WorldWideScience

Sample records for action disruptive selection

  1. Pulvinar inactivation disrupts selection of movement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Melanie; Turchi, Janita; Smith, Katy; Mishkin, Mortimer; Leopold, David A

    2010-06-23

    The coordinated movement of the eyes and hands under visual guidance is an essential part of goal-directed behavior. Several cortical areas known to be involved in this process exchange projections with the dorsal aspect of the thalamic pulvinar nucleus, suggesting that this structure may play a central role in visuomotor behavior. Here, we used reversible inactivation to investigate the role of the dorsal pulvinar in the selection and execution of visually guided manual and saccadic eye movements in macaque monkeys. We found that unilateral pulvinar inactivation resulted in a spatial neglect syndrome accompanied by visuomotor deficits including optic ataxia during visually guided limb movements. Monkeys were severely disrupted in their visually guided behavior regarding space contralateral to the side of the injection in several domains, including the following: (1) target selection in both manual and oculomotor tasks, (2) limb usage in a manual retrieval task, and (3) spontaneous visual exploration. In addition, saccades into the ipsilesional field had abnormally short latencies and tended to overshoot their mark. None of the deficits could be explained by a visual field defect or primary motor deficit. These findings highlight the importance of the dorsal aspect of the pulvinar nucleus as a critical hub for spatial attention and selection of visually guided actions. PMID:20573910

  2. Introduction. Modelling natural action selection

    OpenAIRE

    Tony J Prescott; Bryson, Joanna J; Seth, Anil K.

    2007-01-01

    Action selection is the task of resolving conflicts between competing behavioural alternatives. This theme issue is dedicated to advancing our understanding of the behavioural patterns and neural substrates supporting action selection in animals, including humans. The scope of problems investigated includes: (i) whether biological action selection is optimal (and, if so, what is optimized), (ii) the neural substrates for action selection in the vertebrate brain, (iii) the role of perceptual s...

  3. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L;

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on human...

  4. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L; Alvarez, Luis,; Brenker, Christoph; Rehfeld, Anders; Frederiksen, Hanne; Wäschle, Benjamin; Kaupp, U. Benjamin; Balbach, Melanie; Wachten, Dagmar; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Almstrup, Kristian; Strünker, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on human sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca2+ increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover,...

  5. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam De Coster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  6. Mechanisms underlying selecting objects for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eWulff

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. 14 neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more errors than unrelated distracters and the object actively used for action was selected prior to the object that would be passively held during the action. We identified a sub-group of patients (N=6 whose accuracy was 2SD below the controls performances in the real object task. Interestingly, these impaired patients were more affected by the presence of unrelated distracters during both tasks than intact patients and healthy controls. Note the impaired had lesions to left parietal, right anterior temporal and bilateral pre-motor regions. We conclude that: (1 motor procedures guide object selection for action, (2 semantic knowledge affects action-based selection, (3 impaired action decision is associated with the inability to ignore distracting information and (4 lesions to either the dorsal or ventral visual stream can lead to deficits in making action decisions. Overall, the data indicate that impairments in everyday tasks can be evaluated using a simulated computer task. The implications for rehabilitation are discussed.

  7. Action Selection methods using Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrys, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Action Selection schemes, when translated into precise algorithms, typically involve considerable design effort and tuning of parameters. Little work has been done on solving the problem using learning. This paper compares eight different methods of solving the action selection problem using Reinforcement Learning (learning from rewards). The methods range from centralised and cooperative to decentralised and selfish. They are tested in an artificial world and their performance, memory requir...

  8. 77 FR 37804 - Rules for Investigations Relating to Global and Bilateral Safeguard Actions, Market Disruption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... safeguard provisions in free trade agreements that the United States has negotiated with Australia, Bahrain... United States- Australia Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, section 311(b) of the United States..., Market Disruption, Trade Diversion, and Review of Relief Actions AGENCY: United States...

  9. Institutions as Incentives for Civic Action: Bureaucratic Structures, Civil Society, and Disruptive Protests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornell, Agnes; Grimes, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    implementation and favor some groups over others in terms of access to public services. Such a system may induce citizens or civic associations to resort to disruptive actions to express demands and demonstrate political relevance, and thereby secure access to public goods. The effects are hypothesized...

  10. Widespread disruptive selection in the wild is associated with intense resource competition

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ryan A; Pfennig David W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Disruptive selection has been documented in a growing number of natural populations. Yet, its prevalence within individual systems remains unclear. Furthermore, few studies have sought to identify the ecological factors that promote disruptive selection in the wild. To address these issues, we surveyed 15 populations of Mexican spadefoot toad tadpoles, Spea multiplicata, and measured the prevalence of disruptive selection acting on resource-use phenotypes. We also evaluate...

  11. AIN-Based Action Selection Mechanism for Soccer Robot Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Tien Wang; Zhi-Jun You; Chia-Hsing Chen

    2009-01-01

    Role and action selections are two major procedures of the game strategy for multiple robots playing the soccer game. In role-select procedure, a formation is planned for the soccer team, and a role is assigned to each individual robot. In action-select procedure, each robot executes an action provided by an action selection mechanism to fulfill its role playing. The role-select procedure was often designed efficiently by using the geometry approach. However, the action-select procedure devel...

  12. Selectively disrupted functional connectivity networks in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaojing eChen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in individuals over 65 years old and cognitive deficits caused by T2DM have attracted broad attention. The pathophysiological mechanism of T2DM induced cognitive impairments, however, remains poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that the cognitive impairments can be attributed not merely to local functional and structural abnormalities but also to specific brain networks. Thus, we aimed to investigate the changes of global networks selectively affected by T2DM. Methods: A resting state functional network analysis was conducted to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 37 patients with diabetes and 40 healthy controls which were recruited from local communities in Beijing, China. Results: We found that patients with T2DM exhibited cognitive function declines and functional connectivity disruptions within the default mode network, left frontal parietal network, and sensorimotor network. More importantly, the fasting glucose level was correlated with abnormal functional connectivity.Conclusions: These findings could help to understand the neural mechanisms of cognitive impairments in T2DM and provide potential neuroimaging biomarkers that may be used for early diagnosis and intervention in cognitive decline.

  13. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM.

  14. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. PMID:26627837

  15. Action spectrum for photochemical retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) disruption in an in vivo monkey model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Sabarinathan, Ranjani; Bubel, Tracy; Williams, David R.; Hunter, Jennifer J.

    2016-03-01

    Observations of RPE disruption and autofluorescence (AF) photobleaching at light levels below the ANSI photochemical maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (Morgan et al., 2008) indicates a demand to modify future light safety standards to protect the retina from harm. To establish safe light exposures, we measured the visible light action spectrum for RPE disruption in an in vivo monkey model with fluorescence adaptive optics retinal imaging. Using this high resolution imaging modality can provide insight into the consequences of light on a cellular level and allow for longitudinal monitoring of retinal changes. The threshold retinal radiant exposures (RRE) for RPE disruption were determined for 4 wavelengths (460, 488, 544, and 594 nm). The anaesthetized macaque retina was exposed to a uniform 0.5° × 0.5° field of view (FOV). Imaging within a 2° × 2° FOV was performed before, immediately after and at 2 week intervals for 10 weeks. At each wavelength, multiple RREs were tested with 4 repetitions each to determine the threshold for RPE disruption. For qualitative analysis, RPE disruption is defined as any detectable change from the pre exposure condition in the cell mosaic in the exposed region relative to the corresponding mosaic in the immediately surrounding area. We have tested several metrics to evaluate the RPE images obtained before and after exposure. The measured action spectrum for photochemical RPE disruption has a shallower slope than the current ANSI photochemical MPE for the same conditions and suggests that longer wavelength light is more hazardous than other measurements would suggest.

  16. Crime and Disruption in Schools. A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Robert, Comp.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography about crime and disruption in schools has been assembled from academic, professional, and government sources. The citations are organized into four major parts. "Overview: Nature and Extent of the Problem" contains studies that describe the cost of school crimes, primarily vandalism and arson, both in dollars and in…

  17. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals use distinct mechanisms of action to modulate endocrine system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Derek V; Korach, Kenneth S

    2006-06-01

    The term endocrine-disrupting chemicals is used to define a structurally diverse class of synthetic and natural compounds that possess the ability to alter various components of the endocrine system and potentially induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals and populations. Research on these compounds has revealed that they use a variety of both nuclear receptor-mediated and non-receptor-mediated mechanisms to modulate different components of the endocrine system. This review will describe in vitro and in vivo studies that highlight the spectrum of unique mechanisms of action and biological effects of four endocrine-disrupting chemicals--diethylstilbestrol, genistein, di(n-butyl)phthalate, and methoxyacetic acid--to illustrate the diverse and complex nature of this class of compounds.

  18. Isoeugenol has a non-Disruptive Detergent-like Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eHyldgaard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Isoeugenol is an essential oil constituent of nutmeg, clove, and cinnamon. Despite isoeugenol’s promising antimicrobial activity, no studies have yet investigated its mode of antibacterial action at the molecular level. The aim of this study is to clarify isoeugenol’s antibacterial mode of action using the Gram-negative and Gram-positive model organisms Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, respectively. We determined the antimicrobial activity of isoeugenol against the model organisms, and examined how isoeugenol affects cell morphology, cell membrane permeabilization, and how isoeugenol interacts with phospholipid membranes using vesicle and supported lipid bilayer models.Isoeugenol demonstrated a bactericidal activity against E. coli and L. innocua that did not affect cell morphology, although the cell membrane was permeabilized. We hypothesized that the cell membrane was the primary site of action, and studied this interaction in further detail using purified membrane model systems. Isoeugenol’s permeabilization of calcein-encapsulated vesicles was concentration dependent, and isoeugenol’s interaction with giant unilamellar vesicles indicated increased membrane fluidity and a non-disruptive permeabilization mechanism. This contradicted membrane fluidity measurements on supported lipid bilayers, which indicated decreased membrane fluidity. However, further investigations demonstrated that the interaction between isoeugenol and bilayers was reversible, and caused membranes to display heterogeneous topography, an increased mass, and a higher degree of hydration. In conclusion, we propose that isoeugenol interacts with membranes in a reversible non-disruptive detergent-like manner, which causes membrane destabilization. Furthermore, we argue that isoeugenol increases membrane fluidity.

  19. Selective algicidal action of peptides against harmful algal bloom species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Cheol Park

    Full Text Available Recently, harmful algal bloom (HAB, also termed "red tide", has been recognized as a serious problem in marine environments according to climate changes worldwide. Many novel materials or methods to prevent HAB have not yet been employed except for clay dispersion, in which can the resulting sedimentation on the seafloor can also cause alteration in marine ecology or secondary environmental pollution. In the current study, we investigated that antimicrobial peptide have a potential in controlling HAB without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Here, antimicrobial peptides are proposed as new algicidal compounds in combating HAB cells. HPA3 and HPA3NT3 peptides which exert potent antimicrobial activity via pore forming action in plasma membrane showed that HPA3NT3 reduced the motility of algal cells, disrupted their plasma membrane, and induced the efflux of intracellular components. Against raphidoflagellate such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella sp., and C. marina, it displayed a rapid lysing action in cell membranes at 1~4 µM within 2 min. Comparatively, its lysing effects occurred at 8 µM within 1 h in dinoflagellate such as Cochlodium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Moreover, its lysing action induced the lysis of chloroplasts and loss of chlorophyll a. In the contrary, this peptide was not effective against Skeletonema costatum, harmless algal cell, even at 256 µM, moreover, it killed only H. akashiwo or C. marina in co-cultivation with S. costatum, indicating to its selective algicidal activity between harmful and harmless algal cells. The peptide was non-hemolytic against red blood cells of Sebastes schlegeli, the black rockfish, at 120 µM. HAB cells were quickly and selectively lysed following treatment of antimicrobial peptides without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Thus, the antibiotic peptides examined in our study appear to have much potential in effectively controlling HAB with minimal

  20. Selective algicidal action of peptides against harmful algal bloom species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Kook; Kim, Si Wouk; Park, Yoonkyung

    2011-01-01

    Recently, harmful algal bloom (HAB), also termed "red tide", has been recognized as a serious problem in marine environments according to climate changes worldwide. Many novel materials or methods to prevent HAB have not yet been employed except for clay dispersion, in which can the resulting sedimentation on the seafloor can also cause alteration in marine ecology or secondary environmental pollution. In the current study, we investigated that antimicrobial peptide have a potential in controlling HAB without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Here, antimicrobial peptides are proposed as new algicidal compounds in combating HAB cells. HPA3 and HPA3NT3 peptides which exert potent antimicrobial activity via pore forming action in plasma membrane showed that HPA3NT3 reduced the motility of algal cells, disrupted their plasma membrane, and induced the efflux of intracellular components. Against raphidoflagellate such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella sp., and C. marina, it displayed a rapid lysing action in cell membranes at 1~4 µM within 2 min. Comparatively, its lysing effects occurred at 8 µM within 1 h in dinoflagellate such as Cochlodium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Moreover, its lysing action induced the lysis of chloroplasts and loss of chlorophyll a. In the contrary, this peptide was not effective against Skeletonema costatum, harmless algal cell, even at 256 µM, moreover, it killed only H. akashiwo or C. marina in co-cultivation with S. costatum, indicating to its selective algicidal activity between harmful and harmless algal cells. The peptide was non-hemolytic against red blood cells of Sebastes schlegeli, the black rockfish, at 120 µM. HAB cells were quickly and selectively lysed following treatment of antimicrobial peptides without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Thus, the antibiotic peptides examined in our study appear to have much potential in effectively controlling HAB with minimal impact on marine

  1. The antifungal activity and membrane-disruptive action of dioscin extracted from Dioscorea nipponica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeyong; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lee, Dong Gun

    2013-03-01

    Dioscin is a kind of steroidal saponin isolated from the root bark of wild yam Dioscorea nipponica. We investigated the antifungal effect of dioscin against different fungal strains and its antifungal mechanism(s) in Candida albicans cells. Using the propidium iodide assay and calcein-leakage measurement, we confirmed that dioscin caused fungal membrane damage. Furthermore, we evaluated the ability of dioscin to disrupt the plasma membrane potential, using 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide [DiSC(3)(5)] and bis-(1,3-dibarbituric acid)-trimethine oxanol [DiBAC(4)(3)]. Cells stained with the dyes had a significant increase in fluorescent intensity after exposure to dioscin, indicating that dioscin has an effect on the membrane potential. To visualize the effect of dioscin on the cell membrane, we synthesized rhodamine-labeled giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) mimicking the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of C. albicans. As seen in the result, the membrane disruptive action of dioscin caused morphological change and rhodamine leakage of the GUVs. In three-dimensional contour-plot analysis using flow cytometry, we observed a decrease in cell size, which is in agreement with our result from the GUV assay. These results suggest that dioscin exerts a considerable antifungal activity by disrupting the structure in membrane after invading into the fungal membrane, resulting in fungal cell death. PMID:23262192

  2. Acute NMDA receptor antagonism disrupts synchronization of action potential firing in rat prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A Molina

    Full Text Available Antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR have psychotomimetic effects in humans and are used to model schizophrenia in animals. We used high-density electrophysiological recordings to assess the effects of acute systemic injection of an NMDAR antagonist (MK-801 on ensemble neural processing in the medial prefrontal cortex of freely moving rats. Although MK-801 increased neuron firing rates and the amplitude of gamma-frequency oscillations in field potentials, the synchronization of action potential firing decreased and spike trains became more Poisson-like. This disorganization of action potential firing following MK-801 administration is consistent with changes in simulated cortical networks as the functional connections among pyramidal neurons become less clustered. Such loss of functional heterogeneity of the cortical microcircuit may disrupt information processing dependent on spike timing or the activation of discrete cortical neural ensembles, and thereby contribute to hallucinations and other features of psychosis induced by NMDAR antagonists.

  3. Isoeugenol has a non-disruptive detergent-like mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Piotrowska, Roxana; Foss, Morten; Meyer, Rikke L

    2015-01-01

    Isoeugenol is an essential oil constituent of nutmeg, clove, and cinnamon. Despite isoeugenol's promising antimicrobial activity, no studies have yet investigated its mode of antibacterial action at the molecular level. The aim of this study is to clarify isoeugenol's antibacterial mode of action using the Gram-negative and Gram-positive model organisms Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, respectively. We determined the antimicrobial activity of isoeugenol against the model organisms, and examined how isoeugenol affects cell morphology, cell membrane permeabilization, and how isoeugenol interacts with phospholipid membranes using vesicle and supported lipid bilayer models. Isoeugenol demonstrated a bactericidal activity against E. coli and L. innocua that did not affect cell morphology, although the cell membrane was permeabilized. We hypothesized that the cell membrane was the primary site of action, and studied this interaction in further detail using purified membrane model systems. Isoeugenol's permeabilization of calcein-encapsulated vesicles was concentration dependent, and isoeugenol's interaction with giant unilamellar vesicles indicated increased membrane fluidity and a non-disruptive permeabilization mechanism. This contradicted membrane fluidity measurements on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), which indicated decreased membrane fluidity. However, further investigations demonstrated that the interaction between isoeugenol and bilayers was reversible, and caused membranes to display heterogeneous topography, an increased mass, and a higher degree of hydration. In conclusion, we propose that isoeugenol interacts with membranes in a reversible non-disruptive detergent-like manner, which causes membrane destabilization. Furthermore, we argue that isoeugenol increases membrane fluidity. Our work contributes to the understanding of how essential oil constituents interact with cell components. PMID:26284043

  4. Selective disruption of the cerebral neocortex in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S Desikan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD and its transitional state mild cognitive impairment (MCI are characterized by amyloid plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle (NFT deposition within the cerebral neocortex and neuronal loss within the hippocampal formation. However, the precise relationship between pathologic changes in neocortical regions and hippocampal atrophy is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, combining structural MRI scans and automated image analysis tools with reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF Aβ levels, a surrogate for intra-cranial amyloid plaques and elevated CSF phosphorylated tau (p-tau levels, a surrogate for neocortical NFTs, we examined the relationship between the presence of Alzheimer's pathology, gray matter thickness of select neocortical regions, and hippocampal volume in cognitively normal older participants and individuals with MCI and AD (n = 724. Amongst all 3 groups, only select heteromodal cortical regions significantly correlated with hippocampal volume. Amongst MCI and AD individuals, gray matter thickness of the entorhinal cortex and inferior temporal gyrus significantly predicted longitudinal hippocampal volume loss in both amyloid positive and p-tau positive individuals. Amongst cognitively normal older adults, thinning only within the medial portion of the orbital frontal cortex significantly differentiated amyloid positive from amyloid negative individuals whereas thinning only within the entorhinal cortex significantly discriminated p-tau positive from p-tau negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical Aβ and tau pathology affects gray matter thinning within select neocortical regions and potentially contributes to downstream hippocampal degeneration. Neocortical Alzheimer's pathology is evident even amongst older asymptomatic individuals suggesting the existence of a preclinical phase of dementia.

  5. AIN-Based Action Selection Mechanism for Soccer Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Tien Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Role and action selections are two major procedures of the game strategy for multiple robots playing the soccer game. In role-select procedure, a formation is planned for the soccer team, and a role is assigned to each individual robot. In action-select procedure, each robot executes an action provided by an action selection mechanism to fulfill its role playing. The role-select procedure was often designed efficiently by using the geometry approach. However, the action-select procedure developed based on geometry approach will become a very complex task. In this paper, a novel action-select algorithm for soccer robots is proposed by using the concepts of artificial immune network (AIN. This AIN-based action-select provides an efficient and robust algorithm for robot role selection. Meanwhile, a reinforcement learning mechanism is applied in the proposed algorithm to enhance the response of the adaptive immune system. Simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the proposed AIN-based algorithm, and the results show that the proposed algorithm provides an efficient and applicable algorithm for mobile robots to play soccer game.

  6. Action selection for single-camera SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Calleja, Teresa A.; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, J

    2010-01-01

    A method for evaluating, at video rate, the quality of actions for a single camera while mapping unknown indoor environments is presented. The strategy maximizes mutual information between measurements and states to help the camera avoid making ill-conditioned measurements that are appropriate to lack of depth in monocular vision systems. Our system prompts a user with the appropriate motion commands during 6-DOF visual simultaneous localization and mapping with a handheld camera. Additionall...

  7. Selection-for-action in visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannus, A; Cornelissen, FW; Lindemann, O; Bekkering, H

    2005-01-01

    Grasping an object rather than pointing to it enhances processing of its orientation but not its color. Apparently, visual discrimination is selectively enhanced for a behaviorally relevant feature. In two experiments we investigated the limitations and targets of this bias. Specifically, in Experim

  8. Action selection for single-camera SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Calleja, Teresa A; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan

    2010-12-01

    A method for evaluating, at video rate, the quality of actions for a single camera while mapping unknown indoor environments is presented. The strategy maximizes mutual information between measurements and states to help the camera avoid making ill-conditioned measurements that are appropriate to lack of depth in monocular vision systems. Our system prompts a user with the appropriate motion commands during 6-DOF visual simultaneous localization and mapping with a handheld camera. Additionally, the system has been ported to a mobile robotic platform, thus closing the control-estimation loop. To show the viability of the approach, simulations and experiments are presented for the unconstrained motion of a handheld camera and for the motion of a mobile robot with nonholonomic constraints. When combined with a path planner, the technique safely drives to a marked goal while, at the same time, producing an optimal estimated map. PMID:20350845

  9. Brief overview of selected aspects of testicular hormone action.

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is designed to give an overview of the mechanism of androgen action and some of the factors that can affect it. The discussion of androgen action includes androgen transport in the blood, metabolism, receptor binding, nuclear activation and selected aspects of biological response. The importance of recognizing interspecies and interstrain differences in specific aspects of androgen action is mentioned. Some examples of the effects of environmental agents on androgen metabolism, rec...

  10. Action modulates object-based selection

    OpenAIRE

    Karina J Linnell; Humphreys, Glyn W; McIntyre, Dave B.; Laitinen, Sauli; Wing, Alan M.

    2005-01-01

    Cueing attention to one part of an object can facilitate discrimination in another part (Experiment 1 [Duncan, j. (1984). Selective attention and the organization of visual information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 501-517]; [Egly, R., Driver, J., and Rafal, R. D. (1994). Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence from normal and parietal lesion divisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 123, 161-177]). We show ...

  11. Mastication dyspraxia: a neurodevelopmental disorder reflecting disruption of the cerebellocerebral network involved in planned actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; Vidts, Annelies; Van Hecke, Wim; De Surgeloose, Didier; De Belder, Frank; Parizel, Paul M; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P; Verhoeven, Jo

    2013-04-01

    cerebellocerebral network is crucially important in the planning and execution of skilled actions, but also seem to show for the first time that mastication deficits may be of true apraxic origin. As a result, it is hypothesized that "mastication dyspraxia" may have to be considered as a distinct nosological entity within the group of the developmental dyspraxias following a disruption of the cerebellocerebral network involved in planned actions. PMID:23065651

  12. Symmetry breaking and coarsening in spatially distributed evolutionary processes including sexual reproduction and disruptive selection

    CERN Document Server

    Sayama, H; Bar-Yam, Y; Sayama, Hiroki; Kaufman, Les; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2000-01-01

    Sexual reproduction presents significant challenges to formal treatment of evolutionary processes. A starting point for systematic treatments of ecological and evolutionary phenomena has been provided by the gene centered view of evolution. The gene centered view can be formalized as a dynamic mean field approximation applied to genes in reproduction / selection dynamics. We show that spatial distributions of organisms with local mating neighborhoods in the presence of disruptive selection give rise to symmetry breaking and spontaneous pattern formation in the genetic composition of local populations. Global dynamics follows conventional coarsening of systems with nonconserved order parameters. The results have significant implications for ecology of genetic diversity and species formation.

  13. Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players

    OpenAIRE

    Bavelier, D.; Achtman, RL; M Mani; Föcker, J

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, the very act of playing action video games has been shown to enhance several different aspects of visual selective attention. Yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate such attentional benefits. A review of the aspects of attention enhanced in action game players suggests there are changes in the mechanisms that control attention allocation and its efficiency (Hubert-Wallander et al., 2010). The present study used brain imaging to test this hypothes...

  14. Selective disruption of the blood-brain barrier by photochemical internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Zhang, Michelle J.; Gach, Michael H.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Chighvinadze, David; Madsen, Steen J.

    2009-02-01

    Introduction: Failure to eradicate infiltrating glioma cells using conventional treatment regimens results in tumor recurrence and is responsible for the dismal prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This is due to the fact that these migratory cells are protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which prevents the delivery of most anti-cancer agents. We have evaluated the ability of photochemical internalization (PCI) to selectively disrupt the BBB in rats. This will permit access of anti-cancer drugs to effectively target the infiltrating tumor cells, and potentially improve the treatment effectiveness for malignant gliomas. Materials and Methods: PCI treatment, coupling a macromolecule therapy of Clostridium perfringens (Cl p) epsilon prototoxin with AlPcS2a-PDT, was performed on non-tumor bearing inbred Fisher rats. T1-weighted post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to evaluate the extent of BBB disruption which can be inferred from the volume contrast enhancement. Results: The synergistic effect of PCI to disrupt the BBB was observed at a fluence level of 1 J with an intraperitoneal injection of Cl p prototoxin. At the fluence level of 2.5J, the extent of BBB opening induced by PCI was similar to the result of PDT suggesting no synergistic effect evoked under these conditions. Conclusion: PCI was found to be highly effective and efficient for inducing selective and localized disruption of the BBB. The extent of BBB opening peaked on day 3 and the BBB was completed restored by day 18 post treatment.

  15. Environmental change disrupts communication and sexual selection in a stickleback population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candolin, Ulrika; Tukiainen, Iina; Bertell, Elina

    2016-04-01

    Environmental change that disrupts communication during mate choice and alters sexual selection could influence population dynamics. Yet little is known about such long-term effects. We investigated experimentally the consequences that disrupted visual communication during mate choice has for the quantity and viability of offspring produced in a threespine stickleback population (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We further related the results to long-term monitoring of population dynamics in the field to determine if changes are apparent under natural conditions. The results show that impaired visual communication because of algal blooms reduces reliability of male visual signals as indicators of offspring survival during their first weeks of life. This relaxes sexual selection but has no effect on the number of offspring hatching, as most males have a high hatching success in turbid water. Despite eutrophication and high turbidity levels that interfere with communication during mate choice, the population has grown during recent decades. Large numbers of offspring hatching, combined with high variation in juvenile fitness, has probably shifted selection to later life history stages and maintained a viable population. Together with reduced cost of sexual selection and ongoing ecosystem changes caused by human activities, this could have promoted population growth. These results point to the complexity of ecosystems and the necessity to consider all influencing factors when attempting to understand impacts of human activities on populations. PMID:27220213

  16. A novel epileptic encephalopathy mutation in KCNB1 disrupts Kv2.1 ion selectivity, expression, and localization

    OpenAIRE

    Thiffault, Isabelle; Speca, David J.; Austin, Daniel C.; Cobb, Melanie M.; Eum, Kenneth S.; Safina, Nicole P; Grote, Lauren; Farrow, Emily G.; Miller, Neil; Soden, Sarah; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Trimmer, James S.; Saunders, Carol J.; Sack, Jon T.

    2015-01-01

    A missense mutation in the pore-forming α subunit of a delayed rectifier Kv channel is associated with epileptic encephalopathy, alters the cation selectivity of voltage-gated currents, and disrupts channel expression and localization.

  17. Dynamic sensor action selection with Bayesian decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Steen; Hansen, Volker; Kondak, Konstantin

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this work is to create a framework for the dynamic planning of sensor actions for an autonomous mobile robot. The framework uses Bayesian decision analysis, i.e., a decision-theoretic method, to evaluate possible sensor actions and selecting the most appropriate ones given the available sensors and what is currently known about the state of the world. Since sensing changes the knowledge of the system and since the current state of the robot (task, position, etc.) determines what knowledge is relevant, the evaluation and selection of sensing actions is an on-going process that effectively determines the behavior of the robot. The framework has been implemented on a real mobile robot and has been proven to be able to control in real-time the sensor actions of the system. In current work we are investigating methods to reduce or automatically generate the necessary model information needed by the decision- theoretic method to select the appropriate sensor actions.

  18. Selection and Training for Small Independent Action Forces: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Joseph A.; And Others

    The overall objective of this research was the development of procedures for selecting and training personnel to serve in Small Independent Action Forces (SIAF) units. This report of Phase III of the three-phase research and development project describes research that required two almost completely independent activities: (a) development of a…

  19. Robot soccer action selection based on Q learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper researches robot soccer action selection based on Q learning . The robot learn to activate particular behavior given their current situation and reward signal. We adopt neural network to implementations of Q learning for their generalization properties and limited computer memory requirements

  20. Disruption of Brewers' yeast by hydrodynamic cavitation: Process variables and their influence on selective release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2006-06-01

    Intracellular products, not secreted from the microbial cell, are released by breaking the cell envelope consisting of cytoplasmic membrane and an outer cell wall. Hydrodynamic cavitation has been reported to cause microbial cell disruption. By manipulating the operating variables involved, a wide range of intensity of cavitation can be achieved resulting in a varying extent of disruption. The effect of the process variables including cavitation number, initial cell concentration of the suspension and the number of passes across the cavitation zone on the release of enzymes from various locations of the Brewers' yeast was studied. The release profile of the enzymes studied include alpha-glucosidase (periplasmic), invertase (cell wall bound), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; cytoplasmic) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; cytoplasmic). An optimum cavitation number Cv of 0.13 for maximum disruption was observed across the range Cv 0.09-0.99. The optimum cell concentration was found to be 0.5% (w/v, wet wt) when varying over the range 0.1%-5%. The sustained effect of cavitation on the yeast cell wall when re-circulating the suspension across the cavitation zone was found to release the cell wall bound enzyme invertase (86%) to a greater extent than the enzymes from other locations of the cell (e.g. periplasmic alpha-glucosidase at 17%). Localised damage to the cell wall could be observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of cells subjected to less intense cavitation conditions. Absence of the release of cytoplasmic enzymes to a significant extent, absence of micronisation as observed by TEM and presence of a lower number of proteins bands in the culture supernatant on SDS-PAGE analysis following hydrodynamic cavitation compared to disruption by high-pressure homogenisation confirmed the selective release offered by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  1. Fish Reproduction Is Disrupted upon Lifelong Exposure to Environmental PAHs Fractions Revealing Different Modes of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vignet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs constitute a large family of organic pollutants emitted in the environment as complex mixtures, the compositions of which depend on origin. Among a wide range of physiological defects, PAHs are suspected to be involved in disruption of reproduction. In an aquatic environment, the trophic route is an important source of chronic exposure to PAHs. Here, we performed trophic exposure of zebrafish to three fractions of different origin, one pyrolytic and two petrogenic. Produced diets contained PAHs at environmental concentrations. Reproductive traits were analyzed at individual, tissue and molecular levels. Reproductive success and cumulative eggs number were disrupted after exposure to all three fractions, albeit to various extents depending on the fraction and concentrations. Histological analyses revealed ovary maturation defects after exposure to all three fractions as well as degeneration after exposure to a pyrolytic fraction. In testis, hypoplasia was observed after exposure to petrogenic fractions. Genes expression analysis in gonads has allowed us to establish common pathways such as endocrine disruption or differentiation/maturation defects. Taken altogether, these results indicate that PAHs can indeed disrupt fish reproduction and that different fractions trigger different pathways resulting in different effects.

  2. Directional, stabilizing and disruptive selection: An analysis of aspects of economic evolution based on Price’s equation

    OpenAIRE

    Esben Sloth Andersen; Jacob Rubæk Holm

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to demonstrate that the well developed analysis of directional selection within evolutionary economics can be complemented by analyses of stabilizing selection and disruptive selection. It also tries to demonstrate that the evolutionary algebra provided by Price’s equation increases the intellectual coherence and power of thinking about selection and other aspects of evolutionary processes. The paper combines these aims by analysing the types of selection by means of the alge...

  3. Passive sampling of selected endocrine disrupting compounds using polar organic chemical integrative samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (pharmaceutical POCIS and pesticide POCIS) were examined for their sampling efficiency of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Laboratory-based calibration of POCISs was conducted by exposing them at high and low concentrations of 14 EDCs (4-alkyl-phenols, their ethoxylate oligomers, bisphenol A, selected estrogens and synthetic steroids) for different time periods. The kinetic studies showed an integrative uptake up to 28 days. The sampling rates for the individual compounds were obtained. The use of POCISs could result in an integrative approach to the quality status of the aquatic systems especially in the case of high variation of water concentrations of EDCs. The sampling efficiency of POCISs under various field conditions was assessed after their deployment in different aquatic environments. - Calibration and field performance of polar organic integrative samplers for monitoring EDCs in aquatic environments

  4. Selecting the right bird model in experimental studies on endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle L.B. Jaspers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds have been used as model species in ecotoxicological research for decades but have only recently been included in toxicity testing schemes. However, the avian fauna is very diverse. Given this diversity the ecology, behavior and reproduction should be considered when selecting the appropriate bird model in ecotoxicological studies. This article focusses on choosing the right bird model species for experimental studies with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. EDCs have been associated with adverse effects on the reproduction and development in birds and other wildlife. In addition, new EDCs continue to emerge and the concern for potential effects in humans and wildlife is calling for increased toxicity testing and hence appropriate model species. Common bird model species used in ecotoxicological studies investigating EDCs will be reviewed. In addition, considerations for selecting the right bird model, along with potential drawbacks and restrictions on the use of certain species will be discussed.

  5. Disruptive selection without genome-wide evolution across a migratory divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rönn, Jan A C; Shafer, Aaron B A; Wolf, Jochen B W

    2016-06-01

    Transcontinental migration is a fascinating example of how animals can respond to climatic oscillation. Yet, quantitative data on fitness components are scarce, and the resulting population genetic consequences are poorly understood. Migratory divides, hybrid zones with a transition in migratory behaviour, provide a natural setting to investigate the micro-evolutionary dynamics induced by migration under sympatric conditions. Here, we studied the effects of migratory programme on survival, trait evolution and genome-wide patterns of population differentiation in a migratory divide of European barn swallows. We sampled a total of 824 individuals from both allopatric European populations wintering in central and southern Africa, respectively, along with two mixed populations from within the migratory divide. While most morphological characters varied by latitude consistent with Bergmann's rule, wing length co-varied with distance to wintering grounds. Survival data collected during a 5-year period provided strong evidence that this covariance is repeatedly generated by disruptive selection against intermediate phenotypes. Yet, selection-induced divergence did not translate into genome-wide genetic differentiation as assessed by microsatellites, mtDNA and >20 000 genome-wide SNP markers; nor did we find evidence of local genomic selection between migratory types. Among breeding populations, a single outlier locus mapped to the BUB1 gene with a role in mitotic and meiotic organization. Overall, this study provides evidence for an adaptive response to variation in migration behaviour continuously eroded by gene flow under current conditions of nonassortative mating. It supports the theoretical prediction that population differentiation is difficult to achieve under conditions of gene flow despite measurable disruptive selection. PMID:26749140

  6. GAP1, a novel selection and counter-selection marker for multiple gene disruptions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Hansen, J.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the use of a new homologous marker for use in multiple gene deletions in S, cerevisiae, the general amino acid permease gene (GAP1), A GAP1 strain can utilize L-citrulline as the sole nitrogen source but cannot grow in the presence of the toxic amino acid D-histidine, L-citrulline as...... well as D-histidine uptake is mediated solely by the general amino acid permease, and a gap1 strain is therefore able to grow in the presence of D-histidine but cannot utilize L-citrulline, Gene disruption is effected by transforming a gap1 strain with a gene cassette generated by PCR, containing GAP1...... the GAP1 gene. This is caused by recombination between two Salmonella typuimurium hisG direct repeats embracing GAP1, and will result in a sub-population of gap1 cells. Such cells are selected on a medium containing D-histidine, and may subsequently be used for a second gene disruption. Hence...

  7. Disruption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Plantaricin 149 and investigation of its mechanism of action with biomembrane model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José Luiz S; Nobre, Thatyane M; Siano, Alvaro; Humpola, Verónica; Bossolan, Nelma R S; Zaniquelli, Maria E D; Tonarelli, Georgina; Beltramini, Leila M

    2009-10-01

    The action of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide analog of Plantaricin 149 (Pln149a) against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its interaction with biomembrane model systems were investigated. Pln149a was shown to inhibit S. cerevisiae growth by more than 80% in YPD medium, causing morphological changes in the yeast wall and remaining active and resistant to the yeast proteases even after 24 h of incubation. Different membrane model systems and carbohydrates were employed to better describe the Pln149a interaction with cellular components using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies, adsorption kinetics and surface elasticity in Langmuir monolayers. These assays showed that Pln149a does not interact with either mono/polysaccharides or zwitterionic LUVs, but is strongly adsorbed to and incorporated into negatively charged surfaces, causing a conformational change in its secondary structure from random-coil to helix upon adsorption. From the concurrent analysis of Pln149a adsorption kinetics and dilatational surface elasticity data, we determined that 2.5 muM is the critical concentration at which Pln149a will disrupt a negative DPPG monolayer. Furthermore, Pln149a exhibited a carpet-like mechanism of action, in which the peptide initially binds to the membrane, covering its surface and acquiring a helical structure that remains associated to the negatively charged phospholipids. After this electrostatic interaction, another peptide region causes a strain in the membrane, promoting its disruption.

  8. Gender based disruptive selection maintains body size polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaya Handa; K T Chandrashekara; Khushboo Kashyap; Geetanjali Sageena; Mallikarjun N Shakarad

    2014-09-01

    Darwinian fitness in holometabolous insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is reported to be positively correlated with body size. If large individuals in a population have higher fitness, then one would expect directional selection to operate leading to uniformly large individuals. However, size polymorphism persists in nature and needs further probing. We assessed the effect of body size on some of the fitness and fitness-related traits in replicate populations of genotypically large, genotypically small and phenotypically small D. melanogaster flies. In this study, the time taken to attain reproductive maturity and copulation duration were independent of fly size. Fecundity and longevity of large females were significantly higher when they partnered genotypically small males than when they were with genotypically larger or phenotypically small males. The increased female longevity when in association with genotypically small males was not due to selective early death of males that would release the female partner from presumed cost of persistent courtship. On the contrary, the genotypically as well as phenotypically small males had significantly higher longevity than large males. The virility of the genotypically small males was not significantly different from that of genotypically large males. Our results clearly show that selection on body size operates in the opposite direction (disruptive selection) for the two genders, thus explaining the persistence of size polymorphisms in the holometabolous insect, Drosophila melanogaster.

  9. Satellite accretion in action: a tidally disrupting dwarf spheroidal around the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Romanowsky, Aaron J; Martin, Nicolas F; Morales, Gustavo; Jennings, Zachary G; GaBany, R Jay; Brodie, Jean P; Grebel, Eva K; Schedler, Johannes; Sidonio, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of NGC 253-dw2, a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy candidate undergoing tidal disruption around a nearby spiral galaxy, NGC 253 in the Sculptor group: the first such event identified beyond the Local Group. The dwarf was found using small-aperture amateur telescopes, and followed up with Suprime-Cam on the 8 m Subaru Telescope in order to resolve its brightest stars. Using g- and R_c-band photometry, we detect a red giant branch consistent with an old, metal-poor stellar population at a distance of ~ 3.5 Mpc. From the distribution of likely member stars, we infer a highly elongated shape with a semi-major axis half-light radius of (2 +/- 0.4) kpc. Star counts also yield a luminosity estimate of ~ 2x10^6 L_Sun,V (M_V ~ -10.7). The morphological properties of NGC 253-dw2 mark it as distinct from normal dSphs and imply ongoing disruption at a projected distance of ~ 50 kpc from the main galaxy. Our observations support the hierarchical paradigm wherein massive galaxies continously accrete l...

