WorldWideScience

Sample records for action control evidence

  1. Working memory and the control of action: evidence from task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A; Chincotta, D; Adlam, A

    2001-12-01

    A series of 7 experiments used dual-task methodology to investigate the role of working memory in the operation of a simple action-control plan or program involving regular switching between addition and subtraction. Lists requiring switching were slower than blocked lists and showed 2 concurrent task effects. Demanding executive tasks impaired performance on both blocked and switched lists, whereas articulatory suppression impaired principally the switched condition. Implications for models of task switching and working memory and for the Vygotskian concept of verbal control of action are discussed.

  2. Learning about goals : development of action perception and action control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, Stephan Alexander

    2014-01-01

    By using innovative paradigms, the present thesis provides convincing evidence that action-effect learning, and sensorimotor processes in general play a crucial role in the development of action- perception and production in infancy. This finding was further generalized to sequential action.

  3. Everyday robotic action: Lessons from human action control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eDe Kleijn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally-extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  4. Introduction: evidence-based action in humanitarian crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkzeul, D.; Hilhorst, D.; Walker, P.

    2013-01-01

    This introductory paper sets the stage for this special issue of Disasters on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises. It reviews definition(s) of evidence and it examines the different disciplinary and methodological approaches to collecting and analysing evidence. In humanitarian action, the

  5. Influence of verbal instructions on effect-based action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David

    2017-03-01

    According to ideomotor theory, people use bidirectional associations between movements and their effects for action selection and initiation. Our experiments examined how verbal instructions of action effects influence response selection without prior experience of action effects in a separate acquisition phase. Instructions for different groups of participants specified whether they should ignore, attend, learn, or intentionally produce acoustic effects produced by button presses. Results showed that explicit instructions of action-effect relations trigger effect-congruent action tendencies in the first trials following the instruction; in contrast, no evidence for effect-based action control was observed in these trials when instructions were to ignore or to attend to the action effects. These findings show that action-effect knowledge acquired through verbal instruction and direct experience is similarly effective for effect-based action control as long as the relation between the movement and the effect is clearly spelled out in the instruction.

  6. Action identity: evidence from self-recognition, prediction, and coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblich, Günther; Flach, Rüdiger

    2003-12-01

    Prior research suggests that the action system is responsible for creating an immediate sense of self by determining whether certain sensations and perceptions are the result of one's own actions. In addition, it is assumed that declarative, episodic, or autobiographical memories create a temporally extended sense of self or some form of identity. In the present article, we review recent evidence suggesting that action (procedural) knowledge also forms part of a person's identity, an action identity, so to speak. Experiments that addressed self-recognition of past actions, prediction, and coordination provide ample evidence for this assumption. The phenomena observed in these experiments can be explained by the assumption that observing an action results in the activation of action representations, the more so, when the action observed corresponds to the way in which the observer would produce it.

  7. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Immunomodulators in SLE: Clinical evidence and immunologic actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, L; Petri, M

    2016-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease. Current treatment strategies rely heavily on corticosteroids, which are in turn responsible for a significant burden of morbidity, and immunosuppressives which are limited by suboptimal efficacy, increased infections and malignancies. There are significant deficiencies in our immunosuppressive armamentarium, making immunomodulatory therapies crucial, offering the opportunity to prevent disease flare and the subsequent accrual of damage. Currently available immunomodulators include prasterone (synthetic dehydroeipandrosterone), vitamin D, hydroxychloroquine and belimumab. These therapies, acting via numerous cellular and cytokine pathways, have been shown to modify the aberrant immune responses associated with SLE without overt immunosuppression. Vitamin D is important in SLE and supplementation appears to have a positive impact on disease activity particularly proteinuria. Belimumab has specific immunomodulatory properties and is an effective therapy in those with specific serological and clinical characteristics predictive of response. Hydroxychloroquine is a crucial background medication in SLE with actions in many molecular pathways. It has disease specific effects in reducing flare, treating cutaneous disease and inflammatory arthralgias in addition to other effects such as reduced thrombosis, increased longevity, improved lipids, better glycemic control and blood pressure. Dehydroeipandrosterone is also an immunomodulator in SLE which can have positive effects on disease activity and has bone protective properties. This review outlines the immunologic actions of these drugs and the clinical evidence supporting their use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Power effects on cognitive control: Turning conflict into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-06-01

    Power is known to promote effective goal pursuit, especially when it requires one to overcome distractions or bias. We proposed that this effect involves the ability to engage and implement cognitive control. In Study 1, we demonstrated that power enhances behavioral performance on a response conflict task and that it does so by enhancing controlled processing rather than by reducing automatic processing. In Study 2, we used an event-related potential index of anterior cingulate activity to test whether power effects on control were due to enhanced conflict sensitivity or action implementation. Power did not significantly affect neural sensitivity to conflict; rather, high power was associated with a stronger link between conflict processing and intended action, relative to low power. These findings suggest a new perspective on how social factors can affect controlled processing and offer new evidence regarding the transition between conflict detection and the implementation of action control. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Deciding as Intentional Action: Control over Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Common-sense folk psychology and mainstream philosophy of action agree about decisions: these are under an agent's direct control, and are thus intentional actions for which agents can be held responsible. I begin this paper by presenting a problem for this view. In short, since the content of the motivational attitudes that drive deliberation and decision remains open-ended until the moment of decision, it is unclear how agents can be thought to exercise control over what they decide at the moment of deciding. I note that this problem might motivate a non-actional view of deciding—a view that decisions are not actions, but are instead passive events of intention acquisition. For without an understanding of how an agent might exercise control over what is decided at the moment of deciding, we lack a good reason for maintaining commitment to an actional view of deciding. However, I then offer the required account of how agents exercise control over decisions at the moment of deciding. Crucial to this account is an understanding of the relation of practical deliberation to deciding, an understanding of skilled deliberative activity, and the role of attention in the mental action of deciding. PMID:26321765

  11. The Environmental Action Internal Control Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports research designed to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior in (n=853) undergraduate students. Results suggest that the Environmental Action Internal Control Index can accurately predict environmentally responsible behavior.…

  12. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio eAvenanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others’ actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people’s behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals’ ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings.

  13. Use of action requests to control communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the Plant Information Management System (PIMS) that is implemented at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's (PG and E) Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP). PIMS is implemented on IBM mainframes located at the plant, is on-line and interactive, and is accessed via a computer communication system that supports more than 450 IBM 3270 PC workstations. This paper discusses the role of the ACTION REQUEST module of PIMS and how it is used to control plant sensitive communications. The ACTION REQUEST module of PIMS can be accessed from any workstation and during the first year of Commercial Operation of DCPP replaced numerous and redundant forms of manual communication mechanisms. Also in this first year, users at the plant generated approximately 25,000 Action Requests which were controlled through review and approval cycles by PIMS. Each organization assigned action were immediately notified of their responsibilities so that action could be taken in a timely manner. The Diablo Canyon Power Plant broke Westinghouse world-wide operating records for the first year of operation (over 90% availability) due to a well built and reliable plant and due to a responsive Operations organization, which was well informed and controlled

  14. Getting evidence into action to tackle institutional child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse is an example of a government response to survivors' demands to address the harm they suffered. It is also a major response by a national government to improve child safety in the future. Facing up to child abuse is difficult and in other countries similar inquiries have suffered delays and derailing. This commentary uses an evidence-to-action lens to explore why clear evidence of child sexual abuse may be ignored and side-lined. It argues that where evidence challenges the powerful, is surprising and shocking, or undercuts current institutional and policy arrangements, then that evidence is likely to be ignored, undermined or refuted - all factors which are present in the case of historical institutional child sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Willingness to Communicate and Action Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Doucette, Jesslyn

    2010-01-01

    Being willing to communicate is part of becoming fluent in a second language, which often is the ultimate goal of L2 learners. Julius Kuhl's theory of action control is introduced as an expansion of the conceptual framework for the study of Willingness to Communicate. Kuhl proposed three key concepts, preoccupation, volatility, and hesitation,…

  16. Neural Basis of Action Understanding: Evidence from Sign Language Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Raphel, Kristin; Tomkovicz, Vivian; O'Grady, Lucinda; Damasio, Hanna; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The neural basis of action understanding is a hotly debated issue. The mirror neuron account holds that motor simulation in fronto-parietal circuits is critical to action understanding including speech comprehension, while others emphasize the ventral stream in the temporal lobe. Evidence from speech strongly supports the ventral stream account, but on the other hand, evidence from manual gesture comprehension (e.g., in limb apraxia) has led to contradictory findings. Here we present a lesion analysis of sign language comprehension. Sign language is an excellent model for studying mirror system function in that it bridges the gap between the visual-manual system in which mirror neurons are best characterized and language systems which have represented a theoretical target of mirror neuron research. Twenty-one life long deaf signers with focal cortical lesions performed two tasks: one involving the comprehension of individual signs and the other involving comprehension of signed sentences (commands). Participants' lesions, as indicated on MRI or CT scans, were mapped onto a template brain to explore the relationship between lesion location and sign comprehension measures. Single sign comprehension was not significantly affected by left hemisphere damage. Sentence sign comprehension impairments were associated with left temporal-parietal damage. We found that damage to mirror system related regions in the left frontal lobe were not associated with deficits on either of these comprehension tasks. We conclude that the mirror system is not critically involved in action understanding.

  17. Learning, attentional control, and action video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2012-03-20

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning, attentional control and action video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2012-01-01

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  19. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  20. Cognitive Enhancement Through Action Video Game Training: Great Expectations Require Greater Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eBisoglio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.

  1. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  2. Controlling Attention through Action: Observing Actions Primes Action-Related Stimulus Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that planning an action "backward-primes" perceptual dimension related to this action: planning a grasp facilitates the processing of visual size information, while planning a reach facilitates the processing of location information. Here we show that dimensional priming of perception through action occurs even in the…

  3. Youth Excel: towards a pan-Canadian platform linking evidence and action for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara L; Manske, Steve; Cameron, Roy

    2011-05-15

    Population-level intervention is required to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases. It also promotes health for those living with established risk factors and illness. In this article, the authors describe a vision and approach for continuously improving population-level programs and policies within and beyond the health sector. The vision and approach are anchored in contemporary thinking about what is required to link evidence and action in the field of population and public health. The authors believe that, as a cancer prevention and control community, organizations and practitioners must be able to use the best available evidence to inform action and continually generate evidence that improves prevention policies and programs on an ongoing basis. These imperatives require leaders in policy, practice, and research fields to work together to jointly plan, conduct, and act on relevant evidence. The Propel Center and colleagues are implementing this approach in Youth Excel-a pan-Canadian initiative that brings together national and provincial organizations from health and education sectors and capitalizes on a history of collaboration. The objective of Youth Excel is to build sustainable capacity for knowledge development and exchange that can guide and redirect prevention efforts in a rapidly evolving social environment. This goal is to contribute to creating health-promoting environments and to accelerate progress in preventing cancer and other diseases among youth and young adults and in the wider population. Although prevention is the aim, health-promoting environments also can support health gains for individuals of all ages and with established illness. In addition, the approach Youth Excel is taking to link evidence and action may be applicable to early intervention and treatment components of cancer control. © 2011 American Cancer Society

  4. Gaze control during interceptive actions with different spatiotemporal demands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navia, J.A.; Dicks, M.S.; van der Kamp, J; Ruiz, L.

    It is widely accepted that the sources of information used to guide interceptive actions depend on conflicting spatiotemporal task demands. However, there is a paucity of evidence that shows how information pick-up during interceptive actions is adapted to such conflicting constraints. The present

  5. Continuous Improvement in Action: Educators' Evidence Use for School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Marisa; Redding, Christopher; Rubin, Mollie

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the article is the process educators use to interpret data to turn it into usable knowledge (Honig & Coburn, 2008) while engaging in a continuous improvement process. The authors examine the types of evidence educators draw upon, its perceived relevance, and the social context in which the evidence is examined. Evidence includes…

  6. Action potential influences spatial perception: Evidence for genuine top-down effects on perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K

    2017-08-01

    The action-specific account of spatial perception asserts that a perceiver's ability to perform an action, such as hitting a softball or walking up a hill, impacts the visual perception of the target object. Although much evidence is consistent with this claim, the evidence has been challenged as to whether perception is truly impacted, as opposed to the responses themselves. These challenges have recently been organized as six pitfalls that provide a framework with which to evaluate the empirical evidence. Four case studies of action-specific effects are offered as evidence that meets the framework's high bar, and thus that demonstrates genuine perceptual effects. That action influences spatial perception is evidence that perceptual and action-related processes are intricately and bidirectionally linked.

  7. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W; Balleine, Bernard W

    2014-11-05

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Do endogenous and exogenous action control compete for perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-04-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the endogenous representation has to be deactivated first to give way to the exogenous system. Here we show that interference of endogenous and exogenous action control is not limited to motor-related aspects but also affects the perception of action-related stimuli. Participants associated two actions with contingent sensory effects in learning blocks. In subsequent test blocks, preparing one of these actions specifically impaired responding to the associated effect in an exogenous speeded detection task, yielding a blindness-like effect for arbitrary, learned action effects. In accordance with the theory of event coding, this finding suggests that action planning influences perception even in the absence of any physical similarities between action and to-be-perceived stimuli.

  10. How to support action prediction: Evidence from human coordination tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    When two or more people perform actions together such as shaking hands, playing ensemble music or carrying an object together, they often naturally adjust the spatial and temporal parameters of their movements to facilitate smooth task performance. This paper reviews recent findings from experime......When two or more people perform actions together such as shaking hands, playing ensemble music or carrying an object together, they often naturally adjust the spatial and temporal parameters of their movements to facilitate smooth task performance. This paper reviews recent findings from......”) might be a useful approach also for robotic systems to assist human users, thereby reducing cognitive load and flexibly supporting the acquisition of new skills....

  11. How to support action prediction: Evidence from human coordination tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    When two or more people perform actions together such as shaking hands, playing ensemble music or carrying an object together, they often naturally adjust the spatial and temporal parameters of their movements to facilitate smooth task performance. This paper reviews recent findings from experime......”) might be a useful approach also for robotic systems to assist human users, thereby reducing cognitive load and flexibly supporting the acquisition of new skills....

  12. Macroeconomic Activity and Monetary Policy Actions: Some Preliminary Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Haslag, Joseph H; Hein, Scott E

    1992-01-01

    Monetary policy is conducted through open market operations, loans at the discount window, and changes in the reserve requirement structure. The purpose of this paper is to formally investigate the notion that the effect of changes in reserve requirement ratios is different from the effect of other policy tools. This is accomplished by decomposing the monetary base into those changes caused by changes in reserve requirement ratios and those caused by other monetary policy actions. Some prelim...

  13. Feedback control using only quantum back-action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The traditional approach to feedback control is to apply deterministic forces to a system by modifying the Hamiltonian. Here we show that finite-dimensional quantum systems can be controlled purely by exploiting the random quantum back-action of a continuous weak measurement. We demonstrate that, quite remarkably, the quantum back-action of such an adaptive measurement is just as effective at controlling quantum systems as traditional feedback.

  14. Preschool Children's Control of Action Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good…

  15. Action Planning and the Timescale of Evidence Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsetsos

    Full Text Available Perceptual decisions are based on the temporal integration of sensory evidence for different states of the outside world. The timescale of this integration process varies widely across behavioral contexts and individuals, and it is diagnostic for the underlying neural mechanisms. In many situations, the decision-maker knows the required mapping between perceptual evidence and motor response (henceforth termed "sensory-motor contingency" before decision formation. Here, the integrated evidence can be directly translated into a motor plan and, indeed, neural signatures of the integration process are evident as build-up activity in premotor brain regions. In other situations, however, the sensory-motor contingencies are unknown at the time of decision formation. We used behavioral psychophysics and computational modeling to test if knowledge about sensory-motor contingencies affects the timescale of perceptual evidence integration. We asked human observers to perform the same motion discrimination task, with or without trial-to-trial variations of the mapping between perceptual choice and motor response. When the mapping varied, it was either instructed before or after the stimulus presentation. We quantified the timescale of evidence integration under these different sensory-motor mapping conditions by means of two approaches. First, we analyzed subjects' discrimination threshold as a function of stimulus duration. Second, we fitted a dynamical decision-making model to subjects' choice behavior. The results from both approaches indicated that observers (i integrated motion information for several hundred ms, (ii used a shorter than optimal integration timescale, and (iii used the same integration timescale under all sensory-motor mappings. We conclude that the mechanisms limiting the timescale of perceptual decisions are largely independent from long-term learning (under fixed mapping or rapid acquisition (under variable mapping of sensory

  16. Gain Scheduling of Observer-Based Controllers with Integral Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2006-01-01

     This paper presents a method for continuous gain scheduling of  observer-based controllers with integral action. Given two stabilising controllers for a given system, explicit state space formulae are presented, allowing to change gradually from one  controller to the other while preserving...

  17. Observing and participating in social interactions: Action perception and action control across the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Dimitris; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2018-01-01

    Autism is a developmental condition, characterized by difficulties of social interaction and communication, as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although several important conceptions have shed light on specific facets, there is still no consensus about a universal yet specific theory in terms of its underlying mechanisms. While some theories have exclusively focused on sensory aspects, others have emphasized social difficulties. However, sensory and social processes in autism might be interconnected to a higher degree than what has been traditionally thought. We propose that a mismatch in sensory abilities across individuals can lead to difficulties on a social, i.e. interpersonal level and vice versa. In this article, we, therefore, selectively review evidence indicating an interrelationship between perceptual and social difficulties in autism. Additionally, we link this body of research with studies, which investigate the mechanisms of action control in social contexts. By doing so, we highlight that autistic traits are also crucially related to differences in integration, anticipation and automatic responding to social cues, rather than a mere inability to register and learn from social cues. Importantly, such differences may only manifest themselves in sufficiently complex situations, such as real-life social interactions, where such processes are inextricably linked. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional Dissociation between Perception and Action Is Evident Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2012-01-01

    The functional distinction between vision for perception and vision for action is well documented in the mature visual system. Ganel and colleagues recently provided direct evidence for this dissociation, showing that while visual processing for perception follows Weber's fundamental law of psychophysics, action violates this law. We tracked the…

  19. Putting the public (back) into public health: leadership, evidence and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, J; Connolly, A M; Stansfield, J A; Johnstone, P; Henderson, G; Fenton, K A

    2018-03-13

    There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health. The essay sets out the case for a reorientation of public health practice in order to build impactful action with communities at scale leading to a reduction in the health gap. National frameworks that support local practice are described. Four areas of challenge that could potentially drive an implementation gap are discussed: (i) achieving integration and scale, (ii) effective community mobilization, (iii) evidencing impact and (iv) achieving a shift in power. The essay concludes with a call to action for developing a contemporary public health practice that is rooted in communities and offers local leadership to strengthen local assets, increase community control and reduce health inequalities.

  20. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, R.E.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of action-effect associations in oculomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Eva; Pieczykolan, Aleksandra; Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid; Huestegge, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    While there is ample evidence that actions are guided by anticipating their effects (ideomotor control) in the manual domain, much less is known about the underlying characteristics and dynamics of effect-based oculomotor control. Here, we address three open issues. 1) Is action-effect anticipation in oculomotor control reflected in corresponding spatial saccade characteristics in inanimate environments? 2) Does the previously reported dependency of action latency on the temporal effect delay (action-effect interval) also occur in the oculomotor domain? 3) Which temporal effect delay is optimally suited to develop strong action-effect associations over time in the oculomotor domain? Participants executed left or right free-choice saccades to peripheral traffic lights, causing an (immediate or delayed) action-contingent light switch in the upper vs. lower part of the traffic light. Results indicated that saccades were spatially shifted toward the location of the upcoming change, indicating anticipation of the effect (location). Saccade latency was affected by effect delay, suggesting that corresponding time information is integrated into event representations. Finally, delayed (vs. immediate) effects were more effective in strengthening action-effect associations over the course of the experiment, likely due to greater saliency of perceptual changes occurring during target fixation as opposed to changes during saccades (saccadic suppression). Overall, basic principles underlying ideomotor control appear to generalize to the oculomotor domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution.

  3. Molecular substrates of action control in cortico-striatal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiflett, Michael W; Balleine, Bernard W

    2011-09-15

    The purpose of this review is to describe the molecular mechanisms in the striatum that mediate reward-based learning and action control during instrumental conditioning. Experiments assessing the neural bases of instrumental conditioning have uncovered functional circuits in the striatum, including dorsal and ventral striatal sub-regions, involved in action-outcome learning, stimulus-response learning, and the motivational control of action by reward-associated cues. Integration of dopamine (DA) and glutamate neurotransmission within these striatal sub-regions is hypothesized to enable learning and action control through its role in shaping synaptic plasticity and cellular excitability. The extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) appears to be particularly important for reward-based learning and action control due to its sensitivity to combined DA and glutamate receptor activation and its involvement in a range of cellular functions. ERK activation in striatal neurons is proposed to have a dual role in both the learning and performance factors that contribute to instrumental conditioning through its regulation of plasticity-related transcription factors and its modulation of intrinsic cellular excitability. Furthermore, perturbation of ERK activation by drugs of abuse may give rise to behavioral disorders such as addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Weighted score-level feature fusion based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory for action recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoliang; Jia, Songmin; Li, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Xiangyin

    2018-01-01

    The majority of human action recognition methods use multifeature fusion strategy to improve the classification performance, where the contribution of different features for specific action has not been paid enough attention. We present an extendible and universal weighted score-level feature fusion method using the Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory based on the pipeline of bag-of-visual-words. First, the partially distinctive samples in the training set are selected to construct the validation set. Then, local spatiotemporal features and pose features are extracted from these samples to obtain evidence information. The DS evidence theory and the proposed rule of survival of the fittest are employed to achieve evidence combination and calculate optimal weight vectors of every feature type belonging to each action class. Finally, the recognition results are deduced via the weighted summation strategy. The performance of the established recognition framework is evaluated on Penn Action dataset and a subset of the joint-annotated human metabolome database (sub-JHMDB). The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed feature fusion method can adequately exploit the complementarity among multiple features and improve upon most of the state-of-the-art algorithms on Penn Action and sub-JHMDB datasets.

  5. Comparative investigations of manual action representations: evidence that chimpanzees represent the costs of potential future actions involving tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Scott H; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2012-01-12

    The ability to adjust one's ongoing actions in the anticipation of forthcoming task demands is considered as strong evidence for the existence of internal action representations. Studies of action selection in tool use reveal that the behaviours that we choose in the present moment differ depending on what we intend to do next. Further, they point to a specialized role for mechanisms within the human cerebellum and dominant left cerebral hemisphere in representing the likely sensory costs of intended future actions. Recently, the question of whether similar mechanisms exist in other primates has received growing, but still limited, attention. Here, we present data that bear on this issue from a species that is a natural user of tools, our nearest living relative, the chimpanzee. In experiment 1, a subset of chimpanzees showed a non-significant tendency for their grip preferences to be affected by anticipation of the demands associated with bringing a tool's baited end to their mouths. In experiment 2, chimpanzees' initial grip preferences were consistently affected by anticipation of the forthcoming movements in a task that involves using a tool to extract a food reward. The partial discrepancy between the results of these two studies is attributed to the ability to accurately represent differences between the motor costs associated with executing the two response alternatives available within each task. These findings suggest that chimpanzees are capable of accurately representing the costs of intended future actions, and using those predictions to select movements in the present even in the context of externally directed tool use.

