In this article, the author compares the practices, philosophy, and history of action research, also known as participatory action research, to the purposes and practices of dance education. The comparison yields connections in four categories, enhancing self-reflective teaching and curriculum design, taking responsibility for teaching outcomes,…
Full Text Available Nowadays, there are several models to evaluate technological acceptance of software developed through Action Design Research and Action Research. These models rely on quantitative techniques to study user behavioural intentions and thus predict the use of a technology. This paper presents our experiences in using qualitative methods to assess such acceptance in the development of specialized tools for Strategic Scanning. Our study suggests that qualitative methods can be an alternative to evaluate technology acceptance in situations where the number of users is small or where there are requirements for continuous improvement.
Joyce, Marilyn Z.
Discusses a two-year action research study conducted at a high school that transformed reluctant students into lifelong readers by emphasizing intrinsic motivation as opposed to programs that use rewards to motivate students to read. Explains how to design an action research question. (LRW)
Rowell, Lonnie L.; Polush, Elena Yu; Riel, Margaret; Bruewer, Aaron
The purpose of this study was to identify distinguishing characteristics of action research within the Action Research Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association. The authors sought to delineate the foundational framework endorsed by this community. The study was conducted during January-April 2012 and employed an…
Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen
Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)
Olga Lucia Obando-Salazar
Full Text Available Qualitative methodology is used in social and intervention research because it facilitates a deeper analysis of causal factors and development of alternative solutions to social problems. Based on the findings of three studies in the field of political and gender psychology, this article focuses on Participant Action Research (PAR as a useful qualitative approach to deal with social phenomena, such as racism, violence against women, and the problem of children and youth who have been dislocated as the result of armed conflict and sheltered by the Colombian government's program for persons relocated to civil society. This article is composed of three parts. The first part offers historical and theoretical background to the Action Research (AR paradigm, its validation criteria and their meaning for the development of the Latin American rendering of Participant Action Research (PAR. The second part synthesizes trends in the AR approach in the United States and Germany, discusses feminist research and compares these to trends in PAR in Latin America. The third part is a description of Participant Action Research as an intervention method, including features, models, goals, and concepts. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060438
Ryan, Thomas Gerald
This practical participatory action research study illuminates the assessment praxes of four Ontario secondary level science teachers at one school using a facilitative approach. Participants were joined by a thematic concern, that is, a commitment to inform and improve assessment. Hence, two distinct sets of research questions emerged. The first involves the nature of assessment as we asked, what was the current state of assessment practice in secondary science? What were participants' initial understandings of assessment and actual practices at the onset of this research? To what extent did these initial understandings and actual practices change due to the illumination of assessment praxes through action research involvement? What was their level of awareness of current Ontario government pronouncements and in what ways did they implement this knowledge? The second theme, concerning the nature of action research, was realised by asking what did participants learn about action research? What other learning and professional gains were realised during this study? And, what did I learn about action research and assessment through my involvement in this study? Data were collected via supportive discussion groups, individual interviews, classroom visitations, journals and documentation. This professional development experience facilitated 'interactive professionalism' as teachers worked in a small group and interacted frequently in the course of planning, testing new ideas, attempting to solve different problems, and assess the effectiveness of those ideas. In addition, this action research effort was strategic and systematic, to attain a high degree of specific interactions, (personal interviews, group meetings, classroom observations, evidence collection). This series of deliberate and planned intentions helped participants solve assessment dilemmas. We developed an awareness and understanding of the need for more preservice and inservice assessment training
Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.
Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.
Tuğba Selanik Ay
Full Text Available Social Studies can be defined as “bonding process based on verification with social reality and dynamic information obtained as a result of this process”. In this context, it is essential to unify the Social Studies course with the real life and to benefit from the society in teaching-learning process in order to enable the learned information to be applied in the real life. In the Social Studies course, students should encounter with the real life itself. Thus, students can produce multidimensional alternative solutions for the cases they encounter and they can explain the best solution with justifications. Considering these arguments, it can be claimed that involving the subjects and studies related to the society and near environment in the Social Studies courses increases the effectiveness of Social Studies teaching. Local community studies, which are associated with the Social Studies program by means of a detailed and good plan, can draw students’ attention and thus permanent learning can occur. In this sense, teachers should benefit from the local community studies in the Social Studies course which reflects the real life.The aim of this study is to determine how local community studies will be applied in Social Studies course in the primary education schools. In line with this aim, the following research questions were addressed:1. How can the activities ofa. benefitting from institutions and organizations in local communitiesb. benefitting from people in local communitiesc. using Internet and library sourcesd. benefitting from special days and current eventswhich are carried out in the Social Studies course taught with local community studies, be arranged?2. Do the local community studies help the students determine the problems in their environments and find out the solutions for these problems?3. What are the students’ opinions about the Social Studies course taught with local community studies ?4. Does the Social Studies
Reports on an action research project that involved strategy training for several groups of first-year undergraduate students at the University of Hong Kong. The strategy training was used to experiment with ways of making students more active participants in their language learning. (Author/CK)
Svensson, lennart; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard
The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research.......The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research....
Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart
The text is written as a first version of editors introduction to a book about action research/interactive research in Nordic countries. You can read abouttrends and contradictions in the history of action research.The authors question the trends and demands a more explicit critical approach...... to actual action research/interactive research....
Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj
Traditionally, the literature on action research has been aimed at intra-organisational issues. These studies have distinguished between two researcher roles: The problem-solver and the observer. This article addresses the distinct challenges of action research in inter-organisational projects...
, to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific...
This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.
Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard
The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated.......The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated....
Successful school library programs occur through careful planning and reflection. This reflective process is improved when it is applied in a systematic way through action research. The action research described in this paper enabled school librarians to reflect based on evidence, using data they had collected. This study presents examples of the…
Walser, Tamara M.
Although student self-assessment is considered a critical component of assessment for learning, its use and related research are rare in higher education. This article describes an action research study of self-assessment as an instructional strategy in two university courses. Results indicate that self-assessment exercises provided students the…
Sigurdardottir, Ingibjorg; Einarsdottir, Johanna
Values education is embedded in the curricula of all the Nordic countries. However, values education remains a neglected area for research and practice in early childhood education and care. This article reports on the aspects of an action research project conducted in a preschool in Iceland, across a period of 18 months. The study focused on the…
Postsecondary teaching and learning must be reoriented to equip learners with the knowledge, skills, and values they will need for creating a more sustainable world. This action research study examined the effects of implementing the "Burns model of sustainability pedagogy" in university courses taught by the researcher. This model is comprised of…
Miller, Shenequa C.
The focus of this action research study was the implementation of a professional development initiative comprised of two phases: a training program for teachers on Marzano's nine research-based instructional strategies, and the implementation, supported by follow-up coaching, during "Pear Mountain" High School's (a pseudonym) six-week…
Full Text Available The effort in this work to elaborate an action research method as a central research problem considering the recent contemporary sociological and educational literature. The author begins with the statement that the method is a complex notion, composed of three main components: approach to the research problem, data gathering procedures and data analysis procedures. This point of view is further applied and elaborated in the author's text, emphasizing the action research characteristics: interruption with the positive tradition in social research and the divided of the objective and subjective, application of the qualitative data. The substantial difference between the action research in regard with the other kinds of research, is not only in getting to new knowledge's, but also in problem solving or a change in the situation in a concrete social context.
Baboroglu, Oguz; Ravn, Ib
/organizational research, the futures perspective implies that knowledge of the social/organizational world must be based upon images of desirable futures, so-called "futures theories", not causal descriptions of a problematic present. Futures theories identify ends and means for individual and organizational development......This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social....... They are generated jointly by the stakeholders of a system and the involved action researchers and are tested every time that the prescriptions for action contained in them are followed by a system's stakeholders....
First part of the book is written by senior researchers on specific issues like validity, gender, new forms of organisations, methodologies and methods, earlier and new trends. - The second part of the book is written by doctoral students reporting experiences doing action research in their PhD-projects....
Mehdi B. Mehrani
Full Text Available The present narrative study examined the purposes that language teachers pursue in their research studies. The study also explored the opportunities and challenges that teachers experience while doing action research. Data were collected through a survey of narrative frames among 68 teachers, reflective essays written by 9 teachers and individual interviews with 12 other teachers. Analyzing the content of the data and sorting out the main themes showed that teachers are mainly concerned with practical aspects of their profession such as developing their teaching skills and improving students’ knowledge in particular language areas. In addition, teachers believe that action research broadens their understanding of language education, provides them with a framework for reflecting on their practice, empowers them to play more important roles in educational systems and heightens their awareness of students’ needs. The findings also point to teachers’ consensus that their time limitations, their lack of specialized knowledge of research, administrative restrictions and lack of collaboration are among the main challenges they experience when undertaking action research. The study concludes with the discussion of the broader implications of the study for promoting action research in language teaching profession.
Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge
The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…
Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche
American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…
Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Husted, Mia
difficulties reaching the public agenda or influencing structures of power. In this article we follow the creation of a play and of scenes that address the life, sufferings, and wishes of unemployed people. The skills of actors, writers, and producers are worked into a critical utopian action research project...... and used to highlight and enlarge both critique and dreams in life outside the labor market. The article also discusses some of the reactions the plays received and the formation of knowledge linked to these processes.......Action research on marginalization and exclusion often seeks to examine relations between recognition, respect, and inclusion, but addressing these topics is difficult. Theatre-based action research opens up a new way to communicate and make visible knowledge and experiences from below that have...
Barnes, Johanna S.
Teachers are critical to student learning in the classroom, and just like students, teachers perform better when they are able to make choices based on what is relevant to them. Action research is a way for teachers to systematically inquire and reflect to make necessary improvements in practice for student learning. This study involved teachers…
Calvert, Megan; Sheen, Younghee
The creation, implementation, and evaluation of language learning tasks remain a challenge for many teachers, especially those with limited experience with using tasks in their teaching. This action-research study reports on one teacher's experience of developing, implementing, critically reflecting on, and modifying a language learning task…
Mason Heinrichs, Kim R.
Universities claim that improved critical thinking ability is an educational outcome for their graduates, but they seldom create a path for students to achieve that outcome. In this practitioner action research study, the author created a job aid, entitled "Critical Thinking as a Differentiator for Distinguished Performance," to help…
Groves, Melissa M.; Zemel, Paula C.
Describes an action research study of faculty and graduate teaching assistants at the University of Tennessee that was conducted to assess technology use by faculty, including their perceived barriers to and needs for technology adoption and use. Discusses the development of a Web-based resource in response to these needs. (Author/LRW)
Beckford-Young, Paulette Vivienne
The purpose of this action research study was to conduct a professional development activity to provide content-area teachers with academic vocabulary strategies to be implemented during instruction on a daily basis. Professional development is essential for teachers to gain new knowledge and skills in order to hone their craft to improve student…
This article looks at how social and participatory media can be used to strengthen interdisciplinary literacy and connects the multimodality of social environments with Middle-Years Mathematics curriculum and delivery. The article reports on part of an eighteen months action research study in an Australian public high school within the author's…
Service-learning has been shown to be an effective practice that positively affects students' academic achievement, self-esteem, and problem-solving skills (Billig, 2002; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Wilczenski & Coomey, 2007). This mixed-method action research case study was conducted to explore the possible link between service-learning…
Rowell, Lonnie; Inoue, Noriyuki; Getz, Cheryl
This paper examines the experience of an action research "Study Day" to investigate development of a culture of reflective practice among educators. Shared recognition of the importance of reflective practice in education is now a well-established part of both pre-service preparation and in-service work experience for educators. Osterman…
Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah
Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…
Analysing processes of social learning this work addresses how action research can further new research orientations towards sustainability. Empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating...... on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...
How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...
Helskog, Guro Hansen
In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…
Mostert, R.H.; Brouwer, J.H.
This toolkit contains a selection of tools to conduct action research, organized around four phases: Identify problems and possibilities; Analyze problems and possibilities; Search for solutions; and Reflection tools. The toolkit is customized for staff of Canegrowers in South Africa, who used the t
Aslani, Zahra; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Taleghani, Fariba; Khorasani, Parvaneh
ABSTRACT Background: Self-care needs are major problems among stroke patients. Nurses can support them through interventions such as education, a change in their attitude and emphasis on their remaining abilities. However, research has shown some weak points in the quality of care given to these patients. So the aim of this study was to improve the nurses’ practice in self-care education to stroke patients. Methods: The findings of evaluation phase showed that during action research, approaching the nurses’ empowerment in self-care education to stroke patients has been set in motion. The nursing practice improvement, knowledge based practice, nurses’ attitude change, ability to respond against routinization, and motivation promotion emphasize the success of change process. Facilitators and barriers of educating patients are acknowledged by the participants as a factor influencing the continuation of change. Results: The lack of nurses’ educating performance skills was overcome using action research and changes were made to improve the performance of nurses. Conclusions: The lack of nurses’ educating performance skills was overcome using action research and changes were made to improve the performance of nurses. PMID:27713896
Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sukran; Okur, Emel; Cetinkaya, Zeynep; Uygun, Selcuk
Contemporary nature education is exploring different ways to develop awareness for change and initiate action. Such educational activities go beyond creating understanding and awareness in order to develop a sense of commitment for individual and collective action. This participatory action research study aimed to improve teachers' sensitiveness…
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
-based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...
Shosh, Joseph M.; McAteer, Mary
The Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN) held its first American study day on the east coast of the United States in conjunction with the Action Research Network of the Americas (ARNA) 2014 conference in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA. Study day participants visited three American secondary schools, one each in Pennsylvania, New York, and…
This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research.......The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research....
Thomsen, Thora Grothe; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi
BACKGROUND:: In the transition between being a hospitalized patient with cancer and resuming “normal” life, many patients experience physical, mental, and social challenges. Scientifically, as well as politically, it is therefore recommended to undertake research with a focus on rethinking...... and reorganizing follow-up after cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to identify the perspectives of fast-track colorectal cancer surgery patients on challenges experienced in the transition from being a hospitalized patient with cancer to being a cancer survivor. METHODS:: The current article...... represents phase 1 in an ongoing action research project. Data were analyzed by using the “interpretive description” method. RESULTS:: Twelve patients (6 male and 6 female patients; mean age, 72.4 years) participated in the study. The analyses show that the patients physically experienced readiness to leave...
McCoy, Leah P., Ed.
This document presents the proceedings of the 17th Annual Research Forum held June 29, 2012, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included herein are the following 25 action research papers: (1) "Reading and Writing": A Study Comparing the Strengths of Peer Review and Visible Author Writing Strategies (Elizabeth Behar); (2)…
Full Text Available This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.
Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa
Title: Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project . Background Metropolitan University College has over the years developed interprofessional courses for students from 12 different professions, and since 2013 worked...... with a nationally used study activity model. The current model outlines four different types of learning activities. All students at the UCs are introduced to the model in order to heighten their understanding of course design and the expectations of the lecturers to their participation in the courses. The project...... lecturers and student satisfaction and participation. Objectives Develop collaborative and didactical knowledge and generate deeper insight into facilitation of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaborative practice (IPC). Investigate the current use of the study activity model...
Willcuts, Meredith H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study’s findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses – that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.
Konstantinou-Katzi, Panagiota; Tsolaki, Eleni; Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria; Koutselini, Mary
Diversity and differentiation within our classrooms, at all levels of education, is nowadays a fact. It has been one of the biggest challenges for educators to respond to the needs of all students in such a mixed-ability classroom. Teachers' inability to deal with students with different levels of readiness in a different way leads to school failure and all the negative outcomes that come with it. Differentiation of teaching and learning helps addressing this problem by respecting the different levels that exist in the classroom, and by responding to the needs of each learner. This article presents an action research study where a team of mathematics instructors and an expert in curriculum development developed and implemented a differentiated instruction learning environment in a first-year engineering calculus class at a university in Cyprus. This study provides evidence that differentiated instruction has a positive effect on student engagement and motivation and improves students' understanding of difficult calculus concepts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Action research (AR and randomized controlled trials (RCTs are usually considered to be theoretically and practically incompatible. However, we argue that their respective strengths and weaknesses can be complementary. We illustrate our argument from a recent study assessing the effect of telemonitoring on health-related quality of life, self-care, hospital use, costs and the experiences of patients, informal carers and health care professionals in two urban hospital services and one remote rural primary care service in New Zealand. Methods Data came from authors’ observations and field notes of discussions with three groups: the healthcare providers and healthcare consumers who participated in the research, and a group of 17 researchers and collaborators. The consumers had heart failure (Site A, urban, airways disease (Site B, urban, and diabetes (Site C, rural. The research ran from 2008 (project inception until 2012 (project close-off. Researchers came from a wide range of disciplines. Both RCT and AR methods were recognised from early in the process but often worked in parallel rather than together. In retrospect, we have mapped our observed research processes to the AR cycle characteristics (creation of communicative space, democracy and participation, iterative learning and improvement, emergence, and accommodation of different ways of knowing. Results We describe the context, conduct and outcomes of the telemonitoring trial, framing the overall process in the language of AR. Although not fully articulated at the time, AR processes made the RCT sensitive to important context, e.g. clinical processes. They resulted in substantive changes to the design and conduct of the RCT, and to interpretation and uptake of findings, e.g. a simpler technology procurement process emerged. Creating a communicative space enabled co-design between the researcher group and collaborators from the provider participant group, and a stronger
The question as to how action research (AR) is related to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) is not answerable in categorical terms. Both CHAT and AR have been variously interpreted and much depends on the individual biographies of those who pronounce on their relationship. The aim of this paper is to show how action research, conducted…
The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…
Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Tuunila, Ritva; Nurkka, Niina
This paper reports on the systematic development of a teaching methodology for two chemical engineering courses. The aim was to improve the quality of teaching to achieve expected learning outcomes more effectively. The development was carried out over a period of several years based on an action research methodology with data systematically…
Mapotse, Tomé Awshar
This article reports on how action research (AR) was influential in designing an educational instrument to contribute to emancipating teachers with no formal training to teach technology as a subject in secondary schools. The subject technology is referred to using different names in different countries. Some call it "science and…
IntroductionAction research is a form of research undertaken by teachers in the classroom.It follows basically aspiral of research steps:1.identifying a problem2.making a hypothesis3.deciding on a solution4.implementing the solution5.collection data6.reflecting on and analysing the effects7.identifying a new problem-and the research continues like a spiral.
Rabi, Sally A
Following an action research framework, my research investigates professional development for English Language teachers in the Arab World, who are non-native\\ud speakers of English themselves.\\ud \\ud The thesis has five chapters: Literature Review, Critical Contexts, Methodology of the Study, Data Analysis and Presentation, and finally the Discussion and Findings of the\\ud research. The Literature Review covers works relevant to the area of the study in relation to existing teacher practices,...
Harkavy, Ira; Puckett, John; Romer, Dan
Action research is an approach to knowledge generation that can strengthen communities and institutions and is ideally suited to the advancement of academically-based service learning. Presents the history and goals of this approach to service learning, defining current challenges, providing examples from three action research projects responding…
The aim of this study is to investigate whether Lego could be used as a tool for reflective practice with social care practitioners (SCPs) and student practitioners. This article outlines an action research study conducted in an institute of higher education in Ireland. Findings from this study suggest that Lego can be used to support student…
The research studies human emotions through diverse methods and theoretical lenses. My intention in using this approach is to provide alternative ways of perceiving and interpreting emotions being experienced in the moment of arousal. Emotions are fundamental in human interactions because they are essential in the development of effective relationships of any kind and they can also mediate hostility towards others. I begin by presenting an impressionist auto-ethnography, which narrates a personal account of how science and scientific inquiry has been entrenched in me since childhood. I describe how emotions are an important part of how I perceive and respond to the world around me. I describe science in my life in terms of natural environments, which were the initial source of scientific wonder and bafflement for me. In this auto-ethnography, I recount how social interactions shaped my perceptions about people, the world, and my education trajectory. Furthermore, I illustrate how sociocultural structures are used in different contexts to mediate several life decisions that enable me to pursue a career in science and science education. I also reflect on how some of those sociocultural aspects mediated my emotional wellness. I reveal how my life and science are interconnected and I present my story as a segue to the remainder of the dissertation. In chapters 2 and 3, I address a methodology and associated methods for research on facial expression of emotion. I use a facial action coding system developed by Paul Ekman in the 1970s (Ekman, 2002) to study facial representation of emotions. In chapters 4 and 5, I review the history of oximetry and ways in which an oximeter can be used to obtain information on the physiological expression of emotions. I examine oximetry data in relation to emotional physiology in three different aspects; pulse rate, oxygenation of the blood, and plethysmography (i.e., strength of pulse). In chapters 3 and 5, I include data and
As a reflective approach to teacher development,Action Research (AR)is gaining significance in education and is especially credited as providing an opportunity for professionals including both teachers and teacher educators to investigate their own classroom practice and improve it,and hopefully bring favorable changes to their classrooms.It emphasizes the role of critical reflection and always involves a problem→hypothesis→resolution cycle or spiral during which teacher researchers exert efforts to explore teaching and learning.By doing action research,language teachers can not only apply theories into practice but also be more reflective,more critical and more open to change in teach-ing approaches and methods.Despite the difficulties that teachers may have in doing action research in their busy life,it is beneficial for teach-ers to be researchers in the long run.
Grant, Andy; Robling, Michael
Following the publication of Tomorrow's Doctors and as a result of increasing numbers of students recruited to medical school it is necessary to involve more general practitioners (family physicians) in undergraduate medical education. Students have responded positively regarding experiences in general practices with a broad spectrum of clinical conditions to be seen and greater involvement in clinical decision-making. This action research study followed a small group general practice in South Wales through the required preparation for undergraduate medical education and its first year of teaching. Preparatory work for the practice focused mainly on summarizing patient notes, setting up a practice library and arranging accommodation for the students. Members of the Primary Health Care Team (PHCT) found that having students in the practice gave them a sense of achievement and enhanced self-worth. Individuals within the practice felt more confident in their professional role and the team ethic within the practice was strengthened. Doctors' anxieties regarding the adequacy of their clinical skills proved unfounded. Patients were reported to feel more included in their care and to have enjoyed hearing their condition being discussed with the students. Students valued the one-to-one teaching, seeing common illnesses and a variety of consulting styles. It is hoped that this paper will be of value to those responsible for recruiting GP practices into undergraduate teaching. It demonstrates benefits for the primary health care team in terms of improved morale and sense of professional self-worth. Patients felt more involved in their care. Generalization from these findings is limited by only one practice having been involved. Undergraduate teaching offers advantages, particularly in terms of professional self-esteem and team morale.
Full Text Available The article describes an experiment in using action research and ethnographic methodology in contemporary teacher education in Poland. The author shares her experience in using these methodologies together with her colleague in the senior year with students of education - future teachers - at the School of Education of the University of Lower Silesia. She points to the ways in which these methodologies help empower future teachers with critical competencies that may lead to the development of autonomous professionalisms in their future practice. She argues that the presented institutional and organizational solutions pave the way for further application of the presented methodologies in Polish teacher education.
Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Anette
The paper is a about planning and empowerment in care work at public nursing homes and the role of action research. It is based on ongoing work in the “Center for Demokratisk Samfundsudvikling og Aktionsforskning” at Roskilde University and the transnational research network KATARSIS, which works...... with social innovation....
Saracino, Peter C.
Today's most common method of teaching biology---driven by calls for standardization and high-stakes testing---relies on a standards-based, de-contextualized approach to education. This results in "one size fits all" curriculums that ignore local contexts relevant to students' lives, discourage student engagement and ultimately work against a deep and lasting understanding of content. In contrast, place-based education---a pedagogical paradigm grounded in situated cognition and the progressive education tradition of John Dewey---utilizes the community as an integrating context for learning. It encourages the growth of school-community partnerships with an eye towards raising student achievement while also drawing students into the economic, political, social and ecological life of their communities. Such an approach seeks to provide students with learning experiences that are both academically significant and valuable to their communities. This study explores how high school science teachers can capitalize on the rich affordances offered by a place-based approach despite the constraints imposed by a state-mandated curriculum and high-stakes testing. Using action research, I designed, implemented, evaluated and refined an intervention that grounded a portion of a Living Environment high school course I teach in a place-based experience. This experience served as a unique anchoring event to contextualize students' learning of other required core topics. The overarching question framing this study is: How can science teachers capitalize on the rich affordances offered by a place-based approach despite the constraints imposed by a state-mandated curriculum and high-stakes testing? The following more specific questions were explored within the context of the intervention: (1) Which elements of the place-based paradigm could I effectively integrate into a Living Environment course? (2) In what ways would this integration impact students' interest? (3) In what ways would
This report is a look at our study to find a for-profit venture for Action for Boston Community Development (ABCD) to establish. Essentially, our study had two stages - find a product or service that appeared to be needed in the market place and that ABCD felt comfortable pursuing, then research and analyze the market for this product or service. The venture selected for complete market research and analysis was home repair services. Our research showed that both an advisory and minor home repair service should be established.
Rose, Jeremy; Lewis, Paul
Structuration theory, Giddens' meta theory of social practice, has been used for theorizing the IS field and for analyzing empirical case studies, but has been little used in any practical or action research context. In the action research project reported here, which concerns the development...... of an intranet in a university department, structurational analysis was woven into the action research framework. This enabled social insight and reflections, which would not have been the primary focus of an analyst using a conventional systems development methodology, and facilitated the shaping of future...
Reflection is an impontant core of professional development and action research in which the teachers reflect through the Systematic collection and analym of data is a form of srrucured reflection.The teachers can be provided with powerful means of professional development.
Jennifer B. Averill
Full Text Available Rural populations experience higher rates of illness, less access to health care resources, and lower rates of health insurance coverage than do urban populations. A need exists to identify and address the health care needs of rural communities and other isolated populations and to contextualize the findings in the larger rural health environment. Critical ethnography combined with community-based action research is a constructive approach for improving the health status of rural elders as well as other members of isolated communities. Detailed guidelines on how to initiate an ethnographic community-based action study, as shown through a study that explores the definitions of health, health care perceptions, and health care issues for rural elders in the southwestern United States, highlight the value of this type of research for the study of the health care issues of rural populations.
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) brings young people together with adult researchers to identify, study, and act on relevant social problems. In this chapter, the author draws on examples from a recent YPAR project, called Tracing Transitions, whose aim was to study the impact of school closure on students. After defining YPAR in terms…
Kattman, Braden R.
National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.
