively affecting nouns (object names); (2) the impairment of a specific conceptual/semantic domain--we contrast disorders selectively affecting living beings with those preferentially affecting man-made artefacts. The hypothesis that different categories of knowledge may be closely intertwined with different sources of sensory-motor information, was substantially confirmed. The lesion preferentially encroached on the left frontal lobe when the category "verbs" was selectively affected; it involved the left temporal lobe and the posterior association areas when the category "nouns" was preferentially disrupted; it involved bilateral temporo-limbic structures and inferior temporal lobes when the category "living beings" was selectively disrupted; it usually encroached on the left fronto-parietal areas when man-made artefacts and body parts were preferentially affected. These data support the hypothesis that: (a) action schemata may critically contribute to the development of the semantic representation of verbs, (b) mechanisms of sensory integration may play an important role in establishing the semantic representation of nouns; (c) high-level visual processing and multi-modal sensory convergency may critically contribute to organising the semantic representation of

  5. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  6. Integrated Semantic Similarity Model Based on Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya-Jun; ZHAO Yun

    2004-01-01

    To solve the problem of the inadequacy of semantic processing in the intelligent question answering system, an integrated semantic similarity model which calculates the semantic similarity using the geometric distance and information content is presented in this paper.With the help of interrelationship between concepts, the information content of concepts and the strength of the edges in the ontology network, we can calculate the semantic similarity between two concepts and provide information for the further calculation of the semantic similarity between user's question and answers in knowlegdge base.The results of the experiments on the prototype have shown that the semantic problem in natural language processing can also be solved with the help of the knowledge and the abundant semantic information in ontology.More than 90% accuracy with less than 50 ms average searching time in the intelligent question answering prototype system based on ontology has been reached.The result is very satisfied.

  7. A Denotational Semantics for Communicating Unstructured Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Jähnig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important property of programming language semantics is that they should be compositional. However, unstructured low-level code contains goto-like commands making it hard to define a semantics that is compositional. In this paper, we follow the ideas of Saabas and Uustalu to structure low-level code. This gives us the possibility to define a compositional denotational semantics based on least fixed points to allow for the use of inductive verification methods. We capture the semantics of communication using finite traces similar to the denotations of CSP. In addition, we examine properties of this semantics and give an example that demonstrates reasoning about communication and jumps. With this semantics, we lay the foundations for a proof calculus that captures both, the semantics of unstructured low-level code and communication.

  8. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    , it is demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis...... in closely related languages can differ substantially in their semantics. In related languages, where shared lexical form does not always mean shared semantics, ethnolinguistic studies in semantic change and shifts in polysemy patterns can help to reveal and explain the roots of semantic diversity.......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference...

  9. Learning Dependency-Based Compositional Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Percy; Klein, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Suppose we want to build a system that answers a natural language question by representing its semantics as a logical form and computing the answer given a structured database of facts. The core part of such a system is the semantic parser that maps questions to logical forms. Semantic parsers are typically trained from examples of questions annotated with their target logical forms, but this type of annotation is expensive. Our goal is to learn a semantic parser from question-answer pairs instead, where the logical form is modeled as a latent variable. Motivated by this challenging learning problem, we develop a new semantic formalism, dependency-based compositional semantics (DCS), which has favorable linguistic, statistical, and computational properties. We define a log-linear distribution over DCS logical forms and estimate the parameters using a simple procedure that alternates between beam search and numerical optimization. On two standard semantic parsing benchmarks, our system outperforms all existing...

  10. Two Language Models Using Chinese Semantic Parsing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingqin; WANG Xia; WANG Zuoying

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two language models that utilize a Chinese semantic dependency parsing technique for speech recognition. The models are based on a representation of the Chinese semantic structure with dependency relations. A semantic dependency parser was described to automatically tag the semantic class for each word with 90.9% accuracy and parse the sentence semantic dependency structure with 75.8% accuracy. The Chinese semantic parsing technique was applied to structure language models to develop two language models, the semantic dependency model (SDM) and the headword trigram model (HTM). These language models were evaluated using Chinese speech recognition. The experiments show that both models outperform the word trigram model in terms of the Chinese character recognition error rate.

  11. Semantics of Complex Sentences in Japanese

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, H; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Shin'ichiro

    1994-01-01

    The important part of semantics of complex sentence is captured as relations among semantic roles in subordinate and main clause respectively. However if there can be relations between every pair of semantic roles, the amount of computation to identify the relations that hold in the given sentence is extremely large. In this paper, for semantics of Japanese complex sentence, we introduce new pragmatic roles called `observer' and `motivated' respectively to bridge semantic roles of subordinate and those of main clauses. By these new roles constraints on the relations among semantic/pragmatic roles are known to be almost local within subordinate or main clause. In other words, as for the semantics of the whole complex sentence, the only role we should deal with is a motivated.

  12. SETL: A programmable semantic extract-transform-load framework for semantic data warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Rudra; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2017-01-01

    ” because they do not consider semantic issues in the integration processing. Current ETL tools neither support processing semantic data nor create a semantic Data Warehouse (DW), a repository of semantically integrated data. This paper describes our programmable Semantic ETL (SETL) framework. SETL builds......In order to create better decisions for business analytics, organizations increasingly use external structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data in addition to the (mostly structured) internal data. Current Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) tools are not suitable for this “open world scenario...... on Semantic Web (SW) standards and tools and supports developers by offering a number of powerful modules, classes, and methods for (dimensional and semantic) DW constructs and tasks. Thus it supports semantic data sources in addition to traditional data sources, semantic integration, and creating...

  13. The complex interplay between semantics and grammar in impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreves, Wyley B; Hart, William; Adams, John M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Eno, Cassie A

    2014-09-01

    We sought to bridge findings showing that (a) describing a person's behavior with the perfective verb aspect (did), compared to the imperfective aspect (was doing), increases processing of semantic knowledge unrelated to the target's action such as stereotypes and (b) an increased recognition of stereotypical thoughts often promotes a judgment correction for the stereotypes. We hypothesized an interplay between grammar (verb conjugation) and semantic information (gender) in impression-formation. Participants read a resume, attributed to a male or female, for a traditionally masculine job. When the resume was written in the imperfective, people rated a male (vs. female) more positively. When the resume was in the perfective, this pattern reversed. Only these latter effects of gender were influenced by cognitive load. Further, people more quickly indicated the applicant's gender in the perfective condition, suggesting an enhanced focus on gender during processing.

  14. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Is translation semantically mediated? Evidence from Welsh-English bilingual aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Kate Hughes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The involvement of the semantic system in picture naming is undisputed. However, it has been proposed that translation could take place via direct lexical links between L1 and L2 word forms in addition to or instead of via semantics (i.e., with translation going from a spoken word in L1 accessing its meaning and this meaning then leading to the retrieval of the translation equivalent in L2. There is conflicting evidence in the psycholinguistic literature as to the extent of semantic mediation in translation vs. picture naming tasks (Potter et al, 1984; Kroll and Stewart, 1994. More recently, Hernandez et al (2010 investigated this question in a case study of JFF, a proficient bilingual Spanish-Catalan speaker with Alzheimer’s disease and naming difficulties due to a semantic deficit. As JFF’s semantic deficit did not only affect picture naming but also translation tasks, the authors concluded against the existence of functional direct lexical links to support translation. The goal of our study was to explore this issue further in a larger sample of proficient bilingual patients with aphasia and word finding difficulties in both languages. More specifically, we compare the rate of semantic errors produced in naming vs. translation tasks. Hypotheses: If there is equal involvement of the semantic system in naming and in translation tasks, then there should be no difference in the rate of semantic errors produced in the two tasks. However, if there are at least partly functional direct lexical links between translation equivalents, then we should observe fewer semantic errors in translation than in naming. Participants. Nine Welsh-English early proficient bilingual aphasic participants were selected for participation. Each patient scored significantly lower (p < .05 than age-matched controls (N=37 on at least one task using the modified t-tests for single cases (Crawford & Howell, 1998, and made semantic errors on naming tasks in

  16. Modeling semantic aspects for cross-media image indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monay, Florent; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    To go beyond the query-by-example paradigm in image retrieval, there is a need for semantic indexing of large image collections for intuitive text-based image search. Different models have been proposed to learn the dependencies between the visual content of an image set and the associated text captions, then allowing for the automatic creation of semantic indices for unannotated images. The task, however, remains unsolved. In this paper, we present three alternatives to learn a Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model (PLSA) for annotated images, and evaluate their respective performance for automatic image indexing. Under the PLSA assumptions, an image is modeled as a mixture of latent aspects that generates both image features and text captions, and we investigate three ways to learn the mixture of aspects. We also propose a more discriminative image representation than the traditional Blob histogram, concatenating quantized local color information and quantized local texture descriptors. The first learning procedure of a PLSA model for annotated images is a standard EM algorithm, which implicitly assumes that the visual and the textual modalities can be treated equivalently. The other two models are based on an asymmetric PLSA learning, allowing to constrain the definition of the latent space on the visual or on the textual modality. We demonstrate that the textual modality is more appropriate to learn a semantically meaningful latent space, which translates into improved annotation performance. A comparison of our learning algorithms with respect to recent methods on a standard dataset is presented, and a detailed evaluation of the performance shows the validity of our framework.