  10. Action of the mechanical disruption of the actin network on the gravisensitivity of the root statocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, A.; Jeune, B.; Driss-Ecole, D.; Perbal, G.

    The effects of the mechanical disruption of the thin actin network of statocytes on gravisensitivity have been studied on lentil roots. Seedling roots were first inverted for 7 min (root tip upward) and then placed in the downward (normal) position for 7 min before gravitropic stimulation in the horizontal position. The period of inversion allowed the amyloplasts to move from the distal part to the proximal part of the statocyte, but did not fully sediment. When the roots were returned to the tip down position, the amyloplasts moved toward the distal part, but also did not completely sediment by the time the roots were placed horizontally. Thus, in these roots the amyloplasts could be still moving toward the distal wall after they had been replaced in the normal position and the actin network should not be fully restored. Gravisensitivity was estimated by the analysis of the dose-response curves of vertical and treated (inverted and returned to downward position) roots. The only effect, which has been observed on treated roots, was a delay of graviresponse for about 1 min. Our interpretation of this result is that in vertical roots the amyloplasts can exert tensions in the actin network that are directly transmitted to mechanoreceptors located in the plasma membrane. In roots with a partially disrupted actin network, a delay of 1 min is necessary for the amyloplasts to activate mechanoreceptors.

  11. Remote Actuation of Magnetic Nanoparticles For Cancer Cell Selective Treatment Through Cytoskeletal Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Alyssa M; Williams, Philise N; Pothayee, Nikorn; Pothayee, Nipon; Zhang, Rui; Vishwasrao, Hemant M; Golovin, Yuri I; Riffle, Judy S; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Motion of micron and sub-micron size magnetic particles in alternating magnetic fields can activate mechanosensitive cellular functions or physically destruct cancer cells. However, such effects are usually observed with relatively large magnetic particles (>250 nm) that would be difficult if at all possible to deliver to remote sites in the body to treat disease. Here we show a completely new mechanism of selective toxicity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SMNP) of 7 to 8 nm in diameter to cancer cells. These particles are coated by block copolymers, which facilitates their entry into the cells and clustering in the lysosomes, where they are then magneto-mechanically actuated by remotely applied alternating current (AC) magnetic fields of very low frequency (50 Hz). Such fields and treatments are safe for surrounding tissues but produce cytoskeletal disruption and subsequent death of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact. PMID:27644858

  12. Disruption of a dopamine receptor complex amplifies the actions of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Melissa L; Hasbi, Ahmed; Shen, Maurice Y F; Fan, Theresa; Navarro, Gemma; Fletcher, Paul J; Franco, Rafael; Lanciego, José L; George, Susan R

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine-induced increases in dopamine signaling in nucleus accumbens (NAc) play a significant role in cocaine seeking behavior. The majority of cocaine addiction research has focused on neuroanatomically segregated dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons, yet an involvement for those NAc neurons coexpressing D1 and D2 receptors in cocaine addiction has never been explored. In situ proximity ligation assay, confocal fluorescence resonance energy transfer and coimmunoprecipitation were used to show native D1 and D2 receptors formed a heteromeric complex in D1/D2 receptor-coexpressing neurons in rat and non-human primate NAc. D1-D2 heteromer expression was lower in NAc of adolescent rats compared to their adult counterparts. Functional disruption of the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer, using a peptide targeting the site of interaction between the D1 and D2 receptor, induced conditioned place preference and increased NAc expression of ∆FosB. D1-D2 heteromer disruption also resulted in the promotion, exacerbation and acceleration of the locomotor activating and incentive motivational effects of cocaine in the self-administration paradigm. These findings support a model for tonic inhibition of basal and cocaine-induced reward processes by the D1-D2 heteromer thus highlighting its potential value as a novel target for drug discovery in cocaine addiction. Given that adolescents show increased drug abuse susceptibility, an involvement for reduced D1-D2 heteromer function in the heightened sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine in adolescence is also implicated. PMID:27480020

  13. Selection-for-action and selection-for-perception: How close a couple are they really?

    OpenAIRE

    Thorold, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper was to test the claim of the Visual Attention Model (VAM, Schneider, 1995) that an object that is visually attended to for the purpose of perceptual processing is the only object selected-for-action. Experiment 1 aimed to test this claim directly whilst Experiment 2 extended it to see if selection-for action is also bound to the target of stimulus-driven attention. A dual-task paradigm was used in which participants were required to discriminate (Experim...

  14. p53's mitochondrial translocation and MOMP action is independent of Puma and Bax and severely disrupts mitochondrial membrane integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja Wolff; Susan Erster; Gustavo Palacios; Ute M Moll

    2008-01-01

    p53's apoptotic program consists of transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways. In the latter, physical interactions between mitochondrial p53 and anti-and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl2 family of mitochondrial permeability regulators are central. Using isogenic cell systems with defined deficiencies, we characterize in detail how mitochondrial p53 contributes to mitochondrial permeabilization, to what extent its action depends on other key Bcl2 family members and define its release activity. We show that mitochondrial p53 is highly efficient in inducing the release of soluble and insoluble apoptogenic factors by severely disrupting outer and inner mitochondrial membrane integrity. This action is associated with wild-type p53-induced oligomerization of Bax, Bak and VDAC and the formation of a stress-induced endogenous complex between p53 and cyclophilin D, normally located at the inner membrane. Tumor-derived p53 mutants are deficient in activating the Bax/Bak lipid pore. These actions are independent of Puma and Bax. Importantly, the latter distinguishes the mitochondrial from the cytosolic p53 death pathway.

  15. Protective actions of des-acylated ghrelin on brain injury and blood-brain barrier disruption after stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jacqueline M; Taher, Mohammadali; Chin, Kai Yee; Barsby, Tom; Austin, Victoria; Wong, Connie H Y; Andrews, Zane B; Spencer, Sarah J; Miller, Alyson A

    2016-09-01

    The major ghrelin forms, acylated ghrelin and des-acylated ghrelin, are novel gastrointestinal hormones. Moreover, emerging evidence indicates that these peptides may have other functions including neuro- and vaso-protection. Here, we investigated whether post-stroke treatment with acylated ghrelin or des-acylated ghrelin could improve functional and histological endpoints of stroke outcome in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). We found that des-acylated ghrelin (1 mg/kg) improved neurological and functional performance, reduced infarct and swelling, and decreased apoptosis. In addition, it reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in vivo and attenuated the hyper-permeability of mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cells after oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD + RO). By contrast, acylated ghrelin (1 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg) had no significant effect on these endpoints of stroke outcome. Next we found that des-acylated ghrelin's vasoprotective actions were associated with increased expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-5), and decreased cell death. Moreover, it attenuated superoxide production, Nox activity and expression of 3-nitrotyrosine. Collectively, these results demonstrate that post-stroke treatment with des-acylated ghrelin, but not acylated ghrelin, protects against ischaemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury and swelling, and BBB disruption, by reducing oxidative and/or nitrosative damage. PMID:27303049

  16. Credibility-Based Biobjective Fuzzy Optimization for Supplier Selection Problem with Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejie Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a supplier selection problem in which a buyer procures multiple products from multiple suppliers under disruption risk. The problem is formulated as a new credibility-based biobjective fuzzy optimization model. In the proposed model, cost, capacity, and demand are characterized by fuzzy variables with known possibility distributions. The objectives of our model are to maximize the total quality of purchased products and minimize the expected total cost. Two credibility constraints are used to guarantee that the chance about the supplier capacity and buyer demand can satisfy the predetermined levels. The main concern in solving the optimization model is to calculate the expected value of the objective function and the credibility in the constraints. When the key parameters are mutually independent triangular fuzzy variables, the expected cost objective and credibility constraints can be transformed into their equivalent forms. Taking advantage of the structural characteristics of the equivalent model, the goal programming method is employed to solve the supplier selection model, which can be solved by conventional optimization method. At last, some numerical experiments have been performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution strategy.

  17. Disruption of growth hormone receptor prevents calorie restriction from improving insulin action and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Bonkowski

    Full Text Available Most mutations that delay aging and prolong lifespan in the mouse are related to somatotropic and/or insulin signaling. Calorie restriction (CR is the only intervention that reliably increases mouse longevity. There is considerable phenotypic overlap between long-lived mutant mice and normal mice on chronic CR. Therefore, we investigated the interactive effects of CR and targeted disruption or knock out of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO in mice on longevity and the insulin signaling cascade. Every other day feeding corresponds to a mild (i.e. 15% CR which increased median lifespan in normal mice but not in GHRKO mice corroborating our previous findings on the effects of moderate (30% CR on the longevity of these animals. To determine why insulin sensitivity improves in normal but not GHRKO mice in response to 30% CR, we conducted insulin stimulation experiments after one year of CR. In normal mice, CR increased the insulin stimulated activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IR/IRS/PI3K/AKT in liver and muscle. Livers of GHRKO mice responded to insulin by increased activation of the early steps of insulin signaling, which was dissipated by altered PI3K subunit abundance which putatively inhibited AKT activation. In the muscle of GHRKO mice, there was elevated downstream activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IRS/PI3K/AKT in the absence of elevated IR activation. Further, we found a major reduction of inhibitory Ser phosphorylation of IRS-1 seen exclusively in GHRKO muscle which may underpin their elevated insulin sensitivity. Chronic CR failed to further modify the alterations in insulin signaling in GHRKO mice as compared to normal mice, likely explaining or contributing to the absence of CR effects on insulin sensitivity and longevity in these long-lived mice.

  18. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Some Actions of POPs on Female Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and dibenzofurans (PCDFs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated ethers (PBDEs, chloronaftalens (PCNs, and bisphenol A (BPA, are stable, lipophilic pollutants that affect fertility and cause serious reproductive problems, including ovotoxic action, lack of ovulation, premature ovarian failure (POF, or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Most of the representatives of POPs influence the activation of transcription factors, not only activation of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, but also the steroid hormone receptors. This minireview will focus on a variety of PAH activities in oocyte, ovary, placenta, and mammary gland. The complexity and diversity of factors belonging to POPs and disorders of the reproductive function of women indicate that the impact of environmental pollution as an important determinant factor in fertility should not be minimize.

  19. Late Time Radio Emission from X-ray Selected Tidal Disruption Events

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Geoffrey C; Cenko, S Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Bloom, Joshua S

    2012-01-01

    We present new observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of seven X-ray-selected tidal disruption events (TDEs). The radio observations were carried out between 9 and 22 years after the initial X-ray discovery, and, thus, probe the late-time formation of relativistic jets and jet interactions with the interstellar medium in these systems. We detect a compact radio source in the nucleus of the galaxy IC 3599 and a compact radio source that is a possible counterpart to RX J1420.4+5334. We find no radio counterparts for five other sources with flux density upper limits between 34 and 200 microJy (2\\sigma). If the detections truly represent late radio emission associated with a TDE, then our results suggest that a fraction >~ 10% of X-ray-detected TDEs are accompanied by relativistic jets. We explore several models for producing late radio emission, including interaction of the jet with gas in the circumnuclear environment (blast wave model), and emission from the core of the jet itself. Upper limits ...

  20. Targeted and random bacterial gene disruption using a group II intron (targetron) vector containing a retrotransposition-activated selectable marker

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Jin; Karberg, Michael; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    Mobile group II introns have been used to develop a novel class of gene targeting vectors, targetrons, which employ base pairing for DNA target recognition and can thus be programmed to insert into any desired target DNA. Here, we have developed a targetron containing a retrotransposition-activated selectable marker (RAM), which enables one-step bacterial gene disruption at near 100% efficiency after selection. The targetron can be generated via PCR without cloning, and after intron integrati...

  1. Removal of Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals During On-Site Wastewater Treatment Using A Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant research has shown that domestic and industrial wastewater can be a source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. Much of this research has focused on municipal and industrial centralized wastewater treatment plants. These plants have been show...

  2. LATE-TIME RADIO EMISSION FROM X-RAY-SELECTED TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of seven X-ray-selected tidal disruption events (TDEs). The radio observations were carried out between 9 and 22 years after the initial X-ray discovery, and thus probe the late-time formation of relativistic jets and jet interactions with the interstellar medium in these systems. We detect a compact radio source in the nucleus of the galaxy IC 3599 and a compact radio source that is a possible counterpart to RX J1420.4+5334. We find no radio counterparts for five other sources with flux density upper limits between 51 and 200 μJy (3σ). If the detections truly represent late radio emission associated with a TDE, then our results suggest that a fraction, ∼> 10%, of X-ray-detected TDEs are accompanied by relativistic jets. We explore several models for producing late radio emission, including interaction of the jet with gas in the circumnuclear environment (blast wave model), and emission from the core of the jet itself. Upper limits on the radio flux density from archival observations suggest that the jet formation may have been delayed for years after the TDE, possibly triggered by the accretion rate dropping below a critical threshold of ∼10–2-10-3 M-dot Edd. The non-detections are also consistent with this scenario; deeper radio observations can determine whether relativistic jets are present in these systems. The emission from RX J1420.4+5334 is also consistent with the predictions of the blast wave model; however, the radio emission from IC 3599 is substantially underluminous, and its spectral slope is too flat, relative to the blast wave model expectations. Future radio monitoring of IC 3599 and RX J1420.4+5334 will help to better constrain the nature of the jets in these systems.

  3. Selection-for-action emerges in neural networks trained to learn spatial associations between stimuli and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simione, Luca; Nolfi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    The objects present in our environment evoke multiple conflicting actions at every moment. Thus, a mechanism that resolves this conflict is needed in order to avoid the production of chaotic ineffective behaviours. A plausible candidate for such role is the selective attention, capable of inhibiting the neural representations of the objects irrelevant in the ongoing context and as a consequence the actions they afford. In this paper, we investigated whether a selective attention mechanism emerges spontaneously during the learning of context-dependent behaviour, whereas most neurocomputational models of selective attention and action selection imply the presence of architectural constraints. To this aim, we trained a deep neural network to learn context-dependent visual-action associations. Our main result was the spontaneous emergence of an inhibitory mechanism aimed to solve conflicts between multiple afforded actions by directly suppressing the irrelevant visual stimuli eliciting the incorrect actions for the current context. This suggests that such an inhibitory mechanism emerged as a result of the incorporation of context-independent probabilistic regularities occurring between stimuli and afforded actions. PMID:26232191

  4. The role of primate superior colliculus in the selection of visual objects for action

    OpenAIRE

    Nummela, Samuel Uno

    2010-01-01

    Accurate action requires selectively processing only the sensory signals that are relevant to that action. The superior colliculus (SC) is important for the generation of saccadic eye movements, and has more recently been implicated in the winner-take-all selection of visual targets for voluntary eye movements and covert attention. However, there have been no conclusive tests of how important SC activity is for selecting visual objects as the targets of eye movements, or other actions. This d...

  5. Action Recognition Using Nonnegative Action Component Representation and Sparse Basis Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Yuan, Chunfeng; Hu, Weiming; Ling, Haibin; Yang, Wankou; Sun, Changyin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we propose using high-level action units to represent human actions in videos and, based on such units, a novel sparse model is developed for human action recognition. There are three interconnected components in our approach. First, we propose a new context-aware spatial-temporal descriptor, named locally weighted word context, to improve the discriminability of the traditionally used local spatial-temporal descriptors. Second, from the statistics of the context-aware descriptors, we learn action units using the graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization, which leads to a part-based representation and encodes the geometrical information. These units effectively bridge the semantic gap in action recognition. Third, we propose a sparse model based on a joint l2,1-norm to preserve the representative items and suppress noise in the action units. Intuitively, when learning the dictionary for action representation, the sparse model captures the fact that actions from the same class share similar units. The proposed approach is evaluated on several publicly available data sets. The experimental results and analysis clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26270909

  6. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  8. Selecting a process paradigm for an emergent disruptive technology: Evidence from the emerging microsystems technology base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Walsh, S.T. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). School of Industrial Management

    1998-08-01

    Emergent technologies often suffer from a lack of an installed manufacturing base and an obvious dominant manufacturing technique. Firms which base their search for competitive advantage on emergent disruptive technologies must make hard production choices and endure major manufacturing discontinuities. The authors as well as many other firms, are now facing these challenges with the embrace of microsystems technologies. They add to the literature by providing a set of criteria for firms investing in emergent disruptive technologies. Sandia has long been associated as a pioneer in the development of new manufacturing techniques. Microsystems is just the current in a long line of manufacturing technologies that have been considered for mission critical system applications. The authors as well as others, have had to make the hard choice of investing in specific microsystems manufacturing techniques. Important considerations in the technique choice include: the existing internal manufacturing bases, commonality with existing commercial manufacturing infrastructure, current and projected critical performance characteristics, learning curves, the promise to add new but un-thought-of functionally to existing systems, and the anticipated ability to qualify devices built from the technique for mission critical applications.

  9. Disruption of dopamine neuron activity pattern regulation through selective expression of a human KCNN3 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, Marta E; Jones, Graham L; Sanford, Christina A; Chung, Amanda S; Güler, Ali D; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-11-20

    The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel SK3 plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior.

  10. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured.

  11. Action recognition by layout, selective sampling and soft-assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Bouma, H.; Hove, R.J.M. ten

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the TNO action recognition system that was used to generate the results for our submission to the competition track of the THUMOS ’13 challenge at ICCV ’13. This system deploys only the STIP features that were provided on the website of the challenge. A bag-of-features model is

  12. The Use of Evolution in a Central Action Selection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Montes-Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of effective central selection provides flexibility in design by offering modularity and extensibility. In earlier papers we have focused on the development of a simple centralized selection mechanism. Our current goal is to integrate evolutionary methods in the design of non-sequential behaviours and the tuning of specific parameters of the selection model. The foraging behaviour of an animal robot (animat has been modelled in order to integrate the sensory information from the robot to perform selection that is nearly optimized by the use of genetic algorithms. In this paper we present how selection through optimization finally arranges the pattern of presented behaviours for the foraging task. Hence, the execution of specific parts in a behavioural pattern may be ruled out by the tuning of these parameters. Furthermore, the intensive use of colour segmentation from a colour camera for locating a cylinder sets a burden on the calculations carried out by the genetic algorithm.

  13. Antibacterial Effects and Mode of Action of Selected Essential Oils Components against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Lopez-Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide and is one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Natural-based products, including plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals, may be used to surpass or reduce this problem. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect and mode of action of selected essential oils (EOs components: carveol, carvone, citronellol, and citronellal, against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were assessed for the selected EOs components. Moreover, physicochemical bacterial surface characterization, bacterial surface charge, membrane integrity, and K+ leakage assays were carried out to investigate the antimicrobial mode of action of EOs components. Citronellol was the most effective molecule against both pathogens, followed by citronellal, carveol, and carvone. Changes in the hydrophobicity, surface charge, and membrane integrity with the subsequent K+ leakage from E. coli and S. aureus were observed after exposure to EOs. This study demonstrates that the selected EOs have significant antimicrobial activity against the bacteria tested, acting on the cell surface and causing the disruption of the bacterial membrane. Moreover, these molecules are interesting alternatives to conventional antimicrobials for the control of microbial infections.

  14. Altering the selection capabilities of common cloning vectors via restriction enzyme mediated gene disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, Sam; Harman, Ashley; Accari, Jessica; Barth, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background The cloning of gene sequences forms the basis for many molecular biological studies. One important step in the cloning process is the isolation of bacterial transformants carrying vector DNA. This involves a vector-encoded selectable marker gene, which in most cases, confers resistance to an antibiotic. However, there are a number of circumstances in which a different selectable marker is required or may be preferable. Such situations can include restrictions to host strain choice,...

  15. Long Term Spectral Evolution of Tidal Disruption Candidates Selected by Strong Coronal Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chenwei; Ferland, Gary; Yuan, Weimin; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    We present results of follow-up optical spectroscopic observations of seven rare, extreme coronal line emitting galaxies reported by Wang et al. (2012) with Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT). Large variations in coronal lines are found in four objects, making them strong candidates of tidal disruption events (TDE). For the four TDE candidates, all the coronal lines with ionization status higher than [Fe VII] disappear within 5-9 years. The [Fe VII] faded by a factor of about five in one object (J0952+2143) within 4 years, whereas emerged in other two without them previously. A strong increment in the [O III] flux is observed, shifting the line ratios towards the loci of active galactic nucleus on the BPT diagrams. Surprisingly, we detect a non-canonical [O III]5007/[O III]4959 2 in two objects, indicating a large column density of O$^{2+}$ and thus probably optical thick gas. This also requires a very large ionization parameter and relatively soft ionizing spectral energy distribution (e.g. blackbody with $T < ...

  16. Adsorption of selected endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals on activated biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chanil; Park, Junyeong; Lim, Kwang Hun; Park, Sunkyu; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Oh, Jeill; Yun, Soyoung; Yoon, Yeomin

    2013-12-15

    Chemically activated biochar produced under oxygenated (O-biochar) and oxygen-free (N-biochar) conditions were characterized and the adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs): bisphenol A (BPA), atrazine (ATR), 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs); sulfamethoxazole (SMX), carbamazepine (CBM), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP) on both biochars and commercialized powdered activated carbon (PAC) were investigated. Characteristic analysis of adsorbents by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was conducted to determine better understanding about the EDCs/PhACs adsorption. N-biochar consisted of higher polarity moieties with more alkyl (0-45 ppm), methoxyl (45-63 ppm), O-alkyl (63-108 ppm), and carboxyl carbon (165-187 ppm) content than other adsorbents, while aromaticity of O-biochar was higher than that of N-biochar. O-biochar was composed mostly of aromatic moieties, with low H/C and O/C ratios compared to the highly polarized N-biochar that contained diverse polar functional groups. The higher surface area and pore volume of N-biochar resulted in higher adsorption capacity toward EDCs/PhACs along with atomic-level molecular structural property than O-biochar and PAC. N-biochar had a highest adsorption capacity of all chemicals, suggesting that N-biochar derived from loblolly pine chip is a promising sorbent for agricultural and environmental applications. The adsorption of pH-sensitive dissociable SMX, DCF, IBP, and BPA varied and the order of adsorption capacity was correlated with the hydrophobicity (Kow) of adsorbates throughout the all adsorbents, whereas adsorption of non-ionizable CBM, ATR, and EE2 in varied pH allowed adsorbents to interact with hydrophobic property of adsorbates steadily throughout the study. PMID:24231319

  17. A Hexapod Walker Using a Heterarchical Architecture for Action Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte eSchilling

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moving in a cluttered environment with a six-legged walking machine that has additional body actuators, therefore controlling 22 DoFs, is not a trivial task. Already simple forward walking on a flat plane requires the system to select between different internal states. The orchestration of these states depends on walking velocity and on external disturbances. Such disturbances occur continuously, for example due to irregular up-and-down movements of the body or slipping of the legs, even on flat surfaces, in particular when negotiating tight curves. The number of possible states is further increased when the system is allowed to walk backward or when front legs are used as grippers and cannot contribute to walking. Further states are necessary for expansion that allow for navigation. Here we demonstrate a solution for the selection and sequencing of different (attractor states required to control different behaviors as are forward walking at different speeds, backward walking, as well as negotiation of tight curves. This selection is made by a recurrent neural network of motivation units, controlling a bank of decentralized memory elements in combination with the feedback through the environment. The underlying heterarchical architecture of the network allows to select various combinations of these elements. This modular approach representing an example of neural reuse of a limited number of procedures allows for adaptation to different internal and external conditions. A way is sketched as to how this approach may be expanded to form a cognitive system being able to plan ahead. This architecture is characterized by different types of modules being arranged in layers and columns, but the complete network can also be considered as a holistic system showing emergent properties which cannot be attributed to a specific module.

  18. Understanding decision-making deficits in neurological conditions: insights from models of natural action selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.J.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Sherman, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Models of natural action selection implicate fronto-striatal circuits in both motor and cognitive 'actions'. Dysfunction of these circuits leads to decision-making deficits in various populations. We review how computational models provide insights into the mechanistic basis for these deficits in Pa

  19. GABAAα1-Mediated Plasticity in the Orbitofrontal Cortex Regulates Context-Dependent Action Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Andrew M.; Allen, Amanda G.; Shapiro, Lauren P.; Gourley, Shannon L

    2014-01-01

    An essential aspect of goal-directed action selection is differentiating between behaviors that are more, or less, likely to be reinforced. Habits, by contrast, are stimulus-elicited behaviors insensitive to action–outcome contingencies and are considered an etiological factor in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, isolating the neuroanatomy and neurobiology of goal-directed action selection on the one hand, and habit formation on the other, is critical. Using in vivo viral-mediated gen...

  20. Differential actions of insecticides on target sites: basis for selective toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Narahashi, T; Zhao, X.; Ikeda, T; Nagata, K.(Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan); Yeh, JZ

    2007-01-01

    Whereas the selective toxicity of insecticides between insects and mammals has a long history of studies, it is now becoming abundantly clear that, in many cases, the differential action of insecticides on insects and mammalian target receptor sites is an important factor. In this paper, we first introduce the mechanism of action and the selective toxicity of pyrethroids as a prototype of study. Then, a more detailed account is given for fipronil, based primarily on our recent studies. Pyreth...

  1. Dynamic Adjustment of the Motivation Degree in an Action Selection Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Gershenson, Carlos; Gonzalez, Pedro Pablo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a model for dynamic adjustment of the motivation degree, using a reinforcement learning approach, in an action selection mechanism previously developed by the authors. The learning takes place in the modification of a parameter of the model of combination of internal and external stimuli. Experiments that show the claimed properties are presented, using a VR simulation developed for such purposes. The importance of adaptation by learning in action selection is also discussed.

  2. Adsorption of selected endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals on activated biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chanil [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Park, Junyeong [Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Lim, Kwang Hun [Department of Chemistry, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Park, Sunkyu [Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Heo, Jiyong [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Army Academy at Young-Cheon, PO Box 135-1, Changhari, Gogyeongmeon, Young-cheon 770-849, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Her, Namguk [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Korea Army Academy at Young-Cheon, PO Box 135-1, Changhari, Gogyeongmeon, Young-cheon 770-849, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeill; Yun, Soyoung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yeomin, E-mail: yoony@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biochars were prepared at different gas environments. • The competitive adsorption among EDCs/PhACs were investigated. • Aromaticity of adsorbent plays a significant role for EDCs/PhACs adsorption. -- Abstract: Chemically activated biochar produced under oxygenated (O-biochar) and oxygen-free (N-biochar) conditions were characterized and the adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs): bisphenol A (BPA), atrazine (ATR), 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs); sulfamethoxazole (SMX), carbamazepine (CBM), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP) on both biochars and commercialized powdered activated carbon (PAC) were investigated. Characteristic analysis of adsorbents by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was conducted to determine better understanding about the EDCs/PhACs adsorption. N-biochar consisted of higher polarity moieties with more alkyl (0–45 ppm), methoxyl (45–63 ppm), O-alkyl (63–108 ppm), and carboxyl carbon (165–187 ppm) content than other adsorbents, while aromaticity of O-biochar was higher than that of N-biochar. O-biochar was composed mostly of aromatic moieties, with low H/C and O/C ratios compared to the highly polarized N-biochar that contained diverse polar functional groups. The higher surface area and pore volume of N-biochar resulted in higher adsorption capacity toward EDCs/PhACs along with atomic-level molecular structural property than O-biochar and PAC. N-biochar had a highest adsorption capacity of all chemicals, suggesting that N-biochar derived from loblolly pine chip is a promising sorbent for agricultural and environmental applications. The adsorption of pH-sensitive dissociable SMX, DCF, IBP, and BPA varied and the order of adsorption capacity was correlated with the hydrophobicity (K{sub ow}) of adsorbates throughout the all adsorbents, whereas adsorption of non-ionizable CBM, ATR, and EE2 in varied pH allowed adsorbents to interact with hydrophobic property

  3. How selective are selective word class deficits? Two case studies of action and object naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, R.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article two case studies of fluent aphasic speakers are presented. Both patients performed significantly worse on an action-naming task than on an object-naming task, whereas comprehension of verbs was spared. The items of the action-naming test were controlled not only for the well-known fa

  4. Reprint of "Young children's referent selection is guided by novelty for both words and actions".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, Erin L; Mather, Emily; Riggs, Kevin J

    2016-11-01

    Young children are biased to select novel, name-unknown objects as referents of novel labels and to similarly favor novel, action-unknown objects as referents of novel actions. What process underlies these common behaviors? In the case of word learning, children may be driven by a novelty bias favoring novel objects as referents. Our study investigated this bias further by investigating whether novelty also affects children's selection of novel objects when a new action is given. In a pre-exposure session, 40 3- and 4-year-olds were shown eight novel objects for 1min. In subsequent referent selection trials, children were shown two pre-exposed objects and one super-novel object and either heard a novel name or saw a novel action. The super-novel object was selected significantly more than the pre-exposed objects on both word and action trials. Our data add to the growing literature suggesting that an endogenous attentional bias to novelty plays a role in children's referent selection and demonstrates further parallels between word and action learning. PMID:27566944

  5. Alzheimer's disease disrupts arithmetic fact retrieval processes but not arithmetic strategy selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverne, Sandrine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard François

    2003-08-01

    Three groups of healthy younger adults, healthy older adults, and probable AD patients, performed an addition/number comparison task. They compared 128 couples of additions and numbers (e.g., 4 + 9 15) and had to identify the largest item for each problem by pressing one of two buttons located under each item. Manipulations of problem characteristics (i.e., problem difficulty and splits between correct sums and proposed numbers) enabled us to examine strategy selection and specific arithmetic fact retrieval processes. Results showed that arithmetic facts retrieval processes, which were spared with aging, were impaired in AD patients. However, AD patients were able to switch between strategies across trials according to problem characteristics as well as healthy older adults, and less systematically than healthy younger adults. We discuss implications of these findings for further understanding AD-related differences in arithmetic in particular, and problem solving in general. PMID:12907175

  6. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Paul D; Dreyer, Jakob K; Jennings, Katie A; Syed, Emilie C J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson's disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits. PMID:27001837

  7. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Paul D; Dreyer, Jakob K; Jennings, Katie A; Syed, Emilie C J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson's disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits.

  8. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs): progesterone receptor action, mode of action on the endometrium and treatment options in gynecological therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenfeld, Andrea; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O.D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The progesterone receptor plays an essential role in uterine physiology and reproduction. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have emerged as a valuable treatment option for hormone dependent conditions like uterine fibroids, which have a major impact on women’s quality of life. SPRMs offer potential for longer term medical treatment and thereby patients may avoid surgical intervention. Areas covered: The authors have reviewed the functional role of the progesterone receptor and its isoforms and their molecular mechanisms of action via genomic and non-genomic pathways. The current knowledge of the interaction of the PR and different SPRMs tested in clinical trials has been reviewed. The authors focused on pharmacological effects of selected SPRMs on the endometrium, their anti-proliferative action, and their suppression of bleeding. Potential underlying molecular mechanisms and the specific histological changes in the endometrium induced by SPRMs (PAEC; Progesterone receptor modulator Associated Endometrial Changes) have been discussed. The clinical potential of this compound class including its impact on quality of life has been covered. Expert Opinion: Clinical studies indicate SPRMs hold promise for treatment of benign gynecological complaints (fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding; HMB). There however remains a knowledge gap concerning mechanism of action. PMID:27138351

  9. MODE OF ACTION: NEUROTOXICITY INDUCED BY THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION DURING DEVELOPMENT - HEARING LOSS RESULTING FROM EXPOSURE TO PHAHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A manuscript summarizes a workshop aimed at developing a framework to determine the relevancy of animal modes-of-action for extrapolation to humans. This specific report used animal data on the neurodevelopmental effects of hypothyroidism to test the framework. Propylthiouracil,...

  10. The Hijacking of Cellular Signaling and the Diabetes Epidemic: Mechanisms of Environmental Disruption of Insulin Action and Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Sargis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The burgeoning epidemic of metabolic disease causes significant societal and individual morbidity and threatens the stability of health care systems around the globe. Efforts to understand the factors that contribute to metabolic derangements are critical for reversing these troubling trends. While excess caloric consumption and physical inactivity superimposed on a susceptible genetic background are central drivers of this crisis, these factors alone fail to fully account for the magnitude and rapidity with which metabolic diseases have increased in prevalence worldwide. Recent epidemiological evidence implicates endocrine disrupting chemicals in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. These compounds represent a diverse array of chemicals to which humans are exposed via multiple routes in adulthood and during development. Furthermore, a growing ensemble of animal- and cell-based studies provides preclinical evidence supporting the hypothesis that environmental contaminants contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Herein are reviewed studies linking specific endocrine disruptors to impairments in glucose homeostasis as well as tying these compounds to disturbances in insulin secretion and impairments in insulin signal transduction. While the data remains somewhat incomplete, the current body of evidence supports the hypothesis that our chemically polluted environment may play a contributing role in the current metabolic crisis.

  11. I control therefore I do: judgments of agency influence action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, N; Eitam, B

    2015-05-01

    Our sense of being agents, that is of willingly controlling both our own bodies and the external environment is ubiquitous if thin. Empirical and theoretical work on this 'sense of agency' has documented motivational, cognitive and neural influences on implicit (out of awareness) and explicit (conscious) judgments of agency. For example, fluency of action selection processes has been recently shown to affect judgments of one's degree of control over an external event. However, it is an open question whether and how such judgments of agency act as input to other processes. In this study we demonstrate that the opposite relationship between action selection and judgment of agency also exists. Specifically, we show that manipulating one's objective control over the environment influences both the speed and the frequency of performing an action associated with that control. This pattern bears a striking resemblance to the effect that tangible rewards have on action selection and suggests that positive control feedback is rewarding to the organism, consequently affecting action selection. If further corroborated this 'reward from control' may explain everyday addictions such as prolonged engagement in arcade games and pathological behaviors, such as stereotypy. PMID:25724007

  12. Properties of Neurons in External Globus Pallidus Can Support Optimal Action Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Rafal; Martin Moraud, Eduardo; Abdi, Azzedine; Magill, Peter J.; Baufreton, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The external globus pallidus (GPe) is a key nucleus within basal ganglia circuits that are thought to be involved in action selection. A class of computational models assumes that, during action selection, the basal ganglia compute for all actions available in a given context the probabilities that they should be selected. These models suggest that a network of GPe and subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons computes the normalization term in Bayes’ equation. In order to perform such computation, the GPe needs to send feedback to the STN equal to a particular function of the activity of STN neurons. However, the complex form of this function makes it unlikely that individual GPe neurons, or even a single GPe cell type, could compute it. Here, we demonstrate how this function could be computed within a network containing two types of GABAergic GPe projection neuron, so-called ‘prototypic’ and ‘arkypallidal’ neurons, that have different response properties in vivo and distinct connections. We compare our model predictions with the experimentally-reported connectivity and input-output functions (f-I curves) of the two populations of GPe neurons. We show that, together, these dichotomous cell types fulfil the requirements necessary to compute the function needed for optimal action selection. We conclude that, by virtue of their distinct response properties and connectivities, a network of arkypallidal and prototypic GPe neurons comprises a neural substrate capable of supporting the computation of the posterior probabilities of actions. PMID:27389780

  13. Rational Selection of the 3D Structure of Biomacromolecules for Molecular Docking Studies on the Mechanism of Endocrine Disruptor Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianhai; Liu, Huihui; Liu, Jining; Li, Fei; Li, Xuehua; Shi, Lili; Chen, Jingwen

    2016-09-19

    Molecular modeling has become an essential tool in predicting and simulating endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals. A key prerequisite for successful application of molecular modeling lies in the correctness of 3D structure for biomacromolecules to be simulated. To date, there are several databases that can provide the experimentally-determined 3D structures. However, commonly, there are many challenges or disadvantageous factors, e.g., (a) lots of 3D structures for a given biomacromolecular target in the protein database; (b) the quality variability for those structures; (c) belonging to different species; (d) mutant amino acid residue in key positions, and so on. Once an inappropriate 3D structure of a target biomacromolecule was selected in molecular modeling, the accuracy and scientific nature of the modeling results could be inevitably affected. In this article, based on literature survey and an analysis of the 3D structure characterization of biomacromolecular targets belonging to the endocrine system in protein databases, six principles were proposed to guide the selection of the appropriate 3D structure of biomacromolecules. The principles include considering the species diversity, the mechanism of action, whether there are mutant amino acid residues, whether the number of protein chains is correct, the degree of structural similarity between the ligand in 3D structure and the target compounds, and other factors, e.g., the experimental pH conditions of the structure determined process and resolution. PMID:27556396

  14. Selective disruption of acetylcholine synthesis in subsets of motor neurons: a new model of late-onset motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Marie-José; Bertolus, Chloé; Santamaria, Julie; Bauchet, Anne-Laure; Herbin, Marc; Saurini, Françoise; Misawa, Hidemi; Maisonobe, Thierry; Pradat, Pierre-François; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Mallet, Jacques; Berrard, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Motor neuron diseases are characterized by the selective chronic dysfunction of a subset of motor neurons and the subsequent impairment of neuromuscular function. To reproduce in the mouse these hallmarks of diseases affecting motor neurons, we generated a mouse line in which ~40% of motor neurons in the spinal cord and the brainstem become unable to sustain neuromuscular transmission. These mice were obtained by conditional knockout of the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the biosynthetic enzyme for acetylcholine. The mutant mice are viable and spontaneously display abnormal phenotypes that worsen with age including hunched back, reduced lifespan, weight loss, as well as striking deficits in muscle strength and motor function. This slowly progressive neuromuscular dysfunction is accompanied by muscle fiber histopathological features characteristic of neurogenic diseases. Unexpectedly, most changes appeared with a 6-month delay relative to the onset of reduction in ChAT levels, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms preserve muscular function for several months and then are overwhelmed. Deterioration of mouse phenotype after ChAT gene disruption is a specific aging process reminiscent of human pathological situations, particularly among survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis. These mutant mice may represent an invaluable tool to determine the sequence of events that follow the loss of function of a motor neuron subset as the disease progresses, and to evaluate therapeutic strategies. They also offer the opportunity to explore fundamental issues of motor neuron biology.