  6. Neural evidence for the intrinsic value of action as motivation for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-06-03

    The intrinsic value of an action refers to the inherent sense that experiencing a behavior is enjoyable even if it has no explicit outcome. Previous research has suggested that a common valuation mechanism within the reward network may be responsible for processing the intrinsic value of achieving both the outcome and external rewards. However, how the intrinsic value of action is neurally represented remains unknown. We hypothesized that the intrinsic value of action is determined by an action-outcome contingency indicating the behavior is controllable and that the outcome of the action can be evaluated by this feedback. Consequently, the reward network should be activated, reflecting the generation of the intrinsic value of action. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation of a stopwatch game in which the action-outcome contingency was manipulated. This experiment involved 36 healthy volunteers and four versions of a stopwatch game that manipulated controllability (the feeling that participants were controlling the stopwatch themselves) and outcome (a signal allowing participants to see the result of their action). A free-choice experiment was administered after the fMRI to explore preference levels for each game. The results showed that the stopwatch game with the action-outcome contingency evoked a greater degree of enjoyment because the participants chose this condition over those that lacked such a contingency. The ventral striatum and midbrain were activated only when action-outcome contingency was present. Thus, the intrinsic value of action was represented by an increase in ventral striatal and midbrain activation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence-Based Practice and School Libraries: Interconnections of Evidence, Advocacy, and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ross J.

    2015-01-01

    This author states that a professional focus on evidence based practice (EBP) for school libraries emerged from the International Association of School Librarianship conference when he presented the concept. He challenged the school library profession to actively engage in professional and reflective practices that chart, measure, document, and…

  8. Kinesthetic working memory and action control within the dorsal stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Katja; Burke, Michael; Engel, Annerose; Bien, Siegfried; Rösler, Frank

    2008-02-01

    There is wide agreement that the "dorsal (action) stream" processes visual information for movement control. However, movements depend not only on vision but also on tactile and kinesthetic information (=haptics). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigates to what extent networks within the dorsal stream are also utilized for kinesthetic action control and whether they are also involved in kinesthetic working memory. Fourteen blindfolded participants performed a delayed-recognition task in which right-handed movements had to be encoded, maintained, and later recognized without any visual feedback. Encoding of hand movements activated somatosensory areas, superior parietal lobe (dorsodorsal stream), anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and adjoining areas (ventrodorsal stream), premotor cortex, and occipitotemporal cortex (ventral stream). Short-term maintenance of kinesthetic information elicited load-dependent activity in the aIPS and adjacent anterior portion of the superior parietal lobe (ventrodorsal stream) of the left hemisphere. We propose that the action representation system of the dorsodorsal and ventrodorsal stream is utilized not only for visual but also for kinesthetic action control. Moreover, the present findings demonstrate that networks within the ventrodorsal stream, in particular the left aIPS and closely adjacent areas, are also engaged in working memory maintenance of kinesthetic information.

  9. Geometric control theory for quantum back-action evasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokotera, Yu; Yamamoto, Naoki [Keio University, Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Engineering a sensor system for detecting an extremely tiny signal such as the gravitational-wave force is a very important subject in quantum physics. A major obstacle to this goal is that, in a simple detection setup, the measurement noise is lower bounded by the so-called standard quantum limit (SQL), which is originated from the intrinsic mechanical back-action noise. Hence, the sensor system has to be carefully engineered so that it evades the back-action noise and eventually beats the SQL. In this paper, based on the well-developed geometric control theory for classical disturbance decoupling problem, we provide a general method for designing an auxiliary (coherent feedback or direct interaction) controller for the sensor system to achieve the above-mentioned goal. This general theory is applied to a typical opto-mechanical sensor system. Also, we demonstrate a controller design for a practical situation where several experimental imperfections are present. (orig.)

  10. Geometric control theory for quantum back-action evasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokotera, Yu; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Engineering a sensor system for detecting an extremely tiny signal such as the gravitational-wave force is a very important subject in quantum physics. A major obstacle to this goal is that, in a simple detection setup, the measurement noise is lower bounded by the so-called standard quantum limit (SQL), which is originated from the intrinsic mechanical back-action noise. Hence, the sensor system has to be carefully engineered so that it evades the back-action noise and eventually beats the SQL. In this paper, based on the well-developed geometric control theory for classical disturbance decoupling problem, we provide a general method for designing an auxiliary (coherent feedback or direct interaction) controller for the sensor system to achieve the above-mentioned goal. This general theory is applied to a typical opto-mechanical sensor system. Also, we demonstrate a controller design for a practical situation where several experimental imperfections are present. (orig.)

  11. Action Research: A Personal Epiphany and Journey with Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    The author reveals in this article that her action research journey in the land of evidence-based practice was not her own idea. She writes that she was lured by the profession's finest scholars who advocated for reflective dispositions for practitioners to improve their practice and demonstrate the school librarian's critical role in teaching and…

  12. Motivational Tuning of Fronto-Subthalamic Connectivity Facilitates Control of Action Impulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M.; Christensen, Mark S.; Bruggemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    It is critical for survival to quickly respond to environmental stimuli with the most appropriate action. This task becomes most challenging when response tendencies induced by relevant and irrelevant stimulus features are in conflict, and have to be resolved in real time. Inputs from the pre...... for fast and accurate responses. These effects were mediated by enhanced activation and connectivity of the IFG–STN pathway. These results provide causal evidence for a pivotal role of the IFG–STN pathway during action control. Additionally, they suggest a parallel rather than hierarchical organization...

  13. Complete unconscious control: Using (in)action primes to demonstrate completely unconscious activation of inhibitory control mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Although robust evidence indicates that action initiation can occur unconsciously and unintentionally, the literature on action inhibition suggests that inhibition requires both conscious thought and intentionality. In prior research demonstrating automatic inhibition in response to unconsciously processed stimuli, the unconscious stimuli had previously been consciously associated with an inhibitory response within the context of the experiment, and participants had consciously formed a goal to activate inhibition processes when presented with the stimuli (because task instructions required participants to engage in inhibition when the stimuli occurred). Therefore, prior work suggests that some amount of conscious thought and intentionality are required for inhibitory control. In the present research, we recorded event-related potentials during two go/no-go experiments in which participants were subliminally primed with general action/inaction concepts that had never been consciously associated with task-specific responses. We provide the first demonstration that inhibitory control processes can be modulated completely unconsciously and unintentionally. PMID:23747649

  14. Dopaminergic modulation of positive expectations for goal-directed action: evidence from Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noham eWolpe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD impairs the control of movement and cognition, including the planning of action and its consequences. This provides the opportunity to study the dopaminergic influences on the perception and awareness of action. Here we examined the perception of the outcome of a goal-directed action made by medicated patients with PD. A visuomotor task probed the integration of sensorimotor signals with the positive expectations of outcomes (Self priors, which in healthy adults bias perception towards success in proportion to trait optimism. We tested the hypotheses that (i the priors on the perception of the consequences of one’s own actions differ between patients and age- and sex-matched controls, and (ii that these priors are modulated by the levodopa dose equivalent in patients. There was no overall difference between patients and controls in the perceptual priors used. However, the precision of patient priors was inversely related to their levodopa dose equivalent. Patients with high levodopa dose equivalent showed more accurate priors, representing predictions that were closer to the true distribution of performance. Such accuracy has previously been demonstrated when observing the actions of others, suggesting abnormal awareness of action in these patients. These results confirm a link between dopamine and the positive expectation of the outcome of one’s own actions, and may have implications for the management of PD.

  15. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  16. Operational controlling - a tool of translating strategy into action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available . Enterprises have a lot of problems with realization their strategic aims in the fast changing and competitive business arena from many years. Effective execution of strategic plan needs its translating into action, task results and indicators of everyday activities. The success on the market is attainable by communicating strategic and operating goals on the each level of organizational structure and their connecting with budget of units or employee motivation. The scorecards balancing in finance, customer, process and development perspectives is very useful for pointing - what do we control with? or - what do we have to achieve? But doesn't answer to question about ways of enterprise managing. Main aim of the article is proving that operational controlling system is a essential tool for translating strategy into action. The Balanced Scorecard methodology should to take into consideration system and process connection of enterprise with procurement, co-operation or distribution supply chain also.

  17. Research on virtual actor action editing and movement control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.

  18. From entrepreneurial intentions to actions: Self-control and action-related doubt, fear, and aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderen, van Marco; Kautonen, Teemu; Fink, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on the Rubicon model of action phases to study the actions or lack of actions that follow the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Concurrently, it examines the roles of selfcontrol and action-related emotions in explaining the intention–action gap using longitudinal

  19. Sensory and semantic activations evoked by action attributes of manipulable objects: Evidence from ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-lin; Huang, Hsu-Wen; Federmeier, Kara D.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2018-01-01

    “Two route” theories of object-related action processing posit different temporal activation profiles of grasp-to-move actions (rapidly evoked based on object structure) versus skilled use actions (more slowly activated based on semantic knowledge). We capitalized on the exquisite temporal resolution and multidimensionality of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to directly test this hypothesis. Participants viewed manipulable objects (e.g., calculator) preceded by objects sharing either “grasp”, “use”, or no action attributes (e.g., bar of soap, keyboard, earring, respectively), as well as by action-unrelated but taxonomically-related objects (e.g., abacus); participants judged whether the two objects were related. The results showed more positive responses to “grasp-to-move” primed objects than “skilled use” primed objects or unprimed objects starting in the P1 (0–150 ms) time window and continuing onto the subsequent N1 and P2 components (150–300 ms), suggesting that only “grasp-to-move”, but not “skilled use”, actions may facilitate visual attention to object attributes. Furthermore, reliably reduced N400s (300–500 ms), an index of semantic processing, were observed to taxonomically primed and “skilled use” primed objects relative to unprimed objects, suggesting that “skilled use” action attributes are a component of distributed, multimodal semantic representations of objects. Together, our findings provide evidence supporting two-route theories by demonstrating that “grasp-to-move” and “skilled use” actions impact different aspects of object processing and highlight the relationship of “skilled use” information to other aspects of semantic memory. PMID:29183777

  20. A Demonstration of Evidence-Based Action Research Using Information Dashboard in Introductory Programming Education

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzawa , Yoshiaki; Tanaka , Yoshiki; Kitani , Tomoya; Sakai , Sanshiro

    2017-01-01

    Part 3: Computer Science Education and Its Future Focus and Development; International audience; In this paper, we demonstrated an evidence-based action research in an introductory programming class with the use of an information dashboard which provides coding metrics to visualize students’ engagement of their assignments. The information dashboard was designed for teachers to improve their classroom teaching using the same coding metrics which was verified in our previous research [9]. The ...

  1. Frontosubthalamic Circuits for Control of Action and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Damian M.; Brown, Peter; Forstmann, Birte U.; Zaghloul, Kareem

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity. We also highlight recent evidence for synchronization of oscillations between prefrontal cortex and the STN, which may provide a preferential “window in time” for single neuron communication via long-range connections. PMID:27911752

  2. Monophasic action potentials and activation recovery intervals as measures of ventricular action potential duration: experimental evidence to resolve some controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronel, Ruben; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Wilms-Schopman, Francien J. G.; Opthof, Tobias; Linnenbank, André C.; Belterman, Charly N.; Janse, Michiel J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation recovery intervals (ARIs) and monophasic action potential (MAP) duration are used as measures of action potential duration in beating hearts. However, controversies exist concerning the correct way to record MAPs or calculate ARIs. We have addressed these issues

  3. Infants Prospectively Control Reaching Based on the Difficulty of Future Actions: To What Extent Can Infants' Multiple-Step Actions Be Explained by Fitts' Law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, Janna M.; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Lindskog, Marcus; Nyström, Pär; L. Ekberg, Therese; von Hofsten, Claes; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place…

  4. Nucleus accumbens is involved in human action monitoring: evidence from invasive electrophysiological recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Münte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Nucleus accumbens (Nacc has been proposed to act as a limbic-motor interface. Here, using invasive intraoperative recordings in an awake patient suffering from obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD, we demonstrate that its activity is modulated by the quality of performance of the subject in a choice reaction time task designed to tap action monitoring processes. Action monitoring, that is, error detection and correction, is thought to be supported by a system involving the dopaminergic midbrain, the basal ganglia, and the medial prefrontal cortex. In surface electrophysiological recordings, action monitoring is indexed by an error-related negativity (ERN appearing time-locked to the erroneous responses and emanating from the medial frontal cortex. In preoperative scalp recordings the patient's ERN was found to be signifi cantly increased compared to a large (n= 83 normal sample, suggesting enhanced action monitoring processes. Intraoperatively, error-related modulations were obtained from the Nacc but not from a site 5 mm above. Importantly, crosscorrelation analysis showed that error-related activity in the Nacc preceded surface activity by 40 ms. We propose that the Nacc is involved in action monitoring, possibly by using error signals from the dopaminergic midbrain to adjust the relative impact of limbic and prefrontal inputs on frontal control systems in order to optimize goal-directed behavior.

  5. Sleep Deprivation Promotes Habitual Control over Goal-Directed Control: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2017-12-06

    Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group. fMRI data were collected. We found that one night of sleep deprivation led to greater responsiveness to stimuli that were associated with devalued outcomes in the slips-of-action test, indicating a deficit in the formation of goal-directed control and an overreliance on habits. Furthermore, sleep deprivation had no effect on the expression of acquired goal-directed action. The level of goal-directed action after sleep deprivation was positively correlated with baseline working memory capacity. The neuroimaging data indicated that goal-directed learning mainly recruited the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), the activation of which was less pronounced during goal-directed learning after sleep deprivation. Activation of the vmPFC during goal-directed learning during training was positively correlated with the level of goal-directed action performance. The present study suggests that people rely predominantly on habits at the expense of goal-directed control after sleep deprivation, and this process involves the vmPFC. These results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of sleep loss on decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation has become extremely important over the past half century, given the continued decline in sleep duration in industrialized societies. Our results provide novel evidence that goal-directed action may be

  6. Parental supervision for their children's toothbrushing: Mediating effects of planning, self-efficacy, and action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Cornish, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Aaron; Kroon, Jeroen; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    With 60-90% of children worldwide reportedly experiencing dental caries, poor oral health in the younger years is a major public health issue. As parents are important to children's oral hygiene practices, we examined the key self-regulatory behaviours of parents for supervising their children's toothbrushing using the health action process approach. Participants (N = 281, 197 mothers) comprised Australian parents of 2- to 5-year-olds. A longitudinal design was used to investigate the sequential mediation chain for the effect of intention (Time 1) on parental supervision for their youngest child's toothbrushing (Time 3), via self-efficacy and planning (Time 2), and action control (Time 3). A latent-variable structural equation model, controlling for baseline behaviour and habit, revealed significant indirect effects from intention via self-efficacy and action control and intention via planning and action control, on parental supervision behaviour. The model was a good fit to the data, explaining 74% of the variance in parents' supervising behaviour for their children's toothbrushing. While national recommendations are provided to guide parents in promoting good oral hygiene practices with their children, current results show the importance of going beyond simple knowledge transmission to support parents' intentions to supervise their children's toothbrushing actually materialize. Current findings make a significant contribution to the cumulative empirical evidence regarding self-regulatory components in health behaviour change and can inform intervention development to increase parents' participation in childhood oral hygiene practices, thus helping to curb rising oral health conditions and diseases. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-regulatory skills are important to translate intentions into behaviour. Self-efficacy, planning, and action control are key self-regulatory skills for behaviour change. What does this study add

  7. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMcCourt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentences such as The ship was sunk to collect the insurance exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The nonfinite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit versus explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance. Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1-4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive and explicit (active or long passive control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either three days ago or just in order to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in passives.

  8. An investigation into the relevance of action planning, theory of planned behaviour concepts, and automaticity for fruit intake action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Wiedemann, Amelie; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-09-01

    In the action control framework, intention-behaviour discordance is studied around public health guidelines. Although this framework has been applied to physical activity behaviours, it has only seen very limited attention regarding fruit intake. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate distributions and predictors of fruit intake intention-behaviour discordance. Prospective correlational design. Data were obtained from undergraduate students (n = 413) using validated questionnaires. Variables from the theory of planned behaviour, automaticity, and action planning were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed 2 weeks later. Data were analysed using discriminant function analyses and analyses of variance. The proportion of unsuccessful intenders ranged from 39.2% to 80.8%. There was a larger proportion of fruit intake intenders amongst those who reported strong automatic fruit intake. Action control was predicted by fruit intake automaticity and affective attitudes, but the strongest predictor was perceived behavioural control. No action planning items were related to fruit intake action control. There is considerable asymmetry in the intention-fruit intake relationship. An application of the action control framework may stimulate debate on the applicability of intention-based models at the public health level. What is already known on this subject? Intention is theorized to be a key construct in fruit intake. Studies in the physical activity domain indicate that nearly half of the people with positive intentions fail to subsequently act. What does this study add? The proportion of unsuccessful intenders ranged from 39.2% to 80.8%. Holding positive intentions is not sufficient to consume fruit at suggested public health guidelines. Perceived behavioural control is the most important predictor of fruit intake action control. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control. PMID:26655929

  10. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Steenbergen

    Full Text Available There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control, as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control.

  11. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control.

  12. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material after discharge. The effects...

  13. Approaches to tobacco control: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M Lober; Lowe, J B

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco production, distribution, and use are international issues with significant health and economic implications. This paper provides an overview of the effective approaches to tobacco control including decreasing demand for tobacco products through taxation, consumer education, research, bans on advertising and promotion, warning labels, and restrictions on public smoking. The effectiveness of reducing the supply of tobacco products through prohibition, restrictions on youth access, crop substitution, trade restrictions, and control of smuggling, will also be discussed. Decreasing smoking, particularly among young people, by preventing or delaying initiation, preventing regular use, and increasing cessation through behavioural approaches for all ages is reviewed. Cessation methods including pharmacological approaches, 'quitlines', Internet programmes, and the targeting of specific populations are discussed. Internet availability of tobacco products and sustainability of current efforts are presented as continuing challenges to tobacco control.

  14. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  15. Environmental Control Plan for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action Project. The purpose of this plan is to identify environmental requirements for the 300-FF-1 operable unit Remedial Action/Waste Disposal Project

  16. Latent Toxoplasma gondii infection leads to improved action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Heintschel von Heinegg, Evelyn; Köhling, Hedda-Luise; Beste, Christian

    2014-03-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been found to manipulate the behavior of its secondary hosts to increase its own dissemination which is commonly believed to be to the detriment of the host (manipulation hypothesis). The manipulation correlates with an up-regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. In humans, different pathologies have been associated with T. gondii infections but most latently infected humans do not seem to display overt impairments. Since a dopamine plus does not necessarily bear exclusively negative consequences in humans, we investigated potential positive consequences of latent toxoplasmosis (and the presumed boosting of dopaminergic neurotransmission) on human cognition and behavior. For this purpose, we focused on action cascading which has been shown to be modulated by dopamine. Based on behavioral and neurophysiological (EEG) data obtained by means of a stop-change paradigm, we were able to demonstrate that healthy young humans can actually benefit from latent T. gondii infection as regards their performance in this task (as indicated by faster response times and a smaller P3 component). The data shows that a latent infection which is assumed to affect the dopaminergic system can lead to paradoxical improvements of cognitive control processes in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Cain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Action video game players have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven attention. To test this we used an anti-cuing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms, non-players (nVGPs showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable location compared with the opposite (more probable location. Video game players (VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms, VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink task. In a version of the attentional blink task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of attentional blink as nVGPs, suggesting that the anti-cuing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.

  18. Topical use of sucralfate in epithelial wound healing: clinical evidences and molecular mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuelli, Laura; Tumino, Giovanni; Turriziani, Mario; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Sucralfate is a basic aluminium salt of sucrose octasulphate which was orally employed for prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases including gastroesophageal reflux, gastric and duodenal ulcer. Recent studies have employed sucralfate as a topical drug for the healing of several types of epithelial wounds such as ulcers, inflammatory dermatitis, mucositis and burn wounds. Epithelial wound healing is a well orchestrated process involving hemostasis, inflammatory reaction, cell proliferation and tissue remodelling which leads to granulation tissue development and filling of the wound space. This report will review clinical evidences on the use of topical sucralfate for the management of epithelial lesions and deal with the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound towards the epithelial wound healing process and will also discuss relevant patents.

  19. Feelings of Control: Contingency Determines Experience of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James W.; Lagnado, David; Deal, Darvany C.; Haggard, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The experience of causation is a pervasive product of the human mind. Moreover, the experience of causing an event alters subjective time: actions are perceived as temporally shifted towards their effects [Haggard, P., Clark, S., & Kalogeras, J. (2002). Voluntary action and conscious awareness. "Nature Neuroscience," 5(4), 382-385]. This temporal…

  20. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Compliance costs caused by agency action? Empirical evidence and implications for tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Eichfelder, Sebastian; Kegels, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The compliance costs of private taxpayers are not only affected by the tax law itself but also by its implementation through the tax authorities. In this paper we analyze the effect of the tax authorities on the burden of complying with tax regulations. Using survey data of Belgian businesses and controlling for potential endogeneity, we find empirical evidence that tax authority behavior is an important cost driver. According to our estimate, a customer-unfriendly tax administration increase...

  2. Enforcement actions and their effectiveness in securities regulation: Empirical evidence from management earnings forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunling Song

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to resource constraints, securities regulators cannot find or punish all firms that have conducted irregular or even illegal activities (hereafter referred to as fraud. Those who study securities regulations can only find the instances of fraud that have been punished, not those that have not been punished, and it is these unknown cases that would make the best control sample for studies of enforcement action criteria. China’s mandatory management earnings forecasts solve this sampling problem. In the A-share market, firms that have not forecasted as mandated are likely in a position to be punished by securities regulators or are attempting to escape punishment, and their identification allows researchers to build suitable study and control samples when examining securities regulations. Our results indicate that enforcement actions taken by securities regulators are selective. The probability that a firm will be punished for irregular management forecasting is significantly related to proxies for survival rates. Specifically, fraudulent firms with lower return on assets (ROAs or higher cash flow risk are more likely to be punished. Further analysis shows that selective enforcement of regulations has had little positive effect on the quality of listed firms’ management forecasts.

  3. Creating the document 'Promoting health in schools: from evidence to action'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Leger, Lawrence; Young, Ian M

    2009-12-01

    Schools across the world have been involved in health promotion and health education for nearly a century. Do school based initiatives make any difference to the education and health outcomes of young people? This article describes the process in developing the document Promoting health in schools: from evidence to action. The document was produced primarily for the Education sector. It develops an argument about why schools should be undertaking health related initiatives. It also highlights major findings from the literature about what is possible to achieve in school health and the circumstances under which the gains will occur. Attention is focused both on the evidence from the education sector, e.g. effective schools, learning and teaching approaches, and from the health sector, e.g. a whole of school or Health Promoting School (HPS) approach, as well as identifying outcomes from topic areas such as mental and emotional health, healthy eating and nutrition, physical activity, hygiene, sexual health and relationships, substance use and misuse.