  17. Children use statistics and semantics in the retreat from overgeneralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blything, Ryan P; Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V M

    2014-01-01

    How do children learn to restrict their productivity and avoid ungrammatical utterances? The present study addresses this question by examining why some verbs are used with un- prefixation (e.g., unwrap) and others are not (e.g., *unsqueeze). Experiment 1 used a priming methodology to examine children's (3-4; 5-6) grammatical restrictions on verbal un- prefixation. To elicit production of un-prefixed verbs, test trials were preceded by a prime sentence, which described reversal actions with grammatical un- prefixed verbs (e.g., Marge folded her arms and then she unfolded them). Children then completed target sentences by describing cartoon reversal actions corresponding to (potentially) un- prefixed verbs. The younger age-group's production probability of verbs in un- form was negatively related to the frequency of the target verb in bare form (e.g., squeez/e/ed/es/ing), while the production probability of verbs in un- form for both age groups was negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form (e.g., release/*unsqueeze). In Experiment 2, the same children rated the grammaticality of all verbs in un- form. The older age-group's grammaticality judgments were (a) positively predicted by the extent to which each verb was semantically consistent with a semantic "cryptotype" of meanings - where "cryptotype" refers to a covert category of overlapping, probabilistic meanings that are difficult to access - hypothesised to be shared by verbs which take un-, and (b) negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that children as young as 4;0 employ pre-emption and entrenchment to restrict generalizations, and that use of a semantic cryptotype to guide judgments of overgeneralizations is also evident by age 6;0. Thus, even early developmental accounts of children's restriction of productivity must encompass a mechanism in which a verb's semantic and statistical properties interact.

  18. Inquiry Semantics: A Functional Semantics of Natural Language Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    full detail and then execute such plans. In fact, such a mode of operation has serious difficulties , and so it is worthwhile to consider other...Association for Computational Linguitics ,.held in Pia, Italy, In September 1983. I=. ....._ _. . . ... .._i__ _ _I 2 INQUIRY SEMANTICS With imposed... difficulties which do not arise from difficulties of representation. For example, knowing what to thematize and what to mark, knowing causes and

  19. Morita Equivalence for Factorisable Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qun CHEN; K. P. SHUM

    2001-01-01

    Recall that the semigroups S and R are said to be strongly Morita equivalent if there exists a unitary Morita context (S,R,S PR,RQs, <, []) with < and [] surjective. For a factorisable semigroup S, we denote s = {(s1, s2) ∈ S× S | ss1 =ss2,s ∈ S}, S' = S/s and US-FAct= {sM ∈S- Act|SM = M and SHoms(S, M) ≌ M}. We show that, for factorisable semigroups S and R, the categories US-FAct and UR-FAct are equivalent if and only if the semigroups S' and R' are strongly Morita equivalent. Some conditions for a factorisable semigroup to be strongly Morita equivalent to a sandwich semigroup, local units semigroup, monoid and group separately are also given. Moreover, we show that a semigroup S is completely simple if and only if S is strongly Morita equivalent to a group and for any index set I, S SHoms(S,Ⅱi∈ S)→Ⅱi∈S, s t·f→(st)f is an S-isomorphism.

  20. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  1. Semantic dementia: Brazilian study of nineteen cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Lie Hosogi Senaha

    Full Text Available Abstract The term semantic dementia was devised by Snowden et al. in 1989 and nowadays, the semantic dementia syndrome is recognized as one of the clinical forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and is characterized by a language semantic disturbance associated to non-verbal semantic memory impairment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe a Brazilian sample of 19 semantic dementia cases, emphasizing the clinical characteristics important for differential diagnosis of this syndrome. Methods: Nineteen cases with semantic dementia were evaluated between 1999 and 2007. All patients were submitted to neurological evaluation, neuroimaging exams and cognitive, language and semantic memory evaluation. Results: All patients presented fluent spontaneous speech, preservation of syntactic and phonological aspects of the language, word-finding difficulty, semantic paraphasias, word comprehension impairment, low performance in visual confrontation naming tasks, impairment on tests of non-verbal semantic memory and preservation of autobiographical memory and visuospatial skills. Regarding radiological investigations, temporal lobe atrophy and/or hypoperfusion were found in all patients. Conclusions: The cognitive, linguistic and of neuroimaging data in our case series corroborate other studies showing that semantic dementia constitutes a syndrome with well defined clinical characteristics associated to temporal lobe atrophy.

  2. Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tymoshuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological Dictionary When compiling bi- and multilingual phraseological lexicons it is necessary to address such theoretical issues as the formulation linguistically grounded principles of selection of phraseological units and their translation, semantic interpretation based on differentiation of pictures of the world of the linguistic systems, comprehensive combination of elements of the structure and presentation of various linguistic ambiguities, rational form of dictionary entries and building of user-friendly interface in electronic dictionary systems, etc. The article addresses the principles of Ukrainian-Polish electronic phraseological dictionary, which is one of the first attempts of complex and systematic presentation of Ukrainian and Polish phraseology. The main attention is paid to the lexicographic representation of phraseological units, their semantic characterization and selection problem idiomatic equivalents.

  3. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure......In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  4. Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion due to these theories prove to exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work, inspired by the teleparallel formulation of General Relativity we present its extension to Lovelock Gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional spacetimes. First, we review Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity and Teleparallel Equivalent of Gauss-Bonnet Gravity, and then we construct Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity. In order to achieve this goal we use the vielbein and the connection, without imposing the Weitzenb\\"ock connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to be null.

  5. Mathematically Equivalent, Computationally Non-equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    and Software Comprehensibility Marvin J. Goldstein Surface Ship Sonar Department Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Report...equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Marvin Goldstein...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NUWC2015 14. ABSTRACT In the development of mathematical software , often the formula that defines the mathematical purpose

  6. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  7. Semantic annotation of medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sascha; Kelm, Michael; Moeller, Manuel; Mukherjee, Saikat; Cavallaro, Alexander; Huber, Martin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Diagnosis and treatment planning for patients can be significantly improved by comparing with clinical images of other patients with similar anatomical and pathological characteristics. This requires the images to be annotated using common vocabulary from clinical ontologies. Current approaches to such annotation are typically manual, consuming extensive clinician time, and cannot be scaled to large amounts of imaging data in hospitals. On the other hand, automated image analysis while being very scalable do not leverage standardized semantics and thus cannot be used across specific applications. In our work, we describe an automated and context-sensitive workflow based on an image parsing system complemented by an ontology-based context-sensitive annotation tool. An unique characteristic of our framework is that it brings together the diverse paradigms of machine learning based image analysis and ontology based modeling for accurate and scalable semantic image annotation.

  8. Introspections on the Semantic Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-14

    essential goal of virtual machine introspection ( VMI ) is security policy enforcement in the presence of an untrustworthy OS. One obstacle to this goal is...ABSTRACT Introspections on the Semantic Gap Report Title An essential goal of virtual machine introspection ( VMI ) is security policy enforcement in the...machine introspection ( VMI ) is security policy enforcement in the presence of an untrustworthy OS. One obstacle to this goal is the difficulty in

  9. Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Systems in this researc...

  10. Operational Reasoning and Denotational Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    form is correctly computed by the interpreter. This is used to justify an inference rule - called ’LISP-induction* - which formalises induction on... peper contains example,? of the use of operational reasoning to prove properties of a denotationai semantics. By "operational reasoning" is meant...programs. This rule - called "LISP-induction" - is induction on the length of computations on the interpreter. Because the interpreter is correct LISP

  11. Dynamic Logic with Trace Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Beckert, Bernhard; Bruns, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic logic is an established instrument for program verification and for reasoning about the semantics of programs and programming languages. In this paper, we define an extension of dynamic logic, called Dynamic Trace Logic (DTL), which combines the expressiveness of program logics such as dynamic logic with that of temporal logic. And we present a sound and relatively complete sequent calculus for proving validity of DTL formulae. Due to its expressiveness, DTL can serve as a basis for p...