Full Text Available Though separated by geographical distance, a student with disabilities, his advisor, and his writing coach consorted in the Cloud using Google applications to achieve a writing goal. Our scenario demonstrates how emerging technologies can bridge transactional distance and “virtually” supplant face-to-face conferencing around a college writing assignment. Individual levels of technical acumen with digital technology evolved to bridge the psychological and communication space between the student and his instructors. As a result, the telecollaborators developed an efficient coaching process adaptable for all students who need assistance in revising college writing assignments at a distance. Action research frames our discussion of the Cloud collaboration and provides a scaffold for student autonomy. The advantages as well and disadvantages of Cloud collaboration are outlined with reference to the National Institute of Standards of Technology definition of Cloud Computing and the Seven Principles of Universal Course Design.http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.6.1.79
Hatchett-Jackson, Daia C.
The research study site is a private, coeducational university located in the Midwest on a small but growing campus that has successfully transitioned from traditional seated students to a mixture of seated and online students from around the world. Two categories of interest to the university are graduate students' writing skills and the…
and the different roles I occupied. To better understand the complex nature of collaboration found within action research projects, I propose conceptualizing action research as a network. The network framework directs our attention to the collective production and the conditions through which roles...... and interventions come to exist. Thus, interventions and roles can be seen as network effects—they are enacted and supported by the network. Accordingly, roles and interventions are neither simply static and fixed nor fluid and flexible; rather, these are products of past and present attachments. I demonstrate how...... the different attachments existing in the network at different points in time enable the configuration of particular actors with capacities to enact different roles and interventions in a diversity of contexts and settings. Finally, I illustrate what happens when these attachments are missing and how...
McCoy, Leah P., Ed.
This document presents the proceedings of the 18th Annual Research Forum held June 26, 2013, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included are the following 13 action research papers: (1) Developing Oral Language Ability in the Secondary Spanish Classroom Using the Interpersonal and Presentational Modes of Communication…
Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette
This article concerns the experiences gained from the action research project, Quality in Elder Care, involving social dimensions of quality in public elder care. The aim of the project was to improve the professional skills and engagement of the care workers and to improve the life quality...... quality in a joint effort between care workers, residents at the nursing home, and researchers. It concludes that the project led to empowerment of the residents and staff and played an important role in the development of democratic knowledge building about better quality and ethics in elder care....
After an historical overview on the reflection about the relationship between researcher and “research object” in action research, the paper proposes a typology, based on the different epistemological views, to interpret the different methodological proposals.
Lee Mui Suan, Jaclyn
Organisational culture change is a long and complex process that typically takes years to complete and has a very low success rate. This Action Design Research Study in an educational setting, addresses the problem by the proposed use of an Action Design Research Methodology to build and deploy an I
Klein, Sheri R., Ed.
Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…
Full Text Available Over the past decade, clinical governance approach with aims to improve the quality of health services has been proposed in Iran. Considering the obvious problems especially patients' length of stay (LOS in the emergency departments (EDs; the present study has been carried out with the purpose of Investigating the effect of clinical governess approach on patients' LOS in the one of the largest medical centers in the country. After the problem was specified by the 17 interviews with employees and managers of the ED; the emergency clinical governance committee was formed by two academic researchers and seven ED staff (key participants that had the most involvement with the subject of study. The activities of the committee, including planning, acting, observing and reflecting, was organized by using participatory action research approach and action research cycle (Kemmis 1995. During this time, three formal meetings with key participants were held in 6-month intervals. Monthly records of patients' average LOS and interview with ED staff were used to analyze the findings. The research was completed with two cycles in one year. Committee members took the following actions. As a result, the patients' LOS reduced from 2.68 days to 1.73 days. Make regular patients visits by medical groups especially orthopedists and neurologists; Decision making about patients situation by emergency physicians and transferring patients to the relevant units by bed managers; Refusing to admit elective patients during overcrowding times; to regulate the list of patients requiring ICU by anesthesiologists. Prolonged LOS can be due to various causes and a team approach, which is one of the requirements of clinical governance approach, is needed to manage it. The results showed that the multidisciplinary team could make positive changes and reduce LOS in emergency setting.
Anderson, David N.
Teen Dating Violence (TDV) has become a pervasive problem for youth in the United States, with 10% to 25% of high school students engaging in physical and sexual dating violence, and with even a greater percentage of youth experiencing some form of psychological maltreatment (Kervin & Obinna, 2010, "Youth action strategies in the primary…
The purpose of this paper is to address the gap that exists in the knowledge base for understanding the repertoire of images that preservice teachers gain as they engage in action research. Data were collected using a variety of qualitative methods: journals, metaphors, narratives, action research reports, and focus group interviews. Data were…
Howes, Andrew; Frankham, Jo; Ainscow, Mel; Farrell, Peter
The authors of this article reflect on their experiences as facilitators of an action research network aiming to provide a context for participating schools to identify and address barriers to pupils' learning and participation. Within the network, action research is seen to have different meanings for individuals within and between schools in…
Cook, Stuart W.
This paper contains informal remarks on action research in social psychology from its post World War II origins to its current status. Kurt Lewin first described action research in the 1946 article, "Action Research and Minority Problems," as a three-step process of program planning, program execution, and follow-up evaluation. Ronald Lippitt and…
Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Svejvig, Per; Andersen, Povl Erik Rostgaard
that it is not possible to distinguish between working processes and HIS, that benefit realization in healthcare (a public organization) has a much broader perspective than just financial value and that the reaping of benefits is quite difficult. This paper reports on the first two action cycles. Framed by the theory......Obtaining business value from IT is a recurring theme that has diffused into healthcare information systems (HIS) where stakeholders often question the value of IT investments. Having completed the implementation of an integrated HIS, the Faroese Health Service (FHS) has commenced discussions...
Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne
Action research (AR) is becoming increasingly popular in ELT contexts as a means of continuous professional development. The positive impacts of AR on language teacher development are well documented, but the important question of how those impacts can be sustained over time is virtually unexplored. Drawing on findings from a study of teachers in…
McRae, Dawn N.
This action research (AR) study explored practitioners' knowledge of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, and Intersex (LGBTQI) youth issues in a juvenile justice setting. A research and service approach was employed to develop a LGBTQI policy and training. This study was motivated by three research questions. Does sensitivity…
Nogueira, Juan Manuel; Romero, David; Espadas, Javier; Molina, Arturo
With the emergence of new enterprise models, such as technology-based enterprises, and the large quantity of information generated through technological advances, the Zachman framework continues to represent a modelling tool of great utility and value to construct an enterprise architecture (EA) that can integrate and align the IT infrastructure and business goals. Nevertheless, implementing an EA requires an important effort within an enterprise. Small technology-based enterprises and start-ups can take advantage of EAs and frameworks but, because these enterprises have limited resources to allocate for this task, an enterprise framework implementation is not feasible in most cases. This article proposes a new methodology based on action-research for the implementation of the business, system and technology models of the Zachman framework to assist and facilitate its implementation. Following the explanation of cycles of the proposed methodology, a case study is presented to illustrate the results of implementing the Zachman framework in a technology-based enterprise: PyME CREATIVA, using action-research approach.
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Feldman, Allan
In this article we explore the concept of quality in teacher action research by re-examining our participation with science teachers in several different collaborative action research projects. We conducted second-order action research and generated a series reflexive conditions for promoting and ensuring quality action research. We assert that a…
Iwamoto, Darren H.
Since the Fall 2009 semester, low academic performance and disengaged students have been regularly observed in the General Education Core's first-year psychology class. Because examination scores have been consistently low and student engagement has been declining, this researcher sought an alternative approach that would better meet the…
Pehler, Shelley-Rae; Stombaugh, Angela
Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe action research in nursing education and to propose a definition of action research for providing guidelines for research proposals and criteria for assessing potential publications for nursing higher education. Methods. The first part of this project involved a search of the literature on action research in nursing higher education from 1994 to 2013. Searches were conducted in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases. Applying the criteria identified, 80 publications were reviewed. The second part of the project involved a literature review of action research methodology from several disciplines to assist in assessing articles in this review. Results. This article summarizes the nursing higher education literature reviewed and provides processes and content related to four topic areas in nursing higher education. The descriptions assist researchers in learning more about the complexity of both the action research process and the varied outcomes. The literature review of action research in many disciplines along with the review of action research in higher education provided a framework for developing a nursing-education-centric definition of action research. Conclusions. Although guidelines for developing action research and criteria for publication are suggested, continued development of methods for synthesizing action research is recommended. PMID:28078138
House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M
While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured.
Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.
MacDonald, G. M.; Ambrose, R. F.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Brown, L. N.; Fejtek, S.; Gold, M.; Rosencranz, J.
Frustrations regarding the provision of actionable science extend to both producers and consumers. Scientists decry the lack of application of their research in shaping policy and practices while decision makers bemoan the lack of applicability of scientific research to the specific problems at hand or its narrow focus relative to the plethora of engineering, economic and social considerations that they must also consider. Incorporating climate change adds additional complexity due to uncertainties in estimating many facets of future climate, the inherent variability of climate and the decadal scales over which significant changes will develop. Recently a set of guidelines for successful science-policy interaction was derived from the analysis of transboundary water management. These are; 1 recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into the decision-making processes, 2 early establishment of conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among participants, 3 understanding that science-policy interactions are enhanced through greater collaboration and social or group-learning processes, 4 accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes, and 5 engaging boundary organizations and informal networks as well as formal stakeholders. Here we present as a case study research on California coastal marshes, climate change and sea-level that is being conducted by university and USGS scientists under the auspices of the Southwest Climate Science Center. We also present research needs identified by a seperate analysis of best practices for coastal marsh restoration in the face of climate change that was conducted in extensive consultation with planners and managers. The initial communication, scientific research and outreach-dissemination of the marsh scientfic study are outlined and compared to best practices needs identified by planners and the science-policy guidelines outlined above
This article attempts to analyse and compare ELT studies grounded solely in mixed methods and ELT action research studies based on a mixed methods approach in order to identify to what degree action research studies combining different methods in a single study comply with the principles of rigorous mixed methods study.
Fischer, Kenneth Brian
The purpose of this study is to examine how a school-based leadership team identifies and alters school conditions to foster the development of TLCs. Many educators, school leaders, and politicians have embraced teacher learning communities (TLCs) as a vehicle for school reform. Despite the considerable documentation of the capability for TLCs to…
Amstelveen, Raoul H.
The purpose of this study was to design and implement a Classroom Response System, also known as a "clicker," to increase attendance in introductory statistics courses at an undergraduate university. Since 2010, non-attendance had been prevalent in introductory statistics courses. Moreover, non-attendance created undesirable classrooms…
Limon, Jennifer S.
The action research project used for this dissertation was intended to examine the effect of implementing an examination preparation course for graduates taking the Veterinary Technology National Examination in Louisiana. Previous data showed that scores on the VTNE were declining at not only the state, but also the national level, thus allowing less graduates to enter the workforce as Registered Veterinary Technicians in Louisiana. The research question was "What impact did the exam prep course have on VTNE test scores?" The researcher focused on helping to better prepare graduates from a local community college Veterinary Technology program to take the VTNE by implementing an exam review course in the semester prior to graduation from the program. The focus of the review course was not only content review, but also test taking techniques, help with study habits, as well as presentation of techniques to help deal with test anxiety. Three sources of data were collected by the researcher including pre and post intervention VTNE scores, as well as survey results completed by the graduates participating in the study. There were 13 graduates who participated in the study, and the data for 50 prior graduates was used as a comparison for score improvement. Upon completion of the intervention, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that while the intervention did have a positive effect on the graduates in terms of feeling prepared for the exam, it did not improve VTNE scores. A survey was administered to the participants upon completion of the course, and thematic coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. Overall the results indicated the learners felt the course helped prepare them for the VTNE, and the majority recommended implementing it for future learners.
Dupre, Charles E.
The purpose of this case study was to examine the perspectives and disciplinary practices of teachers and administrators in one school that demonstrated the least disproportionality of disciplinary referrals between African American students and other student groups. The researcher determined that a qualitative action research case study conducted…
Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Lugo, Jennifer
This paper explores how critical teacher action research (CTAR) supported the process of developing and implementing a Spanish for Heritage Speakers (SHS) course in a high school, notwithstanding a low percentage of heritage language learners. The purpose of the paper was to explore how a teacher was able to navigate the secondary school…
Wilson, Annabelle M.; Mehta, Kaye; Miller, Jacqueline; Yaxley, Alison; Thomas, Jolene; Jackson, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda; Miller, Michelle D.
This article describes a review undertaken in 2012-2013 by Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, to assess the Indigenous health curriculum of the Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics (BND) and Masters of Nutrition and Dietetics (MND). An action research framework was used to guide and inform inquiry. This involved four stages, each of…
Full Text Available Background: Action research is used to bring about systematic change at the same time as developing fresh understanding about the change strategy and its impact. It has been around since the 1940s in a variety of forms and for different purposes. It is increasingly used as a practice development research strategy in healthcare professions. Aim and objectives: The aim is to provide an overview of action research to enable understanding of the flow and the cumulative, interactive nature of action research and its evolution. The objectives of the paper are practical, historical and paradigmatic in nature. Methods: Drawing on personal and others’ development and on experience of action research, the paper is a blend of scholarly writing, practical examples and the metaphor of a tidal river estuary. The metaphor uses continuous reshaping of sandbanks to symbolise the coming together and moving apart of different streams of action research. Exposition: The origins and evolution of action research, with its different purposes, orientations and emphases, are shown through an analysis and critique of different definitions of action research over time. With differences identified, common characteristics of action research and the creation of action hypotheses are set out, followed by the history and evolution of action research, separated into four major modes. Paradigmatic origins and assumptions of these modes are critiqued. Conclusion and implications for practice development research: In common with all researchers, practice development researchers need to consider carefully which paradigmatic assumptions are most relevant to their questions and purposes because those assumptions will help them to locate their work in an appropriate specific or blended research paradigm. The choice of paradigm will affect everything they do and are, so the choice needs to be made from an informed and embodied position.
Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E
Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning.
The distance between educational researchers and classroom teachers benefits disinterested observation, but dispossesses the researchers of participatory modes of understanding. In attempting to resolve this problem, some researchers have developed the theory and practice of teachers as researchers, similar to Kurt Lewin's action research. Lewin…
Eilertsen, Tor-Vidar; Gustafson, Niklas; Salo, Petri
This paper is based on the assumption that action research always affects the micropolitical balance characteristic of a certain school setting. The authors claim that micropolitics, that is the patterns of formal power and informal influence, has largely been neglected in the literature on action research in schools. This means that action…
Teachers' classroom-based action research is sometimes misunderstood by those who undertake it and support it, in three respects. First, it is wrongly assumed to fall into either positivist or interpretive paradigms (or perhaps a mixture of both) or to be critical. Second, there is little understanding as to why action research is necessarily…
Full Text Available After immersing myself in The Research Planner: Doing Critical Participatory Action Research, I believe I have a better understanding of participatory action research and its relationship to the work of Habermas. I feel it has enabled me to align my values and beliefs with Habermas and action research’s philosophical underpinnings within the critical theory paradigm. For me this book has clarified how communicative spaces, the theory of communicative action and public spheres are related to participatory methodologies. At the start of the book, Kemmis and co-authors (2013, pp 2-3 define the purpose of critical participatory action research as ‘to change social practices, including research itself, to make them more rational and reasonable, more productive and sustainable and more just and inclusive’. ‘Rational’ in this context conveys a sense of being more reasonable, comprehensible, coherent and sensible. Carr and Kemmis (1986 critique the positivist and interpretivist paradigms and argue that for critical participatory action research to bring about social change, it needs to reject the premise of objectivity whereby the researcher is viewed as a ‘distant observer’. They further advocate that self-reflection is essential, for the individual and the collective, to ensure the critical aspect and validity of the research. Overall, they say participatory forms of research methodology create the conditions for practitioners to be activity involved and have a voice in all aspects of the research process (Kemmis et al., 2013.
Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty
Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah
Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services
Gomes, Joan Julieanne Mariani
The importance of thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to integrate and analyze information has been recognized and yet may be lacking in schools. Creativity is inherently linked to problem finding, problem solving, and divergent thinking (Arieti, 1976; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Milgram, 1990). The importance of early childhood education and its role in the formation of young minds has been recognized (Caine & Caine, 1991; Montessori, 1967a, 1967b; Piaget, 1970). Early childhood education also impacts creativity (Gardner, 1999). The features of brain-based learning (Caine & Caine, 1991; Jensen, 1998; Sousa, 2001; Wolfe, 2001) have a clear connection to nurturing the creative potential in students. Intrinsic motivation and emotions affect student learning and creativity as well (Hennessey & Amabile, 1987). The purpose of this study was to discern if a creativity-focused science curriculum for the kindergarteners at a Montessori early learning center could increase creativity in students. This action research study included observations of the students in two classrooms, one using the creativity-focused science curriculum, and the other using the existing curriculum. The data collected for this interpretive study included interviews with the students, surveys and interviews with their parents and teachers, teacher observations, and the administration of Torrance's (1981) Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM) test. The interpretation of the data indicated that the enhanced science curriculum played a role in enhancing the creativity of the children in the creativity-focused group. The results of the TCAM (Torrance, 1981) showed a significant increase in scores for the children in the creativity-focused group. The qualitative data revealed a heightened interest in science and the observation of creative traits, processes, and products in the creativity-focused group children. The implications of this study included the need for meaningful
Isman, Aytekin; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye; Altinay Gazi, Zehra
The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas…
This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next...... in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings...... and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways....
Action research is a method for the combination of teaching and research.Due to its operativeness the method is paid more and more attention.The paper expounds the difference between action research and traditional teaching research,and aims to suggest that the former is an important avenue for professional development.
Barrington, D J; Sridharan, S; Saunders, S G; Souter, R T; Bartram, J; Shields, K F; Meo, S; Kearton, A; Hughes, R K
Diseases related to poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) are major causes of mortality and morbidity. While pursuing marketing approaches to WaSH to improve health outcomes is often narrowly associated with monetary exchange, marketing theory recognises four broad marketing exchange archetypes: market-based, non-market-based, command-based and culturally determined. This diversity reflects the need for parameters broader than monetary exchange when improving WaSH. This study applied a participatory action research process to investigate how impoverished communities in Melanesian urban and peri-urban informal settlements attempt to meet their WaSH needs through marketing exchange. Exchanges of all four archetypes were present, often in combination. Motivations for participating in the marketing exchanges were based on social relationships alongside WaSH needs, health aspirations and financial circumstances. By leveraging these motivations and pre-existing, self-determined marketing exchanges, WaSH practitioners may be able to foster WaSH marketing exchanges consistent with local context and capabilities, in turn improving community physical, mental and social health.
I am a doctoral student enrolled in an educational research program. While completing an action research course, I conducted research to improve my academic writing and to develop skills for formulating arguments about educational issues. From this research I developed an appreciation for and an understanding of good writing habits and elements of…
Theory and practice, researchers and practitioners are usually isolated in traditional education research, so much so that the research results can not solve the problems that teachers encounter in their teaching practice. As a new mode, action research provides a bridge linking theory and teaching practice as well as a way to promote teacher development.
Mancuso, Vincent J.
Students' scientific investigations have been identified in national standards and related reform documents as a critical component of students' learning experiences in school, yet it is not easy to implement them in science classrooms. Could science demonstrations help science teachers put this recommendation into practice? While demonstrations are a common practice in the science classroom and research has documented some positive effects in terms of student motivation and engagement from their use, the literature also shows that, as traditionally presented, science demonstrations do not always achieve their intended outcomes. This, in turn, suggested the value of investigating what design elements of demonstrations could be used to promote specific instructional goals. Employing action research as a methodology, the proposed study was developed to explore how science demonstrations can be designed so as to most effectively promote student engagement in scientific investigations. More specifically, I was interested in examining the effects of using a discrepant event as part of the demonstration, as a way to create cognitive conflict and, thus, increase interest and engagement. I also investigated the relative merit of the well-researched POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) design versus employing demonstrations that appear to the student to be unplanned (what I will refer to as NOE, or a Naturally Occurring Experience). This study was informed by Constructivism, Situated Cognition and Conceptual Change as theoretical frameworks. The project included the design, implementation and study of an intervention consisting of three instructional units designed to support students' learning of the concepts of density, molecular arrangement of gas particles, and cohesion, respectively. In each of these units, lasting a total of two 80-minute class periods, students were asked to design and conduct an investigation to gain a better understanding of the concept under study. In
The purpose of this article is to present the design and findings of a collaborative action research study that involved five secondary science teachers as action researchers and me, as facilitator, collectively articulating the teachers' changing teaching roles when the teachers taught with computer technology. Data included interviews,…
Furtado, Leena; Anderson, Dawnette
This study presents four teacher reflections from action research projects ranging from kindergarten to adult school improvements. A teacher leadership matrix guided participants to connect teaching and learning theory to best practices by exploring uncharted territory within an iterative cycle of research and action. Teachers developed the…
The dominant approach to second language (L2) teacher education emphasizes reflection as a tool for helping teachers develop context-specific, personal theories of L2 teaching. Educators can facilitate reflection by involving teachers in action research. This small-scale study investigated whether carrying out action research as part of a graduate…
Listening in a second language is challenge for students and teachers alike. This book provides a personal account of an action research intervention involving listening strategy instruction that investigated the viability of this innovative pedagogy in the Japanese university context.
Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry
Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…
Full Text Available This paper uses six characteristics of action research outlined by Street (2003 to organize the description of an interprofessional education (ipe project at a Canadian university. A brief background about the project is provided with a focus on the philosophy and methodology. Key findings are presented with a discussion of the relevance of this new knowledge and recommendations for future research. This description of the research process allows the reader to reflect on and evaluate the use of action research in and success of this project. In addition, this paper seeks to initiate dialogue about action research in general to facilitate the development of specific standards for this approach to research to enhance its credibility.
Lewis, Shaun; Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julie S.
This small action research study (ARS) began with a review of the literature examining the relationship of gangsta rap in regards to academic achievement, self-esteem, decision-making, identity issues and development of young African American males. The purpose of the ARS was to examine the correlation between gangsta rap and its influence on 5th…
This paper discusses the topic of getting started on a process of action research (AR). I hope that the paper encourages a few teachers to begin classroom investigations, because it is important for the TESOL and TEFL profession that we have more teacher-researchers. Only if we establish action research as a more attractive aspect of teaching can we avoid the almost complete separation between research on the one hand and practice on the other (Wallace 1991, p. 10). This gap between theory an...
IntroductionHistorically there has been a division between the classroom teacher who‘does practice’and theeducational researcher who‘establishes theories’.Similarly in teacher education programmes,thefocus has largely been on the transmission of research-based theories and skills from trainer totrainee.Teaching practice is usually listed as a separate component to be accomplished,often at theend of a period of training,and the limited time available for it can rarely provide realisticopportunities for trainees to put theory into practice.When our trainees return to their institutions theexcitement of the exposure to various theories and techniques are soon gone,to be replaced by thereality of classroom life.Many former trainees rapidly find themselves overburdened with teachingresponsibilities,and the constraints of their particular teaching situations can make it very difficult toapply theories they have learned during training directly into practice.
Kurt Lewin, the originator of action research, proposed that it was valuable not only for innovating change, but also the process of change could lead to new insights into the nature of the problem that was being tackled. This action research project developed and evaluated a teaching model that aimed to help RGN (registered general nurse) students to bridge the theory-practice gap. During the course of this work, the possible reasons for a theory-practice gap started to become clear. This paper provides a discussion of these factors. The viewpoint for this discussion is that of the student nurse. The student is assumed to 'own' the problem and it is from her perspective that the theory-practice gap is analysed. The paper includes a critical examination of books, lectures, the school curriculum and ward nursing practice. Finally, possible solutions to the theory-practice problem are discussed and it is hoped that these will provide a rational basis for tackling the problem.
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This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers’ methodologies and learners’ learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.
En este estudio se examinan los temas de investigación acción y los temas preferidos por dos grupos de profesores de base: uno de investigadores activos y otro de investigadores potenciales. El análisis sugiere que, durante la última década, la investigación acción en el aula de inglés para hablantes de otras lenguas se ha entendido principalmente en términos del desarrollo profesional con respecto a las metodologías de los profesores y las conductas estudiantiles de aprendizaje. Se considera que un incipiente interés por un enfoque más amplio y por asuntos conducentes al beneficio general de la profesión, solamente puede florecer con la colaboración de todos los actores más importantes.
, there are also weaknesses with norma- tive approaches. Specifically, these norms of action research leave relatively little space for understanding and managing emerging empirical uncertainties. These norms are important because they have implications not only on how we conduct action research in practice......A much revisited question within the field of Information Systems is how research- ers can intervene in the context of large-scale, complex and heterogeneous information in- frastructures, while ensuring impact on field settings. To explore this question, I draw upon my interventions and fieldwork...
Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj;
. In addition to the problem-solver and observer roles, the researcher in an inter-organisational setting can serve as a legitimiser of the project and manage to involve partners that in an ordinary business-to-business setting would not have participated. Based on an action research project in a Danish inter...
Savin-Baden, Maggi; Wimpenny, Katherine
This paper explores the research method of participatory action research, first by examining the roots of this approach and then analysing the shift to using more participatory approaches than in former years. It begins by considering the reasoning and theoretical underpinning for adopting this approach and provides an overview of the steps to be…
If we are to work towards more widespread recognition of action research as a research strand at universities, the issues of validity and quality must take centre stage. Wavy lines - a perspective based on concepts borrowed from architecture – supports, clarifies and unfolds the idea that knowled...
Queer theory and action research together offer possibilities for exposing the deep injustice of both homophobia and heterosexism. Underpinning identity categories of sexuality and gender, these forms of social injustice lurk in schools, families, religions, communities, and nation-states. For educators and educational researchers, addressing…
Tomal, Daniel R.
This book is a straightforward, no-nonsense guide to a research method that can be used by educators to increase student learning, student self-esteem, and quality of school life in the classroom. This user-friendly book covers the principles and history of action research, ethical and legal considerations, methods for conducting both formal and…
Jim B. Parsons
Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.
Rios, Victor M.
This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…
Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the teacher- researcher movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.
Egmose, Jonas; Andersen, John
This paper elaborates how action research can make methodological contributions to sustainability planning by strengthening civic orientations across citizens’ everyday life and institutionalised contexts. Taking into account an emerging number of civic sustainability initiatives, the paper...... addresses how sustainability planning can more actively integrate civic aspirations as part of broader societal transformations towards sustainability. Conceptualised by the notion of sustaining sustain-abilities the role of planning implies strengthening possibilities for ecological and social life...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence. Analysing learning experiences from a three year action research project taking place in Northern London 2007-9 the paper exemplifies how synergies between action research methodologies and sustainability planning can help strengthening...