  15. Use of an action-selection framework for human-carnivore conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Adam C D; Greenwood, Christina J; Ahmad, Ishtiaq U; Smith, James L D

    2010-10-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. The resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. We tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, local knowledge, cost-effectiveness, fieldwork experience of authors and project staff, previous research on tiger ecology by the authors, and recommendations from human-carnivore conflict studies in other countries. Our framework includes creation of a profile to improve understanding of the nature of the conflict and its underlying causality. Identified actions include deterrents, education, direct tiger management, and response teams. We ranked actions by their potential to reduce conflict and the monetary cost of their implementation. We ranked tiger-response teams and monitoring problem tigers as the two best actions because both had relatively high impact and cost-effectiveness. We believe this framework could be used under a wide range of human-wildlife conflict situations because it provides a structured approach to selection of mitigating actions. PMID:20345402

  16. Corticostriatal circuit mechanisms of value-based action selection: Implementation of reinforcement learning algorithms and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kenji; Jitsev, Jenia; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-09-15

    Value-based action selection has been suggested to be realized in the corticostriatal local circuits through competition among neural populations. In this article, we review theoretical and experimental studies that have constructed and verified this notion, and provide new perspectives on how the local-circuit selection mechanisms implement reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms and computations beyond them. The striatal neurons are mostly inhibitory, and lateral inhibition among them has been classically proposed to realize "Winner-Take-All (WTA)" selection of the maximum-valued action (i.e., 'max' operation). Although this view has been challenged by the revealed weakness, sparseness, and asymmetry of lateral inhibition, which suggest more complex dynamics, WTA-like competition could still occur on short time scales. Unlike the striatal circuit, the cortical circuit contains recurrent excitation, which may enable retention or temporal integration of information and probabilistic "soft-max" selection. The striatal "max" circuit and the cortical "soft-max" circuit might co-implement an RL algorithm called Q-learning; the cortical circuit might also similarly serve for other algorithms such as SARSA. In these implementations, the cortical circuit presumably sustains activity representing the executed action, which negatively impacts dopamine neurons so that they can calculate reward-prediction-error. Regarding the suggested more complex dynamics of striatal, as well as cortical, circuits on long time scales, which could be viewed as a sequence of short WTA fragments, computational roles remain open: such a sequence might represent (1) sequential state-action-state transitions, constituting replay or simulation of the internal model, (2) a single state/action by the whole trajectory, or (3) probabilistic sampling of state/action. PMID:27173430

  17. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P. T.; Webb, J. R.; Knox, N. P.; Goins, L. F.; Harrell, R. E.; Mallory, P. K.; Cravens, C. D.

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  18. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  19. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764

  20. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Michelson, D.C.; Turmer, G.S.

    1988-09-01

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568.

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568

  2. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared. PMID:24691755

  3. GABAAα1-mediated plasticity in the orbitofrontal cortex regulates context-dependent action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Andrew M; Allen, Amanda G; Shapiro, Lauren P; Gourley, Shannon L

    2015-03-01

    An essential aspect of goal-directed action selection is differentiating between behaviors that are more, or less, likely to be reinforced. Habits, by contrast, are stimulus-elicited behaviors insensitive to action-outcome contingencies and are considered an etiological factor in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, isolating the neuroanatomy and neurobiology of goal-directed action selection on the one hand, and habit formation on the other, is critical. Using in vivo viral-mediated gene silencing, we knocked down Gabra1 in the orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex (oPFC) in mice, decreasing oPFC GABAAα1 expression, as well as expression of the synaptic marker PSD-95. Mice expressing Green Fluorescent Protein or Gabra1 knockdown in the adjacent M2 motor cortex served as comparison groups. Using instrumental response training followed by action-outcome contingency degradation, we then found that oPFC GABAAα1 deficiency impaired animals' ability to differentiate between actions that were more or less likely to be reinforced, though sensitivity to outcome devaluation and extinction were intact. Meanwhile, M2 GABAAα1 deficiency enhanced sensitivity to action-outcome relationships. Behavioral abnormalities following oPFC GABAAα1 knockdown were rescued by testing mice in a distinct context relative to that in which they had been initially trained. Together, our findings corroborate evidence that chronic GABAAα1 deficiency remodels cortical synapses and suggest that neuroplasticity within the healthy oPFC gates the influence of reward-related contextual stimuli. These stimuli might otherwise promote maladaptive habit-based behavioral response strategies that contribute to-or exacerbate-neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:25348603

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D ampersand D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword

  5. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  6. Code-specific learning rules improve action selection by populations of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Population coding is widely regarded as a key mechanism for achieving reliable behavioral decisions. We previously introduced reinforcement learning for population-based decision making by spiking neurons. Here we generalize population reinforcement learning to spike-based plasticity rules that take account of the postsynaptic neural code. We consider spike/no-spike, spike count and spike latency codes. The multi-valued and continuous-valued features in the postsynaptic code allow for a generalization of binary decision making to multi-valued decision making and continuous-valued action selection. We show that code-specific learning rules speed up learning both for the discrete classification and the continuous regression tasks. The suggested learning rules also speed up with increasing population size as opposed to standard reinforcement learning rules. Continuous action selection is further shown to explain realistic learning speeds in the Morris water maze. Finally, we introduce the concept of action perturbation as opposed to the classical weight- or node-perturbation as an exploration mechanism underlying reinforcement learning. Exploration in the action space greatly increases the speed of learning as compared to exploration in the neuron or weight space. PMID:24875790

  7. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  8. Galvanic vestibular stimulation increases novelty in free selection of manual actions

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Raffaella Ferre

    2013-01-01

    Making optimal choices in changing environments implies the ability to balance routine, exploitative patterns of behaviour with novel, exploratory ones. We investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the balance between exploratory and exploitative behaviours in a free action selection task. Brief right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS or left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS were delivered at random to activate sensorimotor circuits in the left and right hemisphere,...

  9. Galvanic vestibular stimulation increases novelty in free selection of manual actions

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrè, Elisa R.; Arthur, Kobbina; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Making optimal choices in changing environments implies the ability to balance routine, exploitative patterns of behavior with novel, exploratory ones. We investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the balance between exploratory and exploitative behaviors in a free action selection task. Brief right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS or left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS were delivered at random to activate sensorimotor circuits in the left and right hemisphere, res...

  10. Minimum-action paths for wave-number selection in nonequilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liyan; Zheng, Zhigang; Cross, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of wave-number selections in nonequilibrium pattern-forming systems in the presence of noise is investigated. The minimum-action method is proposed to study the noise-induced transitions between the different spatiotemporal states by generalizing the traditional theory previously applied in low-dimensional dynamical systems. The scheme is shown as an example in the stabilized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. The present method allows us to conveniently find the unique noise selected state, in contrast to previous work using direct simulations of the stochastic partial differential equation, where the constraints of the simulation only allow a narrow band to be determined.

  11. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  12. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance. PMID:25772554

  13. Searching and selecting online information: analysis of the strategic actions of the university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Hernández Serrano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 113 622 USAL 5 1 734 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} As complex and dynamic activity, the searching and selection of online information needs a strategic performance in order to achieve effective and meaningful results and processes. The aim of this paper is to analyze whether university students perceive a need to be strategic, for what actions, what times, and what are their predispositions towards the strategic actions in the Internet information searching and selection process. Results showed differences between students by course, those in their final courses, who have also received training, showed better predisposition to strategic actions. Two factors that explain the university students’ predispositions were found, in terms of basic actions and complementary actions.

  14. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the Gunsite 113 Access Road (631-24G) Operable Unit: Final Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004(U) requirements. This decision is based ont he Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA Unit

  15. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  16. Galvanic vestibular stimulation increases novelty in free selection of manual actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Raffaella Ferre

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Making optimal choices in changing environments implies the ability to balance routine, exploitative patterns of behaviour with novel, exploratory ones. We investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS interferes with the balance between exploratory and exploitative behaviours in a free action selection task. Brief right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS or left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS were delivered at random to activate sensorimotor circuits in the left and right hemisphere, respectively. A sham stimulation condition was included. Participants endogenously generated sequences of possible actions, by freely choosing successive movements of the index or middle finger of the left or right hand. Left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS, which preferentially activates the vestibular projections in the right cerebral hemisphere, increased the novelty in action sequences, as measured by the number of runs in the sequences. In contrast, right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS decreased the number of runs. There was no evidence of GVS-induced spatial bias in action choices. Our results confirm previous reports showing a polarity-dependent effect of GVS on the balance between novel and routine responses, and thus between exploratory and exploitative behaviours.

  17. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 1. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, R.A.; Fore, C.S.; Knox, N.P.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography of 633 references represents the first in a series to be produced by the Remedial Actions Program Information Center (RAPIC) containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Major chapters selected for this bibliography are Facility Decommissioning, Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup, Contaminated Site Restoration, and Criteria and Standards. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) title, (4) technology development, and (5) publication description. An appendix of 123 entries lists recently acquired references relevant to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These references are also arranged according to one of the four subject categories and followed by author, title, and publication description indexes. The bibliography was compiled from a specialized data base established and maintained by RAPIC to provide information support for the Department of Energy's Remedial Actions Program, under the cosponsorship of its three major components: Surplus Facilities Management Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program, and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Actions Program. RAPIC is part of the Ecological Sciences Information Center within the Information Center Complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 1. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography of 633 references represents the first in a series to be produced by the Remedial Actions Program Information Center (RAPIC) containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Major chapters selected for this bibliography are Facility Decommissioning, Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup, Contaminated Site Restoration, and Criteria and Standards. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) title, (4) technology development, and (5) publication description. An appendix of 123 entries lists recently acquired references relevant to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These references are also arranged according to one of the four subject categories and followed by author, title, and publication description indexes. The bibliography was compiled from a specialized data base established and maintained by RAPIC to provide information support for the Department of Energy's Remedial Actions Program, under the cosponsorship of its three major components: Surplus Facilities Management Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program, and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Actions Program. RAPIC is part of the Ecological Sciences Information Center within the Information Center Complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  19. The serotonergic hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine disrupts cortical activity in a regionally-selective manner via 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Maurizio S; Bortolozzi, Analia; Campa, Letizia; Artigas, Francesc; Celada, Pau

    2016-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a natural hallucinogen, acting as a non-selective serotonin 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A)-R agonist. Psychotomimetic agents such as the non-competitive NMDA-R antagonist phencyclidine and serotonergic hallucinogens (DOI and 5-MeO-DMT) disrupt cortical synchrony in the low frequency range (DMT on low frequency cortical oscillations (LFCO, DMT reduced LFCO in the PFC of WT and KO2A mice. The effect in KO2A mice was fully prevented by the 5-HT(1A)-R antagonist WAY-100635. Systemic and local 5-MeO-DMT reduced 5-HT release in PFC mainly via 5-HT(1A)-R. Moreover, 5-MeO-DMT reduced LFCO in S1, Au1 and V1 of WT mice and only in V1 of KO2A mice, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT(1A)-R activation in the 5-MeO-DMT-induced disruption of V1 activity. In addition, antipsychotic drugs reversed 5-MeO-DMT effects in WT mice. The present results suggest that the hallucinogen action of 5-MeO-DMT is mediated by simultaneous alterations of the activity of sensory (S1, Au1, V1) and associative (PFC) cortical areas, also supporting a role of 5-HT(1A)-R stimulation in V1 and PFC, in addition to the well-known action on 5-HT(2A)-R. Moreover, the reversal by antipsychotic drugs of 5-MeO-DMT effects adds to previous literature supporting the usefulness of the present model in antipsychotic drug development. PMID:26477571

  20. In vitro assessment of antiproliferative action selectivity of dietary isothiocyanates for tumor versus normal human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konić-Ristić Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of cruciferous vegetables consumption in cancer chemoprevention. Biologically active compounds of different Brassicaceae species with antitumor potential are isothiocyanates, present in the form of their precursors - glucosinolates. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of antiproliferative action of dietary isothiocyanates for malignant versus normal cells. Methods. Antiproliferative activity of three isothiocyanates abundant in human diet: sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and phenylethyl isothiocyanate, on human cervix carcinoma cell line - HeLa, melanoma cell line - Fem-x, and colon cancer cell line - LS 174, and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, with or without mitogen, were determined by MTT colorimetric assay 72 h after their continuous action. Results. All investigated isothiocyanates inhibited the proliferation of HeLa, Fem-x and LS 174 cells. On all cell lines treated, BITC was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 5.04 mmoL m-3 on HeLa cells, 2.76 mmol m-3 on Fem-x, and 14.30 mmol m-3 on LS 174 cells. Antiproliferative effects on human PBMC were with higher IC50 than on malignant cells. Indexes of selectivity, calculated as a ratio between IC50 values obtained on PBMC and malignant cells, were between 1.12 and 16.57, with the highest values obtained for the action of BITC on melanoma Fem-x cells. Conclusion. Based on its antiproliferative effects on malignant cells, as well as the selectivity of the action to malignant vs normal cells, benzyl isothiocyanate can be considered as a promising candidate in cancer chemoprevention. In general, the safety of investigated compounds, in addition to their antitumor potential, should be considered as an important criterion in cancer chemoprevention. Screening of selectivity is a plausible approach to the evaluation

  1. The action of stabilizing selection, mutation, and drift on epistatic quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Victoria; Pérez-Figueroa, Andrés; Caballero, Armando; Hill, William G; García-Dorado, Aurora; López-Fanjul, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    For a quantitative trait under stabilizing selection, the effect of epistasis on its genetic architecture and on the changes of genetic variance caused by bottlenecking were investigated using theory and simulation. Assuming empirical estimates of the rate and effects of mutations and the intensity of selection, we assessed the impact of two-locus epistasis (synergistic/antagonistic) among linked or unlinked loci on the distribution of effects and frequencies of segregating loci in populations at the mutation-selection-drift balance. Strong pervasive epistasis did not modify substantially the genetic properties of the trait and, therefore, the most likely explanation for the low amount of variation usually accounted by the loci detected in genome-wide association analyses is that many causal loci will pass undetected. We investigated the impact of epistasis on the changes in genetic variance components when large populations were subjected to successive bottlenecks of different sizes, considering the action of genetic drift, operating singly (D), or jointly with mutation (MD) and selection (MSD). An initial increase of the different components of the genetic variance, as well as a dramatic acceleration of the between-line divergence, were always associated with synergistic epistasis but were strongly constrained by selection.

  2. Differential actions of insecticides on target sites: basis for selective toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahashi, T; Zhao, X; Ikeda, T; Nagata, K; Yeh, J Z

    2007-04-01

    Whereas the selective toxicity of insecticides between insects and mammals has a long history of studies, it is now becoming abundantly clear that, in many cases, the differential action of insecticides on insects and mammalian target receptor sites is an important factor. In this paper, we first introduce the mechanism of action and the selective toxicity of pyrethroids as a prototype of study. Then, a more detailed account is given for fipronil, based primarily on our recent studies. Pyrethroids keep the sodium channels open for a prolonged period of time, causing elevation of the depolarizing after-potential. Once the after-potential reaches the threshold for excitation, repetitive after-discharges are produced, resulting in hyperexcitation of intoxicated animals. Only about 1% of sodium channels needs to be modified to produce hyperexcitation, indicating a high degree of toxicity amplification from sodium channels to animals. Pyrethroids were >1000-fold more potent on cockroach sodium channels than rat sodium channels, and this forms the most significant factor to explain the selective toxicity of pyrethroids in insects over mammals. Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole, is known to act on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor to block the chloride channel. It is effective against certain species of insects that have become resistant to most insecticides, including those acting on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, and is much more toxic to insects than to mammals. Recently, fipronil has been found to block glutamate-activated chloride channels in cockroach neurons in a potent manner. Since mammals are devoid of this type of chloride channel, fipronil block of the glutamate-activated chloride channel is deemed responsible, at least partially, for the higher selective toxicity to insects over mammals and for the lack of cross-resistance.

  3. Still at the choice-point: action selection and initiation in instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleine, Bernard W; Ostlund, Sean B

    2007-05-01

    Contrary to classic stimulus-response (S-R) theory, recent evidence suggests that, in instrumental conditioning, rats encode the relationship between their actions and the specific consequences that these actions produce. It has remained unclear, however, how encoding this relationship acts to control instrumental performance. Although S-R theories were able to give a clear account of how learning translates into performance, the argument that instrumental learning constitutes the acquisition of information of the form "response R leads to outcome O" does not directly imply a particular performance rule or policy; this information can be used both to perform R and to avoid performing R. Recognition of this problem has forced the development of accounts that allow the O and stimuli that predict the O (i.e., S-O) to play a role in the initiation of specific Rs. In recent experiments, we have used a variety of behavioral procedures in an attempt to isolate the processes that contribute to instrumental performance, including outcome devaluation, reinstatement, and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. Our results, particularly from experiments assessing outcome-selective reinstatement, suggest that both "feed-forward" (O-R) and "feed-back" (R-O) associations are critical and that although the former appear to be important to response selection, the latter-together with processes that determine outcome value-mediate response initiation. We discuss a conceptual model that integrates these processes and its neural implementation.

  4. TMS stimulation over the inferior parietal cortex disrupts prospective sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Valérian; Moore, James W; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling an external event through one's own action. On one influential view, sense of agency is inferred after an action, by "retrospectively" comparing actual effects of actions against their intended effects. However, it has been recently shown that earlier processes, linked to action selection, may also contribute to sense of agency, in advance of the action itself, and independently of action effects. The inferior parietal cortex (IPC) may underpin this "prospective" contribution to agency, by monitoring signals relating to fluency of action selection in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Here, we combined transcranial stimulation (TMS) with subliminal priming of action selection to investigate the causal role of these regions in the prospective coding of agency. In a first experiment, we showed that TMS over left IPC at the time of action selection disrupts perceived control over subsequent effects of action. In a second experiment, we exploited the temporal specificity of single-pulse TMS to pinpoint the exact timing of IPC contribution to sense of agency. We replicated the reduction in perceived control at the point of action selection, while observing no effect of TMS-induced disruption of IPC at the time of action outcomes. PMID:25134684

  5. EEG alpha activity reflects motor preparation rather than the mode of action selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre eDeiber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-band activity (8-13 Hz is suppressed by sensory stimulation and movements, modulated by attention, working memory and mental tasks and may be sensitive to higher motor control functions. The aim of the present study was to examine alpha oscillatory activity during the preparation of simple left or right finger movements, contrasting the external and internal mode of action selection. Three preparation conditions were examined using a precueing paradigm with S1 as the preparatory and S2 as the imperative cue: Full, laterality instructed by S1; Free, laterality freely selected and None, laterality instructed by S2. Time-frequency analysis was performed in the alpha frequency range during the S1-S2 interval, and alpha motor-related amplitude asymmetries (MRAA were also calculated. The significant MRAA during the Full and Free conditions indicated effective external and internal motor response preparation. In the absence of specific motor preparation (None, a posterior alpha power decrease (event-related desynchronization, ERD dominated, reflecting the main engagement of attentional resources. In Full and Free motor preparation, posterior alpha ERD was accompanied by a midparietal alpha power increase (event-related synchronization, ERS, suggesting a concomitant inhibition of task-irrelevant visual activity. In both Full and Free motor preparation, analysis of alpha power according to MRAA amplitude revealed two types of functional activation patterns: 1 a motor alpha pattern, with predominantly midparietal alpha ERS and large MRAA corresponding to lateralized motor activation/visual inhibition and 2 an attentional alpha pattern, with dominating right posterior alpha ERD and small MRAA reflecting visuospatial attention. The present results suggest that alpha oscillatory patterns do not resolve the selection mode of action, but rather distinguish separate functional strategies of motor preparation. 

  6. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three basic topics are addressed for the disruptive event analysis: first, the range of disruptive consequences of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity; second, the possible reduction of the risk of disruption by volcanic activity through selective siting of a repository; and third, the quantification of the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity

  7. Neural strategies for selective attention distinguish fast-action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Lavanya; Kang, Albert; Sperling, George; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the psychophysical and neurophysiological differences between fast-action video game players (specifically first person shooter players, FPS) and non-action players (role-playing game players, RPG) in a visual search task. We measured both successful detections (hit rates) and steady-state visually evoked EEG potentials (SSVEPs). Search difficulty was varied along two dimensions: number of adjacent attended and ignored regions (1, 2 and 4), and presentation rate of novel search arrays (3, 8.6 and 20 Hz). Hit rates decreased with increasing presentation rates and number of regions, with the FPS players performing on average better than the RPG players. The largest differences in hit rate, between groups, occurred when four regions were simultaneously attended. We computed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of SSVEPs and used partial least squares regression to model hit rates, SNRs and their relationship at 3 Hz and 8.6 Hz. The following are the most significant results: RPG players' parietal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating attentional signal enhancement. FPS players' parietal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating distractor suppression. Consistent with these parietal responses, RPG players' frontal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker, increased as task difficulty increased with number of regions; FPS players' frontal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker increased with number of regions. Thus the FPS players appear to employ an active suppression mechanism to deploy selective attention simultaneously to multiple interleaved regions, while RPG primarily use signal enhancement. These results suggest that fast-action gaming can affect neural strategies and the corresponding networks underlying attention, presumably by training mechanisms of distractor suppression. PMID:22614909

  8. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Disruptions Page Content Article Body No matter how ...

  9. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...

  10. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices...

  11. ACTION OF UNIFORM SEARCH ALGORITHM WHEN SELECTING LANGUAGE UNITS IN THE PROCESS OF SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekipelova Irina Mikhaylovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of action of uniform search algorithm when selecting by human of language units for speech produce. The process is connected with a speech optimization phenomenon. This makes it possible to shorten the time of cogitation something that human want to say, and to achieve the maximum precision in thoughts expression. The algorithm of uniform search works at consciousness and subconsciousness levels. It favours the forming of automatism produce and perception of speech. Realization of human's cognitive potential in the process of communication starts up complicated mechanism of self-organization and self-regulation of language. In turn, it results in optimization of language system, servicing needs not only human's self-actualization but realization of communication in society. The method of problem-oriented search is used for researching of optimization mechanisms, which are distinctive to speech producing and stabilization of language.

  12. Dopamine-associated cached values are not sufficient as the basis for action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Nick G; Arnold, Monica M; Gan, Jerylin O; Walton, Mark E; Phillips, Paul E M

    2014-12-23

    Phasic dopamine transmission is posited to act as a critical teaching signal that updates the stored (or "cached") values assigned to reward-predictive stimuli and actions. It is widely hypothesized that these cached values determine the selection among multiple courses of action, a premise that has provided a foundation for contemporary theories of decision making. In the current work we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to probe dopamine-associated cached values from cue-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of rats performing cost-benefit decision-making paradigms to evaluate critically the relationship between dopamine-associated cached values and preferences. By manipulating the amount of effort required to obtain rewards of different sizes, we were able to bias rats toward preferring an option yielding a high-value reward in some sessions and toward instead preferring an option yielding a low-value reward in others. Therefore, this approach permitted the investigation of dopamine-associated cached values in a context in which reward magnitude and subjective preference were dissociated. We observed greater cue-evoked mesolimbic dopamine release to options yielding the high-value reward even when rats preferred the option yielding the low-value reward. This result identifies a clear mismatch between the ordinal utility of the available options and the rank ordering of their cached values, thereby providing robust evidence that dopamine-associated cached values cannot be the sole determinant of choices in simple economic decision making.

  13. The exposure of fetuses and children to endocrine disrupting chemicals: a European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) call to action statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Söder, Olle;

    2011-01-01

    carried out by basic and experimental scientists and wildlife researchers. Relatively few clinical scientists have been engaged in research on this topic to date. The aim of this statement is to have pediatric endocrinologists consider the issue of endocrine disrupters in their clinical work and research....

  14. The exposure of fetuses and children to endocrine disrupting chemicals: a European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) call to action statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Söder, Olle;

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, evidence has accumulated that both wildlife species and humans are exposed to ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Some are persistent in our bodies; others are nonpersistent but are produced in large quantities. Hitherto, the bulk of research in this area has been carr...

  15. Syntax in Action Has Priority over Movement Selection in Piano Playing: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Roberta; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E; Scharf, Florian; Friederici, Angela D; Villringer, Arno; Sammler, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Complex human behavior is hierarchically organized. Whether or not syntax plays a role in this organization is currently under debate. The present ERP study uses piano performance to isolate syntactic operations in action planning and to demonstrate their priority over nonsyntactic levels of movement selection. Expert pianists were asked to execute chord progressions on a mute keyboard by copying the posture of a performing model hand shown in sequences of photos. We manipulated the final chord of each sequence in terms of Syntax (congruent/incongruent keys) and Manner (conventional/unconventional fingering), as well as the strength of its predictability by varying the length of the Context (five-chord/two-chord progressions). The production of syntactically incongruent compared to congruent chords showed a response delay that was larger in the long compared to the short context. This behavioral effect was accompanied by a centroparietal negativity in the long but not in the short context, suggesting that a syntax-based motor plan was prepared ahead. Conversely, the execution of the unconventional manner was not delayed as a function of Context and elicited an opposite electrophysiological pattern (a posterior positivity). The current data support the hypothesis that motor plans operate at the level of musical syntax and are incrementally translated to lower levels of movement selection. PMID:26351994

  16. Syntax in Action Has Priority over Movement Selection in Piano Playing: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Roberta; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E; Scharf, Florian; Friederici, Angela D; Villringer, Arno; Sammler, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Complex human behavior is hierarchically organized. Whether or not syntax plays a role in this organization is currently under debate. The present ERP study uses piano performance to isolate syntactic operations in action planning and to demonstrate their priority over nonsyntactic levels of movement selection. Expert pianists were asked to execute chord progressions on a mute keyboard by copying the posture of a performing model hand shown in sequences of photos. We manipulated the final chord of each sequence in terms of Syntax (congruent/incongruent keys) and Manner (conventional/unconventional fingering), as well as the strength of its predictability by varying the length of the Context (five-chord/two-chord progressions). The production of syntactically incongruent compared to congruent chords showed a response delay that was larger in the long compared to the short context. This behavioral effect was accompanied by a centroparietal negativity in the long but not in the short context, suggesting that a syntax-based motor plan was prepared ahead. Conversely, the execution of the unconventional manner was not delayed as a function of Context and elicited an opposite electrophysiological pattern (a posterior positivity). The current data support the hypothesis that motor plans operate at the level of musical syntax and are incrementally translated to lower levels of movement selection.

  17. Cell surface thiol isomerases may explain the platelet-selective action of S-nitrosoglutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang; Gordge, Michael P

    2011-10-30

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) at low concentration inhibits platelet aggregation without causing vasodilation, suggesting platelet-selective nitric oxide delivery. The mechanism of this selectivity is unknown, but may involve cell surface thiol isomerases, in particular protein disulphide isomerase (csPDI) (EC 5.3.4.1). We have now compared csPDI expression and activity on platelets, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and the dependence on thiol reductase activity of these cell types for NO uptake from GSNO. csPDI expression was measured by flow cytometry and its reductase activity using the pseudosubstrate dieosin glutathione disulphide. This activity assay was adapted and validated for 96-well plate format. Flow cytometry revealed csPDI on all three cell types, but percentage positivity of expression was higher on platelets than on vascular cells. Consistent with this, thiol isomerase-related reductase activity was higher on platelets (Pionomycin) increased csPDI activity on both platelets and smooth muscle cells, but not on endothelium. Intracellular NO delivery from GSNO was greater in platelets than in vascular cells (Pselective actions of GSNO and help define its antithrombotic potential. PMID:21642008

  18. The vascular disrupting agent STA-9584 exhibits potent antitumor activity by selectively targeting microvasculature at both the center and periphery of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin P; Zhou, Dan; Borella, Chris; Wu, Yaming; Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Jun; Li, Hao; Sang, Jim; Korbut, Tim; Ye, Josephine; Zhang, Xuemei; Barsoum, James; Sonderfan, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are an emerging class of therapeutics targeting the existing vascular network of solid tumors. However, their clinical progression has been hampered because of limited single-agent efficacy, primarily caused by the persistence of surviving cells at the well perfused "viable rim" of tumors, which allows rapid tumor regrowth to occur. In addition, off-target adverse events, including cardiovascular toxicities, underscore a need for compounds with improved safety profiles. Here, we characterize the mechanism of action, antitumor efficacy, and cardiovascular safety profile of (S)-2-amino-N-(2-methoxy-5-(5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)isoxazol-4-yl)phenyl)-3-phenylpropanamide hydrochloride (STA-9584), a novel tubulin-binding VDA. In vitro, 2-methoxy-5-(5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)isoxazol-4-yl)aniline (STA-9122) (active metabolite of STA-9584) displayed increased potency relative to other tubulin-binding agents and was highly cytotoxic to tumor cells. STA-9584 induced significant tumor regressions in prostate and breast xenograft models in vivo and, in an aggressive syngeneic model, demonstrated superior tumor growth inhibition and a positive therapeutic index relative to combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA4P). It is noteworthy that histological analysis revealed that STA-9584 disrupted microvasculature at both the center and periphery of tumors. Compared with CA4P, STA-9584 induced a 73% increase in central necrotic area, 77% decrease in microvasculature, and 7-fold increase in tumor cell apoptosis in the remaining viable rim 24 h post-treatment. Ultrasound imaging confirmed that STA-9584 rapidly and efficiently blocked blood flow in highly perfused tumor regions. Moreover, cardiovascular effects were evaluated in the Langendorff assay and telemetered dogs, and cardiovascular toxicity was not predicted to be dose-limiting. This bioactivity profile distinguishes STA-9584 from the combretastatin class and identifies the compound as a promising new

  19. Bound simian virus 40 translocates to caveolin-enriched membrane domains, and its entry is inhibited by drugs that selectively disrupt caveolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H A; Chen, Y; Norkin, L C

    1996-11-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) entry leading to infection occurred only after the virus was at the cell surface for 1.5 to 2 h. SV40 infectious entry was not sensitive to cytosol acidification, a treatment that blocks endocytosis via clathrin-coated vesicles. Instead, SV40 infectious entry was blocked by treating cells with the phorbol ester PMA or nystatin, which selectively disrupts caveolae. In control experiments, transferrin internalization was sensitive to cytosol acidification but was not sensitive to PMA or nystatin. Also, absorbed transferrin entered cells within minutes. Finally, bound SV40 translocated to caveolin-enriched membrane complexes isolated by a Triton X-100 insolubility protocol. Treatment with nystatin did not impair SV40 binding but did block the partitioning of virus into the caveolin-enriched complexes.

  20. L-ALLIANCE: a mechanism for adaptive action selection in heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    In practical applications of robotics, it is usually quite difficult, if not impossible, for the system designer to fully predict the environmental states in which the robots will operate. The complexity of the problem is further increased when dealing with teams of robots which themselves may be incompletely known and characterized in advance. It is thus highly desirable for robot teams to be able to adapt their performance during the mission due to changes in the environment, or to changes in other robot team members. In previous work, we introduced a behavior-based mechanism called the ALLIANCE architecture -- that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of multi-robot teams. However, this previous work did not address the issue of how to dynamically update the control parameters during a mission to adapt to ongoing changes in the environment or in the robot team, and to ensure the efficiency of the collective team actions. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, which defines an automated method whereby robots can use knowledge learned from previous experience to continually improve their collective action selection when working on missions composed of loosely coupled, discrete subtasks. This ability to dynamically update robotic control parameters provides a number of distinct advantages: it alleviates the need for human tuning of control parameters, it facilitates the use of custom-designed multi-robot teams for any given application, it improves the efficiency of the mission performance, and It allows robots to continually adapt their performance over time due to changes in the robot team and/or the environment. We describe the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, present the results of various alternative update strategies we investigated, present the formal model of the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, and present the results of a simple proof of concept implementation on a small team of heterogeneous mobile robots.

  1. A Novel Action Selection Architecture in Soccer Simulation Environment Using Neuro-Fuzzy and Bidirectional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zafarani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available MultiAgent systems have generated lots of excitement in recent years because of its promise as a new paradigm for conceptualizing, designing, and implementing software systems. One of the most important aspects of agent design in AI is the way agent acts or responds to the environment that the agent is acting upon. An effective action selection and behavioral method gives a powerful advantage in overall agent performance. We define a new method of action selection based on probability/priority models, we thereby introduce two efficient ways to determine probabilities using neurofuzzy systems and bidirectional neural networks and a new priority based system which maps the human knowledge to the action selection method. Furthermore, a behavior model is introduced to make the model more flexible.

  2. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  3. 34 CFR 426.24 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use for Agriculture Action Centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.24 Section 426.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... use for Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary uses the following criteria to evaluate an application for an Agriculture Action Center: (a) Program factors. (10 points) The Secretary reviews...

  4. Sense of Control Depends on Fluency of Action Selection, Not Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Valerian; Haggard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions, and, through these actions, events in the outside world. Sense of agency is widely held to involve a retrospective inference based on matching actual effects of an action with its expected effects. We hypothesise a second, prospective aspect of sense of agency, reflecting the…

  5. ACTION OF UNIFORM SEARCH ALGORITHM WHEN SELECTING LANGUAGE UNITS IN THE PROCESS OF SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Некипелова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of action of uniform search algorithm when selecting by human of language units for speech produce. The process is connected with a speech optimization phenomenon. This makes it possible to shorten the time of cogitation something that human want to say, and to achieve the maximum precision in thoughts expression. The algorithm of uniform search works at consciousness  and subconsciousness levels. It favours the forming of automatism produce and perception of speech. Realization of human's cognitive potential in the process of communication starts up complicated mechanism of self-organization and self-regulation of language. In turn, it results in optimization of language system, servicing needs not only human's self-actualization but realization of communication in society. The method of problem-oriented search is used for researching of optimization mechanisms, which are distinctive to speech producing and stabilization of language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-50

  6. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  7. Tumor selective cytotoxic action of a thiomorpholin hydroxamate inhibitor (TMI-1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Mezil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies, associated with standard chemotherapies, have improved breast cancer care. However, primary and acquired resistances are frequently observed and the development of new concepts is needed. High-throughput approaches to identify new active and safe molecules with or without an "a priori" are currently developed. Also, repositioning already-approved drugs in cancer therapy is of growing interest. The thiomorpholine hydroxamate compound TMI-1 has been previously designed to inhibit metalloproteinase activity for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We present here the repositioning of TMI-1 drug in breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the effect of TMI-1 on luminal, basal and ERBB2-overexpressing breast tumor cell lines and on MMTV-ERBB2/neu tumor evolution. We measured the effects on i cell survival, ii cell cycle, iii extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, iv association with doxorubicin, docetaxel and lapatinib, v cancer stem cells compartment. In contrast with conventional cytotoxic drugs, TMI-1 was highly selective for tumor cells and cancer stem cells at submicromolar range. All non-malignant cells tested were resistant even at high concentration. TMI-1 was active on triple negative (TN and ERBB2-overexpressing breast tumor cell lines, and was also highly efficient on human and murine "primary" ERBB2-overexpressing cells. Treatment of transgenic MMTV-ERBB2/neu mice with 100 mg/kg/day TMI-1 alone induced tumor apoptosis, inhibiting mammary gland tumor occurrence and development. No adverse effects were noticed during the treatment. This compound had a strong synergistic effect in association with docetaxel, doxorubicin and lapatinib. We showed that TMI-1 mediates its selective effects by caspase-dependent apoptosis. TMI-1 was efficient in 34/40 tumor cell lines of various origins (ED50: 0.6 µM to 12.5 µM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of the tumor selective

  8. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work.

  9. Development and characterization of a nanodendritic silver-based solid-phase extraction sorbent for selective enrichment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water and milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanji; Xia, Bing; Liu, Jie; Ji, Baocheng; Ma, Fengwei; Ding, Lisheng; Li, Bangjing; Zhou, Yan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 4-[4-phenylazo-phenoxy] butyl-1-thiol (AzSH) functionalized nanodendritic silver (AzS@AgNDs) materials were prepared as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the selective extraction of estrogens. AzS@AgNDs possess an extremely large surface-to-volume ratio and a small average particle size. The performance of the material was evaluated by selective enrichment of hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol and bisphenol A in water and milk samples followed by rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) analyses. The results exhibited that AzS@AgNDs had excellent adsorption capability for the targeted estrogens. The limits of detection of the four estrogens ranged from 0.1 to 5.0 pg/mL. The recoveries of the estrogens spiked into tap water were over the range of 83.6-105.3% with relative standard deviations of 2.8-6.0%. The results indicated the capability of this method for the rapid determination of estrogens in milk and other environmental water samples. In addition, this method would be useful for the determination of human exposure and health risk assessments trace level of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in drinking water.

  10. Removal of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during ferrate(VI) treatment of secondary wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Chen, Feng

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the removal efficiencies of 68 selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) spiked in a wastewater matrix by ferrate (Fe(VI)) and further evaluated the degradation of these micropollutants present in secondary effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by applying Fe(VI) treatment technology. Fe(VI)treatment resulted in selective oxidation of electron-rich organic moieties of these target compounds, such as phenol, olefin, amine and aniline moieties. But Fe(VI) failed to react with triclocarban, 3 androgens, 7 acidic pharmaceuticals, 2 neutral pharmaceuticals and erythromycin-H(2)O.Thirty-one target EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the effluents of the two WWTPs with concentrations ranging from 0.2 ± 0.1 ng L(-1) to 1156 ± 182 ng L(-1).Fe(VI) treatment resulted in further elimination of the detected EDCs and PPCPs during Fe(VI) treatment of the secondary wastewater effluents. The results from this study clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of Fe(VI) treatment as a tertiary treatment technology for a broad spectrum of micropollutants in wastewater. PMID:22342241

  11. When Disruptive Approaches Meet Disruptive Technologies: Learning at a Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Chere Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research on constructivism in learning and selection of learning strategies. Suggests linking constructivism with instructional technologies for continuing medical education in order to "disrupt" reactive, habitual ways of learning and encourage active engagement. (SK)

  12. Design of an Action Selection Mechanism for Cooperative Soccer Robots Based on Fuzzy Decision Making Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alireza Mohades Kasaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Robocup is an international competition for multi agent research and related subject like: Artificial intelligence, Image processing, machine learning, robot path planning, control, and
    obstacle avoidance. In a soccer robot game, the environment is highly competitive and dynamic. In order to work in the dynamically changing environment, the decision-making system of a soccer robot system should have the features of flexibility and real-time adaptation. In this paper we will
    focus on the Middle Size Soccer Robot league (MSL and new hierarchical hybrid fuzzy methods for decision making and action selection of a robot in Middle Size Soccer Robot league (MSL are presented. First, the behaviors of an agent are introduced, implemented and classified in two layers,
    the Low_Level_Behaviors and the High_Level_Behaviors. In the second layer, a two phase mechanism for decision making is introduced. In phase one, some useful methods are implemented which check the robot’s situation for performing required behaviors. In the next phase, the team strategy, team formation, robot’s role and the robot’s positioning system are introduced. A fuzzy logical approach is employed to recognize the team strategy and further more to tell the player the
    best position to move. We believe that a Dynamic role engine is necessary for a successful team. Dynamic role engine and formation control during offensive or defensive play, help us to prevent collision avoidance among own players when attacking the ball and obstacle avoidance of the opponents. At last, we comprised our implemented algorithm in the Robocup 2007 and 2008 and results showed the efficiency of the introduced methodology. The results are satisfactory which has already been successfully implemented in ADRO RoboCup team. This project is still in progress and some new interesting methods are described in the current report.

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 644 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the seventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. References are arranged alphabetically by leading author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations

  16. Civil Society Action and Governance in Vietnam: Selected Findings from an Empirical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Wischermann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, findings from 300 standardized interviews with representatives of Civic Organizations in Ho Chi Minh-City and Ha Noi are presented. Following a view of civil society as a specific mode of social action and interaction, data analysis unveils the existence of core dimensions of such action (respect, empathy/ sympathy, and the willingness to compromise and stick to agreed-upon rules, though the respective values of those dimensions vary strongly. Inseparably linked with such civil society action of whatever kind is consensus-seeking, an aversion to conflicts, and an affinity to synthesis. These attitudes and practices, dominating various Civic Organizations’ internal decision-making processes, represent elements of authoritarian political thinking in Civic Organizations’ leaders’ mindsets and courses of action. Combined, those characteristics make up civil society action “in Vietnamese colours”.