  12. Semantic validation of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools (ICAST in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ligia da Silva Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools (ICAST is a battery of questionnaires created by the World Health Organization, the United Nations and ISPCAN for researching maltreatment in childhood. This study aims to translate, to adapt and to validate the semantic equivalence of all items on the three questionnaires: ICAST-C (ICAST version for Children, ICAST-R (Retrospective Interview and ICAST-P (ICAST version for Parents. Methods: The process of translation and semantic validation comprised five methodological steps: 1 translation; 2 back-translation; 3 correction and semantic adaptation; 4 validation of content by professional experts in the area of abuse in childhood; and 5 a study of their acceptability to a sample of the target population, using a verbal rating scale. Results: In the evaluation of the expert committee, there was need to adapt several words for the Brazilian population while maintaining semantic and conceptual equivalence. In the ICAST-C acceptability study, children exhibited some difficulty understanding 7 of the items (out of 69 questions. For ICAST-P, parents reported a lack of clarity in 5 items (out of 57 questions. These issues were resolved and the Brazilian version of ICAST 3.0 was concluded. Conclusion: The ICAST battery is an internationally recognized tool and the process of translation into Portuguese and semantic adaptation was performed successfully. The final version proved to be easily understandable and semantic validation results were adequate. This battery has proved useful in investigation of childhood maltreatment.

  13. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  14. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation-passing style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation...

  15. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation...

  16. Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Puustjarvi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

  17. Entropy, semantic relatedness and proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Lance W; Sivley, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Although word co-occurrences within a document have been demonstrated to be semantically useful, word interactions over a local range have been largely neglected by psychologists due to practical challenges. Shannon's (Bell Systems Technical Journal, 27, 379-423, 623-665, 1948) conceptualization of information theory suggests that these interactions should be useful for understanding communication. Computational advances make an examination of local word-word interactions possible for a large text corpus. We used Brants and Franz's (2006) dataset to generate conditional probabilities for 62,474 word pairs and entropy calculations for 9,917 words in Nelson, McEvoy, and Schreiber's (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 402-407, 2004) free association norms. Semantic associativity correlated moderately with the probabilities and was stronger when the two words were not adjacent. The number of semantic associates for a word and the entropy of a word were also correlated. Finally, language entropy decreases from 11 bits for single words to 6 bits per word for four-word sequences. The probabilities and entropies discussed here are included in the supplemental materials for the article.

  18. A Comparison of the Semantic Values of Middle Cornish "Luf" and "Dorn" with Modern English "Hand" and "Fist".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jon

    1996-01-01

    Presents a corpus-based analysis of two lexical items: Modern English "hand" and "fist" and their Middle Cornish equivalents, resulting in discovering semantic and collocational differences between the corresponding lexemes in these two languages. The article argues that grammatical meaning may form part of the lexical meaning…

  19. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl Kristian

    2005-01-01

    In the trust-structure model of trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships with other principals in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for trust policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics...... ensures that for any collection of trust policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well...... of trust policies. The operational semantics is given in terms of a composition of I/O automata. We prove that this semantics is faithful to its corresponding denotational semantics, in the sense that any run of the I/O automaton ``converges to'' the denotational semantics of the policies. Furthermore...

  20. A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....

  1. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xia

    2013-01-01

    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  2. Two Congruent Semantics for Prolog with CUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明远

    1990-01-01

    The development of a formal semantics for a given programming language can proceed in several stages,At each stage we give an alternative semantic definition of the language,and each definition embodies successively more and more implementation details.Then we formulate and prove at each stage the congruence conditions between successive definitions in the sequence.This paper presents two formal semantics for Prolog with “cut” and shows the congruence condition between them.

  3. Semantics-based Automated Web Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Feng Guo; Qing Ouyang; Harvey Siy

    2015-01-01

    We present TAO, a software testing tool performing automated test and oracle generation based on a semantic approach. TAO entangles grammar-based test generation with automated semantics evaluation using a denotational semantics framework. We show how TAO can be incorporated with the Selenium automation tool for automated web testing, and how TAO can be further extended to support automated delta debugging, where a failing web test script can be systematically reduced based on grammar-direct...

  4. Metadata for semantic and social applications

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Metadata is a key aspect of our evolving infrastructure for information management, social computing, and scientific collaboration. DC-2008 will focus on metadata challenges, solutions, and innovation in initiatives and activities underlying semantic and social applications. Metadata is part of the fabric of social computing, which includes the use of wikis, blogs, and tagging for collaboration and participation. Metadata also underlies the development of semantic applications, and the Semant...

  5. Knowledge Organization Systems for Semantic Digital Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Preedip Balaji; Sarangi, Amit K; Madalli, Devika P.

    2012-01-01

    As the traditional knowledge organization systems (KOS) like classification, thesauri are paving way for ontologies, transtechnological data models and semantic networks of data exchange provide impetus for developing semantic digital libraries. This paper attempts to find the KOS in the early digital libraries, and how they can be integrated with the digital library architectures using emergent semantic technologies and data. Metadata remains as a core area at the heart o...

  6. Bridging data mining and semantic web

    OpenAIRE

    Aman, Edris

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays Semantic Web is widely adopted standard of knowledge representation. Hence, knowledge engineers are applying sophisticated methods to capture, discover and represent knowledge in Semantic Web form. Studies show that, to represent knowledge in Semantic Web standard, data mining techniques such as Decision Trees, Association Rules, etc., play an important role. These techniques are implemented in publicly available Data Mining tools. These tools represent knowledge discovered in human ...

  7. Antisymmetric string actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragone, C.

    1986-12-01

    An action is presented for the free bosonic string on external flat space in terms of an antisymmetric second-rank string background tensor which is classically equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action. Both action and field equations are entirely described in terms of 2D world-sheet forms, without any reference to a 2D metric tensor background. The analysis of its canonical formulation shows how the quadratic Virasoro constraints are generated in this case and what their connection with the Bianchi identities are. Since in the orthonormal gauge the reduced action coincides with the standard one, it has the same critical dimension D = 26. The existence of an interaction term of a purely geometric structure stemming in the extrinsic curvature is pointed out. Its action and the new string field equations are then derived. This polynomial antisymmetric string action is uniformly generalized in order to describe d Apartado 80659, Caracas 1080A, Venezuela.

  8. Equivalence of Lease and Tenancy Terminology in English and Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackevičienė Sigita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prompted by globalization and the importance of international communication in the legal sphere, legal language acquires an increasing importance. Contract law draws special attention in the EU and worldwide, and raises a demand for harmonization of the legal terminology of different languages and legal systems. Contracts in Anglo- Saxon and Lithuanian law have similar basic elements; however, they also contain significant differences which are determined by the regulations of the legal systems in which contracts are formed. The terminology used in the contracts also presents important peculiarities. The article focuses on the terminology of lease and tenancy agreements and provides results of the contrastive semantic analysis, the aim of which is to establish the degree of equivalence of the collected English terms and their Lithuanian counterparts. All investigated English terms have synonyms, which makes the task even more complex, as most of such synonyms have certain semantic differences and may be used interchangeably only in certain contexts. The findings of the research are believed to be valuable to legal translators, as well as compilers of legal dictionaries and databases.

  9. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  10. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  11. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  12. An Action Compiler Targeting Standard ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present an action compiler that can be used in connection with an action semantics based compiler generator. Our action compiler produces code with faster execution times than code produced by other action compilers, and for some non-trivial test examples it is only a factor two slower than th...... the code produced by the Gnu C Compiler. Targeting Standard ML makes the description of the code generation simple and easy to implement. The action compiler has been tested on a description of the Core of Standard ML and a subset of C....

  13. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  14. SemTrust: A Semantic Reputation System in P2P-Based Semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; ZENG Guosun; YUAN Lulai

    2006-01-01

    A reputation mechanism is introduced in P2P-based Semantic Web to solve the problem of lacking trust. It enables Semantic Web to utilize reputation information based on semantic similarity of peers in the network. This approach is evaluated in a simulation of a content sharing system and the experiments show that the system with reputation mechanism outperforms the system without it.

  15. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  16. Semantic Clustering of Search Engine Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sara Saad; El-Sayed, Maged F; Hassan, Yasser F

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for search engine results clustering that relies on the semantics of the retrieved documents rather than the terms in those documents. The proposed approach takes into consideration both lexical and semantics similarities among documents and applies activation spreading technique in order to generate semantically meaningful clusters. This approach allows documents that are semantically similar to be clustered together rather than clustering documents based on similar terms. A prototype is implemented and several experiments are conducted to test the prospered solution. The result of the experiment confirmed that the proposed solution achieves remarkable results in terms of precision.