The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…
Full Text Available High efficiency research, development and innovation (RD&I constitute an answer to the ever growing importance that EU states give to knowledge-based development (a central idea in the Europe 2020 Strategy, directed toward finding comprehensive solutions to concerns connected to the Europe’s resource depletion, energy future, climate changes, etc. The "Action Research" paradigm appeared in the late 1940s but its systematic application is the attribute of recent years. It keeps researchers in the real world, requires teamwork, collaboration with communities and other stakeholders. Action Research is especially suitable in projects for reducing anthropic footprint / environmental aggression and in waste management. In essence, Action Research (for the first time systematically applied in Romania is the research approach that lets the problem studied to conduct the analysis and generate appropriate solutions; it constitutes a flexible, versatile technique to generate new knowledge through iterative interaction with the domain studied - namely the environment - researchers and communities.
Full Text Available Eind augustus 2006 vond in Groningen het gecombineerde internationale congress over Action Learning and Action Research/Participatory Action Research (ALARPM 7th/PAR 11th plaats. Onderzoekers van over de hele wereld namen deel om te luisteren naar key-note speakers, om een workshop te geven of bij te wonen en om ervaringen uit te wisselen. De 290 deelnemers hadden een ruime keus: naast de zeven centrale lezingen was er een scala aan workshops over thema’s uit vijf verschillende stromingen (Standards/Ethics, Education/Action Learning, Organizational Development, Rural Development/Developmental Cooperation/Social Innovation, Health. Een impressie van het congres.
Nasir, Laraib; Naqvi, Syeda Meenoo; Bhamani, Shelina
This research aimed to improve written expression (composition) skills of 5th grade students of an elite private school. The research was designed under the paradigm of action research. A total sample of 39 students' from the same grade was chosen for the study. The baseline assessment was carried out to explore the pre-intervention writing skill…
Berger, Jesper Bull; Rose, Jeremy
Action research is widespread in many of the background disciplines that underpin the e-Government field and is beginning to take root as a legitimate e-Government research method. Canonical Action Research (CAR)is the most widely used form of action research; however it relies on premises that can...... be problematic in the e-Government context. This article details some of those underlying assumptions, and shows the difficulties that result when applied to a relatively typical e-Government case study: the implementation of an advanced email system in Danish public administration. The empirical experience...... calls many of the standard premises into question, and these are categorised. The authors summarize the resulting experience as nine challenges for action researchers working in the e-Government field, and investigate some possible responses....
The role of a teacher as an action researcher in Croatia is still insufficiently appreciated and promoted in initial teachers' training, school students learning and in the employed teachers' professional post-qualification development. In this country, teachers are most frequently perceived as mediators or technicians whose task is to prepare and…
Since 2013 the British Council / Ministry of Education Chile Champion Teachers programme has been helping secondary school teachers engage in exploratory action research projects. This book provides nine easily accessible examples of such projects and highlights the achievements gained in spite of teachers' difficult working conditions.
Day, Nicole Kristine
This paper reviews data from 27 final reports of action research projects in the area of instructional coaching undertaken as part of Cycle 4 (2008-2010) of the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI). AISI was an Alberta government programme that provided funding to every school district to allow teachers to create site-based, action…
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
The article describes the scenario workshop within the action research paradigm. In addtion, the maina phases and the functions of the facilitator and the participants are outlined. Finally,it describes and analyses the experiences of using the scenario workshop in practice....
Historically, "teacher action research" and "teacher research" have been terms mostly used at the PK-12 level. Yet, embracing it fully and visibly in the teacher education realm is important because it raises awareness of the critical and transformative aspects of teaching and learning. It allows teacher research to be made visible and validated…
Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.
Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved
The introduction of this study describes five developments regarding research and development in the domain of teaching. These developments are closely connected with the desire to bridge the gap between the theory and the practice of teaching. Successively, attention is paid to: (1) changes in rese
Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on…
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
Hahn Heidi Ann
Full Text Available In a plenary talk at WMSCI 2012 entitled "Planning for Action Research: Looking at Practice through a Different Lens," this author asserted that behavioral science practitioners, often "back into" action research – they start out doing a process improvement or intervention and discover something along the way, i.e., generalizable knowledge, that seems worthwhile to share with their community of practice. It was further asserted that, had the efforts been conceived of as research from the outset, the contributions to the body of knowledge would be more robust and the utility of the projects would improve as well. This paper continues on that theme. Action research and process improvement methods are briefly described and compared. A comparison of two Los Alamos National Laboratory engineering ethics training projects – one developed using a process improvement framework, the other using an action research framework – is put forth to provide evidence that use of a research "lens" can enhance behavioral science interventions and the knowledge that may result from them. The linkage between the Specifying Learning and Diagnosing stages of the Action Research Cycle provides one mechanism for integrating the knowledge gained into the product or process being studied and should provide a reinforcing loop that leads to continual improvement. The collaborative relationships among researchers and the individual, group, or organization that is the subject of the imp rovement op p ortunity (the "client", who are likely from very different backgrounds, and the interpretive epistemology that are among the hallmarks of action research also contribute to the quality of the knowledge gained. This paper closes with a discussion of how Inter-Disciplinary Communication is embedded within the action research paradigm and how this likely also enriches the knowledge gained.
Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
Public Management 2. A marginalized urban area, where the objective was to develop a community centre which could strengthen social capital and facilitate empowerment of both residents and welfare workers 3. A local project about sustainable housing, where the objective was to design and build houses...... to strengthen these actors’ capacity to actively influence the development of society and contribute to better social and environmental conditions. The first part of the chapter introduces the core concepts of action research and empowerment with references to international contributions. The next part concerns...... which could act as prototypes and inspiration for the development of sustainable housing. The chapter illustrates and discusses how action research can, with the active participation of local citizens, public employees, private employees and environmental organizations amongst others, contribute...
James O. Barbre
Full Text Available Action research has been shown to be effective in a variety of ways for teachers in the classroom setting. While the focus of the action research project has primarily been at the graduate level or tailored to the needs of working professionals, we propose that it is possible to do much more for the student teacher as he or she completes the program requirements through the student teaching experience. Through the incorporation of training in methods of data collection and analysis, student teachers will stand to gain a much greater degree of insight into areas of their professional pedagogical disposition through active reflection. This will develop a reflective habit of mind that is crucial for teachers to be effective in their classrooms and adaptive to the changing needs of their students, and allow for a greater degree of professional self-efficacy and satisfaction on the part of the teachers themselves.
Herbert, Susan; Rainford, Marcia
This paper presents a case study of the work of two teacher educators with an in-service science teacher. This case study forms one cycle of a larger action research study that will eventually lead to a model of how the third-space concept for teacher professional development can be realized in natural school settings. The case study took place in…
"Using Action Research to Foster Positive Social Values" provides teachers with a unique framework in which to consider classroom violence. It uses actual case studies and working models done through classroom research to produce more effective classrooms that foster positive social values. The author lays out a theoretical framework for: (1)…
this framework. The analytical approach was qualitative content analysis. Results were not entirely as expected; they showed that when the tools were used as in the research design, mentors felt they benefitted and evidence indicated their competence would improve. Surprisingly, most mentors did not perform......Artiklen er blevet dobbelt blind reviewet og jeg er i gang med at rette den til. This article presents results about student nurse mentors' competence development in relation to exploiting learning opportunities in everyday life activities in hospital wards. They are from the Danish action research...... about them. The research used the concept of 'pseudo-everyday life activities' in which hitherto undiscovered learning opportunities in everyday situations can be exploited, alongside Lauvås and Handal's 'Mentoring loop'. The research sought to establish how mentors’ competence could be improved using...
Full Text Available This article focuses on action research study which was conducted with the third class students of English Language Teaching Department ,which was completed in four weeks.The aim was to introduce action research to teachers-in-preparation and encourage them to use it after their graduation to help them to become reflective teachers..Before this action research began,teachers-in-preparation had been tutoring for five weeks.In the first week of the action research study,in the classroom, students tried to find common teaching problems they had while tutoring and they used data collection techniques such as video-taping and peer observation, and in the second week they shared what they had learned about their problems and what their action plans were.In later weeks they shared the results of their the action plans and how successful their plans were.It was hoped that teachers-in-preparation would become more flexible in their thinking,be more open to new ideas and would learn to develop professional autonomy.
Acar Şeşen, Burçin; Mutlu (Karadaş), Ayfer
In this study, it was aimed to determine and overcome undergraduates’ laboratory anxiety. For this purpose, Laboratory Anxiety Questionnaire (LAQ) was developed by researchers. LAQ was applied to 92 undergraduates as a pre-test and focus group interviews were performed to determine their laboratory anxiety. An action research was conducted by researchers. After instruction was accomplished in ten weeks, LAQ was applied as post-test. According to results, it was found that undergradua...
Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Perry, Chad
Clarifies differences between core collaborative action research in the field and independent action research for theses. Explains how core action research may be incorporated into thesis research in the social sciences, resulting in more useful outcomes for improving practice. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)
This is a study on teachers' professional development through action research practice. The participants of the study were 23 English Language Teachers (ELT) who teach in high schools, preparatory schools and colleges in Debre Markos, in Dessie and around in 2014. The methods of data collection were teacher reflection, and in-depth interview. The…
Full Text Available This article positions participatory action learning and action research (PALAR as a preferred methodology for community-university partnerships to achieve a holistic outcome that benefits the common interest. Evidence for this claim is illustrated through case studies of two community engagement programs, one in South Africa and the other in Australia. The South African study explains how relationships, reflection and recognition (the three R’s of PALAR are important elements that promote a truly participatory approach to knowledge creation and practical improvement in social circumstances. The Australian study then highlights what can be achieved. It does this by showing the potential for PALAR participants to learn how to design and implement a community engagement program, and how to cascade their own learning into their community to improve educational opportunities. Both studies demonstrate PALAR’s potential to disrupt traditional understandings of the research process, particularly in terms of researcher–participant relationships. At the same time, both studies identify the challenges arising from the theoretical and practical implications of PALAR as an approach to community development. This article is therefore significant for universities and funding organisations engaging in community-based research and development through partnerships, specifically in contexts of disadvantage. Keywords: Participatory action learning and action research, PALAR, community development, community engagement, community partnerships, disadvantaged communities, higher education.
Hernandez, Jennifer F.
Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is part of a national movement to prepare students for the demands of a 21st century workforce. STEM uses an integrated, real-world problem solving approach to increase the levels of collaboration, communication, critical, and creative thinking in students. If expectations for students have increased to stay competitive in a global market, teachers must be equipped to meet the needs of the new 21st century learners in their classrooms. To that end, professional learning for educators is essential to ensure they are equipped with the tools necessary for success. While there are many approaches to teacher development, professional learning teams, based on the work of Garmston and Wellman, focus on teachers' instructional delivery, targeted student learning needs, planning, implementing new strategies, collaboration, and reflective dialogue. The purpose of the study is to improve instructional practice providing quality STEM instruction to students and increase teacher self-efficacy---a teachers' perception of his or her ability to instruct students in the STEM disciplines. Theoretical implications of a study on an elementary STEM learning team could affect the way schools deliver STEM professional learning opportunities to teachers and the way students are delivered a quality STEM education. Research has shown that Model I behavior would limit the change process of professional learning through a surface inspection of the issues; however model II behaviors would benefit the teachers, students and organization because teachers would be collaborating on specific objectives to develop a knowledge base and skill set to meet students' needs. Extending professional development by engaging stakeholders in a collaborative process to build model II behaviors will create an organizational structure that facilitates learning.
Mitchener, Carole P.; Jackson, Wendy M.
In this article, we present a case study of a beginning science teacher's year-long action research project, during which she developed a meaningful grasp of learning from practice. Wendy was a participant in the middle grade science program designed for career changers from science professions who had moved to teaching middle grade science. An extended action research experience in the second year of induction proved valuable to her in learning how to modify her teaching to reach her goal, using evidence of student learning as her guide. This article closes with reflections on the value of extended action research within science teacher preparation, particularly early in one's career, and explores the promise for ongoing practice-based professional development throughout a teacher's career.
Ehde, Dawn M; Wegener, Stephen T; Williams, Rhonda M; Ephraim, Patti L; Stevenson, Jennifer E; Isenberg, Patricia J; MacKenzie, Ellen J
Few published intervention studies in the rehabilitation literature have included consumers in the research process other than as study participants. This lack of consumer involvement in intervention research may contribute to the challenges encountered developing, translating, disseminating, and sustaining evidence-based rehabilitation interventions in clinical practice. The overall objective of this article is to promote the integration of participatory action research (PAR) into rehabilitation intervention research as a mechanism for addressing these gaps. First, we outline essential components of a PAR model across 5 key phases of intervention research, specifically: agenda setting, methods, implementation, diffusion/dissemination, and sustainability. Second, we describe the use of PAR in rehabilitation intervention research within each of these phases by reviewing relevant literature and by providing an illustrative research example from a randomized controlled trial that integrated PAR throughout the research process. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of 5 specific recommendations for promoting the integration of PAR into rehabilitation intervention research.
Dajani, Majida "Mohammed Yousef "
This study aimed to describe the implementation of individual action research projects among some forty English language teachers distributed in thirty Palestinian schools in Ramallah and Qabatya districts-Palestine. It aimed to analyze the outcomes of the teachers' action research as part of a broader participatory action research project that is…
Full Text Available This research aims to identify zakah management accountability problems faced by zakat institutions (OPZ and to propose some solutions. The study employed a modified action research method. The result indicated that there were overlapping empowerment programs among the institutions, inaccurate data of mustahik and muzaki, limited number of partnerships among zakat institutions, expensive promotion model, and limited number of professional zakah officials. The agenda of action to raise zakat management accountability are the compilation of mustahik and muzaki’s data through mosques, cooperation with higher education, and the making of zakah as a national program across departments and the collaboration with IKADI and DKM.
Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J
This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic.
Agathokleous, Eugenios; Mouzaki-Paxinou, Akrivi-Chara; Saitanis, Costas J; Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J
The antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) is widely studied as a phytoprotectant against the widespread pollutant ground-surface ozone. Although it has been extensively used, its potential toxicity in the absence of ozone is unknown and its mode of action is unclear. The purpose of this research was to toxicologically assess EDU and to further investigate its mode of action using Lemna minor L. as a model organism. Application of EDU concentrations greater than 593 mg L(-1) (practically 600 mg L(-1)) resulted in adverse inhibition of colony growth. As no-observed-toxic-effects concentration (NOEL) we recommend a concentration of 296 mg L(-1) (practically 300 mg L(-1)). A hormetic response was detected, i.e. stimulatory effects of low EDU concentrations, which may indicate overcompensation in response to disruption in homeostasis. Growth inhibition and suppressed biomass were associated with impacted chlorophyll a fluorescence (ΦPSII, qP and ETR). Furthermore, EDU increased mesophyll thickness, as indicated by frond succulence index. Applications of concentrations ≥593 mg L(-1) to uncontrolled environments should be avoided due to potential toxicity to sensitive organisms and the environment.
Kostaris, Christoforos; Sergis, Stylianos; Sampson, Demetrios G.; Giannakos, Michail N.; Pelliccione, Lina
The emerging Flipped Classroom approach has been widely used to enhance teaching practices in many subject domains and educational levels, reporting promising results for enhancing student learning experiences. However, despite this encouraging body of research, the subject domain of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) teaching at…
The articles in this thematic issue document studies of grassroots actions in promoting multilingualism across different sectors of society as well as in different social and professional domains. In doing so, the contributors raise issues of the relevance of the notion of community in the age of superdiversity and the researcher's…
Mostofo, Jameel; Zambo, Ron
There is a continuing emphasis in the United States on improving students' mathematical abilities, and one approach is to better prepare teachers. To investigate the potential usefulness of Lesson Study to better prepare teachers, one author set out to conduct action research on his classroom practice. Specifically, he sought to determine whether…
Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn
This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…
This study explores action research as a professional development strategy to improve interprofessional collaboration in a school division team focused on supporting students with a variety of learning and behavioural needs. Occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, a psychologist, and a social worker worked together to learn more…
Students in Greece are required to study classical texts, a task often challenging both for them and for their teachers. In this article, a teacher action researcher describes how he explored ways to enhance student engagement in the required reading. By negotiating the task of indexing, a process where students go through the text collecting…
Sweet, Kevin; Hovick, Shelly; Sturm, Amy C; Schmidlen, Tara; Gordon, Erynn; Bernhardt, Barbara; Wawak, Lisa; Wernke, Karen; McElroy, Joseph; Scheinfeldt, Laura; Toland, Amanda E; Roberts, J S; Christman, Michael
Genomic applications raise multiple challenges including the optimization of genomic counseling (GC) services as part of the results delivery process. More information on patients' motivations, preferences, and informational needs are essential to guide the development of new, more efficient practice delivery models that capitalize on the existing strengths of a limited genetic counseling workforce. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of counselees from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative following online receipt of multiple personalized genomic test reports. Participants previously had either in-person GC (chronic disease cohort, n = 20; mean age 60 years) or telephone GC (community cohort, n = 31; mean age 46.8 years). Transcripts were analyzed using a Grounded Theory framework. Major themes that emerged from the interviews include 1) primary reasons for seeking GC were to clarify results, put results into perspective relative to other health-related concerns, and to receive personalized recommendations; 2) there is need for a more participant driven approach in terms of mode of GC communication (in-person, phone, video), and refining the counseling agenda pre-session; and 3) there was strong interest in the option of follow up GC. By clarifying counselees' expectations, views and desired outcomes, we have uncovered a need for a more participant-driven GC model when potentially actionable genomic results are received online.
Gooch, Kim Renee
The long-term goal of this study was to increase the researcher's knowledge in curriculum content, curriculum design, and implementation, as well as teaching methodologies in the content areas for urban African American middle school students. The purpose of this specific study was to develop, implement and evaluate a reading in the content areas science curriculum designed to increase conceptual abilities, reading skills, and individual learning for eighth grade-students in urban schools. The research question that drove the goal and purpose of this study was as follows: How does the theory and practice of accelerated learning, multiple intelligences, and brain-based learning integrated with specific components of reading in the content area impact urban, middle school African American students' conceptual understanding of eighth-grade science? The student participants in this study were 16 African American students in the eighth grade who had below-grade reading achievement (third-grade level on district standardized tests), who were overage for middle school, yet still in the eighth grade, and who had failed the district's eighth grade science curriculum. This was an action-oriented research study that utilized a mixed methodology of qualitative and quantitative data collection. The quantitative data collection consisted of pre and post tests, surveys with yes/no responses, and graphs. The qualitative data collection consisted of surveys with written responses, and a focus group. The major finding from this study was that the dynamic interaction of the theories (accelerated learning, multiple intelligences, and brain-based learning integrated with specific components of reading in the content area) put into practice through the Michigan Framework Curriculum had a significant impact on student learning as evidenced by the MAT-7 standardized test scores. Qualitative findings indicated that this dynamic interaction of theories put into practice worked to create a
McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas
Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…
Aidinopoulou, Vasiliki; Sampson, Demetrios G.
The benefits of the flipped classroom (FC) model in students' learning are claimed in many recent studies. These benefits are typically accounted to the pedagogically efficient use of classroom time for engaging students in active learning. Although there are several relevant studies for the deployment of the FC model in Science, Technology,…
Irizarry, Jason G.
This article explores youth participatory action research as a promising instructional practice with the potential to reverse the depoliticizing and "softening" of multicultural education. It demonstrates how, with its explicit commitment to action, youth participatory action research can help to improve the educational experiences and…
Dague, Christopher Thomas
AP social studies courses are viewed as beacons for rigorous and demanding coursework in secondary classroom settings. Recent curricular revisions and enrollment initiatives made by the College Board have led to further discourse concerning instructional and curricular tensions that still need to be addressed. Moreover, reform made in AP social…
Full Text Available Similar concerns about the development of children’s creative writing abilities in Kenya and South Africa prompted two Mother Tongue (MT education practitioners in Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL and Molteno Institute for Language and Literacy of Linguistics (MILL to undertake parallel intervention studies to increase teachers’ competence in writing pedagogy and improve the quantity and quality of learners’writing. Most early literacy teachers have had no experience themselves of expressive writing, so it is not surprising that this activity rarely, if ever, features in public school early literacy classrooms. The hypothesis which formed the basis for this action research study was that educators, exposed to extensive and expressive writing themselves, will be more skilled in the generation of such activities with learners. This paper reports on the workshop processes in the two sites, identifying similarities and di"erences in the experience. Whilst the hypothesis, though tested, remains unproven,this paper presents findings that are of relevance to further study in the area of writing pedagogy research and also to teachers and teacher educators involved in writing in the primary school.
In a culture of performativity, action research offers teachers an opportunity to step back and reflect on their practice. This paper reports on a collaborative project carried out between a university and a secondary school in England, in which the university staff supported an action research project within the school. Five school teachers volunteered to engage in this project. They were given an introduction to action research and were assigned a university researcher to support them. Desp...
This paper argues that material from dreams offers a resource within the social sphere that has potential for the practice of action research. The modern approach to dream interpretation, following Freud, has almost exclusively been situated at the level of the therapeutic dyad where the significance of dream material is circumscribed within…
Cornelissen, Frank; van den Berg, Ellen
Today, many institutions of higher education support students in conducting practice-oriented research. This research refers to a broad array of approaches geared toward practitioners' practice. The supervision of such research is of crucial importance, but little is known about its nature and characteristics. This study examined what research…
This article considers some paradigms of educational research, and their relation to teachers' action research in their classrooms or studios. The positivist/scientific paradigm and the interpretive/naturalist paradigm are examined, with reference to two cases of music teachers' action research studies. These studies are found to be flawed because…
Full Text Available Although research in marital and family therapy (MFT is becoming increasingly important, it continues to encounter several major problems. Studies have shown that research has very little influence on the practice of the majority of MFT practitioners. Practitioners see research as unrelated to their concerns. The practice of the majority of MFT practitioners is very individualized, as are the clinical problems and circumstances. Some have therefore started to emphasize the transferability of results instead of generalizability, and studying the practitioner's own practice instead of general concepts. Action research in the field of psychotherapy, as well as in the field of MFT, has been mainly overlooked as a potential method for solving these problems in MFT research. The paper addresses one of many possible ways to use the repeating cycles of the four basic steps in action research (observing and gathering information, reflecting, planning, and acting. The use of these four steps in action research enables therapists to study and improve their own practice in a more systematic, structured, and valid manner. This kind of research connects research and therapy. It is very individualized and oriented towards actions that create therapeutic changes.
Robinson, Daniel B.
This article presents an action research project focused on improving physical education (PE) for adolescent female students. One university researcher, three male PE teachers, and 13 of their most disengaged female students participated in the one-year, two-cycle, action research project. The process and results are offered so that future PE…
McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas
This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…
Goeman, Dianne; Michael, J; King, J; Luu, Huy; Emmanuel, Claire; Koch, S
Objective The aim of the Vietnamese Dementia talking-book was to address low health literacy in older people of Vietnamese background living with dementia through the provision of an online resource to help individuals, their families and carers better understand and manage this condition and provide information about available dementia services. Design This qualitative study used codesign and participatory action research to develop and refine the talking-book in consultation with expert stakeholders, a consumer advocacy group and the Vietnamese community to assess its utility and ensure cultural and linguistic appropriateness and relevance. Participants 59 members of the Vietnamese community, 11 stakeholders from community health services and ethnic agencies, consumer advocacy groups and the research team participated in the codesign and refinement of the talking-book. 22 members of the Vietnamese community appraised the final product. Setting Vietnamese community planned activity groups in the Western, Northern and Southern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. Results Our codesign study outlines the process required to develop a Vietnamese Dementia Talking-Book resource partnering with consumers and expert stakeholders to identify consumer need, selection of the content and appropriate language level, construction of the book, measuring acceptability of the talking-book, modification based on feedback and production and dissemination. Feedback on the final version of the talking-book revealed widespread consensus that the book enhanced the knowledge of members of the Vietnamese community in regard to understanding dementia and navigation and accessing of available services. Conclusions This free internationally available online Vietnamese Dementia Talking-Book facilitates improved dementia-related health literacy in the Vietnamese community. The book also serves as a tool to facilitate the provision of care to Vietnamese people living with memory loss by assisting
Yang, K Wayne
This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math preparation and accelerate students into higher-order math literacy. This study differs from and extends other studies that describe mathematics as a tool for social critique. It considers youth research in and through mathematics as a more ideologically open endeavor in that youth do not simply reproduce predetermined criticisms of social inequality. Thus, this project translates extensive work in critical literacy, new media literacy, and youth participatory action research to a mathematics context.
Kizilaslan, Irem; Leutwyler, Bruno
Action research is increasingly recognized as an important component in initial teacher education programs in different countries around the world. Either as an inquiry project conducted during a field experience, or as a research-inclusive course, action research processes are introduced to student teachers during their study period in order to…
The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of how teachers become action researchers in the context of Pakistan in view of the attempts by the Ministry of Education to reconceptualize teachers as researchers. A metasynthesis of 20 action research theses by MEd students of a private university as part of their program requirements…
Action research began as an ambitious epistemological and social intervention. As the concept has become reified, packaged for methodology textbooks and professional development workshops, it has degenerated into a cure that may be worse than the disease. The point is not the trivial one that action research, like any practice, sometimes shows up…
Teaching teams can hold the promise of being an ideal vehicle in which collaborative action research is conducted. This case documents the mixed results of a team leader's efforts to improve teaching and introduce inquiry-based professional development through action research in a community college. This case paints a realistic and…
Cain, Tim; Harris, Richard
In a culture of performativity, action research offers teachers an opportunity to step back and reflect on their practice. This paper reports on a collaborative project carried out between a university and a secondary school in England, in which the university staff supported an action research project within the school. Five school teachers…
This paper introduces the notion of action research in its international academic context. Action research is potentially beneficial to both pre-service teachers and in-service teachers in their professional development and it should play an important role in the curriculum renewal of English teaching methodology in China.
Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin
Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…
A number of key constructs underpin educational action research. This paper focuses on the concept of "truth" and by doing so hopes to highlight some debate in this area. In reflecting upon what "truth" might mean to those involved in action research, I shall critically evaluate Thorndike's "Law of Effect" and Bruner's "Three Forms of…
Bocci, Melissa Cochrane
Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) requires students to use language in myriad ways as they define a problem, design and conduct an original research project, disseminate their findings, and take change-seeking actions in their community. YPAR embeds language development in community-centered and cross-disciplinary work and empowers youth…
Action research, a term first used in the 1940's by Kurt Lewin, implies the application of tools and methods of social science to immediate, practical problems, with the goals of contributing to theory and knowledge in the field of education and improving practice in the schools. Collaborative action research suggests that each group represented…
This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…
Background This paper provides a brief overview of the Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization "ParticipACTION"; introduces the "new" ParticipACTION; describes the research process leading to the collection of baseline data on the new ParticipACTION; and outlines the accompanying series of papers in the supplement presenting the detailed baseline data. Methods Information on ParticipACTION was gathered from close personal involvement with the organization, from interviews and meetings with key leaders of the organization, from published literature and from ParticipACTION archives. In 2001, after nearly 30 years of operation, ParticipACTION ceased operations because of inadequate funding. In February 2007 the organization was officially resurrected and the launch of the first mass media campaign of the "new" ParticipACTION occurred in October 2007. The six-year absence of ParticipACTION, or any equivalent substitute, provided a unique opportunity to examine the impact of a national physical activity social marketing organization on important individual and organizational level indicators of success. A rapid response research team was established in January 2007 to exploit this natural intervention research opportunity. Results The research team was successful in obtaining funding through the new Canadian Institutes of Health Research Intervention Research (Healthy Living and Chronic Disease Prevention) Funding Program. Data were collected on individuals and organizations prior to the complete implementation of the first mass media campaign of the new ParticipACTION. Conclusion Rapid response research and funding mechanisms facilitated the collection of baseline information on the new ParticipACTION. These data will allow for comprehensive assessments of future initiatives of ParticipACTION. PMID:19995455
Craig Cora L
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper provides a brief overview of the Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization "ParticipACTION"; introduces the "new" ParticipACTION; describes the research process leading to the collection of baseline data on the new ParticipACTION; and outlines the accompanying series of papers in the supplement presenting the detailed baseline data. Methods Information on ParticipACTION was gathered from close personal involvement with the organization, from interviews and meetings with key leaders of the organization, from published literature and from ParticipACTION archives. In 2001, after nearly 30 years of operation, ParticipACTION ceased operations because of inadequate funding. In February 2007 the organization was officially resurrected and the launch of the first mass media campaign of the "new" ParticipACTION occurred in October 2007. The six-year absence of ParticipACTION, or any equivalent substitute, provided a unique opportunity to examine the impact of a national physical activity social marketing organization on important individual and organizational level indicators of success. A rapid response research team was established in January 2007 to exploit this natural intervention research opportunity. Results The research team was successful in obtaining funding through the new Canadian Institutes of Health Research Intervention Research (Healthy Living and Chronic Disease Prevention Funding Program. Data were collected on individuals and organizations prior to the complete implementation of the first mass media campaign of the new ParticipACTION. Conclusion Rapid response research and funding mechanisms facilitated the collection of baseline information on the new ParticipACTION. These data will allow for comprehensive assessments of future initiatives of ParticipACTION.
Soprano, Kristina; Yang, Li-Ling
This case study reports the effects of a cooperative learning field experience on a pre-service teacher's views of inquiry-based science and her science teaching self-efficacy. Framed by an action research model, this study examined (a) the pre-service teacher's developing understanding of inquiry-based science teaching and learning…
Faikhamta, Chatree; Clarke, Anthony
As a key element in teacher education programmes, action research is a learning process in which pre-service teachers inquire, reflect on and improve their teaching practices. This qualitative study sought to understand what enhanced or hindered Thai pre-service teachers' action research projects during their student teaching. This study drew upon…
Durak, Gürhan; Yünkül, Eyup; Cankaya, Serkan; Akpinar, Sükran; Erten, Emine; Inam, Nazmiye; Taylan, Ufuk; Tastekin, Eray
Action Research (AR) is becoming popular in the field of education, and according to literature, it could be stated that AR studies have positive influence on practice in education. The present study aims at conducting content analysis of action research (AR) master theses and doctoral dissertations submitted at the level of Turkish higher…
Wang, Chien-Hsing; Ke, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jin-Tong; Hsu, Wen-Hua
This paper briefly reports the outcomes of an action research inquiry on the use of blogs, MS PowerPoint [PPT], and the Internet as learning tools with a science class of sixth graders for project-based learning. Multiple sources of data were essential to triangulate the key findings articulated in this paper. Corresponding to previous studies, the incorporation of technology and project-based learning could motivate students in self-directed exploration. The students were excited about the autonomy over what to learn and the use of PPT to express what they learned. Differing from previous studies, the findings pointed to the lack information literacy among students. The students lacked information evaluation skills, note-taking and information synthesis. All these findings imply the importance of teaching students about information literacy and visual literacy when introducing information technology into the classroom. The authors suggest that further research should focus on how to break the culture of "copy-and-paste" by teaching the skills of note-taking and synthesis through inquiry projects for science learning. Also, further research on teacher professional development should focus on using collaboration action research as a framework for re-designing graduate courses for science teachers in order to enhance classroom technology integration.
Zhang, Meilan; Passalacqua, Susan; Lundeberg, Mary; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan; Parker, Joyce; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Zhang, Tianyi; Paik, Sunhee
In this study we described an action research project enacted by a veteran Kindergarten teacher (Sarah) in the context of a professional development program. Over the course of a year, Sarah collaborated with other teachers in a small group to investigate how to use “Science Talks” to promote student learning in Kindergarten classrooms. A Problem-Based Learning approach was adopted to guide the collaborative action research. Based on a rich set of data sources, we concluded that Sarah’s action research improved student learning and led to her own professional growth. We also identified important conditions in support of action research.
Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John
This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…
Full Text Available The paper is a reflection and analysis of action research as an alternative of qualitative and socio-critic paradigm by presenting the corresponding theoretical account and its role in educational environment. It highlights not only the comprehension and interpretation but transformation of the teaching practice under study. The need of studying and researching the teaching process from the perspective of the teacher performance is portrayed as a primary way of improving teaching practice.
Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron
As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…
Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…
Sowa, Patience A.
This paper examines the ways in which action research projects can be used to socialize teachers to the teaching of English language learners (ELLs) as well as help these teachers develop reflective practice. Drawing on surveys, action research projects conduced with ELLs and reflection papers as data, the study explored the teachers' statements…
Teaching in today's changing society requires teachers' independent judgement and development. One way of fostering professional development is action research; described, however, as a challenging and time-consuming process. This qualitative study asks whether action research is worthwhile already in pre-service teacher education, or whether the…
The recent study Polling for Justice (PFJ) used a multigenerational participatory action research approach with embodied methodologies to document youth experiences of education, criminal justice, and public health in New York City. Through an exploration of the PFJ project, this column demonstrates how participatory action research and embodied…
Sappington, Neil; Baker, Paul J.; Gardner, Dianne; Pacha, Joe
This study proposes participatory action research as a signature pedagogy for principal preparation programs. Signature pedagogies bring professional knowledge and core values together in distinctive teaching and learning arrangements. A rationale and learning results are presented that describe key components of action research intended to help…
Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.
Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...
The present research investigates the talk of an experienced professor in an intensive-reading class from the perspective of [-R-F exchange structure. The findings indicate that the teacher combines referential and display questions effectively, but use the former more. Then three pedagogical implications are drawn.
Haski-Leventhal, Debbie; Cnaan, Ram; Handy, Femida; Brudney, Jeffrey; Holmes, Kirsten; Hustinx, Lesley; Kang, ChulHee; Kassam, Meenaz; Meijs, Lucas; Ranade, Bhagyashree; Yamauchi, Naoto; Yeung, Anne Birgitta; Zrinscak, Sinisa
textabstractPrevious research on student involvement suggested that business and engineering students manifest lowest rates of voluntary action. Similarly, it was thought that social science students are the most involved in voluntary action, with students of natural sciences and humanities in the middle. However, there were very few studies that empirically compared these assertions. Furthermore, these assertions were not investigated from cross-cultural perspectives. Based on a study of stu...
Bissessar, Charmaine S.
An exponential body of extant research illustrates the symbiotic dyad action research, andragogy, reflective praxis, and transformative learning share. This paper contains a narrative review of 83 action research papers submitted to the researcher as part of the fulfilment of the Bachelor of Education degree from April 2011 to May 2013.…
Alexa, L.; Alexa, M.; Avasilcăi, S.
The current business environment is characterized by increased competition and highly innovative approach, in order to create products and services to better respond to the costumers’ needs and expectations. In this specific context, the research approaches need to be more flexible and business oriented and so, throughout the paper we have used a research method that combines design research and action research, named Action Design Research which is a research method used for generating prescriptive design knowledge through building and evaluating IT artifacts in an organizational setting . Following the Action Design Research stages and principles: problem identification, building, intervention and evaluation, reflection and learning and formalization of learning, the research team has developed an online instrument used to actively involve the consumer in the product development process, in order to generate a better consumers insight regarding their needs and desires and to design and/or adjust the product accordingly. The customer engagement IT tool created and tested by using Action Design Research, E-PICUS, has been developed within the framework of the research project „E-solutions for innovation through customer pro-active involvement in value creation to increase organisational competitiveness (E-PICUS)”, PN- II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-1811, currently undergoing.
Yanar, Zeynep M; Fazli, Mehria; Rahman, Jahanara; Farthing, Rys
Participatory action research (PAR) is a methodological approach that seeks to maximize the participation of people whose lives it researches. It is underpinned by an ethical concern to research "with" people, rather than "on" people. However, this ethical approach to research is often, paradoxically, problematized by universities' research ethics committees (RECs). This article explores one site of tension between PAR and RECs-the requirement for anonymity for below 18-year-olds. It explores this tension by exploring a case study of a peer-to-peer research project undertaken by young women in East London, and using our own experiences and perspectives, it argues that anonymity can be unjust, disempowering, and unnecessary, and can reduce "pride." Without wanting to develop specific recommendations, given the limited scope of our case study, this article uses firsthand experiences to add weight to the broader discussions calling for a critical rethink of REC guidelines.
Taggart, Raymond F.
Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…
Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Schougaard, Kari Rye
Software architecture practice is highly complex. Software architects interact with business as well as technical aspects of systems, often embedded in large and changing organizations. We first make an argument that an appropriate research agenda for understanding, describing, and changing...... architectural practice in this context is based on an action research agenda in which researchers use ethnographic techniques to understand practice and engages directly with and in practice when proposing and designing new practices. Secondly, we present an overview of an ongoing project which applies action...
Teacher action research is in the emergent stages in Sudanese schools and needs to be well disseminated and actively supported from the Ministry of education. Although the teacher-as-researcher movement has been in existence for some twenty years, there is a reason to think that the majority if not all, of Sudanese class teachers remain…
Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem
This article traces the development of the "second" and arguably more well-known "genre" of participatory action research (PAR). The article argues that the origins of PAR are highly distributed and cannot really be traced back to the ideas of a single person or even a single group of researchers. Instead, the development of…
Action research is a methods for the combination of teaching and research.Due to its operativeness the method is paid more and more attention.The paper introduces the origin,the definition and charateristic,describes the process and put forward its sigaificence for the teachers.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the last segment of a three-year interdisciplinary and intersectoral action research on climate change and urban transformation. The project had, as one of its core missions, the role of imagining urban and architectural adaptations for urban neighbourhoods that would contribute to minimizing the negative impacts of climate change on people’s comfort, health and safety. The first part of the paper describes the collaborative design and augmented participation method used in the context of Québec City, Canada. These include the design process conducted to imagine adaptation scenarios, the visual strategies undertaken to make these understandable for the population, and the Web 2.0 crowdsourcing approach forwarded to measure feasibility and social acceptability of the design and visualization strategies. The second part discusses three positive outcomes of the process. First, collaborative design conducted with intersectoral groups of experts constitutes a promising avenue to identify adaptations and evaluate their relevance. Second, crowdsourcing is a powerful tool to inform the general public about climate change including both negative and potential aspects. As well, the crowdsource model allows access to particular knowledge which empowered users to make changes around their homes and neighbourhoods or advocating action from their local government. Crowdsourcing is also an efficient tool to help understand what people know about the potential impact of climate change and how it bears on their comfort, health and safety. Third and finally, the design proposals and the evaluation comments generated by working closely with various stakeholders, along with the public on-line consultation, allow for the induction of pragmatic recommendations that can be used as decision aids by elected officials and civil servants to better prepare their municipalities for climate change.
Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Bladt, Mette; Husted, Mia
by action research (Reason and Bradbury 2001; Toulmin and Gustavsen 1996; Svenson and Nielsen 2006). One of the grounding values of action research is that knowledge is created most productively and under the best ethical conditions when people expected to use the knowledge is participating in producing....... & Tofteng, D. (2013a): Kan medarbejdere stoppe stress? I Friis Andersen, M. & Brinkmann, S. (red): Nye perspektiver på Stress. Klim Marshall, J. (2001). Self-reflective inquiry practices. In P. Reason & H. Bradbury (Eds.),Handbook of action research (pp. 433–439). London: SAGE. Murray, H. & Trist, E. (1990...... States and Canada. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey. Pasmore, W.(2001): Action Research in the Workplace: The socio-Technical perspective. I Reason,P. & Bradbury,H.(eds.)(2001): Handbook of Action Research. Sage Reason, P., & Bradbury, H. (eds.) (2001): Handbook of action research. London: SAGE. Toulmin...
Galamba, Kirsten Ramskov
Current work is the main product of a PhD study with the initial working title ‘Sustainable Facilities Management’ at Centre for Facilities Management – Realdania Research, DTU Management 1. December 2008 – 30. November 2011. Here the notion of Public Sustainable Facilities Management (FM) is ana...... practice inspired by the principles of FM. The bottom up change process had an employee perspective, and the work provides answers to the challenges of creating a culture allowing for critical reflections in relation to the impact of FM practice on societal sustainability.......Current work is the main product of a PhD study with the initial working title ‘Sustainable Facilities Management’ at Centre for Facilities Management – Realdania Research, DTU Management 1. December 2008 – 30. November 2011. Here the notion of Public Sustainable Facilities Management (FM......) is analysed in the light of a change process in a Danish Municipal Department of Public Property. Three years of Action Research has given a unique insight in the reality in a Municipal Department of Public Property, and as to how a facilitated change process can lead to a more holistic and sustainable...
In this study, the participants conceptualized and implemented an action research project that focused on the infusion of inquiry principles into a neglected science curriculum. Specific objectives were to find (a) What factors challenge and support the evolution of an action research community of practice? (b) How are teachers’ beliefs about science teaching and learning transformed? and (c) How does teachers’ knowledge of curriculum, instruction, assessment, and student learning change as a result of learning within a community of practice? In this instrumental case study (Stake 2000, In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 435-454). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage), a range of data collection sources and methods were adopted. Outcomes focus on how the design principles for cultivating a community of practice emerged in the action research group, as well as the types of teacher learning that occurred by engaging in action research.
Full Text Available This study explores the perception of student teachers on their role as researchers and the impact of action research in their professional development. The study involves the master level student teachers of the Faculty of Education at the University of Prishtina in Kosovo. Qualitative data collected through reflective writing, open-ended questionnaires and research reports developed by student teachers were analyzed through the inductive method. The study suggests that teacher research has a major impact not only on the improvement of teaching practices and increasing student achievement, but also on increasing the collaboration among peers and fostering a new culture where teachers assume their responsibilities to apply action research in their own classrooms as a tool for classroom transformation. Teacher education and school context are crucial in this matter and the need arises to avoid viewing the development of teacher research as an isolated activity.Keywords: Action research, professional development, student teacher, environmentÖzBu araştırma, öğrenci öğretmenlerin araştırmacı rollerini algılamalarını ve profesyonel gelişimlerinde eylem araştırmaların etkisini incelemektedir. Araştırma, Priştine Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi’nde yüksek lisans düzeyinde olan öğrenci öğretmenleri kapsamaktadır. Öğrenciler tarafından yapılan yansıtıcı yazılar, açık uçlu soru formları ve araştırma raporlarından toplanan nitel veriler tümevarım yöntemi aracılığıyla incelenmiştir. Araştırma, öğretmen araştırmalarının, sadece öğretim uygulamalarının geliştirilmesine ve öğrenci başarısının yükseltilmesine değil, aynı zamanda yaşıtlar arası işbirliğini arttırma ve öğretmenlerin sınıfı dönüştürme aracı olarak kendi sınıflarında eylem araştırmasını uygulama sorumluluğunu yeni bir kültür olarak teşvik etmeye önemli bir etkisinin olduğunu ortaya koymaktad
Smith, Laura; Rosenzweig, Lisa; Schmidt, Marjorie
Participatory action research (PAR) represents an approach that is deeply consonant with counseling psychology's commitments to social equity and action. However, counseling psychologists who would like to study this literature, or who would like to write about a project of their own, may discover that the reporting of PAR is not straightforward:…
José Federman Muñoz Giraldo
Full Text Available This article presents processes and results of experiments conducted by a group of teachers and students in teacher-training programs at the University of Caldas (Colombia. The purpose of the article is to present the results of a consultancy process for educators in training during their practice teaching in public schools, using cycles of reflective action research. Participation, collaborative work, decision-making and critical reflection of the action are evidences that allow showing how a teacher in training learns to do research while learning to teach.
McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Thompson, Grace; Bolger, Lucy
Music therapists have been working in special education contexts for many decades, utilising research and case studies to inform practice. Growing interest in the link between the creative arts and well-being has led music therapists to consider what aspects of their knowledge others could feasibly appropriate in the school system. An action…
Full Text Available The paper reports on how educational research informed and supported both the process of refinement of introductory physics laboratory instruction and student development of scientific abilities. In particular we focus on how the action research approach paradigm combined with instructional approaches such as scaffolding and formative assessment can be used to design the learning environment, investigate student learning, revise curriculum materials, and conduct subsequent assessment. As the result of the above efforts we found improvement in students’ scientific abilities over the course of three years. We suggest that the process used to improve the curriculum under study can be extended to many instructional innovations.
This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) project carried out with three transnational Latina youth in northern California and how the university researcher incorporated Chicana feminist strategies in the study. PAR and Chicana feminism place at the heart of research the knowledge that ordinary people produce, referring to this…
John I. Liontas
Full Text Available Idiomaticity is central to linguistic theory. Despite the pervasiveness of idioms in language, pedagogical articles in professional journals have yet to pay attention to the benefits of idiom instruction in the second language (SL classroom. Addressing this concern, this article reports the results of an exploratory qualitative research study conducted with sixteen SL university instructors and two Language Program Directors (LPDs at two large universities in the Southwest (United States of America that explored teachers’ own knowledge and theories about SL idiomaticity. Survey and interview data indicate that university instructors and LPDs share beliefs and assumptions about how best to teach idioms and assess students’ knowledge of SL idiomaticity. It was concluded that both university instructors and LPDs have an important role to play in the development of idiom pedagogy and that such pedagogy can be greatly enhanced through action research. Recommendations are included for further study of the issues surrounding SL idiomaticity, and teaching implications are considered for the development of meaningful pedagogical practices suitable for the promotion of idiomatic learning.
Goodnough, Karen Catherine
Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a
Windle, Sheila; Sefton, Terry
This paper and its appended multi-media production describe the rationale and process of creating and presenting a "digitally saturated" (Lankshear & Knobel, 2003), multi-layered, synchronous "montage" (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003) of educational Action Research findings. The authors contend that this type of presentation, arising from the fusion of…
Smith, Kenneth H.
This article calls for all educators (teachers, administrators, counselors, supervisors) to implement systematic reflection and action research in their day-to-day professional activities. Additionally, it invites readers to go one step beyond to publish-- thus making their findings public. Relevant resources and suggestions for further reading…
McIntyre, Alice; Chatzopoulos, Nikolaos; Politi, Anastasia; Roz, Julieta
The focus of this article is the experiences of three undergraduate students who engaged in a participatory action research (PAR) project with a group of preadolescent Latina girls attending a public school in Boston, MA, USA. The aim of the 2-year project was to explore how the girls constructed knowledge about girlhood and other gender-related…
"Blogging across the curriculum: Integrating blogging in the elementary classroom" is an Action Research Project that sought to explore the level of engagement in the writing process by students in grades 3, 4 & 5 while blogging across the curriculum. Blogging took place in homeroom classrooms as well as in the school's math, science and…
Little, Mary E.
The purpose of this article is to define and clarify the process of instructional problem-solving using assessment data within action research (AR) and Response to Intervention (RtI). Similarities between AR and RtI are defined and compared. Lastly, specific resources and examples of the instructional problem-solving process of AR within…
Morales, Marie Paz E.; Abulon, Edna Luz R.; Soriano, Portia R.; David, Adonis P.; Hermosisima, Ma. Victoria C.; Gerundio, Maribel G.
Action research is viewed as a path towards better student achievement. This track may be attained through the reflective nature instilled in the teacher that sparks initiatives to promote better classroom practices in the aspects of pedagogy, assessment, and parental involvement. This descriptive survey explores Filipino teachers' conceptions of…
Wilson, Brent G.; Linder VanBerschot, Jennifer
Two instructors report our experience co-teaching an action research (AR) required as part of an e-learning master's degree. Adopting a practice-centered stance we focus on the course activities of participants (instructors and students), with particular attention to the careful crafting of course elements with the goal of achieving an…
Supervising youth workers is a challenging, demanding job in a complex field. Too frequently youth workers get mired in reacting to the everyday crises that dominate their work, finding it difficult to rise above the daily demands to reach a place where reflection can help guide their work. Strategies based in action research can empower youth…
Boxelaar, Lucia; Paine, Mark; Beilin, Ruth
Post-modern theorists have challenged the totalizing and unifying ambitions of change management practices. This paper explores how a narrative action research approach may be used to combine our modernist commitment to facilitate change and collaboration in the land management context with a post-modern sensitivity to complexity and difference.…
Devlin-Scherer, Wade; Spinelli, Ann Marie; Giammatteo, Dawn; Johnson, Craig; Mayo-Molina, Sylvia; McGinley, Paula; Michalski, Candice; Schmidek, Susan; Tomaiuolo, Linda; Zisk, Laurie
This report presents data from one elementary school's (Hartford, CT region) second year (1996-97) implementation of a mathematics reform action research project by the professional development team. Teachers from grades 2-5 systematically implemented an ancillary problem solving curriculum in their classrooms after receiving training by a…
Deemer, Sandra A.
The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…
Environmental education (EE) continues to focus on enhancing people's ecological knowledge to encourage sustainable actions. This deficit approach presumes that once informed about environmental harms, people will work towards sustainable solutions for healthy societies. Yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that knowledge of environmental…
Meyer, Bente; Levinsen, Karin
Interviews with trainees were conducted after the Action Research period (November-December 2006), when LBs 1-4 were tested on trainees. The aim of the interviews was to understand how teachers learn to teach and to relate to the online environment through the specific context of the Lancelot live...
Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani
This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.
As a reflective practitioner of higher education, Margaret Farren seeks to contribute to a knowledge base of professional practice by using a "living educational theory" form of action research in her approach to teaching and learning. She focuses her research on the Masters program in e-learning at Dublin City University where professional educators from a variety of private and public institutions seek to transform their pedagogy and their students' learning experiences through the ...
Full Text Available Research is a major aspect and fundamental component of many social struggles and movements for change. Understanding social movement networks as significant sites of knowledge production, this article situates and discusses processes and practice of activist research produced outside of academia in these milieus in the broader context of the ‘knowledge-practice’ of social movements. In dialogue with scholarly literature on activist research, it draws from the author’s work as an activist researcher, and a current study of small activist research non-governmental organizations (NGOs with examples from movement research on transnational corporate power and resistance to capitalist globalization.. It explicates research processes arising from, and embedded in, relationships and dialogue with other activists and organizations that develop through collaboration in formal and informal networks; it contends that building relationships is central to effective activist research practice. In addition to examining how activist researchers practice, understand and validate their research, this paper also shows how this knowledge is constructed, disseminated and mobilized as a tool for effective social action/organizing.
Lilford, Richard; Warren, Rachel; Braunholtz, David
Scrutinising recent systematic reviews both on action research and on the management of change in organisations, we have made two observations which, we believe, clarify a rather amorphous literature. First, by comparing formal descriptions of each, action research cannot be clearly distinguished from many other change methodologies. This applies particularly to total quality management (TQM). Both action research and TQM are cyclical activities involving examination of existing processes, change, monitoring the apparent effects of the change and further change. Both emphasise active participation of stakeholders. The examples used to illustrate action research would serve equally well as examples of TQM and vice versa. Second, the methods used in action research are neither specific to action research nor are they of any particular kind. It therefore follows that action research, in so far as it purports to describe a unique or discrete form of research rather than a change process, is a misnomer. Based on these observations, we make two suggestions. Organisational change should be described in terms of the steps actually taken to effect change rather than in 'terms of art' which, like the various brands of post-Freudian psychotherapy, obscure what they have in common rather than illuminate substantive differences. And the research embedded in any cyclical managerial process can have two broad (non-exclusive) aims: to help local service managers to take the next step or to assist managers in other places and in future years to make decisions. These can be described as limited (formative) and general (summative) aims. Whether, or to what extent, a research finding is generalisable across place and time is a matter of judgement and turns on the form of the research and on its context; it is completely independent of whether or not the research was carried out within a cycle of managerial action currently described by terms such as action research or TQM.
This qualitative research study examined the experiences of five teacher leaders enrolled in an instructional leadership master's degree cohort who engaged in equity-focused action research. Specifically, the study focused on: "How do teacher leaders describe their development as equity-centered leaders after engaging in action…
Jacobs, Jennifer; Yamamura, Erica K.; Guerra, Patricia L.; Nelson, Sarah W.