  4. Problems, perceptions and actions: An interdependent process for generating informal social control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R; Wickes, Rebecca

    2018-07-01

    Using two waves of survey data for residents in neighborhoods in Brisbane, this study explores the interdependent relationship between residents' perceptions of neighboring, cohesion, collective efficacy, neighborhood disorder, and the actions they take to address these problems. Our longitudinal results show that residents' perceived severity of a problem helps explain engaging in activity to address the problem. People loitering appeared to be the most galvanizing problem for residents, but had particularly deleterious effects on perceptions of cohesion and collective efficacy. We also find that residents who perceive more neighboring in their local area engage in more public and parochial social control activity and residents who live in collectively efficacious neighborhoods are more likely to engage in parochial social control action. Furthermore, residents who themselves perceive more collective efficacy in the neighborhood engage in more parochial or public social control during the subsequent time period. Importantly, we find strong evidence that residents update their sense of collective efficacy. Perceiving more problems in the neighborhood, and perceiving that these problems are increasing, reduced perceptions of neighboring and collective efficacy over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endothelin: Visualization of mRNAs by in situ hybridization provides evidence for local action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCumber, M.W.; Ross, C.A.; Glaser, B.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) is a recently identified vasoactive peptide with three isoforms for which three genes have been cloned. The cellular sites of synthesis of this peptide have not yet been identified in vivo. Using Northern blot analysis, we have detected two forms of ET mRNA in rat tissues: a 3.7-kilobase form in the kidney, eye, and brain, a 2.5-kilobase form in the intestine, and both forms in the lung. We have localized these forms of ET mRNA in several rat tissues using in situ hybridization. In the 19-day rat fetus, ET mRNA is highest in the lung, intestine, and meninges. At high resolution, ET mRNA is localized in the lung to respiratory epithelial cells of bronchioles and apparently in blood vessels. In adult tissues, ET mRNA is present throughout the lung, in the renal medulla vasa recta, and in the iris of the eye. ET mRNA is synthesized in close proximity to ET binding sites in many organs (e.g., lung, kidney, intestine, and eye), suggesting a local action of this peptide. However, in other areas (e.g., heart and renal cortex), ET binding sites are present in the absence of ET mRNA, suggesting an action of ET from the bloodstream or from neurons. Northern blot analysis of ET mRNA in microvascular endothelial cells in culture indicates that ET is synthesized in small blood vessels and regulated similarly to its regulation in large vessels. Our results provide evidence that ET, like other regulatory peptides, may serve in several tissues as a neuromodulator or local hormone

  6. The effect of action video game playing on sensorimotor learning: Evidence from a movement tracking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozli, Davood G; Bavelier, Daphne; Pratt, Jay

    2014-10-12

    Research on the impact of action video game playing has revealed performance advantages on a wide range of perceptual and cognitive tasks. It is not known, however, if playing such games confers similar advantages in sensorimotor learning. To address this issue, the present study used a manual motion-tracking task that allowed for a sensitive measure of both accuracy and improvement over time. When the target motion pattern was consistent over trials, gamers improved with a faster rate and eventually outperformed non-gamers. Performance between the two groups, however, did not differ initially. When the target motion was inconsistent, changing on every trial, results revealed no difference between gamers and non-gamers. Together, our findings suggest that video game playing confers no reliable benefit in sensorimotor control, but it does enhance sensorimotor learning, enabling superior performance in tasks with consistent and predictable structure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Born too soon: care before and between pregnancy to prevent preterm births: from evidence to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Sohni V; Mason, Elizabeth; Howson, Christopher P; Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Providing care to adolescent girls and women before and between pregnancies improves their own health and wellbeing, as well as pregnancy and newborn outcomes, and can also reduce the rates of preterm birth. This paper has reviewed the evidence-based interventions and services for preventing preterm births, reported the findings from research priority exercise, and prescribed actions for taking this call further. Certain factors in the preconception period have been shown to increase the risk for prematurity and, therefore, preconception care services for all women of reproductive age should address these risk factors through preventing adolescent pregnancy, preventing unintended pregnancies, promoting optimal birth spacing, optimizing pre-pregnancy weight and nutritional status (including a folic acid-containing multivitamin supplement) and ensuring that all adolescent girls have received complete vaccination. Preconception care must also address risk factors that may be applicable to only some women. These include screening for and management of chronic diseases, especially diabetes; sexually-transmitted infections; tobacco and smoke exposure; mental health disorders, notably depression; and intimate partner violence. The approach to research in preconception care to prevent preterm births should include a cycle of development and delivery research that evaluates how best to scale up coverage of existing evidence-based interventions, epidemiologic research that assesses the impact of implementing these interventions and discovery science that better elucidates the complex causal pathway of preterm birth and helps to develop new screening and intervention tools. In addition to research, policy and financial investment is crucial to increasing opportunities to implement preconception care, and rates of prematurity should be included as a tracking indicator in global and national maternal child health assessments.

  8. Is recursion language-specific? Evidence of recursive mechanisms in the structure of intentional action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Giuseppe; Adenzato, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In their 2002 seminal paper Hauser, Chomsky and Fitch hypothesize that recursion is the only human-specific and language-specific mechanism of the faculty of language. While debate focused primarily on the meaning of recursion in the hypothesis and on the human-specific and syntax-specific character of recursion, the present work focuses on the claim that recursion is language-specific. We argue that there are recursive structures in the domain of motor intentionality by way of extending John R. Searle's analysis of intentional action. We then discuss evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience supporting the claim that motor-intentional recursion is language-independent and suggest some explanatory hypotheses: (1) linguistic recursion is embodied in sensory-motor processing; (2) linguistic and motor-intentional recursions are distinct and mutually independent mechanisms. Finally, we propose some reflections about the epistemic status of HCF as presenting an empirically falsifiable hypothesis, and on the possibility of testing recursion in different cognitive domains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Body-specific motor imagery of hand actions: neural evidence from right- and left-handers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel M Willems

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available If motor imagery uses neural structures involved in action execution, then the neural correlates of imagining an action should differ between individuals who tend to execute the action differently. Here we report fMRI data showing that motor imagery is influenced by the way people habitually perform motor actions with their particular bodies; that is, motor imagery is ‘body-specific’ (Casasanto, 2009. During mental imagery for complex hand actions, activation of cortical areas involved in motor planning and execution was left-lateralized in right-handers but right-lateralized in left-handers. We conclude that motor imagery involves the generation of an action plan that is grounded in the participant’s motor habits, not just an abstract representation at the level of the action’s goal. People with different patterns of motor experience form correspondingly different neurocognitive representations of imagined actions.

  10. Unmanned Tactical Autonomous Control and Collaboration (UTACC) Immediate Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    research efforts of the UTACC program . Zach (2016) was the predecessor for the work contained within and served as a guiding source document for this...the first of these critical areas. The success of the UTACC program and the Marine Corps integration of RAS would be ensuring that the machine does...production of a process flowchart for Immediate Actions for enemy contact. The flowchart documents the human decision process which identified

  11. Ecosystem health of the Great Barrier Reef: Time for effective management action based on evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jon; Pearson, Richard G.

    2016-12-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is a World Heritage site off the north-eastern coast of Australia. The GBR is worth A 15-20 billion/year to the Australian economy and provides approximately 64,000 full time jobs. Many of the species and ecosystems of the GBR are in poor condition and continue to decline. The principal causes of the decline are catchment pollutant runoff associated with agricultural and urban land uses, climate change impacts and the effects of fishing. Many important ecosystems of the GBR region are not included inside the boundaries of the World Heritage Area. The current management regime for catchment pollutant runoff and climate change is clearly inadequate to prevent further decline. We propose a refocus of management on a "Greater GBR" (containing not only the major ecosystems and species of the GBR, but also its catchment) and on a set of management actions to halt the decline of the GBR. Proposed actions include: (1) Strengthen management in the areas of the Greater GBR where ecosystems are in good condition, with Torres Strait, northern Cape York and Hervey Bay being the systems with highest current integrity; (2) Investigate methods of cross-boundary management to achieve simultaneous cost-effective terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystem protection in the Greater GBR; (3) Develop a detailed, comprehensive, costed water quality management plan for the Greater GBR; (4) Use the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act to regulate catchment activities that lead to damage to the Greater GBR, in conjunction with the relevant Queensland legislation; (5) Fund catchment and coastal management to the required level to solve pollution issues for the Greater GBR by 2025, before climate change impacts on Greater GBR ecosystems become overwhelming; (6) Continue enforcement of the zoning plan; (7) Australia to show commitment to protecting the Greater GBR through greenhouse gas emissions

  12. Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework: A Review of Evidence-Based Learning Analytics Interventions at the Open University UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Boroowa, Avinash; Cross, Simon; Kubiak, Chris; Mayles, Kevin; Murphy, Sam

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop an evidence-based framework for learning analytics whereby stakeholders can manage, evaluate, and make decisions about which types of interventions work well and under which conditions. In this article, we will work towards developing a foundation of an Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework (A4AEF) that is…

  13. Systematic implementation of evidence-based practice in a clinical nursing setting : a participatory action research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandra van der Loo; Gerrie Bours; Anna Beurskens; Albine Moser; Jolanda Friesen-Storms

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To describe the process of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) in a clinical nursing setting. Background: EBP has become a major issue in nursing, it is insufficiently integrated in daily practice and its implementation is complex. Design: Participatory action

  14. Systematic implementation of evidence-based practice in a clinical nursing setting: a participatory action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen-Storms, Jolanda H H M; Moser, Albine; van der Loo, Sandra; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Bours, Gerrie J J W

    2015-01-01

    To describe the process of implementing evidence-based practice in a clinical nursing setting. Evidence-based practice has become a major issue in nursing, it is insufficiently integrated into daily practice and its implementation is complex. Participatory action research. The main participants were nurses working in a lung unit of a rural hospital. A multi-method process of data collection was used during the observing, reflecting, planning and acting phases. Data were continuously gathered during a 24-month period from 2010 to 2012, and analysed using an interpretive constant comparative approach. Patients were consulted to incorporate their perspective. A best-practice mode of working was prevalent on the ward. The main barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice were that nurses had little knowledge of evidence-based practice and a rather negative attitude towards it, and that their English reading proficiency was poor. The main facilitators were that nurses wanted to deliver high-quality care and were enthusiastic and open to innovation. Implementation strategies included a tailored interactive outreach training and the development and implementation of an evidence-based discharge protocol. The academic model of evidence-based practice was adapted. Nurses worked according to the evidence-based practice discharge protocol but barely recorded their activities. Nurses favourably evaluated the participatory action research process. Action research provides an opportunity to empower nurses and to tailor evidence-based practice to the practice context. Applying and implementing evidence-based practice is difficult for front-line nurses with limited evidence-based practice competencies. Adaptation of the academic model of evidence-based practice to a more pragmatic approach seems necessary to introduce evidence-based practice into clinical practice. The use of scientific evidence can be facilitated by using pre-appraised evidence. For clinical practice

  15. Simulating the Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Paratuberculosis Control Actions in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new mechanistic bioeconomic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build up in five...... control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering...

  16. Temporal coupling due to illusory movements in bimanual actions: evidence from anosognosia for hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia, Lorenzo; Spinazzola, Lucia; Rabuffetti, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Garbarini, Francesca; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Driver, Jon; Berti, Anna

    2013-06-01

    In anosognosia for hemiplegia, patients may claim having performed willed actions with the paralyzed limb despite unambiguous evidence to the contrary. Does this false belief of having moved reflect the functioning of the same mechanisms that govern normal motor performance? Here, we examined whether anosognosics show the same temporal constraints known to exist during bimanual movements in healthy subjects. In these paradigms, when participants simultaneously reach for two targets of different difficulties, the motor programs of one hand affect the execution of the other. In detail, the movement time of the hand going to an easy target (i.e., near and large), while the other is going to a difficult target (i.e., far and small), is slowed with respect to unimanual movements (temporal coupling effect). One right-brain-damaged patient with left hemiplegia and anosognosia, six right-brain-damaged patients with left hemiplegia without anosognosia, and twenty healthy subjects were administered such a bimanual task. We recorded the movement times for easy and difficult targets, both in unimanual (one target) and bimanual (two targets) conditions. We found that, as healthy subjects, the anosognosic patient showed coupling effect. In bimanual asymmetric conditions (when one hand went to the easy target and the other went to the difficult target), the movement time of the non-paralyzed hand going to the easy target was slowed by the 'pretended' movement of the paralyzed hand going to the difficult target. This effect was not present in patients without anosognosia. We concluded that in anosognosic patients, the illusory movements of the paralyzed hand impose to the non-paralyzed hand the same motor constraints that emerge during the actual movements. Our data also support the view that coupling relies on central operations (i.e., activation of intention/programming system), rather than on online information from the periphery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Legged locomotion : Balance, control and tools - from equation to action

    OpenAIRE

    Ridderström, Christian

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is about control and balance stability of leggedlocomotion. It also presents a combination of tools that makesit easier to design controllers for large and complicated robotsystems. The thesis is divided into four parts. The first part studies and analyzes how walking machines arecontrolled, examining the literature of over twenty machinesbriefly, and six machines in detail. The goal is to understandhow the controllers work on a level below task and pathplanning, but above actuato...

  18. Strengthening Collective Action to Improve Marketing Performance: Evidence from Farmer Groups in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Justus; Knerr, Beatrice; Owuor, George; Ouma, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Several development organisations have implemented programs to enhance smallholder farmers' crop productivity and market access through collective action with mixed results. Therefore, this study examines the drivers of success of collective action initiatives as a pathway to improving farmers marketing performance using data from Rwanda…

  19. A Trusted Host's Authentication Access and Control Model Faced on User Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; XU Guoai; HU Zhengming; YANG Yixian

    2006-01-01

    The conception of trusted network connection (TNC) is introduced, and the weakness of TNC to control user's action is analyzed. After this, the paper brings out a set of secure access and control model based on access, authorization and control, and related authentication protocol. At last the security of this model is analyzed. The model can improve TNC's security of user control and authorization.

  20. Discourses of healthcare professionals about health surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mitano

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the meanings produced in the Health Surveillance actions for tuberculosis control, carried out by healthcare professionals in Mozambique. METHOD Qualitative study using the theoretical and methodological framework of the French Discourse Analysis. RESULTS A total of 15 healthcare professionals with more than one year of experience in disease control actions participated in the study. Four discursive blocks have emerged from the analysis: tuberculosis diagnosis process; meeting, communication and discussion of treatment; local strategies for tuberculosis control; involvement of family and community leaders in the tuberculosis control. CONCLUSION The statements of the healthcare professionals suggest, as Health Surveillance actions, practices that include collecting sputum in the patient's home and sending it to the laboratory; deployment of the medical team with a microscope for tuberculosis testing; and testing for diseases that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this context, the actions of Health Surveillance for tuberculosis control involve valuing all actors: family, community leaders, patients and health professionals.

  1. Mental Models and the Control of Actions in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1987-01-01

    of human activities. The need for analysis of complex work scenarios is discussed, together with the necessity of considering several levels of cognitive control depending upon different kinds of internal representations. The development of mental representations during learning and adaptation...

  2. Feedback control of one's own action: Self-other sensory attribution in motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2015-12-15

    The sense of agency, the subjective experience of controlling one's own action, has an important function in motor control. When we move our own body or even external tools, we attribute that movement to ourselves and utilize that sensory information in order to correct "our own" movement in theory. The dynamic relationship between conscious self-other attribution and feedback control, however, is still unclear. Participants were required to make a sinusoidal reaching movement and received its visual feedback (i.e., cursor). When participants received a fake movement that was spatio-temporally close to their actual movement, illusory self-attribution of the fake movement was observed. In this situation, since participants tried to control the cursor but it was impossible to do so, the movement error was increased (Experiment 1). However, when the visual feedback was reduced to make self-other attribution difficult, there was no further increase in the movement error (Experiment 2). These results indicate that conscious self-other sensory attribution might coordinate sensory input and motor output. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Action control processes in autism spectrum disorder--insights from a neurobiological and neuroanatomical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) encompass a range of syndromes that are characterized by social interaction impairments, verbal and nonverbal communication difficulties, and stereotypic or repetitive behaviours. Although there has been considerable progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes in the 'social' and 'communicative' aspects of ASD, the neurofunctional architecture of repetitive and stereotypic behaviours, as well as other cognitive domains related to response and action control, remain poorly understood. Based on the findings of neurobiological and neuroanatomical alterations in ASD and the functional neuroanatomy and neurobiology of different action control functions, we emphasize that changes in action control processes, including response inhibition, conflict and response monitoring, task switching, dual-tasking, motor timing, and error monitoring, are important facets of ASD. These processes must be examined further to understand the executive control deficits in ASD that are related to stereotypic or repetitive behaviours as a major facet of ASD. The review shows that not all domains of action control are strongly affected in ASD. Several factors seem to determine the consistency with which alterations in cognitive control are reported. These factors relate to the relevance of neurobiological changes in ASD for the cognitive domains examined and in how far action control relies upon the adjustment of prior experience. Future directions and hypotheses are outlined that may guide basic and clinical research on action control in ASD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  5. Left occipitotemporal cortex contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions: fMRI and TMS evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca ePerini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC in both tool and hand perception but the functional role of this region is not fully known. Here, by using a task manipulation, we tested whether tool-/hand-selective LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions. Participants viewed briefly presented pictures of kitchen and garage tools while they performed one of two tasks: in the action task, they judged whether the tool is associated with a hand rotation action (e.g., screwdriver or a hand squeeze action (e.g., garlic press, while in the location task they judged whether the tool is typically found in the kitchen (e.g., garlic press or in the garage (e.g., screwdriver. Both tasks were performed on the same stimulus set and were matched for difficulty. Contrasting fMRI responses between these tasks showed stronger activity during the action task than the location task in both tool- and hand-selective LOTC regions, which closely overlapped. No differences were found in nearby object- and motion-selective control regions. Importantly, these findings were confirmed by a TMS study, which showed that effective TMS over the tool-/hand-selective LOTC region significantly slowed responses for tool action discriminations relative to tool location discriminations, with no such difference during sham TMS. We conclude that left LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions.

  6. Left occipitotemporal cortex contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions: fMRI and TMS evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Francesca; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) in both tool and hand perception but the functional role of this region is not fully known. Here, by using a task manipulation, we tested whether tool-/hand-selective LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions. Participants viewed briefly presented pictures of kitchen and garage tools while they performed one of two tasks: in the action task, they judged whether the tool is associated with a hand rotation action (e.g., screwdriver) or a hand squeeze action (e.g., garlic press), while in the location task they judged whether the tool is typically found in the kitchen (e.g., garlic press) or in the garage (e.g., screwdriver). Both tasks were performed on the same stimulus set and were matched for difficulty. Contrasting fMRI responses between these tasks showed stronger activity during the action task than the location task in both tool- and hand-selective LOTC regions, which closely overlapped. No differences were found in nearby object- and motion-selective control regions. Importantly, these findings were confirmed by a TMS study, which showed that effective TMS over the tool-/hand-selective LOTC region significantly slowed responses for tool action discriminations relative to tool location discriminations, with no such difference during sham TMS. We conclude that left LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions.

  7. Simulating the Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Paratuberculosis Control Actions in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Kirkeby

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new mechanistic bio-economic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build-up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e. due to other diseases by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP. Likewise, four control actions recommended in the Danish MAP control program were implemented in the model based on reported management strategies in Danish dairy herds in a MAP control scheme. We tested the model parameterization in a sensitivity analysis. We show that a test-and-cull strategy is on average the most cost-effective solution to decrease the prevalence and increase the total net revenue on a farm with low hygiene, but not more profitable than no control strategy on a farm with average hygiene. Although it is possible to eradicate MAP from the farm by implementing all four control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering the prevalence when used independently.

  8. Differentiating Between Precursor and Control Variables When Analyzing Reasoned Action Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; DiClemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Salazar, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they ...

  9. A unique concept for automatically controlling the braking action of wheeled vehicles during minimum distance stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlome, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Test results of a unique automatic brake control system are outlined and a comparison is made of its mode of operation to that of an existing skid control system. The purpose of the test system is to provide automatic control of braking action such that hydraulic brake pressure is maintained at a near constant, optimum value during minimum distance stops.

  10. An Electromechanical Pendulum Robot Arm in Action: Dynamics and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Notué Kadjie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors numerically investigate the dynamics and control of an electromechanical robot arm consisting of a pendulum coupled to an electrical circuit via an electromagnetic mechanism. The analysis of the dynamical behavior of the electromechanical device powered by a sinusoidal power source is carried out when the effects of the loads on the arm are neglected. It is found that the device exhibits period-n T oscillations and high amplitude oscillations when the electric current is at its smallest value. The specific case which considers the effects of the impulsive contact force caused by an external load mass pushed by the arm is also studied. It is found that the amplitude of the impulse force generates several behaviors such as jump of amplitude and distortions of the mechanical vibration and electrical signal. For more efficient functioning of the device, both piezoelectric and adaptive backstepping controls are applied on the system. It is found that the control strategies are able to mitigate the signal distortion and restore the dynamical behavior to its normal state or reduce the effects of perturbations such as a short time variation of one component or when the robot system is subject to noises.

  11. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0....

  12. Differentiating between precursor and control variables when analyzing reasoned action theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; Diclemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Salazar, Laura

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they are correctly used as precursors. Because control variables do not appear in any form of reasoned action theory, this approach to including background variables is not correct when analyzing data sets based on the theoretical axioms of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, or the Integrative Model.

  13. L-040: EPR-First Responders: Forensic Evidence Management group. Action Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference is about the forensic evidence managed by the radiological emergency group. The protection guides, the evidences, the fingerprints, the experience, the strategies, the contamination level, the monitoring, the photography and the interrogation are important aspects to be considered by the first responders.

  14. Work at night and breast cancer--report on evidence-based options for preventive actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive acti...

  15. Proprioception contributes to the sense of agency during visual observation of hand movements: evidence from temporal judgments of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Cole, Jonathan; Miall, R Chris

    2007-01-01

    The ability to recognize visually one's own movement is important for motor control and, through attribution of agency, for social interactions. Agency of actions may be decided by comparisons of visual feedback, efferent signals, and proprioceptive inputs. Because the ability to identify one's own...

  16. Comparing Multilingual Children with SLI to Their Bilectal Peers: Evidence from Object and Action Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Michaelides, Michalis; Theodorou, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of the increasing number of multilingual children with atypical language development around the world, this study reports research results on grammatical word class processing involving children with specific language impairment (SLI). The study investigates lexical retrieval of verbs (through picture-naming actions) and…

  17. Object Manipulation and Motion Perception: Evidence of an Influence of Action Planning on Visual Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, O.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction.

  18. Real-Time Prediction of Observed Action Requires Integrity of the Dorsal Premotor Cortex: Evidence From Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brich, Louisa F M; Bächle, Christine; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Stadler, Waltraud

    2018-01-01

    Studying brain mechanisms underlying the prediction of observed action, the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been suggested a key area. The present study probed this notion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test whether interference in this area would affect the accuracy in predicting the time course of object directed actions performed with the right hand. Young and healthy participants observed actions in short videos. These were briefly occluded from view for 600 ms and resumed immediately afterwards. The task was to continue the action mentally and to indicate after each occlusion, whether the action was resumed at the right moment (condition in-time) or shifted. In a first run, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS) was delivered over the left primary hand-area during occlusion. In the second run, rTMS over the left PMd was applied during occlusion in half of the participants [experimental group (EG)]. The control group (CG) received sham-rTMS over the same area. Under rTMS, the EG predicted less trials correctly than in the sTMS run. Sham-rTMS in the CG had no effects on prediction. The interference in PMd interacted with the type of manipulation applied to the action's time course occasionally during occlusion. The performance decrease of the EG was most pronounced in conditions in which the continuations after occlusions were too late in the action's course. The present results extend earlier findings suggesting that real-time action prediction requires the integrity of the PMd. Different functional roles of this area are discussed. Alternative interpretations consider either simulation of specific motor programming functions or the involvement of a feature-unspecific predictor.

  19. How learning to shake a rattle affects 8-month-old infants' perception of the rattle's sound: Electrophysiological evidence for action-effect binding in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, M.A.; Hunnius, S.; Elk, M. van; Bekkering, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional action-effect associations play a fundamental role in intentional action control and the development of the mirror neuron system. However, it has been questioned if infants are able to acquire bidirectional action-effect associations (i.e., are able to intentionally control their

  20. Improving the safety and protective automatic actions of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez Estupinan, Raul; Cirkovic, Predrag; Di Calafiori, Diogo Raphael; Dissertori, Guenther; Djambazov, Lubomir; Jovanovic, Dragoslav; Lustermann, Werner; Milenovic, Predrag; Zelepoukine, Serguei

    2017-01-01

    The CMS ECAL Detector Control System (DCS) features several monitoring mechanisms able to react and perform automatic actions based on pre-defined action matrices. The DCS is capable of early detection of anomalies inside the ECAL and on its off-detector support systems, triggering automatic actions to mitigate the impact of these events and preventing them from escalating to the safety system. The treatment of such events by the DCS allows for a faster recovery process, better understanding of the development of issues, and in most cases, actions with higher granularity than the safety system. This paper presents the details of the DCS automatic action mechanisms, as well as their evolution based on several years of CMS ECAL operations.