  17. Differential mechanisms associated with vascular disrupting action of electrochemotherapy: intravital microscopy on the level of single normal and tumor blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostjan Markelc

    Full Text Available Electropermeabilization/electroporation (EP provides a tool for the introduction of molecules into cells and tissues. In electrochemotherapy (ECT, cytotoxic drugs are introduced into cells in tumors, and nucleic acids are introduced into cells in gene electrotransfer. The normal and tumor tissue blood flow modifying effects of EP and the vascular disrupting effect of ECT in tumors have already been determined. However, differential effects between normal vs. tumor vessels, to ensure safety in the clinical application of ECT, have not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the effects of EP and ECT with bleomycin on the HT-29 human colon carcinoma tumor model and its surrounding blood vessels. The response of blood vessels to EP and ECT was monitored in real time, directly at the single blood vessel level, by in vivo optical imaging in a dorsal window chamber in SCID mice with 70 kDa fluorescently labeled dextrans. The response of tumor blood vessels to EP and ECT started to differ within the first hour. Both therapies induced a vascular lock, decreased functional vascular density (FVD and increased the diameter of functional blood vessels within the tumor. The effects were more pronounced for ECT, which destroyed the tumor blood vessels within 24 h. Although the vasculature surrounding the tumor was affected by EP and ECT, it remained functional. The study confirms the current model of tumor blood flow modifying effects of EP and provides conclusive evidence that ECT is a vascular disrupting therapy with a specific effect on the tumor blood vessels.

  18. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates reward processing and action selection in Parkinson patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Zaehle, Tino; Galazky, Imke; Voges, Jürgen; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) but its effect on the motivational regulation of action control is still not fully understood. We investigated whether DBS of the STN influences the ability of PD patients to act for anticipated reward or loss, or whether DBS improves action execution independent of motivational valence. 16 PD patients (12 male, mean age = 58.5 ± 10.17 years) treated with bilateral STN-DBS and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy controls (HC) performed a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. For HC, there was a benefit in performing rewarded actions when compared to actions that avoided punishment. PD patients showed such a benefit reliably only when STN stimulation was ON. In fact, the relative behavioral benefit for go for reward over go to avoid losing was stronger in the PD patients under DBS ON than in HC. In PD patients, rather than generally improving motor functions independent of motivational valence, modulation of the STN by DBS improves action execution specifically when rewards are anticipated. Thus, STN-DBS establishes a reliable congruency between action and reward ("Pavlovian congruency") and remarkably enhances it over the level observed in HC. PMID:25929662

  19. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms.

  20. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms

  1. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V;

    2001-01-01

    With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...... or embryo models for the evaluation of possible consequences of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds is discussed. Furthermore, possible consequences of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds for the embryo transfer industry are addressed....

  2. Optogenetic stimulation in a computational model of the basal ganglia biases action selection and reward prediction error.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Berthet

    Full Text Available Optogenetic stimulation of specific types of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the striatum has been shown to bias the selection of mice in a two choices task. This shift is dependent on the localisation and on the intensity of the stimulation but also on the recent reward history. We have implemented a way to simulate this increased activity produced by the optical flash in our computational model of the basal ganglia (BG. This abstract model features the direct and indirect pathways commonly described in biology, and a reward prediction pathway (RP. The framework is similar to Actor-Critic methods and to the ventral/dorsal distinction in the striatum. We thus investigated the impact on the selection caused by an added stimulation in each of the three pathways. We were able to reproduce in our model the bias in action selection observed in mice. Our results also showed that biasing the reward prediction is sufficient to create a modification in the action selection. However, we had to increase the percentage of trials with stimulation relative to that in experiments in order to impact the selection. We found that increasing only the reward prediction had a different effect if the stimulation in RP was action dependent (only for a specific action or not. We further looked at the evolution of the change in the weights depending on the stage of learning within a block. A bias in RP impacts the plasticity differently depending on that stage but also on the outcome. It remains to experimentally test how the dopaminergic neurons are affected by specific stimulations of neurons in the striatum and to relate data to predictions of our model.

  3. Optogenetic stimulation in a computational model of the basal ganglia biases action selection and reward prediction error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Pierre; Lansner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic stimulation of specific types of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum has been shown to bias the selection of mice in a two choices task. This shift is dependent on the localisation and on the intensity of the stimulation but also on the recent reward history. We have implemented a way to simulate this increased activity produced by the optical flash in our computational model of the basal ganglia (BG). This abstract model features the direct and indirect pathways commonly described in biology, and a reward prediction pathway (RP). The framework is similar to Actor-Critic methods and to the ventral/dorsal distinction in the striatum. We thus investigated the impact on the selection caused by an added stimulation in each of the three pathways. We were able to reproduce in our model the bias in action selection observed in mice. Our results also showed that biasing the reward prediction is sufficient to create a modification in the action selection. However, we had to increase the percentage of trials with stimulation relative to that in experiments in order to impact the selection. We found that increasing only the reward prediction had a different effect if the stimulation in RP was action dependent (only for a specific action) or not. We further looked at the evolution of the change in the weights depending on the stage of learning within a block. A bias in RP impacts the plasticity differently depending on that stage but also on the outcome. It remains to experimentally test how the dopaminergic neurons are affected by specific stimulations of neurons in the striatum and to relate data to predictions of our model. PMID:24614169

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  5. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 553 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eighth in a series of reports. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Management, Technical Measurements Center, and General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations

  6. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1987-09-01

    The 553 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eighth in a series of reports. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Management, Technical Measurements Center, and General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations.

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word

  9. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain.

  10. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain.

  11. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Faust, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography of 657 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fourth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic documents of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been references in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; and (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author, or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. Appendix A lists 264 bibliographic references to literature identified during this reporting period but not abstracted due to time constraints. Title and publication description indexes are given for this appendix. Appendix B defines frequently used acronyms, and Appendix C lists the recipients of this report according to their corporate affiliation.

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography of 657 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fourth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic documents of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been references in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; and (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author, or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. Appendix A lists 264 bibliographic references to literature identified during this reporting period but not abstracted due to time constraints. Title and publication description indexes are given for this appendix. Appendix B defines frequently used acronyms, and Appendix C lists the recipients of this report according to their corporate affiliation

  13. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  14. Reliability of internal prediction/estimation and its application. I. Adaptive action selection reflecting reliability of value function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Takano, Mitsuo

    2004-09-01

    This article proposes an adaptive action-selection method for a model-free reinforcement learning system, based on the concept of the 'reliability of internal prediction/estimation'. This concept is realized using an internal variable, called the Reliability Index (RI), which estimates the accuracy of the internal estimator. We define this index for a value function of a temporal difference learning system and substitute it for the temperature parameter of the Boltzmann action-selection rule. Accordingly, the weight of exploratory actions adaptively changes depending on the uncertainty of the prediction. We use this idea for tabular and weighted-sum type value functions. Moreover, we use the RI to adjust the learning coefficient in addition to the temperature parameter, meaning that the reliability becomes a general basis for meta-learning. Numerical experiments were performed to examine the behavior of the proposed method. The RI-based Q-learning system demonstrated its features when the adaptive learning coefficient and large RI-discount rate (which indicate how the RI values of future states are reflected in the RI value of the current state) were introduced. Statistical tests confirmed that the algorithm spent more time exploring in the initial phase of learning, but accelerated learning from the midpoint of learning. It is also shown that the proposed method does not work well with the actor-critic models. The limitations of the proposed method and its relationship to relevant research are discussed. PMID:15312837

  15. Facial Action and Emotional Language: ERP Evidence that Blocking Facial Feedback Selectively Impairs Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua D; Winkielman, Piotr; Coulson, Seana

    2015-11-01

    There is a lively and theoretically important debate about whether, how, and when embodiment contributes to language comprehension. This study addressed these questions by testing how interference with facial action impacts the brain's real-time response to emotional language. Participants read sentences about positive and negative events (e.g., "She reached inside the pocket of her coat from last winter and found some (cash/bugs) inside it.") while ERPs were recorded. Facial action was manipulated within participants by asking participants to hold chopsticks in their mouths using a position that allowed or blocked smiling, as confirmed by EMG. Blocking smiling did not influence ERPs to the valenced words (e.g., cash, bugs) but did influence ERPs to final words of sentences describing positive events. Results show that affectively positive sentences can evoke smiles and that such facial action can facilitate the semantic processing indexed by the N400 component. Overall, this study offers causal evidence that embodiment impacts some aspects of high-level comprehension, presumably involving the construction of the situation model.

  16. Cell surface thiol isomerases may explain the platelet-selective action of S-nitrosoglutathione

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Fang; Gordge, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) at low concentration inhibits platelet aggregation without causing vasodilation, suggesting platelet-selective nitric oxide delivery. The mechanism of this selectivity is unknown, but may involve cell surface thiol isomerases, in particular protein disulphide isomerase (csPDI) (EC 5.3.4.1). We have now compared csPDI expression and activity on platelets, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and the dependence on thiol reductase activity of these cell...

  17. A correct selection of asteroid families and confirmation of a nongravitational effect action

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, A M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of asteroid sizes by semimajor axes and the distribution of the number of asteroids by albedo values for separate families are used to selection the asteroid families more clearly. An analysis of the families identified by Masiero et al. (2013) was carried out with the use of the distributions of D(a) and N(p), there were defined correctly and incorrectly selected families. A decreasing of the mean albedo with semi-major axis increasing take place almost for all correctly selected families and which are not truncated by resonances. The decrease is statistically significant for the majority of these families. There is none family at a significant increase of albedo. This confirms our previous conclusion on existence of a non-gravitational effect in the asteroid belt which causes the spatial separation of asteroids with different albedos.

  18. Mate Choice in Soldier Beetles: Field & Laboratory Experiments that Demonstrate Sexual Selection in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Perri K.; Sherman, Peter T.

    2003-01-01

    Although the theory of evolution is the foundation of modern biology, students too rarely have an opportunity to watch selection operate in natural populations of animals. This lack may be partially responsible for the unfortunate ignorance of many people regarding the significance of evolution in biology. Laboratory exercises that directly study…

  19. SELECTIVE ACTIONS OF OPIOID PEPTIDES ON GnRH RELEASE FROM THE MEDIAN EMINENCE OF RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOBai-Ge; LUOLu--Guang; BICKNELLR.J.; CHAPMANC.; HEAVENSR.P.

    1989-01-01

    It has been known that morphine inhibits the secretion of pituitary gonadotrophins[1l and the inhibition may be mediated by preventing GnRH release from hypothalamus[2]. In the present study, We examined the direct and selective effects of a series of opioid

  20. Effect of selected anti-inflammatory drugs on the lethal actions of Leiurus quinquestriatus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Abdoon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative actions of scorpion neurotoxins are complex and may be traced to activation of different ion channels with subsequent release of various transmitters and modulators including inflammatory mediators. This could lead to various pathological manifestations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, and multiple organ failure (MOF. Several approaches have been advocated to treat the multitude of scorpion-venom-elicited pathological changes. However, few have tried to combat the venom-induced effects on the inflammatory process, which manifest as ARDS, SIDS and MOF. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the capability of inhibitors of different steps of the inflammatory sequence of events in scorpion envenomation to ameliorate the detrimental action of the venom and prolong survival of mice injected with Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (LQQ venom. Animals were divided into groups (n = 10 and given montelukast (10 or 20 mg.kg-1, orally, hydrocortisone (5 or 10 mg.kg-1, intravenously or indomethacin (10 or 20 mg kg-1, intravenously. Then, all animals were subcutaneously injected with either 0.25 or 0.3 mg.kg-1 LQQ venom. Signs and symptoms of envenomation were recorded and survival percentages after 24 hours as well as survival time were determined in each group. To analyze data, we utilized Covariance Wilcoxon survival statistics and survival distribution curves. In general, when compared to venom alone, administration of montelukast (p<0.001, hydrocortisone (p<0.05 and indomethacin (p<0.05 prolonged survival time and increased the percentage of surviving animals per group, with montelukast exhibiting the greatest protecting power. Thus, anti-inflammatory drugs may play an important role in protection against the lethal effects of scorpion venoms.

  1. Introduction to Brain mechanisms of selective perception and action. Proceedings of a Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society of London on 19 and 20 November 1997.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction to Brain mechanisms of selective perception and action. Proceedings of a Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society of London on 19 and 20 November 1997. Organized and edited by G. W. Humphreys, J. Duncan and A. Treisman.

  2. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  3. Causal Inference for Cross-Modal Action Selection: A Computational Study in a Decision Making Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemi, Mehdi; Harris, Laurence R; Crawford, J Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Animals try to make sense of sensory information from multiple modalities by categorizing them into perceptions of individual or multiple external objects or internal concepts. For example, the brain constructs sensory, spatial representations of the locations of visual and auditory stimuli in the visual and auditory cortices based on retinal and cochlear stimulations. Currently, it is not known how the brain compares the temporal and spatial features of these sensory representations to decide whether they originate from the same or separate sources in space. Here, we propose a computational model of how the brain might solve such a task. We reduce the visual and auditory information to time-varying, finite-dimensional signals. We introduce controlled, leaky integrators as working memory that retains the sensory information for the limited time-course of task implementation. We propose our model within an evidence-based, decision-making framework, where the alternative plan units are saliency maps of space. A spatiotemporal similarity measure, computed directly from the unimodal signals, is suggested as the criterion to infer common or separate causes. We provide simulations that (1) validate our model against behavioral, experimental results in tasks where the participants were asked to report common or separate causes for cross-modal stimuli presented with arbitrary spatial and temporal disparities. (2) Predict the behavior in novel experiments where stimuli have different combinations of spatial, temporal, and reliability features. (3) Illustrate the dynamics of the proposed internal system. These results confirm our spatiotemporal similarity measure as a viable criterion for causal inference, and our decision-making framework as a viable mechanism for target selection, which may be used by the brain in cross-modal situations. Further, we suggest that a similar approach can be extended to other cognitive problems where working memory is a limiting factor, such

  4. Causal Inference for Cross-Modal Action Selection: A Computational Study in a Decision Making Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemi, Mehdi; Harris, Laurence R.; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Animals try to make sense of sensory information from multiple modalities by categorizing them into perceptions of individual or multiple external objects or internal concepts. For example, the brain constructs sensory, spatial representations of the locations of visual and auditory stimuli in the visual and auditory cortices based on retinal and cochlear stimulations. Currently, it is not known how the brain compares the temporal and spatial features of these sensory representations to decide whether they originate from the same or separate sources in space. Here, we propose a computational model of how the brain might solve such a task. We reduce the visual and auditory information to time-varying, finite-dimensional signals. We introduce controlled, leaky integrators as working memory that retains the sensory information for the limited time-course of task implementation. We propose our model within an evidence-based, decision-making framework, where the alternative plan units are saliency maps of space. A spatiotemporal similarity measure, computed directly from the unimodal signals, is suggested as the criterion to infer common or separate causes. We provide simulations that (1) validate our model against behavioral, experimental results in tasks where the participants were asked to report common or separate causes for cross-modal stimuli presented with arbitrary spatial and temporal disparities. (2) Predict the behavior in novel experiments where stimuli have different combinations of spatial, temporal, and reliability features. (3) Illustrate the dynamics of the proposed internal system. These results confirm our spatiotemporal similarity measure as a viable criterion for causal inference, and our decision-making framework as a viable mechanism for target selection, which may be used by the brain in cross-modal situations. Further, we suggest that a similar approach can be extended to other cognitive problems where working memory is a limiting factor, such

  5. Mechanism of the tissue-specific action of the selective androgen receptor modulator S-101479.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Ohyabu, Yuki; Morikyu, Teruyuki; Ishige, Hirohide; Albers, Michael; Endo, Yasuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) comprise a new class of molecules that induce anabolic effects with fewer side effects than those of other anabolic agents. We previously reported that the novel SARM S-101479 had a tissue-selective bone anabolic effect with diminished side effects in female animals. However, the mechanism of its tissue selectivity is not well known. In this report, we show that S-101479 increased alkaline phosphatase activity and androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity in osteoblastic cell lines in the same manner as the natural androgen ligand dihydrotestosterone (DHT); conversely, stimulation of AR dimerization was very low compared with that of DHT (34.4%). S-101479 increased bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats without promoting endometrial proliferation. Yeast two-hybrid interaction assays revealed that DHT promoted recruitment of numerous cofactors to AR such as TIF2, SRC1, β-catenin, NCoA3, gelsolin and PROX1 in a dose-dependent manner. SARMs induced recruitment of fewer cofactors than DHT; in particular, S-101479 failed to induce recruitment of canonical p160 coactivators such as SRC1, TIF2 and notably NCoA3 but only stimulated binding of AR to gelsolin and PROX1. The results suggest that a full capability of the AR to dimerize and to effectively and unselectively recruit all canonical cofactors is not a prerequisite for transcriptional activity in osteoblastic cells and resulting anabolic effects in bone tissues. Instead, few relevant cofactors might be sufficient to promote AR activity in these tissues.

  6. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Grasping with the Press of a Button: Grasp-selective Responses in the Human Anterior Intraparietal Sulcus Depend on Nonarbitrary Causal Relationships between Hand Movements and End-effector Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Scott H; Hansen, Marc; Marchal, Noah

    2015-06-01

    Evidence implicates ventral parieto-premotor cortices in representing the goal of grasping independent of the movements or effectors involved [Umilta, M. A., Escola, L., Intskirveli, I., Grammont, F., Rochat, M., Caruana, F., et al. When pliers become fingers in the monkey motor system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 105, 2209-2213, 2008; Tunik, E., Frey, S. H., & Grafton, S. T. Virtual lesions of the anterior intraparietal area disrupt goal-dependent on-line adjustments of grasp. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 505-511, 2005]. Modern technologies that enable arbitrary causal relationships between hand movements and tool actions provide a strong test of this hypothesis. We capitalized on this unique opportunity by recording activity with fMRI during tasks in which healthy adults performed goal-directed reach and grasp actions manually or by depressing buttons to initiate these same behaviors in a remotely located robotic arm (arbitrary causal relationship). As shown previously [Binkofski, F., Dohle, C., Posse, S., Stephan, K. M., Hefter, H., Seitz, R. J., et al. Human anterior intraparietal area subserves prehension: A combined lesion and functional MRI activation study. Neurology, 50, 1253-1259, 1998], we detected greater activity in the vicinity of the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) during manual grasp versus reach. In contrast to prior studies involving tools controlled by nonarbitrarily related hand movements [Gallivan, J. P., McLean, D. A., Valyear, K. F., & Culham, J. C. Decoding the neural mechanisms of human tool use. Elife, 2, e00425, 2013; Jacobs, S., Danielmeier, C., & Frey, S. H. Human anterior intraparietal and ventral premotor cortices support representations of grasping with the hand or a novel tool. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 2594-2608, 2010], however, responses within the aIPS and premotor cortex exhibited no evidence of selectivity for grasp when participants employed the robot. Instead, these regions showed

  8. Metabolic activation and antineoplastic-selective mechanism of action of two novel fluoropyrimidines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coadministration of tetrahydrouridine (H4Urd) diverted the metabolism of 3H-5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (FdCyd) in human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cells through the deoxycytidine kinase-deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCK-dCMPD) pathway to the formation of 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate (FdUMP) without the incorporation of 5-fluorouridylate (FUMP) into RNA or the formation of RNA-level antimetabolite pools. Antimetabolite pool sizes, as assayed by HPLC, following treatment of BD2F1 mice bearing ascitic mammary adenocarcinoma-755 (ADC-755) or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) with 3H-FdCyd + H4 Urd resulted in pool sizes indicative of a tumor-selective, dual pathway metabolism of FdCyd via both the cytidine deaminase-deoxythymidine kinase (CD-dTK) and dCK-dCMPD pathways. In contrast to the high levels of all RNA- and DNA-level antimetabolites derived from FdCyd found in tumor tissue, in normal tissues (bone marrow, intestine, liver and spleen) and in serum, FdCyd was metabolized to only a small extent, all antimetabolite pools were markedly lower. 3H-FdCyd + H4Urd exposure resulted in selective incorporation of antimetabolites into tumor RNA and DNA. dCMPD and CD enzyme assays have confirmed that H4Urd administration effectively inhibited the low CD activity in normal, but not the elevated levels found in tumor tissue

  9. [Myoanabolic steroids and selective androgen receptor modulators: mechanism of action and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós

    2009-11-01

    Interest in anabolic steroids has been renewed in the last decade with the discovery of tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators exhibiting high myotropic and small androgenic activity. An explanation put forward by us in 1982 for the mechanism of the preferential myotropic effect of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) exploits the fundamental difference between the 5alpha-reductase concentrations in skeletal muscle and androgenic target tissue. In androgenic tissue, testosterone is converted to the more potent 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone whereas nandrolone is converted to a less potent derivative. As 5alpha-reduction is negligible in skeletal muscle, this explains why nandrolone shows a greater myotropic to androgenic ratio when compared with testosterone. Anabolic steroids that do not undergo 5alpha-reduction exert myotropic-androgenic dissociation because their effect in androgenic tissues is not amplified by 5alpha-reduction. Tissue selectivity by receptor modulators may be achieved by inducing specific conformational changes of the androgen receptor that affect its interaction with transcriptional coregulators. Anabolic activity is mediated by the stimulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis therefore regulation of this synthesis by anabolic steroids would deserve detailed studies.

  10. The prefrontal cortex shows context-specific changes in effective connectivity to motor or visual cortex during the selection of action or colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, James B.; Stephan, Klaas E.; Friston, Karl;

    2005-01-01

    used functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) to study the free selection of actions and colours. Control conditions used externally specified actions and colours. The prefrontal cortex was activated during free selection, regardless of modality, in contrast to modality-specific activations outside...... prefrontal cortex. Structural equation modelling (SEM) of fMRI data was used to test the hypothesis that although the same regions of prefrontal cortex may be active in tasks within different domains, there is task-dependent effective connectivity between prefrontal cortex and non-prefrontal cortex. The SEM...... included high-order interactions between modality, selection and regional activity. There was greater coupling between prefrontal cortex and motor cortex during free selection and action tasks, and between prefrontal cortex and visual cortex during free selection of colours. The results suggest that the...

  11. The Interference of Selected Cytotoxic Alkaloids with the Cytoskeleton: An Insight into Their Modes of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tanaka, Mine; Krstin, Sonja; Peixoto, Herbenya Silva; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids, the largest group among the nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites of plants, usually interact with several molecular targets. In this study, we provide evidence that six cytotoxic alkaloids (sanguinarine, chelerythrine, chelidonine, noscapine, protopine, homoharringtonine), which are known to affect neuroreceptors, protein biosynthesis and nucleic acids, also interact with the cellular cytoskeleton, such as microtubules and actin filaments, as well. Sanguinarine, chelerythrine and chelidonine depolymerized the microtubule network in living cancer cells (Hela cells and human osteosarcoma U2OS cells) and inhibited tubulin polymerization in vitro with IC50 values of 48.41 ± 3.73, 206.39 ± 4.20 and 34.51 ± 9.47 μM, respectively. However, sanguinarine and chelerythrine did not arrest the cell cycle while 2.5 μM chelidonine arrested the cell cycle in the G₂/M phase with 88.27% ± 0.99% of the cells in this phase. Noscapine and protopine apparently affected microtubule structures in living cells without affecting tubulin polymerization in vitro, which led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, promoting this cell population to 73.42% ± 8.31% and 54.35% ± 11.26% at a concentration of 80 μM and 250.9 μM, respectively. Homoharringtonine did not show any effects on microtubules and cell cycle, while the known microtubule-stabilizing agent paclitaxel was found to inhibit tubulin polymerization in the presence of MAPs in vitro with an IC50 value of 38.19 ± 3.33 μM. Concerning actin filaments, sanguinarine, chelerythrine and chelidonine exhibited a certain effect on the cellular actin filament network by reducing the mass of actin filaments. The interactions of these cytotoxic alkaloids with microtubules and actin filaments present new insights into their molecular modes of action. PMID:27420038

  12. Development of a computer code system for selecting off-site protective action in radiological accidents based on the multiobjective optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a new method to support selection of off-site protective action in nuclear reactor accidents, and provides a user's manual of a computer code system, PRASMA, developed using the method. The PRASMA code system gives several candidates of protective action zones of evacuation, sheltering and no action based on the multiobjective optimization method, which requires objective functions and decision variables. We have assigned population risks of fatality, injury and cost as the objective functions, and distance from a nuclear power plant characterizing the above three protective action zones as the decision variables. (author)

  13. Comparison of the β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists Landiolol and Esmolol: Receptor Selectivity, Partial Agonism, and Pharmacochaperoning Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahi-Shirazi, Shahrooz; Sucic, Sonja; Yang, Qiong; Freissmuth, Michael; Nanoff, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Blockage of β1-adrenergic receptors is one of the most effective treatments in cardiovascular medicine. Esmolol was introduced some three decades ago as a short-acting β1-selective antagonist. Landiolol is a more recent addition. Here we compared the two compounds for their selectivity for β1-adrenergic receptors over β2-adrenergic receptors, partial agonistic activity, signaling bias, and pharmacochaperoning action by using human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cell lines, which heterologously express each human receptor subtype. The affinity of landiolol for β1-adrenergic receptors and β2-adrenergic receptors was higher and lower than that of esmolol, respectively, resulting in an improved selectivity (216-fold versus 30-fold). The principal metabolite of landiolol (M1) was also β1-selective, but its affinity was very low. Both landiolol and esmolol caused a very modest rise in cAMP levels but a robust increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2, indicating that the two drugs exerted partial agonist activity with a signaling bias. If cells were incubated for ≥24 hours in the presence of ≥1 μM esmolol, the levels of β1-adrenergic-but not of β2-adrenergic-receptors increased. This effect was contingent on export of the β1-receptor from endoplasmic reticulum and was not seen in the presence of landiolol. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that landiolol offers the advantage of: 1) improved selectivity and 2) the absence of pharmacochaperoning activity, which sensitizes cells to rebound effects upon drug discontinuation. PMID:27451411

  14. Secondary Bifurcations in a Lotka-Volterra Model for N Competitors with Applications to Action Selection and Compulsive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. D.

    A Lotka-Volterra model for an arbitrary number of competitors is studied for different ratios of self-inhibition versus cross-inhibition. It is shown that winner-takes-all fixed points (states of single surviving species) are the only stable fixed points of the model when cross-inhibition exceeds self-inhibition. Secondary bifurcations in terms of bifurcations between winner-takes-all fixed points induced by changes in the exponential growth rates of competitors are studied and the critical control parameters are identified. A selection principle is derived that states that evolution proceeds in such a way that exponential growth rates of surviving competitors are magnified in evolutionary bifurcation steps. The interacting competitor model is applied as an amplitude equation model for interacting patterns of self-organizing pattern formation systems with an eye on action selection and compulsive behaviors in humans. The possibility is discussed that human behavior is subjected to the selection principle of "faster growth rates".

  15. Fungal tools for the degradation of endocrine disrupting compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kabiersch, Grit

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds are synthetic or natural compounds that mimic the action of hormones and thus disrupt or alter functions of the endocrine system usually through direct interactions with nuclear receptors. The main objective of this work was to develop strategies of how to degrade endocrine disrupting compounds and how to monitor the removal of the endocrine disrupting effect with focus on the estrogenic compound bisphenol A and on the virilizing compound tributyltin. Bisph...

  16. Low concentrations of metformin selectively inhibit CD133⁺ cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer and have anticancer action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmiao Gou

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. The prognosis remains dismal with little advance in treatment. Metformin is a drug widely used for the treatment of type II diabetes. Recent epidemiologic data revealed that oral administration of metformin is associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting its potential as a novel drug for this disease. Many studies have demonstrated the in vitro anticancer action of metformin, but the typically used concentrations were much higher than the in vivo plasma and tissue concentrations achieved with recommended therapeutic doses of metformin, and low concentrations of metformin had little effect on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. We examined the effect of low concentrations of metformin on different subpopulations of pancreatic cancer cells and found that these selectively inhibited the proliferation of CD133⁺ but not CD24⁺CD44⁺ESA⁺ cells. We also examined the effect of low concentrations of metformin on cell invasion and in vivo tumor formation, demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer action. Metformin was associated with a reduction of phospho-Erk and phospho-mTOR independent of Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. CD133⁺ pancreatic cancer cells are considered to be cancer stem cells that contribute to recurrence, metastasis and resistance to adjuvant therapies in pancreatic cancer. Our results provide a basis for combination of metformin with current therapies to improve the prognosis of this disease.

  17. Intracellular Diagnostics: Hunting for the Mode of Action of Redox-Modulating Selenium Compounds in Selected Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Mániková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox-modulating compounds derived from natural sources, such as redox active secondary metabolites, are currently of considerable interest in the field of chemoprevention, drug and phytoprotectant development. Unfortunately, the exact and occasionally even selective activity of such products, and the underlying (bio-chemical causes thereof, are often only poorly understood. A combination of the nematode- and yeast-based assays provides a powerful platform to investigate a possible biological activity of a new compound and also to explore the “redox link” which may exist between its activity on the one side and its chemistry on the other. Here, we will demonstrate the usefulness of this platform for screening several selenium and tellurium compounds for their activity and action. We will also show how the nematode-based assay can be used to obtain information on compound uptake and distribution inside a multicellular organism, whilst the yeast-based system can be employed to explore possible intracellular mechanisms via chemogenetic screening and intracellular diagnostics. Whilst none of these simple and easy-to-use assays can ultimately substitute for in-depth studies in human cells and animals, these methods nonetheless provide a first glimpse on the possible biological activities of new compounds and offer direction for more complicated future investigations. They may also uncover some rather unpleasant biochemical actions of certain compounds, such as the ability of the trace element supplement selenite to induce DNA strand breaks.

  18. Action selection performance of a reconfigurable Basal Ganglia inspired model with Hebbian-Bayesian Go-NoGo connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eBerthet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown a strong involvement of the basal ganglia (BG in action selection and dopamine dependent learning. The dopaminergic signal to striatum, the input stage of the BG, has been commonly described as coding a reward prediction error (RPE, i.e. the difference between the predicted and actual reward. The RPE has been hypothesized to be critical in the modulation of the synaptic plasticity in cortico-striatal synapses in the direct and indirect pathway. We developed an abstract computational model of the BG, with a dual pathway structure functionally corresponding to the direct and indirect pathways, and compared its behaviour to biological data as well as other reinforcement learning models. The computations in our model are inspired by Bayesian inference, and the synaptic plasticity changes depend on a three factor Hebbian-Bayesian learning rule based on co-activation of pre- and post-synaptic units and on the value of the RPE. The model builds on a modified Actor-Critic architecture and implements the direct (Go and the indirect (NoGo pathway, as well as the reward prediction (RP system, acting in a complementary fashion. We investigated the performance of the model system when different configurations of the Go, NoGo and RP system were utilized, e.g. using only the Go, NoGo, or RP system, or combinations of those. Learning performance was investigated in several types of learning paradigms, such as learning-relearning, successive learning, stochastic learning, reversal learning and a two-choice task. The RPE and the activity of the model during learning were similar to monkey electrophysiological and behavioural data. Our results, however, show that there is not a unique best way to configure this BG model to handle well all the learning paradigms tested. We thus suggest that an agent might dynamically configure its action selection mode, possibly depending on task characteristics and also on how much time is available.

  19. Action selection performance of a reconfigurable basal ganglia inspired model with Hebbian-Bayesian Go-NoGo connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Pierre; Hellgren-Kotaleski, Jeanette; Lansner, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown a strong involvement of the basal ganglia (BG) in action selection and dopamine dependent learning. The dopaminergic signal to striatum, the input stage of the BG, has been commonly described as coding a reward prediction error (RPE), i.e., the difference between the predicted and actual reward. The RPE has been hypothesized to be critical in the modulation of the synaptic plasticity in cortico-striatal synapses in the direct and indirect pathway. We developed an abstract computational model of the BG, with a dual pathway structure functionally corresponding to the direct and indirect pathways, and compared its behavior to biological data as well as other reinforcement learning models. The computations in our model are inspired by Bayesian inference, and the synaptic plasticity changes depend on a three factor Hebbian-Bayesian learning rule based on co-activation of pre- and post-synaptic units and on the value of the RPE. The model builds on a modified Actor-Critic architecture and implements the direct (Go) and the indirect (NoGo) pathway, as well as the reward prediction (RP) system, acting in a complementary fashion. We investigated the performance of the model system when different configurations of the Go, NoGo, and RP system were utilized, e.g., using only the Go, NoGo, or RP system, or combinations of those. Learning performance was investigated in several types of learning paradigms, such as learning-relearning, successive learning, stochastic learning, reversal learning and a two-choice task. The RPE and the activity of the model during learning were similar to monkey electrophysiological and behavioral data. Our results, however, show that there is not a unique best way to configure this BG model to handle well all the learning paradigms tested. We thus suggest that an agent might dynamically configure its action selection mode, possibly depending on task characteristics and also on how much time is available. PMID:23060764

  20. Enhanced attention and impulsive action following NMDA receptor GluN2B-selective antagonist pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Guy A; Silenieks, Leo B; MacMillan, Cam; Sevo, Julia; Zeeb, Fiona D; Thevarkunnel, Sandy

    2016-09-15

    NMDA GluN2B (NR2B) subtype selective antagonists are currently in clinical development for a variety of indications, including major depression. We previously reported the selective NMDA GluN2B antagonists Ro 63-1908 and traxoprodil, increase premature responding in a 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) suggesting an effect on impulsive action. The present studies extend these investigations to a Go-NoGo and delay discounting task, and the 5-CSRTT under test conditions of both regular (5s) and short (2-5s) multiple ITI (Intertrial interval). Dizocilpine was included for comparison. Both Ro 63-1908 (0.1-1mg/kg SC) and traxoprodil (0.3-3mg/kg SC) increased premature and perseverative responses in both 5-CSRT tasks and improved attention when tested under a short ITI test condition. Ro 63-1908 but not traxoprodil increased motor impulsivity (false alarms) in a Go-NoGo task. Dizocilpine (0.01-0.06mg/kg SC) affected both measures of motor impulsivity and marginally improved attention. In a delay discounting test of impulsive choice, both dizocilpine and Ro 63-1908 decreased impulsive choice (increased choice for the larger, delayed reward), while traxoprodil showed a similar trend. Motor stimulant effects were evident following Ro 63-1908, but not traxoprodil treatment - although no signs of motor stereotypy characteristic of dizocilpine (>0.1mg/kg) were noted. The findings of both NMDA GluN2B antagonists affecting measures of impulsive action and compulsive behavior may underpin emerging evidence to suggest glutamate signaling through the NMDA GluN2B receptor plays an important role in behavioural flexibility. The profiles between Ro 63-1908 and traxoprodil were not identical, perhaps suggesting differences between members of this drug class. PMID:27180168

  1. An enhancer peptide for membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NP4P is a synthetic peptide derived from a natural, non-antimicrobial peptide fragment (pro-region of nematode cecropin P4 by substitution of all acidic amino acid residues with amides (i.e., Glu → Gln, and Asp → Asn. Results In the presence of NP4P, some membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides (ASABF-α, polymyxin B, and nisin killed microbes at lower concentration (e.g., 10 times lower minimum bactericidal concentration for ASABF-α against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas NP4P itself was not bactericidal and did not interfere with bacterial growth at ≤ 300 μg/mL. In contrast, the activities of antimicrobial agents with a distinct mode of action (indolicidin, ampicillin, kanamycin, and enrofloxacin were unaffected. Although the membrane-disrupting activity of NP4P was slight or undetectable, ASABF-α permeabilized S. aureus membranes with enhanced efficacy in the presence of NP4P. Conclusions NP4P selectively enhanced the bactericidal activities of membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides by increasing the efficacy of membrane disruption against the cytoplasmic membrane.

  2. Network Formation under the Threat of Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, B.

    2013-01-01

    The studies in this thesis are focused on the impact the presence of a network disruptor has on network formation models. In particular, we build two theoretical models to study the effect of network disruption on network formation and test the effect network disruption has on equilibrium selection

  3. Structure-Activity Relationships for an Ecotoxicological Hazard Assessment of Selected Isothiazol-3-one Biocides and Ionic LiquidsA Mode-of-Action-Based Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Arning, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    In the presented work two case studies using highly reactive Isothiazol-3-one biocides and Ionic liquids are presented. It was the aim of these studies to get a deeper knowledge on the hazard potential of the selected substances by applying a mode of action based testing strategy and a flexible toxicological and ecotoxicological test battery. Summarising the results obtained from both case studies, it could be shown that the applied tiered and mode of action based testing strategy in combinat...

  4. Selection of negative samples and two-stage combination of multiple features for action detection in thousands of videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Schutte, K.; Bouma, H.; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a system is presented that can detect 48 human actions in realistic videos, ranging from simple actions such as ‘walk’ to complex actions such as ‘exchange’. We propose a method that gives a major contribution in performance. The reason for this major improvement is related to a diffe

  5. Free fatty acid-induced PP2A hyperactivity selectively impairs hepatic insulin action on glucose metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Galbo

    Full Text Available In type 2 Diabetes (T2D free fatty acids (FFAs in plasma are increased and hepatic insulin resistance is "selective", in the sense that the insulin-mediated decrease of glucose production is blunted while insulin's effect on stimulating lipogenesis is maintained. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathogenic paradox. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to palmitate for twenty hours. To establish the physiological relevance of the in vitro findings, we also studied insulin-resistant Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats. While insulin-receptor phosphorylation was unaffected, activation of Akt and inactivation of the downstream targets Glycogen synthase kinase 3α (Gsk3α and Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1 was inhibited in palmitate-exposed cells. Accordingly, dose-response curves for insulin-mediated suppression of the FoxO1-induced gluconeogenic genes and for de novo glucose production were right shifted, and insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis were impaired. In contrast, similar to findings in human T2D, the ability of insulin to induce triglyceride (TG accumulation and transcription of the enzymes that catalyze de novo lipogenesis and TG assembly was unaffected. Insulin-induction of these genes could, however, be blocked by inhibition of the atypical PKCs (aPKCs. The activity of the Akt-inactivating Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A was increased in the insulin-resistant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A by specific inhibitors increased insulin-stimulated activation of Akt and phosphorylation of FoxO1 and Gsk3α. Finally, PP2A mRNA levels were increased in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, while PP2A activity was increased in liver and muscle tissue in insulin-resistant ZDF rats. In conclusion, our findings indicate that FFAs may cause a selective impairment of insulin action upon hepatic glucose metabolism by increasing PP2A activity.

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Remedial Action Selection Report. Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This proposed remedial action plan incorporates the results of detailed investigation of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the proposed disposal site. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/waterborne materials to a permanent repository at the proposed Burro Canyon disposal cell. The proposed disposal site will be geomorphically stable. Seismic design parameters were developed for the geotechnical analyses of the proposed cell. Cell stability was analyzed to ensure long-term performance of the disposal cell in meeting design standards, including slope stability, settlement, and liquefaction potential. The proposed cell cover and erosion protection features were also analyzed and designed to protect the RRM (residual radioactive materials) against surface water and wind erosion. The location of the proposed cell precludes the need for permanent drainage or interceptor ditches. Rock to be used on the cell top-, side-, and toeslopes was sized to withstand probable maximum precipitation events.