  17. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  18. Statistical properties of Chinese semantic networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HaiTao

    2009-01-01

    Almost all language networks in word and syntactic levels are small-world and scale-free.This raises the questions of whether a language network in deeper semantic or cognitive level also has the similar properties.To answer the question,we built up a Chinese semantic network based on a treebank with semantic role (argument structure) annotation and investigated its global statistical properties.The results show that although semantic network is also small-world and scale-free,it is different from syntactic network in hierarchical structure and K-Nearest-Neighbor correlation.

  19. Semantic Clustering of Search Engine Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Saad Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for search engine results clustering that relies on the semantics of the retrieved documents rather than the terms in those documents. The proposed approach takes into consideration both lexical and semantics similarities among documents and applies activation spreading technique in order to generate semantically meaningful clusters. This approach allows documents that are semantically similar to be clustered together rather than clustering documents based on similar terms. A prototype is implemented and several experiments are conducted to test the prospered solution. The result of the experiment confirmed that the proposed solution achieves remarkable results in terms of precision.

  20. Similarity Based Semantic Web Service Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Niu, Wenjia; Huang, Ronghuai

    Semantic web service discovery aims at returning the most matching advertised services to the service requester by comparing the semantic of the request service with an advertised service. The semantic of a web service are described in terms of inputs, outputs, preconditions and results in Ontology Web Language for Service (OWL-S) which formalized by W3C. In this paper we proposed an algorithm to calculate the semantic similarity of two services by weighted averaging their inputs and outputs similarities. Case study and applications show the effectiveness of our algorithm in service match.

  1. Semantics-based Automated Web Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present TAO, a software testing tool performing automated test and oracle generation based on a semantic approach. TAO entangles grammar-based test generation with automated semantics evaluation using a denotational semantics framework. We show how TAO can be incorporated with the Selenium automation tool for automated web testing, and how TAO can be further extended to support automated delta debugging, where a failing web test script can be systematically reduced based on grammar-directed strategies. A real-life parking website is adopted throughout the paper to demonstrate the effectivity of our semantics-based web testing approach.

  2. Neural correlates underlying musical semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussard, M; Viader, F; Landeau, B; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Platel, H

    2009-07-01

    Numerous functional imaging studies have examined the neural basis of semantic memory mainly using verbal and visuospatial materials. Musical material also allows an original way to explore semantic memory processes. We used PET imaging to determine the neural substrates that underlie musical semantic memory using different tasks and stimuli. The results of three PET studies revealed a greater involvement of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Concerning clinical observations and our neuroimaging data, the musical lexicon (and most widely musical semantic memory) appears to be sustained by a temporo-prefrontal cerebral network involving right and left cerebral regions.

  3. Semantic processing in connected speech at a uniformly early stage of autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samrah; de Jager, Celeste A; Haigh, Anne-Marie; Garrard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the semantic content of connected speech produced by patients at a uniformly early stage of pathologically proven Alzheimer's disease (AD). A secondary aim was to establish whether semantic units were reduced globally, or whether there was a disproportionate reduction of specific classes of information. Discourse samples were obtained from 18 AD patients and 18 matched controls, all pathologically confirmed. Semantic unit identification was scored overall and for four subclasses: subjects, locations, objects, and actions. Idea density and efficiency were calculated. AD transcripts showed significantly reduced units overall, particularly actions and subjects, as well as reduced efficiency. Total semantic units and a combination of subject-, location-, and object-related units ("noun" units) correlated with the Expression subscore on the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG). Subject related units correlated with the CAMCOG Abstract Thinking scale. Logistic regression analyses confirmed that all measures that were lower in AD than controls were predictive of group membership. An exploratory comparison between units expressed mainly using nouns and those mainly using verbs showed that the latter was the stronger of these two predictors. The present study adds a lexico-semantic dimension to the linguistic profile based on discourse analysis in typical AD, recently described by the same authors. 2012, 83(11): 1056-1062). The suggestion of differential importance of verb and noun use in the present study may be related to the reduction in syntactic complexity that was reported, using the same set of discourse samples, in the earlier study.

  4. Fuzzification of Web Objects: A Semantic Web Mining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hussain

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Web Mining is becoming essential to support the web administrators and web users in multi-ways such as information retrieval; website performance management; web personalization; web marketing and website designing. Due to uncontrolled exponential growth in web data, knowledge base retrieval has become a very challenging task. The one viable solution to the problem is the merging of conventional web mining with semantic web technologies. This merging process will be more beneficial to web users by reducing the search space and by providing information that is more relevant. Key web objects play significant role in this process. The extraction of key web objects from a website is a challenging task. In this paper, we have proposed a framework, which extracts the key web objects from web log file and apply a semantic web to mine actionable intelligence. This proposed framework can be applied to non-semantic web for the extraction of key web objects. We also have defined an objective function to calculate key web object from users perspective. We named this function as key web object function. KWO function helps to fuzzify the extracted key web objects into three categories as Most Interested, Interested, and Least Interested. Fuzzification of web objects helps us to accommodate the uncertainty among the web objects of being user attractive. We also have validated the proposed scheme with the help of a case study.

  5. Matching Derived Functionally-Same Stimulus Relations: Equivalence-Equivalence and Classical Analogies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2004-01-01

    ... (equivalence-equivalence). Similar performances are required in classical analogies (a : b :: c : d). Therefore, some researchers have argued that equivalence-equivalence can serve as a behavior analytic model for analogical reasoning...

  6. Privacy-Aware Relevant Data Access with Semantically Enriched Search Queries for Untrusted Cloud Storage Services

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Privacy-aware search of outsourced data ensures relevant data access in the untrusted domain of a public cloud service provider. Subscriber of a public cloud storage service can determine the presence or absence of a particular keyword by submitting search query in the form of a trapdoor. However, these trapdoor-based search queries are limited in functionality and cannot be used to identify secure outsourced data which contains semantically equivalent information. In addition, trapdoor-based...

  7. Semantic relations among nouns in Polish WordNet grounded in lexicographic and semantic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Maziarz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic relations among nouns in Polish WordNet grounded in lexicographic and semantic tradition The paper describes a system of lexico-semantic relations proposed for the nominal part of plWordNet 2.0 – the largest Polish wordnet. We briefly introduce a wordnet as a large electronic thesaurus. We discuss sixteen nominal relations together with many sub-types proposed for plWordNet 2.0. Each relation is based on linguistic intuition and supported by a set of tests which facilitate its identification. There are two main groups: pure lexico-semantic relations and semantic-derivational relations.

  8. Action Emulation between Canonical Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); F.A.G. Sietsma (Floor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate Kripke models, used to model knowledge or belief in a static situation, and action models, used to model communicative actions that change this knowledge or belief. The appropriate notion for structural equivalence between modal structures such as Kr

  9. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2016-10-14

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  10. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic

  11. The Algebra of Lexical Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, András

    The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

  12. A Postcolonial Semantics of Personhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    that personhood constructs differ radically across geographical areas and linguistic communities (Levisen and Jogie 2015; Wierzbicka 2016; Levisen in press/2017). Precisely therefore, the study of personhood constructs provides a great starting point for exploring linguistically-specific worldviews, as well...... change, on multiple levels. Traditional terms like devil and pija are being problematized by urban speakers, and are both in decline. Sol, maen, and had have become more common, and speret/spirit has undergone a semantic anglicization. Tingting remains the key construct, around which Bislama personhood...

  13. A Postcolonial Semantics of Personhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    This paper explores the semantics of personhood constructs in Urban Bislama, an English-relatedcreole variety spoken in Vanuatu’s capital (Crowley 1990; Meyerhoff 2013). Personhood constructsare words such as mind, soul, and heart in English, and similar conceptual constructs in otherlanguages......, 2013-2015 (Levisen 2016a, 2016b). I willfocus on the keyword tingting ‘mind, heart’ (from English ‘think-think’), and the related concepts speret(from English ‘spirit’), devil (from English ‘devil’), and pija (from English ‘picture’), as well as morerecent imports from English: maen (mind), sol (soul...