  1. Implementing evidence in an onco-haematology nursing unit: a process of change using participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Corpa, Eva; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Cabrero-García, Julio; Meseguer-Liza, Cristobal; Zárate-Riscal, Carmen Lourdes; Carrillo-Alcaraz, Andrés; Martínez-Corbalán, José Tomás; Caravaca-Hernández, Amor

    2013-03-01

    To implement evidence in a nursing unit and to gain a better understanding of the experience of change within a participatory action research. Study design of a participatory action research type was use from the constructivist paradigm. The analytical-methodological decisions were inspired by Checkland Flexible Systems for evidence implementation in the nursing unit. The study was carried out between March and November 2007 in the isolation unit section for onco-haematological patients in a tertiary level general university hospital in Spain. Accidental sampling was carried out with the participation of six nurses. Data were collected using five group meetings and individual reflections in participants' dairies. The participant observation technique was also carried out by researchers. Data analysis was carried out by content analysis. The rigorous criteria were used: credibility, confirmability, dependence, transferability and reflexivity. A lack of use of evidence in clinical practice is the main problem. The factors involved were identified (training, values, beliefs, resources and professional autonomy). Their daily practice (complexity in taking decisions, variability, lack of professional autonomy and safety) was compared with an ideal situation (using evidence it will be possible to normalise practice and to work more effectively in teams by increasing safety and professional recognition). It was decided to create five working areas about several clinical topics (mucositis, pain, anxiety, satisfaction, nutritional assessment, nauseas and vomiting, pressure ulcers and catheter-related problems) and seven changes in clinical practice were agreed upon together with 11 implementation strategies. Some reflections were made about the features of the study: the changes produced; the strategies used and how to improve them; the nursing 'subculture'; attitudes towards innovation; and the commitment as participants in the study and as healthcare professionals. The

  2. Contingency learning without awareness: evidence for implicit control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; Crump, Matthew J C; Cheesman, Jim; Besner, Derek

    2007-06-01

    The results of four experiments provide evidence for controlled processing in the absence of awareness. Participants identified the colour of a neutral distracter word. Each of four words (e.g., MOVE) was presented in one of the four colours 75% of the time (Experiments 1 and 4) or 50% of the time (Experiments 2 and 3). Colour identification was faster when the words appeared in the colour they were most often presented in relative to when they appeared in another colour, even for participants who were subjectively unaware of any contingencies between the words and the colours. An analysis of sequence effects showed that participants who were unaware of the relation between distracter words and colours nonetheless controlled the impact of the word on performance depending on the nature of the previous trial. A block analysis of contingency-unaware participants revealed that contingencies were learned rapidly in the first block of trials. Experiment 3 showed that the contingency effect does not depend on the level of awareness, thus ruling out explicit strategy accounts. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that the contingency effect results from behavioural control and not from semantic association or stimulus familiarity. These results thus provide evidence for implicit control.

  3. Molecular, cellular and physiological evidences for the anorexigenic actions of nesfatin-1 in goldfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Gonzalez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered anorexigen encoded in the precursor peptide, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2 in mammals. To date, nesfatin-1 has not been described in any non-mammalian species, although some information is available in the sequenced genomes of several species. Our objective was to characterize nesfatin-1 in fish.In the present study, we employed molecular, immunohistochemical, and physiological studies to characterize the structure, distribution, and appetite regulatory effects of nesfatin-1 in a non-mammalian vertebrate. A very high conservation in NUCB2 sequences, especially in the nesfatin-1 region was found in lower vertebrates. Abundant expression of NUCB2 mRNA was detected in several tissues including the brain and liver of goldfish. Nesfatin-1-like immunoreactive cells are present in the feeding regulatory nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the gastrointestinal tract of goldfish. Approximately 6-fold increase in NUCB2 mRNA levels was found in the liver after 7-day food-deprivation, and a similar increase was also found after short-term fasting. This points toward a possible liver specific role for NUCB2 in the control of metabolism during food-deprivation. Meanwhile, ∼2-fold increase at 1 and 3 h post-feeding and an ∼3-fold reduction after a 7-day food-deprivation was observed in NUCB2 mRNA in the goldfish hypothalamus. In vivo, a single intraperitoneal injection of the full-length native (goldfish; gf nesfatin-1 at a dose of 50 ng/g body weight induced a 23% reduction of food intake one hour post-injection in goldfish. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of gfnesfatin-1 at a dose of 5 ng/g body weight resulted in ∼50% reduction in food intake.Our results provide molecular, anatomical and functional evidences to support potential anorectic and metabolic roles for endogenous nesfatin-1 in goldfish. Collectively, we provide novel information on NUCB2 in non-mammals and an anorexigenic role for nesfatin-1 in

  4. Neural representations of kinematic laws of motion: evidence for action-perception coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Eran; Casile, Antonino; Levit-Binnun, Nava; Giese, Martin A; Hendler, Talma; Flash, Tamar

    2007-12-18

    Behavioral and modeling studies have established that curved and drawing human hand movements obey the 2/3 power law, which dictates a strong coupling between movement curvature and velocity. Human motion perception seems to reflect this constraint. The functional MRI study reported here demonstrates that the brain's response to this law of motion is much stronger and more widespread than to other types of motion. Compliance with this law is reflected in the activation of a large network of brain areas subserving motor production, visual motion processing, and action observation functions. Hence, these results strongly support the notion of similar neural coding for motion perception and production. These findings suggest that cortical motion representations are optimally tuned to the kinematic and geometrical invariants characterizing biological actions.

  5. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts top-down control over basal ganglia action selection to produce habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Baltz, Emily T; Gremel, Christina M

    2018-01-15

    Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits. We find CIE results in decreased excitability of orbital frontal cortex (OFC) excitatory circuits supporting goal-directed control, and, strikingly, selectively reduces OFC output to the direct output pathway in dorsal medial striatum. Increasing the activity of OFC circuits restores goal-directed control in CIE-exposed mice. Our findings show habitual control in alcohol dependence can arise through disrupted communication between top-down, goal-directed processes onto basal ganglia pathways controlling action selection.

  6. Can Authorization Reduce Poverty among Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the impact of authorization on the poverty exposure of households headed by undocumented immigrants. The identification strategy makes use of the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provided a temporary work authorization and reprieve from deportation to eligible immigrants. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compare DACA-eligible to DACA-ineligible likely unauthorized immigrants, before and after the program implementation. We find that DA...

  7. The real-time link between person perception and action: brain potential evidence for dynamic continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2011-01-01

    Using event-related potentials, we investigated how the brain extracts information from another's face and translates it into relevant action in real time. In Study 1, participants made between-hand sex categorizations of sex-typical and sex-atypical faces. Sex-atypical faces evoked negativity between 250 and 550 ms (N300/N400 effects), reflecting the integration of accumulating sex-category knowledge into a coherent sex-category interpretation. Additionally, the lateralized readiness potential revealed that the motor cortex began preparing for a correct hand response while social category knowledge was still gradually evolving in parallel. In Study 2, participants made between-hand eye-color categorizations as part of go/no-go trials that were contingent on a target's sex. On no-go trials, although the hand did not actually move, information about eye color partially prepared the motor cortex to move the hand before perception of sex had finalized. Together, these findings demonstrate the dynamic continuity between person perception and action, such that ongoing results from face processing are immediately and continuously cascaded into the motor system over time. The preparation of action begins based on tentative perceptions of another's face before perceivers have finished interpreting what they just saw. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  8. Prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with "spontaneous-action" method.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, N S; Johnston, D

    1980-01-01

    Thirty randomly selected patients with permanent colostomies entered a prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with spontaneous action. Each patient was interviewed and examined before irrigation was begun and again after the technique had been used for three months. Each then reverted to spontaneous action for a further three months and was then reassessed. Eight patients abandoned irrigation and 22 (73%) adhered to the protocol. Irrigation caused no mishaps or complicati...

  9. HIV Prevention Among Transgender Populations: Knowledge Gaps and Evidence for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Malik, Mannat; Scheim, Ayden; Elliott, Ayana

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence-based HIV prevention interventions tailored for transgender people. A limited number of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions have been tested with transgender populations. Most existing interventions target behavior change among transgender women, with only one HIV prevention program evaluated for transgender men. Studies addressing biomedical interventions for transgender women are ongoing. Few interventions address social and structural barriers to HIV prevention, such as stigma, discrimination, and poverty. Evidence-based multi-level interventions that address the structural, biomedical, and behavioral risks for HIV among transgender populations, including transgender men, are needed to address disparities in HIV prevalence. Future research should address not only pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and condom use but also structural barriers that limit access to these prevention strategies.

  10. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health using Urban HEART in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit; Groot, Ana Maria Mahecha; Monteiro, Teofilo; Murphy, Kelly; O'Campo, Patricia; Broide, Emilia Estivalet; Kano, Megumi

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of select cities in the Americas using the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) launched by the World Health Organization in 2010 and to determine its utility in supporting government efforts to improve health equity using the social determinants of health (SDH) approach. The Urban HEART experience was evaluated in four cities from 2010-2013: Guarulhos (Brazil), Toronto (Canada), and Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia). Reports were submitted by Urban HEART teams in each city and supplemented by first-hand accounts of key informants. The analysis considered each city's networks and the resources it used to implement Urban HEART; the process by which each city identified equity gaps and prioritized interventions; and finally, the facilitators and barriers encountered, along with next steps. In three cities, local governments spearheaded the process, while in the fourth (Toronto), academia initiated and led the process. All cities used Urban HEART as a platform to engage multiple stakeholders. Urban HEART's Matrix and Monitor were used to identify equity gaps within cities. While Bogotá and Medellín prioritized among existing interventions, Guarulhos adopted new interventions focused on deprived districts. Actions were taken on intermediate determinants, e.g., health systems access, and structural SDH, e.g., unemployment and human rights. Urban HEART provides local governments with a simple and systematic method for assessing and responding to health inequity. Through the SDH approach, the tool has provided a platform for intersectoral action and community involvement. While some areas of guidance could be strengthened, Urban HEART is a useful tool for directing local action on health inequities, and should be scaled up within the Region of the Americas, building upon current experience.

  11. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health using Urban HEART in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the experience of select cities in the Americas using the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART launched by the World Health Organization in 2010 and to determine its utility in supporting government efforts to improve health equity using the social determinants of health (SDH approach METHODS: The Urban HEART experience was evaluated in four cities from 2010-2013: Guarulhos (Brazil, Toronto (Canada, and Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia. Reports were submitted by Urban HEART teams in each city and supplemented by first-hand accounts of key informants. The analysis considered each city's networks and the resources it used to implement Urban HEART; the process by which each city identified equity gaps and prioritized interventions; and finally, the facilitators and barriers encountered, along with next steps RESULTS: In three cities, local governments spearheaded the process, while in the fourth (Toronto, academia initiated and led the process. All cities used Urban HEART as a platform to engage multiple stakeholders. Urban HEART's Matrix and Monitor were used to identify equity gaps within cities. While Bogotá and Medellín prioritized among existing interventions, Guarulhos adopted new interventions focused on deprived districts. Actions were taken on intermediate determinants, e.g., health systems access, and structural SDH, e.g., unemployment and human rights CONCLUSIONS: Urban HEART provides local governments with a simple and systematic method for assessing and responding to health inequity. Through the SDH approach, the tool has provided a platform for intersectoral action and community involvement. While some areas of guidance could be strengthened, Urban HEART is a useful tool for directing local action on health inequities, and should be scaled up within the Region of the Americas, building upon current experience.

  12. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  13. Towards a common framework of grounded action cognition: Relating motor control, perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Antje; Weber, Arne; Synofzik, Matthis; Vosgerau, Gottfried; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The relation between motor control and action cognition - including action-related thoughts and action-related perception - has been subject to controversial discussions in the last three decades. During these decades, cognitive neuroscience has been increasingly confronted with a huge variety of different accounts trying to understand and explain the relation between these systems, their interdependencies and the mediating mechanisms by establishing notions such as "internal models", "simulation" or "shared representation". These accounts, however, include a large array of partly overlapping, partly contradictory theories using similar terms for different mechanisms and different terms for similar mechanisms. In the absence of a systematic work-up and comparison, this array of accounts and theories leads to confusion in the field, duplication of experimental work, and unconnected parallelism of theory formation within and between different disciplines. Here we provide a systematic comparison of current models and prospective theories that deal with the relation between cognition, perception and motor control mechanisms. In a second step, we propose "grounded action cognition" as a comprehensive metatheoretical framework which defines different hypothetical possibilities of the relations between these domains, offers systematic insights into current models and theories and last but not least may help to increase comparability of empirical research in the domain of action and action cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Method of determining remedial control actions for a power system in an insecure state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method of determining remedial control actions for a power system in an insecure and unstable operating condition is provided. The power system has a plurality of generators injecting power into a network and each generator has a generator injection impedance and a stability boundary in the inj......A method of determining remedial control actions for a power system in an insecure and unstable operating condition is provided. The power system has a plurality of generators injecting power into a network and each generator has a generator injection impedance and a stability boundary...

  15. The Australian government's review of positron emission tomography: evidence-based policy-making in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Robert E; Francis, Hilton W; Read, Kenneth E

    2004-06-21

    The Commonwealth Government constituted the Medicare Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) to implement its commitment to entrench the principles of evidence-based medicine in Australian clinical practice. With its recent review of positron emission tomography (PETReview), the Commonwealth intervened in an established MSAC process, and sanctioned the stated objective to restrict expenditure on the technology. In our opinion: The evaluation of evidence by PETReview was fundamentally compromised by a failure to meet the terms of reference, poor science, poor process and unique decision-making benchmarks. By accepting the recommendations of PETReview, the Commonwealth is propagating information which is not of the highest quality. The use of inferior-quality information for decision-making by doctors, patients and policy-makers is likely to harm rather than enhance healthcare outcomes.

  16. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Van der Molen, H F; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the workers were asked about the preventive actions they had undertaken. A generalized linear mixed model was used to compare proportions of workers. At follow-up, the proportion of workers who reported taking preventive actions was significantly higher in the intervention group (80%, 44/55) than in the control group (67%, 80 of 121), (P = 0.04). In the intervention group, the OPs provided a higher proportion of workers with written recommendations (82%, 63 of 77, vs 57%, 69 of 121; P = 0.03). The job-specific WHS aided OPs in providing workers with recommendations and workers in undertaking (job-specific) preventive actions.

  17. Real-Time Prediction of Observed Action Requires Integrity of the Dorsal Premotor Cortex: Evidence From Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa F. M. Brich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Studying brain mechanisms underlying the prediction of observed action, the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd has been suggested a key area. The present study probed this notion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to test whether interference in this area would affect the accuracy in predicting the time course of object directed actions performed with the right hand. Young and healthy participants observed actions in short videos. These were briefly occluded from view for 600 ms and resumed immediately afterwards. The task was to continue the action mentally and to indicate after each occlusion, whether the action was resumed at the right moment (condition in-time or shifted. In a first run, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS was delivered over the left primary hand-area during occlusion. In the second run, rTMS over the left PMd was applied during occlusion in half of the participants [experimental group (EG]. The control group (CG received sham-rTMS over the same area. Under rTMS, the EG predicted less trials correctly than in the sTMS run. Sham-rTMS in the CG had no effects on prediction. The interference in PMd interacted with the type of manipulation applied to the action’s time course occasionally during occlusion. The performance decrease of the EG was most pronounced in conditions in which the continuations after occlusions were too late in the action’s course. The present results extend earlier findings suggesting that real-time action prediction requires the integrity of the PMd. Different functional roles of this area are discussed. Alternative interpretations consider either simulation of specific motor programming functions or the involvement of a feature-unspecific predictor.

  18. Modulation of ethanol-intake by morphine: Evidence for a central site of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, K.D.; Reid, L.D. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subcutaneous administration of low doses of morphine increase, while subcutaneous naloxone decreases, ethanol-intake in rats. However, the site of action of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake remains unclear. In an attempt to elucidate this issue, seven graded doses of morphine were given intracerebroventricularly to rats 15 min prior to an opportunity to consume water and sweetened alcoholic beverage for 2 hr. Two lower doses of intracerebroventricular morphine reliably increased ethanol-intake, while higher doses decreased intake of water. Preference ratios were reliably increased by morphine doses of 1 {mu}g and higher. The present data provide support for a central site of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake.

  19. The thought-action fusion scale: further evidence for its reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P; Schmidt, H

    2001-05-01

    Thought-action fusion (TAF) refers to a set of cognitive biases that are thought to play a role in the development of obsessional phenomena. To measure these biases, R. Shafran, D. S. Thordarson, and S. Rachman (1996; Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 10, 379-391) developed the TAF-scale. They concluded that the TAF-scale possesses adequate psychometric qualities. The current study sought to further explore the reliability and validity of the TAF-scale. Results indicate that the TAF-scale has good internal consistency. TAF-scores correlated with self-reports of obsessional problems. Furthermore, mean scores in a mixed sample of anxiety disordered patients were higher than those in a normal sample. However, temporal consistency was somewhat disappointing. Also, the question remains whether TAF is specific to obsessive-compulsive disorder or taps more pervasive biases that play a role in a variety of disorders.

  20. Frontal Control Process in Intentional Forgetting: Electrophysiological Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to seek for the neural evidence of the inhibition control process in directed forgetting (DF. We adopted a modified item-method DF paradigm, in which four kinds of cues were involved. In some trials, the words were followed by only a forgetting (F cue. In the other trials, after a word was presented, a maintenance (M cue was presented, followed by an explicit remembering (M-R cue or an forgetting (M-F cue. Data from 19 healthy adult participants showed that, (1 compared with the remembering cue (i.e., M-R cue, forgetting cues (i.e., M-F cue and F cue evoked enhanced frontal N2 and reduced parietal P3 and late positive complex (LPC components, indicating that the forgetting cues might trigger a more intensive cognitive control process and that fewer amounts of cognitive resources were recruited for the further rehearsal process. (2 Both the M cue and the F cue evoked enhanced N2 and decreased P3 and LPC components than the M-R or M-F cue. These results might indicate that compared with the M-R and M-F cues, both the M and F cues evoked a more intensive cognitive control process and decreased attentional resource allocation process. (3 The F cue evoked a decreased P2 component and an enhanced N2 component relative to the other cues (i.e., M-R, M-F, M, indicating that the F cue received fewer amounts of attentional resources and evoked a more intensive cognitive control process. Taken together, forgetting cues were associated with enhanced N2 activity relative to the maintenance rehearsal process or the remembering process, suggesting an enhanced cognitive control process under DF. This cognitive control process might reflect the role of inhibition in DF as attempting to suppress the ongoing encoding.

  1. Bridging existing governance gaps: five evidence-based actions that boards can take to pursue high quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Sandra G; Balding, Cathy

    2017-11-13

    Objective To explore the impact of the organisational quality systems on quality of care in Victorian health services. Methods During 2015 a total of 55 focus groups were conducted with more than 350 managers, clinical staff and board members in eight Victorian health services to explore the effectiveness of health service quality systems. A review of the quality and safety goals and strategies outlined in the strategic and operating plans of the participating health services was also undertaken. Results This paper focuses on the data related to the leadership role of health service boards in ensuring safe, high-quality care. The findings suggest that health service boards are not fully meeting their governance accountability to ensure consistently high-quality care. The data uncovered major clinical governance gaps between stated board and executive aspirations for quality and safety and the implementation of these expectations at point of care. These gaps were further compounded by quality system confusion, over-reliance on compliance, and inadequate staff engagement. Conclusion Based on the existing evidence we propose five specific actions boards can take to close the gaps, thereby supporting improved care for all consumers. What is known about this topic? Effective governance is essential for high-quality healthcare delivery. Boards are required to play an active role in their organisation's pursuit of high quality care. What does this paper add? Recent government reports suggest that Australian health service boards are not fully meeting their governance requirements for high quality, safe care delivery, and our research pinpoints key governance gaps. What are the implications for practitioners? Based on our research findings we outline five evidence-based actions for boards to improve their governance of quality care delivery. These actions focus on an organisational strategy for high-quality care, with the chief executive officer held accountable for

  2. Testosterone Modulates Altered Prefrontal Control of Emotional Actions in Psychopathic Offenders(1,2,3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, Inge; von Borries, Anna Katinka Louise; Bulten, Berend Hendrik; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Toni, Ivan; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their controlled goal-directed aggressive behavior. Yet, during social challenges, they often show uncontrolled emotional behavior. Healthy individuals can control their social emotional behavior through anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) downregulation of neural activity in the amygdala, with testosterone modulating aPFC-amygdala coupling. This study tests whether individual differences in this neuroendocrine system relate to the paradoxical lack of emotional control observed in human psychopathic offenders. Emotional control was operationalized with an fMRI-adapted approach-avoidance task requiring rule-driven control over rapid emotional responses. Fifteen psychopathic offenders and 19 matched healthy control subjects made approaching and avoiding movements in response to emotional faces. Control of social emotional behavior was required during affect-incongruent trials, when participants had to override affect-congruent, automatic action tendencies and select the opposite response. Psychopathic offenders showed less control-related aPFC activity and aPFC-amygdala coupling during trials requiring control of emotional actions, when compared with healthy control subjects. This pattern was particularly pronounced in psychopathic individuals with high endogenous testosterone levels. These findings suggest that reduced prefrontal coordination underlies reduced behavioral control in psychopathic offenders during emotionally provoking situations. Even though the modest sample size warrants replication, the modulatory role of endogenous testosterone on the aPFC-amygdala circuit suggests a neurobiological substrate of individual differences that is relevant for the advancement of treatment and the reduction of recidivism.