  7. The RNA-binding Protein TDP-43 Selectively Disrupts MicroRNA-1/206 Incorporation into the RNA-induced Silencing Complex*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Isabelle N.; Yartseva, Valeria; Salas, Donaldo; Kumar, Abhishek; Heidersbach, Amy; Ando, D. Michael; Stallings, Nancy R.; Elliott, Jeffrey L.; Srivastava, Deepak; Ivey, Kathryn N.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is regulated by interaction of particular miRNA precursors with specific RNA-binding proteins. Following their biogenesis, mature miRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) where they interact with mRNAs to negatively regulate protein production. However, little is known about how mature miRNAs are regulated at the level of their activity. To address this, we screened for proteins differentially bound to the mature form of the miR-1 or miR-133 miRNA families. These muscle-enriched, co-transcribed miRNA pairs cooperate to suppress smooth muscle gene expression in the heart. However, they also have opposing roles, with the miR-1 family, composed of miR-1 and miR-206, promoting myogenic differentiation, whereas miR-133 maintains the progenitor state. Here, we describe a physical interaction between TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein that forms aggregates in the neuromuscular disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the miR-1, but not miR-133, family. Deficiency of the TDP-43 Drosophila ortholog enhanced dmiR-1 activity in vivo. In mammalian cells, TDP-43 limited the activity of both miR-1 and miR-206, but not the miR-133 family, by disrupting their RISC association. Consistent with TDP-43 dampening miR-1/206 activity, protein levels of the miR-1/206 targets, IGF-1 and HDAC4, were elevated in TDP-43 transgenic mouse muscle. This occurred without corresponding Igf-1 or Hdac4 mRNA increases and despite higher miR-1 and miR-206 expression. Our findings reveal that TDP-43 negatively regulates the activity of the miR-1 family of miRNAs by limiting their bioavailability for RISC loading and suggest a processing-independent mechanism for differential regulation of miRNA activity. PMID:24719334

  8. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial Action Selection Report, Appendix B of Attachment 2: Geology report, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which describes the proposed remedial action for the Naturita site. An extensive amount of data and supporting information has been generated and evaluated for this remedial action. These data and supporting information are not incorporated into this single document but are included or referenced in the supporting documents. The RAP consists of this RAS and four supporting documents or attachments. This Attachment 2, Geology Report describes the details of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Dry Flats disposal site.

  9. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Maybell, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [m]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd{sup 3} (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3} (420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}). Information presented in this Final Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and referenced in supporting documents represents the current disposal cell design features and ground water compliance strategy proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the Maybell, Colorado, tailings site. Both the disposal cell design and the ground water compliance strategy have changed from those proposed prior to the preliminary final RAP document as a result of prudent site-specific technical evaluations.

  10. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Maybell, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report, Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [m]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd3) (2.1 million cubic meters [m3]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd3 (15,000 m3) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd3 (420,000 m3). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd3 (2.58 million m3). Information presented in this Final Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and referenced in supporting documents represents the current disposal cell design features and ground water compliance strategy proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the Maybell, Colorado, tailings site. Both the disposal cell design and the ground water compliance strategy have changed from those proposed prior to the preliminary final RAP document as a result of prudent site-specific technical evaluations

  11. Disrupting Ethnography through Rhizoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Masny

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates principles of ethnography in education proposed by Mills and Morton: raw tellings, analytic pattern, vignette and empathy. This article adopts a position that is uncomfortable, unconventional and interesting. It involves a deterritorialization/ rupture of ethnography in education in order to reterritorialize a different concept: rhizoanalysis, a way to position theory and data that is multilayered, complex and messy. Rhizoanalysis, the main focus of this article is not a method. It is an approach to research conditioned by a reality in which Deleuze and Guattari disrupt representation, interpretation and subjectivity. In this article, Multiple Literacies Theory, a theoretical and practical framework, becomes a lens to examine a rhizomatic study of a Korean family recently arrived to Australia and attending English as a second language classes. Observations and interviews recorded the daily lives of the family. The vignettes were selected by reading data intensively and immanently through a process of palpation, an innovative approach to educational research. Rhizoanalysis proposes to abandon the given and invent different ways of thinking about and doing research and what might happen when reading data differently, intensively and immanently, through Multiple Literacies Theory. Rhizoanalysis, a game-changer in the way research can be conducted, affords a different lens to tackle issues in education through research.

  12. 'SOSORT consensus paper on brace action: TLSO biomechanics of correction (investigating the rationale for force vector selection'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of orthotic treatment continues to be controversial in international medical literature due to differences in the reported results and conclusions of various studies. Heterogeneity of the samples has been suggested as a reason for conflicting results. Besides the obvious theoretical differences between the brace concepts, the variability in the technical factors can also explain the contradictory results between same brace types. This paper will investigate the degree of variability among responses of scoliosis specialists from the Brace Study Ground of the International Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment SOSORT. Ultimately, this information could be a foundation for establishing a consensus and framework for future prospective controlled studies. Methods A preliminary questionnaire on the topic of 'brace action' relative to the theory of three-dimensional scoliosis correction and brace treatment was developed and circulated to specialists interested in the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A particular case was presented (main thoracic curve with minor lumbar. Several key points emerged and were used to develop a second questionnaire which was discussed and full filed after the SOSORT consensus meeting (Milano, Italy, January 2005. Results Twenty-one questionnaires were completed. The Chêneau brace was the most frequently recommended. The importance of the three point system mechanism was stressed. Options about proper pad placement on the thoracic convexity were divided 50% for the pad reaching or involving the apical vertebra and 50% for the pad acting caudal to the apical vertebra. There was agreement about the direction of the vector force, 85% selecting a 'dorso lateral to ventro medial' direction but about the shape of the pad to produce such a force. Principles related to three-dimensional correction achieved high consensus (80%–85%, but suggested

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  14. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia.

  15. Selective Preference of Parallel DNA Triplexes Is Due to the Disruption of Hoogsteen Hydrogen Bonds Caused by the Severe Nonisostericity between the G*GC and T*AT Triplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gunaseelan; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi; Yathindra, Narayanarao

    2016-01-01

    Implications of DNA, RNA and RNA.DNA hybrid triplexes in diverse biological functions, diseases and therapeutic applications call for a thorough understanding of their structure-function relationships. Despite exhaustive studies mechanistic rationale for the discriminatory preference of parallel DNA triplexes with G*GC & T*AT triplets still remains elusive. Here, we show that the highest nonisostericity between the G*GC & T*AT triplets imposes extensive stereochemical rearrangements contributing to context dependent triplex destabilisation through selective disruption of Hoogsteen scheme of hydrogen bonds. MD simulations of nineteen DNA triplexes with an assortment of sequence milieu reveal for the first time fresh insights into the nature and extent of destabilization from a single (non-overlapping), double (overlapping) and multiple pairs of nonisosteric base triplets (NIBTs). It is found that a solitary pair of NIBTs, feasible either at a G*GC/T*AT or T*AT/G*GC triplex junction, does not impinge significantly on triplex stability. But two overlapping pairs of NIBTs resulting from either a T*AT or a G*GC interruption disrupt Hoogsteen pair to a noncanonical mismatch destabilizing the triplex by ~10 to 14 kcal/mol, implying that their frequent incidence in multiples, especially, in short sequences could even hinder triplex formation. The results provide (i) an unambiguous and generalised mechanistic rationale for the discriminatory trait of parallel triplexes, including those studied experimentally (ii) clarity for the prevalence of antiparallel triplexes and (iii) comprehensive perspectives on the sequence dependent influence of nonisosteric base triplets useful in the rational design of TFO’s against potential triplex target sites. PMID:27010368

  16. Selective Preference of Parallel DNA Triplexes Is Due to the Disruption of Hoogsteen Hydrogen Bonds Caused by the Severe Nonisostericity between the G*GC and T*AT Triplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gunaseelan; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi; Yathindra, Narayanarao

    2016-01-01

    Implications of DNA, RNA and RNA.DNA hybrid triplexes in diverse biological functions, diseases and therapeutic applications call for a thorough understanding of their structure-function relationships. Despite exhaustive studies mechanistic rationale for the discriminatory preference of parallel DNA triplexes with G*GC & T*AT triplets still remains elusive. Here, we show that the highest nonisostericity between the G*GC & T*AT triplets imposes extensive stereochemical rearrangements contributing to context dependent triplex destabilisation through selective disruption of Hoogsteen scheme of hydrogen bonds. MD simulations of nineteen DNA triplexes with an assortment of sequence milieu reveal for the first time fresh insights into the nature and extent of destabilization from a single (non-overlapping), double (overlapping) and multiple pairs of nonisosteric base triplets (NIBTs). It is found that a solitary pair of NIBTs, feasible either at a G*GC/T*AT or T*AT/G*GC triplex junction, does not impinge significantly on triplex stability. But two overlapping pairs of NIBTs resulting from either a T*AT or a G*GC interruption disrupt Hoogsteen pair to a noncanonical mismatch destabilizing the triplex by ~10 to 14 kcal/mol, implying that their frequent incidence in multiples, especially, in short sequences could even hinder triplex formation. The results provide (i) an unambiguous and generalised mechanistic rationale for the discriminatory trait of parallel triplexes, including those studied experimentally (ii) clarity for the prevalence of antiparallel triplexes and (iii) comprehensive perspectives on the sequence dependent influence of nonisosteric base triplets useful in the rational design of TFO's against potential triplex target sites. PMID:27010368

  17. Selective Preference of Parallel DNA Triplexes Is Due to the Disruption of Hoogsteen Hydrogen Bonds Caused by the Severe Nonisostericity between the G*GC and T*AT Triplets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunaseelan Goldsmith

    Full Text Available Implications of DNA, RNA and RNA.DNA hybrid triplexes in diverse biological functions, diseases and therapeutic applications call for a thorough understanding of their structure-function relationships. Despite exhaustive studies mechanistic rationale for the discriminatory preference of parallel DNA triplexes with G*GC & T*AT triplets still remains elusive. Here, we show that the highest nonisostericity between the G*GC & T*AT triplets imposes extensive stereochemical rearrangements contributing to context dependent triplex destabilisation through selective disruption of Hoogsteen scheme of hydrogen bonds. MD simulations of nineteen DNA triplexes with an assortment of sequence milieu reveal for the first time fresh insights into the nature and extent of destabilization from a single (non-overlapping, double (overlapping and multiple pairs of nonisosteric base triplets (NIBTs. It is found that a solitary pair of NIBTs, feasible either at a G*GC/T*AT or T*AT/G*GC triplex junction, does not impinge significantly on triplex stability. But two overlapping pairs of NIBTs resulting from either a T*AT or a G*GC interruption disrupt Hoogsteen pair to a noncanonical mismatch destabilizing the triplex by ~10 to 14 kcal/mol, implying that their frequent incidence in multiples, especially, in short sequences could even hinder triplex formation. The results provide (i an unambiguous and generalised mechanistic rationale for the discriminatory trait of parallel triplexes, including those studied experimentally (ii clarity for the prevalence of antiparallel triplexes and (iii comprehensive perspectives on the sequence dependent influence of nonisosteric base triplets useful in the rational design of TFO's against potential triplex target sites.

  18. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  19. Disrupting Vestibular Activity Disrupts Body Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Adria E N; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive at detecting asynchrony between a self-generated movement and visual feedback concerning that movement when the movement is viewed from a first-person perspective. We call this the 'self-advantage' and interpret it as an objective measure of self. Here we ask if disruption of the vestibular system in healthy individuals affects the self-advantage. Participants performed finger movements while viewing their hand in a first-person ('self') or third-person ('other') perspective and indicated which of two periods (one with minimum delay and the other with an added delay of 33-264 ms) was delayed. Their sensitivity to the delay was calculated from the psychometric functions obtained. During the testing, disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was applied in five-minute blocks interleaved with five minutes of no stimulation for a total of 40 min. We confirmed the self-advantage under no stimulation (31 ms). In the presence of disruptive GVS this advantage disappeared and there was no longer a difference in performance between perspectives. The threshold delay for the 'other' perspective was not affected by the GVS. These results suggest that an intact vestibular signal is required to distinguish 'self' from 'other' and to maintain a sense of body ownership. PMID:26595957

  20. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    . To improve knowledge on possible influences of endocrine disrupters on female reproductive system, the effects of EDCs on genital malformations in females and the development of mammary glands were studied in the present project. AIMS: The aims for the studies on male and female mammary gland development......BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing...

  1. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    This paper analyzes how external search is affected by strategic interest alignment among knowledge sources. I focus on misalignment arising from the heterogeneous effects of disruptive technologies by analyzing the influence of incumbents on 2,855 non-incumbents? external knowledge search efforts....... The efforts most likely to solve innovation problems obtained funding from the European Commission?s 7th Framework Program (2007-2013). The results show that involving incumbents improves search in complementary technologies, while demoting it when strategic interests are misaligned in disruptive technologies....... However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...

  2. Disruptive technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flavin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of “disruptive” innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and used by students and staff. Instead, other technologies not owned or controlled by HEIs are widely used to support learning and teaching. According to Christensen's theory of Disruptive Innovation, these disruptive technologies are not designed explicitly to support learning and teaching in higher education, but have educational potential. This study uses Activity Theory and Expansive Learning to analyse data regarding the impact of disruptive technologies. The data were obtained through a questionnaire survey about awareness and use of technologies, and through observation and interviews, exploring participants’ actual practice. The survey answers tended to endorse Disruptive Innovation theory, with participants establishing meanings for technologies through their use of them, rather than in keeping with a designer's intentions. Observation revealed that learners use a narrow range of technologies to support learning, but with a tendency to use resources other than those supplied by their HEIs. Interviews showed that participants use simple and convenient technologies to support their learning and teaching. This study identifies a contradiction between learning technologies made available by HEIs, and technologies used in practice. There is no evidence to suggest that a wide range of technologies is being used to support learning and teaching. Instead, a small range of technologies is being used for a wide range of tasks. Students and lecturers are not dependent on their HEIs to support learning and teaching. Instead, they self-select technologies, with use weighted towards established brands. The

  3. Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Tidal disruption events from supermassive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Eric R; Nixon, Chris; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pre-disruption gravitational dynamics and post-disruption hydrodynamics of the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. We focus on binaries with relatively low mass primaries ($10^6M_{\\odot}$), moderate mass ratios, and separations with reasonably long gravitational wave inspiral times (tens of Myr). First, we generate a large ensemble (between 1 and 10 million) of restricted three-body integrations to quantify the statistical properties of tidal disruptions by circular SMBH binaries of initially-unbound stars. Compared to the reference case of a disruption by a single SMBH, the binary potential induces significant variance into the specific energy and angular momentum of the star at the point of disruption. Second, we use Newtonian numerical hydrodynamics to study the detailed evolution of the fallback debris from 120 disruptions randomly selected from the three-body ensemble (excluding only the most deeply penetrating encounters). We find that the overall mor...

  5. Evolution in action in the classroom: Engaging students in scientific practices to develop a conceptual understanding of natural selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy Renae

    Public understanding and acceptance of the theory of evolution in the United States is not commensurate with its acceptance in the scientific community and its role as the central organizing principle of the biological sciences. There are a multitude of factors that affect student understanding of the theory of evolution documented in the literature including the proposition that understanding of evolution is intimately linked to understanding the nature of science. This study describes the development, implementation, and assessment of learning activities that address the process of natural selection and the scientific methodology that illuminates these mechanisms. While pre and post-test scores were higher for students in an Advanced Placement Biology course than students in a general biology course, similar learning gains were observed in both groups. Learning gains were documented in understanding the random nature of mutations and their importance to the process of natural selection, explaining selection as a competitive advantage of one variation over another type and specifically linking this to reproductive success, and in connecting inheritance, variation, and selection to explain the process of natural selection. Acceptance of the scientific validity of the theory of evolution as measured by the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument also increased significantly in both groups over the course of the school year. These findings suggest that the sequence of activities implemented in this study promote conceptual change about the nature of science and the process of evolution by natural selection in students.

  6. The disruption management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context. PMID:22130341

  7. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions. PMID:15982113

  8. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  9. The disruption management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context.

  10. Sustainable Disruption Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar

    The world we live in is globalized. Goods are seldom made in the place where they are used or consumed, and we do increasingly travel to other countries for either business or pleasure. In our everyday lives we rely on well-functioning global transportations systems to continue the standard......, such as e.g. technical problems or congestions are also typical causes of delays. Returning a transportation system to its original plan of operation is referred to as Disruption Management. Disruptions are, however, not the only cause of concern to the transportation industry. Fuel is becoming...... when managing recovery from disruptions. The underlying work of this thesis is carried out as an industrial PhD project in co-operation with the company Jeppesen, which have the airline industry as its primary area of business and the maritime industry as its secondary area. For this reason the thesis...

  11. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    Extant research on external knowledge search and open innovation assumes that collaborators are aligned in their strategic interests towards solving innovation problems. However, disruptive innovation is known to threaten the competitive advantage of incumbent firms, thereby creating a potential...... conflict of interest between these firms and their collaborators. This paper explores the extent to which strategic interests influence joint problem solving in both complementary and disruptive technologies by analyzing the effects of incumbent collaboration. The analysis disentangles inability...... and strategic intent to find that non-incumbents experience suppression of problem solving likelihood within disruptive technologies when incumbent collaborators are not strategically committed. The paper contributes to extant theory by showing the influence of firms’ underlying strategic interests...

  12. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. PMID:25867225

  13. Design and performance of an instrument for electron impact tandem mass spectrometry and action spectroscopy of mass/charge selected macromolecular ions stored in RF ion trap*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranković, Milos Lj.; Giuliani, Alexandre; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R.

    2016-06-01

    A new apparatus was designed, coupling an electron gun with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, to perform m/ z (mass over charge) selected ion activation by electron impact for tandem mass spectrometry and action spectroscopy. We present in detail electron tracing simulations of a 300 eV electron beam inside the ion trap, design of the mechanical parts, electron optics and electronic circuits used in the experiment. We also report examples of electron impact activation tandem mass spectra for Ubiquitin protein, Substance P and Melittin peptides, at incident electron energies in the range from 280 eV to 300 eV.

  14. Comparison of implementation of selected TMI action plan requirements on operating plants designed by Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of a study conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to compare the degree to which eight Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) designed licensed nuclear power plants have complied with the requirements in NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements. The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1). The purpose of this audit was to establish the progress of the TMI-1 licensee, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear Corporation, in completing the long-term requirements in NUREG-0737 relative to the other B and W licensees examined

  15. Disruptive Co-Creation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan; Christensen, David

    set up to foster innovative partnerships between civil society organizations, businesses and academia with the objective of supporting disruptive business model innovation in co-creation processes across these sectors. This paper delves into state-of-the-art concerning literature pertinent...

  16. Synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists on the activity of selected novel insecticides for control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph Franz Adam

    2015-05-01

    Studying insecticide resistance in mosquitoes has attracted the attention of many scientists to elucidate the pathways of resistance development and to design novel strategies in order to prevent or minimize the spread and evolution of resistance. Here, we tested the synergistic action of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and two octopamine receptor (OR) agonists, amitraz (AMZ) and chlordimeform (CDM) on selected novel insecticides to increase their lethal action on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. However, chlorfenapyr was the most toxic insecticide (LC50 = 193, 102, and 48 ng/ml, after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure, respectively) tested. Further, PBO synergized all insecticides and the most toxic combinatorial insecticide was nitenpyram even after 48 and 72 h exposure. In addition, OR agonists significantly synergized most of the selected insecticides especially after 48 and 72 h exposure. The results imply that the synergistic effects of amitraz are a promising approach in increasing the potency of certain insecticides in controlling the dengue vector Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  17. A fungal metabolite asperparaline a strongly and selectively blocks insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: the first report on the mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hirata

    Full Text Available Asperparalines produced by Aspergillus japonicus JV-23 induce paralysis in silkworm (Bombyx mori larvae, but the target underlying insect toxicity remains unknown. In the present study, we have investigated the actions of asperparaline A on ligand-gated ion channels expressed in cultured larval brain neurons of the silkworm using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Bath-application of asperparaline A (10 µM had no effect on the membrane current, but when delivered for 1 min prior to co-application with 10 µM acetylcholine (ACh, it blocked completely the ACh-induced current that was sensitive to mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR-selective antaogonist. In contrast, 10 µM asperparaline A was ineffective on the γ-aminobutyric acid- and L-glutamate-induced responses of the Bombyx larval neurons. The fungal alkaloid showed no-use dependency in blocking the ACh-induced response with distinct affinity for the peak and slowly-desensitizing current amplitudes of the response to 10 µM ACh in terms of IC(50 values of 20.2 and 39.6 nM, respectively. Asperparaline A (100 nM reduced the maximum neuron response to ACh with a minimal shift in EC(50, suggesting that the alkaloid is non-competitive with ACh. In contrast to showing marked blocking action on the insect nAChRs, it exhibited only a weak blocking action on chicken α3β4, α4β2 and α7 nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, suggesting a high selectivity for insect over certain vertebrate nAChRs.

  18. Antimicrobial activity, improved cell selectivity and mode of action of short PMAP-36-derived peptides against bacteria and Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yinfeng; Yang, Yang; Lyu, Xiting; Dong, Na; Shan, Anshan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently attracted a great deal of attention as promising antibiotic candidates, but some obstacles such as toxicity and high synthesis cost must be addressed before developing them further. For developing short peptides with improved cell selectivity, we designed a series of modified PMAP-36 analogues. Antimicrobial assays showed that decreasing chain length in a certain range retained the high antimicrobial activity of the parental peptide and reduced hemolysis. The 18-mer peptide RI18 exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi, and its hemolytic activity was observably lower than PMAP-36 and melittin. The selectivity indexes of RI18 against bacteria and fungi were improved approximately 19-fold and 108-fold, respectively, compared to PMAP-36. In addition, serum did not affect the antibacterial activity of RI18 against E. coli but inhibited the antifungal efficiency against C. albicans. Flow cytometry and electron microscopy observation revealed that RI18 killed microbial cells primarily by damaging membrane integrity, leading to whole cell lysis. Taken together, these results suggest that RI18 has potential for further therapeutic research against frequently-encountered bacteria and fungi. Meanwhile, modification of AMPs is a promising strategy for developing novel antimicrobials to overcome drug-resistance. PMID:27251456

  19. Celibacy and Family Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Emaletdinov B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Causes for celibacy, divorces and successful marriage are discussed in the article. Absence of true love and inability to build and keep it are the main reasons for family disruption. Amorousness, immature love and various forms of false or flawed love substitute the true feeling. It is caused by increased women’s independence, loss of mutual understanding and trust (due to infidelity or jealousy), incompatibility of characters or values. Celibacy is often conditioned by physical disability, ...

  20. Search and Disrupt

    OpenAIRE

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes how external search is affected by strategic interest alignment among knowledge sources. I focus on misalignment arising from the heterogeneous effects of disruptive technologies by analyzing the influence of incumbents on 2,855 non-incumbents? external knowledge search efforts. The efforts most likely to solve innovation problems obtained funding from the European Commission?s 7th Framework Program (2007-2013). The results show that involving incumbents improv...

  1. Schematically disruptive game design

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Many games focus their resources at satiating player ‘needs’, and meeting perceived expectations that players have of how games should behave and of what constitutes enjoyable, gratifying gameplay. This paper outlines an alternate position on game design – one which focuses on disrupting these expectations, on designing games that players cannot succeed in simply by relying on their pre-acquired gameplay experiences. A critique of current game design trends is offered, and possible future out...

  2. Current concepts in neuroendocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Olea, Martha; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Orlando, Edward F; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Wolstenholme, Jennifer T; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  3. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  4. Spatiotemporal variations in estrogenicity, hormones, and endocrine-disrupting compounds in influents and effluents of selected wastewater-treatment plants and receiving streams in New York, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Ernst, Anne G.; Gray, James L.; Hemming, Jocelyn D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater effluents have been linked to changes in sex ratios, intersex (in males), behavioral modifications, and developmental abnormalities in aquatic organisms. Yet efforts to identify and regulate specific EDCs in complex mixtures are problematic because little is known about the estrogen activity (estrogenicity) levels of many common and emerging contaminants. The potential effects of EDCs on the water quality and health of biota in streams of the New York City water supply is especially worrisome because more than 150 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) are permitted to discharge effluents into surface waters and groundwaters of watersheds that provide potable water to more than 9 million people. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), and New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) began a pilot study to increase the understanding of estrogenicity and EDCs in effluents and receiving streams mainly in southeastern New York. The primary goals of this study were to document and assess the spatial and temporal variability of estrogenicity levels; the effectiveness of various treatment-plant types to remove estrogenicity; the concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs); and the relations between estrogenicity and concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and PPCPs. The levels of estrogenicity and selected hormones, non-hormone EDCs, and PPCPs were characterized in samples collected seasonally in effluents from 7 WWTPs, once or twice in effluents from 34 WWTPs, and once in influents to 6 WWTPs. Estrogenicity was quantified, as estradiol equivalents, using both the biological e-screen assay and a chemical model. Results generally show that (1) estrogenicity levels in effluents varied spatially and seasonally, (2) a wide range of known and unknown EDCs

  5. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  6. Celibacy and Family Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaletdinov B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes for celibacy, divorces and successful marriage are discussed in the article. Absence of true love and inability to build and keep it are the main reasons for family disruption. Amorousness, immature love and various forms of false or flawed love substitute the true feeling. It is caused by increased women’s independence, loss of mutual understanding and trust (due to infidelity or jealousy, incompatibility of characters or values. Celibacy is often conditioned by physical disability, revaluation of freedom and independence, huge requirements to partners, consumer attitude to life, infertility, alcohol and drug abuse, abnormalities in personality and sexuality.

  7. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s−1 at peak, rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ∼ 2 − 5, created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  8. Disruptions in the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a successful reactor, it will be useful to predict the occurrence of disruptions and to understand disruption effects including how a plasma disrupts onto the wall and how reproducibly it does so. Studies of disruptions on TFTR at both high-βpol and high-density have shown that, in both types, a fast growing m/n=1/1 mode plays an important role. In highdensity disruptions, a newly observed fast m/n = 1/1 mode occurs early in the thermal decay phase. For the first time in TFTR q-profile measurements just prior to disruptions have been made. Experimental studies of heat deposition patterns on the first wall of TFTR due to disruptions have provided information on MHD phenomena prior to or during the disruption, how the energy is released to the wall, and the reproducibility of the heat loads from disruptions. This information is important in the design of future devices such as ITER. Several new processes of runaway electron generation are theoretically suggested and their application to TFTR and ITER is considered, together with a preliminary assessment of x-ray data from runaways generated during disruptions

  9. Prediction of disruptions on ASDEX Upgrade using discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a set of simple predictive criteria, each optimized for a given type of disruption, is explored. Disruptions that occurred in the years from 2005 to 2009 in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are classified into several types in a first step. Then, discriminant analysis is used as the main approach to the disruption prediction and a log-linear discriminant function, constructed with five global plasma parameters that have been selected from an initial group of ten variables, is derived for the edge cooling disruptions. The function is tested off-line over 308 discharges and is shown to work reliably. It describes a clear dependence of the disruption boundary on the plasma parameters.

  10. Amphibians as model to study endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka

    2006-10-13

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. These so-called endocrine disrupters (ED) are known to affect reproductive biology and thyroid system. The classical model species for these endocrine systems are amphibians and therefore they can serve as sentinels for detection of the modes of action (MOAs) of ED. Recently, amphibians are being reviewed as suitable models to assess (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic MOAs influencing reproductive biology as well as (anti)thyroidal MOAs interfering with the thyroid system. The development of targeted bioassays in combination with adequate chemical analyses is the prerequisite for a concise risk assessment of ED.

  11. Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Webster; Hassall, Christopher; Herdman, Chris M.; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object's salient features (for example their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognize. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive...

  12. Screening chemicals for thyroid-disrupting activity: A critical comparison of mammalian and amphibian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Daniel B

    2010-11-01

    In order to minimize risks to human and environmental health, chemical safety assessment programs are being reinforced with toxicity tests more specifically designed for detecting endocrine disrupters. This includes the necessity to detect thyroid-disrupting chemicals, which may operate through a variety of modes of action, and have potential to impair neurological development in humans, with resulting deficits of individual and social potential. Mindful of these concerns, the consensus favors in vivo models for both hazard characterization (testing) and hazard identification (screening) steps, in order to minimize false negatives. Owing to its obligate dependence on thyroid hormones, it has been proposed that amphibian metamorphosis be used as a generalized vertebrate model for thyroid function in screening batteries for detection of thyroid disrupters. However, it seems unlikely that such an assay would ever fully replace in vivo mammalian assays currently being validated for human health risk assessment: in its current form the amphibian metamorphosis screening assay would not provide capacity for reliably detecting other modes of endocrine-disrupting activity. Conversely, several candidate mammalian screening assays appear to offer robust capacity to detect a variety of modes of endocrine-disrupting activity, including thyroid activity. To assess whether omission of an amphibian metamorphosis assay from an in vivo screening battery would generate false negatives, the response of amphibian and mammalian assays to a variety known thyroid disrupters, as reported in peer-reviewed literature or government agency reports, was critically reviewed. Of the chemicals investigated from the literature selected (41), more had been tested in mammalian studies with thyroid-relevant endpoints (32) than in amphibian assays with appropriate windows of exposure and developmental endpoints (27). One chemical (methoxychlor) was reported to exhibit thyroid activity in an appropriate

  13. 环境污染对几类水生无脊椎动物内分泌功能扰乱的研究现状%Current status of environmental endocrine disruption in selected aquatic invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enmin ZOU

    2003-01-01

    近年来,在环境毒理学这门边缘学科中又诞生了一个新的领域,即环境污染对内分泌功能的扰乱.研究发现,许多人工合成的杀虫剂和工业化合物能够扰乱脊椎动物的内分泌功能,这些化合物也存在于水环境中.近年来,这些环境有机污染物是否对水生无脊椎动物的内分泌功能同样具有扰乱作用成了环境内分泌学这个新领域的热点之一.由于近年来的研究侧重于腔肠动物、轮虫、软体动物、甲壳动物及棘皮动物,因此,本文主要介绍有关环境污染物对这几类水生无脊椎动物内分泌功能扰乱的研究进展.另外,对环境污染对水生无脊椎动物内分泌扰乱这个研究热点的现状以及今后的发展方向进行了评述.在从事环境污染对无脊椎动物内分泌功能影响的研究时,研究者必须意识到无脊椎动物和脊椎动物在内分泌机制上的差异,不可随意地在这两大类动物类群之间互相引伸研究结果.%Endocrine disruption by environmental contaminants has recently emerged as a new subdiscipline of environmental toxicology. Aquatic environments are increasingly contaminated with various anthropogenic chemicals,many of which are capable of disrupting endocrine functions of vertebrates. Where aquatic invertebrates are concerned, most of the recent reports are concerned with the impact of organic xenobiotics on endocrine functions in cnidarians, rotifers, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms. This review provides an overview of the current status of this research on endocrine disruption in these invertebrates. Suggestions for future research directions in the field of invertebrate endocrine disruption are also presented. Because of the disparities between the endocrine systems of invertebrates and vertebrates, care must be exercised in extrapolating to invertebrates, particularly the non-deuterostome invertebrates, the results of endocrine disruption studies with vertebrates

  14. Physician disruptive behaviors: Five year progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2015-11-16

    Disruptive behaviors in health care can have a significant adverse effect on staff interactions that can negatively impact staff satisfaction, staff performance, and patient outcomes of care. As referenced in a previously published article, the Obstetrics and Gynecology specialty is one of the service areas where these behaviors occur more frequently. Despite growing evidence of the ill effects of these types of behaviors many organizations are still having a difficult time in addressing these issues in an effective manner. Gaining a better understanding of the nature, causes, and impact of these behaviors is crucial to finding the right remedies for solution. Nobody intentionally starts the day planning to be disruptive, it's just that things get in the way. A combination of deep seated factors related to age and gender preferences, culture and ethnicity, life experiences, and other events that help shape values, attitudes and personalities, and more external factors related to training, environmental pressures, stress and burnout, and other personal issues all contribute to the mix. Given the complexities of today's health care environment, each person needs to recognize the importance of being held accountable for appropriate actions and behaviors that affect work relationships and care coordination that impact patient care. Early recognition, early intervention, and taking a pro-active supportive approach to improve individual behaviors will result in better relationships, less disruption, more satisfaction, and better outcomes of care. PMID:26601095

  15. Management Control System Support of Initiatives for Disruptive Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the management control system (MCS) support of school initiatives to develop the school climate and to re-engage disruptive students. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an approach of critical action research interviews with management and document reviews informed by Habermasian…

  16. The Cu-CHA deNOx Catalyst in Action: Temperature-Dependent NH3-Assisted Selective Catalytic Reduction Monitored by Operando XAS and XES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomachenko, Kirill A; Borfecchia, Elisa; Negri, Chiara; Berlier, Gloria; Lamberti, Carlo; Beato, Pablo; Falsig, Hanne; Bordiga, Silvia

    2016-09-21

    The small-pore Cu-CHA zeolite is today the object of intensive research efforts to rationalize its outstanding performance in the NH3-assisted selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of harmful nitrogen oxides and to unveil the SCR mechanism. Herein we exploit operando X-ray spectroscopies to monitor the Cu-CHA catalyst in action during NH3-SCR in the 150-400 °C range, targeting Cu oxidation state, mobility, and preferential N or O ligation as a function of reaction temperature. By combining operando XANES, EXAFS, and vtc-XES, we unambiguously identify two distinct regimes for the atomic-scale behavior of Cu active-sites. Low-temperature SCR, up to ∼200 °C, is characterized by balanced populations of Cu(I)/Cu(II) sites and dominated by mobile NH3-solvated Cu-species. From 250 °C upward, in correspondence to the steep increase in catalytic activity, the largely dominant Cu-species are framework-coordinated Cu(II) sites, likely representing the active sites for high-temperature SCR. PMID:27532483

  17. Disruptive coloration provides camouflage independent of background matching

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, H. Martin; Stobbe, Nina

    2006-01-01

    Natural selection shapes the evolution of anti-predator defences, such as camouflage. It is currently contentious whether crypsis and disruptive coloration are alternative mechanisms of camouflage or whether they are interrelated anti-predator defences. Disruptively coloured prey is characterized by highly contrasting patterns to conceal the body shape, whereas cryptic prey minimizes the contrasts to background. Determining bird predation of artificial moths, we found that moths which were di...

  18. Repartnering after First Union Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the 1995 General Social Survey (N= 2,639), this study examines two competing repartnering choices made by Canadians after first union disruption: marriage or cohabitation. About 42% of women and 54% of men form a second union 5 years after union disruption, with cohabitation being the most prevalent choice. The timing of second…

  19. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 18. Part 1B: Citations with abstracts, sections 10 through 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3,638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D and D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized sites Remedial Action Program; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluation; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues.

  20. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 18. Part 1A: Citations with abstracts, sections 1 through 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3,638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration program; (2) DOE D and D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluation; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues.

  1. Learning about goals: development of action perception and action control

    OpenAIRE

    Verschoor, Stephan Alexander

    2014-01-01

    By using innovative paradigms, the present thesis provides convincing evidence that action-effect learning, and sensorimotor processes in general play a crucial role in the development of action- perception and production in infancy. This finding was further generalized to sequential action. Furthermore the thesis suggests that means-selection-, ends-selection information, and action-effect knowledge together feed into a unitary concept of goal. Both these findings have the potential to gener...

  2. Tidal disruption event demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-09-01

    We survey the properties of stars destroyed in tidal disruption events (TDEs) as a function of black hole (BH) mass, stellar mass and evolutionary state, star formation history and redshift. For M_{BH} ≲ 10^7 M_{⊙}, the typical TDE is due to a M* ˜ 0.3 M⊙ M-dwarf, although the mass function is relatively flat for M_{ast } ≲ M_{⊙}. The contribution from older main-sequence stars and sub-giants is small but not negligible. From MBH ≃ 107.5-108.5 M⊙, the balance rapidly shifts to higher mass stars and a larger contribution from evolved stars, and is ultimately dominated by evolved stars at higher BH masses. The star formation history has little effect until the rates are dominated by evolved stars. TDE rates should decline very rapidly towards higher redshifts. The volumetric rate of TDEs is very high because the BH mass function diverges for low masses. However, any emission mechanism which is largely Eddington-limited for low BH masses suppresses this divergence in any observed sample and leads to TDE samples dominated by MBH ≃ 106.0-107.5 M⊙ BHs with roughly Eddington peak accretion rates. The typical fall-back time is relatively long, with 16 per cent having tfb plausible if tfb has any relation to the transient rise time. For almost any BH mass function, systematic searches for fainter, faster time-scale TDEs in smaller galaxies, and longer time-scale TDEs in more massive galaxies are likely to be rewarded.

  3. Anxiolytic-like actions of the selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonists SB 204070A and SB 207266A in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, G A; Bright, F; Trail, B; Blackburn, T P; Sanger, G J

    1997-01-01

    The highly selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, SB 204070A (0.001-0.1 mg/kg s.c., 30 min pretest) and SB 207266A (0.01, 1 and 10 mg/kg p.o., 1 hr pre-test), increased time spent in social interaction without affecting locomotor activity, in a rat 15 min social interaction test under high light, unfamiliar conditions. At 1 and 10 mg/kg s.c., SB 204070A was no longer active. These results are consistent with the profile expected of anxiolytic treatments in this procedure. In a rat 5 min elevated x-maze test, SB 204070A (0.01 and 1 mg/kg s.c., 30 min pre-test) significantly increased the percentage of time spent on the open arms. SB 204070A (0.01 mg/kg s.c.) and SB 207266A (1 mg/kg p.o., 1 hr pre-test) also increased percentage entries to the open arms. Neither compound affected locomotion at any dose tested in the procedure. The effects of both compounds in this procedure are also consistent with anxiolysis. Neither SB 204070A (0.1 or 1 mg/kg s.c., 30 min pre-test) nor SB 207266A (0.1 or 1 mg/kg p.o., 1 hr pre-test) affected either unpunished or punished responding, in a rat Geller-Seifter conflict model of anxiety. The maximal efficacy of both SB 204070A and SB 207266A in the rat social interaction test was similar to that of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (5 mg/kg s.c. or p.o.) used as a positive control, but was considerably less in the elevated x-maze procedure. The results suggest that 5-HT4 receptor antagonists may have modest anxiolytic-like actions in rats. PMID:9225297

  4. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems. PMID:26208951

  5. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and neurodevelopmental alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, A; Bourguignon, J P; Parent, A S

    2016-07-01

    The developing brain is remarkably malleable as neural circuits are formed and these circuits are strongly dependent on hormones for their development. For those reasons, the brain is very vulnerable to the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during critical periods of development. This review focuses on three ubiquitous endocrine disruptors that are known to disrupt the thyroid function and are associated with neurobehavioral deficits: polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and bisphenol A. The human and rodent data suggesting effects of those EDCs on memory, cognition, and social behavior are discussed. Their mechanisms of action go beyond relative hypothyroidism with effects on neurotransmitter release and calcium signaling. PMID:27285165

  6. Methods for the Determination of Endocrine-Disrupting Phthalate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Munawar Saeed; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim bin Mohd; Wirzal, Mohd Dzul Hakim; Sirajuddin; Barek, Jiri; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Üstündag, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods. PMID:25831046

  7. Methods for the Determination of Endocrine-Disrupting Phthalate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Munawar Saeed; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim bin Mohd; Wirzal, Mohd Dzul Hakim; Sirajuddin; Barek, Jiri; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Üstündag, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.