  14. STIMA: a short screening test for ideo-motor apraxia, selective for action meaning and bodily district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, Alessia; Toraldo, Alessio; Lunardelli, Alberta; Zadini, Antonietta; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2015-06-01

    We propose STIMA, a short test for ideo-motor apraxia, allowing us to quantify the apraxic deficit according to action meaning and affected body segment. STIMA is based on a neurocognitive model holding that there are two processes involved in action imitation (i.e., a semantic route for recognizing and imitating known gestures, and a direct route for reproducing new gestures). The test allows to identify which imitative process has been selectively impaired by brain damage (direct vs. semantic route) and possible deficits depending on the body segment involved (hand/limb vs. hand/fingers). N = 111 healthy participants were administered with an imitation task in two separated blocks of known and new gestures. In each block, half of the gestures were performed mainly with the proximal part of the upper limb and the remaining half with the distal one. It resulted in 18 known gestures (nine proximal and nine distal) and 18 new gestures (nine proximal and nine distal) for a total of 36. Each gesture was presented up to a maximum of two times. Detailed criteria are used to assign the final imitation score. Cut offs, equivalent scores and main percentile scores were computed for each subscale. Participants imitated better known than new gestures, and proximal better than distal gestures. Age influenced performance on all subscales, while education only affected one subscale. STIMA is easy and quick to administer, and compared to previous tests, it offers important information for planning adequate rehabilitation programs based on the functional locus of the deficit.

  15. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence determination... document insufficient evidence of equivalence, lack of opportunity to assess equivalence or a determination...

  16. The surplus value of semantic annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Marx

    2010-01-01

    We compare the costs of semantic annotation of textual documents to its benefits for information processing tasks. Semantic annotation can improve the performance of retrieval tasks and facilitates an improved search experience through faceted search, focused retrieval, better document summaries, an

  17. A Note on Two Basic Semantic Distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celce, Marianne; Schwarcz, Robert M.

    This paper discusses the nature of two basic semantic distinctions--intensional/extensional, and mental/physical (mental/physical being similar to abstract/concrete but more concrete)--and how an understanding of their interaction is an essential preliminary to writing a semantically motivated grammar of English. (Author/FWB)

  18. Some Novel Techniques in Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2003-01-01

    Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction...

  19. Word Meaning And Sentence Relation In Semantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓妹

    2011-01-01

    Through the semantic learning,we know that lexical semantic is the study of word meaning,any utterance consists of lexical meanings of the separate words with structural meanings.In this paper,I will introduce some of words meaning first and then analysis the sentence relation,in order to understand them well.

  20. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  1. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  2. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  3. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  4. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  5. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  6. Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

    2009-10-01

    How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

  7. Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Stash, N.; Aroyo, L.; Gorgels, P.; Rutledge, L.; Schreiber, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the CHIP demonstrator1 for providing personalized access to digital museum collections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam2 collection, we show how Semantic Web tech

  8. UML Semantics FAQ: Dynamic Behaviour and Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roel; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna; Le Guennec, Alain; Hussman, Heinrich; Berg, van den Klaas; Broek, van den Pim; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held at ECOOP'99. The workshop was set up to find answers to questions fundamental to the definition of a semantics for the Unified Modelling Language. Questions examined the meaning of the term semantics in the context of UML; approaches to defining the

  9. Learning figurative idioms via cognitive semantic pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In FTL contexts, traditional view treats idiomatic language as essentially arbitrary, which has typically led to the belief that they can only be learned through blind memoriztion. However, the cognitive semantic idea considers that idioms are typically motivated, which can help learners to identify their senses. This paper demonstrates how to learn figurative idioms through cognitive semantic pathway by taking anger as one example.

  10. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  11. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  12. Configuring Semantic Web Interfaces by Data Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate how to develop Web-based user interfaces for Semantic Web applications using commonly available, off-the-shelf Web widget libraries. By formally defining the underlying data model that is assumed by these widgets, Semantic Web application developers can use familiar RDF constructs to

  13. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  14. Disentangling Linguistic Modality Effects in Semantic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Mara; Nunes, Maria Vânia

    2017-01-01

    Sensory systems are essential for perceiving and conceptualizing our semantic knowledge about the world and the way we interact with it. Despite studies reporting neural changes to compensate for the absence of a given sensory modality, studies focusing on the assessment of semantic processing reveal poor performances by deaf individuals when…

  15. Semantic description and recognition of patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立; 戴汝为

    1996-01-01

    An algebraic semantic approach for the description and recognition of patterns is presented.Specifically,patterns are assumed as algebraic structures,and semantic constraints are given in the form of equational specifications.By such an idea,to recogniz a pattern is to check the validity of an equational conjecture by term rewriting.Such an approach is demonstrated through examples.

  16. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  17. Quality model for semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should

  18. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen; Metzner, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    , the changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation...

  19. Research: General Semantics Training: Pride or Prejudice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Bruce K.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that general semantics research into prejudice has made only minor contributions to an understanding of prejudice because of weak experimental designs. Suggests improvements in research methodology and urges that knowledge of the semantic world of minority groups be sought as a prerequisite to eliminating cultural bias in standardized…

  20. Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program...

  1. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  2. UML Semantics FAQ: Dynamic Behaviour and Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Demeyer, Serge; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna; Le Guennec, Alain; Hussman, Heinrich; van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held at ECOOP'99. The workshop was set up to find answers to questions fundamental to the definition of a semantics for the Unified Modelling Language. Questions examined the meaning of the term semantics in the context of UML; approaches to defining the

  3. Enabling Semantic Technology Empowered Smart Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Kiljander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that Semantic Web technologies would be key enablers in achieving context-aware computing in our everyday environments. In our vision of semantic technology empowered smart spaces, the whole interaction model is based on the sharing of semantic data via common blackboards. This approach allows smart space applications to take full advantage of semantic technologies. Because of its novelty, there is, however, a lack of solutions and methods for developing semantic smart space applications according to this vision. In this paper, we present solutions to the most relevant challenges we have faced when developing context-aware computing in smart spaces. In particular the paper describes (1 methods for utilizing semantic technologies with resource restricted-devices, (2 a solution for identifying real world objects in semantic technology empowered smart spaces, (3 a method for users to modify the behavior of context-aware smart space applications, and (4 an approach for content sharing between autonomous smart space agents. The proposed solutions include ontologies, system models, and guidelines for building smart spaces with the M3 semantic information sharing platform. To validate and demonstrate the approaches in practice, we have implemented various prototype smart space applications and tools.

  4. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  5. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  6. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  7. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  8. All in Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Annila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which Nature in its entirety and every detail is described in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiple of the most elementary actions which relates to Planck’s constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span an energy landscape, the Universe, which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing energy density differences in least time. During evolution densely-curled actions unfold step-by-step when opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The energy landscape will process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to its dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature in terms of actions does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental forces. Instead a plethora of particles and a diaspora of forces are perceived merely as diverse manifestations of a natural selection for various mechanisms and ways to decrease free energy in the least time.

  9. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    Reduction semantics is a popular format for small-step operational semantics of deterministic programming languages with computational effects. Each reduction semantics gives rise to a reduction-based normalization function where the reduction sequence is enumerated. Refocusing is a practical way...... of the term to enumerate the reduction sequence, in contrast to the reduction-based normalization function. We have discovered that refocusing does not apply as readily for reduction semantics that use an outermost reduction strategy and have overlapping rules where a contractum can be a proper subpart...... of a redex. In this article, we consider such an outermost reduction semantics with backward-overlapping rules, and we investigate how to apply refocusing to still obtain a reduction-free normalization function in the form of an abstract machine....

  10. A Semantic Approach to Describe Geospatial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Sidney Roberto

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly using geospatial data from the Web to produce geographic information. One big challenge is to find the relevant data, which often is based on keywords or even file names. However, these approaches lack semantics. Thus, it is necessary to provide mechanisms to prepare data to help retrieval of semantically relevant data. This paper proposes an approach to attack this problem. This approach is based on semantic annotations that use geographic metadata and ontologies to describe heterogeneous geospatial data. Semantic annotations are RDF/XML files that rely on a FGDC metadata schema, filled with appropriate ontology terms, and stored in a XML database. The proposal is illustrated by a case study of semantic annotations of agricultural resources, using domain ontologies.

  11. Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Heindel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics (LTS. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS. The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems that is based on the idea of minimal reaction contexts as labels, due to Leifer and Milner. In comparison to previous work on inductive definitions of similarly derived LTSs, the main feature of the proposed axiomatization is a composition rule that captures the communication of sub-systems so that it can feature as a counterpart to the communication rule of CCS.

  12. An Analysis of Semantic Aware Crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Nguyen Quang; Hoai, Nguyen Xuan; O'Neill, Michael; McKay, Bob; Galván-López, Edgar

    It is well-known that the crossover operator plays an important role in Genetic Programming (GP). In Standard Crossover (SC), semantics are not used to guide the selection of the crossover points, which are generated randomly. This lack of semantic information is the main cause of destructive effects from SC (e.g., children having lower fitness than their parents). Recently, we proposed a new semantic based crossover known GP called Semantic Aware Crossover (SAC) [25]. We show that SAC outperforms SC in solving a class of real-value symbolic regression problems. We clarify the effect of SAC on GP search in increasing the semantic diversity of the population, thus helping to reduce the destructive effects of crossover in GP.