  3. Direct Evidence for the Economy of Action: Glucose and the Perception of Geographical Slant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Zadra, Jonathan R.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    When locomoting in a physically challenging environment, the body draws upon available energy reserves to accommodate increased metabolic demand. Ingested glucose supplements the body’s energy resources, whereas non-caloric sweetener does not. Two experiments demonstrate that participants who had consumed a glucose-containing drink perceived a hills slant to be less steep than did participants who had consumed a drink containing non-caloric sweetener. The glucose manipulation influenced participants’ explicit awareness of hill slant but, as predicted, it did not affect a visually-guided action of orienting a tilting palmboard to be parallel to the hill. Measured individual differences in factors related to bioenergetic state such as fatigue, sleep quality, fitness, mood, and stress also affected perception such that lower energetic states were associated with steeper perceptions of hill slant. This research shows that the perception of the environment’s spatial layout is influenced by the energetic resources available for locomotion within it. Our findings are consistent with the view that spatial perceptions are influenced by bioenergetic factors. PMID:20514996

  4. Phthalates impact human health: Epidemiological evidences and plausible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sailas; Masai, Eiji; Kamimura, Naofumi; Takahashi, Kenji; Anderson, Robin C; Faisal, Panichikkal Abdul

    2017-10-15

    Disregarding the rising alarm on the hazardous nature of various phthalates and their metabolites, ruthless usage of phthalates as plasticizer in plastics and as additives in innumerable consumer products continues due low their cost, attractive properties, and lack of suitable alternatives. Globally, in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, in vivo preclinical and limited clinical or epidemiological human studies showed that over a dozen phthalates and their metabolites ingested passively by man from the general environment, foods, drinks, breathing air, and routine household products cause various dysfunctions. Thus, this review addresses the health hazards posed by phthalates on children and adolescents, epigenetic modulation, reproductive toxicity in women and men; insulin resistance and type II diabetes; overweight and obesity, skeletal anomalies, allergy and asthma, cancer, etc., coupled with the description of major phthalates and their general uses, phthalate exposure routes, biomonitoring and risk assessment, special account on endocrine disruption; and finally, a plausible molecular cross-talk with a unique mechanism of action. This clinically focused comprehensive review on the hazards of phthalates would benefit the general population, academia, scientists, clinicians, environmentalists, and law or policy makers to decide upon whether usage of phthalates to be continued swiftly without sufficient deceleration or regulated by law or to be phased out from earth forever. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Connectivity patterns during music listening: Evidence for action-based processing in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Vinoo; Toiviainen, Petri; Burunat, Iballa; Kliuchko, Marina; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira

    2017-06-01

    Musical expertise is visible both in the morphology and functionality of the brain. Recent research indicates that functional integration between multi-sensory, somato-motor, default-mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks of the brain differentiates musicians from non-musicians during resting state. Here, we aimed at determining whether brain networks differentially exchange information in musicians as opposed to non-musicians during naturalistic music listening. Whole-brain graph-theory analyses were performed on participants' fMRI responses. Group-level differences revealed that musicians' primary hubs comprised cerebral and cerebellar sensorimotor regions whereas non-musicians' dominant hubs encompassed DMN-related regions. Community structure analyses of the key hubs revealed greater integration of motor and somatosensory homunculi representing the upper limbs and torso in musicians. Furthermore, musicians who started training at an earlier age exhibited greater centrality in the auditory cortex, and areas related to top-down processes, attention, emotion, somatosensory processing, and non-verbal processing of speech. We here reveal how brain networks organize themselves in a naturalistic music listening situation wherein musicians automatically engage neural networks that are action-based while non-musicians use those that are perception-based to process an incoming auditory stream. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2955-2970, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Exercise habit strength, planning and the theory of planned behaviour: an action control approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Action control refers to the successful translation of intention into behaviour. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential usefulness of extending intention-exercise profiles with past exercise behaviour and exercise habit strength and the potential discriminative effect of

  7. Controlling thought and action : a perspective from khat users and cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Muñoz, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that control thought and action vary with the fluctuating and dynamic nature of both internal physiological states and external environmental constraints. Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter mood state or behavior by acting directly on these mechanisms. The alteration of

  8. Stimulus- en goal-driven control of eye movements: Action videogame players are faster not better

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimler, B.; Pavani, F.; Donk, M.; van Zoest, W.

    2014-01-01

    Action videogame players (AVGPs) have been shown to outperform nongamers (NVGPs) in covert visual attention tasks. These advantages have been attributed to improved top-down control in this population. The time course of visual selection, which permits researchers to highlight when top-down

  9. Revisiting the Praise Paradox: An Action-Control Perspective on Negative Affect and Idea Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomberg, Carina; Klyver, Kim

    negative affect and idea generation. The patterns we identify provide a detailed understanding of how individuals’ action control determines the kind of feedback needed to increase originality. Thereby, we provide important new insights for research on the generation of original ideas that are necessary...... for entrepreneurs and organizations that aim to generate novelty and differentiate themselves from others....

  10. [Sustainable Implementation of Evidence-Based Programmes in Health Promotion: A Theoretical Framework and Concept of Interactive Knowledge to Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, A; Wolff, A; Streber, A

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses 2 current issues in the field of public health research: (i) transfer of scientific knowledge into practice and (ii) sustainable implementation of good practice projects. It also supports integration of scientific and practice-based evidence production. Furthermore, it supports utilisation of interactive models that transcend deductive approaches to the process of knowledge transfer. Existing theoretical approaches, pilot studies and thoughtful conceptual considerations are incorporated into a framework showing the interplay of science, politics and prevention practice, which fosters a more sustainable implementation of health promotion programmes. The framework depicts 4 key processes of interaction between science and prevention practice: interactive knowledge to action, capacity building, programme adaptation and adaptation of the implementation context. Ensuring sustainability of health promotion programmes requires a concentrated process of integrating scientific and practice-based evidence production in the context of implementation. Central to the integration process is the approach of interactive knowledge to action, which especially benefits from capacity building processes that facilitate participation and systematic interaction between relevant stakeholders. Intense cooperation also induces a dynamic interaction between multiple actors and components such as health promotion programmes, target groups, relevant organisations and social, cultural and political contexts. The reciprocal adaptation of programmes and key components of the implementation context can foster effectiveness and sustainability of programmes. Sustainable implementation of evidence-based health promotion programmes requires alternatives to recent deductive models of knowledge transfer. Interactive approaches prove to be promising alternatives. Simultaneously, they change the responsibilities of science, policy and public health practice. Existing boundaries

  11. Possibilities of actions to strengthen social control in mental health: strategies and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Ferro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Social Control guidelines for public policy obtained legislative framework with the drafting of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. Although expected to provide control, supervision, and joint planning of public actions, Social Control still shows weaknesses in its pragmatic application. In the Brazilian context, the health sector presents similar difficulties in spite of its pioneering role in the construction of a legislative body to support the practice of social control. Aiming to confront this issue, a classroom course it was developed to provide popular education for the exercise of Social Control of public health actions, with focus on mental health. This course started in 2010 in the municipality of Curitiba, and it is currently in its tenth class. This article seeks to report this experience through the presentation of the course structure, content, and strategies applied during its maturation process. It is intended to provide a critical and reflective field for the composition of actions related to the Social Control theme that enable the strengthening of vulnerable populations and the collective construction of the “Sistema Único de Saúde” (Brazilian National Health System.

  12. The role of synergies within generative models of action execution and recognition: A computational perspective. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Prevete, Roberto; Dindo, Haris

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the body - given its huge number of degrees of freedom - poses severe computational challenges. Mounting evidence suggests that the brain alleviates this problem by exploiting "synergies", or patterns of muscle activities (and/or movement dynamics and kinematics) that can be combined to control action, rather than controlling individual muscles of joints [1-10].

  13. When focusing on a goal interferes with action control: action versus state orientation and over-maintenance of intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigendijk, H.A.H.; Koole, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    People vary in action versus state orientation, or the ease versus difficulty by which they can form and enact goals under demanding conditions (Kuhl and Beckmann in Volition and personality: action versus state orientation, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1994). According to the over-maintenance hypothesis,

  14. When syntax meets action: Brain potential evidence of overlapping between language and motor sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Pilar; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; León, Inmaculada; Hernández-Gutiérrez, David; Espuny, Javier; Muñoz, Francisco; Jiménez-Ortega, Laura; Fondevila, Sabela; de Vega, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to extend the embodied cognition approach to syntactic processing. The hypothesis is that the brain resources to plan and perform motor sequences are also involved in syntactic processing. To test this hypothesis, Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read sentences with embedded relative clauses, judging for their acceptability (half of the sentences contained a subject-verb morphosyntactic disagreement). The sentences, previously divided into three segments, were self-administered segment-by-segment in two different sequential manners: linear or non-linear. Linear self-administration consisted of successively pressing three buttons with three consecutive fingers in the right hand, while non-linear self-administration implied the substitution of the finger in the middle position by the right foot. Our aim was to test whether syntactic processing could be affected by the manner the sentences were self-administered. Main results revealed that the ERPs LAN component vanished whereas the P600 component increased in response to incorrect verbs, for non-linear relative to linear self-administration. The LAN and P600 components reflect early and late syntactic processing, respectively. Our results convey evidence that language syntactic processing and performing non-linguistic motor sequences may share resources in the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of actions promoting healthy eating on students' lipid profile: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita De Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutrition intervention actions on the lipid profile of children and adolescents enrolled in public elementary schools. METHODS: This nine-month, controlled, intervention study included 202 students aged 7 to 14 years attending two schools (intervention/control located in a poor neighborhood of the municipality of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Actions were implemented in the intervention school to promote healthy eating habits, presented as "Ten steps to healthy eating". The effect of these actions was assessed by subjecting the students at baseline and end of the follow-up to biochemical, maturation, and anthropometric measurements and a produce intake survey. The dependent variables were the changes in the study biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of covariance assessed the changes that occurred over the study period. RESULTS: The mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides of the intervention students decreased 13.18 mg/dL (p=0.001, 7.41 mg/dL (p=0.038, and 12.37 mg/dL (p=0.029, respectively, compared with the control students. CONCLUSION: Actions of this nature have a positive impact on lipid profile. This study adds to those that use effective and viable public health strategies implementable at the primary care level.

  16. Action to Support Practices Implement Research Evidence (ASPIRE): protocol for a cluster-randomised evaluation of adaptable implementation packages targeting 'high impact' clinical practice recommendations in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Thomas A; Hartley, Suzanne; Glidewell, Liz; Farrin, Amanda J; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Ingleson, Emma; Heudtlass, Peter; Collinson, Michelle; Clamp, Susan; Hunter, Cheryl; Ward, Vicky; Hulme, Claire; Meads, David; Bregantini, Daniele; Carder, Paul; Foy, Robbie

    2016-02-29

    There are recognised gaps between evidence and practice in general practice, a setting which provides particular challenges for implementation. We earlier screened clinical guideline recommendations to derive a set of 'high impact' indicators based upon criteria including potential for significant patient benefit, scope for improved practice and amenability to measurement using routinely collected data. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted, adaptable intervention package to implement four targeted, high impact recommendations in general practice. The research programme Action to Support Practice Implement Research Evidence (ASPIRE) includes a pair of pragmatic cluster-randomised trials which use a balanced incomplete block design. Clusters are general practices in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom (UK), recruited using an 'opt-out' recruitment process. The intervention package adapted to each recommendation includes combinations of audit and feedback, educational outreach visits and computerised prompts with embedded behaviour change techniques selected on the basis of identified needs and barriers to change. In trial 1, practices are randomised to adapted interventions targeting either diabetes control or risky prescribing and those in trial 2 to adapted interventions targeting either blood pressure control in patients at risk of cardiovascular events or anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. The respective primary endpoints comprise achievement of all recommended target levels of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure and cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes, a composite indicator of risky prescribing, achievement of recommended blood pressure targets for specific patient groups and anticoagulation prescribing in patients with atrial fibrillation. We are also randomising practices to a fifth, non-intervention control group to further assess Hawthorne effects. Outcomes will be assessed using routinely collected data

  17. WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide: a systematic review of evidence from low and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne C; Dua, Tarun; Barbui, Corrado; Thornicroft, Graham

    2018-02-01

    Despite mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders being highly prevalent, there is a worldwide gap between service need and provision. WHO launched its Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) in 2008, and the Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) in 2010. mhGAP-IG provides evidence-based guidance and tools for assessment and integrated management of priority MNS disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), using clinical decision-making protocols. It targets a non-specialised primary healthcare audience, but has also been used by ministries, non-governmental organisations and academics, for mental health service scale-up in 90 countries. This review aimed to identify evidence to date for mhGAP-IG implementation in LMICs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO/Web of Science, Cochrane, Pubmed databases and Google Scholar for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of mhGAP-IG in LMICs, in any language. Data were extracted from included papers, but heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of evidence to date, of mhGAP-IG implementation and evaluation in LMICs. Thirty-three included studies reported 15 training courses, 9 clinical implementations, 3 country contextualisations, 3 economic models, 2 uses as control interventions and 1 use to develop a rating scale. Our review identified the importance of detailed reports of contextual challenges in the field, alongside detailed protocols, qualitative studies and randomised controlled trials. The mhGAP-IG literature is substantial, relative to other published evaluations of clinical practice guidelines: an important contribution to a neglected field. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Representation and Integration: Combining Robot Control, High-Level Planning, and Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Ronald; Kraft, Dirk; Mourao, Kira

    We describe an approach to integrated robot control, high-level planning, and action effect learning that attempts to overcome the representational difficulties that exist between these diverse areas. Our approach combines ideas from robot vision, knowledgelevel planning, and connectionist machine......-level action specifications, suitable for planning, from a robot’s interactions with the world. We present a detailed overview of our approach and show how it supports the learning of certain aspects of a high-level lepresentation from low-level world state information....... learning, and focuses on the representational needs of these components.We also make use of a simple representational unit called an instantiated state transition fragment (ISTF) and a related structure called an object-action complex (OAC). The goal of this work is a general approach for inducing high...

  19. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  20. Curative and eradicant action of fungicides to control Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experiments were carried out in a growth chamber and laboratory to quantify the curative and eradicant actions of fungicides in Asian soybean rust control. The experiments were conducted with the CD 214 RR cultivar, assessing the following fungicides, separately or in association, chlorothalonil, flutriafol, cyproconazole + trifloxystrobin, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, cyproconazole + azoxystrobin, and cyproconazole + picoxystrobin. The fungicides were applied at four (curative and nine days after inoculation (eradicant treatment. Treatments were evaluated according to the density of lesions and uredia/cm2, and the eradicant treatment was assessed based on the necrosis of lesions/uredia and on uredospore viability. Except for the fungicide chlorothalonil, there was curative action of latent/virtual infections by the fungicides. Penetrant fungicides that are absorbed have curative and eradicant action to soybean rust.

  1. The point of no return: A fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958. Thinking. New York: Basic Books) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough "lead time" for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action.

  2. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin in auxin action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    -dependent manner suggests that calcium/CaM regulate ZmSAUR1 at the post-translational level. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of calcium/CaM-mediated signaling in auxin-mediated signal transduction.

  3. Prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with "spontaneous-action" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N S; Johnston, D

    1980-07-12

    Thirty randomly selected patients with permanent colostomies entered a prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with spontaneous action. Each patient was interviewed and examined before irrigation was begun and again after the technique had been used for three months. Each then reverted to spontaneous action for a further three months and was then reassessed. Eight patients abandoned irrigation and 22 (73%) adhered to the protocol. Irrigation caused no mishaps or complications. The mean time spent managing the stoma was 45 +/- SEM 9 min/24 hours during spontaneous action and 53 +/- 9 min/24 hours during irrigation. This difference was not significant. The numbers of bowel actions weekly were 13 +/ SEM 2 during spontaneous action and 6 +/- 1 during irrigation (p Irrigation reduced odour and flatus in 20 patients and enabled 12 out of 18 to stop using drugs and seven to discard their appliance. Irrigation also improved the social life of 18 patients and the working conditions of eight out of 14. These finding show that some patients may not be suitable for irrigation but that for many it is better than the conventional British method of colostomy management. With modern apparatus the technique is safe.

  4. Real world evidence: a form of big data, transforming healthcare data into actionable real time insights and informed business decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Barick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data has always played an important role in assisting business decisions and overall improvement of a company’s strategies. The introduction of what has come to be named ‘BIG data’ has changed the industry paradigm altogether for a few domains like media, mobility, retail and social. Data from the real world is also considered as BIG data based on its magnitude, sources and the industry’s capacity to handle the same. Although, the healthcare industry has been using real world data for decades, digitization of health records has demonstrated its value to all the stakeholders with a reaffirmation of interest in it. Over time, companies are looking to adopt new technologies in linking these fragmented data for meaningful and actionable insights to demonstrate their value over competition. It has also been noticed that the consequences of not demonstrating the value of data are sometimes leads regulators and payers to be severe. The real challenge though is not in identifying data sets but transforming these data sets into actionable real time insights and business decisions. Evidence and value development frameworks need to work side by side, harnessing meaningful insights in parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management. This should in-turn create evidence and value-based insights for multiple stakeholders across the industry; ultimately supporting the patient as the end user to take informed decisions that impact access to care. This article attempts to review the current state of affairs in the area of BIG data in pharma OR BIG DIP as it is increasingly being referred to.

  5. The effectiveness of community action in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harm: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shakeshaft

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community, and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data.We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000, and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI; feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001-2009 were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre- and post-intervention surveys (n

  6. The effectiveness of community action in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harm: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher; Petrie, Dennis; Breen, Courtney; Havard, Alys; Abudeen, Ansari; Harwood, Elissa; Clifford, Anton; D'Este, Catherine; Gilmour, Stuart; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2014-03-01

    The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community), and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT) of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data. We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000), and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI); feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001-2009) were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre- and post-intervention surveys (n = 2,977 and 2

  7. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1) produced 0.10 kcal · kg−1 · hr−1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1, P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:22028959

  8. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Lyons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100 were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12. An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1 produced 0.10 kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17 greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1, P = .048. All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  9. Do motion controllers make action video games less sedentary? A randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1)) produced 0.10 kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1) (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1), P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  10. Antinociceptive Properties of Ascorbic Acid: Evidence for the Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeraati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Ascorbic acid is amongst important water-soluble vitamins and when used orally in high-doses it has been observed to relieve pain and reduce opioid use in patients. However no controlled trial has compared the antinociceptive effects of ascorbic acid with other analgesic groups on animal models, and investigated the involved mechanisms. Objectives In the present study, the antinociceptive effect of vitamin C on male mice was investigated and compared with morphine and diclofenac. Also, possible mechanisms were assayed. Materials and Methods Male albino mice were used in this study. Antinociception was measured using the writhing test, tail flick and formalin tests. Ascorbic acid was used in three doses (30, 150 and 300 mg/kg, IP and compared with the antinociceptive effects of 10 mg/kg of morphine as an opioid analgesic agent and 5-10 mg/kg of diclofenac as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID analgesic agent.The antinociceptive effect of ascorbic acid (300 mg/kg was compared before and after treatment with naloxone (4 mg/kg, ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg, atropine (5 mg/kg and metoclopramide (1 mg/kg in the writhing test. Results Vitamin C caused dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in acetic acid writhing test (P < 0.05. It had no significant effect in the tail flick test. Meanwhile, vitamin C in high doses reduced pain in the second phase of the formalin test (P < 0.05. Morphine had higher nociceptive effects in comparison to ascorbic acid in the writhing test (P < 0.05. In the second phase of the formalin test the antinociceptive effects of vitamin C (300 mg/kg was not significantly different with morphine at dose of 10 mg/kg. There was not significant difference between vitamin C (300 mg/kg and diclofenac (10 mg/kg in the second phase of the formalin test. Metoclopramide and ondansetrone reduced the antinociceptive effects of vitamin C. Conclusions The results obtained from the acetic acid induced writhing test and second

  11. Discourses of healthcare professionals about health surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitano, Fernando; Sicsú, Amélia Nunes; Sousa, Luciana de Oliveira; Silva, Laís Mara Caetano da; Palha, Pedro Fredemir

    2017-04-06

    To analyze the meanings produced in the Health Surveillance actions for tuberculosis control, carried out by healthcare professionals in Mozambique. Qualitative study using the theoretical and methodological framework of the French Discourse Analysis. A total of 15 healthcare professionals with more than one year of experience in disease control actions participated in the study. Four discursive blocks have emerged from the analysis: tuberculosis diagnosis process; meeting, communication and discussion of treatment; local strategies for tuberculosis control; involvement of family and community leaders in the tuberculosis control. The statements of the healthcare professionals suggest, as Health Surveillance actions, practices that include collecting sputum in the patient's home and sending it to the laboratory; deployment of the medical team with a microscope for tuberculosis testing; and testing for diseases that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this context, the actions of Health Surveillance for tuberculosis control involve valuing all actors: family, community leaders, patients and health professionals. Analisar os sentidos produzidos sobre as ações de Vigilância em Saúde no controle da tuberculose desenvolvidas por profissionais de saúde em Moçambique. Estudo qualitativo que tem como referencial teórico-metodológico a Análise de Discurso de matriz francesa. Participaram do estudo 15 profissionais de saúde, com mais de 1 ano de experiência em ações de controle da doença. Da análise, emergiram quatro blocos discursivos: processo do diagnóstico da tuberculose; reunião, comunicação e discussão do tratamento; estratégias locais para o controle da tuberculose; envolvimento da família e dos líderes comunitários no controle da tuberculose. Os dizeres dos profissionais de saúde sugerem, como ações de Vigilância em Saúde, práticas que incluem a coleta de escarro na residência do paciente e seu encaminhamento ao laboratório; o

  12. Severe Urban Outdoor Air Pollution and Children's Structural and Functional Brain Development, From Evidence to Precautionary Strategic Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2018-01-01

    According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement. Correspondingly, with the breakdown of natural barriers against entry and translocation of toxic particles in the brain, the most common structural changes are responses promoting neuroinflammation and indicating early neurodegenerative processes. In spite of the gaps in current scientific knowledge and the challenges posed by non-scientific issues that influence policy, the evidence invites the conclusion that urban outdoor air pollution is a serious threat to healthy brain development which may set the conditions for neurodegenerative diseases. Such evidence supports the perspective that urgent strategic precautionary actions, minimizing exposure and attenuating its effects, are needed to protect children and their brain development.

  13. Severe Urban Outdoor Air Pollution and Children’s Structural and Functional Brain Development, From Evidence to Precautionary Strategic Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo D’Angiulli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement. Correspondingly, with the breakdown of natural barriers against entry and translocation of toxic particles in the brain, the most common structural changes are responses promoting neuroinflammation and indicating early neurodegenerative processes. In spite of the gaps in current scientific knowledge and the challenges posed by non-scientific issues that influence policy, the evidence invites the conclusion that urban outdoor air pollution is a serious threat to healthy brain development which may set the conditions for neurodegenerative diseases. Such evidence supports the perspective that urgent strategic precautionary actions, minimizing exposure and attenuating its effects, are needed to protect children and their brain development.

  14. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  15. Design and Testing of a Low Cost PID Controller Combined with Inverse Derivative Control Action and Its Application in Voltage Control Systems of DC Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata CHATTOPADHYAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A single PID controller in a process control loop may suffer from high frequency oscillations without offset or low frequency oscillation with offset. An inverse derivative control action can eliminate both of these errors. In the present paper, a low cost operational amplifier based PID controller with inverse derivative control action has been described. Its transfer function has been derived and is found to be identical with the form already derived by other workers. It has been tested with a process plant analogue and implemented in the voltage control system of a DC generator. Its transfer function along with its characteristics in a process plant analogue and the load characteristics of DC generator with and without this controller have been determined experimentally and reported in this paper.

  16. Adaptive control of human action: The role of outcome representations and reward signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eMarien

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to advance the understanding of the control of human behavior by integrating two lines of literature that so far have led separate lives. First, one line of literature is concerned with the ideomotor principle of human behavior, according to which actions are represented in terms of their outcomes. The second line of literature mainly considers the role of reward signals in adaptive control. Here, we offer a combined perspective on how outcome representations and reward signals work together to modulate adaptive control processes. We propose that reward signals signify the value of outcome representations and facilitate the recruitment of control resources in situations where behavior needs to be maintained or adapted to attain the represented outcome. We discuss recent research demonstrating how adaptive control of goal-directed behavior may emerge when outcome representations are co-activated with positive reward signals.

  17. 21 CFR 1404.635 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action? 1404.635 Section 1404.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1404.635...

  18. 21 CFR 212.90 - What actions must I take to control the distribution of PET drug products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What actions must I take to control the... POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS (Eff. 12-12-2011) Distribution § 212.90 What actions must I take to control the distribution of PET drug products? (a) Written distribution procedures. You must establish...