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to understand the experience of graduate students in an educational leadership program as they began to apply leadership for social justice theory through the process of action research. This study used critical race theory to explore dimensions of race, power, and privilege. Findings from focus…
Li, Xin; Kenzy, Patty; Underwood, Lucy; Severson, Laura
This study was presented at the American Educational Research Association 2012 conference in Vancouver, Canada. The study explored how action research of arts-based teaching (ABT) impacted at-risk students in three urban public schools in southern California, USA. ABT was defined as using arts, music, drama, and dance in teaching other subjects. A…
This exploration of the racial power dynamics in a participatory action research project with women who had experienced intimate partner violence discusses the challenges inherent in doing participatory action with antiracist intent and offers suggestions for overcoming these challenges. To engage in this type of research, explicit commitment to the goals of an antiracist intent needs to be shared as widely as possible. Fostering such shared commitment demands that the social locations of all involved be interrogated continuously. Such interrogation, however, needs to be prefaced with understanding that individuals are not representative of particular power positions or social identities or locations and with critical attention to how language and social structures shape racism and other forms of dominance. Being inclusive must be understood as complex and the influence of diverse agendas and perspectives acknowledged and taken into account. In the face of such complexity, "success" in research may need redefinition.
Bladt, Mette; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard
In Scandinavia there exists an action research tradition called critical utopian action research (CUAR). Within CUAR, criticism and utopia is a core activity in the methods used and in the research as such. The utopian concept in this tradition should be understood as a productive concept, and thus...... not as eyebrow-lifting fantasy. Utopian horizons are, in light of critical reflection, formulated and developed. They act as Horizons indicating the direction of the work. The point of utopian notions – dreams and visions – is that they go beyond ‘the existing’ and become a way of working that allows us to think...... in concrete alternatives; in ‘different futures’. It allows us to ask the question: how do we wish to live? The rationale for the work of utopia must be found in CUAR’s connection to critical theory. From there, a perception that the world could be different is collected. It is only by utopian thinking...
Pedersen, Malene; Bundgaard, Tina H; Zeeman, Peter
BACKGROUND: Chronic stroke patients are primarily referred to general rehabilitation, rather than to specific neurorehabilitation. Currently, there are no Danish clinical guidelines for chronic stroke, but recent research in neuroplasticity has contributed to possible rehabilitation interventions...... for these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this project is to describe the use of a specialized neuroplastic approach in combination with an already existing training program. METHODS: The project is designed as an action research project concerning four participants with chronic stroke. Through ten intervention....... CONCLUSIONS: This report indicates that a specific neuroplastic focus in combination with action research has an impact on the participants with chronic stroke. However, there is still no clarity regarding what type of rehabilitation methods can be considered the most efficacious in promoting neuroplasticity...
Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan
Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding.
Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group. Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship
Burrows, Andrea; Thomas, Jonathan; Woods, Angie; Suess, Robert; Dole, Deborah
The focus of this article is the exploration of and an explanation of student researchers' affect and activity in an action research project. Using a hermeneutical theoretical framework we argue that the researcher group as a whole constructs a wave process and at the same time each individual researcher in the group creates a wave process that…
The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…
Ramos, Isabel; Cardoso, Margarida; Carvalho, João Vidal; Graça, José Ismael
R&D has always been considered a strategic asset of companies. Traditionally, companies that have their own R&D function are better prepared to compete in the globalized economy because they are able to produce the knowledge and technology required to advance products and services. SMEs also need to become highly innovative and competitive in order to be successful. Nevertheless, their ability to have an internal R&D function that effectively meets their innovation needs is usually very weak. Open innovation provides access to a vast amount of new ideas and technologies at lower costs than closed innovation. This paper presents an action research study being carried out at University of Minho to develop a business model and technology platform for an innovation brokering service connecting ideas and technologies being developed at Universities with the specific innovation needs of SMEs. The expected contributions of the study include the empirical investigation of the effectiveness and risks of crowdsourcing innovation when applied in the socio-economic context of a European developing country where SMEs represent 99,6% of the businesses.
Zicus, Sandra A.
The marine environment has always been extremely important to the human inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands. Today, the ocean environment around Hawai'i is no less important, but it is far more threatened. Coastal and urban development, overfishing, introduction of alien species, and other commercial and recreational uses pose serious risks to coastal and marine ecosystems. There is a recognized need for greater public awareness and understanding of the importance of marine and coastal ecosystems. Involving children actively in the care and management of community resources is an essential factor for long-term societal change in environmental attitudes and behavior. Agencies and organizations in Hawai'i offer a wide range of marine education programs and materials aimed at children. However, there has been little assessment of their overall effectiveness, or analysis of factors that encourage or impede their success. The goal of this research was to begin to address this gap. The first stage of the research examined the perceptions and attitudes of Hawai'i resource managers and educators toward youth involvement in coastal and marine protection, and to answer the question "What is currently being done and by whom?" The second stage examined in detail three different programs that represent a range of approaches and age levels, and include two public charter schools (one elementary and one high school) and a nonprofit after-school program that drew youth from four area high schools. The case study research was conducted over the course of the 2001--2002 school year by means of observations, participant-observations, interviews, focus groups, and reviews of written and electronic media. The case studies were exploratory in nature and differed in their settings, age groups, administration, size, and focus. However, an analysis using the assessment rubric revealed broad patterns common to all three projects. This allowed the development of analytical generalizations
Khan, S B
This article focuses on educational research conducted at the newly merged UWC faculty of dentistry. The research emphasises the change in teaching methods employed to address the concerns experienced in teaching the new large classes as observed in the prosthetic techniques module. These educational interventions were conducted over 5 years and the study design included the principles of action research. Students were assisted in learning the theory of the practical procedures and the subsequent completion of these procedures with the accurate application of the theoretical concepts. Changes in the teaching methods enhanced students learning and successful translation of the theory into practical work. The active learning exercises incorporated into the teaching further motivated and assisted students with deep learning. The debates indicated that students know and accept the value of the module as part of their training.
and responsibilities both inside and outside the company. This paper reports experiences from using action research to introduce new user-centred work practices in two commercial product development projects. The interventions varied. In the first project it was found rewarding to engage customers and users...... in workshops based on participatory inquiry and collaborative design. The design process was iterative and the workshops took place several times involving concept through detailed design. In the second project, new design representations are introduced. The experiences highlight the importance of creating...... and reifying insights in design representations and using these to both support collaboration, and create continuity in the project. The paper ends with a discussion of scientific rigor in action research and what the new work practices imply for the development team....
Broeng, Susanne; Frimann, Søren
and the bibliography, too) in relation to a specific action research process. The aim is to reflect on an organizational change process in which the interpersonal relationships between group, management and organization exhibited anti-group patterns. We show how a psychodynamic approach and, in particular, the concept...... are discussed because both the external consultant’s and the researcher’s roles exert an influence on power and participation when working with conscious and unconscious interpersonal processes in the organization....
Naslund, Dag; Olsson, Annika; Karlsson, Sture
Purpose: While the importance of measuring customer satisfaction levels is well established, less research exists on how organizations operationalize such knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to describe an action research (AR) case study resulting in a workshop model to operationalize the concept of value. The model facilitates organizational…
Perry, Justin C.
This article proposes a social action, mixed methods approach to verifying the efficacy of vocational guidance programs. Research strategies are discussed in the context of how the processes and purposes of efficacy research have been conceptualized and studied in vocational psychology. Examples of how to implement this approach in future efficacy…
Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.
Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…
Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine; Berliner, Peter
community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion of challenges is based on a methodological account of experiences from the research process clarifying......Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated...
Critical action research emphasises participation, democracy and social critique, and thus has had considerable potential for feminist scholarship and action. Feminist action research, in turn, has gained a foothold in education, for example, through the work of Hollingsworth, Miller, Lather and others, although much action research might still be…
Full Text Available This paper discusses what the methods of conversation analysis (CA might have to offer the study of linguistic synonymy. It takes as a case study two items commonly held to be synonyms -'actually' and 'in fact'- and shows considerable differences between the two in their interactional implementation: they are implicated in the prosecution of differing courses of action. Such cases argue that it is analytically more profitable to consider what a lexical item does in the context of talk than what it means.
Ozer, Emily J
Youth-led participatory action research (YPAR) is an approach to scientific inquiry and social change grounded in principles of equity that engages young people in identifying problems relevant to their own lives, conducting research to understand the problems, and advocating for changes based on research evidence. This chapter provides an introduction to YPAR followed by consideration of the (a) developmental relevance of YPAR for marginalized youth, (b) implications of YPAR for developmental science research on inequities experienced by youth, and (c) potential opportunities and impact of YPAR for improving key developmental settings such as schools and youth-serving organizations. Resources for conducting YPAR projects are discussed, as well as the need for potential integration of YPAR and other participatory approaches to engaging youth and their expertise-at a significant enough scale to have a meaningful impact on policies and practices that affect youth development.
Angucia, Margaret; Zeelen, Jacques; de Jong, Gideon
This paper presents experiences and reflections on the use of a participatory research methodology under the difficult conditions of a war situation in northern Uganda. We draw from two complimentary approaches in action research to explain our methodology while doing research on the reintegration o
Purpose: This study adopts an action research approach with the aim of improving the process of career decision making among undergraduates in a business school at a "new" university in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised unfreezing techniques, multiple case studies in conjunction with the principle of analogical…
Fernando Jaime González
Full Text Available The research aimed to verify the consequences of an experience of collaborative learning and in conceptions in the teaching of sports with interaction between adversaries, the physical education teachers. Through action research, we developed a collaborative-study with a group of teachers about teaching sports invasion, for two years and a half. The results show that there are possibilities for change in the work of teachers who participate in experiences of action research, but projects of this type have a number of difficulties and challenges that need to be considered in their development to build effective conditions of exchange.
Ruechakul, Prayad; Erawan, Prawit; Siwarom, Manoon
The participatory learning and action: PLA was the process used for empowering in this program. This process has four steps: 1) create awareness, 2) specify problems or needs, 3) act and 4) present and reflect or monitor. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the conditions of communities in terms of context and problems or needs in…
Gai, H; Shou, Y; Wang, J; Li, L
In this report the pharmacological action of Spicatus was studied. The results insicated that it had diureric, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory effects, yet had Iittle toxic side-effect. It had significant inhibitory effect on crofon oil-caused mice ear swell. It also had marked diuretic effect in orcinary rats, but had Iittie effect on uric pH the rats. It exhibited certain inhibition of Staphycoloccus aureus, Eschrichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. The maximum tolerable dose test in mice showed no marked toxic effect, LD50 > 80 g/kg.
Orland-Barak, Lily; Becher, Ayelet
In this article we offer an extended reading of an action research model in the context of mentored learning in preservice education in Israel. Our reading attends both to how a particular form of action research plays out in participants' constructions of the practice of mentoring and mentored learning and how such constructions can be understood…
Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin
Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.
Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem; Bartholomew, Mitchell
This article is an attempt to tell the story of action research as it has developed over the last half century. Action research has become an important part of a number of research programs, especially in the field of education. Action research is a powerful idea centering on humans' ability to break free from deleterious social habits…
Zuber-Skerrit, Ortrun; Fletcher, Margaret
Purpose: The paper seeks to identify the quality characteristics of critical action research and action research theses compared to traditional research thesis writing. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on the literature and the authors' experience with supervising and examining action research theses, the paper identifies key problem areas in…
Nørgaard, Betty; Johannessen, Helle; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper
BACKGROUND: In neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) health care professionals typically give most of their attention to the infants and the mothers while many fathers feel uncertain and have an unmet need for support and guidance. This paper describes and discusses participatory action research...... of the father friendly NICU. CONCLUSIONS: This paper contributed new knowledge of how PAR can be used to ensure that participants engaged in the field are involved in the entire process; consequently, this will ensure that the changes are feasible and sustainable....
Thomas G. RYAN
Full Text Available The 320 pre-service educators in this inquiry were viewed as emerging classroom teacherswho were leading while grappling with new personal experiences which informed andguided each during the pre-service year. The written account evidence supported ourresulting inferences, discussion and conclusions and demonstrated the leadership requiredwithin pre-service. It was the analysis and synthesis of practicum reflections thatilluminated core beliefs, attitudes and needs of emerging action researchers as theydeveloped a professional and personal understanding of leadership, teaching and self.
Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume
This study focuses on Kenyan student-teachers' professional learning and development in health education in a participatory action research project conducted in one Kenyan teacher training college. The aim was to explore the potential of participatory action research to instigate change in student-teachers' health education practices in a…
Raymond, Anne M.; Leinenbach, Marylin
Presents the story of a mathematics teacher's transformation that resulted from her engagement in collaborative action research. Discusses issues related to the broader study of collaborative action research in the mathematics classroom that are connected to teachers' transformation. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/ASK)
Myers, Nancy; Dillard, Benita R.
California Lutheran University is a regional site for the California Reading and Literature Project (CRLP). In 2010, CRLP began a two-year longitudinal study to examine the effects of participating in an institute called Reframing Teacher Leadership: Action Research Study Group had on PreK-12 teachers' attitudes and perceptions. The foundation…
Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani
This study reports on an action research on increasing the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' confidence in speaking. Participants involved in this study were 16 male university students who had an upper-intermediate level of English. Extra speaking activities were incorporated into the classroom for 8 successive weeks. Insights into…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth investigation of an executive team, to determine which internal and external factors impacted the team and to determine in what ways action research interventions improved the team's effectiveness. Methodology: The subjects in this study were seven members of a school district…
This study reports on Egyptian science teachers' experiences in collective action research projects with a focus on education for sustainable development (ESD). Science teachers were enrolled in a study course "Teaching Strategies" that had been revised with a focus on sustainability. The course was introduced in the spring semester of…
作为实现教师专业化发展的有效途径，以提升教育质量为目的、在自我反思教学模式下发展起来的行动研究概念遵循“教师即研究者”的准则，对教学行为展开理性、系统的分析，避免了教学与研究领域脱节的问题，为以输出为驱动的语言教学活动带来了有意义的变革。本文以第二外语语法教学为切入点，通过课程实验研究，查证问题实质，寻找解决方案，分析应用成效，探讨教学行动研究的实践意义。%For the purpose of improving the quality of education ,as an effective way to achieve the professional development of teachers ,the concept of action research derived from the teaching mode of self - reflection follows the standards of "teacher as researcher" ,carries out a systemic analysis to the teaching behavior ,avoids the divorce of teaching from research and brings a meaningful change to language teaching activities driven by the output .This paper takes the second foreign language grammar teaching as breakthrough point ,investigats the essence of problem through experimental study ,discusses the plan of solution and analyses the effet of application ,to explore the practical significance of educational action research .
Banegas Darío Luis
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Marks Krpan, Catherine Anne
In order to promote science literacy in the classroom, students need opportunities in which they can personalize their understanding of the concepts they are learning. Current literature supports the use of concept maps in enabling students to make personal connections in their learning of science. Because they involve creating explicit connections between concepts, concept maps can assist students in developing metacognitive strategies and assist educators in identifying misconceptions in students' thinking. The literature also notes that concept maps can improve student achievement and recall. Much of the current literature focuses primarily on concept mapping at the secondary and university levels, with limited focus on the elementary panel. The research rarely considers teachers' thoughts and ideas about the concept mapping process. In order to effectively explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary teachers, I felt that an action research approach would be appropriate. Action research enabled educators to debate issues about concept mapping and test out ideas in their classrooms. It also afforded the participants opportunities to explore their own thinking, reflect on their personal journeys as educators and play an active role in their professional development. In an effort to explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary educators, an action research group of 5 educators and myself was established and met regularly from September 1999 until June 2000. All of the educators taught in the Toronto area. These teachers were interested in exploring how concept mapping could be used as a learning tool in their science classrooms. In summary, this study explores the journey of five educators and myself as we engaged in collaborative action research. This study sets out to: (1) Explore how educators believe concept mapping can facilitate teaching and student learning in the science classroom. (2) Explore how educators implement concept
Kayaoglu, M. Naci
Action research is characterized by a new paradigm of empowering teachers to monitor their own practices in a more autonomous manner with a vision of challenging and improving their own techniques of teaching through their own participatory research. Yet in spite of this apparently radical shift in the function of the teacher from the constant…
Xiao, Lily D; Kelton, Moira; Paterson, Jan
The aim of this study was to develop quality clinical placements in residential aged care facilities for undergraduate nursing students undertaking their nursing practicum topics. The proportion of people aged over 65 years is expected to increase steadily from 13% in 2006 to 26% of the total population in Australia in 2051. However, when demand is increasing for a nursing workforce competent in the care of older people, studies have shown that nursing students generally lack interest in working with older people. The lack of exposure of nursing students to quality clinical placements is one of the key factors contributing to this situation. Critical action research built on a partnership between an Australian university and five aged care organisations was utilised. A theoretical framework informed by Habermas' communicative action theory was utilised to guide the action research. Multiple research activities were used to support collaborative critical reflection and inform actions throughout the action research. Clinical placements in eight residential aged care facilities were developed to support 179 nursing students across three year-levels to complete their practicum topics. Findings were presented in three categories described as structures developed to govern clinical placement, learning and teaching in residential aged care facilities.
Hisrich, Robert; Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon
Entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, and innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. It is also a mechanism by which many people enter the society's economic and social mainstream, aiding culture formation, population integration, and social mobility. This article aims to illuminate research opportunities for psychologists by exposing gaps in the entrepreneurship literature and describing how these gaps can be filled. A "call to action" is issued to psychologists to develop theory and undertake empirical research focusing on five key topic areas: the personality characteristics of entrepreneurs, the psychopathology of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurship education, and international entrepreneurship. Methodological issues are discussed and recommendations provided. It is shown that psychologists can help identify the factors that influence new venture creation and success and inform the construction of public policy to facilitate entrepreneurship.
Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette
This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.
Shahid Hussain Mughal
This paper reports the findings of a study that has attempted to find out the perceptions and classroom teaching practices of Science teacher educator about environmental education (EE) infusion. The study also looked at the process of environmental infusion in Science and associated challenges emerging from it.The research was designed in a qualitative paradigm, within this paradigm, action research model proposed by Retallick (2003) was used. The purposive sampling strategy was used to sele...
Reeb, Roger N; Folger, Susan F; Langsner, Stacey; Ryan, Courtney; Crouse, Jake
The purpose of this article is threefold: In the first section, an overview of research and theory on the self-efficacy construct is provided, and the central role of self-efficacy in service-learning community action research is demonstrated. The second section reviews over 10 years of research validating the Community Service Self-Efficacy Scale (CSSES), which measures the individual's confidence in his or her own ability to make clinically (meaningfully) significant contributions to the community through service. Within the context of this review, recent (previously unpublished) validation research is also reviewed. Alternate versions of the CSSES, each of which was developed for a specific purpose, are presented. The third section provides recommendations for further research focused on (a) validating the CSSES and (b) examining self-efficacy as an outcome, moderator, and mediating variable in service-learning community action research.
Oh, Phil Seok
Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a
Jacobs, Gaby; Murray, Michael
Action research assumes the active engagement of the stakeholders, such as the community, in the research, and a multiple level process of reflection in order to evaluate and monitor the actions taken. This makes action research a suitable methodology to increase critical understanding of the partic
Buck, Gayle A.; Cook, Kristin L.; Quigley, Cassie F.; Prince, Pearl; Lucas, Yvonne
In this participatory action research study, we answered the question, How can we improve attitudes toward science education of the African American girls at an elementary school? Girls in grades 3-6 completed the Modified Attitudes toward Science Inventory. A purposeful sample of 30 girls participated in several focus-group interviews throughout…
Clint, Frank Anthony
This qualitative, action-research study used themes from appreciative interviews of Texas elementary teachers to recommend a framework for a school-wide assessment model for a Texas elementary school. The specific problem was that the Texas accountability system used a yearly measurement that failed to track progress over time and failed to…
Strambler, Michael J.; McKown, Clark
We present findings from a group-randomized teacher action research intervention to promote academic engagement and achievement among elementary school students. Eighteen teachers from 3 elementary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Intervention teachers studied evidence-based instructional practices that cultivate academic…
Scott-Ladd, Brenda; Chan, Christopher C. A.
This article reports on a study investigating strategies that students can use to develop skills in managing team learning. Two groups of second-year management students participated in a semester-long action research project over two semesters. The students were educated on team development, team processes and conflict management and how to…
Boon, Stuart Ian
This article reports on how an action research strategy was used to increase children's uptake of feedback during peer assessment in primary school writing. Several different strategies were used in the study that had been successful in increasing students' uptake of peer feedback in contexts such as higher education. In order to evaluate how…
Hungerford-Kresser, Holly; Wiggins, Joy L.; Amaro-Jimenez, Carla
The implementation of digital pedagogies (i.e. blogging) is one way to mediate large classroom discussions in culturally relevant ways. This 2.5-year longitudinal mixed-method action research study reflects on the ways blogging can further promote culturally relevant discussions explored in face-to-face classes. Findings include pre-service…
Vula, Eda; Berdynaj, Lirika
This paper discusses the impact of action research methodology used in the teaching and learning process and professional teacher development. In this study are including 58 students of three second grade classes, 3 teachers of those classes and a university professor. Aiming at using a different approach in their teaching of multiplication and…
Hawkins, Karen A.
This article highlights the complexity of participatory action research (PAR) in that the study outlined was carried out with and by, as opposed to on, participants. The project was contextualised in two prior-to-school settings in Australia, with the early childhood professionals and, to some extent, the preschoolers involved in this PAR project…
Domingos-Grilo, Paula; Reis-Grilo, Carlos; Ruiz, Constantino; Mellado, Vicente
We describe part of an action-research programme in Spain which was based on metacognitive reflection. The participants were four science teachers in a secondary school during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 academic years. During the study, they each analysed their own pupils' alternative ideas on photosynthesis and their teaching methods as recorded in…
Livingstone, Anne-Marie; Celemencki, Jacqueline; Calixte, Melissa
The article discusses the implementation and results of a youth participatory action research (YPAR) project carried out with black high school students in 2009 and 2010 in Montreal, QC. The aim of the project was to involve black youth in studying the factors that either enhance or impede their success in school and thereby have them identify…
In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…
Dowden, Angel Riddick
This article describes the author's journey as a school counselor utilizing an action research approach to advocate for social justice in education. Two case studies are provided to discuss the process utilized to advocate for equal education for all students as a school counselor. Lastly, the author reflects on the successes and failures…
Rice, Linda J.; McKeny, Timothy S.
Professional development is a well-established component of teacher change, and action research can make that change visible. In this study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 237 elementary teachers and intervention specialists from 33 federally-designated Appalachian counties of Southeastern Ohio who participated in the…
Dehnad, Afsaneh; Nasser, Hayedeh
Action research is an attempt to seek immediate solutions to the problems experienced in educational settings. In this type of research, teachers are the researchers who intend to make instant reforms to develop, and improve their teaching styles and reflect on pedagogical practices. The purpose of this study was to conduct an action research to tackle the problem of students' low motivation in English classes at the medical school of Iran University of Medical Sciences in fall 2010. Participants of this study were 98 third-semester ESP students of medicine. To reform the situation and promote students' motivation to participate in classes more actively and eagerly, the researchers changed the syllabus by applying Kemmis and McTaggart's (1988) cyclical model of action research, and adopting task-based teaching. Data was collected by means of interviews with both teachers and students to determine the changes to be made in the syllabus, classroom observations to monitor students' behavioral changes, and a questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards the changes. This research study had a number of valuable outcomes the most important of which was a change in classroom behavior of the students.
Phelan, Jack Gordon
This study examined the effects of a critical thinking instructional intervention in a higher education technology course with the purpose of determining the extent to which the intervention enhanced student critical thinking knowledge, skills, dispositions, application and transfer abilities. Historically, critical thinking has been considered…
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the factors in students‘ adoption of a distance education environment. An action research model was used for this study. The researcher was the system administrator of the learning management system. The action research methodology was used to profile student‘s adaption process. The findings are obtained from the researchers‘ observations and data collected from the learning management system. The study included 132 students enrolled in Educational Administration, Controlling, Planning, and Economics non-thesis Master‘s program. The results suggest that organizational structure and the technologies used are the main factors in assisting students to adopt distance education and reducing the adoption period.
Maria Amélia Santoro Franco
possibilities of action research as a scientific and pedagogical instrument, hinting at answers to the following questions: should action research be essentially targeted at the participative transformation, where subjects and researchers interact in the production of new knowledge? Should it take on a formative-emancipative character? Drawing on existing research and studies, the text tries to compose a pedagogical process for action research that tackles the issue of the coherence between the ontology and the epistemology envisaged for the research. It was thus necessary to establish references for the questions: what research do we talk about when we refer to action research? Or even, what action do we talk about when we refer to action research? Or still, how do research and action come together in the pedagogical practice of action research? The present work highlights the fact that action research, structured according to its generating principles, is an eminently pedagogical research, under the perspective of being the pedagogical exercise, configured as an action that scientificizes the educative practice starting from ethical principles that have in sight the continual formation and emancipation of all subjects of the practice.
Cagnazzo, Luca; Taticchi, Paolo; Bidini, Gianni; Baglieri, Enzo
New business models and theories are developing nowadays towards collaborative environments direction, and many new tools in sustaining companies involved in these organizations are emerging. Among them, a plethora of methodologies to analyze their needs are already developed for single companies. Few academic works are available about Enterprise Networks (ENs) need analysis. This paper presents the learning from an action research (AR) in the mechatronics sector: AR has been used in order to experience the issue of evaluating network needs and therefore define, develop, and test a complete framework for network evaluation. Reflection on the story in the light of the experience and the theory is presented, as well as extrapolation to a broader context and articulation of usable knowledge.
Bautista Garcia-Vera, Antonio
We present data collected from the research project funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain entitled "Audiovisual Narratives and Intercultural Relations in Education." One of the aims of the research was to determine the nature of thought processes occurring during audiovisual narratives. We studied the possibility of getting to…
Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…
Bautista Garcia-Vera, Antonio
We present data collected from the research project funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain entitled "Audiovisual Narratives and Intercultural Relations in Education." One of the aims of the research was to determine the nature of thought processes occurring during audiovisual narratives. We studied the possibility of…
Scott, Jeffrey Lance
This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.
Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz
This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…
Full Text Available Teacher research as an international movement since the 1970s has been advocated worldwide to promote school curriculum reform and the professionalization of school teachers. University-school collaborative action research is a new attempt to support school teachers who learn to do research in their classrooms while providing opportunities for university researcher to develop a better understanding of classroom practice with more effective strategies to support teacher change. Such collaborative research has been promoted in the recent curriculum reform in basic education in China. This paper reports on an action research project conducted by school teachers supported by university researchers in the Chinese context with a focus on examining the roles and gains of university researchers in this project. Data was collected through project meeting observations, questionnaires, interviews and participants’ reflective journals. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis methods were used respectively for analyzing the data collected. The purpose of this study is to understand better the nature of such collaborations and the gains as well as challenges on the part of university researchers so that implications can be drawn for establishing a sound university-school collaborative research body that promotes the professional learning of both parties.