  13. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  14. Denotational semantics in Synthetic Guarded Domain Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paviotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    is guarded. In this thesis we show that gDTT is a natural setting to give denotational semantics of typed functional programming languages with recursion and recursive types. We formulate operational semantics and denotational semantics and prove computational adequacy entirely inside the type theory....... Furthermore, our interpretation is synthetic: types are interpreted as types in the type theory and programs as type-theoretical terms. Moreover, working directly in gDTT has advantages compared with existing set-theoretic models. Finally, this work builds the foundations for doing denotational semantics......In functional programming, features such as recursion, recursive types and general references are central. To define semantics of this kind of languages one needs to come up with certain definitions which may be non-trivial to show well-defined. This is because they are circular. Domain theory has...

  15. On an equivalence of fuzzy subgroups III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Murali

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the third in a series of papers studying equivalence classes of fuzzy subgroups of a given group under a suitable equivalence relation. We introduce the notion of a pinned flag in order to study the operations sum, intersection and union, and their behavior with respect to the equivalence. Further, we investigate the extent to which a homomorphism preserves the equivalence. Whenever the equivalences are not preserved, we have provided suitable counterexamples.

  16. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  17. Synobins: An Intermediate Level towards Annotation and Semantic Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Ishwar K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To reason about the meaning of an image, useful information should be provided with that image; however, images often contain little to no textual information about the objects they are depicting, which is the precise reason why there is a need for CBIR systems that exploit only the correlations present in the raw pixel data. In this paper, we proposed a new type of image feature, which consists of patterns of colors and intensities that capture the latent associations among images and primitive features in such a way that the noise and redundancy are eliminated. We introduced the synobin, a new term for content-based image retrieval literature, which is the equivalent of a synonym word from text retrieval, to name the bin that is synonymous with other bins of a color feature, in the sense that they are similarly used across the image database. In a formal definition, a group of synobins is given by the most important bins participating in forming of a useful pattern, that is, the bins having the highest coefficients in the linear combination defining that pattern. Incorporating our feature model into a CBIR system moves the research in image retrieval beyond simple matching of images based on their primitive features and creates a ground for learning image semantics from visual content. A system developed using our proposed feature model will have the capability of learning associations not only between semantic concepts and images, but also between semantic concepts and patterns. We evaluated the performance of our system based on the retrieval accuracy and on the perceptual similarity order among retrieved images. When compared to standard image retrieval methods, our preliminary results show that even if the feature space was reduced to only 3%–5% of the initial space, the accuracy and perceptual similarity for our system remain the same or better depending on the category of images.

  18. Synobins: An Intermediate Level towards Annotation and Semantic Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raicu, Daniela Stan; Sethi, Ishwar K.

    2006-12-01

    To reason about the meaning of an image, useful information should be provided with that image; however, images often contain little to no textual information about the objects they are depicting, which is the precise reason why there is a need for CBIR systems that exploit only the correlations present in the raw pixel data. In this paper, we proposed a new type of image feature, which consists of patterns of colors and intensities that capture the latent associations among images and primitive features in such a way that the noise and redundancy are eliminated. We introduced the synobin, a new term for content-based image retrieval literature, which is the equivalent of a synonym word from text retrieval, to name the bin that is synonymous with other bins of a color feature, in the sense that they are similarly used across the image database. In a formal definition, a group of synobins is given by the most important bins participating in forming of a useful pattern, that is, the bins having the highest coefficients in the linear combination defining that pattern. Incorporating our feature model into a CBIR system moves the research in image retrieval beyond simple matching of images based on their primitive features and creates a ground for learning image semantics from visual content. A system developed using our proposed feature model will have the capability of learning associations not only between semantic concepts and images, but also between semantic concepts and patterns. We evaluated the performance of our system based on the retrieval accuracy and on the perceptual similarity order among retrieved images. When compared to standard image retrieval methods, our preliminary results show that even if the feature space was reduced to only 3%-5% of the initial space, the accuracy and perceptual similarity for our system remain the same or better depending on the category of images.

  19. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease: discriminative validity and correlation with semantic memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, A; Mortensen, E L; Gade, A; Waldemar, G

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score >22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88%) with high specificity (>89%). One out of the five semantic memory tests was significantly correlated to performances on CCR, whereas delayed recall on the ADAS-cog memory test was significantly correlated to two semantic tests. In conclusion, the discriminative validity of the CCR test and the ADAS-cog memory test was equivalent in very mild AD. This may be because CCR did not tap more semantic processes, which are impaired in the earliest phases of AD, than a test of free recall.

  20. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...: Designation of Two New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of two new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, two...

  1. 76 FR 63330 - Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium Recovery Facilities AGENCY... amendment, of equivalent feed at an NRC and Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery site. This action is... Licensing of Uranium and Thorium Recovery Facilities--Proposed New 10 CFR Part 41,'' available at...

  2. Conformal dynamical equivalence and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, N. K.

    2011-02-01

    The "Conformal Dynamical Equivalence" (CDE) approach is briefly reviewed, and some of its applications, at various astrophysical levels (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Universe as a whole), are presented. According to the CDE approach, in both the Newtonian and general-relativistic theories of gravity, the isentropic hydrodynamic flows in the interior of a bounded gravitating perfect-fluid source are dynamically equivalent to geodesic motions in a virtual, fully defined fluid source. Equivalently, the equations of hydrodynamic motion in the former source are functionally similar to those of the geodesic motions in the latter, physically, fully defined source. The CDE approach is followed for the dynamical description of the motions in the fluid source. After an observational introduction, taking into account all the internal physical characteristics of the corresponding perfect-fluid source, and based on the property of the isentropic hydrodynamic flows (quite reasonable for an isolated physical system), we examine a number of issues, namely, (i) the classical Newtonian explanation of the celebrated Pioneer-Anomaly effect in the Solar System, (ii) the possibility of both the attractive gravity and the repulsive gravity in a non-quantum Newtonian framework, (iii) the evaluation of the masses - theoretical, dynamical, and missing - and of the linear dimensions of non-magnetized and magnetized large-scale cosmological structures, (iv) the explanation of the flat-rotation curves of disc galaxies, (v) possible formation mechanisms of winds and jets, and (vi) a brief presentation of a conventional approach - toy model to the dynamics of the Universe, characterized by the dominant collisional dark matter (with its subdominant luminous baryonic "contamination"), correctly interpreting the cosmological observational data without the need of the notions dark energy, cosmological constant, and universal accelerating expansion.

  3. Equivalence principle in Chameleon models .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiselburd, L.; Landau, S.; Salgado, M.; Sudarsky, D.

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with Eötvös type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  4. Thermodynamic equivalence of spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltman, J.M. (Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium properties of systems composed of classical spin /sup 1///sub 2/ particles (Ising spins) are studied. Given an interaction pattern between the Ising spins the main problem is to calculate the equilibrium state(s) of the system. The point put forward here is the existence of many thermodynamical equivalent spin coordinate systems. As a consequence of this phenomenon the interaction pattern of a system may be very intricate when described with respect to one spin coordinate system whereas it may become simple with respect to another one and vice versa. A systematic investigation of this phenomenon is made. (FR)

  5. Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    ISBN 978-5-94588-079-5; The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of over...

  6. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  7. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  8. Demonstrating the Qualitative Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Novel Exploration of Nonverbal Semantic Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krist A. Noonan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia (SD implicates the anterior temporal lobes (ATL as a critical substrate for semantic memory. Multi-modal semantic impairment can also be a feature of post-stroke aphasia (referred to here as “semantic aphasia” or SA where patients show impaired regulatory control accompanied by lesions to the frontal and/or temporo-parietal cortices, and thus the two patient groups demonstrate qualitatively different patterns of semantic impairment [1]. Previous comparisons of these two patient groups have tended to focus on verbal receptive tasks. Accordingly, this study investigated nonverbal receptive abilities via a comparison of reality decision judgements in SD and SA. Pictures of objects were presented alongside non-real distracters whose features were altered to make them more/less plausible for the semantic category. The results highlighted a number of critical differences between the two groups. Compared to SD patients, SA patients: (1 were relatively unimpaired on the two alternative forced choice (2AFC decisions despite showing a comparable degree of semantic impairment on other assessments; (2 showed minimal effects of the plausibility manipulation; (3 were strongly influenced by variations in the regulatory requirements of tasks; and (4 exhibited a reversed effect of familiarity–i.e., better performance on less commonly encountered items. These results support a distinction between semantic impairments which arise from impaired regulatory processes (e.g., SA versus those where degraded semantic knowledge is the causal factor (e.g., SD. SA patients performed relatively well because the task structure reduced the requirement for internally generated control. In contrast, SD patients performed poorly because their degraded knowledge did not allow the fine-grained distinctions required to complete the task.