  19. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  20. Accelerating knowledge to action: the pan-Canadian cancer control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, L; Hill, J; Bryant, H; Kitchen-Clarke, L

    2012-04-01

    In 2006, the federal government committed funding of $250 million over 5 years for the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer Corporation to begin implementation of the Canadian Strategy for Cancer Control (CSCC). The Partnership was established as a not-for-profit corporation designed to work actively with a broad range of stakeholders and organizations that had been engaged in the development of the CSCC and with the public more broadly. A policy experiment unto itself, the Partnership was the first disease-based organization funded at the federal level outside of government. It was charged with a mandate to enable transfer of knowledge and to catalyze coordinated and accelerated action across the country to reduce the burden of cancer. Implementation has involved establishing shared goals, objectives, and plans with participating partners. Knowledge management-incorporating pan-Canadian approaches to the identification of content, processes, technology, and culture change-was used to enable that work across the federated health care delivery system. Evaluation of the organization through independent review, the ability to achieve initiative-level targets by 2012, and progress measured using indicators of system performance was used to examine the effectiveness of the strategy and approach overall. Evaluation findings support the conclusions that Canada has made progress in achieving immediate outcomes (achievable in 25 years) impact on cancer. The mechanism of funding the Partnership to develop collaboration among stakeholders in cancer control to achieve coordinated action has been possible and has been enabled through the Partnership's knowledge-to-action mandate. Opportunities are available to further engage and clarify the roles of stakeholders in action, to clearly define outcomes, and to further quantify the economic benefits that have resulted from a coordinated approach. With the ongoing funding commitment to support coordinated action within a federated

  1. Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. Methods We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Results The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Conclusions Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. PMID:23452663

  2. Counterfactual processing of economic action-outcome alternatives in obsessive-compulsive disorder: further evidence of impaired goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-04-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  4. Locust Control in Transition: The Loss and Reinvention of Collective Action in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazbek Toleubayev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The inability to organize collective action for pest control can lead to severe problems. This paper focuses on the locust management system in Kazakhstan since the formation of the Soviet State. During the Transition Period after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Plant Protection Service disintegrated. The principles of central planning were replaced with individualistic approaches with little state involvement in pest control activities or pesticide regulation. The financial and ideological reasons for dismantling the existing pest control system did not recognize the potential impact that policy-induced changes in agro-ecological conditions and control practices would have on pest development. Nature hit back at the induced institutional change that occurred in the Kazakh pest control system: an extremely harmful locust plague took the country by surprise between 1998 and 2001. This paper examines from an interdisciplinary perspective the co-evolution of locust populations, land use systems, knowledge about locusts, campaigns against them, and institutions in Soviet times and in the Transition Period. It argues the need for collective action theory to extend its present focus from local level institutions for resource management to higher level social-technical systems.

  5. Effectiveness evaluation of temporary emission control action in 2016 in winter in Shijiazhuang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the control measures for atmospheric pollution in Shijiazhuang, China, a large-scale controlling experiment for emission sources of atmospheric pollutants (i.e. a temporary emission control action, TECA was designed and implemented during 1 November 2016 to 9 January 2017. Compared to the no-control action and heating period (NCAHP, under unfavourable meteorological conditions, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and chemical species (Si, Al, Ca2+, Mg2+ in PM2.5 during the control action and heating period (CAHP still decreased by 8, 8, 5, 19, 30.3, 4.5, 47.0, and 45.2 %, respectively, indicating that the control measures for atmospheric pollution were effective. The effects of control measures in suburbs were better than those in urban area, especially for the control effects of particulate matter sources. The control effects for emission sources of carbon monoxide (CO were not apparent during the TECA period, especially in suburbs, likely due to the increasing usage of domestic coal in suburbs along with the temperature decreasing.The results of positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis showed that crustal dust, secondary sources, vehicle emissions, coal combustion and industrial emissions were main PM2.5 sources. Compared to the whole year (WY and the no-control action and no-heating period (NCANHP, the contribution concentrations and proportions of coal combustion to PM2.5 increased significantly during other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of crustal dust and vehicle emissions to PM2.5 decreased noticeably during the CAHP compared to other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of industrial emissions to PM2.5 during the CAHP decreased noticeably compared to the NCAHP. The pollutants' emission sources during the CAHP were in effective control, especially for crustal dust and vehicles. However

  6. Effectiveness evaluation of temporary emission control action in 2016 in winter in Shijiazhuang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshuang; Cheng, Yuan; Zhou, Ming; Liang, Danni; Dai, Qili; Wang, Lu; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Lingzhi; Ren, Yibin; Zhou, Jingbo; Dai, Chunling; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Jiao; Feng, Yinchang; Zhang, Yufen

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the control measures for atmospheric pollution in Shijiazhuang, China, a large-scale controlling experiment for emission sources of atmospheric pollutants (i.e. a temporary emission control action, TECA) was designed and implemented during 1 November 2016 to 9 January 2017. Compared to the no-control action and heating period (NCAHP), under unfavourable meteorological conditions, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and chemical species (Si, Al, Ca2+, Mg2+) in PM2.5 during the control action and heating period (CAHP) still decreased by 8, 8, 5, 19, 30.3, 4.5, 47.0, and 45.2 %, respectively, indicating that the control measures for atmospheric pollution were effective. The effects of control measures in suburbs were better than those in urban area, especially for the control effects of particulate matter sources. The control effects for emission sources of carbon monoxide (CO) were not apparent during the TECA period, especially in suburbs, likely due to the increasing usage of domestic coal in suburbs along with the temperature decreasing.The results of positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis showed that crustal dust, secondary sources, vehicle emissions, coal combustion and industrial emissions were main PM2.5 sources. Compared to the whole year (WY) and the no-control action and no-heating period (NCANHP), the contribution concentrations and proportions of coal combustion to PM2.5 increased significantly during other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of crustal dust and vehicle emissions to PM2.5 decreased noticeably during the CAHP compared to other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of industrial emissions to PM2.5 during the CAHP decreased noticeably compared to the NCAHP. The pollutants' emission sources during the CAHP were in effective control, especially for crustal dust and vehicles. However, the necessary coal

  7. New Evidence for the Mechanism of Action of a Type-2 Diabetes Drug Using a Magnetic Bead-Based Automated Biosensing Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Nur-E-Habiba; Rena, Graham

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action (MOA) of the first line type-2 diabetes drug metformin remains unclear despite its widespread usage. However, recent evidence suggests that the mitochondrial copper (Cu)-binding action of metformin may contribute toward the drug's MOA. Here, we present a novel biosensing...... of metformin's blood-glucose lowering action. In this assay, cysteine-functionalized magnetic beadswere agglutinated in the presence of Cu due to cysteine's Cu-chelation property. Addition of clinically relevant doses of metformin resulted in disaggregation of Cu-bridged bead-clusters, whereas the effect...

  8. Standardization of quality control plans for highway bridges in Europe: COST Action TU 1406

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joan R.; Matos, Jose Campos e.

    2017-09-01

    In Europe, as all over the world, the need to manage roadway bridges in an efficient way led to the development of different management systems. Hence, nowadays, many European countries have their own system. Although they present a similar architectural framework, several differences can be appointed. These differences constitute a divergent mechanism that may conduct to different decisions on maintenance actions. Within the roadway bridge management process, the identification of maintenance needs is more effective when developed in a uniform and repeatable manner. This process can be accomplished by the identification of performance indicators and definition of performance goals and key performance indicators (KPI), improving the planning of maintenance strategies. Therefore, a discussion at a European level, seeking to achieve a standardized approach in this subject, will bring significant benefits. Accordingly, a COST Action is under way in Europe with the aim of standardizing the establishment of quality control plans for roadway bridges.

  9. The human dorsal action control system develops in the absence of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Katja; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Röder, Brigitte; Rösler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The primate dorsal pathway has been proposed to compute vision for action. Although recent findings suggest that dorsal pathway structures contribute to somatosensory action control as well, it is yet not clear whether or not the development of dorsal pathway functions depends on early visual experience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the pattern of cortical activation in congenitally blind and matched blindfolded sighted adults while performing kinesthetically guided hand movements. Congenitally blind adults activated similar dorsal pathway structures as sighted controls. Group-specific activations were found in the extrastriate cortex and the auditory cortex for congenitally blind humans and in the precuneus and the presupplementary motor area for sighted humans. Dorsal pathway activity was in addition observed for working memory maintenance of kinesthetic movement information in both groups. Thus, the results suggest that dorsal pathway functions develop in the absence of vision. This favors the idea of a general mechanism of movement control that operates regardless of the sensory input modality. Group differences in cortical activation patterns imply different movement control strategies as a function of visual experience.

  10. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Input to the Claustrum Is Required for Top-Down Action Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. White

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cognitive abilities, such as volitional attention, operate under top-down, executive frontal cortical control of hierarchically lower structures. The circuit mechanisms underlying this process are unresolved. The claustrum possesses interconnectivity with many cortical areas and, thus, is hypothesized to orchestrate the cortical mantle for top-down control. Whether the claustrum receives top-down input and how this input may be processed by the claustrum have yet to be formally tested, however. We reveal that a rich anterior cingulate cortex (ACC input to the claustrum encodes a preparatory top-down information signal on a five-choice response assay that is necessary for optimal task performance. We further show that ACC input monosynaptically targets claustrum inhibitory interneurons and spiny glutamatergic projection neurons, the latter of which amplify ACC input in a manner that is powerfully constrained by claustrum inhibitory microcircuitry. These results demonstrate ACC input to the claustrum is critical for top-down control guiding action. : White et al. show that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC input to the claustrum encodes a top-down preparatory signal on a 5-choice response assay that is critical for task performance. Claustrum microcircuitry amplifies top-down ACC input in a frequency-dependent manner for eventual propagation to the cortex for cognitive control of action. Keywords: 5CSRTT, optogenetics, fiber photometry, microcircuit, attention, bottom-up, sensory cortices, motor cortices

  11. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.

  12. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  13. How the Mastery Rubric for Statistical Literacy Can Generate Actionable Evidence about Statistical and Quantitative Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle E. Tractenberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical literacy is essential to an informed citizenry; and two emerging trends highlight a growing need for training that achieves this literacy. The first trend is towards “big” data: while automated analyses can exploit massive amounts of data, the interpretation—and possibly more importantly, the replication—of results are challenging without adequate statistical literacy. The second trend is that science and scientific publishing are struggling with insufficient/inappropriate statistical reasoning in writing, reviewing, and editing. This paper describes a model for statistical literacy (SL and its development that can support modern scientific practice. An established curriculum development and evaluation tool—the Mastery Rubric—is integrated with a new, developmental, model of statistical literacy that reflects the complexity of reasoning and habits of mind that scientists need to cultivate in order to recognize, choose, and interpret statistical methods. This developmental model provides actionable evidence, and explicit opportunities for consequential assessment that serves students, instructors, developers/reviewers/accreditors of a curriculum, and institutions. By supporting the enrichment, rather than increasing the amount, of statistical training in the basic and life sciences, this approach supports curriculum development, evaluation, and delivery to promote statistical literacy for students and a collective quantitative proficiency more broadly.

  14. Evidence of institutionalizing elements in the Balanced Scorecard in the book Strategy in action: a view based on institutional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschoal Tadeu Russo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Balanced Scorecard (BSC is a methodology that allows managers to define and implement a set of financial or nonfinancial indicators in a balanced way to assess an organization's performance from four viewpoints. Many companies are unsuccessful in their implementation of the BSC. This lack of success may be attributed to different factors, such as strategic problems, planning failures, and poorly defined targets and goals. However, the failed implementation may be attributed in part to the failure to institutionalize habits and routines. In this regard, this objective of this paper is to use institutional theory to determine whether the book Strategy in Action: Balanced Scorecard contains evidence that the BSC model proposed by the authors (Kaplan & Norton includes elements that favor the model's institutionalization. For this purpose, a qualitative bibliographic survey was prepared. The survey revealed 404 clues that were rated according to Tolbert and Zucker's description of the processes inherent to institutionalization and to Scott's proposed framework of legitimation/legitimizing. These findings suggest that the book primarily legitimizes the BSC by examining organizations and describes it as an acknowledged management instrument. The aspects supporting the semi-institutional stage (26% of the findings and the total institutionalization stage (10% of findings suggest that the authors intended to propose a tool without focusing on the institutionalization process, which may partly explain the great difficulty faced by companies attempting to implement this methodology.

  15. Mathematical model of an indirect action fuel flow controller for aircraft jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with a fuel mass flow rate controller with indirect action for aircraft jet engines. The author has identified fuel controller's main parts and its operation mode, then, based on these observations, one has determined motion equations of each main part, which have built system's non-linear mathematical model. In order to realize a better study this model was linearised (using the finite differences method) and then adimensionalized. Based on this new form of the mathematical model, after applying Laplace transformation, the embedded system (controller+engine) was described by the block diagram with transfer functions. Some Simulink-Matlab simulations were performed, concerning system's time behavior for step input, which lead to some useful conclusions and extension possibilities.

  16. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eSoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-error slowing is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms. Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs. Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS. Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but post-error slowing did not take place immediately. Delayed post-error slowing was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to post-error slowing. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with post-error slowing and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater post-error slowing and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and post-error slowing did not occur quickly. Furthermore, post-error slowing and its neural correlate (N2 were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke

  17. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshi, Takahiro; Ando, Kumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Nakazawa, Kanako; Tsumura, Hideki; Okada, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Post-error slowing (PES) is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms). Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs). Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS). Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but PES did not take place immediately. Delayed PES was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to PES. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with PES and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater PES and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and PES did not occur quickly. Furthermore, PES and its neural correlate (N2) were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke impulsive behaviors.

  18. Judicial control authority and third-party action as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhart, C.

    1981-01-01

    The author points out the fundamental complex of problems. From the 'undetermined' legal term of imperative prevention of damage as defined by Sect. 7 para. 2 (3) of the Atomic Energy Law follows the judicial claim for detailed analysis of facts in case of minor radioactive exposure under normal operation and in case of accident prevention. He discusses the relation of the Atomic Energy Law to the Basic Law and to the normative structure of the Atomic Energy Law. The re-orientation to be found in the judicial approach to control does recognize sanctuaries of the executive. Control density and the right of third parties to take action are closely interrelated. From the integration - according to subjective law and basic law - of the Atomic Energy Law into the realtionship existing between technological and cultural development, and the material relation of licences granted for nuclear installations follows a reduction of judicial control intensity, at least for the procedural constellation of third-party actions. (HSCH) [de

  19. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program requirements for quality control of analytical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.S.; Zolyniak, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP) is involved in performing field investigations and sample analysis pursuant to the NCP for the Department of Energy and other federal agencies. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements for the control of the accuracy, precision and completeness of the samples, and data from the point of collection through analysis. The requirements include data reduction and reporting of the resulting environmentally related data. Because every instance and concern may not be addressed in this document, HAZWRAP subcontractors are encouraged to discuss any questions with the HAZWRAP Project Manager hereafter identified as the Project Manager

  20. [Social control in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): discourse, action and reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Maria Caldeira; Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2013-08-01

    This article seeks to describe and analyze the dynamics of social participation, from the standpoint of the social representations of the City Health Councillors of Belo Horizonte on the significance of social control. A methodological approach was used, backed by qualitative research techniques: semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Three years after the survey, documentary research was conducted to check for signs of institutional reaction seeking to minimize or even to overcome the difficulties reported. It was ascertained that the City Health Council political institution activated several mechanisms to improve their techniques of action and organization and also the commitment of stakeholders to this forum.

  1. Why do people fail to turn good intentions into action? The role of executive control processes in the translation of healthy eating intentions into action in young Scottish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Julia L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant health benefits associated with eating healthily, diet is extremely difficult to change, with the majority of people who intend to eat more healthily failing to do so. Recent evidence has suggested that the ability to turn intentions into actions may be related to individual differences in one facet of executive control – cognitive inhibition (i.e. the ability to inhibit irrelevant information and suppress prepotent responses. The present study investigates the role of this and other executive processes (inhibition, task switching, planning and cognitive flexibility in the translation of dietary intentions into action. In addition, as the literature suggests that weak executive control may be associated with hyper-responsivity to cues to action, the role of executive processes in susceptibility to environmental food cues and responses to If-Then plans designed to cue intended behaviour are investigated. Methods Future intentions about consumption of fruits and vegetables and snack foods will be measured in a sample of young adults. Actual consumption of the target foods will be recorded with computerised diaries over a subsequent 3-day period. Performance on a battery of established executive control tasks (Go-NoGo, Tower task, Verbal Fluency task and Trail-Making will be used to predict the discrepancy between intended and actual dietary behaviour. In addition, executive control scores will be used to predict reported susceptibility to environmental food cues and benefit derived from the use of 'If-Then plans' designed to cue intended behaviour. Discussion Our findings will add to understanding about the role of executive control in translating intentions into actions and may demonstrate potential for future public health interventions. If participants with weak executive control are found to be less likely to eat as they intend than those with strong executive control, then interventions that

  2. Malaria control. generating evidence from local to global level

    OpenAIRE

    Plüss, Bianca

    2009-01-01

    In addition of the provision of effective treatment to each case, malaria control is heavily relying on vector control with either insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). The effectiveness of ITNs in controlling malaria in many different settings has already been comprehensively documented. On the other hand, while IRS has a long and distinguished history in malaria control, its health effects have never been properly quantified. The present thesis aimed...

  3. 34 CFR 222.8 - What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? 222.8 Section 222.8 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS General § 222.8 What action must an applicant take upon a change...

  4. Neuronal codes for the inhibitory control of impulsive actions in the rat infralimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Ohmura, Yu; Izumi, Takeshi; Matsushima, Toshiya; Amita, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Taku; Yoshida, Takayuki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Poor impulse control is a debilitating condition observed in various psychiatric disorders and could be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. The rat infralimbic cortex (IL), located in the ventral portion of the medial prefrontal cortex, has been implicated in impulse control. To elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control, we recorded single unit activity in the IL of a rat performing a 3-choiceserial reaction time task (3-CSRTT) and 2-choice task (2-CT), which are animal models for impulsivity. The inactivation of IL neuronal activity with an injection of muscimol (0.1 μg /side) disrupted impulse control in the 3-CSRTT. More than 60% (38/56) of isolated IL units were linked to impulse control, while approximately 30% of all units were linked to attentional function in the 3-CSRTT. To avoid confounding motor-related units with the impulse control-related units, we further conducted the 2-CT in which the animals' motor activities were restricted during recording window. More than 30% (14/44) of recorded IL units were linked to impulse control in the 2-CT. Several types of impulse control-related units were identified. Only 16% of all units were compatible with the results of the muscimol experiment, which showed a transient decline in the firing rate immediately before the release of behavioral inhibition. This is the first study to elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control in the IL and to propose that IL neurons control impulsive actions in a more complex manner than previously considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Theoretical Aspects of Erroneous Actions During the Process of Decision Making by Air Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersone Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Theoretical Aspects of Erroneous Actions During the Process of Decision Making by Air Traffic Control evaluates the factors affecting the operational decision-making of a human air traffic controller, interacting in a dynamic environment with the flight crew, surrounding aircraft traffic and environmental conditions of the airspace. This article reviews the challenges of air traffic control in different conditions, ranging from normal and complex to emergency and catastrophic. Workload factors and operating conditions make an impact on air traffic controllers’ decision-making. The proposed model compares various operating conditions within an assumed air traffic control environment subsequently comparing them against a theoretically “perfect” air traffic control system. A mathematical model of flight safety assessment has been proposed for the quantitative assessment of various hazards arising during the process of Air Traffic Control. The model assumes events of various severity and probability ranging from high frequency and low severity up to less likely and catastrophic ones. Certain limitations of the model have been recognised and further improvements for effective hazard evaluation have been suggested.

  6. Evidence for simvastatin anti-inflammatory actions based on quantitative analyses of NETosis and other inflammation/oxidation markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghoul, Walid M.; Kim, Margarita S.; Fazal, Nadeem; Azim, Anser C.; Ali, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Simvastatin (SMV) has been shown to exhibit promising anti-inflammatory properties alongside its classic cholesterol lowering action. We tested these emerging effects in a major thermal injury mouse model (3rd degree scald, ~20% TBSA) with previously documented, inflammation-mediated intestinal defects. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) inflammation measurement methods were used alongside classic gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness measurements with exogenous melatonin treatment as a positive control. Our hypothesis is that simvastatin has protective therapeutic effects against early postburn gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness. To test this hypothesis, we compared untreated thermal injury (TI) adult male mice with TI littermates treated with simvastatin (0.2 mg/kg i.p., TI + SMV) immediately following burn injury and two hours before being sacrificed the day after; melatonin-treated (Mel) (1.86 mg/kg i.p., TI + Mel) mice were compared as a positive control. Mice were assessed for the following: (1) tissue oxidation and neutrophil infiltration in terminal ileum mucosa using classic carbonyl, Gr-1, and myeloperoxidase immunohistochemical or biochemical assays, (2) NETosis in terminal ileum and colon mucosa homogenates and peritoneal and fluid blood samples utilizing flow cytometric analyses of the surrogate NETosis biomarkers, picogreen and Gr-1, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as measured in terminal ileum and colon with FITC-dextran and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Our results reveal that simvastatin and melatonin exhibit consistently comparable therapeutic protective effects against the following: (1) gut mucosa oxidative stress as revealed in the terminal ileum by markers of protein carbonylation as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Gr-1 infiltration, (2) NETosis as revealed in the gut milieu, peritoneal lavage and plasma utilizing picogreen and Gr-1 flow cytometry and microscopy, and (3) transepithelial gut leakiness as

  7. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  8. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  9. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangarasu Muthamilselvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed.

  10. Preventive voltage control actions to securely face load evolution in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano Marcolini, A.; Martinez Ramos, J.L.; Romero Ramos, E.; Trigo Garcia, A.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    One of the main aims of the System Operator (SO) is to maintain in every moment the system parameters between feasible operational margins. In certain periods of the day the load suffers fast changes which cause, specially when it tends to increase, a generalized voltage decrement and a more stressed condition for many reactive resources. In such cases, many devices may arrive to their operational limits, situation which translates into a weaker system. To avoid this negative effect the control variables should be rescheduled to maintain the normal operation conditions in the foreseeable future. This work proposes a useful tool to assist the SO when determining such actions. The main improvements are due to the implementation of a hybrid method that allows the comparison of different kinds of control variables and the inclusion of the operator background and experience in the algorithm that determines the actions. The performance of the proposed method is tested in both the IEEE 14-Bus and 118-Bus test systems. (author)

  11. Infants in control: rapid anticipation of action outcomes in a gaze-contingent paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wang

    Full Text Available Infants' poor motor abilities limit their interaction with their environment and render studying infant cognition notoriously difficult. Exceptions are eye movements, which reach high accuracy early, but generally do not allow manipulation of the physical environment. In this study, real-time eye tracking is used to put 6- and 8-month-old infants in direct control of their visual surroundings to study the fundamental problem of discovery of agency, i.e. the ability to infer that certain sensory events are caused by one's own actions. We demonstrate that infants quickly learn to perform eye movements to trigger the appearance of new stimuli and that they anticipate the consequences of their actions in as few as 3 trials. Our findings show that infants can rapidly discover new ways of controlling their environment. We suggest that gaze-contingent paradigms offer effective new ways for studying many aspects of infant learning and cognition in an interactive fashion and provide new opportunities for behavioral training and treatment in infants.

  12. Cognitive rehabilitation of attention deficits in traumatic brain injury using action video games: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vakili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the utility and efficacy of a novel eight-week cognitive rehabilitation programme developed to remediate attention deficits in adults who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI, incorporating the use of both action video game playing and a compensatory skills programme. Thirty-one male TBI patients, aged 18–65 years, were recruited from 2 Australian brain injury units and allocated to either a treatment or waitlist (treatment as usual control group. Results showed improvements in the treatment group, but not the waitlist control group, for performance on the immediate trained task (i.e. the video game and in non-trained measures of attention and quality of life. Neither group showed changes to executive behaviours or self-efficacy. The strengths and limitations of the study are discussed, as are the potential applications and future implications of the research.