  8. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin eShah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence. In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of ``was the outcome achieved?''; they focus on ``how well was the outcome achieved?'' However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006, actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of ``was the outcome achieved?'' and not ``how well was the outcome achieved?'' Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on ``was the outcome achieved?'' and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context.

  9. Extensor Mechanism Disruption in Knee Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Michael; Reardon, Patrick; Pareek, Ayoosh; Krych, Aaron; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Disruption of the knee extensor mechanism is a challenging injury with no clear consensus on optimal treatment. Although rare in the setting of knee dislocations, these injuries should not be overlooked. Acute, complete rupture of either the quadriceps or patellar tendon necessitates primary repair with or without augmentation. Surgical management may also be required in the setting of a partial tear if a significant extensor lag is present or nonoperative treatment has failed. Tendon augmentation is used during primary repair if the native tissue is inadequate or after a failed primary repair. The purpose of this study is to evaluate extensor mechanism disruption incidence, injury patterns, associated injuries, and surgical options, including a novel tendon augmentation technique. This procedure consists of primary patellar or quadriceps tendon repair with semitendinosus autograft augmentation utilizing a distal or proximal patellar socket. Advantages of repair with tendon augmentation include accelerated rehabilitation, decreased risk of patellar fracture from transverse or longitudinal bone tunnels, and less hardware complications. We recommend consideration of this technique for selected cases of acute extensor mechanism disruption in the setting of tibiofemoral dislocation. PMID:26636488

  10. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  11. Vortex disruption by magnetohydrodynamic feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Julian; Hughes, D W

    2016-01-01

    In an electrically conducting fluid, vortices stretch out a weak, large-scale magnetic field to form strong current sheets on their edges. Associated with these current sheets are magnetic stresses, which are subsequently released through reconnection, leading to vortex disruption, and possibly even destruction. This disruption phenomenon is investigated here in the context of two-dimensional, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. We derive a simple order of magnitude estimate for the magnetic stresses --- and thus the degree of disruption --- that depends on the strength of the background magnetic field (measured by the parameter $M$, a ratio between the Alfv\\'en speed and a typical flow speed) and on the magnetic diffusivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number $\\mbox{Rm}$). The resulting estimate suggests that significant disruption occurs when $M^{2}\\mbox{Rm} = O(1)$. To test our prediction, we analyse direct numerical simulations of vortices generated by the breakup of unstable shear flo...

  12. Simulating Impacts of Disruptions to Liquid Fuels Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Resilience and Regulatory Effects; Corbet, Thomas F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Policy and Decision Analytics; Baker, Arnold B. [ABB Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Rourke, Julia M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-04-01

    This report presents a methodology for estimating the impacts of events that damage or disrupt liquid fuels infrastructure. The impact of a disruption depends on which components of the infrastructure are damaged, the time required for repairs, and the position of the disrupted components in the fuels supply network. Impacts are estimated for seven stressing events in regions of the United States, which were selected to represent a range of disruption types. For most of these events the analysis is carried out using the National Transportation Fuels Model (NTFM) to simulate the system-level liquid fuels sector response. Results are presented for each event, and a brief cross comparison of event simulation results is provided.

  13. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    , these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...

  14. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  15. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  16. Disrupting neuronal transmission: Mechanism of DBS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi eChiken

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Applying high-frequency stimulation to deep brain rain structure, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS, has now been recognized an effective therapeutic option for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS targeting the basal ganglia thalamo-cortical loop, especially the internal segment of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and thalamus, has been widely employed as a successful surgical therapy for movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and tremor. However, the neurophysiological mechanism underling the action of DBS remains unclear and is still under debate: does DBS inhibit or excite local neuronal elements? In this review, we will examine this question and propose the alternative interpretation: DBS dissociates inputs and outputs, resulting in disruption of abnormal signal transmission.

  17. Consequences of Family Disruption on Children’s Educational Outcomes in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Fiona; SIGLE-RUSHTON, WENDY; Kravdal, Øystein

    2009-01-01

    Using high-quality data from Norwegian population registers, we examine the relationship between family disruption and children’s educational outcomes. We distinguish between disruptions caused by parental divorce and paternal death and, using a simultaneous equation model, pay particular attention to selection bias in the effect of divorce. We also allow for the possibility that disruption may have different effects at different stages of a child’s educational career. Our results suggest tha...

  18. All in Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Annila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which Nature in its entirety and every detail is described in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiple of the most elementary actions which relates to Planck’s constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span an energy landscape, the Universe, which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing energy density differences in least time. During evolution densely-curled actions unfold step-by-step when opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The energy landscape will process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to its dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature in terms of actions does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental forces. Instead a plethora of particles and a diaspora of forces are perceived merely as diverse manifestations of a natural selection for various mechanisms and ways to decrease free energy in the least time.

  19. TAD disruption as oncogenic driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valton, Anne-Laure; Dekker, Job

    2016-02-01

    Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) are conserved during evolution and play roles in guiding and constraining long-range regulation of gene expression. Disruption of TAD boundaries results in aberrant gene expression by exposing genes to inappropriate regulatory elements. Recent studies have shown that TAD disruption is often found in cancer cells and contributes to oncogenesis through two mechanisms. One mechanism locally disrupts domains by deleting or mutating a TAD boundary leading to fusion of the two adjacent TADs. The other mechanism involves genomic rearrangements that break up TADs and creates new ones without directly affecting TAD boundaries. Understanding the mechanisms by which TADs form and control long-range chromatin interactions will therefore not only provide insights into the mechanism of gene regulation in general, but will also reveal how genomic rearrangements and mutations in cancer genomes can lead to misregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. PMID:27111891

  20. An Empirical Test of Crisis, Social Selection, and Role Explanations of the Relationship between Marital Disruption and Psychological Distress: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis of Four-Wave Panel Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R.; Wu, Jian

    2002-01-01

    Reviews three theoretical explanations (social role theory, crisis theory, social selection theory) for the reasons for psychological distress of divorced individuals. Evaluates the efficacy of these theories in a pooled analysis of married persons followed over 12 years. Results provide evidence that higher stress levels of the divorced primarily…

  1. Substances that disrupt thyroid hormone biosynthesis (in Romanian)

    OpenAIRE

    Pap, Andreea; Moșneang, Crina Laura; Romeo Teodor CRISTINA

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupters are natural or synthetic chemical substances that have the possibility to alter the endocrine functions leading to serious metabolic changes especially in newborns. The accumulation and persistence over long periods of time became a priority in terms of health and environment. The mechanism of action is represented by blocking, mimicking or modifying the effects of thyroid hormones. In this review, the main purpose was to determine what effects have the endocrine disrupto...

  2. Testing a participatory integrated assessment(PIA) approach to select climate change adaptation actions to enhance wetland sustainability: The case of Poyang Lake region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Li; YIN; Yongyuan; DU; De-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of mainstreaming climate adaptation strategies or policies into natural resource management plans has been recognized by the UNFCCC.The IPCC AR5 report suggests a growing demand for research to provide information for a deeper and more useful understanding of climate adaptation options,and indicates a lack of effective methods to meet this increasing demand of policymakers.In this respect,a participatory integrated assessment(PIA) approach is presented in this paper to provide an effective means to mainstream wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development strategies,and thus to reduce climate vulnerability and to enhance rural community livelihood.The PIA approach includes a series of research activities required to assess climate impacts on wetland ecosystems,and to prioritize adaptation responses.A range of adaptation options that address key aspects of the wetland ecosystem resilience and concerns are evaluated against community based on sustainable development indicators.The PIA approach is able to identify desirable adaptation options which can then be implemented to improve wetland ecosystem health and to enhance regional sustainable development in a changing climate.For illustration purpose,the PIA was applied in a case study in Poyang Lake(PYL) region,a critical wetland and water ecosystem in central China with important international biodiversity linkages,and a locale for key policy experiments with ecosystem rehabilitation.The PIA was used to facilitate the integration of wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development actions with multi-stakeholders participation.In particular,the case shows how the PIA can be designed and implemented to select effective and practical climate change adaptation options to enhance ecosystem services management and to reduce resource use conflicts and rural poverty.Worked in partnership with multi-stakeholders and assisted with a multi-criteria decision making tool

  3. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  4. Action physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  5. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  6. Disruptive Innovation in Healthcare & Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    will pay. Disruptive Innovation in context of the author’s body of work in healthcare and rehabilitation relates to how development of a cloud-based converged infrastructure resource, similar to that conceived in a national (Danish) study titled Humanics, can act as an accessible data and knowledge...

  7. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  8. Selective Maintenance Model Considering Cannibalization and Multiple Maintenance Actions%考虑拼修与多种维修活动的维修任务选择模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕学志; 于永利; 张柳; 曲长征

    2012-01-01

    选择维修策略与拼件维修策略是2种重要的装备群维修策略.将二者结合,给出了一种考虑拼件维修与多种维修活动的维修任务选择模型,此外在系统定义、任务定义、维修资源等方面都对维修任务选择模型进行了拓展.先给出模型的假设条件,针对考虑拼件维修策略与多种维修活动的维修任务选择问题,建立一种非线性的0-1规划模型,得出基于智能算法的分解算法框架,并通过具体实例证明了模型的有效性.该模型适用于管理人员在考虑拼件维修策略与多种维修活动情况下做出合理的维修任务选择决策.%Selective maintenance strategy and cannibalization maintenance strategy are two very important equipment maintenance strategies. The paper develops a selective maintenance model considering cannibalization and multiple maintenance actions, moreover it extends the selective maintenance model at system definition, mission definition and maintenance resource. Firstly, it expounds on the model assumption. Then, it establishes a non-linear, 0-1 programming model to resolve the selective maintenance problem considering cannibalization and multiple maintenance actions. Next, the paper presents a algorithm framework based on metaheuristics. Finally, it provides an example to verify the validity and feasibility of the model. The model suits manager to make reasonable decision considering cannibalization and multiple maintenance actions.

  9. Obesity-related hypertension: is there a role for selective leptin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Marcelo L G; Haynes, William G

    2004-06-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in particular for hypertension. Serum leptin levels and sympathetic nerve activity are both increased in obesity. Leptin has been demonstrated to increase sympathetic nerve activity. Thus, leptin-dependent sympathoactivation might contribute to obesity-related hypertension. However, leptin resistance occurs in obesity. One possibility is that leptin resistance is selective to the metabolic effects of leptin, sparing its sympathoexcitatory actions. In this article, we review experimental evidence supporting the novel concept of selective leptin resistance. We also discuss the sympathetic actions of leptin that are relevant to blood pressure modulation and potential mechanisms of leptin resistance. Disruption of leptin intracellular signaling pathways and resistance of specific leptin-responsive neural networks provide theoretic models of selective leptin resistance. However, most information about leptin-sympathetic actions and leptin-resistance mechanisms derive from in vitro and animal studies. Future research in humans is widely awaited. PMID:15128477

  10. Unique biochemical and molecular biological mechanism of synergistic actions of formamidine compounds on selected pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph F A; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that formamidine pesticides such as amitraz and chlordimeform effectively synergize toxic actions of certain pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in some insect species on the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Here we studied the biochemical basis of the synergistic actions of the formamidines in amplifying the toxicity of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids such as dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, as well as deltamethrin-fenvalerate type of pyrethroids. We tested the hypothesis that their synergistic actions are mediated by the octopamine receptor, and that the major consequence of octopamine receptor activation is induction of trehalase to increase glucose levels in the hemolymph. The results show that formamidines cause a significant up-regulation of the octopamine receptor and trehalase mRNA expressions. Furthermore, formamidines significantly elevate levels of free glucose when co-treated with dinotefuran, deltamethrin and fenvalerate, but not with permethrin or fenitrothion, which showed no synergistic toxic effects with formamidines. These results support the conclusion that the main mode of synergism is based on the ability to activate the octopamine receptor, which is particularly effective with insecticides causing hyperexcitation-induced glucose release and consequently leading to quick energy exhaustion.

  11. Selecting the right supply chain for a customer in project business : an action research study in the mobile communications infrastructure industry

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Jari (ed.)

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is about integrating a supply chain to a customer's implementation project. The study is to identify and describe key factors that influence supply chain choices for project businesses. The aim is to explain the selection criteria for the right chain for an individual customer under different circumstances. The research problem, a highly relevant theme in the Internet age, is how to select the most appropriate supply chain for a customer in different business conditions. In additi...

  12. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  13. Optimal Disruption of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The collection of all the strongly connected components in a directed graph, among each cluster of which any node has a path to another node, is a typical example of the intertwining structure and dynamics in complex networks, as its relative size indicates network cohesion and it also composes of all the feedback cycles in the network. Here we consider finding an optimal strategy with minimal effort in removal arcs (for example, deactivation of directed interactions) to fragment all the strongly connected components into tree structure with no effect from feedback mechanism. We map the optimal network disruption problem to the minimal feedback arc set problem, a non-deterministically polynomial hard combinatorial optimization problem in graph theory. We solve the problem with statistical physical methods from spin glass theory, resulting in a simple numerical method to extract sub-optimal disruption arc sets with significantly better results than a local heuristic method and a simulated annealing method both...

  14. Sociology of Law Perspectivity in Action Selection of Administrative Law Enforcement Personnel%行政执法人员行动选择的法社会学透视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何富

    2015-01-01

    行政执法人员在进行行动选择时,不仅受到规范性因素的指引,也受到非规范性因素的制约,良好行政执法关系的形成必须是这两类因素合理互动的结果。由此,于现实主义法学理论中获得启示,从法社会学的视角分析行政执法人员的行动选择,总结出影响行政执法人员行动选择的四大规范性要素和四大非规范性要素,揭示出行政执法实际上是规范性因素和非规范性因素争夺控制权的过程。%In the process of action selection,administrative law enforcement personnel is not only guided by the“normative ele-ments”,also restricted by the“non-normative elements”. The good relationship between law enforcement agencies and the ad-ministrative relatives must be the result of the interaction of the two factors. Inspiration is got from the legal realism. Sociology of law perspectivity in action selection of administrative law enforcement personnel is used. The impact of administrative law en-forcement personnel action selection of the four“normative elements”and four“non-normative elements”are summed up. It reveals that the administrative law enforcement is actually process for control between“normative elements”and“non-norma-tive elements”.

  15. HOW TO IDENTIFY DISRUPTIVE NEW BUSINESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Robles

    2015-01-01

    In almost any industry, the most dramatic stories of growth and success were launched from a platform of disruptive innovation (Christensen et al., 2002). The probability of creating a successful, new growth business is 10 times greater if the innovators pursue a disruptive strategy rather than a sustaining one. Genuinely disruptive innovations are the ones that result in the creation of entirely new markets and business models. Few companies have introduced these innovations. Disruptive inno...

  16. Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Main, Katharina M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many studies of thyroid-disrupting effects of environmental chemicals have been published. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid disruption of the developing organism may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Chemicals may exert...... thyroid-disrupting effects, and there is emerging evidence that also phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals may have thyroid disrupting properties....

  17. Turbulence and disruptions in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of this thesis, the possible explanation of the electron abnormal thermal conductivity with electromagnetic drift modes rather than simply electrostatic is discussed. A variational form is established in non collisional conditions; linear modes principal possibilities are reviewed, then quasilinear theory is used to calculate the transport phenomenon associated to each mode. They are compared to experimental results. Electron abnormal thermal conductibility is not better explained by electromagnetic modes than by electrostatic modes. In the second part, disruptions are examined; experimental manifestations are briefly recalled. Existing interpretations of these phenomenons are reviewed, which are based on magnetic islands non-linear evolution. A detailed analytical study of the case l=1, m=1 is made. Other disruptions are studied; it is shown that the disruptive process is indissociable from sudden apparition of small scale magnetic turbulence. The possibility of such a turbulence is studied. Its predictable effects are compared to experiment. Such a turbulence, is assumed to exist permanently in an attenuated form, which could justify the electronic transport anomalies in quiescent state

  18. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay.

  19. Pharmacological disruption of maladaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane R; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by intrusive, distracting, and disturbing memories that either perpetuate the illness or hinder successful treatment. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves such strong reemergence of memories associated with a traumatic event that the individual feels like the event is happening again. Furthermore, drug addiction is characterized by compulsive use and repeated relapse that is often driven by internal memories of drug use and/or by exposure to external stimuli that were associated with drug use. Therefore, identifying pharmacological methods to weaken the strength of maladaptive memories is a major goal of research efforts aimed at finding new treatments for these disorders. The primary mechanism by which memories could be pharmacologically disrupted or altered is through manipulation of memory reconsolidation. Reconsolidation occurs when an established memory is remembered or reactivated, reentering a labile state before again being consolidated into long-term memory storage. Memories are subject to disruption during this labile state. In this chapter we will discuss the preclinical and clinical studies identifying potential pharmacological methods for disrupting the integrity of maladaptive memory to treat mental illness. PMID:25977090

  20. The disruptive instability in Tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salzedas, F.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Studies performed in RTP (Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project) of the most violent and dangerous instability in tokamak plasmas, the major disruption, are presented. A particular class of disruptions is analyzed, namely the density limit disruption, which occur in high density plasmas. The radiative te

  1. Disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Chandra; S.-J.S. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Research on conditions and causal mechanisms that influence disruptive innovation has been relatively unexplored in the extant research in disruptive innovation. By re-conceptualizing disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process at product, firm and industry levels, this paper draws on emergi

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L;

    2012-01-01

    in regulation of these events across the life cycle. The developmental age at which EDC exposures occur is a critical consideration in understanding their effects. Because endocrine systems exhibit tissue-, cell-, and receptor-specific actions during the life cycle, EDC can produce complex, mosaic effects......An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variability....... This complexity causes difficulty when a static approach to toxicity through endocrine mechanisms driven by rigid guidelines is used to identify EDC and manage risk to human and wildlife populations. We propose that principles taken from fundamental endocrinology be employed to identify EDC and manage their risk...

  7. CANEGROWERS Action Research Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, R.H.; Brouwer, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This toolkit contains a selection of tools to conduct action research, organized around four phases: Identify problems and possibilities; Analyze problems and possibilities; Search for solutions; and Reflection tools. The toolkit is customized for staff of Canegrowers in South Africa, who used the t

  8. 29 CFR 1607.13 - Affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affirmative action. 1607.13 Section 1607.13 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.13 Affirmative action. A. Affirmative action... relieve users of any obligations they may have to undertake affirmative action to assure equal...

  9. Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carere

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.

  10. Node of Ranvier disruption as a cause of neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Susuki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction and/or disruption of nodes of Ranvier are now recognized as key contributors to the pathophysiology of various neurological diseases. One reason is that the excitable nodal axolemma contains a high density of Nav (voltage-gated Na+ channels that are required for the rapid and efficient saltatory conduction of action potentials. Nodal physiology is disturbed by altered function, localization, and expression of voltage-gated ion channels clustered at nodes and juxtaparanodes, and by disrupted axon–glial interactions at paranodes. This paper reviews recent discoveries in molecular/cellular neuroscience, genetics, immunology, and neurology that highlight the critical roles of nodes of Ranvier in health and disease.

  11. Energy disruptions, interfirm price effects and the aggregate economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an economy with many imperfect competitors (monopolistic competition), firms that pass through higher oil prices during a disruption will affect the demand for firms in other industries. Firms that charge higher prices for their final product will include the effect on their own final product in their private decisions but will exclude the effect on the final products of other firms. Although a pecuniary externality, these actions will reduce society's welfare, unlike the case of a perfectly competitive market. This situation creates a societal risk that is much wider than an externality in any single market. Policy interest shifts from one of punishing Persian Gulf oil producers to one of cushioning an industrialized economy from sudden disruptions caused by political and military conflicts. Although the value of reducing oil use depends upon a number of unknown parameters with wide distributions, a representative numerical example suggests that it may approach 5 US dollars per barrel. (Author)

  12. Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Taxvig, Camilla; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2010-01-01

    Parabens are preservatives used in a wide range of cosmetic products, including products for children, and some are permitted in foods. However, there is concern for endocrine disrupting effects. This paper critically discusses the conclusions of recent reviews and original research papers...... and provides an overview of studies on toxicokinetics. After dermal uptake, parabens are hydrolyzed and conjugated and excreted in urine. Despite high total dermal uptake of paraben and metabolites,little intact paraben can be recovered in blood and urine. Paraben metabolites may play a role in the endocrine...... disruption seen in experimental animals and studies are needed to determine human levels of parabens and metabolites. Overall, the estrogenic burden of parabens and their metabolites in blood may exceed the action of endogenous estradiol in childhood and the safety margin for propylparaben is very low when...

  13. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  9. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas

  10. Disruptive innovation for social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.

  11. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  12. Activity and mechanism of action of HDVD, a novel pyrimidine nucleoside derivative with high levels of selectivity and potency against gammaherpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, N; Singh, U; Vuyyuru, V; Van den Oord, J J; Balzarini, J; Duraffour, S; Snoeck, R; Cheng, Y C; Chu, C K; Andrei, G

    2013-04-01

    A novel nucleoside analogue, 1-[(2S,4S-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]5-vinylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, or HDVD, was evaluated against a wide variety of herpesviruses and was found to be a highly selective inhibitor of replication of the gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). HDVD had also a pronounced inhibitory activity against murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In contrast, replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was weakly inhibited by the compound, and no antiviral activity was determined against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV). The HDVD-resistant virus phenotype contained point mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) of HSV-1, MHV-68, and HVS isolates. These mutations conferred cross-resistance to other TK-dependent drugs, with the exception of an MHV-68 mutant (E358D) that exhibited resistance only to HDVD. HSV-1 and HVS TK-mutants isolated under selective pressure with bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVDU) also showed reduced sensitivity to HDVD. Oral treatment with HDVD and BVDU was assessed in an intranasal model of MHV-68 infection in BALB/c mice. In contrast to BVDU treatment, HDVD-treated animals showed a reduction in viral DNA loads and diminished viral gene expression during acute viral replication in the lungs in comparison to levels in untreated controls. The valyl ester prodrug of HDVD (USS-02-71-44) suppressed the latent infection in the spleen to a greater extent than HDVD. In the present study, HDVD emerged as a highly potent antiviral with a unique spectrum of activity against herpesviruses, in particular, gammaherpesviruses, and may be of interest in the treatment of virus-associated diseases.

  13. Psychology of motivation and actions

    OpenAIRE

    Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    Three sets of phenomena has traditionally been of concern for research on motivation and action:( a) the selection of a certain course of action, (b) its energization, and (c) its regulation. Taking this comprehensive perspective, many different kinds of behavior (e.g., helping others, aggression, intergroup relations, achievement) can be analyzed from a motivational viewpoint. In the following sections, selected concepts are discussed that characterize present-day research on motivation: (...

  14. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. PMID:26198079

  15. Lysosomal disruption preferentially targets acute myeloid leukemia cells and progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhai, Mahadeo A.; Prabha, Swayam; Hurren, Rose; Rutledge, Angela C.; Lee, Anna Y.; Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Sun, Hong; Wang, Xiaoming; Skrtic, Marko; Seneviratne, Ayesh; Cusimano, Maria; Jhas, Bozhena; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Cho, Eunice E.; Spagnuolo, Paul A.; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Gebbia, Marinella; Urbanus, Malene; Eppert, Kolja; Dissanayake, Dilan; Jonet, Alexia; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Li, Xiaoming; Datti, Alessandro; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Wrana, Jeff; Rogers, Ian; Sonnet, Pascal; Ellis, William Y.; Corey, Seth J.; Eaves, Connie; Minden, Mark D.; Wang, Jean C.Y.; Dick, John E.; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Schimmer, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to understand and treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there remains a need for more comprehensive therapies to prevent AML-associated relapses. To identify new therapeutic strategies for AML, we screened a library of on- and off-patent drugs and identified the antimalarial agent mefloquine as a compound that selectively kills AML cells and AML stem cells in a panel of leukemia cell lines and in mice. Using a yeast genome-wide functional screen for mefloquine sensitizers, we identified genes associated with the yeast vacuole, the homolog of the mammalian lysosome. Consistent with this, we determined that mefloquine disrupts lysosomes, directly permeabilizes the lysosome membrane, and releases cathepsins into the cytosol. Knockdown of the lysosomal membrane proteins LAMP1 and LAMP2 resulted in decreased cell viability, as did treatment of AML cells with known lysosome disrupters. Highlighting a potential therapeutic rationale for this strategy, leukemic cells had significantly larger lysosomes compared with normal cells, and leukemia-initiating cells overexpressed lysosomal biogenesis genes. These results demonstrate that lysosomal disruption preferentially targets AML cells and AML progenitor cells, providing a rationale for testing lysosomal disruption as a novel therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:23202731

  16. Positive Action. Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Positive Action," a K-12 program, aims to promote character development, academic achievement, and social-emotional skills and to reduce disruptive and problem behavior. The program is based on the philosophy that you feel good about yourself when you think and do positive actions, and there is always a positive way to do everything. The…

  17. Multistage Logistic Network Optimization under Disruption Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Getting over disruptions risk has been a challenging issue for many companies under the globalization that will link to potential external source such as demand uncertainties, natural disasters, and terrorist attacks. The disruption is an unexpected event that disturbs normal flows of products and materials within a supply chain. The disruption at one members of supply chain will propagate the offers and finally affect significant impacts on the entire chain. If we look back...

  18. Disrupted Sleep: From Molecules to Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Someren, E.J.W.; Cirelli, C.; Dijk, D.-J.; Van Cauter, E; Schwartz, Sophie; Chee, M. W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the functions of sleep remain to be fully elucidated, it is clear that there are far-reaching effects of its disruption, whether by curtailment for a single night, by a few hours each night over a long period, or by disruption in sleep continuity. Epidemiological and experimental studies of these different forms of sleep disruption show deranged physiology from subcellular levels to complex affective behavior. In keeping with the multifaceted influence of sleep on health and well-bei...

  19. Disrupted Sleep: From Molecules to Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Cirelli, Chiara; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Van Cauter, Eve; Schwartz, Sophie; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Although the functions of sleep remain to be fully elucidated, it is clear that there are far-reaching effects of its disruption, whether by curtailment for a single night, by a few hours each night over a long period, or by disruption in sleep continuity. Epidemiological and experimental studies of these different forms of sleep disruption show deranged physiology from subcellular levels to complex affective behavior. In keeping with the multifaceted influence of sleep on health ...

  20. Disruption management in passenger railway transportation.

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen-Groth, J.; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, J.; Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Maróti, Gábor; Nielsen, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an o...

  1. Towards a Framework of Digital Platform Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital platforms are disruptive information technology (IT) artifacts that erode conventional business logic associated with traditional market structures. This paper presents a framework for examining the disruptive potential of digital platforms whereby we postulate that the strategic interplay of governance regimes and platform layers is deterministic of whether disruptive derivatives are permitted to flourish. This framework has been employed in a comparative case study betwe...

  2. Catastrophic disruption experiments: Recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, G.; Ryan, E. V.; Nakamura, A. M.; Giblin, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the progress in the field of catastrophic disruption experiments over the past 4 years, since the publication of the review paper by Fujiwara et al. (1989). We describe the development of new techniques to produce shattering impacts relevant to the study of the collisional evolution of the asteroids, and summarize the results from numerous experiments which have been performed to date, using a variety of materials for both the impactor and the targets. Some of these, such as ice-on-ice, loose aggregates and pressurized targets, are quite new and have provided novel and exciting results. Some of the gaps existing previously in the data on fragment ejection-angle distributions, as well as translational and rotational velocity fields (including fine fragments) have been filled, and these new results will be surveyed.

  3. Disrupting Entanglement of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Leichenauer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement in thermofield double states of strongly coupled CFTs by analyzing two-sided Reissner-Nordstrom solutions in AdS. The central object of study is the mutual information between a pair of regions, one on each asymptotic boundary of the black hole. For large regions the mutual information is positive and for small ones it vanishes; we compute the critical length scale, which goes to infinity for extremal black holes, of the transition. We also generalize the butterfly effect of Shenker and Stanford to a wide class of charged black holes, showing that mutual information is disrupted upon perturbing the system and waiting for a time of order $\\log E/\\delta E$ in units of the temperature. We conjecture that the parametric form of this timescale is universal.

  4. Synergistic Disruption of External Male Sex Organ Development by a Mixture of Four Antiandrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, Martin; Dalgaard, Majken;

    2009-01-01

    are not well described, especially when they exert their actions by differing molecular mechanisms. Objectives: To fill this gap, we investigated the effects of mixtures of a widely used plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two fungicides present in food, vinclozolin and prochloraz......By disrupting the action of androgens during gestation, certain chemicals present in food, consumer products and the environment can induce irreversible demasculinisation and malformations of sex organs among male offspring. However, the consequences of simultaneous exposure to such chemicals...

  5. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and their impact on the male reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    De Falco, Maria; Forte, Maurizio; Laforgia, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are identified for their ability to perturb the homeostasis of endocrine system and hormonal balance. The male reproductive system is under close control of hormones and each change in their concentration and time of exposition and action can induce a deregulation of its physiology. In this review we summarize the most recent studies on two main categories of EDCs with different action: the estrogenic bisphenol A and alkylphenols and the anti-androgenic p...

  6. Timescale and magnitude of plasma thermal energy loss before and during disruptions in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, V.; Loarte, A.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we analyse and discuss the thermal energy loss dynamics before and during JET disruptions that occurred between 2002 and 2004 in discharges which reached >4.5 MJ of thermal energy. We observe the slow thermal energy transients with diamagnetic loops and the fast ones with electron cyclotron emission and soft x-ray diagnostics. For most disruption types in JET, the plasma thermal energy at the time of the thermal quench is substantially less than that of the full performance plasma, typically in the range of 10-50% depending on plasma conditions and disruption type. The exceptions to this observation are disruptions in plasmas with a strong internal transport barrier (ITB) and in discharges terminating in a pure vertical displacement event, in which the plasma conserves a very high energy content up to the thermal quench. These disruption types are very sudden, leaving little scope for the combined action of soft plasma landing strategies and intrinsic performance degradation, both requiring >500 ms to be effective, to decrease the available thermal energy. The characteristic time for the loss of energy from the main plasma towards the PFCs in the thermal quench of JET disruptions is in the range 0.05-3.0 ms. The shortest timescales are typical of disruptions caused by excessive pressure peaking in ITB discharges. The available thermal energy fraction and thermal quench duration observed in JET can be processed (with due caution) into estimates for the projected PFC lifetime of the ITER target.

  7. Timescale and magnitude of plasma thermal energy loss before and during disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyse and discuss the thermal energy loss dynamics before and during JET disruptions that occurred between 2002 and 2004 in discharges which reached >4.5 MJ of thermal energy. We observe the slow thermal energy transients with diamagnetic loops and the fast ones with electron cyclotron emission and soft x-ray diagnostics. For most disruption types in JET, the plasma thermal energy at the time of the thermal quench is substantially less than that of the full performance plasma, typically in the range of 10-50% depending on plasma conditions and disruption type. The exceptions to this observation are disruptions in plasmas with a strong internal transport barrier (ITB) and in discharges terminating in a pure vertical displacement event, in which the plasma conserves a very high energy content up to the thermal quench. These disruption types are very sudden, leaving little scope for the combined action of soft plasma landing strategies and intrinsic performance degradation, both requiring >500 ms to be effective, to decrease the available thermal energy. The characteristic time for the loss of energy from the main plasma towards the PFCs in the thermal quench of JET disruptions is in the range 0.05-3.0 ms. The shortest timescales are typical of disruptions caused by excessive pressure peaking in ITB discharges. The available thermal energy fraction and thermal quench duration observed in JET can be processed (with due caution) into estimates for the projected PFC lifetime of the ITER target

  8. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  9. Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  10. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  11. Sociometric and disruptive behavior as a function of four types of token reinforcement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabman, R; Spitalnik, R; Spitalnik, K

    1974-01-01

    Children in a first-grade classroom were divided into four groups. Baseline measures of disruptive classroom behavior were taken on a well-behaved and disruptive child in each group. Following baseline, four types of token economies were simultaneously introduced and rotated every 10 days within a Latin Square design. The token economies were: (1) individual reinforcement determined by individual performance; (2) group reinforcement determined by the behavior of the most disruptive child; (3) group reinforcement determined by the behavior of the least disruptive child; (4) group reinforcement determined by the behavior of a randomly chosen child. The token economies were compared on their effectiveness in changing target behavior, preference by the targets, ease of use, and cost. Additionally, sociometric responses were taken on questions of responsibility, friendship, and funniness. Results showed a significant decrease of inappropriate behavior for the disruptive children and no difference between the effectiveness of the four types of token economies in producing behavior change. However, there were other differences that indicated that the system in which group reinforcement was determined by a randomly selected child would be desirable for most teachers. Results also showed changes in the sociometric status of the disruptive children. As predicted, disruptive children were rated as more responsible when they were in the group reinforcement determined by the most disruptive child in the group token economy. Using behavior modification techniques indirectly to change sociometric status is suggested as offering a new potential technique for behavior change agents. PMID:4619117

  12. Sociometric and disruptive behavior as a function of four types of token reinforcement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabman, R; Spitalnik, R; Spitalnik, K

    1974-01-01

    Children in a first-grade classroom were divided into four groups. Baseline measures of disruptive classroom behavior were taken on a well-behaved and disruptive child in each group. Following baseline, four types of token economies were simultaneously introduced and rotated every 10 days within a Latin Square design. The token economies were: (1) individual reinforcement determined by individual performance; (2) group reinforcement determined by the behavior of the most disruptive child; (3) group reinforcement determined by the behavior of the least disruptive child; (4) group reinforcement determined by the behavior of a randomly chosen child. The token economies were compared on their effectiveness in changing target behavior, preference by the targets, ease of use, and cost. Additionally, sociometric responses were taken on questions of responsibility, friendship, and funniness. Results showed a significant decrease of inappropriate behavior for the disruptive children and no difference between the effectiveness of the four types of token economies in producing behavior change. However, there were other differences that indicated that the system in which group reinforcement was determined by a randomly selected child would be desirable for most teachers. Results also showed changes in the sociometric status of the disruptive children. As predicted, disruptive children were rated as more responsible when they were in the group reinforcement determined by the most disruptive child in the group token economy. Using behavior modification techniques indirectly to change sociometric status is suggested as offering a new potential technique for behavior change agents.

  13. In vitro profiling of the endocrine-disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Sonneveld, E.; Murk, A.J.; Kester, M.H.A.; Andersson, P.L.; Legler, J.; Brouwer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last years, increasing evidence has become available that some brominated flame retardants (BFRs) may have endocrine disrupting (ED) potencies. The goal of the current study was to perform a systematic in vitro screening of the ED potencies of BFRs (1) to elucidate possible modes of action

  14. Altering sensorimotor feedback disrupts visual discrimination of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Adrienne; Lupyan, Gary; Sherrin, Steven; Niedenthal, Paula

    2016-08-01

    Looking at another person's facial expression of emotion can trigger the same neural processes involved in producing the expression, and such responses play a functional role in emotion recognition. Disrupting individuals' facial action, for example, interferes with verbal emotion recognition tasks. We tested the hypothesis that facial responses also play a functional role in the perceptual processing of emotional expressions. We altered the facial action of participants with a gel facemask while they performed a task that involved distinguishing target expressions from highly similar distractors. Relative to control participants, participants in the facemask condition demonstrated inferior perceptual discrimination of facial expressions, but not of nonface stimuli. The findings suggest that somatosensory/motor processes involving the face contribute to the visual perceptual-and not just conceptual-processing of facial expressions. More broadly, our study contributes to growing evidence for the fundamentally interactive nature of the perceptual inputs from different sensory modalities. PMID:26542827

  15. Substances that disrupt thyroid hormone biosynthesis (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap, Andreea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupters are natural or synthetic chemical substances that have the possibility to alter the endocrine functions leading to serious metabolic changes especially in newborns. The accumulation and persistence over long periods of time became a priority in terms of health and environment. The mechanism of action is represented by blocking, mimicking or modifying the effects of thyroid hormones. In this review, the main purpose was to determine what effects have the endocrine disruptors on the thyroid gland, especially on the thyroid hormone biosynthesis and setting the stage involved by it. We focused on the action of perchlorates, phthalates, BPC, PDPEs, soy, isoflavones, nitrates, thiocyanates, bisphenol A and triclorsan and came to the conclusion that their intervention can result in either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

  16. Organizational and activational effects of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silbergeld Ellen K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruption is a hypothesis of common mode of action that may define a set of structurally varied chemicals, both natural and synthetic. Their common mode of action may suggest that they produce or contribute to similar toxic effects, although this has been difficult to demonstrate. Insights from developmental biology suggest that development of hormone sensitive systems, such as the brain and the genitourinary tract, may be particularly sensitive to EDCs. Because these systems are both organized and later activated by hormones, the brain and vagina may be valuable model systems to study the toxicity of EDCs in females and to elucidate mechanisms whereby early exposures appear to affect long term function.

  17. Survey of disruption causes at JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, P. C.; Johnson, M. F.; Alper, B.; Buratti, P.; Hender, T. C.; Koslowski, H. R.; Riccardo, V.

    2011-01-01

    A survey has been carried out into the causes of all 2309 disruptions over the last decade of JET operations. The aim of this survey was to obtain a complete picture of all possible disruption causes, in order to devise better strategies to prevent or mitigate their impact. The analysis allows the e

  18. Rurality and Patterns of Social Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kenneth P.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that structural cleavages provoke social disruptions where opportunities are conducive. Thus, combinations of rurality with particular structural cleavages predict specific disruption patterns. Data from northeastern United States indicate that rurality, combined with other population characteristics (provocation, ascriptive inequality,…

  19. Adaptive high learning rate probabilistic disruption predictors from scratch for the next generation of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of accurate real-time disruption predictors is a pre-requisite to any mitigation action. Present theoretical models of disruptions do not reliably cope with the disruption issues. This article deals with data-driven predictors and a review of existing machine learning techniques, from both physics and engineering points of view, is provided. All these methods need large training datasets to develop successful predictors. However, ITER or DEMO cannot wait for hundreds of disruptions to have a reliable predictor. So far, the attempts to extrapolate predictors between different tokamaks have not shown satisfactory results. In addition, it is not clear how valid this approach can be between present devices and ITER/DEMO, due to the differences in their respective scales and possibly underlying physics. Therefore, this article analyses the requirements to create adaptive predictors from scratch to learn from the data of an individual machine from the beginning of operation. A particular algorithm based on probabilistic classifiers has been developed and it has been applied to the database of the three first ITER-like wall campaigns of JET (1036 non-disruptive and 201 disruptive discharges). The predictions start from the first disruption and only 12 re-trainings have been necessary as a consequence of missing 12 disruptions only. Almost 10 000 different predictors have been developed (they differ in their features) and after the chronological analysis of the 1237 discharges, the predictors recognize 94% of all disruptions with an average warning time (AWT) of 654 ms. This percentage corresponds to the sum of tardy detections (11%), valid alarms (76%) and premature alarms (7%). The false alarm rate is 4%. If only valid alarms are considered, the AWT is 244 ms and the standard deviation is 205 ms. The average probability interval about the reliability and accuracy of all the individual predictions is 0.811 ± 0.189. (paper)

  20. Modelling the interaction of steroid receptors with endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanesi Luciano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic polychlorinated compounds like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane with its metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyls are a class of highly persistent environmental contaminants. They have been recognized to have detrimental health effects both on wildlife and humans acting as endocrine disrupters due to their ability of mimicking the action of the steroid hormones, and thus interfering with hormone response. There are several experimental evidences that they bind and activate human steroid receptors. However, despite the growing concern about the toxicological activity of endocrine disrupters, molecular data of the interaction of these compounds with biological targets are still lacking. Results We have used a flexible docking approach to characterize the molecular interaction of seven endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors in the ligand-binding domain. All ligands docked in the buried hydrophobic cavity corresponding to the hormone steroid pocket. The interaction was characterized by multiple hydrophobic contacts involving a different number of residues facing the binding pocket, depending on ligands orientation. The EDC ligands did not display a unique binding mode, probably due to their lipophilicity and flexibility, which conferred them a great adaptability into the hydrophobic and large binding pocket of steroid receptors. Conclusion Our results are in agreement with toxicological data on binding and allow to describe a pattern of interactions for a group of ECD to steroid receptors suggesting the requirement of a hydrophobic cavity to accommodate these chlorine carrying compounds. Although the affinity is lower than for hormones, their action can be brought about by a possible synergistic effect.