  9. SEMANTIC WEB RESEARCH:A SURVEY%Semantic Web研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚洪泉; 张敬周; 钱乐秋; 任洪敏

    2005-01-01

    近年来,Semantic Web逐渐成为WWW领域的研究热点以及智能化网络服务和应用开发中的关键技术之一.归纳了Semantic Web技术的研究背景和主要发展历史.在分析了典型的Semantic Web概念后,给出了Semantic Web的定义.通过讨论Semantic Web构想的层次框架模型,指出了各个层次扮演的角色,并着重分析了Semantic Web的重要研究领域,指出了它们在Semantic Web构架中的核心作用.通过分析Semantic Web的应用领域和相关开发工具以及面临的问题和挑战,指明了Semantic Web研究和实践的方向.作为总结,给出了Semantic Web领域下一步的研究趋势.

  10. Retroactive interference from translation equivalents: implications for first language forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isurin, L; McDonald, J L

    2001-03-01

    First language vocabulary is vulnerable to forgetting after massive exposure to a second language. Two possible factors responsible for the forgetting are degree of semantic overlap between concepts in the two languages and amount of second language exposure. In a laboratory simulation of the language forgetting situation, participants received 10 exposures to a list of words in a foreign language, followed by 2, 5, 10, or 15 exposures to a list in a second foreign language. The second list consisted of either translation equivalents or new concepts. Participants were then tested for retention of the first list. More retroactive interference was found for translation equivalents than for new concepts and for higher degrees of exposure to the second list. When retention of the first list was broken down in terms of gains and losses, effects of both similarity of the second list to the first and amount of exposure to the second list were found only for losses--a fact that points to lack of discriminability as one of the underlying causes of forgetting. Overall, the experimental paradigm proved useful for exploring and developing theories about the causes of first language forgetting.

  11. SRBIR: Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval by Extracting the Dominant Region and Semantic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Rajam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval (SRBIR system that automatically segments the dominant foreground region, consisting of the semantic concept of the image, such as elephants, roses and does the semantic learning, is proposed. Approach: The system segments an image into different regions and finds the dominant foreground region in it, which is the semantic concept of that image. Then it extracts the low-level features of that dominant foreground region. The Support Vector Machine-Binary Decision Tree (SVM-BDT is used for semantic learning and it finds the semantic category of an image. The low level features of the dominant region of each category image are used to find the semantic template of that category. The SVM-BDT is constructed with the help of these semantic templates. The high level concept of the query image is obtained using this SVM-BDT. Similarity matching is done between the query image and the set of images belonging to the semantic category of the query image and the top images with least distances are retrieved. Results: Experiments were conducted using the COREL dataset consisting of 10,000 images and its subset with 1000 images of 10 different semantic categories. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, compared to those of the commonly used region based image retrieval approaches. Conclusion: Efficient image searching, browsing and retrieval are required by users from various domains, such as medicine, fashion, architecture, training and teaching. The proposed SRBIR system aims at retrieving images based on their semantic content by extracting the dominant foreground region in the image and learning its semantic concept with the help of the SVM-BDT. The proposed SRBIR system provides an efficient image search based on semantics, with high accuracy and less access time.

  12. An Efficient Algorithm for Query Transformation in Semantic Query Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Semantic query optimization (SQO) is comparatively a recent approach for the transformation of given query into equivalent alternative query using matching rules in order to select an optimal query based on the costs of executing alternative queries. The key aspect of the algorithm proposed here is that previous proposed SQO techniques can be considered equally in the uniform cost model, with which optimization opportunities will not be missed. At the same time, the authors used the implication closure to guarantee that any matched rule will not be lost. The authors implemented their algorithm for the optimization of decomposed sub-query in local database in Multi-Database Integrator (MDBI), which is a multidatabase project. The experimental results verify that this algorithm is effective in the process of SQO.

  13. Fine-grained semantic categorization across the abstract and concrete domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ghio

    Full Text Available A consolidated approach to the study of the mental representation of word meanings has consisted in contrasting different domains of knowledge, broadly reflecting the abstract-concrete dichotomy. More fine-grained semantic distinctions have emerged in neuropsychological and cognitive neuroscience work, reflecting semantic category specificity, but almost exclusively within the concrete domain. Theoretical advances, particularly within the area of embodied cognition, have more recently put forward the idea that distributed neural representations tied to the kinds of experience maintained with the concepts' referents might distinguish conceptual meanings with a high degree of specificity, including those within the abstract domain. Here we report the results of two psycholinguistic rating studies incorporating such theoretical advances with two main objectives: first, to provide empirical evidence of fine-grained distinctions within both the abstract and the concrete semantic domains with respect to relevant psycholinguistic dimensions; second, to develop a carefully controlled linguistic stimulus set that may be used for auditory as well as visual neuroimaging studies focusing on the parametrization of the semantic space beyond the abstract-concrete dichotomy. Ninety-six participants rated a set of 210 sentences across pre-selected concrete (mouth, hand, or leg action-related and abstract (mental state-, emotion-, mathematics-related categories, with respect either to different semantic domain-related scales (rating study 1, or to concreteness, familiarity, and context availability (rating study 2. Inferential statistics and correspondence analyses highlighted distinguishing semantic and psycholinguistic traits for each of the pre-selected categories, indicating that a simple abstract-concrete dichotomy is not sufficient to account for the entire semantic variability within either domains.

  14. When Meaning Is Not Enough: Distributional and Semantic Cues to Word Categorization in Child Directed Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo, Sara; Muñoz, Carmen; Amadó, Anna; Serrat, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important tasks in first language development is assigning words to their grammatical category. The Semantic Bootstrapping Hypothesis postulates that, in order to accomplish this task, children are guided by a neat correspondence between semantic and grammatical categories, since nouns typically refer to objects and verbs to actions. It is this correspondence that guides children's initial word categorization. Other approaches, on the other hand, suggest that children might make use of distributional cues and word contexts to accomplish the word categorization task. According to such approaches, the Semantic Bootstrapping assumption offers an important limitation, as it might not be true that all the nouns that children hear refer to specific objects or people. In order to explore that, we carried out two studies based on analyses of children's linguistic input. We analyzed child-directed speech addressed to four children under the age of 2;6, taken from the CHILDES database. The corpora were selected from the Manchester corpus. The corpora from the four selected children contained a total of 10,681 word types and 364,196 word tokens. In our first study, discriminant analyses were performed using semantic cues alone. The results show that many of the nouns found in parents' speech do not relate to specific objects and that semantic information alone might not be sufficient for successful word categorization. Given that there must be an additional source of information which, alongside with semantics, might assist young learners in word categorization, our second study explores the availability of both distributional and semantic cues in child-directed speech. Our results confirm that this combination might yield better results for word categorization. These results are in line with theories that suggest the need for an integration of multiple cues from different sources in language development.

  15. A Framework of Semantic Information Representation in Distributed Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An information representation framework is designed to overcome the problem of semantic heterogeneity in distributed environments in this paper. Emphasis is placed on establishing an XML-oriented semantic data model and the mapping between XML data based on a global ontology semantic view. The framework is implemented in Web Service, which enhances information process efficiency, accuracy and the semantic interoperability as well.

  16. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  17. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped non-imperative calculus of objects.  This abstract machine mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i.e., big-step operational semantics) specified...

  18. A Rewriting Logic Semantics Approach to Modular Program Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); G. Rosu (Grigore); C. Lynch

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe K framework, based on rewriting logic semantics, provides a powerful logic for defining the semantics of programming languages. While most work in this area has focused on defining an evaluation semantics for a language, it is also possible to define an abstract semantics that can be

  19. A Rewriting Logic Semantics Approach to Modular Program Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Rosu, G.; Lynch, C.

    2010-01-01

    The K framework, based on rewriting logic semantics, provides a powerful logic for defining the semantics of programming languages. While most work in this area has focused on defining an evaluation semantics for a language, it is also possible to define an abstract semantics that can be used for pr

  20. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  1. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  2. Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word "Semantic" refers to "meaning" - a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and result oriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding information on the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision of linking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream, hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines to yield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework the na\\"ive approach of searching information on the syntactic web is clich\\'e. This paper proposes an optimised semantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with a proposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to access and time sav...