  13. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using TENS for pain control: the state of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Carol GT; Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention that activates a complex neuronal network to reduce pain by activating descending inhibitory systems in the central nervous system to reduce hyperalgesia. The evidence for TENS efficacy is conflicting and requires not only description but also critique. Population-specific systemic reviews and meta-analyses are emerging, indicating both HF and LF TENS being shown to provide analgesia, specifically when applied at a strong, nonpainful intensity. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the latest basic science and clinical evidence for TENS. Additional research is necessary to determine if TENS has effects specific to mechanical stimuli and/or beyond reduction of pain and will improve activity levels, function and quality of life. PMID:24953072

  15. Evidence that convergence rather than accommodation controls intermittent distance exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2012-03-01

    This study considered whether vergence drives accommodation or accommodation drives vergence during the control of distance exotropia for near fixation. High accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios are often used to explain this control, but the role of convergence to drive accommodation (the CA/C relationship) is rarely considered. Atypical CA/C characteristics could equally, or better, explain common clinical findings. Nineteen distance exotropes, aged 4-11 years, were compared while controlling their deviation with 27 non-exotropic controls aged 5-9 years. Simultaneous vergence and accommodation responses were measured to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and looming cues at four fixation distances between 2 m and 33 cm. Stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios were calculated. Accommodation responses for near targets (p = 0.017) and response gains (p = 0.026) were greater in the exotropes than in the controls. Despite higher clinical stimulus AC/A ratios, the distance exotropes showed lower laboratory response AC/A ratios (p = 0.02), but significantly higher CA/C ratios (p = 0.02). All the exotropes, whether the angle changed most with lenses ('controlled by accommodation') or on occlusion ('controlled by fusion'), used binocular disparity not blur as their main cue to target distance. Increased vergence demand to control intermittent distance exotropia for near also drives significantly more accommodation. Minus lens therapy is more likely to act by correcting overaccommodation driven by controlling convergence, rather than by inducing blur-driven vergence. The use of convergence as a major drive to accommodation explains many clinical characteristics of distance exotropia, including apparently high near stimulus AC/A ratios. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. 29 CFR 102.39 - Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. 102.39 Section 102.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS... Hearings § 102.39 Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. Any such proceeding shall, so far as...

  17. Audit pricing and nature of controlling shareholders: Evidence from France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraz Ben Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether auditors are employed as a monitoring mechanism to mitigate agency problems arising from different types of controlling shareholders. In a context of concentrated ownership and poor investor protection, controlling shareholders can easily expropriate wealth from minority shareholders and profit from private benefits of control. However, this agency conflict has been rarely studied, as the most commonly assumed agency conflict occurs between managers and shareholders. Using an audit fee model derived from Simunic (1980, we study the impact of the nature of controlling shareholders on audit fees in French listed firms. Our results show: (1 a negative relationship between audit fees and government shareholdings; (2 a positive relationship between audit fees and institutional shareholdings; and (3 no relationship between audit fees and family shareholdings. These results illustrate the mixed effects of the nature of ownership on audit fees.

  18. Bilingualism modulates dual mechanisms of cognitive control: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julia; Yudes, Carolina; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral findings with the AX-Continous Performance Task (AX-CPT; Morales et al., 2013) show that bilinguals only outperform monolinguals under conditions that require the highest adjustment between monitoring (proactive) and inhibitory (reactive) control, which supports the idea that bilingualism modulates the coordination of different control mechanisms. In an ERP experiment we aimed to further investigate the role that bilingualism plays in the dynamic combination of proactive and reactive control in the AX-CPT. Our results strongly indicate that bilingualism facilitates an effective adjustment between both components of cognitive control. First, we replicated previous behavioral results. Second, ERP components indicated that bilingualism influences the conflict monitoring, response inhibition and error monitoring components of control (as indexed by the N2 and P3a elicited by the probe and the error-related negativity following incorrect responses, respectively). Thus, bilinguals exerted higher reactive control than monolinguals but only when they needed to overcome the competing cue-information. These findings join others in suggesting that a better understanding of the cognitive benefits of bilingualism may require consideration of a multi-component perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Granger causality mapping during joint actions reveals evidence for forward models that could overcome sensory-motor delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Kokal

    Full Text Available Studies investigating joint actions have suggested a central role for the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS because of the close link between perception and action provided by these brain regions [1], [2], [3]. In contrast, our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment demonstrated that the BOLD response of the pMNS does not suggest that it directly integrates observed and executed actions during joint actions [4]. To test whether the pMNS might contribute indirectly to the integration process by sending information to brain areas responsible for this integration (integration network, here we used Granger causality mapping (GCM [5]. We explored the directional information flow between the anterior sites of the pMNS and previously identified integrative brain regions. We found that the left BA44 sent more information than it received to both the integration network (left thalamus, right middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum and more posterior nodes of the pMNS (BA2. Thus, during joint actions, two anatomically separate networks therefore seem effectively connected and the information flow is predominantly from anterior to posterior areas of the brain. These findings suggest that the pMNS is involved indirectly in joint actions by transforming observed and executed actions into a common code and is part of a generative model that could predict the future somatosensory and visual consequences of observed and executed actions in order to overcome otherwise inevitable neural delays.

  20. Inverted-U shaped dopamine actions on human working memory and cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, R; D’Esposito, M

    2011-01-01

    Brain dopamine has long been implicated in cognitive control processes, including working memory. However, the precise role of dopamine in cognition is not well understood, partly because there is large variability in the response to dopaminergic drugs both across different behaviors and across different individuals. We review evidence from a series of studies with experimental animals, healthy humans and patients with Parkinson’s disease, which highlight two important factors that contribute to this large variability. First, the existence of an optimum dopamine level for cognitive function implicates the need to take into account baseline levels of dopamine when isolating dopamine’s effects. Second, cognitive control is a multi-factorial phenomenon, requiring a dynamic balance between cognitive stability and cognitive flexibility. These distinct components might implicate the prefrontal cortex and the striatum respectively. Manipulating dopamine will thus have paradoxical consequences for distinct cognitive control processes depending on distinct basal or optimal levels of dopamine in different brain regions. PMID:21531388

  1. Resolution of conflict between goal-directed actions: outcome encoding and neural control processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Sanne; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Dickinson, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    According to O-R theory of instrumental learning, incongruent biconditional discriminations should be impossible to solve in a goal-directed manner because the event acting as the outcome of one response also acts as a discriminative stimulus for an opposite response. Each event should therefore be associated with two competing responses. However, Dickinson and de Wit (2003) have presented evidence that rats can learn incongruent discriminations. The present study investigated whether rats were able to engage additional processes to solve incongruent discriminations in a goal-directed manner. Experiment 1 provides evidence that rats resolve the response conflict that arises in the incongruent discrimination by differentially encoding events in their roles as discriminative stimulus and as outcome. Furthermore, Experiment 2 shows that once goal-directed control has been established the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is not directly involved in its maintenance but rather plays a central role in conflict resolution processes.

  2. Emancipatory actions displayed by multi-ethnic women: "Regaining control of my health care".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ivy M

    2010-11-01

    Despite the recognized importance of patient involvement in primary care interactions, little information describing women's needs and expectations for these interactions is available. This participatory action study was based in Critical Action Theory and designed to describe any emancipatory interests that surfaced when eight ethnically diverse women examined their interactions with primary care nurse practitioners (PCNPs) over the course of five successive focus group meetings. Focus group meeting transcripts, field notes, interaction notations, seating maps, and first impression summaries. Participants wanted to learn how to "stand up" for themselves in primary care interactions. They believed this could be accomplished by developing a positive sense of self-esteem. Ultimately, they identified the right way to "talk back" to clinicians and created a method for regaining control of their own health care and maintaining equality in interactions with primary care clinicians. Nurse practitioners working in the primary setting are especially well situated to support self-management and foster patient participation by women as they live with chronic disease, engage in health promotion activities, and deal with common symptomatic problems for themselves and their families. ©2010 The Author Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Cadherin-11 controls otolith assembly: evidence for extracellular cadherin activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenon, Sherry G.; Shah, Bijal; Miller, Caroline A; Schmeisser, Glen; Walter, Amanda; Gattone, Vincent H.; Barald, Kate F.; Liu, Qin; Marrs, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Cadherin-11/Cdh11 is expressed through early development and strongly during inner ear development (otic placode and vesicle). Here we show that antisense knockdown of Cdh11 during early zebrafish development interferes with otolith formation. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that Cdh11 expression was concentrated on and within the otolith. Cdh11 was faintly detected at the lateral surface (sites of cell-cell contact) of otic epithelial cells and in the cytoplasm. Strongly labeled Cdh11 containing puncta were detected within the otolymph (the fluid within the otic vesicle) and associated with the otolith surface. BODIPY-ceramine labeled vesicular structures detected in the otolymph were larger and more numerous in Cdh11 knockdown embryos. We present evidence supporting a working model that vesicular structures containing Cdh11 (perhaps containing biomineralization components) are exported from the otic epithelium into the otolymph, adhere to one another and to the surface of the growing otolith, facilitating otolith growth. PMID:19582870

  4. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Family Control Affect Trade Performance? Evidence for Italian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Barba Navaretti; Riccardo Faini; Alessandra Tucci

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines whether the export decision of firms is affected by their ownership structure, specifically it looks at whether family control is an obstacle to entering foreign markets. The underlying assumption is that family firms are risk averse. Risk aversion may be an obstacle to entering foreign markets, as far as these are perceived as more volatile and risky than the domestic one, particularly when such choice entices bearing relatively high sunk costs. We develop an illustrative...

  6. Evidence for the role of self-priming in epistemic action: expertise and the effective use of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Paul P; Wenger, Michael J; Copeland, Angelina M

    2008-01-01

    Epistemic actions are physical actions people take to simplify internal problem solving rather than to move closer to an external goal. When playing the video game Tetris, for instance, experts routinely rotate falling shapes more than is strictly needed to place the shapes. Maglio and Kirsh [Kirsh, D., & Maglio, P. (1994). On distinguishing epistemic from pragmatic action. Cognitive Science, 18, 513-549; Maglio, P. P. (1995). The computational basis of interactive skill. PhD thesis, University of California, San Diego] proposed that such actions might serve the purpose of priming memory by external means, reducing the need for internal computation (e.g., mental rotation), and resulting in performance improvements that exceed the cost of taking additional actions. The present study tests this priming hypothesis in a set of four experiments. The first three explored precisely the conditions under which priming produces benefits. Results showed that presentation of multiple orientations of a shape led to faster responses than did presentation of a single orientation, and that this effect depended on the interval between preview and test. The fourth explored whether the benefit of seeing shapes in multiple orientations outweighs the cost of taking the extra actions to rotate shapes physically. Benefits were measured using a novel statistical method for mapping reaction-time data onto an estimate of the increase in processing capacity afforded by seeing multiple orientations. Cost was measured using an empirical estimate of time needed to take action in Tetris. Results showed that indeed the increase in internal processing capacity obtained from seeing shapes in multiple orientations outweighed the time to take extra actions.

  7. Easy to learn, hard to suppress: The impact of learned stimulus-outcome associations on subsequent action control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wouwe, N.C.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Claassen, D.O.; Neimat, J.S.; Wylie, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of impulsive response tendencies that conflict with goal-directed action is a key component of executive control. An emerging literature reveals that the proficiency of inhibitory control is modulated by expected or unexpected opportunities to earn reward or avoid punishment. However,

  8. In and out of control: brain mechanisms linking fluency of action selection to self-agency in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Martin; Chambon, Valérian; Wenke, Dorit; Kühn, Simone; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over one's actions, and their consequences. It involves both predictive processes linked to action control, and retrospective 'sense-making' causal inferences. Schizophrenia has been associated with impaired predictive processing, but the underlying mechanisms that impair patients' sense of agency remain unclear. We introduce a new 'prospective' aspect of agency and show that subliminally priming an action not only influences response times, but also influences reported sense of agency over subsequent action outcomes. This effect of priming was associated with altered connectivity between frontal areas and the angular gyrus. The effects on response times and on frontal action selection mechanisms were similar in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. However, patients showed no effects of priming on sense of agency, no priming-related activation of angular gyrus, and no priming-related changes in fronto-parietal connectivity. We suggest angular gyrus activation reflects the experiences of agency, or non-agency, in part by processing action selection signals generated in the frontal lobes. The altered action awareness that characterizes schizophrenia may be due to impaired communication between these areas. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Troubling practices of control: re-visiting Hannah Arendt's ideas of human action as praxis of the unpredictable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlen, Helen

    2015-07-01

    In this article, Hannah Arendt's concept of action will be used to problematize current transformations of the health care sector and examine some responses by ethicists in light of those transformations. The sphere of human interaction that should typify health care work is identified as an action of unpredictable praxis in contrast to controllable procedures and techniques which increasingly take place in the health care sector. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hierarchical Control and Skilled Typing: Evidence for Word-Level Control over the Execution of Individual Keystrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J. C.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2010-01-01

    Routine actions are commonly assumed to be controlled by hierarchically organized processes and representations. In the domain of typing theories, word-level information is assumed to activate the constituent keystrokes required to type each letter in a word. We tested this assumption directly using a novel single-letter probe technique. Subjects…

  11. Evidence for predatory control of the invasive round goby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Witzel, L.D.; Einhouse, D.W.; Pothoven, S.A.; Whitford, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    We coupled bioenergetics modeling with bottom trawl survey results to evaluate the capacity of piscivorous fish in eastern Lake Erie to exert predatory control of the invading population of round goby Neogobius melanostomus. In the offshore (>20 m deep) waters of eastern Lake Erie, burbot Lota lota is a native top predator, feeding on a suite of prey fishes. The round goby invaded eastern Lake Erie during the late 1990s, and round goby population size increased dramatically during 1999–2004. According to annual bottom trawl survey results, round goby abundance in offshore waters peaked in 2004, but then declined during 2004–2008. Coincidentally, round goby became an important component of burbot diet beginning in 2003. Using bottom trawling and gill netting, we estimated adult burbot abundance and age structure in eastern Lake Erie during 2007. Diet composition and energy density of eastern Lake Erie burbot were also determined during 2007. This information, along with estimates of burbot growth, burbot mortality, burbot water temperature regime, and energy densities of prey fish from the literature, were incorporated into a bioenergetics model application to estimate annual consumption of round goby by the adult burbot population. Results indicated that the adult burbot population in eastern Lake Erie annually consumed 1,361 metric tons of round goby. Based on the results of bottom trawling, we estimated the biomass of yearling and older round goby in offshore waters eastern Lake Erie during 2007–2008 to be 2,232 metric tons. Thus, the adult burbot population was feeding on round goby at an annual rate equal to 61% of the estimated round goby standing stock. We concluded that the burbot population had high potential to exert predatory control on round goby in offshore waters of eastern Lake Erie.

  12. Framing Progress In Global Tobacco Control To Inform Action On Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Samet, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Much has been learned about the tobacco epidemic, including its consequences, effective measures to control it, and the actors involved. This article identifies lessons learned that are applicable to the other principal external causes of noncommunicable diseases: alcohol abuse, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity. Among these lessons are the development of evidence-based strategies such as proven cessation methods, tax increases, and smoke-free policies; the role of multinational corporations in maintaining markets and undermining control measures; and the need for strategies that reach across the life course and that begin with individuals and extend to higher levels of societal organization. Differences are also clear. Tobacco products are relatively homogeneous and have no direct benefit to consumers, whereas food and alcohol consumed in moderation are not inherently dangerous. Some tobacco-related diseases have the singular predominant cause of smoking, while many noncommunicable diseases have multiple interlocking causes such as poor diet, excess alcohol consumption, insufficient physical activity, and smoking, along with genetics. Thus, the tobacco control model of comprehensive multilevel strategies is applicable to the control of noncommunicable diseases, but the focus must be on multiple risk factors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorletti, Eleonora; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-03-22

    For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism. Since the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) begins with the accumulation of liver lipid and progresses with inflammation and then several years later with development of fibrosis; it has been thought in patients with NAFLD omega-3 fatty acid treatment would be beneficial in treating liver lipid and possibly also in ameliorating inflammation. Meta-analyses (of predominantly dietary studies and small trials) have tended to support the assertion that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in decreasing liver lipid, but recent randomised controlled trials have produced conflicting data. These trials have suggested that omega-3 fatty acid might be beneficial in decreasing liver triglyceride (docosahexanoic acid also possibly being more effective than eicosapentanoic acid) but not in decreasing other features of steatohepatitis (or liver fibrosis). The purpose of this review is to discuss recent evidence regarding biological mechanisms by which long chain omega-3 fatty acids might act to ameliorate liver disease in NAFLD; to consider the recent evidence from randomised

  14. Uncovering effects of self-control and stimulus-driven action selection on the sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuru; Damen, Tom G E; Aarts, Henk

    2017-10-01

    The sense of agency refers to feelings of causing one's own action and resulting effect. Previous research indicates that voluntary action selection is an important factor in shaping the sense of agency. Whereas the volitional nature of the sense of agency is well documented, the present study examined whether agency is modulated when action selection shifts from self-control to a more automatic stimulus-driven process. Seventy-two participants performed an auditory Simon task including congruent and incongruent trials to generate automatic stimulus-driven vs. more self-control driven action, respectively. Responses in the Simon task produced a tone and agency was assessed with the intentional binding task - an implicit measure of agency. Results showed a Simon effect and temporal binding effect. However, temporal binding was independent of congruency. These findings suggest that temporal binding, a window to the sense of agency, emerges for both automatic stimulus-driven actions and self-controlled actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A heuristic technique to determine corrective control actions for reactive power flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, Angel L.; Martinez, Jose L.; Riquelme, Jesus; Romero, Esther [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents a sensitivity-based heuristic tool designed to help the system operator in the reactive power flow control problem. The objective of the proposed technique is to determine control actions to ensure that reactive power flows in transmission-subtransmission boundary transformers remain within specified limits, satisfying the new regulatory constraints imposed in most of deregulated markets. With this new constraint the utilities want to guarantee that the utility is able to satisfy its own reactive power requirements, avoiding reactive power flows through long distances in order to reduce the well known disadvantages that reactive power circulation has in the system. A 5-bus tutorial system is used to present the proposed algorithm. The results of the application of the proposed technique to the IEEE 118 buses system and to a regional subtransmission network of the South of Spain are reported and analyzed. In this last actual case, the aim is to maintain reactive power flows in transmission/distribution transformers between those limits set by the Spanish Regulation. A comparison between the proposed tool and a conventional OPF is discussed. (author)

  16. Understanding action control of daily walking behavior among dog owners: a community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E. Rhodes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking among dog owners may be a means to achieve health benefits, yet almost half of owners (approximately 30% of households are not regularly walking their dogs. Current research on the correlates of dog walking has generally considered intention as the primary determinant of behavior, yet the intention-behavior relationship is modest. The purpose of this paper was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multi-process action control (M-PAC, to understand daily walking among dog owners. Method A community sample of adult dog owners (N = 227 in Victoria, Canada completed M-PAC measures of motivational (dog and human outcome expectations, affective judgments, perceived capability and opportunity, regulatory (planning, and reflexive (automaticity, identity processes as well as intention to walk and behavior. Results Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: a non-intenders who were not active (26%; n = 59, b unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (33%; n = 75, and c successful intenders who were active (40%; n = 91. Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective judgements (r = 0.33, automaticity (r = 0.38, and planning (r = 0.33 distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while identity (r = 0.22 and dog breed size (r = 0.28 differentiated between successful and unsuccessful intenders. Conclusions The majority of dog owners have positive intentions to walk, yet almost half fail to meet these intentions. Interventions focused on affective judgments (e.g., more enjoyable places to walk, behavioral regulation (e.g., setting a concrete plan, habit (e.g., making routines and cues and identity formation (e.g., affirmations of commitment may help overcome difficulties with translating these intentions into action, thus increasing overall levels of walking.

  17. Fear appeals motivate acceptance of action recommendations: evidence for a positive bias in the processing of persuasive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Enny H H J; de Wit, John B F; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2003-05-01

    Three experiments are reported that tested the hypothesis that the use of fear appeals in health persuasion may lead to positively biased systematic processing of a subsequent action recommendation aimed at reducing the health threat and, consequently, to more persuasion, regardless of the quality of the arguments in the recommendation. The levels of participants' vulnerability to as well as the severity of a health risk were varied independently, followed by a manipulation of the quality of the arguments in the subsequent action recommendation. The dependent variables included measures of persuasion (attitude, intention, and action), negative affect, and cognitive responses. The results show that participants who felt vulnerable to the health threat were more persuaded, experienced more negative emotions, and had more favorable cognitive responses. Both negative emotions concerning one's vulnerability and positive thoughts concerning the recommendation mediated the effects of vulnerability on persuasion.

  18. Is the motor system necessary for processing action and abstract emotion words? Evidence from focal brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R. Dreyer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. In contrast, a possible role of modality-preferential – including sensorimotor – areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. However, recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g. love. But are these areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded lexical decision task (LDT on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor cortex next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left SMA was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into sensorimotor areas.

  19. Top-Down Control of Visual Alpha Oscillations: Sources of Control Signals and Their Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Rajagovindan, Rajasimhan; Han, Sahng-Min; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Alpha oscillations (8–12 Hz) are thought to inversely correlate with cortical excitability. Goal-oriented modulation of alpha has been studied extensively. In visual spatial attention, alpha over the region of visual cortex corresponding to the attended location decreases, signifying increased excitability to facilitate the processing of impending stimuli. In contrast, in retention of verbal working memory, alpha over visual cortex increases, signifying decreased excitability to gate out stimulus input to protect the information held online from sensory interference. According to the prevailing model, this goal-oriented biasing of sensory cortex is effected by top-down control signals from frontal and parietal cortices. The present study tests and substantiates this hypothesis by (a) identifying the signals that mediate the top-down biasing influence, (b) examining whether the cortical areas issuing these signals are task-specific or task-independent, and (c) establishing the possible mechanism of the biasing action. High-density human EEG data were recorded in two experimental paradigms: a trial-by-trial cued visual spatial attention task and a modified Sternberg working memory task. Applying Granger causality to both sensor-level and source-level data we report the following findings. In covert visual spatial attention, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the right hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the right frontal eye field (FEF) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) being the main sources of top-down influences. During retention of verbal working memory, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the left hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) being the main source of top-down influences. In both experiments, top-down influences are mediated by alpha oscillations, and the biasing effect is likely achieved via an inhibition

  20. Educational actions of energy control. Good practices of european towns; Les actions educatives de maitrise de l'energie. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Ch

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of an energy policy against the greenhouse effect, the young people awareness to the energy conservation and the environment protection, is essential because they will be the citizens of tomorrow and in a first step, they can have influence on their parents attitude. This study presents and analyzes ten experiences of european towns concerning: the utilization or the creation of educational tools as CD-Rom, Internet, documents; operations associating teachers and students at energy control actions in their school; operations associating external interveners of the school. (A.L.B.)

  1. Educational actions of energy control. Good practices of european towns; Les actions educatives de maitrise de l'energie. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Ch.

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of an energy policy against the greenhouse effect, the young people awareness to the energy conservation and the environment protection, is essential because they will be the citizens of tomorrow and in a first step, they can have influence on their parents attitude. This study presents and analyzes ten experiences of european towns concerning: the utilization or the creation of educational tools as CD-Rom, Internet, documents; operations associating teachers and students at energy control actions in their school; operations associating external interveners of the school. (A.L.B.)

  2. Occupational therapy for elderly : evidence mapping of randomised controlled trials from 2004-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt-Radloff, S; Ruf, G.; Vogel, A.; van Nes, F.; Hüll, M.