  1. 45 CFR 1225.10 - Corrective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrective action. 1225.10 Section 1225.10 Public... Corrective action. When it has been determined by Final Agency Decision that the aggrieved party has been subjected to illegal discrimination, the following corrective actions may be taken: (a) Selection as...

  2. Targeted deletion of kcne2 impairs ventricular repolarization via disruption of IK,slow1 and Ito,f

    OpenAIRE

    Roepke, Torsten K.; Kontogeorgis, Andrianos; Ovanez, Christopher; Xu, Xianghua; Young, Jeffrey B.; Purtell, Kerry; Goldstein, Peter A.; Christini, David J; Peters, Nicholas S.; Akar, Fadi G.; Gutstein, David E; Lerner, Daniel J.; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in human KCNE2, which encodes the MiRP1 potassium channel ancillary subunit, associate with long QT syndrome (LQTS), a defect in ventricular repolarization. The precise cardiac role of MiRP1 remains controversial, in part, because it has marked functional promiscuity in vitro. Here, we disrupted the murine kcne2 gene to define the role of MiRP1 in murine ventricles. kcne2 disruption prolonged ventricular action potential duration (APD), suggestive of reduced repolarization capacity....

  3. Rapamycin has a biphasic effect on insulin sensitivity in C2C12 myotubes due to sequential disruption of mTORC1 and mTORC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan eYe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1, improves insulin sensitivity in acute studies in vitro and in vivo by disrupting a negative feedback loop mediated by S6 kinase. We find that rapamycin has a clear biphasic effect on insulin sensitivity in C2C12 myotubes, with enhanced responsiveness during the first hour that declines to almost complete insulin resistance by 24-48 hours. We and others have recently observed that chronic rapamycin treatment induces insulin resistance in rodents, at least in part due to disruption of mTORC2, an mTOR-containing complex that is not acutely sensitive to the drug. Chronic rapamycin treatment may also impair insulin action via the inhibition of mTORC1-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis and activity, which could result in a buildup of lipid intermediates that are known to trigger insulin resistance. We confirmed that rapamycin inhibits expression of PGC-1α, a key mitochondrial transcription factor, and acutely reduces respiration rate in myotubes. However, rapamycin did not stimulate phosphorylation of PKCθ, a central mediator of lipid-induced insulin resistance. Instead, we found dramatic disruption of mTORC2, which coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. Selective inhibition of mTORC1 or mTORC2 by shRNA-mediated knockdown of specific components (Raptor and Rictor, respectively confirmed that mitochondrial effects of rapamycin are mTORC1-dependent, whereas insulin resistance was recapitulated only by knockdown of mTORC2. Thus, mTORC2 disruption, rather than inhibition of mitochondria, causes insulin resistance in rapamycin-treated myotubes, and this system may serve as a useful model to understand the effects of rapamycin on mTOR signaling in vivo.

  4. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  5. Erosion products in disruption simulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronov, V.; Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Barsuk, V.; Kurkin, S.; Mironova, E.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Zhitlukhin, A. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troisk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Arkhipov, I. [Inst. of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Werle, H.; Wuerz, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Erosion of divertor materials under tokamak disruption event presents a serious problem of ITER technology. Erosion restricts the divertor lifetime and leads to production of redeposited layers of the material retaining large amount of tritium, which is a major safety issue for future fusion reactor. Since ITER disruptive heatloads are not achievable in existing tokamaks, material erosion is studied in special simulation experiments. Till now the simulation experiments have focused mainly on investigation of shielding effect and measurement of erosion rate. In the present work the properties of eroded and redeposited graphite are studied under condition typical for hard ITER disruption. (author)

  6. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten Visby; Skyt Nielsen, Helena;

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving schoolcohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...... achievement of peers by about 1.5-2 percent of a standard deviation....

  7. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt;

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...... achievement of peers by about 1.7-2.3 percent of a standard deviation....

  8. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt;

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...... achievement of peers by about 1.7–2.3% of a standard deviation....

  9. OF SYSTEMS THAT HAVE DISRUPTABLE CONSTRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernov Yuriy Tikhonovich

    2012-07-01

    Formulas of equivalent static loads, with the help of which the systems are analyzed when constraints are disrupted, are generated. No inertial force is to be derived to obtain equivalent static loads. This is important in view of their application in dynamic analyses . Analysis of the static system in the event of disrupted constraints is based on the equations derived by the authors. The result of the analysis represents an inverse linear relation of static loading and relative stiffness of the system with disrupted constraints. This means that the lower the stiffness of the system, the higher the static loading.

  10. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS...

  11. DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR AMONGST DOCTORS, MYTH OR REALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Disruptive behavior in a medical setting is defined as objectionable or offensive interpersonal behavior that leads to disruption of professional activities in the workplace. 1 It has been observed that majority of doctors do not show disruptive behavior in their day today conduct and only few doctors are identified for their disruptive behavior . Special commi ttee on professional conduct and ethics defines disruptive behavior in physicians as aberrant behavior manifested through personal interaction with physicians , hospital personnel , health care professionals , patients , family members or others which interferes with patient care or could reasonably be expected to interfere with the process of delivering quality care. 2 Common forms of disruptive behaviors generally seen amongst young doctors are use of abusive language , yelling or shouting at patients , colleagues and subordinate staff , showing in disciplined behavior and at times indulging in physical abuse. 3 - 4 STUDY DESIGN : Study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital where 614 health care professionals participated which included 108 doctors 432 nurs ing staff and 74 paramedical staff METHOD : Data collection was done by semi structured pretested questionnaire and was entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed for frequency and percentages . RESULTS : 64 % doctor , 66% nursing staff and 50% of the paramedicals answered that they have seen doctors showing disruptive behavior at one time or the other . Not all the doctors show disruptive behavior but this type of aberrant behavior is seen mainly in2 - 3 percent of doctors only. While answering to the que stion as to the type of disruptive behavior , 57% health care professionals reported that commonest form of disruptive behavior noticed by them amongst doctors was yelling or shouting on junior staff , patients and colleagues . 47% answered that doctors with disruptive behavior do not follow laid down orders or

  12. Perceptual and performance biases in action selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Wilson; E. van Bergen; L. van Swieten; S. Kent; M. Mon-Williams

    2008-01-01

    When we see an object in the world, there may be a large number of different ways to interact with that object. This large 'visuomotor space' can be constrained through affordances (perceptually available object properties defining potential uses), task demands and the actor's intentions. The effect

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of action selection in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuk, Liana

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains an enigmatic disorder with unclear neuropathology. Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetic research suggest alterations in glutamate-dopamine interactions adversely affecting synaptic plasticity both intracortically and subcortically. Relating these changes to the manifestation of symptoms presents a great challenge, requiring a constrained framework to capture the most salient elements. Here, a biologically-grounded computational model of basal gangli...

  14. Consequences of climate disruption for the Ministry of Defence - EPS 2013-55 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled some important results of the fifth IPCC report, this report aims at providing a mapping of biases by which climate disruption impacts the different activities, functions, and missions of the French Ministry of Defence. This disruption results in new risks and threats, but could also be the background of new legal and administrative standards and constraints which may affect military capacities. The authors first study how climate disruption is addressed by American and British allies, analyse direct and indirect risks and threats which are created or strengthened by climate disruption, identify the impact of climate disruption on operational capacities as a whole, at the industrial level (in product elaboration), and also in the use of hardware on locations which could be modified under the action of climate change. They also propose crisis scenarios on the near and on the long term, in relationship with climate disruption but also with other issues. They state a set of operational recommendations for the Ministry for a better anticipation of impact on the short, medium and long term

  15. Disruption of the endocrine control of final oocyte maturation in teleosts by xenobiotic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1999-07-01

    Final oocyte maturation (FOM) in fish and other vertebrates is under precise endocrine control and involves changes in hormone secretion at all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Several potential sites and mechanisms of chemical disruption of the endocrine system controlling FOM by are discussed. Neurotoxic chemicals such as lead and PCBs can alter monoamine neurotransmitter function and xenoestrogens can interfere with steroid feedback mechanisms at the hypothalamus and pituitary to impair the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin secretion. Chemicals which disrupt calcium homeostasis such as cadmium can interfere with calcium-dependent signal transduction pathway activated by reproductive hormones in the pituitary and gonads. Other xenobiotics may disrupt maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) function by impairing its synthesis or receptor binding. The problems in assessing endocrine disruption of FOM are discussed. The relatively few investigations reported in the literature on endocrine disruption of FOM in fishes by chemicals indicate that organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides at concentrations less than one ppb can impair induction of FOM in response to gonadotropin and the MIS. Moreover, evidence is presented that certain organochlorine pesticides block MIS action by binding to the MIS receptor which is localized on the oocyte plasma membrane. Steroid membrane receptor function may be particularly susceptible to interference by hydrophilic chemicals. Finally, an in vitro bioassay capable of screening many chemicals simultaneously for their ability to disrupt the endocrine control of FOM is described.

  16. Disruptions, Disruptivity, and Safer Operating Windows in the High-β Spherical Torus NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, S P; Diallo, A; Gates, D; LeBlanc, B P; Menard, J E; Mueller, D; Sabbagh, S A; Soukhanovskii, V; Tritz, K

    2012-09-27

    This paper discusses disruption rates, disruption causes, and disruptivity statistics in the high- βN National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. While the overall disruption rate is rather high, configurations with high βN , moderate q*, strong boundary shaping, sufficient rotation, and broad pressure and current profiles are found to have the lowest disruptivity; active n=1 control further reduces the disruptivity. The disruptivity increases rapidly for q*<2.7, which is substantially above the ideal MHD current limit. In quiescent conditions, qmin >1.25 is generally acceptable for avoiding the onset of core rotating n=1 kink/tearing modes; when EPM and ELM disturbances are present, the required qmin for avoiding those modes is raised to ~1.5. The current ramp and early flat-top phase of the discharges are prone to n=1 core rotating modes locking to the wall, leading to a disruption. Small changes to the discharge fueling during this phase can often mitigate the rotation damping associated with these modes and eliminate the disruption. The largest stored energy disruptions are those that occur at high current when a plasma current rampdown is initiated incorrectly.

  17. Contribution of the Endocrine Perspective in the Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine;

    2016-01-01

    Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... issues. This paper aims at discussing the relevance of the endocrine perspective with regard to EDC effects on pubertal timing. Puberty involves particular sensitivity to environmental conditions. Reports about the advancing onset of puberty in several countries have led to the hypothesis...

  18. Understanding your supply chain to reduce the risk of supply chain disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgoose, Nick; Brennan, Patrick; Thompson, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Supply chains are at the heart of the way in which organisations operate and compete today; they also play a critical role in overall organisation performance. In the context of increasingly complex and global supply chains, the actions taken to drive down costs are likely to drive risk into the supply chain. The frequency of supply chain disruptions is high and this paper offers practical advice to help reduce the frequency and cost associated with these. There is advice to help with the understanding of how to identify critical suppliers. The reader is guided through comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation approaches and a selection of practical risk solutions and tools that you can use is described. There is a section on the 'dos and don'ts' relating to supplier due diligence. For those organisations facing the challenge of drawing up a business case relating to investment in improving supply chain resiliency, there is also a section outlining some of the business benefits of improving supply chain resiliency. PMID:22948106

  19. Understanding your supply chain to reduce the risk of supply chain disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgoose, Nick; Brennan, Patrick; Thompson, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Supply chains are at the heart of the way in which organisations operate and compete today; they also play a critical role in overall organisation performance. In the context of increasingly complex and global supply chains, the actions taken to drive down costs are likely to drive risk into the supply chain. The frequency of supply chain disruptions is high and this paper offers practical advice to help reduce the frequency and cost associated with these. There is advice to help with the understanding of how to identify critical suppliers. The reader is guided through comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation approaches and a selection of practical risk solutions and tools that you can use is described. There is a section on the 'dos and don'ts' relating to supplier due diligence. For those organisations facing the challenge of drawing up a business case relating to investment in improving supply chain resiliency, there is also a section outlining some of the business benefits of improving supply chain resiliency.

  20. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  1. Glaciological parameters of disruptive event analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following disruptive events caused by ice sheets are considered: continental glaciation, erosion, loading and subsidence, deep ground water recharge, flood erosion, isostatic rebound rates, melting, and periodicity of ice ages

  2. Double tidal disruptions in galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    A star on a nearly radial trajectory approaching a massive black hole (MBH) gets tidally disrupted if it comes sufficiently close to the MBH. Here we explore what happens to binary stars whose centers of mass approach the MBH on nearly radial orbits. The interaction with the MBH often leads to both stars being disrupted in sequence. We argue that such events could produce light curves that are substantially different from those of the single disruptions, with possible features such as two local maxima. Tidal forces from the MBH can also lead the binary components to collide; these merger products can form highly magnetized stars, whose subsequent tidal disruption may enable prompt jet formation.

  3. Passive runaway electron suppression in tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runaway electrons created in disruptions pose a serious problem for tokamaks with large current. It would be desirable to have a runaway electron suppression method which is passive, i.e., a method that does not rely on an uncertain disruption prediction system. One option is to let the large electric field inherent in the disruption drive helical currents in the wall. This would create ergodic regions in the plasma and increase the runaway losses. Whether these regions appear at a suitable time and place to affect the formation of the runaway beam depends on disruption parameters, such as electron temperature and density. We find that it is difficult to ergodize the central plasma before a beam of runaway current has formed. However, the ergodic outer region will make the Ohmic current profile contract, which can lead to instabilities that yield large runaway electron losses

  4. Shell Galaxies, Dynamical Friction, and Dwarf Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrova, Ivana; Canalizo, Gabriela; Bennert, Nicola; Jilkova, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Using N-body simulations of shell galaxies created in nearly radial minor mergers, we investigate the error of collision dating, resulting from the neglect of dynamical friction and of gradual disruption of the cannibalized dwarf.

  5. Towards a Framework of Digital Platform Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital platforms are disruptive information technology (IT) artifacts that erode conventional business logic associated with traditional market structures. This paper presents a framework for examining the disruptive potential of digital platforms whereby we postulate that the strategic interplay...... of governance regimes and platform layers is deterministic of whether disruptive derivatives are permitted to flourish. This framework has been employed in a comparative case study between centralized (i.e., PayPal) and decentralized (i.e., Coinkite) digital payment platforms to illustrate its applicability...... and yield propositions on the nature and impact of digital platform disruptions. Preliminary findings indicate that centralized digital platforms attempt to create unique configurals to obtain monopolistic power by tightly coupling platform layers, which are difficult to replicate. Conversely, decentralized...

  6. Disruptive Innovation in Chinese and Indian Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    markets, has made these emerging economies fertile ground for developing and applying disruptive innovations. A novel mix of key attributes distinctive from those of established technologies or business models, disruptive innovations are typically inferior, yet affordable and "good-enough" products...... or services, which originate in lower-end market segments, but later move up to compete with those provided by incumbent firms. This book sheds new light on disruptive innovations both from and for the bottom of the pyramid in China and India, from the point of view of local entrepreneurs and international...... firms seeking to operate their businesses there. It covers both the theoretical and practical implications of disruptive innovation using conceptual frameworks alongside detailed case studies, whilst also providing a comparison of conditions and strategic options in India and China. Further, unlike...

  7. Report on Criteria for Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather...... new knowledge on endocrine disrupters with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board....... The overall aim of this project is to provide a science based proposal for criteria for endocrine disrupters. The terms of reference for the project specify elements to be included and/or addressed when developing the criteria (Annex 1). Also, several international reports and papers dealing with assessment...

  8. 75 FR 30306 - Responding To Disruptive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... performance of official duties by Government employees.'' The sole enforcement mechanism provided by paragraph... opposes the use of punishment in the management of disruptive patients. Instead, it reflects the view...

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Action of BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, Filippo; Pallottini, Valentina; Marino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with serious endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Toxicological and epidemiological studies evidenced that BPA increases body mass index and disrupts normal cardiovascular physiology by interfering with endogenous hormones in rodents, nonhuman primates, and cell culture test systems. The BPA concentration derived from these experiments were used by government regulatory agencies to determine the safe exposure levels of BPA in humans. However, accumulating literature in vivo and in vitro indicate that at concentrations lower than that reported in toxicological studies, BPA could elicit a different endocrine-disrupting capacity. To further complicate this picture, BPA effects rely on several and diverse mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems. If all or just few of these mechanisms concur to the endocrine-disrupting potential of low doses of BPA is at present still unclear. Thus, taking into account that the incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine disruption have increased worldwide, the goal of the present review is to give an overview of the many mechanisms of BPA action in order to decipher whether different mechanisms are at the root of the effect of low dose of BPA on endocrine system. PMID:26740804

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Action of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Acconcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA exposure has been associated with serious endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Toxicological and epidemiological studies evidenced that BPA increases body mass index and disrupts normal cardiovascular physiology by interfering with endogenous hormones in rodents, nonhuman primates, and cell culture test systems. The BPA concentration derived from these experiments were used by government regulatory agencies to determine the safe exposure levels of BPA in humans. However, accumulating literature in vivo and in vitro indicate that at concentrations lower than that reported in toxicological studies, BPA could elicit a different endocrine-disrupting capacity. To further complicate this picture, BPA effects rely on several and diverse mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems. If all or just few of these mechanisms concur to the endocrine-disrupting potential of low doses of BPA is at present still unclear. Thus, taking into account that the incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine disruption have increased worldwide, the goal of the present review is to give an overview of the many mechanisms of BPA action in order to decipher whether different mechanisms are at the root of the effect of low dose of BPA on endocrine system.

  11. Disruptive chemicals, senescence and immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Amancio; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Lleonart, Matilde E; Martinez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Mondello, Chiara; Scovassi, A Ivana; Bisson, William H; Amedei, Amedeo; Roy, Rabindra; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Annamaria; Vaccari, Monica; Raju, Jayadev; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Salem, Hosni K; Memeo, Lorenzo; Forte, Stefano; Singh, Neetu; Hamid, Roslida A; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Brown, Dustin G; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, Sandra S; Yasaei, Hemad

    2015-06-01

    Carcinogenesis is thought to be a multistep process, with clonal evolution playing a central role in the process. Clonal evolution involves the repeated 'selection and succession' of rare variant cells that acquire a growth advantage over the remaining cell population through the acquisition of 'driver mutations' enabling a selective advantage in a particular micro-environment. Clonal selection is the driving force behind tumorigenesis and possesses three basic requirements: (i) effective competitive proliferation of the variant clone when compared with its neighboring cells, (ii) acquisition of an indefinite capacity for self-renewal, and (iii) establishment of sufficiently high levels of genetic and epigenetic variability to permit the emergence of rare variants. However, several questions regarding the process of clonal evolution remain. Which cellular processes initiate carcinogenesis in the first place? To what extent are environmental carcinogens responsible for the initiation of clonal evolution? What are the roles of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in carcinogenesis? What are the underlying mechanisms responsible for chemical carcinogen-induced cellular immortality? Here, we explore the possible mechanisms of cellular immortalization, the contribution of immortalization to tumorigenesis and the mechanisms by which chemical carcinogens may contribute to these processes. PMID:26106138

  12. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Duijn, P.A.C.; Kashirin, V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with u...

  13. Anastomotic disruption after large bowel resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad U NasirKhan; Farshad Abir; Walter Longo; Robert Kozol

    2006-01-01

    Anastomotic disruption is a feared and serious complication of colon surgery. Decades of research have identified factors favoring successful healing of anastomoses as well as risk factors for anastomotic disruption. However, some factors, such as the role of mechanical bowel preparation, remain controversial.Despite proper caution and excellent surgical technique,some anastomotic leaks are inevitable. The rapid identification of anastomotic leaks and the timely treatment in these cases are paramount.

  14. BUSINESS MODEL PATTERNS FOR DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    BENJAMIN AMSHOFF; CHRISTIAN DÜLME; JULIAN ECHTERFELD; JÜRGEN GAUSEMEIER

    2015-01-01

    Companies nowadays face a myriad of business opportunities as a direct consequence of manifold disruptive technology developments. As a basic characteristic, disruptive technologies lead to a severe shift in value-creation networks giving rise to new market segments. One of the key challenges is to anticipate the business logics within these nascent and formerly unknown markets. Business model patterns promise to tackle this challenge. They can be interpreted as proven business model elements...

  15. On asymmetric collisions with large disruption parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collisions between a weak electron bunch and a strong positron bunch are studied within a flat model. Electrons are tracked through the transverse space charge field of the positron bunch, and it is shown that positrons in a storage ring may remain stable after asymmetric collisions with a weak electron bunch in spite of large values of the electron disruption parameter. The plasma oscillations that affect collisions with large disruption parameters may be suppressed by properly matching the electrons. 8 refs., 5 figs

  16. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in schizophrenia†

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Katharina; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Middleton, Benita; Foster, Russell G.; Joyce, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances comparable with insomnia occur in up to 80% of people with schizophrenia, but very little is known about the contribution of circadian coordination to these prevalent disruptions. Aims A systematic exploration of circadian time patterns in individuals with schizophrenia with recurrent sleep disruption. Method We examined the relationship between sleep-wake activity, recorded actigraphically over 6 weeks, along with ambient light exposure and simultaneous circadia...

  17. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper; Ross, Alex; Tiourine, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major air...

  18. Anastomotic disruption after large bowel resection

    OpenAIRE

    NasirKhan, Mohammad U; Abir, Farshad; Longo, Walter; Kozol, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Anastomotic disruption is a feared and serious complication of colon surgery. Decades of research have identified factors favoring successful healing of anastomoses as well as risk factors for anastomotic disruption. However, some factors, such as the role of mechanical bowel preparation, remain controversial. Despite proper caution and excellent surgical technique, some anastomotic leaks are inevitable. The rapid identification of anastomotic leaks and the timely treatment in these cases are...

  19. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS OF BUTYLPARABEN: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pallabi Goswami; J.C Kalita

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing concern in the field of endocrine disruption over the presence of various endocrine disrupting chemicals in Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs). This concern has also been as PPCPs are most widely used and had led to introduction of thousands of new and complex chemicals that enter the environment in large quantities. The effect of the chemicals has not only been restricted to human who are exposed directly to the chemicals or the a...

  20. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens;

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discus...... for related problems in the airline world are discussed as well. Finally, we address the integration of the re-scheduling processes of the timetable, and the resources rolling stock and crew....

  1. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  2. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain

  3. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  4. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ...... metabolising system using liver S9 mixtures or hepatic rat microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, to be able to detect effects and predict mixture effects. In addition, a new hypothesis have emerge concerning a potential role of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and the development of obesity and obesity related diseases. AIM: This PhD project aimed to gain more information regarding...

  5. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost e cient methods to handle airline...... disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it o ers an introduction to airline disruption management, provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second part we...

  6. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost efficient methods to handle...... airline disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it offers an introduction to airline disruption management provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second...

  7. 'Action 2016': AREVA's strategic action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 13, 2011, Luc Oursel, CEO, and Pierre Aubouin, Chief Financial Officer presented the group's strategic plan for the period 2012-2016. The plan has been drawn up collectively and is based on a thorough-going analysis and a realistic assessment of perspectives for all group activities and associated resources. Development of nuclear and renewable energies: the fundamentals are unchanged. In this context, the German decision remains an isolated case and the great majority of nuclear programs around the world have been confirmed. More conservative in its projections than the International Energy Agency, the group expects growth of 2.2% annually, reaching 583 GW of installed nuclear capacity by 2030, against 378 GW today. However, the Fukushima accident will lead to delays in launching new programs. 'Action 2016' plan aims to consolidate AREVA's leadership in nuclear energy and become a leading player in renewable energy. The group's strategic action plan 'Action 2016' is based on the following strategic choices: - commercial priority given to value creation, - selectivity in investments, - strengthening of the financial structure. These demand an improvement in the group's performance by 2015. This plan makes nuclear safety a strategic priority for the industrial and commercial performance of the group. This ambitious performance plan for the period 2012-2016 will give the group the wherewithal to withstand a temporary slowdown in the market resulting from the Fukushima accident and to deliver safe and sustainable growth of the business. The plan sets out the strategic direction for the group's employees for the years ahead: taking advantage of the expected growth in nuclear and renewable energies, targeted investment programs, and return to self-financing as of 2014

  8. Priming of actions increases sense of control over unexpected outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidarus, N.; Chambon, V.; Haggard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling that we are in control of our own actions and, through them, events in the outside world. SoA depends partly on retrospectively matching outcomes to expectations, and partly on prospective processes occurring prior to action, notably action selection. To assess the relative contribution of these processes, we factorially varied subliminal priming of action selection and expectation of action outcomes. Both factors affected SoA, and there was also a ...

  9. 19 CFR 206.54 - Investigations with respect to extension of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE...) Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order... available to an authorized applicant under administrative protective order all confidential...

  10. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  11. Introduction of environmental endocrine disrupters; Kankyo horumon ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, S. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Hosomi, M. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1998-11-05

    This paper describes environmental hormones. Hormones are directly secreted from endocrine gland into blood flow, and play an important role of the differentiation of textures of organisms, reproductive function, metabolism, and adjustment of nervous/immunity system. There are some substances with hormone and anti-hormone reactions within the body of organisms, which are discharged as chemical substances in the natural environment by the artificial production activities. These are extrinsic endocrine disrupters, i.e., environmental hormones. There are 67 kinds of doubtful substances. When the environmental hormones work on the certain reaction stage of hormones, the normal action of hormones is disturbed. Various anomalies of wild animals have been reported in the world, which are suggested to be caused by the environmental hormones. Effects are known on the health of Homo sapiens, such as malignant tumor. In the current stage, test methods are under development, by which the presence of endocrine disruption can be screened. The effects depend on the growing stages of organisms, and it is necessary to consider the effects on various generations. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-05-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Nevada Test Site's Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (Corrective Action Unit 342) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 342. The scope of this document consists of the following: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit.

  13. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Male Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs can interfere with normal hormonal balance and may exert adverse consequences on humans. The male reproductive system may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. This review discusses the recent progress in scientific data mainly from epidemiology studies on the associations between EDCs and male reproductive health and our understanding of possible mechanisms associated with the effects of EDCs on male reproductive health. Finally, the review provides recommendations on future research to enhance our understanding of EDCs and male reproductive health. The review highlights the need for 1 well-defined longitudinal epidemiology studies, with appropriately designed exposure assessment to determine potential causal relationships; 2 chemical and biochemical approaches aimed at a better understanding of the mechanism of action of xenoestrogens with regard to low-dose effects, and assessment of identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with the risk of adverse effects following exposure to EDCs.

  14. Guam Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the earlier Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020. The four energy strategies selected are: (1) expanding public outreach on energy efficiency and conservation, (2) establishing a demand-side management revolving loan program, (3) exploring waste-to-energy options, and (4) influencing the transportation sector via anti-idling legislation, vehicle registration fees, and electric vehicles.

  15. Disruptive Intelligence : How to gather Information to deal with disruptive innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, D.J.; Solberg Søilen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptive innovations are innovations that have the capacity to transform a whole business into one with products that are more accessible and affordable (cf. Christensen et al. 2009). As Christensen et al. argue no business is immune to such disruptive innovations. If these authors are right, it m

  16. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics.

  17. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics. PMID:26103601

  18. A mega-analysis of fixed-dose trials reveals dose-dependency and a rapid onset of action for the antidepressant effect of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, F; Nilsson, S; Eriksson, E

    2016-01-01

    The possible dose-dependency for the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remains controversial. We believe we have conducted the first comprehensive patient-level mega-analysis exploring this issue, one incentive being to address the possibility that inclusion of low-dose arms in previous meta-analyses may have caused an underestimation of the efficacy of these drugs. All company-sponsored, acute-phase, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trials using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and conducted to evaluate the effect of citalopram, paroxetine or sertraline in adult major depression were included (11 trials, n=2859 patients). The single-item depressed mood, which has proven a more sensitive measure to detect an antidepressant signal than the sum score of all HDRS items, was designated the primary effect parameter. Doses below or at the lower end of the usually recommended dose range (citalopram: 10-20 mg, paroxetine: 10 mg; sertraline: 50 mg) were superior to placebo but inferior to higher doses, hence confirming a dose-dependency to be at hand. In contrast, among doses above these, there was no indication of a dose-response relationship. The effect size (ES) after exclusion of suboptimal doses was of a more respectable magnitude (0.5) than that usually attributed to the antidepressant effect of the SSRIs. In conclusion, the observation that low doses are less effective than higher ones challenges the oft-cited view that the effect of the SSRIs is not dose-dependent and hence not caused by a specific, pharmacological antidepressant action. Moreover, we suggest that inclusion of suboptimal doses in previous meta-analyses has led to an underestimation of the efficacy of these drugs. PMID:27271860

  19. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  20. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Is Selectively Involved in Response Selection Using Visual Context in the Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    The exact roles of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in conditional choice behavior are unknown and a visual contextual response selection task was used for examining the issue. Inactivation of the mPFC severely disrupted performance in the task. mPFC inactivations, however, did not disrupt the capability of perceptual discrimination for visual…

  1. Effects of disruption of xylanase-encoding genes on the xylanolytic system of Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, F F; Shareck, F; Kluepfel, D; Morosoli, R

    1994-01-01

    Wild-type Streptomyces lividans produced the three xylanases (XlnA, XlnB, and XlnC) when xylan, xylan hydrolysates obtained by the action of XlnA, XlnB, and XlnC, or purified small xylo-oligosaccharides (xylobiose [X2], xylotriose [X3], xylotetraose [X4], and xylopentaose [X5]) were used as the carbon source. The three xylanase genes of S. lividans (xlnA, xlnB, and xlnC) were disrupted by using vectors that integrate into the respective genes. Disruption of one or more of the xln genes resulted in reduced growth rates and reduced total xylanase activities when the strain was grown in xylan. The greatest effect was observed when xlnA was disrupted. In medium containing xylan, disruption of xlnA did not affect expression of xlnB and xlnC; disruption of xlnB did not affect expression of xlnA but affected expression of xlnC; and disruption of xlnC did not affect expression of xlnA but affected expression of xlnB. A fraction of XlnB or XlnC hydrolytic products (those with a degree of polymerization greater than 11 [X11]) was found to stimulate expression of xlnB and xlnC in strains disrupted in xlnC and xlnB, respectively, whereas lower-molecular-weight fractions as well as purified small xylo-oligosaccharides did not. The stimulating molecule(s) lost its effect when it was hydrolyzed further by XlnA. A mechanism of transglycosylation reactions by the S. lividans xylanases is postulated to be involved in the regulation of xln genes. Images PMID:8051006

  2. Disc formation from stellar tidal disruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnerot, Clément; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The potential of tidal disruption of stars to probe otherwise quiescent supermassive black holes cannot be exploited, if their dynamics is not fully understood. So far, the observational appearance of these events has been commonly derived from analytical extrapolations of the debris dynamical properties just after the stellar disruption. In this paper, we perform hydrodynamical simulations of stars in highly eccentric orbits, that follow the stellar debris after disruption and investigate their ultimate fate. We demonstrate that gas debris circularize on an orbital timescale because relativistic apsidal precession causes the stream to self-cross. The higher the eccentricity and/or the deeper the encounter, the faster is the circularization. If the internal energy deposited by shocks during stream self-interaction is readily radiated, the gas forms a narrow ring at the circularization radius. It will then proceed to accrete viscously at a super-Eddington rate, puffing up under radiation pressure. If instead c...

  3. Mermaid syndrome with amniotic band disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managoli, Sanjeev; Chaturvedi, Pushpa; Vilhekar, Krishna Y; Iyenger, Janaki

    2003-01-01

    An association of Amniotic Band Disruption Sequence and Mermaid Syndrome in a newborn having multiple congenital anomalies is being reported. The newborn had aberrant string like tissues attached to the amputed fingers and toes. Adhesions of amniotic bands had disrupted the fetal parts especially anteriorly in the midline, causing multiple anomalies. Apart from these features of Amniotic Band Disruption Sequence, the newborn had complete fusion of the lower limbs by cutaneous tissue, a characteristic of Mermaid Syndrome (Sirenomelia). Associated malformations were anal stenosis, rectal atresia, small horseshoe kidney, hypoplastic urinary bladder and a bicomuate uterus. The single umbilical artery had a high origin, arising directly from the aorta just distal to the celiac axis, which is unique to sirenomelia. Theories put forward regarding the etiopathogenesis of both the conditions are discussed. PMID:12619964

  4. Disruption, beamstrahlung, and beamstrahlung pair creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.

    1988-12-01

    The two major effects from the interaction of e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ beams---beamstrahlung and disruption---are reviewed, with emphasis on flat beam collisions. For the disruption effects we discuss the luminosity enhancement factor, the maximum and rms disruption angles, and the ''kink instability''. All the results are obtained from computer simulations, and scaling laws based on these are deduced whenever possible. For the beamstrahlung effects, we concentrate only on the final electron energy spectrum and the deflection angle associated with low energy particles. In addition to the generic studies on the beam-beam effects, we also list the relevant beam-beam parameters obtained from simulations on two sample designs: the TLC and the ILC. As an addendum, the newly discovered phenomenon of coherent beamstrahlung pair creation, together with the incoherent process, are discussed. 18 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A Disruption-Tolerant Model for Building a Mobile Application Using Web Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryati M. Yusof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The emerging technology in broadband telecommunication and mobile devices has increased the use of mobile applications. However, the use of mobile application is affected with low bandwidth or disrupted broadband telecommunication due to building blockage or out of coverage area. Approach: We proposed a Disruption-Tolerant Mobile Application Model (DTMA that enables remote data access and overcomes constraint due to dysfunctional telecommunication. The interview process of Educational Service Officer at the Malaysian Educational Service Commissioner (MESC is selected as the case study. Design of the mobile application is based on the Smart Client and wireless Internet application concepts. The main components of the model are mobile devices with its own processing power, data storage, business logic and Web service. These features enable the application to become disruption-tolerant, which can be run even when communication line is not available or disrupted. In order to prove that the proposed model is effective, a prototype based on the DTMA model is developed and evaluated. Results: The prototype is known as Mobile Interview Information System (MIIS and it was developed using Visual Basic and .Net’s programming language in .NET Framework. Visual Studio is used as the platform. Users have performed MIIS testing and DTMA usability assessment in a real environment. The test showed that MIIS based on the DTMA model is disruption-tolerant. MIIS enables information to be accessed and updated even in a disrupted network. MIIS also enables information to be accessed and transmitted from or to the MESC’s headquarter via mobile devices. Further, MIIS enables the interview process to be implemented in a more efficient manner without any disruption. Conclusion: Mobile application developed based on the proposed DTMA model was proved to be disruption tolerant. Such application can save time, operational cost and

  6. Tidal disruption of stars by SMBHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komossa, S.

    2016-06-01

    The tidal disruption and subsequent accretion of stars by supermassive black holes produces spectacular flares in the X-ray sky. First found with ROSAT, ongoing and upcoming sky surveys will find these events in the 1000s. In X-rays, tidal disruption events (TDEs) provide us with powerful new probes of accretion physics under extreme conditions, of the formation of disk winds, of relativistic effects near the SMBH, and of the presence of supermassive binary black holes. This talk reviews the status of observations, and discusses future prospects. XMM-Newton will continue to play an important role in identifying new events and carry out spectroscopic follow-ups.

  7. Abundance Anomalies In Tidal Disruption Events

    OpenAIRE

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    The ~10% of tidal disruption events (TDEs) due to stars more massive than the Sun should show abundance anomalies due to stellar evolution in helium, carbon and nitrogen, but not oxygen. Helium is always enhanced, but only by up to ~25% on average because it becomes inaccessible once it is sequestered in the high density core as the star leaves the main sequence. However, portions of the debris associated with the disrupted core of a main sequence star can be enhanced in helium by factors of ...

  8. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce;

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...

  9. Engineering aspects of disruption current decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering features associated with the configuration of a tokamak can affect the amount of energy that produces melting and damage to the limiters or internal wall surfaces as the result of a major disruption. During the current decay period of a major thermal disruption, the energy that can damage a wall or limiter comes from the external magnetic field. By providing a good conducting torus near the plasma and increasing the plasma circuit resistance, this magnetic energy (transferred by way of the plasma circuit) can be minimized. This report addresses engineering design features to reduce the energy deposited on the inner torus surface that produces melting of the structures

  10. Disruptive Innovation by Emerging Multinational Latecomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    on disruptive innovation (DI) and the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) provides a great opportunity to shed light on the key issue. To take advantage of this “missed” opportunity, I integrate the two reframed constructs of DI and BOP and also develop a typology of four ideal-typical innovations toward a theory...... of latecomer innovation as a special DI by EMNE at BOP to provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the trajectories of catching up and leapfrogging. Built upon latecomer innovation, EMNEs at BOP can emerge as the most disruptive challengers to the MNE incumbents at TOP. The implications of reframed...

  11. Violent and Disruptive Behavior among Drug-Involved Prisoners: Relationship with Psychiatric Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Peter D; Melnick, Gerald; Jiang, Lan; Hamilton, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and violent/disruptive behavior among 192 inmates who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Participants came from two sites able to provide narrative reports of disciplinary actions in the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies’ Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument study. In multivariate logistic models, a lifetime history of thought insertion/control ideation (OR, 11.6; 95% CI, 1.8–75.2), antis...

  12. Modularization of Crowdfunding Services : Designing Disruptive Innovations in the Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Philipp; Blohm, Ivo; Peters, Christoph; Leimeister, Jan Marco

    2015-01-01

    Crowdfunding represents a disruptive innovation in the banking industry by enabling the exploitation of market segments. Incumbents struggle to utilize this new phenomenon as crowdfunding is based on modules that have not been considered relevant for banking so far. Nevertheless, crowdfunding services are not entirely new compared to traditional banking. We argue that the modular design enables a bank to utilize crowdfunding. Thus, we started an action research project in order to investigate...