Knoblich, G.K.; Butterfill, S.; Sebanz, N.
When two or more people coordinate their actions in space and time to produce a joint outcome, they perform a joint action. The perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes that enable individuals to coordinate their actions with others have been receiving increasing attention during the last decade,
Vernon-Gerstenfeld, Susan; Burke, Edmund
The authors describe the findings of a field study of affirmative action programs in companies in a variety of industries. The distinction between equal employment opportunity and affirmative action is addressed. Methods used to train managers in implementing affirmative action are examined. Also explores employee development, community…
to recheck their input with more attention, and then modifies it to be more target-like (Long, 1996; Swain, 1995). This process triggered by feedback from learners’ initial production to their modified production is seen as part of language learning (Swain & Lapkin, 1995). Increasing evidence has noted......Classroom interaction has been seen as one of the primary means for L2 learning. One common argument is that during conversational interaction, learners receive feedback on their L2 input, thus noticing the difference between their L2 production and the target form. This ‘noticing’ drives learners...... that feedback provided during the interaction facilitates L2 learning (Mackey & Philp, 1998; Panova & Lyster, 2002; Mackey, 1999, 2006; Lotchman, 2002; Ellis, Basturkmen & Lowen, 2001; Mackey, Oliver & Leeman, 2003)....
Elisha M. Okaisu
Full Text Available Background: Documentation is an important function of professional nursing practise. In spite of numerous improvement efforts globally, inadequate documentation continues to be reported as nurse authors investigate barriers and challenges. Objectives: The project aimed to improve nurses’ documentation of their patient assessments at the CURE Children’s Hospital of Uganda in order to enhance the quality of nursing practise. Method: An action research methodology, using repeated cycles of planning, intervention, reflection and modification, was used to establish best practise approaches in this context for improving nurses’ efficacy in documenting assessments in the patient record. The researchers gathered data from chart audits, literature reviews and key informant interviews. Through analysis and critical reflection, these data informed three cycles of systems and practise modifications to improve the quality of documentation. Results: The initial cycle revealed that staff training alone was insufficient to achievethe project goal. To achieve improved documentation, broader changes were necessary, including building a critical mass of competent staff, redesigned orientation and continuing education, documentation form redesign, changes in nurse skill mix, and continuous leadership support. Conclusion: Improving nursing documentation involved complex challenges in this setting and demanded multiple approaches. Evidence-based practise was the foundation of changes in systems required to produce visible improvement in practise. The involved role of leadership in these efforts was very important.
D. Haski-Leventhal (Debbie); R.A. Cnaan (Ram); F. Handy (Femida); J.L. Brudney (Jeffrey); K. Holmes (Kirsten); L. Hustinx (Lesley); C. Kang (Chulhee); M. Kassam (Meenaz); L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas); B. Ranade (Bhagyashree); N. Yamauchi (Naoto); A.B. Yeung (Anne Birgitta); S. Zrinscak (Sinisa)
textabstractPrevious research on student involvement suggested that business and engineering students manifest lowest rates of voluntary action. Similarly, it was thought that social science students are the most involved in voluntary action, with students of natural sciences and humanities in the m
Rose, Lynnette; Vaughn, Margaret; Taylor, Linda
This research explores an action research project conducted by the first author focused on supporting her preschool students' literacy and language development. Using observations, interviews, artifacts, and assessment, this research documents the first author's process of conducting an action research project over the course of one year to…
This investigation studied the effectiveness of using food preparation to teach students with Autism about the three states of matter. A hands-on learning approach was used within the home and careers classroom. One class of five students, three boys and two girls, all diagnosed with Autism, participated in a five day academic unit about the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The class received hands-on learning science instruction using food through various differentiated activities. Results indicate that students express focus when using food to learn. In addition, this study acknowledges that hands-on learning in science enhances the learning process of students with Autism. One of the main reasons is that students enjoy learning when this teaching style is used in the classroom, and students that enjoy what they are learning are more likely to be engaged and motivated to learn. After using this approach, all the students in the study increased their scores from the pre-assessments to the post-assessments. Students expressed through actions and words that they enjoyed using hands-on experiences to learn in the classroom. Implications for practice indicate that a variety of manipulatives are needed to teach students with Autism. Future research would help uncover additional information about student motivation and learning in the home and careers classroom.
Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C.
Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding
Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Jeff; Skalski, J. R.; Teel, D. J.; Brewer, Taylor; Bryson, Amanda J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Kuligowski, D. R.; Whitesel, T.; Mallette, Christine
The study reported herein was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), University of Washington (UW), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The goal of the study was to evaluate the ecological benefits of restoration actions for juvenile salmon in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; rkm 0–234).
Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in a...
Regard sur la participation de populations marginalisées à la recherche-action. Le cas des squatteurs en Ile-de-France The participation of Marginalised populations in research-action: a case study of squatters in the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region
Full Text Available La recherche-action comporte deux caractéristiques principales : elle met en œuvre la collaboration entre plusieurs types d’acteurs et vise une transformation de la réalité sociale. Elle possède des forces et des faiblesses différentes de la recherche à objectif strictement cognitif. L’article rend compte d’une recherche-action menée par des sociologues, des intervenants sociaux et des populations vivant en squats en Ile-de-France. Les auteurs analysent les enjeux méthodologiques qui se sont posés sur ce terrain particulier relevant de la sociologie de la déviance. Ceux-ci sont liés, notamment, à la participation de chaque groupe d’acteurs aux différentes étapes de la recherche, à la présence d’intérêts différents portés par chacun d’entre eux, et à la conciliation entre les principes habituellement de rigueur dans l’enquête sociologique et les principes de la recherche-action.Research-Action has two main objectives: to allow different players to cooperate, and to transform social reality. This methodology has both the strengths and the weaknesses of strictly cognitive research. In this article, the authors discuss a research-action project which brought together sociologists, social workers and squatters from the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region. Methodological issues that arise specifically in the context of deviance are addressed, notably the participation of the different players at different stages of the research project, their different areas of interest, as well as the reconciliation between more conventional sociological research and the principles of research-action.
Full Text Available This article discusses the outcomes of a case study that engaged Chilean in-service teachers in systematic action research (AR as a means of improving their pedagogical practice and effecting changes in their educational context. The study involved six in-service teachers from a region of Chile and two university researchers. The findings show that knowledge of systematic AR provided the teachers with the necessary means to engage in a critical reflection and inquiry process regarding their own practice. The teacher participants also perceived the self-reflective spiral of reflection and action to be crucial in establishing new habits of inquiry and reflection about their own pedagogical actions. The findings support earlier studies (e.g., Price & Valli, 2005; Steven & Kitchen, 2005, 2011 concerning the necessity of including knowledge of systematic AR in teacher preparation programs in order to foster strong habits of inquiry and reflection among preservice teachers. Finally, the study suggests that participation in a systematic reflection and inquiry process contributes to empowering in-service teachers to become agents of pedagogical change through their own actions.
Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO
To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.
The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into nurses' experiences of incorporating aromatherapy into the care of residents suffering from dementia, anxiety and disturbed sleep patterns. Twenty-four residents and twelve nurses from four nursing homes participated in an action research study. The use of lavender augustofolia essential oil diffused nightly was perceived as an effective care modality reducing insomnia and anxiety in this patient cohort. Nurses experienced some negative attitudes among colleagues because they considered aromatherapy as not evidence based. Nurses require greater access to evidence based use of Aromatherapy. Further research is needed to study how smell can enhance dementia care.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the impact of action research methodology used in the teaching and learning process and professional teacher development. In this study are including 58 students of three second grade classes, 3 teachers of those classes and a university professor. Aiming at using a different approach in their teaching of multiplication and division in the second grade, all three teachers agreed to cooperate and jointly plan the learning activities, to observe systematically their students and to reflect on the outcomes. This way of research doing in their classes enabled them to ‘act’ effectively in designing an action plan appropriate to students’ achievement level. This research was carried out in the period of February 18 to May 31 incorporating several different methods, such as classroom observation, interviewing and worksheets.
Coleman, Elizabeth R.
This three-article dissertation presents complementary perspectives on Science Youth Action Research (Sci-YAR), a K-12 curriculum designed to emphasize relevance and agency to promote youth's science learning. In Sci-YAR, youth conduct action research projects to better understand science-related issues in their lives, schools, or communities, while they simultaneously document, analyze, and reflect upon their own practices as researchers. The first article defines Sci-YAR and argues for its potential to enhance youth's participation as citizens in a democratic society. The second article details findings from a case study of youth engaged in Sci-YAR, describing how the curriculum enabled and constrained youth's identity work in service of critical science agency. The third article provides guidance to science teachers in implementing student-driven curriculum and instruction by emphasizing Sci-YAR's key features as a way to promote student agency and relevance in school science.
Park, Arum; Chang, Hyejung
Objectives Services based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have emerged in various business environments. To enhance health service quality and maximize benefits, this study applied an IoT technology based on NFC and iBeacon as an omni-channel service for patient care in hospitals. Methods Application of the IoT technology based on NFC and iBeacon was conducted in a general hospital during August 2015 through June 2016, and the development and evaluation results were aligned to an action research framework. The five phases in the action research included diagnosing, planning action, taking action, evaluating action, and specifying learning phases. Results During the first two phases, problems of functional operations in a hospital were diagnosed and eight service models were designed by using iBeacon and NFC to solve the problems. Service models were applied to the hospital by installing beacons, wearable beacons, beacon scanners, and NFC tags during the third phase. During the fourth and fifth phases, the roles and benefits of stakeholders participating in the service models were evaluated, and issues and knowledge of the whole application process were derived and summarized from technological, economic, social and legal perspectives, respectively. Conclusions From an action research perspective, IoT-based healthcare services were developed and verified. IoT-based services enable the hospital to acquire lifelog data for precision medicine and ultimately be able to go one step closer to precision medical care. The derived service models could provide patients more enhanced healthcare services and improve the work efficiency and effectiveness of the hospital. PMID:28261528
Full Text Available Human preferences, practices and actions are the main drivers of global environmental change in the 21st century. It is crucial, therefore, to promote pro-environmental behavior. In order to accomplish this, we need to move beyond rational choice and behavioral decision theories, which do not capture the full range of commitments, assumptions, imaginaries, and belief systems that drive those preferences and actions. Humanities disciplines, such as philosophy, history, religious studies, gender studies, language and literary studies, psychology, and pedagogics do offer deep insights into human motivations, values, and choices. We believe that the expertise of such fields for transforming human preferences, practices and actions is ignored at society’s peril. We propose an agenda that focuses global humanities research on stepping up to the challenges of planetary environmental change. We have established Environmental Humanities Observatories through which to observe, explore and enact the crucial ways humanistic disciplines may help us understand and engage with global ecological problems by providing insight into human action, perceptions, and motivation. We present this Manifesto as an invitation for others to join the “Humanities for the Environment” open global consortium of humanities observatories as we continue to develop a shared research agenda.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.
This brief summarizes the major findings of significant research studies dealing with different leadership behaviors and strategies for increasing leadership effectiveness. Fred Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness emphasizes that a leader's effectiveness is determined by how well his leadership style fits the specific…
Bailey, Bruce E.; And Others
Many teenagers have unplanned, unwanted pregnancies. Research has shown that effective contraceptive use is hampered by a lack of knowledge and by negative attitudes. Providing accurate information does not necessarily lead to contraceptive use. This two-phase study attempted to assess contraceptive behavior, knowledge, and beliefs. In the first…
Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…
Based on the theory of Consciousness -Raising(CR), this paper proposes a teaching reform in her class , aiming to improve students’ writing competence. Activities have been carried out in their English study and different tasks have been performed at different stages to train the students to be more effective in writing . This paper has expounded the feasibility of this action research and carefully presented the teaching procedures ,hoping to help teachers to become more reflective and innovative in their teaching .
Lirika Berdynaj; Eda Vula
This paper discusses the impact of action research methodology used in the teaching and learning process and professional teacher development. In this study are including 58 students of three second grade classes, 3 teachers of those classes and a university professor. Aiming at using a different approach in their teaching of multiplication and division in the second grade, all three teachers agreed to cooperate and jointly plan the learning activities, to observe systematically their student...
T. D. Wilson
Full Text Available Este artículo fue encargado por el profesor Gernot Wersig de la Freie Universität de Berlín en 1980, como parte de su proyecto, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. Intenta explicar lo que era, en esa época, una perspectiva nueva sobre metodologías apropiadas para el estudio de la conducta humana de búsqueda de la información, centrándose en los métodos cualitativos y la investigación acción, argumentando que la aplicación de la investigación en información depende de su adopción en los procesos administrativos de las organizaciones, antes que en su relación auto-evidente con cualquier cuerpo de teoría. Se presenta ahora tal como fuera originalmente escrito, con las figuras re-elaboradas.This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended upon its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory. It is presented here as it was originally written, with the figures re-drawn.
Orasanu, Judith; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)
The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment: Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have
Roberts, Sara Hayes
The primary purpose of this action research study was to explore an elementary science program and find ways to support science education as an administrator of an elementary school. The study took place in a large suburban school system in the southeastern United States. Seven teachers at a small rural school volunteered to participate in the study. Each participant became an active member of the research by determining what changes needed to take place and implementing the lessons in science. The study was also focused on teacher collaboration and how it influenced the science instruction. The data collected included two interviews, ten observations of science lessons, the implementation of four science units, and informal notes from planning sessions over a five month period. The questions that guided this study focused on how teachers prepare to teach science through active learning and how instruction shifts due to teacher collaboration. Teachers were interviewed at the beginning of the study to gain the perceptions of the participants in the areas of (a) planning, (b) active learning, (c) collaboration, and (d) teaching science lessons. The teachers and principal then formed a research team that determined the barriers to teaching science according to the Standards, designed units of study using active learning strategies, and worked collaboratively to implement the units of study. The action research project reviewed the National Science Education Standards, the theory of constructivism, active learning and teacher collaboration as they relate to the actions taken by a group of teachers in an elementary school. The evidence from this study showed that by working together collaboratively and overcoming the barriers to teaching science actively, teachers feel more confident and knowledgeable about teaching the concepts.
Grigory A. Kapranov
Full Text Available In 2011, the Russian Far Eastern Federal University teacher education faculty redesigned field-experience practica to improve teacher candidates’ professional reflection, practical classroom instruction, and capacity for action research. For each academic year, faculty aspired to achieve these goals by collaborating to develop field experiences that differentiated mentoring of teacher candidates to fit with their professional goals and preparation levels. The purpose for this study is to investigate the effectiveness of this reform by comparing pre-reform senior theses to post-reform senior theses on a series of outcomes. Using a mixed-methods approach, findings indicate that post-reform teacher candidates outperformed pre-reform candidates on thesis quality. Specifically, post-reformed candidates were better able to make theoretical connections to their practice as evidenced by their action research topics and findings.
Matthew, Laurie; Barron, Ian G
The existence of ritual abuse is the subject of much debate. Ritual abuse survivor perceptions of seeking help have not been explored, and studies have yet to utilize self-defined survivors as collaborative researchers. This study addresses both issues. Participatory action research was utilized to design a survey and semistructured interview to investigate ritual abuse survivor experience of seeking help. Sixty-eight participants completed the survey, and 22 were interviewed. A group approach to thematic analysis aided validity and reliability. Participants reported experiencing disbelief and a lack of ritual abuse awareness and help from support services. In contrast, participatory action research was reported by participants as educative and emancipatory. Future research should explore the benefits of participatory action research for survivors of different forms of oppression.
Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom
This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research...... and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural...
Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Kuzu, Abdullah
In the present study, a mobile learning system for the professional development of academics was developed by design based action research, and the perceptions and experiences of the academics using this system were examined. In the first phase of this design-based action research, the research question was defined. In the second phase, a…
Christine M. Porter
Full Text Available Diversity of perspective makes for greater depth when painting a portrait of community life. But embracing the idea of representing true diversity in a formal research project is a whole lot easier than putting it into practice. The three dozen members of the Food Dignity action research team, now entering the fourth year of a five-year project, are intimately familiar with this challenge. In this article, four of the collaborators explore the intricacies of navigating what it means to bring together a genuine cross-section of community-based activists and academics in an effort to draw on one another’s professional and personal strengths to collect and disseminate research findings that represent the truth of a community’s experiences, and are ultimately disseminated in a way that brings tangible benefit to the heart and soul of that community. The authors include Food Dignity’s principal investigator (Porter and three community organisers (Marshall, Herrera and Woodsum in organisations that have partnered with Food Dignity. Two of the organisers (Herrera and Woodsum also serve project-wide roles. These collaborators share their personal and professional hopes, struggles, concerns, successes and failures as participants in this cutting-edge effort to equalise community and university partnerships in research. Keywords: community-based participatory research (CBPR, food justice, equitable community-campus partnerships, food sovereignty, case study, action research
Full Text Available In this article, we explore how Action Research and Design-Based Research can be combined and used in the development of educational robotic tools. Our case study is the development of an educational tool called Number Blocks, and it combines physical interaction, learning, and direct feedback. Number Blocks support a child’s understanding of place value by allowing the child to experiment with large numbers. The tool was developed in collaboration with a class of 7- to 8-year-old children and their mathematics teacher. In this article, we compare and synthesize elements from different research methodologies and argue that these elements can constitute a structured approach to projects combining educational design research with new learning technologies. Key elements of the approach that has been developed include: acknowledging user input, active participation, developing a theoretical pre-analysis, and using an iterative approach.
Ponte, P.; Beers, R.
The purpose of this article is to describe the value of action-research within the context of the professionalization of teachers in further education. Further education based on action research will be elaborated on with reference to the training course for 'School Counselling & Guidance' at the Fa
Vaughan, Michelle; Burnaford, Gail
This review explores the goals and challenges as well as the policy and programmatic implications of action research in graduate teacher education as evidenced in the published literature. This literature review looks specifically at how action research is being used in graduate teacher education programs as a content area and as a methodology in…
This article analyzes how participation in teacher-led, semester-long, action research projects influences early career teacher (fewer than three years of teaching experience) perceptions of support and learning. All teachers at an urban, newly developed, small high school participated in action research projects as a result of the…
Lam, Ho Cheong
One of the purposes of introducing the use of action research in schools is to bring about educational change in policy and practice. To make this happen, it is of paramount importance to look into how teachers actually see action research. We, the writers of this paper, are teacher educators, teaching preschool teachers courses related to action…
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Ní Ríordáin, Máire
Action research provides valuable opportunities for preservice teachers to improve their practice, their understanding of their practice, and the situation in which their practice takes place. Moreover, action research empowers preservice teachers to critically examine an experience that demonstrates their potential to be influential researchers…
This paper argues that action research finds a rationale in the pragmatic position that knowledge is provisional and generated through a transaction between agent and environment. Action research finds a further methodological rationale in the pragmatic view that knowledge is generated within indeterminate situations, requires habits of reflection…
Why is design based action research method important in the world of robot technology and learning? The article explores how action research and interaction-driven design can be used in development of educational robot technological tools. The actual case is the development of “Fraction Battle” w...
Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor
Action research is geared to changes for the better and has the potential to assist teachers to extend their teaching skills and develop a deeper understanding of themselves, their classroom and their learners. However, in the area of applied linguistics, the viability of action research has been seriously questioned. In this article, we argue…
Grace, Marcus; Rietdijk, Willeke; Garrett, Caro; Griffiths, Janice
This article presents an independent evaluation of the Action Research for Physics (ARP) programme, a nationwide professional development programme which trains teachers to use action research to increase student interest in physics and encourage them to take post-compulsory physics. The impact of the programme was explored from the perspective of…
This paper is a reflexive account of the use of critical social theory within my practice as an action researcher. It is set within the ongoing debates between pragmatist and critical tendencies within action research. The paper discusses how a selective deployment of key constructs from the work of Jurgen Habermas has supported my work as a…
Hofmann, Bjørn; Holm, Søren
BACKGROUND Increasing attention is being paid to research misconduct in academic journals and in the media, but we know relatively little about its extent or attitudes to research misconduct, or how these are changing. This study therefore aims to investigate PhD candidates' knowledge, own actions and attitudes to specific forms of research misconduct.MATERIAL AND METHOD In autumn 2015, an anonymous questionnaire survey was distributed to all participants in the introductory course for PhD candidates at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Oslo.RESULTS Altogether 77 PhD candidates (79 %) responded to the questionnaire. A total of 62 % conducted clinical research and 25 % conducted basic research. Around one in four had heard about serious forms of research misconduct in the previous year, and around 4 % were aware of various forms of serious research misconduct in their own department in the previous year. Compared to earlier studies, an increasing number (16 %) responded that they had been subjected to unethical pressure with regard to inclusion or order of authors. Approximately two-thirds were uncertain of whether their department had written policies for academic conduct. One-third of PhD candidates did not disassociate themselves from actions that are generally viewed as scientific misconduct. One-tenth thought it acceptable to falsify or fabricate data in order to expedite publication, one-fifth did not object to taking the credit for others' ideas, and almost half did not believe it was wrong to attempt a number of methods of analysis until one arrived at a significant answer.INTERPRETATION PhD candidates at the Faculty of Medicine were aware of research misconduct, both generally and from their own department. They themselves reported some type of scientific misconduct, and a large majority were uncertain of their department's guidelines. Some of the candidates also accepted several forms of research misconduct.
Full Text Available Accounts of how teacher educators begin to plan, develop, and support action research programmes for language teachers are rare, as are descriptions of the responses of the teachers who participate. This article documents and analyses the initial processes of introducing and supporting a new programme of action research for language teachers at the Universidad Chileno-Británica de Cultura (UCBC in Santiago, Chile. To evaluate the setting up of the programme and how the teachers have perceived it in its early stages, the authors, who are the programme facilitators, have conducted a meta- study. Data include workshop and meeting recordings, workshop observation notes, a reflective account, and a teacher questionnaire. The findings indicate that the teachers value the input and collaboration provided by an initial workshop, and subsequent meetings and discussions, very highly, but that issues of time, student involvement, and academic literature are areas for further debate and development. The article ends by drawing out the broader implications for UCBC and for others wishing to initiate similar action research programmes.
Giraldo-García, Regina J.; Galletta, Anne
Tracing the nature of critical engagement and agency among youth in a participatory action research (PAR) collective, the study attends to the manner in which critical engagement and agency developed over time for the youth researchers. The focus of the project was to conduct a survey among ninth grade students concerning their early high school…
Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia
A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…
This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) project carried out with three transnational Latina youth in northern California and how the university researcher incorporated Chicana feminist strategies in the study. PAR and Chicana feminism place at the heart of research the knowledge that ordinary people produce, referring to this knowledge as conocimientos, or "homemade theory." The author discusses the project, the collaborative writing of a children's book based on two years of data collection, the challenges in being both an insider and an outsider to the community, how the youth created a counterstory based on their transnational immigrant lifestyle, and how an out-of-school setting promoted engaged research with urban teens.
The paradigm of choice for theory of reasoned action research seems to depend largely on the notion of change in variance accounted for (DeltaR2) as new independent variables are added to a multiple regression equation. If adding a particular independent variable of interest increases the variance in the dependent variable that can be accounted for by the list of independent variables, then the research is deemed to be 'successful', and the researcher is considered to have made a convincing argument about the importance of the new variable. In contrast to this trend, I present arguments that suggest serious problems with the paradigm, and conclude that studies on attitude-behaviour relations would advance the field of psychology to a far greater extent if researchers abandoned it.
This study focused on teacher perceptions of the long-term impacts of engaging in collaborative action research on professional identity and practice. This qualitative, phenomenological study focused on understanding the lived experiences of 10 teachers before, during, and after engaging in action research. Each teacher was interviewed before…
Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hong
Over the past few decades, the pursuit of teachers-as-researchers has become an ideal for developing teacher autonomy to which many in the world of curriculum development and language teacher education try to promote (Benson, 2001). Nevertheless, research into how teachers learn to do research has been scarce, and there are pressing needs for…
Zhu, Zhengxiang; Gu, Jifa; Zhang, Lingling; Song, Wuqi; Gao, Rui
Traditional data mining is a data-driven trial-and-error process, stop on general pattern discovered. However, in many cases the mined knowledge by this process could not meet the real-world business needs. Actually, in real-world business, knowledge must be actionable, that is to say, one can do something on it to profit. Actionable knowledge discovery is a complex task, due to it is strongly depend on domain knowledge, such as background knowledge expert experience, user interesting, environment context, business logic, even including law, regulation, habit, culture etc. The main challenge is moving data-driven into domain-driven data mining (DDDM), its goal is to discover actionable knowledge rather than general pattern. As a new generation data mining approach, main ideas of the DDDM are introduced. Two types of process models show the difference between loosely coupled and tightly coupled. Also the main characteristics, such as constraint-base, human-machine cooperated, loop-closed iterative refinement and meta-synthesis-base process management are proposed. System architecture will be introduced, as well as a paradigm will be introduced.
This study is a meta-synthesis of 20 action research studies undertaken in the classroom by teachers to develop their understanding of an innovative strategy for teaching science. The studies were undertaken as part of the requirements for their 2-year M.Ed. program from the Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED),…
Kahraman, Feray; Karatas, Faik Özgür
This study is a four-week section of ongoing attempts that aim to improve 6th grade students' understandings of the nature of science. The study was carried out in a sixth grade science and technology class at a rural middle school with 15 students on the basis of action research methodology. During the study, four different stories based on the…
Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Elswijk, van Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan
Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols
Andersen, Per Dannemand; Piirainen, Kalle A.; Clausen, Niels-Erik
for offshore wind installations, and industry clusters based on OWS are emerging in regions around the North Sea. The JAP builds on a mapping (based on desk studies, patent analyses, and bibliometrics) of each of participating region’s existing capabilities, and on an overall strategic orientation and options......This paper presents a joint action plan (JAP) for research and development and innovation (RDI) in the offshore wind service industry in Denmark, Germany, Norway and the UK. Offshore wind servicing (OWS) is in this context defined as both assembly and installation of offshore wind farms as well...... for a innovation. The JAP is built on this foundation together with stakeholders from the four regions, comprising representatives from R&D and education, policy makers and offshore wind industry. Following the workshop, the ECOWindS consortium has been developing the proposed action plan further based...