  3. Preserved semantic access in neglect dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Làdavas, E; Shallice, T; Zanella, M T

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the preservation of semantic access in patients with severe neglect dyslexia for words and non-words. Patients were given the following tasks: (1) reading aloud letter strings (first basic reading task), (2) making semantic decisions (categorial and inferential judgements), (3) making semantic decisions and reading the letter strings immediately afterwards (semantic-reading tasks), (4) reading letter strings again (final basic reading tasks) and (5) auditory control tasks. Of 23 patients with visual neglect, four showed neglect dyslexia for both words and non-words. Of these four patients, three showed a performance in the semantic tasks that was as good as in the auditory condition. Moreover, the reading of the patients improved dramatically in the semantic-reading tasks but this was not maintained in the final basic reading task. Non-words showed only a minor improvement. Findings are discussed in terms of an interaction between the attentional system and the different reading routes, and provide evidence that semantic routes are less affected by neglect.

  4. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Sudeepthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are playing a crucial role in enhancing traditional web search, as it is working to create machine readable data. but it will not replace traditional search engine. In this paper we made a brief survey on various promising features of some of the best semantic search engines developed so far and we have discussed the various approaches to semantic search. We have summarized the techniques, advantages of some important semantic web search engines that are developed so far.The most prominent part is that how the semantic search engines differ from the traditional searches and their results are shown by giving a sample query as input

  5. Lexically Allusive Content of Semantic Frames (Based on the Works of John Fowles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Akatova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The semantic frame is a cognitive model, some mental structure that unites the world map and the thesaurus of a person, the hierarchy of meanings and values of the linguistic model of the world. Conceptual-cognitive content of a semantic frame includes three constituents: the reader, the author, and culture. The postmodernistic metatext, a vivid example of which is the metatext of John Fowles, is made of lexical-semantic frames, filled with allusions, general cultural precedent phenomena, cross-references, leitmotif lexemes. The frames of "freedom" and "game" exemplify integrated leitmotif of enclosed space, sea, theater, meta-theatre, god, god's imitations, magician (wizard, and fool. The application of a semantic frames method for the analysis of lexical-allusive elements in the works of John Fowles (The Aristos, The Magus, The Ebony Tower, Daniel Martin, French Lieutenant's Woman, A Maggot, Wormholes allowed to identify the net of allusive inclusions and arrange them into lexical-semantic frames, which helped to decode linguocultural metatext of the society and the individual (author. The interpretation of linguistic and cultural items in the text has lead to distinguishing the dominant frame of the metatext, that is "freedom". It is stated that creativity is freedom in action, responsibility is the condition for complete freedom, the path from the Fool to the Magician is the way from blindness of the stereotypes in the society to the intrinsic vision of internal freedom and unifying meaning of existence.

  6. Semantic Entity-Component State Management Techniques to Enhance Software Quality for Multimodal VR-Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Martin; Wiebusch, Dennis; Latoschik, Marc Erich

    2017-04-01

    Modularity, modifiability, reusability, and API usability are important software qualities that determine the maintainability of software architectures. Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality (VR, AR, MR) systems, modern computer games, as well as interactive human-robot systems often include various dedicated input-, output-, and processing subsystems. These subsystems collectively maintain a real-time simulation of a coherent application state. The resulting interdependencies between individual state representations, mutual state access, overall synchronization, and flow of control implies a conceptual close coupling whereas software quality asks for a decoupling to develop maintainable solutions. This article presents five semantics-based software techniques that address this contradiction: Semantic grounding, code from semantics, grounded actions, semantic queries, and decoupling by semantics. These techniques are applied to extend the well-established entity-component-system (ECS) pattern to overcome some of this pattern's deficits with respect to the implied state access. A walk-through of central implementation aspects of a multimodal (speech and gesture) VR-interface is used to highlight the techniques' benefits. This use-case is chosen as a prototypical example of complex architectures with multiple interacting subsystems found in many VR, AR and MR architectures. Finally, implementation hints are given, lessons learned regarding maintainability pointed-out, and performance implications discussed.

  7. Exploiting Document Level Semantics in Document Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Document clustering is an unsupervised machine learning method that separates a large subject heterogeneous collection (Corpus into smaller, more manageable, subject homogeneous collections (clusters. Traditional method of document clustering works around extracting textual features like: terms, sequences, and phrases from documents. These features are independent of each other and do not cater meaning behind these word in the clustering process. In order to perform semantic viable clustering, we believe that the problem of document clustering has two main components: (1 to represent the document in such a form that it inherently captures semantics of the text. This may also help to reduce dimensionality of the document and (2 to define a similarity measure based on the lexical, syntactic and semantic features such that it assigns higher numerical values to document pairs which have higher syntactic and semantic relationship. In this paper, we propose a representation of document by extracting three different types of features from a given document. These are lexical , syntactic and semantic features. A meta-descriptor for each document is proposed using these three features: first lexical, then syntactic and in the last semantic. A document to document similarity matrix is produced where each entry of this matrix contains a three value vector for each lexical , syntactic and semantic . The main contributions from this research are (i A document level descriptor using three different features for text like: lexical, syntactic and semantics. (ii we propose a similarity function using these three, and (iii we define a new candidate clustering algorithm using three component of similarity measure to guide the clustering process in a direction that produce more semantic rich clusters. We performed an extensive series of experiments on standard text mining data sets with external clustering evaluations like: FMeasure and Purity, and have obtained

  8. The Semantic eScience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF

  9. Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

  10. [A medical image semantic modeling based on hierarchical Bayesian networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunyi; Ma, Lihong; Yin, Junxun; Chen, Jianyu

    2009-04-01

    A semantic modeling approach for medical image semantic retrieval based on hierarchical Bayesian networks was proposed, in allusion to characters of medical images. It used GMM (Gaussian mixture models) to map low-level image features into object semantics with probabilities, then it captured high-level semantics through fusing these object semantics using a Bayesian network, so that it built a multi-layer medical image semantic model, aiming to enable automatic image annotation and semantic retrieval by using various keywords at different semantic levels. As for the validity of this method, we have built a multi-level semantic model from a small set of astrocytoma MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) samples, in order to extract semantics of astrocytoma in malignant degree. Experiment results show that this is a superior approach.

  11. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  12. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity...... and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our...... emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent...

  13. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-based MT. We see our approach as closely aligned with knowledge-based MT approaches (KBMT), and as a separate component that could be incorporated into existing systems. Examples and experimental results will show that, using this scheme, inexact matches can achieve correct lexical selection.

  14. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  15. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

    2012-01-01

    We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

  16. Chinese Statistical Parser Based on Semantic Dependencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涓子; 王作英

    2002-01-01

    A new tagging method is presented to build a Chinese semantic corpus. The method characterizes the sentence meaning as a linear sequence of dependency relationships which are the semantic or syntactic relationships between words in the sentence. This representation method is used to build a Chinese statistical parser model to understand the sentence meaning. Specific experiments on automatic telephone switchboard conversations show that the proposed parser has a precision of 80%. This work provides a foundation for building a large-scale Chinese semantic corpus and for research on understanding modeling of the Chinese language.

  17. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  18. Petri nets semantics ofπ-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua YU; Yuanli CAI; Haiping XU

    2008-01-01

    As π-calculus based on the interleaving semantics cannot depict the true concurrency and has few supporting tools,it is translated into Petri nets.π-calculus is divided into basic elements,sequence,concurrency,choice and recursive modules.These modules are translated into Petri nets to construct a complicated system.Petri nets semantics for π-calculus visualize system structure as well as system behaviors.The structural analysis techniques allow direct qualitative analysis of the system properties on the structure of the nets.Finally,Petri nets semantics for π-calculus are illustrated by applying them to mobile telephone systems.

  19. Semantics in Image and Video Retrieval Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Multimedia document annotation is used in traditional multimedia database systems. However, without the help of human beings, it is very difficult to extract the semantic content of multimedia automatically. On the other hand, it is a tedious job to annotate multimedia documents in large databases one by one manually. This paper first introduces a method to construct a semantic network on top of a multimedia database. Second, a useful and efficient annotation strategy is presented based on the framework to obtain an accurate and rapid annotation of any multimedia databases. Third, two methods of joint similarity measures for semantic and low-level features are evaluated.

  20. Managing Very Large Document Collections Using Semantics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG GuoRen(王国仁); LU HongJun(陆宏钧); YU Ge(于戈); BAO YuBin(鲍玉斌)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a system is presented where documents are no longer identified bytheir file names. Instead, a document is represented by its semantics in terms of descriptor andcontent vector. The descriptor of a document consists of a set of attributes, such as date of creation,its type, its size, annotations, etc. The content vector of a document consists of a set of termsextracted from the document. In this paper, a semantic document management system XBASEis designed and implemented based on the semantics and the functions of three main modules,X-Loader, X-Explorer and X-Query.