  13. Endocrine-disrupting effects of cattle feedlot effluent on an aquatic sentinel species, the fathead minnow.

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, Edward F.; Kolok, Alan S.; Binzcik, Gerry A; Gates, Jennifer L; Horton, Megan K; Lambright, Christy S; Gray, L Earl; Soto, Ana M.; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, research has examined the endocrine-disrupting action of various environmental pollutants, including hormones, pharmaceuticals, and surfactants, in sewage treatment plant effluent. Responding to the growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and the pollutants present in their wastewater (e.g., nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and hormones), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed a new rule that tightens the regulation of CAFOs. In this study, we col...

  14. Synthesis of antimicrobial cyclodextrins bearing polyarylamino and polyalkylamino groups via click chemistry for bacterial membrane disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Hatsuo; Sugiyama, Yuuki; Murata, Kensuke; Yokoi, Takanori; Kurata, Ryuji; Miyagawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Kenji; Komagoe, Keiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Katsu, Takashi

    2014-05-28

    Cyclodextrin derivatives are synthesized as membrane-disrupting agents via a microwave-assisted Huisgen reaction. Their ability to permeabilize bacterial membranes depends on the amino substituents and an appropriate balance of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity, thus enabling the preparation of derivatives with selective toxicity against bacteria.

  15. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and their impact on the male reproductive system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDe Falco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are identified for their ability to perturb the homeostasis of endocrine system and hormonal balance. The male reproductive system is under close control of hormones and each change in their concentration and time of exposition and action can induce a deregulation of its physiology. In this review we summarize the most recent studies on two main categories of EDCs with different action: the estrogenic bisphenol A and alkylphenols and the anti-androgenic phthalates. This review describes the main effects of these substances on male reproductive system.

  16. Patients' narratives of chronic illnesses and the notion of biographical disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbene, Roxana

    2011-01-01

    Bury's (1982) argument that the onset of a chronic illness represents a biographical disruption has become paradigmatic in the sociology of illness studies. More recently Bury (1991, 1997) himself Williams (2000) and other medical sociologists have argued that the notion of illness as biographical disruption needs re-examination. Following a phenomenological approach, in this paper the author draws on different narrative models (Labov and Waletzky 1967 and Ricoeur 1980) to analyze how patients orient to the onset of chronic illness as the complicating action. The data comprise eight narratives collected in South America: three correspond to patients with renal failure, and five to patients with HIV/AIDS disease. It is observed that in some cases, patients' complicating actions are rather oriented to experiences of poverty, drug addiction, and criminality that took place prior to their onset of their illnesses. These experiences, instead of the onset of their illnesses, occupy the place of the complicating action in these patients' narratives. The author discusses that in the studies of illness narratives, it is difficult to operate from a different paradigm, but argues that conflating the onset of chronic illness with a biographical disruption may confuse the episodic dimension of narrative with the configurational dimension.

  17. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  18. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  19. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. Duijn; V. Kashirin; P.M.A. Sloot

    2014-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in se

  20. The relative ineffectiveness of criminal network disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijn, Paul A C; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become 'stronger', after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort. PMID:24577374

  1. Collisional and Rotational Disruption of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Michel, Patrick; Richardson, Derek C.

    2011-02-01

    Asteroids are leftover pieces from the era of planet formation that help us understand conditions in the early Solar System. Unlike larger planetary bodies that were subject to global thermal modification during and subsequent to their formation, these small bodies have kept at least some unmodified primordial material from the solar nebula. However, the structural properties of asteroids have been modified considerably since their formation. Thus, we can find among them a great variety of physical configurations and dynamical histories. In fact, with only a few possible exceptions, all asteroids have been modified or completely disrupted many times during the age of the Solar System. This picture is supported by data from space mission encounters with asteroids that show much diversity of shape, bulk density, surface morphology, and other features. Moreover, the gravitational attraction of these bodies is so small that some physical processes occur in a manner far removed from our common experience on Earth. Thus, each visit to a small body has generated as many questions as it has answered. In this review we discuss the current state of research into asteroid disruption processes, focusing on collisional and rotational mechanisms. We find that recent advances in modeling catastrophic disruption by collisions have provided important insights into asteroid internal structures and a deeper understanding of asteroid families. Rotational disruption, by tidal encounters or thermal effects, is responsible for altering many smaller asteroids, and is at the origin of many binary asteroids and oddly shaped bodies.

  2. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  3. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijn, Paul A. C.; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-02-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become `stronger', after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort.

  4. Five disruptive technology directions for 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; W. Heath Jr., Robert; Lozano, Angel;

    2014-01-01

    New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive...

  5. Traffic disruption route Einstein near building 170

    CERN Multimedia

    A Lopez - TS/CE

    2005-01-01

    The TS/CE Group informs you that, for the duration of the work at Building 170, there may be some disruption to traffic on route Einstein in the vicinity of Building 170. The work is due to take place from the 14th to 18th February. For more information, please contact 165029. A. Lopez TS/CE

  6. The disruptive effect of Think Aloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yssing, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud (TA), we ask the question: what happens when users are required to verbalise their visual perceptions and interactions? We argue that TA may have a disruptive effect, suggesting that other techniques be considered. With a theoretical distinction between focal and subsidiary awareness...

  7. Analysis of recent fuel-disruption experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent USDOE-sponsored DEH, FGR, and TREAT F series fuel-disruption experiments are analyzed with existing analytical models. The experiments are interpreted and the results used to evaluate the models. Calculations are presented using the FRAS3 fission-gas-behavior code and the DiMelfi-Deitrich fuel-response model

  8. Hot Super Earths: disrupted young jupiters?

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Recent {\\em Kepler} observations revealed an unexpected abundance of "hot" Earth-size to Neptune-size planets in the inner $0.02-0.2$ AU from their parent stars. We propose that these smaller planets are the remnants of massive giant planets that migrated inward quicker than they could contract. We show that such disruptions naturally occur in the framework of the Tidal Downsizing hypothesis for planet formation. We find that the characteristic planet-star separation at which such "hot disruptions" occur is $R \\approx 0.03-0.2$ AU. This result is independent of the planet's embryo mass but is dependent on the accretion rate in the disc. At high accretion rates, $\\dot M \\simgt 10^{-6}\\msun$ yr$^{-1}$, the embryo is unable to contract quickly enough and is disrupted. At late times, when the accretion rate drops to $\\dot M \\simlt 10^{-8} \\msun$ yr$^{-1}$, the embryos migrate sufficiently slow to not be disrupted. These "late arrivals" may explain the well known population of hot jupiters. If type I migration reg...

  9. Analysis of recent fuel-disruption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.M.; Kraft, T.E.; DiMelfi, R.J.; Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent USDOE-sponsored DEH, FGR, and TREAT F series fuel-disruption experiments are analyzed with existing analytical models. The experiments are interpreted and the results used to evaluate the models. Calculations are presented using the FRAS3 fission-gas-behavior code and the DiMelfi-Deitrich fuel-response model.

  10. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  11. Caffeine acts via A1 adenosine receptors to disrupt embryonic cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela L Buscariollo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that adenosine acts via cardiac A1 adenosine receptors (A1ARs to protect embryos against hypoxia. During embryogenesis, A1ARs are the dominant regulator of heart rate, and A1AR activation reduces heart rate. Adenosine action is inhibited by caffeine, which is widely consumed during pregnancy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine influences developing embryos by altering cardiac function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Effects of caffeine and adenosine receptor-selective antagonists on heart rate were studied in vitro using whole murine embryos at E9.5 and isolated hearts at E12.5. Embryos were examined in room air (21% O(2 or hypoxic (2% O(2 conditions. Hypoxia decreased heart rates of E9.5 embryos by 15.8% and in E12.5 isolated hearts by 27.1%. In room air, caffeine (200 µM had no effect on E9.5 heart rates; however, caffeine increased heart rates at E12.5 by 37.7%. Caffeine abolished hypoxia-mediated bradycardia at E9.5 and blunted hypoxia-mediated bradycardia at E12.5. Real-time PCR analysis of RNA from isolated E9.5 and E12.5 hearts showed that A1AR and A2aAR genes were expressed at both ages. Treatment with adenosine receptor-selective antagonists revealed that SCH-58261 (A2aAR-specific antagonist had no affects on heart function, whereas DPCPX (A1AR-specific antagonist had effects similar to caffeine treatment at E9.5 and E12.5. At E12.5, embryonic hearts lacking A1AR expression (A1AR-/- had elevated heart rates compared to A1AR+/- littermates, A1AR-/- heart rates failed to decrease to levels comparable to those of controls. Caffeine did not significantly affect heart rates of A1AR-/- embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that caffeine alters embryonic cardiac function and disrupts the normal cardiac response to hypoxia through blockade of A1AR action. Our results raise concern for caffeine exposure during embryogenesis, particularly in pregnancies with increased risk of

  12. Liposomal encapsulation enhances the antitumour efficacy of the vascular disrupting agent ZD6126 in murine B16.F10 melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fens, M H A M; Hill, K. J.; Issa, J; Ashton, S E; Westwood, F. R.; Blakey, D C; Storm, G; Ryan, A J; Schiffelers, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are able to affect selectively tumour endothelial cell morphology resulting in vessel occlusion and widespread tumour cell necrosis. However, single-agent antitumour activity of VDAs is typically limited, as tumour regrowth occurs rapidly following drug treatment. To improve the therapeutic effectiveness of VDAs, we investigated liposomal targeting using ZD6126 as a model VDA. ZD6126 is a phosphate-prodrug of the tubulin-binding vascular disrupting agent ZD61...

  13. Use of Intron-Disrupted Polyadenylation Sites To Enhance Expression and Safety of Retroviral Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Said I.; Rohll, Jonathan B.; Kingsman, Susan M.; Kingsman, Alan J.; Uden, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Normal mRNA polyadenylation signals are composed of an AAUAAA motif and G/U box spaced 20 to 30 bp apart. If this spacing is increased further, then polyadenylation is disrupted. Previously it has been demonstrated that insertion of an intron will similarly disrupt this signal even though such introns are removed during a nuclear splicing reaction (X. Liu and J. Mertz, Nucleic Acids Res. 21:5256–5263, 1993). This observation has led to the suggestion that polyadenylation site selection is und...

  14. Entorhinal cortex disruption causes memory deficit in early Alzheimer's disease as shown by PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, F; Desgranges, B; Giffard, B; de la Sayette, V; Baron, J C

    2001-03-26

    Voxel-based mapping of the correlations between cognitive scores and resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by PET has recently emerged as a novel way to reveal in living patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) the neural systems whose disruption underlies particular neuropsychological, especially mnemonic, deficits. We have now applied this approach using a novel cognitive paradigm designed to selectively assess verbal episodic memory, and show that in early AD disruption of the left entorhinal cortex underlies this memory deficit, consistent with post mortem data showing that this brain area is affected earliest and most severely by tau pathology in AD.

  15. Actionable exomic incidental findings in 6503 participants: challenges of variant classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Laura M; Dorschner, Michael O; Robertson, Peggy D; Salama, Joseph S; Hart, Ragan; Shirts, Brian H; Murray, Mitzi L; Tokita, Mari J; Gallego, Carlos J; Kim, Daniel Seung; Bennett, James T; Crosslin, David R; Ranchalis, Jane; Jones, Kelly L; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Jarvik, Ella R; Itsara, Andy; Turner, Emily H; Herman, Daniel S; Schleit, Jennifer; Burt, Amber; Jamal, Seema M; Abrudan, Jenica L; Johnson, Andrew D; Conlin, Laura K; Dulik, Matthew C; Santani, Avni; Metterville, Danielle R; Kelly, Melissa; Foreman, Ann Katherine M; Lee, Kristy; Taylor, Kent D; Guo, Xiuqing; Crooks, Kristy; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Raffel, Leslie J; Gordon, Ora; Machini, Kalotina; Desnick, Robert J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Lubitz, Steven A; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Cooper, Greg M; Joffe, Steven; Richards, C Sue; Yang, Yaoping; Rotter, Jerome I; Rich, Stephen S; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Berg, Jonathan S; Spinner, Nancy B; Evans, James P; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Leppig, Kathleen A; Bennett, Robin L; Bird, Thomas; Sybert, Virginia P; Grady, William M; Tabor, Holly K; Kim, Jerry H; Bamshad, Michael J; Wilfond, Benjamin; Motulsky, Arno G; Scott, C Ronald; Pritchard, Colin C; Walsh, Tom D; Burke, Wylie; Raskind, Wendy H; Byers, Peter; Hisama, Fuki M; Rehm, Heidi; Nickerson, Debbie A; Jarvik, Gail P

    2015-03-01

    Recommendations for laboratories to report incidental findings from genomic tests have stimulated interest in such results. In order to investigate the criteria and processes for assigning the pathogenicity of specific variants and to estimate the frequency of such incidental findings in patients of European and African ancestry, we classified potentially actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in all 4300 European- and 2203 African-ancestry participants sequenced by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). We considered 112 gene-disease pairs selected by an expert panel as associated with medically actionable genetic disorders that may be undiagnosed in adults. The resulting classifications were compared to classifications from other clinical and research genetic testing laboratories, as well as with in silico pathogenicity scores. Among European-ancestry participants, 30 of 4300 (0.7%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.1%) had a disruptive variant that was expected to be pathogenic, whereas 52 (1.2%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. For African-ancestry participants, six of 2203 (0.3%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.3%) had an expected pathogenic disruptive variant, whereas 13 (0.6%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling mammalian conservation score and the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion summary score of conservation, substitution, regulation, and other evidence were compared across pathogenicity assignments and appear to have utility in variant classification. This work provides a refined estimate of the burden of adult onset, medically actionable incidental findings expected from exome sequencing, highlights challenges in variant classification, and demonstrates the need for a better curated variant interpretation knowledge base.

  16. Actionable exomic incidental findings in 6503 participants: challenges of variant classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Laura M.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Robertson, Peggy D.; Salama, Joseph S.; Hart, Ragan; Shirts, Brian H.; Murray, Mitzi L.; Tokita, Mari J.; Gallego, Carlos J.; Kim, Daniel Seung; Bennett, James T.; Crosslin, David R.; Ranchalis, Jane; Jones, Kelly L.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Itsara, Andy; Turner, Emily H.; Herman, Daniel S.; Schleit, Jennifer; Burt, Amber; Jamal, Seema M.; Abrudan, Jenica L.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Conlin, Laura K.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Santani, Avni; Metterville, Danielle R.; Kelly, Melissa; Foreman, Ann Katherine M.; Lee, Kristy; Taylor, Kent D.; Guo, Xiuqing; Crooks, Kristy; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Gordon, Ora; Machini, Kalotina; Desnick, Robert J.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Cooper, Greg M.; Joffe, Steven; Richards, C. Sue; Yang, Yaoping; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rich, Stephen S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Evans, James P.; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Leppig, Kathleen A.; Bennett, Robin L.; Bird, Thomas; Sybert, Virginia P.; Grady, William M.; Tabor, Holly K.; Kim, Jerry H.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Wilfond, Benjamin; Motulsky, Arno G.; Scott, C. Ronald; Pritchard, Colin C.; Walsh, Tom D.; Burke, Wylie; Raskind, Wendy H.; Byers, Peter; Hisama, Fuki M.; Rehm, Heidi; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations for laboratories to report incidental findings from genomic tests have stimulated interest in such results. In order to investigate the criteria and processes for assigning the pathogenicity of specific variants and to estimate the frequency of such incidental findings in patients of European and African ancestry, we classified potentially actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in all 4300 European- and 2203 African-ancestry participants sequenced by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). We considered 112 gene-disease pairs selected by an expert panel as associated with medically actionable genetic disorders that may be undiagnosed in adults. The resulting classifications were compared to classifications from other clinical and research genetic testing laboratories, as well as with in silico pathogenicity scores. Among European-ancestry participants, 30 of 4300 (0.7%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.1%) had a disruptive variant that was expected to be pathogenic, whereas 52 (1.2%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. For African-ancestry participants, six of 2203 (0.3%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.3%) had an expected pathogenic disruptive variant, whereas 13 (0.6%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling mammalian conservation score and the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion summary score of conservation, substitution, regulation, and other evidence were compared across pathogenicity assignments and appear to have utility in variant classification. This work provides a refined estimate of the burden of adult onset, medically actionable incidental findings expected from exome sequencing, highlights challenges in variant classification, and demonstrates the need for a better curated variant interpretation knowledge base. PMID:25637381

  17. Hydrogen sulfide induced disruption of Na+ homeostasis in the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dongman; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Kim, Dong H; Xia, Ying

    2012-07-01

    Maintenance of ionic balance is essential for neuronal functioning. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a known toxic environmental gaseous pollutant, has been recently recognized as a gasotransmitter involved in numerous biological processes and is believed to play an important role in the neural activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is unclear if it plays any role in maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the brain under physiological/pathophysiological conditions. Here, we report by directly measuring Na(+) activity using Na(+) selective electrodes in mouse cortical slices that H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) increased Na(+) influx in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be partially blocked by either Na(+) channel blocker or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker alone or almost completely abolished by coapplication of both blockers but not by non-NMDAR blocker. These data suggest that increased H(2)S in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia, potentially causes a disruption of ionic homeostasis by massive Na(+) influx through Na(+) channels and NMDARs, thus injuring neural functions. Activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR), which reduces Na(+) currents/influx in normoxia, had no effect on H(2)S-induced Na(+) influx, suggesting that H(2)S-induced disruption of Na(+) homeostasis is resistant to DOR regulation and may play a major role in neuronal injury in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia.

  18. Right inferior longitudinal fasciculus lesions disrupt visual-emotional integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David B; Perez, David L; Prasad, Sashank; Rigolo, Laura; O'Donnell, Lauren; Acar, Diler; Meadows, Mary-Ellen; Baslet, Gaston; Boes, Aaron D; Golby, Alexandra J; Dworetzky, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism by which the brain integrates visual and emotional information remains incompletely understood, and can be studied through focal lesions that selectively disrupt this process. To date, three reported cases of visual hypoemotionality, a vision-specific form of derealization, have resulted from lesions of the temporo-occipital junction. We present a fourth case of this rare phenomenon, and investigate the role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in the underlying pathophysiology. A 50-year-old right-handed male was found to have a right medial temporal lobe tumor following new-onset seizures. Interstitial laser ablation of the lesion was complicated by a right temporo-parieto-occipital intraparenchymal hemorrhage. The patient subsequently experienced emotional estrangement from visual stimuli. A lesion overlap analysis was conducted to assess involvement of the ILF by this patient's lesion and those of the three previously described cases, and diffusion tensor imaging was acquired in our case to further investigate ILF disruption. All four lesions specifically overlapped with the expected trajectory of the right ILF, and diminished structural integrity of the right ILF was observed in our case. These findings implicate the ILF in visual hypoemotionality, suggesting that the ILF is critical for integrating visual information with its emotional content. PMID:26940563

  19. Disruptive behavior in school. Wired up - the relationship between disruptive behavior and new technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Stine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The thesis is part of the research project Disruptive behavior in school, led by professor Liv Duesund at the Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo. Professor Duesund is the supervisor of the thesis. It is a cooperation project between University of Oslo and University of California, Berkeley and compares the educational cultures of Norway an the United States (Duesund, 2013). The focus is on disruptive behavior, and in what ways behavior can vary in the two ...

  20. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    An action system framework is a predicate transformer based method for modelling and analysing distributed and reactive systems. The actions in action systems are statements in Dijkstra's guarded command language, and their semantics is given by predicate transformers. Recently, we introduced...... a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  1. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption. PMID:22484366

  2. Remedial action technology - arid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of the low-level waste remedial action program at Los Alamos. The experimental design and progress is described for the experiments on second generation intrusion barriers, subsidence effects on SLB components, moisture cycling effects on chemical transport, and erosion control methodologies. The soil moisture data from the bio-intrusion and moisture cycling experiments both demonstrate the overwhelming importance of vegetation in minimizing infiltration of water through trench covers and backfill. Evaporation, as a water loss component in trench covers, is only effective in reducing soil moisture within 40 cm of the trench cover surface. Moisture infiltrating past the zone of evaporation in unvegetated or poorly vegetated trench covers is in storage and accumulates until drainage out of the soil profile occurs. Judicious selection of vegetation species for revegetating a low-level waste site may prevent infiltration of moisture into the trench and, when coupled with other design features (i.e. trench cover slope, tilling and seeding practice), may greatly reduce problems with erosion. Standard US Department of Agriculture erosion plots, when coupled with a state-of-the-art water balance and erosion model (CREAMS) promises to be highly useful in screening proposed remedial action cover designs for low-level waste sites. The erosion plot configuration allows for complete accounting of the water balance in a soil profile. This feature enables the user to optimize cover designs to minimize erosion and infiltration of water into the trench

  3. Ontario's energy action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 2002, the government of Ontario announced an action plan designed to ensure stable electricity prices while additional electricity generating capacity is built. The action plan included a strategy for encouraging major private sector investments in wind, solar and other renewable energy sources. The strategies for new renewable energy projects include: property tax incentives, business income tax incentives, and sales tax rebates. Initiatives to increase supply include: Toronto's Portland 550 megawatt, natural gas-fired generating station, Niagara Falls' Beck Tunnel Project, and Windsor's 580 megawatt natural gas-fired generating station. The government is promoting energy conservation by reducing its electricity consumption by 10 per cent, and setting a target where 20 per cent of electricity consumed in the province must be from renewable energy sources. The use of interval meters by Ontario residents is being encouraged. A provincial sales tax rebate is being offered to customers buying select energy efficient appliances. In its commitment to environmental protection, the Ontario government is phasing out coal, offering rebates for solar energy systems, implementing measures to reduce acid rain, and investing $3.25 billion over ten years to renew and expand public transit. In Chatham, Ontario, a plant producing ethanol from corn was built, and others are planned for other parts of the province. Tax incentives are also offered for alternative fuel users. 1 ref., 1 tab

  4. Acute and substantive action of antimicrobial toothpastes and mouthrinses on oral biofilm in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.; Abbas, Frank; Hoogmoed, G.G. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare acute action by killing or disrupting oral biofilms through the use of antimicrobial toothpastes and mouthrinses in vitro and to investigate substantive action by absorption of antimicrobials in a biofilm. Biofilms from freshly collected human saliva were grown i

  5. Fluoxetine disrupts motivation and GABAergic signaling in adolescent female hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel

    2016-08-01

    Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. PMID:27068049

  6. Disruption of cytoplasmic microtubules by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of cultured human skin fibroblasts causes the disassembly of their microtubules. Using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we have now investigated whether damage to the microtubule precursor pool may contribute to the disruption of microtubules. Exposure to polychromatic UV radiation inhibits the reassembly of microtubules during cellular recovery from cold treatment. In addition, the ability of taxol to promote microtubule polymerization and bundling is inhibited in UV-irradiated cells. However, UV irradiation of taxol-pretreated cells or in situ detergent-extracted microtubules fails to disrupt the microtubule network. These data suggest that damage to dimeric tubulin, or another soluble factor(s) required for polymerization, contributes to the disassembly of microtubules in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts

  7. The hexagon hypothesis: Six disruptive scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtles, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to bring a simple but effective and comprehensive approach to the development, delivery and monitoring of business continuity solutions. To ensure that the arguments and principles apply across the board, the paper sticks to basic underlying concepts rather than sophisticated interpretations. First, the paper explores what exactly people are defending themselves against. Secondly, the paper looks at how defences should be set up. Disruptive events tend to unfold in phases, each of which invites a particular style of protection, ranging from risk management through to business continuity to insurance cover. Their impact upon any business operation will fall into one of six basic scenarios. The hexagon hypothesis suggests that everyone should be prepared to deal with each of these six disruptive scenarios and it provides them with a useful benchmark for business continuity. PMID:26420396

  8. Endocrine disrupters. The case of estrogen xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest of the scientific community in chemical substances able to alter the hormone balance –endocrine disrupters- has grown with increasing evidence of the consequences for animal populations of exposure to these substances. As has occurred on previous occasions, observational data on animal populations have been sufficiently suggestive to cause concerns among clinicians that similar effects may be produced in human populations. Although data on the effects on populations of animals are more easily generated than those on individuals, clinical observations on human individuals alongside the few existing epidemiological studies have shown a certain parallelism. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo models have been able to designate many chemical compounds as hormonal mimics, including both natural and human-produced compounds to which there are exposure risks. The present work reviews the conceptual premises of endocrine disruption and the development of the use of this term.

  9. The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2004-01-13

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

  10. Cloning and disruption of Ustilago maydis genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fotheringham, S.; Holloman, W K

    1989-01-01

    We have demonstrated that genes from Ustilago maydis can be cloned by direct complementation of mutants through the use of genomic libraries made in a high-frequency transformation vector. We isolated a gene involved in amino acid biosynthesis as an illustrative example and showed that integrative and one-step disruption methods can be used to create null mutations in the chromosomal copy of the gene by homologous recombination. The results of this investigation make it clear that one-step ge...

  11. The Impact of Disruptive Innovations in Orthopaedics

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Erik; Bozic, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    The US healthcare system is currently facing daunting demographic and economic challenges. Because musculoskeletal disorders and disease represent a substantial and growing portion of this healthcare burden, novel approaches will be needed to continue to provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible orthopaedic care to our population. The concept of “disruptive innovations,” which has been studied and popularized by Harvard Business School Professor Clayton Christensen, may offer a potenti...

  12. Disruption strategies for online child pornography networks

    OpenAIRE

    Joffres, Kilauea

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the Internet has allowed for the creation of online child pornography networks, in which websites link to one another and facilitate access to child pornographic materials. This project seeks to use social network analysis tools to identify effective disruption strategies against online child pornography networks. For this purpose, four networks of child exploitation material were extracted using a specially designed web-crawler. These networks were then submitted to three diffe...

  13. Mechanical properties and disruption of dental biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Rmaile, Amir

    2013-01-01

    A literature review of dental plaque biofilms formation, progression and detachment mechanisms is presented in this thesis. Various strategies that have been employed to reduce or eliminate dental biofilms are discussed. The focus of the thesis was on the mechanical properties and disruption of dental biofilms, especially from hard-to-access areas of the oral cavity, such as the interproximal (IP) sites between the teeth. Various methods to measure mechanical properties of dental biofilms wer...

  14. Language adapts to signal disruption in interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Macuch Silva, V.; Roberts, S

    2016-01-01

    Linguistic traits are often seen as reflecting cognitive biases and constraints (e.g. Christiansen & Chater, 2008). However, language must also adapt to properties of the channel through which communication between individuals occurs. Perhaps the most basic aspect of any communication channel is noise. Communicative signals can be blocked, degraded or distorted by other sources in the environment. This poses a fundamental problem for communication. On average, channel disruption accompanies p...

  15. Will disruptive innovations cure health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C M; Bohmer, R; Kenagy, J

    2000-01-01

    It's no secret that health care delivery is convoluted, expensive, and often deeply dissatisfying to consumers. But what is less obvious is that a way out of this crisis exists. Simpler alternatives to expensive care are already here--everything from $5 eyeglasses that people can use to correct their own vision to angioplasty instead of open-heart surgery. Just as the PC replaced the mainframe and the telephone replaced the telegraph operator, disruptive innovations are changing the landscape of health care. Nurse practitioners, general practitioners, and even patients can do things in less-expensive, decentralized settings that could once be performed only by expensive specialists in centralized, inconvenient locations. But established institutions--teaching hospitals, medical schools, insurance companies, and managed care facilities--are fighting these innovations tooth and nail. Instead of embracing change, they're turning the thumbscrews on their old processes--laying off workers, delaying payments, merging, and adding layers of overhead workers. Not only is this at the root of consumer dissatisfaction with the present system, it sows the seeds of its own destruction. The history of disruptive innovations tells us that incumbent institutions will be replaced with ones whose business models are appropriate to the new technologies and markets. Instead of working to preserve the existing systems, regulators, physicians, and pharmaceutical companies need to ask how they can enable more disruptive innovations to emerge. If the natural process of disruption is allowed to proceed, the result will be higher quality, lower cost, more convenient health care for everyone. PMID:11143147

  16. Disruption of vitamin A metabolism by dioxin

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg, Pi

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinoids) is a nutrient that plays a central role in development and remains essential for cell growth and differentiation throughout life. Dioxins are polychlorinated organic pollutants known to negatively affect the storage and body clearance of retinoids. This work aimed at studying mechanisms and consequences of dioxin-induced retinoid disruption in vivo. As model compound we used 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and as model species adult male S...

  17. Robust scheduling and disruption recovery for airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Eggenberg, Niklaus; Salani, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Airline planning include complex and structured operations that must be planned in advance in order to exploit the available resources, provide a reliable and competitive service and forecast system's performances. Decisions regarding operations are based on data which is frequently due to uncertainty. Moreover, unpredicted events may disrupt the current schedule and force managers to take reactive decisions to recover to an operational state. On the other hand, proactive decisions, i.e. deci...

  18. Influence of Dynamic Capabilities in Creating Disruptive Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Čiutienė, R; Thattakath, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of Dynamic Capabilities in creating Disruptive Innovation. For doing so the concepts of Dynamic Capabilities and Disruptive Innovation are reviewed. The criteria of an innovation named Disruptive Innovation are obtained by comparative study between the various innovation types. To demonstrate the role of Dynamic Capabilities in creating Disruptive Innovation, the Innovation Lifecycle is demonstrated with respect to Dynamic Capabilities. Th...

  19. Fortum, how an incumbent should deal with a disruptive innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Noteboom, Arno

    2014-01-01

    Solar PV as a disruptive innovation is changing the established energy industry. It forces energy incumbents to compete on a new market, and on new features. This research sets out to investigate how Fortum should be dealing with this disruptive innovation. This study is conducted in two parts, first it is analysed what the effects are of solar PV being labelled disruptive. This determines whether Fortum should at all be participating in this new disruptive market. The second part analyse...

  20. Influence of Dynamic Capabilities in Creating Disruptive Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Čiutienė, R; Thattakath, E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of Dynamic Capabilities in creating Disruptive Innovation. For doing so the concepts of Dynamic Capabilities and Disruptive Innovation are reviewed. The criteria of an innovation named Disruptive Innovation are obtained by comparative study between the various innovation types. To demonstrate the role of Dynamic Capabilities in creating Disruptive Innovation, the Innovation Lifecycle is demonstrated with respect to Dynamic Capabilities. Th...

  1. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  2. Impulsive action and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H. Frijda

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically, w

  3. Disruptive Behaviour of Students in Primary Education and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esturgo-Deu, M. Estrella; Sala-Roca, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the relation between disruptive behaviours and the emotional abilities of children in primary education. To do this, disruptive behaviour and emotional abilities were evaluated in 1422 pupils aged between 6 and 12 years of age at 11 education centres using EQIjv. No relation was found between disruptive behaviours and age, but…

  4. The Impact of Marital Conflict and Disruption on Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Hango, Darcy W.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of inconsistency between parental marital conflict and disruption on children's health. Inconsistent situations arise when minimal marital conflict precedes disruption or when marital conflict is high but there is no disruption. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, two alternative…

  5. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives...... in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  6. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics.

  7. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Brahma

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4, which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+ and Gram negative (G- bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics.

  8. From action intentions to action effects: how does the sense of agency come about?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérian eChambon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling an external event through one’s own action. On one influential view, agency depends on how predictable the consequences of one’s action are, getting stronger as the match between predicted and actual effect of an action gets closer. Thus, sense of agency arises when external events that follow our action are consistent with predictions of action effects made by the motor system while we perform or simply intend to perform an action. According to this view, agency is inferred retrospectively, after an action has been performed and its consequences are known. In contrast, little is known about whether and how internal processes involved in the selection of actions may influence subjective sense of control, in advance of the action itself, and irrespective of effect predictability. In this article, we review several classes of behavioural and neuroimaging data suggesting that earlier processes, linked to fluency of action selection, prospectively contribute to sense of agency. These findings have important implications for better understanding human volition and abnormalities of action experience.

  9. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  10. A New Criterion for Disruption Prediction on HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing-Wei; JI Xiao-Quan; DING Xuan-Tong; HL-2A team; ZHOU Hang-Yu; FENG Bei-Bin; LIU Yi; PAN Yu-Dong; LI Wei; DUAN Xu-Ru; CHEN Wei; CUI Zheng-Ying

    2006-01-01

    @@ A new criterion has been proposed to predict the major disruptions caused by tearing mode instabilities. According to the HL-2A experimental results, the statistical analyses are employed to investigate the relationships between MHD activities and the plasma disruptions. Two kinds of the tearing mode activities can finally cause the disruption on HL-2A operations. By introducing a new parameter, i.e. an integral of poloidal magnetic field over time, as the criterion of disruption precursor, almost all of the disruptions can be predicted.

  11. Time spent by people managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease indicates biographical disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Yen, Laurann E; Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian S

    2014-01-01

    Since Bury's 1982 proposal that chronic illness creates biographical disruption for those who are living with it, there has been no effort to quantitatively measure such disruption. "Biographical disruption" refers to the substantial and directive influence that chronic illness can have over the course of a person's life. Qualitative research and time use studies have demonstrated that people with chronic illnesses spend considerable amounts of time managing their health, and that these demands may change over time. This study was designed to measure the time that older people with chronic illnesses spend on selected health practices as one indicator of biographical disruption. We look specifically at the time use of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As part of a larger time use survey, a recall questionnaire was mailed to 3,100 members of Lung Foundation Australia in 2011. A total of 681 responses were received (22.0% response rate), 611 of which were from people with COPD. Descriptive analyses were undertaken on the amount of time spent on selected health-related activities including personal care, nonclinical health-related care, and activity relating to health services. Almost all people with COPD report spending some time each day on personal or home-based health-related tasks, with a median time of 15 minutes per day spent on these activities. At the median, people also report spending about 30 minutes per day exercising, 2.2 hours per month (the equivalent of 4.4 minutes per day) on nonclinical health-related activities, and 4.1 hours per month (equivalent to 8.2 minutes per day) on clinical activities. Excluding exercise, the median total time spent on health-related activities was 17.8 hours per month (or 35.6 minutes per day). For people in the top 10% of time use, the total amount of time was more than 64.6 hours per month (or 2.2 hours per day) excluding exercise, and 104 hours per month (or 3.5 hours per day) including exercise

  12. All in action

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, Arto

    2010-01-01

    The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which nature in its entirety and every detail is pictured in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiples of the most elementary action which corresponds to the Planck's constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span energy landscape, the Universe which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing density differences in least time. During the step-by-step evolution densely-curled actions unfold by opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The manifold's varieties process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to their dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental force...

  13. Abundance anomalies in tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The ˜10 per cent of tidal disruption events (TDEs) due to stars more massive than M* ≳ M⊙ should show abundance anomalies due to stellar evolution in helium, carbon and nitrogen, but not oxygen. Helium is always enhanced, but only by up to ˜25 per cent on average because it becomes inaccessible once it is sequestered in the high-density core as the star leaves the main sequence. However, portions of the debris associated with the disrupted core of a main-sequence star can be enhanced in helium by factors of 2-3 for debris at a common orbital period. These helium abundance variations may be a contributor to the observed diversity of hydrogen and helium line strengths in TDEs. A still more striking anomaly is the rapid enhancement of nitrogen and the depletion of carbon due to the CNO cycle - stars with M* ≳ M⊙ quickly show an increase in their average N/C ratio by factors of 3-10. Because low-mass stars evolve slowly and high-mass stars are rare, TDEs showing high N/C will almost all be due to ˜1-2 M⊙ stars disrupted on the main sequence. Like helium, portions of the debris will show still larger changes in C and N, and the anomalies decline as the star leaves the main sequence. The enhanced [N/C] abundance ratio of these TDEs provides the first natural explanation for the rare, nitrogen-rich quasars and may also explain the strong nitrogen emission seen in ultraviolet spectra of ASASSN-14li.

  14. Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the

  15. Disruption of Four Kinesin Genes in Dictyostelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soga Ikko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinesin and dynein are the two families of microtubule-based motors that drive much of the intracellular movements in eukaryotic cells. Using a gene knockout strategy, we address here the individual function(s of four of the 13 kinesin proteins in Dictyostelium. The goal of our ongoing project is to establish a minimal motility proteome for this basal eukaryote, enabling us to contrast motor functions here with the often far more elaborate motor families in the metazoans. Results We performed individual disruptions of the kinesin genes, kif4, kif8, kif10, and kif11. None of the motors encoded by these genes are essential for development or viability of Dictyostelium. Removal of Kif4 (kinesin-7; CENP-E family significantly impairs the rate of cell growth and, when combined with a previously characterized dynein inhibition, results in dramatic defects in mitotic spindle assembly. Kif8 (kinesin-4; chromokinesin family and Kif10 (kinesin-8; Kip3 family appear to cooperate with dynein to organize the interphase radial microtubule array. Conclusion The results reported here extend the number of kinesin gene disruptions in Dictyostelium, to now total 10, among the 13 isoforms. None of these motors, individually, are required for short-term viability. In contrast, homologs of at least six of the 10 kinesins are considered essential in humans. Our work underscores the functional redundancy of motor isoforms in basal organisms while highlighting motor specificity in more complex metazoans. Since motor disruption in Dictyostelium can readily be combined with other motility insults and stresses, this organism offers an excellent system to investigate functional interactions among the kinesin motor family.

  16. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla;

    The aim of this session is to give a presentation of the report (both ENV and HH) on criteria carried out by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. CEHOS is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls...... and the main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with focus on information needed for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The aim of the report was to propose scientific criteria for the identification of ED substances of concern for human...

  18. Coherent photon-photon processes in disruptive and non-disruptive relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an impact parameter formulation, differential probability distributions and cross sections for the production of lepton pairs via the photon-photon mechanism are calculated for relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The characteristic features of lepton pair production in disruptive as well as in non-disruptive A-A collisions are studied. Cross sections can be large, the very low k perpendicularto -values of the pairs will help to distinguish these pairs from the ones originating from other sources like Drell-Yan or thermal production. (orig.)

  19. Traumatic ureteropelvic disruption in the child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traumatic disruption of the ureter from the renal pelvis is a rare injury because the ureteropelvic junction is situated deep in the retroperitoneum and is thus protected by the spine and paraspinal muscles. The mechanism for this injury is thought to be the stretching of the proximal ureter by sudden extreme hyperextension of the trunk. As a non-fatal injury, this occurs only in the child because of the greater elasticity and mobility of the young skeleton. At The Children's Hospital we have seen 3 cases of avulsion of the ureter from the pelvis following blunt trauma. (orig.)

  20. Multimedia data mining and analytics disruptive innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Baughman, Aaron; Pan, Jia-Yu; Petrushin, Valery A

    2015-01-01

    This authoritative text/reference provides fresh insights into the cutting edge of multimedia data mining, reflecting how the research focus has shifted towards networked social communities, mobile devices and sensors. Presenting a detailed exploration into the progression of the field, the book describes how the history of multimedia data processing can be viewed as a sequence of disruptive innovations. Across the chapters, the discussion covers the practical frameworks, libraries, and open source software that enable the development of ground-breaking research into practical applications.