Primary/elementary teachers are uniquely positioned in terms of their need for ongoing, science-focused professional development. They are usually generalists, having limited preparation for teaching science, and often do not feel prepared or comfortable in teaching science. In this case study, CHAT or cultural-historical activity theory is used as a lens to examine primary/elementary teachers' activity system as they engaged in a teacher-driven professional development initiative. Teachers engaged in collaborative action research to change their practice, with the objective of making their science teaching more engaging and hands-on for students. A range of qualitative methods and sources such as teacher interviews and reflections, teacher-created artifacts, and researcher observational notes were adopted to gain insight into teacher learning. Outcomes report on how the teachers' activity system changed as they participated in two cycles of collaborative action research and how the contradictions that arose in their activity system became sources of professional growth. Furthermore, this research shows how the framework of activity theory may be used to garner insight into the activity and learning of teachers as both their professional activities and the context change over time.
Nyhof-Young, Joyce Marion
Action research is emerging as a promising means of promoting individual and societal change in the context of university programmes in teacher education. However, significant gaps exist in the literature regarding the use of action research groups for the education of science teachers. Therefore, an action research group, dealing with gender issues in science education, was established within the context of a graduate course in action research at OISE. For reasons outlined in the thesis, action research was deemed an especially appropriate means for addressing issues of gender. The group met 14 times from September 1992 until May 1993 and consisted of myself and five other science teachers from the Toronto area. Two of us were in the primary panel, two in the intermediate panel, and two in the tertiary panel. Five teachers were female. One was male. The experiences of the group form the basis of this study. A methodology of participant observation supported by interviews, classroom visits, journals, group feedback and participant portfolios provides a means of examining experiences from the perspective of the participants in the group. The case study investigates the nature of the support and learning opportunities that the action research group provided for science teachers engaged in curiculum and professional development in the realm of gender issues in science education, and details the development of individuals, the whole group and myself (as group worker, researcher and participant) over the life of the project. The action research group became a resource for science teachers by providing most participants with: A place to personalize learning and research; a place for systematic reflection and research; a forum for discussion; a source of personal/professional support; a source of friendship; and a place to break down isolation and build self-confidence. This study clarifies important relational and political issues that impinge on action research in
Full Text Available Through the local scour test at bridge pier under tidal action in a long time series, this paper observes the growing trend of the deepest point of local scour at bridge pier under tidal conditions with different characteristic parameters, analyzes the impact of repeat sediment erosion and deposition in the scouring pit caused by reversing current on the development process of the scouring pit, and clarifies the relation between the tide and local scouring depth at bridge pier under steady flow conditions, so as to provide a scientific basis for bridge design and safe operation of estuary and harbor areas.
Baptiste, Donna; Kapungu, Chisina; Khare, Manorama H; Lewis, Yvonne; Barlow-Mosha, Linda
This article uses Scale of Change theory as a framework to guide global health researchers to synergistically target women's health outcomes in the context of improving their right to freedom, equity, and equality of opportunities. We hypothesize that health researchers can do so through six action strategies. These strategies include (1) becoming fully informed of women's human rights directives to integrate them into research, (2) mainstreaming gender in the research, (3) using the expertise of grass roots women's organizations in the setting, (4) showcasing women's equity and equality in the organizational infrastructure, (5) disseminating research findings to policymakers in the study locale to influence health priorities, and (6) publicizing the social conditions that are linked to women's diseases. We explore conceptual and logistical dilemmas in transforming a study using these principles and also provide a case study of obstetric fistula reduction in Nigeria to illustrate how these strategies can be operationalized. Our intent is to offer a feasible approach to health researchers who, conceptually, may link women's health to social and cultural conditions but are looking for practical implementation strategies to examine a women's health issue through the lens of their human rights.
Yang, K. Wayne
This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math…
the widely published normative advice. While there may be several reasons for discrepancies between research results and prac-tice this paper focuses on problems of implementation of the identified success factors. Within the research area of NPD-management there has been numerous surveys as well as case...
高职教师除了掌握必要的学科内容和教学技能之外，还必须拥有一种“扩展的专业特性”，指教师要通过系统的自我研究，以及研究别的教师和课堂检验的相关理论，用以指导实践，实现专业上的自我发展，这种研究被称为“行动研究”。目前国内行动研究领域的研究成果已经相当丰富，有关行动研究与教师专业发展也得到了研究者们的积极关注。但是，针对行动研究与高职院校英语教师发展的研究相对较少。行动研究强调理论与实践的紧密结合，这与高等职业教育英语教学将“应用性”视为其本质属性的理念相一致。将行动研究引入高等职业教育英语教学，使得行动研究成为高职英语教师应为和可为的一种教学研究与实践，对唤醒专业发展的自觉意识，培育专业精神，更好地推动高职英语教师的专业发展具有重要的意义。因此，本文旨在探讨行动研究对于高职院校英语教师专业发展的必要性和重要性，并且以ESP课程为个案阐述了进行行动研究的基本框架。%In addition to the necessary subject content and teach-ing skills, a higher vocational teacher must also possess an "ex-tended professional feature", namely, the teacher should system-atically make a self-research and research related theories on other teachers and class inspection, so as to guide the practice and realize professional self-development,and this research is ca-lled "action research". At present, the result of domestic action research is quite rich, and issues relevant to action research and professional development of teachers have also been given active attention by researchers. However, there are relatively few studies on action research and the professional development of English teachers in higher vocational colleges. Action research empha-sizes the close combination of theory and practice, which is con-sistent with
Capobianco, Brenda M.
The underrepresentation of women and minorities in science is an extensively studied yet persistent concern of our society. Major reform movements in science education suggest that better teaching, higher standards, and sensitivity to student differences can overcome long-standing obstacles to participation among women and minorities. In response to these major reform movements, researchers have suggested teachers transform their goals, science content, and instructional practices to make science more attractive and inviting to all students, particularly young women and minorities (Barton, 1998; Brickhouse, 1994; Mayberry & Rees, 1999; Rodriguez, 1999; Roychoudhury, Tippins, & Nichols, 1995). One of the more dominant approaches currently heralded is the use of feminist pedagogy in science education. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways eleven middle and high school science teachers worked collaboratively to engage in systematic, self-critical inquiry of their own practice and join with other science teachers to engage in collaborative conversations in effort to transform their practice for a more equitable science education. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews, whole group discussions, classroom observations, and review of supporting documents. Data analysis was based on grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) and open coding (Miles and Huberman, 1994). This study described the collective processes the science teachers and university researcher employed to facilitate regular collaborative action research meetings over the course of six months. Findings indicated that engaging in collaborative action research allowed teachers to gain new knowledge about feminist science teaching, generate a cluster of pedagogical possibilities for inclusive pedagogy, and enhance their understanding for science teaching. Additional findings indicated dilemmas teachers experienced including resistance to a feminist agenda and concerns for validity in action
María Gabriela Garro-González
Full Text Available This article systematizes a series of moments built while in the company of a fourth grader from the public school where I worked as a special education teacher in 2013. In the article, I described what I learned from the shared experiences generated from the naturalistic paradigm, the qualitative approach and the action research model, using pedagogical situations planned with the objective of understanding the reality of the student and the educational process for this particular case allowing or limiting success at school. My purpose is to reflect on issues related to the educational practice, from an individual standpoint and from the perspective of the teacher who observes and listens to his/herself in his/her daily actions and who looks for new ways to help students to find the true meaning of learning. From this perspective, the methodological design for this research project is based on the natural observation of the interaction between the teacher and the student. Using this technique allowed identifying one of the participating subjects and choosing research activities (individual or group work sessions and strategies for data collection (photos, videos, stories and conversation recordings. After this, experiences are systematized in written and illustrated form (conversations and photographs of the participant’s drawings. The article is based on a case study that includes my individual interventions with the student, as well as planned learning moments with his class. To conclude, I interpret and analyze each of the moments meeting with the student, in the light of the scientific and theoretical findings accompanying the research project. In addition, I reflect that my priority as a teacher in action is creating spaces that would allow students to experience sensitivity, empathy, and appreciation for people and their talents.
Hakkennes, Sharon; Arblaster, Ross; Lim, Kim
Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether action research could be used to improve the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute settingMethods The setting was a 100-bed in-patient rehabilitation centre. Using a pre-post study design all admitted subacute separations during the 2011-12 financial year were eligible for inclusion. An action research framework aimed at improving clinical costing methodology was developed and implemented.Results In all, 1499 separations were included in the study. A medical record audit of a random selection of 80 separations demonstrated that the use of an action research framework was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of the costing data. This was evidenced by a significant increase in the average number of activities costed, a reduction in the average number of activities incorrectly costed and a reduction in the average number of activities missing from the costing, per episode of care.Conclusions Engaging clinicians and cost centre managers was effective in facilitating the development of robust clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting. Further investigation into the value of this approach across other care types and healthcare services is warranted.What is known about this topic? Accurate clinical costing data is essential for informing price models used in activity-based funding. In Australia, there is currently a lack of robust admitted subacute cost data to inform the price model for this care type.What does this paper add? The action research framework presented in this study was effective in improving the breadth and accuracy of clinical costing data in an admitted subacute setting.What are the implications for practitioners? To improve clinical costing practices, health services should consider engaging key stakeholders, including clinicians and cost centre managers, in reviewing clinical costing methodology. Robust clinical costing data has the
Walker, Ashley; Early, Jody
The purpose of this qualitative participatory action research study was multi-fold: first, to identify the ecological factors which impede and promote health and well-being among orphaned and abandoned children in Sierra Leone; second, to facilitate Photovoice, a participatory action research method, among NGO workers to identify barriers to…
Colucci-Gray, Laura; Das, Sharmistha; Gray, Donald; Robson, Dean; Spratt, Jennifer
This study was conceived as an opportunity to reflect on the place of action-research in the contested landscape of educational change in the UK where increasing emphasis has been put on the use of evidence to drive reform. In the context of a government-sponsored project in Scotland, this study looked at the impact of a scholarship initiative…
Doungprom, Usanee; Phusee-on, Songsak; Prachanant, Nawamin
The purpose of this study was to explore some problems and desires of developing self-confidence in teaching English of non-English major teachers in rural small primary schools in Thailand with participatory action research. This study also aims to develop teacher's confidence in teaching English, enhance communicative competence and to assess…
The purpose of this paper is to assess the role of households and their participatory initiatives toward their enhanced welfare. The paper will analyze how the marginalized and less privileged bagdi community actively participated and collaboratively worked to learn kitchen gardening technology through a participatory action research project. The project was undertaken among three bagdi paras from different neighboring villages during 2009 and 2010. This action research project was funded by ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation
Cordeiro, Luciana; Soares, Cassia Baldini
The aim of this article was to describe and analyze the work of community health workers (CHW). The main objective of study was to analyze the development process of primary health care practices related to drug consumption. The study is based on the Marxist theoretical orientation and the action research methodology, which resulted in the performance of 15 emancipatory workshops. The category work process spawned the content analysis. It exposed the social abandonment of the environment in which the CHWs work is performed. The latter had an essential impact on the identification of the causes of drug-related problems. These findings made it possible to criticize the reiterative, stressful actions that are being undertaken there. Such an act resulted in raising of the awareness and creating the means for political action. The CHWs motivated themselves to recognize the object of the work process in primary health care, which they found to be the disease or addiction in the case of drug users. They have criticized this categorization as well as discussed the social division of work and the work itself whilst recognizing themselves as mere instruments in the work process. The latter has inspired the CHW to become subjects, or co-producers of transformations of social needs.
Andersen, John; Søgård jensen, Michael; Bilfeldt, Anette
for better social and environmental conditions. The paper introduces the core concepts in action research and the linkage between critical participatory action research and empowerment. The paper presents three different action research projects that has been carried out in: 1) a public nursing home, where...... and facilitate empowerment of both residents and welfare workers and 3) a local project about sustainable housing, where the objective was to design and build houses, which could act as prototypes and inspiration for a further development of sustainable housing. The paper discusses similarities and differences...... in methods that have been employed in the three projects. Finally challenges and opportunities for action research to contribute to empowerment and to the development of societal change with better social and environmental conditions are discussed....
Parent-teacher action research (PTAR) empowers both groups to define their own problems and collaborate on solutions. Schools with PTAR teams have developed mutually respectful working relationships that can positively influence children's learning. (SK)
T. Subahan Mohd Meerah
Full Text Available This paper reports on a professional development initiative with Malaysian primary school science teachers throughcollaborative action research aimed at enhancing their teaching in order to improve marginalized children’s learning. Theirperformance of such children, both in the external as well as in the school-based assessment, is weak, especially in subjects likeScience and Mathematics and eventually results in their dropping out at the primary level. The first phase of the study, basedon a series of observations, focuses on group discussions with teachers and consecutive school visits, and has identified that theteachers face difficulties in teaching Science and Mathematics. The findings show that teachers tend to use similar teachingapproaches as those which are being used in urban schools, which are more teacher-centred in nature. Furthermore, manyteachers do not possess sound pedagogical skills in terms of teaching Science and Mathematics and have the ability to employalternative approaches suitable for marginalized children in their context. To overcome this situation, the second phase of thisstudy involved developing modules by the teachers and researchers collaboratively as a means of providing alternative ways ofteaching science. Additionally, teachers become used to the concept of action research. Findings show that teachers perceivethe modules to be very useful and beneficial to them. Moreover, the students demonstrated increase interest and activeinvolvement in the learning activities.
Cope, Diane G
Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.
Although action research is widely acknowledged to have benefits in terms of improving practice and professional development, its ability to generate new knowledge, and hence its status as research, is debatable. Indeed, there are questions as to whether it can be called "proper" research. This article draws on the Southampton Music…
This paper provides an example of an application of participatory action research (PAR) to the current crisis of arsenic poisoning in rural Bangladesh. The approach was used to link the author’s doctoral research with the work of the Arsenic Mitigation and Research Foundation (AMRF), a small group o
Balakrishnan, Vishalache; Cornforth, Sue
In this paper we propose that taking time before the work begins to develop agreements about how to work together in participatory action research enables researchers to directly address several ethical issues that can be problematic in this type of research: gaining fully informed consent; in-group confidentiality; cultural misconceptions; and…
Young, Richard A.; Domene, Jose F.
After identifying historical and current problems in career counselling research, we propose a research agenda based on contextual action theory. This theory has been used as a framework for research in the career field and for general counselling practice. It is advantageous for several reasons including its conceptual basis, its detailed…
Whitworth, Andrew; Torras I Calvo, Maria Carme; Moss, Bodil; Amlesom Kifle, Nazareth; Blåsternes, Terje
Visualization and mapping techniques can build a dynamic picture of information practices, including action research, within libraries, raising awareness of how the information landscape at each library may both support and retard research into the library's information practices. These techniques have implications for researchers as they generate…
... research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or...
... research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement...
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg
be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....
Wilkinson, Emma; Randhawa, Gurch; Brown, Edwina A; Da Silva Gane, Maria; Stoves, John; Warwick, Graham; Akhtar, Tahira; Magee, Regina; Sharman, Sue; Farrington, Ken
South Asian people have a higher risk of developing kidney disease, are disproportionately represented in the patient population requiring renal replacement therapy and wait longer to receive a kidney transplant, compared with white Europeans. As a result, there is a demand for end-of-life care, which meets the needs of this group of patients. Providing end-of-life care to patients from different cultures is a challenge for renal services as there can be barriers to communication in the form of language, delegated decision-making within families and reluctance to discuss death. To explore end-of-life care for South Asians with kidney disease, 16 interviews with patients and 14 focus groups with care providers were conducted at four research sites in the UK with large South Asian populations. Using an action research design the data were analysed thematically and fed back to inform the research in a cyclical manner. If patients are not fully aware of their condition or of what end-of-life care is, it is less likely that they will be able to be involved in decision-making about their care and this is compounded where there are communication barriers. Variations in care provider awareness and experience of providing end-of-life care to South Asian patients, in turn, contributes to lack of patient awareness of end-of-life care. Communication as care at the end of life should be explored further. Researching the South Asian patient experience of end of life highlights many relevant and generalisable issues.
Magic, Jasna; Maljevac, Simon
Research has highlighted that during school, European lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience significantly higher levels of discrimination and verbal, physical, and sexual violence in comparison with their heterosexual peers. Slovenian youth are not exempt from this experience. While the educational system is exclusively…
This book includes: a theoretical summary of the various facets of motivation, an examination of how the theoretical insights can help classroom practitioners in their everyday teaching practice and practical recommendations on how motivation can be researched and assessed. The following chapters are included: "Main Challenges of Motivation…
Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne
Language teachers constantly create, adapt and evaluate classroom materials to develop new curricula and meet their learners' needs. It has long been argued (e.g. by Stenhouse, L. . "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development." London: Heinemann) that teachers themselves, as opposed to managers or course book writers,…
Christens, Brian; Perkins, Douglas D.
The authors explore the implications of recent proposals for a focus on power and social change in community psychology research and add needed contextual and methodological specificity. An expanded model of psychopolitical validity is presented that merges Isaac Prilleltensky's (this issue, pp. 116-136) domains, or stages of empowerment…
Camahalan, Faye Marsha G.; Ruley, Andrea G.
This teacher research project focused on utilizing blended learning to teach writing to middle school students. The intervention was designed to fit into individual lessons needed to improve students' writing skills with the main focus on sentence structure. Sixteen (16) 7th grade students were assessed with a writing sample applying the new…
Hymel, Glenn M.
Two major developments in the therapeutic massage and bodywork profession have recently brought to the forefront the issue of research competencies. The profession has been called to a potentially heightened level of credibility. One challenge to the profession's development is that of coordinating the various curricular, instructional,…
Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A; SanMiguel, Iria
Prediction and attention are fundamental brain functions in the service of perception and action. Theories on prediction relate to neural (mental) models inferring about (present or future) sensory or action-related information, whereas theories of attention are about the control of information flow underlying perception and action. Both concepts are related and not always clearly distinguishable. The special issue includes current research on prediction and attention in various subfields of perception and action. It especially considers interactions between predictive and attentive processes, which constitute a newly emerging and highly interesting field of research. As outlined in this editorial, the contributions in this special issue allow specifying as well as bridging concepts on prediction and attention. The joint consideration of prediction and attention also reveals common functional principles of perception and action.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a collaborative action research conducted with people living with intellectual disabilities (ID who were going through a community integration process. To be successfully integrated into a community, they need to develop basic life skills as much as they need to learn to use mobile technologies for authentic interactions (Davidson, 2012 and to be self-advocates online (Davidson, 2009a. This study used the Capability Approach pioneered by Sen (1992 and Nussbaum (2000, which focusses on what people can do rather than on their deficiencies. I recruited a group of eight people with ID who wished to set goals, engage in developing new capabilities, share their goals and act as models for others with ID who want to learn to live on their own. In this article, I examine the process of developing self-advocacy videos with mobile technologies using the Capability Approach and I analyze the inventory of capabilities collected through this study. I provide recommendations for intervention through mobile technologies with the long term-goal of helping people with ID to become contributing citizens. I discuss the innovative action research methodology I used to help people with ID become self-advocates and take control of the messages they give through producing their own digital resources.
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented study? What learning and/or changes took place? What challenges/pitfalls had to be overcome? What were the influence/consequences for the involved parts? When to use If you want to implement new services and want to involve staff and others in the process, an AR methodology is very suitable. The basic advantages of doing AR-based studies are grounded in their participatory and democratic basis and their starting point in problems experienced in practice. Limitations Some of the limitations in AR-studies are that neither of the participants in a project steering group are the only ones to decide. Furthermore, the collective process makes the decision-making procedures relatively complex.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the integration of content, context and process (CCP into the Action Design Research (ADR framework to account for the interplay of organisational issues in artefact design and development. The investigation is conducted through a case study in which successive ICT student teams incrementally build, over several semesters, a tailored, low cost business intelligence (BI system as an ensemble artefact for an organisation in the not-for-profit (NFP sector. During project development, CCP’s human-centred approach to evaluation complements ADR’s more prescribed technology-driven software testing. The integration of CCP into ADR as an evaluation view offers an holistic approach to assessing an ensemble artefact. The resultant conceptual framework is presented as a model with an explication of unexpected design and research outcomes.
Article discusses the concept of action research connotation, Action research model, and explores the application of action research in library work.%首先阐述行动研究的概念内涵、行动研究的模式,然后探讨行动研究在图书馆工作中的应用。
Otto, Charlotte A.; Luera, Gail R.; Everett, Susan A.
In this article, we describe an innovative capstone course for preservice K-8 teachers integrating action research and a unifying theme in science (AAAS in Science for all Americans. Oxford University Press, New York, 1989; NRC in National science education standards. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996). The goals of the capstone course are to increase student knowledge of the unifying theme, improve written communication skills, and introduce students to educational research. We provide evidence that each of these goals is met. Student growth in theme knowledge is demonstrated through concept maps, questionnaires, and previously reported assessments. Improved writing ability is demonstrated using the spelling and grammar checking feature of Microsoft Word. The analysis of action research reports demonstrates that students are able to connect their action research project results to previous research.
Galletta, Anne; Jones, Vanessa
Our article is based on a study of our integration of social foundations coursework with filmmaking and participatory action research, bringing teacher candidates and middle and high school students together. The project was carried out in partnership between an urban university and two nearby public schools within a Midwestern city known for high…
Finnish youth are found to be, despite their broad knowledge, uninterested in politics and in societal participation. As a remedy, international studies suggest enabling democratic experiences in schools. This article discusses an action research project aimed at developing deliberation-based democratic practice in an elementary classroom. Results…
Penrod, Janice; Loeb, Susan J; Ladonne, Robert A; Martin, Lea M
Participatory action research (PAR) approaches harness collaborative partnerships to stimulate change in defined communities. The purpose of this article is to illustrate key methodological strategies used in the application of PAR methods in the particularly challenging environment of a hierarchical organization. A study designed to promote sustainable, insider-generated system-level changes in the provision of end-of-life (EOL) care in the restrictive setting of six state prisons is used as an exemplar of the application of three cardinal principles of PAR. First, development of a collaborative network with active partnership between outsider academic researchers and insider co-researchers began with careful attention to understanding the culture and processes of prisons and gaining the support of organizational leadership, using qualitative data gathering and trust-building. During the implementation phase, promoting co-ownership of change in EOL care through the co-construction of knowledge and systems to enhance sustainable change required carefully-orchestrated strategies to maximize the collaborative spirit of the project. Co-researchers were empowered to examine their worlds and capture opportunities for change using new leadership skills role-modeled by the research team. Third, their local knowledge of the barriers inherent in the contextual reality of prisons was translated into achievable system change by production of a toolkit of formalized and well-rehearsed change strategies that collaborative teams were empowered to enact within their hierarchical prison environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Higher education institutions are in the knowledge business since they are involved in knowledge creation, dissemination and learning. However, not many higher education institutions get the most benefit out of managing their knowledge. Most of these institutions are so busy delivering knowledge that they fail to capture the best practices in their knowledge delivery. The induction programme for new lecturers is therefore very important to improve the quality of teaching. In teaching, lecturers might be the subject matter experts but could lack knowledge related to teaching, such as theories of teaching and learning, classroom organization and management, development of curriculum and course content, and professionalism. This paper examines if knowledge management systems (KMS can support the induction programmes for new lecturers in an academic setting at the Bina Nusantara University in Indonesia. Action research is used as the underlying methodology. Specifically, a 5-step canonical action research was used to conduct the study. Our findings post intervention suggests that most lecturers understand the importance of the induction programme and the lecturers have positive attitudes towards the implementation of KMS to support the induction programme.
Holter, I M; Schwartz-Barcott, D
Action research has enjoyed increasing popularity across a wide variety of disciplines including nursing. Action research was designed specifically to bridge the gap between theory, research and practice and incorporates both humanistic and naturalistic scientific methods. As such, action research is a highly compelling method for nursing. However, action research does not easily lend itself to definition. A variety of approaches, definitions and uses have emerged since it was created by Kurt Lewin and have given rise to much debate within social and behavioural sciences. This confusion has carried over into nursing literature without any systematic identification of or debate about the core characteristics of action research or the multitude of approaches or uses that have come to be associated with this method. Thus this paper addresses the central characteristics, three major approaches to action research that exist today and how action research has been used and can be used in nursing.
A collection of research reporting, theoretical analysis, and practical applications in science education: Examining qualitative research methods, action research, educator-researcher partnerships, and constructivist learning theory
Hartle, R. Todd
Educator-researcher partnerships are increasingly being used to improve the teaching of science. Chapter 1 provides a summary of the literature concerning partnerships, and examines the justification of qualitative methods in studying these relationships. It also justifies the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). Empirically-based studies of educator-researcher partnership relationships are rare despite investments in their implementation by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and others. Chapter 2 describes a qualitative research project in which participants in an NSF GK-12 fellowship program were studied using informal observations, focus groups, personal interviews, and journals to identify and characterize the cultural factors that influenced the relationships between the educators and researchers. These factors were organized into ten critical axes encompassing a range of attitudes, behaviors, or values defined by two stereotypical extremes. These axes were: (1) Task Dictates Context vs. Context Dictates Task; (2) Introspection vs. Extroversion; (3) Internal vs. External Source of Success; (4) Prior Planning vs. Implementation Flexibility; (5) Flexible vs. Rigid Time Sense; (6) Focused Time vs. Multi-tasking; (7) Specific Details vs. General Ideas; (8) Critical Feedback vs. Encouragement; (9) Short Procedural vs. Long Content Repetition; and (10) Methods vs. Outcomes are Well Defined. Another ten important stereotypical characteristics, which did not fit the structure of an axis, were identified and characterized. The educator stereotypes were: (1) Rapport/Empathy; (2) Like Kids; (3) People Management; (4) Communication Skills; and (5) Entertaining. The researcher stereotypes were: (1) Community Collaboration; (2) Focus Intensity; (3) Persistent; (4) Pattern Seekers; and (5) Curiosity/Skeptical. Chapter 3 summarizes the research presented in chapter 2 into a practical guide for participants and administrators of educator-researcher partnerships
Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel
In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…
This article reports the results of a new study on the impact of bans on race-conscious admissions policies which seem to confirm what many critics of affirmative action have long suspected: It is Asian-Americans, rather than whites, who are most disadvantaged by elite universities' consideration of ethnicity and race. Left unanswered are the…
Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Benedikt; Sloep, Peter; Drachsler, Hendrik
Reinhardt, W., Schmidt, B., Sloep, P. B., & Drachsler, H. (2011). Knowledge Worker Roles and Actions - Results of Two Empirical Studies. Knowledge and Process Management, 18(3), 150–174. doi: 10.1002/kpm.378 Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/kpm.378/abstract
Timmerman, W; Bouma, M; De Vries, JB; Davis, M; Westerink, BHC
To gain insight into the mechanism of action of the anti-epileptic, gabapentin, the effects of gabapentin on the in vivo extracellular gamma-aminobutylic acid (GABA) levels in the rat substantia nigra reticulata were studied using microdialysis. In order to investigate possible interference with dif
Full Text Available This paper examines a case study where mind mapping is used within an action research project to foster improved community group effectiveness and decision-making. The case study focusses on the social dynamics experienced during the formative stage of a community action group in Byron Bay, New South Wales; one of a network of such groups, formed to ensure that sustainable environmental management practices are followed in proposed coal-seam gas developments. In the context of examining systemic social interactions within such a group, the study recognises both the importance of communication and the susceptibility of individuals to certain behavioural patterns. Negative emergent norms led to excessive behaviours that threatened to hinder effective communication and group behaviour. Use of mind mapping countered this negative tendency, focussing the inherent positive qualities of the group, and thus enabling more efficient decision-making. Shown to be an effective tool for overcoming communication barriers and increasing cohesion; its power lies in maintaining process transparency, removing power-structures and ego-centric personal barriers, hence facilitating effective communal knowledge sharing, clarification, idea crystallisation, and planning.
Botha, Carolina S.; Hay, Johnnie
This article documents the (often counter-normative) narrative journey of four South African adolescent girls whose biological parents had divorced--and one (or both) parent(s) remarried. Through purposive sampling within a qualitative research paradigm of feminist participatory action research, they were supported in group context by the primary…
Husted, Mia; Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum
.). Action Research and Interactive Research: Beyond Practice and Theory. London: Shaker Publishing: 63 - 89 Nielsen, Birger Steen, Kurt Aagaard Nielsen and Peter Olsén(1996): From silent to talkative participants. A discussion og technique as social construction. In Economic and Industrial Democracy. Vol...
Harrington, Paula; Gillam, Katy; Andrews, Jane; Day, Christopher
The article reports work over one year by three teachers from the Milton Keynes Primary Schools Learning Network. Their collaborative classroom-focused action research investigated the limits and possibilities of pupils' and teachers' learning through self-evaluation. In phase one the teacher researchers used questionnaires, interviews and…
Many adults who need an understanding of statistical concepts have limited mathematical skills. They need a teaching approach that includes as little mathematical context as possible. Iterative participatory qualitative research (action research) was used to develop a statistical literacy course for adult learners informed by teaching in…
Ponte, Petra; Ronnerman, Karin
Action research can be understood as a complex interplay between local circumstances and local research traditions, embedded in their turn in local intellectual-philosophical traditions, national as well as international. Because of this interplay it is questionable whether it would be particularly fruitful to look for 'typical local forms of…
Hardy, Ian; Salo, Petri; Rönnerman, Karin
This paper draws upon empirical research to provide insights into current teacher learning practices under broader neoliberal conditions, and how the latter might be resisted. The paper contrasts neoliberal approaches to teachers' learning with the Nordic tradition of educational action research and "Bildung" as alternative resources to…
This action research is aiming at improvement of reading comprehension of College English teaching and learning, which is a major time-consuming course with low efficiency in colleges and universities in China. The research subjects were 134 first-year college students of science, engineering and liberal arts, who were from either developed…
Gibbs, Paul; Cartney, Patricia; Wilkinson, Kate; Parkinson, John; Cunningham, Sheila; James-Reynolds, Carl; Zoubir, Tarek; Brown, Venetia; Barter, Phil; Sumner, Pauline; MacDonald, Angus; Dayananda, Asanka; Pitt, Alexandra
This literature review considers the use of action research in higher education. The review specifically looks at two areas of higher education activity. The first concerns academic teaching practice and includes a discussion of research and pedagogy practice, and staff development. The second considers student engagement. In both of these core…
... Final Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... resistance into a microorganism must be reviewed by the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) and approved... the NIH Guidelines will be revised from NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant...
Ainscow, Mel; Booth, Tony; Dyson, Alan
This paper provides an account of the methodological lessons and emerging findings of a collaborative action research network in England. The Network involves teams of researchers from three universities in working alongside school and local education authority practitioners as they explore ways of developing more inclusive practices. The analysis…
Gardner, Morgan; Hammett, Roberta
Action research (AR) courses provide openings in higher education to engage students, schools and communities in democratic and socially just ways within the contexts of research, classroom learning and broader social interactions. Such opportunities are strengthened when instructors design AR courses with the goal of enabling students to…
Jean K. Sand
Full Text Available Objective - The purpose of this study was to apply skills developed from an Action Research Training Model (Gordon in the design of two action research projects to ensure that students are ethical users of ideas and information. It was deemed necessary to assess prior knowledge and attitudes of students and teachers in order to identify issues to be addressed. Methods - Both projects employed the use of survey instruments, which presented students with scenarios involving aspects of information use, and asked whether or not the actions in the scenarios were examples of ethical use. The high school survey was administered to 381 students in tenth grade English classes. The elementary survey was administered to 87 students in fifth grade. A more comprehensive survey was administered at the high school level. For each student behavior addressed by the survey, there were two questions: one eliciting the teacher’s perception of how often students engaged in that behavior, and the second how often the teacher had to confront a student about the same behavior. Participation was voluntary, and 36 teachers took the survey. Results - Surveys administered at the high school level showed that most students have a good understanding of the ethical use of information regarding clear instances of plagiarism. Students’ understanding was less clear in two major areas: creating a bibliography that accurately reflects the sources used to create the work, and the level of collaboration or assistance that is appropriate in completing a research assignment. The teacher surveys showed some discrepancy between perception of the frequency of certain types of unethical student behavior and how often teachers challenged students on that behavior. The surveys showed that teachers found plagiarism to be the most prevalent behavior, while obtaining copies of exams and buying papers were the least frequently occurring behaviors. At the elementary level, results indicated
Picón Jácome Edgar
The main interest is the relationship between social scientific research and societal practice, with specific attention on action research and cultural-historical research. To provide a productive way to engage with these research traditions, a historically-grounded, superordinate perspective is formulated that places practice in the centre. This…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion
Valls, Rosa; Padros, Maria
In the EU commitment to alleviating the high rates of poverty in Europe there is widespread agreement among policy-makers that it is crucial to include the voices of those who are living in poverty in order to fight exclusion most effectively. Similarly, those studying ways to address poverty and inequality are increasingly required to seek…
In this article we present the results of a study on educational practices at the "Escuela de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental 'Dr. Arnoldo Gabaldón'" (EMSA), a pioneering institution in training health personnel, pertaining to the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance in Venezuela. This study was developed as an experiment in action-oriented participant research, i. e. authorities, teachers, and students were committed to an evaluation of the educational practices in which they were involved. The main results of this cooperative inquiry were: a theoretical reconstruction of the models of health education employed by EMSA; a critical analysis of those models; and the design and testing of an alternative model centered on community participation.
Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.
Bautista, Mark A.; Bertrand, Melanie; Morrell, Ernest; Scorza, D'Artagnan; Matthews, Corey
Background: The research community has long documented educational disparities along race lines. Countless studies have shown that urban African American and Latino students are systematically denied educational resources in comparison to their white counterparts, resulting in persistent achievement disparities (Ladson-Billings, 2006;…
Full Text Available Continuing demands by stakeholders for improved service delivery has caused Infrastructure Client Organisations (ICO in the UK to embark upon organisational restructuring. It is expected that such restructuring would enhance cost-effectiveness and quality in asset management and service delivery. However, this change, if not properly managed and sustained, could result in the inability of the ICO to achieve these targets. This study outlines the use of systemic thinking and Participatory Action Research (PAR in driving and managing such change within a UK-based Water and Wastewater ICO (UK WASC. Besides highlighting the context for change in response to policy, austerity and regulatory pressures, this study portrays how the PAR approach can assist in the management of change within ICOs. Furthermore, it provides an insight into the evolution of an external researcher, from novice to expert within the ICO, imbued with the required knowledge to encourage other stakeholders to participate in driving the change management process. Preliminary findings indicate the usefulness of this phased approach toward PAR. This study provides a platform for researchers wishing to engage with ICOs to improve service delivery, identifying the value of engagement, change and systemic thinking.
This study argues that behavioral recommendations in health news function as cues to action. A proposed self-oriented model seeks to explore the impacts of behavioral recommendations in health research news as cues to action through their influences on self-relevancy and self-efficacy. A content analysis (Study 1) first establishes that health research news commonly features behavioral recommendations. A message experiment (Study 2) then explores the utility of behavioral recommendations as cues to action by demonstrating a self-relevancy effect: Health research news with, as opposed to without, behavioral recommendations increases the self-relevancy of advocated health behaviors, which then improve people's attitudes toward and intentions to adopt those behaviors. A second message experiment (Study 3) tests whether varying presentations of behavioral recommendations alter their effectiveness as cues to action and thus people's behavioral intentions through a dual effect process. In addition to the previously demonstrated self-relevancy effect, this experiment shows that concrete, as opposed to abstract, behavioral recommendations trigger a self-efficacy effect, increasing perceived self-efficacy and further improving behavioral intentions.
Action theory is the object of growing attention in a variety of scientific disciplines, and this is the first volume to offer a synthetic view of the range of approaches possible in the topic. The volume focuses on the nexus of formal action theory with a startlingly diverse set of subjects, which range from logic, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and automata theory to jurisprudence, deontology, and economics. It covers semantic, mathematical and logical aspects of action, showing how the problem of action breaks the boundaries of traditional branches of logic located in syntactics and semantics and now lies on lies on the borderline between logical pragmatics and praxeology. The chapters here focus on specialized tasks in formal action theory, beginning with a thorough description and formalization of the language of action, and moving through material on the differing models of action theory to focus on probabilistic models, the relations of formal action theory to deontic logic, and its key appl...
Language teachers actively seek ways to improve their understanding about how to teach their students and they hope the insights gained accordingly could guide them to take a set of actions that will help increase the effectiveness of their teaching and students' learning. In this essay, firstly principles are reviewed, and then its strengths and limitations are highlighted before processes of action research are concisely touched.
White, Scott R.
This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long projects in groups that were mixed by age, gender and academic level. Qualitative techniques were used to gather different forms of representations of the students and instructors' experiences. Emergent patterns from the data gave strength to emergent knowledge claims that informed the instructors and the researcher about what the students were learning about performing experimental work and communicating results with their peers and instructor. The course challenged and in some cases changed the conceptions of instruction previously held by the students and the instructors. The course did not proceed without problems, yet the majority of these problems were overcome by the design of the course. Assertions and recommendations for improvement and application to other educational contexts are suggested.
Ponic, Pamela; Reid, Colleen; Frisby, Wendy
Feminist participatory action research integrates feminist theories and participatory action research methods, often with the explicit intention of building community-academic partnerships to create new forms of knowledge to inform women's health. Despite the current pro-partnership agenda in health research and policy settings, a lack of attention has been paid to how to cultivate effective partnerships given limited resources, competing agendas, and inherent power differences. Based on our 10+ years individually and collectively conducting women's health and feminist participatory action research, we suggest that it is imperative to intentionally develop power-with strategies in order to avoid replicating the power imbalances that such projects seek to redress. By drawing on examples from three of our recent feminist participatory action projects we reflect on some of the tensions and complexities of attempting to cultivate power-with research partnerships. We then offer skills and resources needed by academic researchers to effectively harness the collective resources, agendas, and knowledge that each partner brings to the table. We suggest that investing in the process of cultivating power-with research partnerships ultimately improves our collective ability to understand and address women's health issues.
Teacher action research seeks to bring together action, reflection, theory, and practice; and it is acknowledged as a way to value and honour teachers' practical knowledge. The purpose of this article is to conceptualize teacher action research as "Bildung," applying Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a theoretical…
Bennett, Sally; Whitehead, Mary; Eames, Sally; Fleming, Jennifer,; Low, Shanling; Caldwell, Elizabeth
Background There has been widespread acknowledgement of the need to build capacity in knowledge translation however much of the existing work focuses on building capacity amongst researchers rather than with clinicians directly. This paper’s aim is to describe a research project for developing a knowledge translation capacity building program for occupational therapy clinicians. Methods Participatory action research methods were used to both develop and evaluate the knowledge translation capa...
Husted, Mia; Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Brydon-Miller, Mary
to principles of social justice and redefining systems of democratic practice. In P. Reason & H. Bradbury (Eds.), Handbook of action research (2nd ed.) (pp. 199-210). London: SAGE Publications Brydon-Miller, M. (2009). Covenantal ethics and action research: Exploring a common foundation for social research...... change. Bristol, UK: Policy Press. Greenwood, D. (2007). Teaching/learning action research requires fundamental reforms in public higher education. Action Research, 5(3), 249-264. Friedman, V. (2011). Revisiting social space: Relational thinking about organizational change. Research and Organizational...
SRINADI I G. A.M
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Classroom Action Research/PTK can be done as class or school problem solving. With PTK, school education obtained the practical benefit including the mistakes of concept in subject and the teacher’s difficulties on learning. The aimed of this Community service was to introduce the basic concept and the execution procedure of classroom action research for the SLB/B Tabanan teachers. This training also improved their knowledge and skill of classroom action research. Based on the pre test, from 30 teachers as the participant of the training, there was a teacher in the good category, 17 teachers in the fairly good category and 12 in the poor category. By the end of the training, the post test descriptively showed that after attending this training there were no longer teacher in the poor category, 13 teachers in the fairly good category and 17 in the good category.
Full Text Available This article aims to present the implementation of zero-based budgeting in a rental service provider of cargo handling equipment using the action research methodology. The goal was to examine the possibility of concomitant use of this instrument in service providers in need of accurate information that enables targeting at the best result in a setting avid for quick decisions and actions. Action research was used as research method. It was concluded that it is suitable for this branch, confirming its position as a useful model for restructuring and cutting costs, improving operational and financial results, and as a factor improving organizational environment (behavioral aspects, indirectly creating value to stakeholders.
Full Text Available Abstract The main subject of this article is the action research and it has as general objective to describe the construction of knowledge in this field from the uses that Brazilian Production Engineering makes of it, aiming to recognize its contributions, potentials and limits. To achieve this goal, a literature review was carried out for a subsequent contrast with the national academic researches that use action research and show its uses. Identified these similarities, a documentary research was carried out in academic papers published in the National Meeting of Production Engineering (ENEGEP – from 1996 to 2010. The content analysis was the strategy used for data analysis and NVivo® software was used for its treatment. As a conclusion of the research, it can be stated that the use of action research in the Brazilian Production Engineering distances itself from epistemic precepts associated with it. The results of the action are more highlighted than the reflection on the mechanisms that produced it
Full Text Available The study analyzed the essence of the social responsibility of organizations and indicated the areas of actions to which this concept applies in the organizations. Particular attention has been paid to CSR practices objected at employees as key stakeholders of the organization. The purpose of the study was achieved in the form of analysis of CSR practices addressed to employees of the selected organizations in the Pomeranian Voivodeship. It has been confirmed that the study subjects undertake socially responsible actions addressed to their employees. These actions are compliant with the guidelines of ISO 26000 standard in the area of practice in workplace. However, it has been shown that socially responsible objectives are not commonly present in the strategies of these organizations. Personal strategies and the knowledge of the concept of CSR among employees also occur not frequently enough. The presented study is a pilot study. The reached conclusions apply only to the participating organizations. However, it should be noted that the concept of CSR is not yet widely and successfully implemented in organizations within the Pomeranian Voivodeship. It requires further popularizing and intensifying. Also, the practices of CSR addressed to employees should be further improved.
Ovseiko, Pavel V; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Adam, Paula; Grant, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Graham, Kathryn E; Valentine, Pamela A; Sued, Omar; Boukhris, Omar F; Al Olaqi, Nada M; Al Rahbi, Idrees S; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Bice, Sara; Heiden, Tamika L; Fischer, Michael D; Dopson, Sue; Norton, Robyn; Pollitt, Alexandra; Wooding, Steven; Balling, Gert V; Jakobsen, Ulla; Kuhlmann, Ellen; Klinge, Ineke; Pololi, Linda H; Jagsi, Reshma; Smith, Helen Lawton; Etzkowitz, Henry; Nielsen, Mathias W; Carrion, Carme; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Vizcaino, Esther; Naing, Lin; Cheok, Quentin H N; Eckelmann, Baerbel; Simuyemba, Moses C; Msiska, Temwa; Declich, Giovanna; Edmunds, Laurel D; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Buchan, Alison M J; Williamson, Catherine; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Surender, Rebecca; Buchan, Alastair M
Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action.
Thomas, Paul; McDonnell, Juliet; McCulloch, Janette; While, Alison; Bosanquet, Nick; Ferlie, Ewan
PURPOSE We wanted to identify what organizational features support innovation in Primary Care Groups (PCGs). METHODS Our study used a whole system participatory action research model. Four research teams provided complementary insights. Four case study PCGs were analyzed. Two had an intervention to help local facilitators reflect on their work. Data included 70 key informant interviews, observations of clinical governance interventions and committee meetings, analysis of written materials, surveys and telephone interviews of London Primary Care Organizations, interviews with 20 nurses, and interviews with 6 finance directors. A broad range of stakeholders reviewed data at annual conferences and formed conclusions about trustworthy principles. Sequential research phases were refocused in the light of these conclusions and in response to the changing political context. RESULTS Five features were associated with increased organizational capacity for innovation: (1) clear structures and a vision for corporate and clinical governance; (2) multiple opportunities for people to reflect and learn at all levels of the organization, and connections between these “learning spaces”; (3) both clinicians and managers in leadership roles that encourage participation; (4) the right timing for an initiative and its adaptation to the local context; and (5) external facilitation that provides opportunities for people to make sense of their experiences. Low morale was commonly attributed to 3 features: (1) overwhelming pace of reform, (2) inadequate staff experience and supportive infrastructure, and (3) financial deficits. CONCLUSIONS These features together may support innovation in other primary care bureaucracies. The research methodology enabled people from different backgrounds to make sense of diverse research insights. PMID:16046563
王文韬; 于月清; 程雯
This dissertation is based on the characteristics of high school students' reading ability and the latest tendency of curriculum reforms of nation to carry out my action research. Firstly, propose a hypothetical analysis and utilize questionnaire, interviewing, teacher log and student log to collect and analyze information with the aim of verifying the hypothesis. Secondly, Work out an effective action research scheme and carry it out. In the process of carrying out the scheme, I reflect and ameliorate my scheme constantly in order to maximize students' reading ability and raise students' speed. This dissertation is divided into six parts.
Jana Hunzicker, EdD
Full Text Available This article shares a first-hand account of an action research project conducted in a college-level early adolescent development course to better understand written and verbal reflection as learning tools, improve the author’s teaching effectiveness, and foster reflective habits in pre-service teachers. The article includes a brief overview of related literature and a description of several reflective activities and assignments used in the course before presenting and discussing the project’s results based on Ferrance’s (2000 6-step action research process.
Taylor, Bev; Bulmer, Beth; Hill, Loretta; Luxford, Catherine; McFarlane, Jenny; Reed, Juanne; Stirling, Kate
This article describes a qualitative research project using a combination of action research and reflective practice. Six experienced registered nurses identified their tendency towards idealism in their palliative nursing practice, which they defined as the tendency to expect to be 100% effective all of the time in their work. Participants collaborated in generating and evaluating an action plan to recognize and manage the negative effects of idealism in their work expectations and behaviours. Participants expressed positive changes in their practice, based on adjusting their responses to their idealistic tendencies towards perfectionism.
Lavis John N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together; a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary
Amber J. Fletcher PhD
Full Text Available Current pressures on public health systems have led to increased emphasis on restructuring, which is seen as a potential solution to crises of accessibility, quality, and funding. Leadership is an important factor in the success or failure of these initiatives. Despite its importance, health leadership evades easy articulation, and its study requires a thoughtful methodological approach. We used a modified Delphi method in a Participatory Action Research (PAR project on health leadership in Canada. Little has been written about the combination of Delphi method with PAR. We offer a rationale for the combination and describe its usefulness in researching the role of leadership in a restructuring initiative in “real time” with the participation of health system decision makers. Recommendations are provided to researchers wishing to use the Delphi method qualitatively (i.e., without statistical consensus in a PAR framework while protecting the confidentiality of participants who work at different levels of authority. We propose a modification of Kaiser's (2009 post-interview confidentiality form to address power differentials between participants and to enhance confidentiality in the PAR process.
Full Text Available This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT in the second language (L2 classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT creatively in their classroom. Gee (2008 advocates the use of the preferred media of our classroom students in order to address their learning. Prensky (2001 urges us to feel the fear and do it anyway with our digital native classes. A post-primary teacher and a primary teacher show us how they felt the fear, did it and transformed aspects of their own teaching in the process. The Masters programme required the teachers to engage with innovative practices, informed by their own values, and integrate technologies that were new to them into their repertoire of classroom strategies. Peer validation meetings with colleagues enabled meaningful insights to emerge from the research. The teachers improve and transform their second language (L2 practice in collaboration and validation with others.
In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.
Full Text Available Artemisinins have become essential antimalarial drugs for increasingly widespread drug-resistant malaria strains. Although tremendous efforts have been devoted to decipher how this class of molecules works, their exact antimalarial mechanism is still an enigma. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their actions, including alkylation of heme by carbon-centered free radicals, interference with proteins such as the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA, as well as damaging of normal mitochondrial functions. Besides artemisinins, other endoperoxides with various backbones have also been synthesized, some of which showed comparable or even higher antimalarial effects. It is noteworthy that among these artemisinin derivatives, some enantiomers displayed similar in vitro malaria killing efficacy. In this article, the proposed mechanisms of action of artemisinins are reviewed in light of medicinal chemistry findings characterized by efficacy-structure studies, with the hope of gaining more insight into how these potent drugs work.
Katz, Sara; Stupel, Moshe
Individuals and societies that can use mathematics effectively in this period of rapid changes will have a voice on increasing the opportunities and potentials which can shape their future. This has brought affective characteristics, such as self-efficacy, that affect mathematics achievement into focus of the research. Teacher efficacy refers to the extent to which a teacher feels capable to help students learn, influence students' performance and commitment, and thus plays a crucial role in developing the student in all aspects. In this study, we used two sources of efficacy beliefs, mastery experiences and physiological and emotional states, in an interesting and challenging seven month workshop, as tools to foster teacher efficacy for six elementary-school teachers who were frustrated and wanted to leave their job. Our aim was to study the nature of these teachers' efficacy in order to change it. In this qualitative action research, we used open interviews, non-participant observations and field notes. Results show that these teachers became efficacious, their students' achievements and motivation were enhanced, and the school climate was changed. Qualitative inquiry of this construct sheds light on efficacy beliefs of mathematics teachers. Nurturing teacher efficacy has borne much fruit in the field of mathematics in school.
Hahn, Heidi A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
It has been my experience that behavioral science practitioners, including myself, often 'back into' action research. That is, we start out doing a process improvement or intervention and discover something along the way - generalizable knowledge - that seems worthwhile to share with our community of practice. What if, instead of looking at these projects from the point of view of practitioners, we looked at them as research from the outset? Would that change the outcome or generate additional knowledge? This paper compares and contrasts process improvement and action research methods, and illustrates how use of a research 'lens' can enhance behavioral science interventions and the knowledge that may result from them.
Nelson, G; Ochocka, J; Griffin, K; Lord, J
Participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors is reviewed. We begin by tracing the origins of and defining both participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid. In so doing, the degree of correspondence between the assumptions/values of participatory action research and those of self-help/mutual aid for psychiatric consumer/survivors is examined. We argue that participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid share four values in common: (a) empowerment, (b) supportive relationships, (c) social change, and (d) learning as an ongoing process. Next, selected examples of participatory action research with psychiatric consumer/survivor-controlled self-help/mutual aid organizations which illustrate these shared values are provided. We conclude with recommendations of how the key values can be promoted in both the methodological and substantive aspects of future participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors.
Rowley, Jennifer; Ray, Kathryn; Proud, Debbie; Banwell, Linda; Spink, Sian; Thomas, Rhian; Urquhart, Christine
Within the Third Annual Cycle of the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) User Behaviour Monitoring and Evaluation Framework, six small-scale action research interventions were undertaken in further education (FE) institutions. The aims of these interventions were two-fold: (i) to develop understanding of the facilitators and barriers to the…
Wong, Arch Chee Keen
The article reports the final results of a collaborative action research project that devised a reflective approach to theological education. This project lives within the tension between prescribing and implementing a model of theological education and working at the level of applied understanding. Living within this tension are six professors in…
This article explores learning opportunities offered by students' written reflections as they learn through writing an action research proposal. From tapping into students' reported struggles, I analysed data using three stages of qualitative data analysis: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing (Miles and Huberman 1994). It emerged…
Krater, Joan; And Others
Presenting classroom experiences and a process to help writing teachers see their own hard-to-reach students with new eyes, this book tells the story of a 6-year action research project committed to building classroom environments where cultural differences are affirmed and high achievement is fostered among all students. The book notes that the…
... of Biotechnology Activities Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH Guidelines for... system has been submitted to the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA). The data to be considered... Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, MSC 7985,...
Mims, Wyn, M.; Lockley, Jeannie
A fourth-grade teacher utilized action research in order to make data-driven decisions about reading interventions with her students. The teacher decided on a broad intervention, which was differentiating reading instruction, implemented differentiated instruction, collected data and continuously adjusted interventions based on monitoring data.…
Shanks, Joyce; Miller, Lauren; Rosendale, Susannah
This paper discusses preservice teachers' use of action research in a Professional Development School setting. Preservice teachers were placed in a PDS site that focuses on internationalizing education and on teaching languages. The teacher candidates were in charge of planning, teaching, and assessing language instruction in their classrooms. The…
Banegas, Dario; Pavese, Anahi; Velazquez, Aurelia; Velez, Sandra Maria
In 2011 we, a group of English-as-a-foreign-language teachers at a secondary school in Argentina, decided to investigate our teaching practices through collaborative action research so as to improve our students' learning opportunities and thus revitalise English-language teaching in our context. We implemented and evaluated the integration of…
Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer
This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…
This paper analyses and discusses the roles and participation of those involved in a collaborative action research project to highlight the factors that influenced their content, quality and intensity. Emphasis is given to the reflections of the facilitator (author) on the processes employed to achieve equal participation and roles in the action…