    OBJECTIVE: Previous systematic reviews on occupational therapy for elderly included studies until 2003. The present evidence mapping summarizes recent evidence for the efficacy of occupational therapy with older persons based on randomised controlled trials from 2004-2012. METHOD: An electronic

  3. Obstacles to action in arthritis: a community case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Ingrid; Gamble, Greg; McLean, Grant; Butcher, Hugh; Gow, Peter; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Despite the benefits of physical activity, people with arthritis are less active than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the motivators and obstacles to physical activity for adults with arthritis. Participants were identified from the Obstacles to Action Study, a community based study of 8163 adults, which explored barriers and motivators to physical activity. A 1:1 case-control study was designed; cases were identified as those participants who reported arthritis (n = 1106). Each case was matched with an age, sex and ethnicity-matched non-arthritis control (n = 1106). Cases were less likely to achieve recommended physical activity targets (58.8% vs. 68.1% P = 0.00001). Furthermore, fewer people with arthritis believed that physical activity would help them lead healthy lives (86.7% vs. 91.3% P = 0.006) or viewed physical activity as a priority (53.8% vs. 59.8% P = 0.005). Cases were less confident in their abilities to try a new activity (37.1% vs. 43.7% P = 0.002) or maintain a healthy weight (65.0% vs. 74.3% P = 0.00001). Cases also reported greater negative impact scores for barriers to activity, particularly arthritis, accessibility, cost and discomfort while exercising. Motivators and environmental barriers to activity were similar for cases and controls. These findings persisted after adjusting for educational level, body mass index and comorbidities. People with arthritis are less active and demonstrate different attitudes toward physical activity. Although people with arthritis identify similar environmental barriers, they have different psychosocial barriers. In order to design effective physical activity programs for people with arthritis, these barriers must be specifically addressed.

  4. Signed language and human action processing: evidence for functional constraints on the human mirror-neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather Patterson

    2008-12-01

    In the quest to further understand the neural underpinning of human communication, researchers have turned to studies of naturally occurring signed languages used in Deaf communities. The comparison of the commonalities and differences between spoken and signed languages provides an opportunity to determine core neural systems responsible for linguistic communication independent of the modality in which a language is expressed. The present article examines such studies, and in addition asks what we can learn about human languages by contrasting formal visual-gestural linguistic systems (signed languages) with more general human action perception. To understand visual language perception, it is important to distinguish the demands of general human motion processing from the highly task-dependent demands associated with extracting linguistic meaning from arbitrary, conventionalized gestures. This endeavor is particularly important because theorists have suggested close homologies between perception and production of actions and functions of human language and social communication. We review recent behavioral, functional imaging, and neuropsychological studies that explore dissociations between the processing of human actions and signed languages. These data suggest incomplete overlap between the mirror-neuron systems proposed to mediate human action and language.

  5. Recombinant activated factor VII: its mechanism of action and role in the control of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Geoffrey A; Hoffman, Maureane; Roberts, Harold R; Monroe, Dougald M

    2002-12-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has proven both safe and efficacious in the treatment of bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia A or B who have developed inhibitors. More recently, a growing number of reports suggests that rFVIIa may also have indications for the treatment of bleeding in patients with other hemostatic disorders, including qualitative and quantitative platelet defects, factor deficiencies other than hemophilia, and in otherwise healthy patients with uncontrollable hemorrhage following surgery or trauma. We have attempted to reconcile the various proposed mechanisms of action of rFVIIa with its apparent efficacy in such diverse clinical settings. A review of the literature was performed to determine those clinical scenarios in which rFVIIa appears to have been effective in controlling associated hemorrhage. Findings from our group and others have demonstrated that rFVIIa is able to directly activate factor X and increase thrombin production on the surface of activated platelets in the absence of factor VIII or IX, as well as to improve thrombin generation in thrombocytopenia, and to yield a fibrin dot more resistant to fibrinolysis in vitro. Through these primary mechanisms, we believe that rFVIIa may be able to compensate for a variety of defects in hemostasis and merits further investigation as a general therapeutic for uncontrollable hemorrhage.

  6. An ERK/Cdk5 axis controls the diabetogenic actions of PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alexander S; McAllister, Fiona E; Camporez, João Paulo G; Zushin, Peter-James H; Jurczak, Michael J; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Shulman, Gerald I; Gygi, Steven P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-01-15

    Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) at serine 273 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic drugs that bind PPARγ, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARγ partial agonists or non-agonists. For a better understanding of the importance of this obesity-linked PPARγ phosphorylation, we created mice that ablated Cdk5 specifically in adipose tissues. These mice have both a paradoxical increase in PPARγ phosphorylation at serine 273 and worsened insulin resistance. Unbiased proteomic studies show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases are activated in these knockout animals. Here we show that ERK directly phosphorylates serine 273 of PPARγ in a robust manner and that Cdk5 suppresses ERKs through direct action on a novel site in MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of MEK and ERK markedly improves insulin resistance in both obese wild-type and ob/ob mice, and also completely reverses the deleterious effects of the Cdk5 ablation. These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARγ function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Formal Model for Data Dependency Analysis between Controls and Actions of a Graphical User Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKVORC, D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available End-user development is an emerging computer science discipline that provides programming paradigms, techniques, and tools suitable for users not trained in software engineering. One of the techniques that allow ordinary computer users to develop their own applications without the need to learn a classic programming language is a GUI-level programming based on programming-by-demonstration. To build wizard-based tools that assist users in application development and to verify the correctness of user programs, a computer-supported method for GUI-level data dependency analysis is necessary. Therefore, formal model for GUI representation is needed. In this paper, we present a finite state machine for modeling the data dependencies between GUI controls and GUI actions. Furthermore, we present an algorithm for automatic construction of finite state machine for arbitrary GUI application. We show that proposed state aggregation scheme successfully manages state explosion in state machine construction algorithm, which makes the model applicable for applications with complex GUIs.

  8. Modes of action for biological control of Botrytis cinerea by antagonistic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana HAIDAR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of beneficial bacteria in biocontrol of plant diseases, particularly those caused by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, has been investigated by testing many bacteria under laboratory and field conditions. Bacteria may protect plants against B. cinerea by direct antagonistic interactions between biocontrol agents and this pathogen, as well as indirect effects through the induction of host resistance. This review focuses on various bacteria that act as biological control agents (BCAs of B. cinerea and their associated mechanisms. The modes of action (MoAs include: i synthesis of anti-fungal metabolites, such as antibiotics, cell wall-degrading enzymes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs; ii competition for nutrients and/or a niche; and iii induction of host resistance. The challenge for development of BCAs is to reduce the variability of efficiency and to prove persistence under a large range of conditions. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of MoA for future applications of bacteria in the field and in post-harvest storage, as well as combination of different MoAs as a strategy to achieve a more regular efficacy.

  9. Giving in when feeling less good: Procrastination, action control, and social temptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Fuschia M; Giguère, Benjamin

    2018-04-01

    Emotion-regulation perspectives on procrastination highlighting the primacy of short-term mood regulation focus mainly on negative affect. Positive affect, however, has received much less attention and has not been considered with respect to social temptations. To address this issue, we examined how trait procrastination was linked to positive and negative affect in the context of social temptations across two prospective studies. Action Control Theory, Personality Systems Interactions Theory, and a mood regulation theory of procrastination served as guiding conceptual frameworks. In Study 1, moderated mediation analyses revealed that low positive affect explained the link between trait procrastination and time spent procrastinating on academic tasks over a 48-hr period in a student sample (N = 142), and this effect was moderated by the presence of social temptations. Parallel results for goal enjoyment assessed at Time 2 were found in Study 2 with a community sample (N = 94) attempting to make intended health behaviour changes over a 6-month period. Our findings indicate that procrastinators are at risk for disengaging from intended tasks when social temptations are present and positive task-related affect is low. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  10. On the evidence for human use and control of fire at Schöningen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Miller, Christopher E; Ligouis, Bertrand; Hambach, Ulrich; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Richter, Daniel; Urban, Brigitte; Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    When and how humans began to control fire has been a central debate in Paleolithic archaeology for decades. Fire plays an important role in technology, social organization, subsistence, and manipulation of the environment and is widely seen as a necessary adaptation for the colonization of northern latitudes. Many researchers view purported hearths, burnt wooden implements, and heated flints from Schöningen as providing the best evidence for the control of fire in the Lower Paleolithic of Northern Europe. Here we present results of a multianalytical study of the purported hearths along with a critical examination of other possible evidence of human use or control of fire at Schöningen. We conclude that the analyzed features and artifacts present no convincing evidence for human use or control of fire. Our study also shows that a multianalytical, micro-contextual approach is the best methodology for evaluating claims of early evidence of human-controlled fire. We advise caution with macroscopic, qualitative identification of combustion features, burnt flint, and burnt wood without the application of such techniques as micromorphology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, organic petrology, luminescence, and analysis of mineral magnetic parameters. The lack of evidence for the human control of fire at Schöningen raises the possibility that fire control was not a necessary adaptation for the human settlement of northern latitudes in the Lower Paleolithic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms underlying prorenin actions on hypothalamic neurons implicated in cardiometabolic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Pitra

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: We identified novel neuronal targets and cellular mechanisms underlying PR/PRR actions in critical hypothalamic neurons involved in cardiometabolic regulation. This fundamental mechanistic information regarding central PR/PRR actions is essential for the development of novel RAS-based therapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders in obesity and hypertension.

  12. Action learning as a form of management control : The case of a Dutch elevator company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Loo, I.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Action learning has been proposed as both a problem-solving and organizational learning approach when organizations are faced with complex, unfamiliar problems for which no clear-cut solutions exist. Certainly when action learning participants are not intrinsically motivated to tackle these problems

  13. Axon initial segment Kv1 channels control axonal action potential waveform and synaptic efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Letzkus, Johannes J.; Stuart, Greg J.

    2007-01-01

    Action potentials are binary signals that transmit information via their rate and temporal pattern. In this context, the axon is thought of as a transmission line, devoid of a role in neuronal computation. Here, we show a highly localized role of axonal Kv1 potassium channels in shaping the action

  14. Predicate Structures, Gesture, and Simultaneity in the Representation of Action in British Sign Language: Evidence From Deaf Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Kearsy

    2013-01-01

    British Sign Language (BSL) signers use a variety of structures, such as constructed action (CA), depicting constructions (DCs), or lexical verbs, to represent action and other verbal meanings. This study examines the use of these verbal predicate structures and their gestural counterparts, both separately and simultaneously, in narratives by deaf children with various levels of exposure to BSL (ages 5;1 to 7;5) and deaf adult native BSL signers. Results reveal that all groups used the same types of predicative structures, including children with minimal BSL exposure. However, adults used CA, DCs, and/or lexical signs simultaneously more frequently than children. These results suggest that simultaneous use of CA with lexical and depicting predicates is more complex than the use of these predicate structures alone and thus may take deaf children more time to master. PMID:23670881

  15. Photon Energy Threshold in Direct Photocatalysis with Metal Nanoparticles: Key Evidence from the Action Spectrum of the Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarina, Sarina; Jaatinen, Esa; Xiao, Qi; Huang, Yi Ming; Christopher, Philip; Zhao, Jin Cai; Zhu, Huai Yong

    2017-06-01

    By investigating the action spectra (the relationship between the irradiation wavelength and apparent quantum efficiency of reactions under constant irradiance) of a number of reactions catalyzed by nanoparticles including plasmonic metals, nonplasmonic metals, and their alloys at near-ambient temperatures, we found that a photon energy threshold exists in each photocatalytic reaction; only photons with sufficient energy (e.g., higher than the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals) can initiate the reactions. This energy alignment (and the photon energy threshold) is determined by various factors, including the wavelength and intensity of irradiation, molecule structure, reaction temperature, and so forth. Hence, distinct action spectra were observed in the same type of reaction catalyzed by the same catalyst due to a different substituent group, a slightly changed reaction temperature. These results indicate that photon-electron excitations, instead of the photothermal effect, play a dominant role in direct photocatalysis of metal nanoparticles for many reactions.

  16. Bureaucratic structure, geographical location and the autonomy of administrative systems. Evidence from the European External Action Service

    OpenAIRE

    Henökl, Thomas; Trondal, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Presentation on department page: http://www.uia.no/no/portaler/om_universitetet/oekonomi_og_samfunnsvitenskap/statsvitenskap_og_ledelsesfag/ forskning_isl/isl_working_papers_series Formulating and implementing public policy in Europe has historically been a prerogative of national administrations. This paper explores how these prerogatives may have become challenged with the ‘autonomization’ of the European Union’s (EU’s) foreign affairs administration (The European External Action Service...

  17. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation over left dorsal premotor cortex improves the dynamic control of visuospatially cued actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Nick S; Bestmann, Sven; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2010-01-01

    Left rostral dorsal premotor cortex (rPMd) and supramarginal gyrus (SMG) have been implicated in the dynamic control of actions. In 12 right-handed healthy individuals, we applied 30 min of low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left rPMd to investigate...... the involvement of left rPMd and SMG in the rapid adjustment of actions guided by visuospatial cues. After rTMS, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while making spatially congruent button presses with the right or left index finger in response to a left- or right-sided target. Subjects were...... that left rPMd and SMG-AIP contribute toward dynamic control of actions and demonstrate that low-frequency rTMS can enhance functional coupling between task-relevant brain regions and improve some aspects of motor performance....

  19. Australian Infection Control Association members' use of skills and resources that promote evidence-based infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C L; McLaws, M

    2000-04-01

    To adopt an evidence-based approach, professionals must be able to access, identify, interpret, and critically appraise best evidence. Critical appraisal requires essential skills, such as computer literacy and an understanding of research principles. These skills also are required for professionals to contribute to evidence. In 1996, members of the Australian Infection Control Association were surveyed to establish a profile including the extent to which they were reading infection control publications, using specific documents for policy and guideline development, developing and undertaking research, publishing research, and using computers. The relationships between demographics, computer use, and research activity were examined. The response rate was 63. 4% (630/993). The study group comprised mostly women (96.1%), and most (66.4%) were older than 40 years of age. Median infection control experience was 4 years (mean, 5.4 years; range, Australian infection control professionals must be adequately prepared to contribute to, access, appraise, and where appropriate, apply best evidence to their practice. We suggest that computer literacy, an understanding of research principles, and familiarity with infection control literature are three essential skills that infection control professionals must possess and regularly exercise.

  20. Action Control, L2 Motivational Self System, and Motivated Learning Behavior in a Foreign Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khany, Reza; Amiri, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical developments in second or foreign language motivation research have led to a better understanding of the convoluted nature of motivation in the process of language acquisition. Among these theories, action control theory has recently shown a good deal of explanatory power in second language learning contexts and in the presence of…

  1. On the relation between action selection and movement control in 5- to 9-month-old infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wermeskerken, M; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Although 5-month-old infants select action modes that are adaptive to the size of the object (i.e., one- or two-handed reaching), it has largely remained unclear whether infants of this age control the ensuing movement to the size of the object (i.e., scaling of the aperture between hands). We

  2. Exam Preparation: The Influence of Action Control, Procrastination and Examination Experience on Students' Goal Intention and Implementation Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the framework of the intention-behavior-gap analysis in relation to exam preparation I examined whether intention--subdivided into goal and implementation intention--is influenced directly by the determinants action control, procrastination and examination experience which is consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior and…

  3. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  4. The effect of badminton training on the ability of same-domain action anticipation for adult novices: Evidence from behavior and ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Shao, Mengling; Yin, Desheng; Li, Yongjie; Yang, Nan; Yin, Ruru; Leng, Ying; Jin, Hua; Hong, Haixiao

    2017-11-01

    Many transverse studies have found that athletes can better anticipate the outcome of sequential actions belonging to their domain of motor expertise than non-athletes. However, few studies have causally investigated this issue. Using badminton training as an example, the present study attempted to explore whether sports training affected the same-domain action anticipation ability of adult novices and the related neural mechanisms. To address this issue, participants in the training group attended a 12-week badminton training course (1h/time, 3 times/week). Both the training and control groups were asked to view badminton video clips and predict the landing position of a shuttle before and after 12 weeks. Compared to the control group, the training group showed a decrease in the inverse efficiency score, indicating that badminton training did improve trainees' action anticipation ability. Furthermore, the training group produced larger N2 and P3 components of event-related potential after the training. These findings suggest that sport training may affect inhibitory processes and memory encoding during same-domain action anticipation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Breaking a habit: a further role of the phonological loop in action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Erina; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J; Saito, Satoru

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has suggested that keeping track of a task goal in rapid task switching may depend on the phonological loop component of working memory. In this study, we investigated whether the phonological loop plays a similar role when a single switch extending over several trials is required after many trials on which one has performed a competing task. Participants were shown pairs of digits varying in numerical and physical size, and they were required to decide which digit was numerically or physically larger. An experimental cycle consisted of four blocks of 24 trials. In Experiment 1, participants in the task change groups performed the numerical-size judgment task during the first three blocks, and then changed to the physical-size judgment task in the fourth. Participants in the continuation groups performed only the physical-size judgment task throughout all four blocks. We found negative effects of articulatory suppression on the fourth block, but only in the task change groups. Experiment 2 was a replication, with the modification that both groups received identical instructions and practice. Experiment 3 was a further replication using numerical-size judgment as the target task. The results showed a pattern similar to that from Experiment 1, with negative effects of articulatory suppression found only in the task change group. The congruity of numerical and physical size had a reliable effect on performance in all three experiments, but unlike the task change, it did not reliably interact with articulatory suppression. The results suggest that in addition to its well-established role in rapid task switching, the phonological loop also contributes to active goal maintenance in longer-term action control.

  6. A role for the precuneus in thought?action fusion: Evidence from participants with significant obsessive?compulsive symptoms ?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2013-01-01

    Likelihood thought–action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomograp...

  7. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles-Evidence from China's Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China's stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank's policymaking.

  8. Preliminary study of mechanism of action of SN38 derivatives. Physicochemical data, evidence of interaction and alkylation of DNA octamer d(GCGATCGC)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumczuk, Beata; Kawęcki, Robert; Bocian, Wojciech; Bednarek, Elżbieta; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kozerski, Lech

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of water-soluble SN38 derivatives is presented, and their stability in solutions used during drug development studies has been investigated. A preliminary study of mechanism of action of 9-aminomethyl SN38 is presented. Using NMR techniques, the interaction of the oligomer d(GCGATCGC) 2 is studied, showing that the terminal GC base pairs are the main site of interaction. Using pulsed field gradient spin echo and mass spectroscopy, evidence of a spontaneous alkylation reaction of the DNA oligomer with SN38 derivatives is presented. A proposed mechanism of reaction is suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Distinct prediction errors in mesostriatal circuits of the human brain mediate learning about the values of both states and actions: evidence from high-resolution fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Jaron T; Pauli, Wolfgang M; Larsen, Tobias; Tyszka, J Michael; O'Doherty, John P

    2017-10-01

    Prediction-error signals consistent with formal models of "reinforcement learning" (RL) have repeatedly been found within dopaminergic nuclei of the midbrain and dopaminoceptive areas of the striatum. However, the precise form of the RL algorithms implemented in the human brain is not yet well determined. Here, we created a novel paradigm optimized to dissociate the subtypes of reward-prediction errors that function as the key computational signatures of two distinct classes of RL models-namely, "actor/critic" models and action-value-learning models (e.g., the Q-learning model). The state-value-prediction error (SVPE), which is independent of actions, is a hallmark of the actor/critic architecture, whereas the action-value-prediction error (AVPE) is the distinguishing feature of action-value-learning algorithms. To test for the presence of these prediction-error signals in the brain, we scanned human participants with a high-resolution functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol optimized to enable measurement of neural activity in the dopaminergic midbrain as well as the striatal areas to which it projects. In keeping with the actor/critic model, the SVPE signal was detected in the substantia nigra. The SVPE was also clearly present in both the ventral striatum and the dorsal striatum. However, alongside these purely state-value-based computations we also found evidence for AVPE signals throughout the striatum. These high-resolution fMRI findings suggest that model-free aspects of reward learning in humans can be explained algorithmically with RL in terms of an actor/critic mechanism operating in parallel with a system for more direct action-value learning.

  10. Enhancing professionalism using ethics education as part of a dental licensure board's disciplinary action. Part 2. Evidence of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeau, Muriel J

    2009-01-01

    Pretest scores were analyzed for 41 professionals referred for ethics assessment by a dental licensing board. Two were exempt from instruction based on pretest performance on five well-validated measures; 38 completed an individualized course designed to remediate deficiencies in ethical abilities. Statistically significant change (effect sizes ranging from .55 to 5.0) was observed for ethical sensitivity (DEST scores), moral reasoning (DIT scores), and role concept (essays and PROI scores). Analysis of the relationships between ability deficiencies and disciplinary actions supports the explanatory power of Rest's Four Component Model of Morality. Of particular interest is the way the model helped referred professionals deconstruct summary judgments about character and see them as capacities that can be further developed. The performance-based assessments, especially the DEST, were particularly useful in identifying shortcomings in ethical implementation. Referred practitioners highly valued the emphasis on ethical implementation, suggesting the importance of addressing what to do and say in ethically challenging cases. Finally, the required self-assessments of learning confirm the value of the process for professional renewal (i.e., a renewed commitment to professional ideals) and of enhanced abilities not only to reason about moral problems, but to implement actions.

  11. Impairment of fear memory consolidation in maternally stressed male mouse offspring: evidence for nongenomic glucocorticoid action on the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Son, Gi Hoon; Chung, Sooyoung; Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Sukwoo; Kim, Kyungjin

    2011-05-11

    The environment in early life elicits profound effects on fetal brain development that can extend into adulthood. However, the long-lasting impact of maternal stress on emotional learning remains largely unknown. Here, we focus on amygdala-related learning processes in maternally stressed mice. In these mice, fear memory consolidation and certain related signaling cascades were significantly impaired, though innate fear, fear memory acquisition, and synaptic NMDA receptor expression in the amygdala were unaltered. In accordance with these findings, maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) at amygdala synapses, but not its induction, was significantly impaired in the maternally stressed animals. Interestingly, amygdala glucocorticoid receptor expression was reduced in the maternally stressed mice, and administration of glucocorticoids (GCs) immediately after fear conditioning and LTP induction restored memory consolidation and LTP maintenance, respectively, suggesting that a weakening of GC signaling was responsible for the observed impairment. Furthermore, microinfusion of a membrane-impermeable form of GC (BSA-conjugated GC) into the amygdala mimicked the restorative effects of GC, indicating that a nongenomic activity of GC mediates the restorative effect. Together, these findings suggest that prenatal stress induces long-term dysregulation of nongenomic GC action in the amygdala of adult offspring, resulting in the impairment of fear memory consolidation. Since modulation of amygdala activity is known to alter the consolidation of emotionally influenced memories allocated in other brain regions, the nongenomic action of GC on the amygdala shown herein may also participate in the amygdala-dependent modulation of memory consolidation.

  12. Evidence that 17alpha-estradiol is biologically active in the uterine tissue: Antiuterotonic and antiuterotrophic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarrete Erika

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17alpha-Estradiol has been considered as the hormonally inactive isomer of 17beta-estradiol. Recently, nongenomic (smooth muscle relaxation and genomic (light estrogenic activity effects of 17alpha-estradiol have been reported, but no reports have yet determined its possible antiestrogenic activity. Therefore, this study investigated: the nongenomic action of 17alpha-estradiol on uterine contractile activity and its potential agonist-antagonist activity on uterine growth. Methods Uterine rings from rats were isometrically recorded. Different concentrations (0.2–200 microM of 17alpha-estradiol were tested on spontaneous contraction and equimolarly compared with 17beta-estradiol. To examine the mechanism of 17alpha-estradiol action, its effect was studied in presence of beta2-antagonist (propranolol, antiestrogens (tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 or inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide and transcription (actinomycin D. Moreover, contractions induced by high potassium (KCl solution or calcium in depolarized tissues by KCl-calcium free solution were exposed to 17alpha-estradiol. Collaterally, we performed an uterotrophic assay in adult ovariectomized rats measuring the uterine wet weight. The administration for three days of 0.3 microM/day/Kg 17beta-estradiol was equimolarly compared with the response produced by 17alpha-estradiol. Antiuterotrophic activity was assayed by administration of 0.3 microM/day/Kg 17beta-estradiol and various doses ratios (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, and 1:100 of 17alpha-estradiol. Results The estradiol isomers elicited an immediate relaxation, concentration-dependent and reversible on spontaneous contraction. 17alpha-Estradiol presented lower potency than 17beta-estradiol although it did not antagonize 17beta-estradiol-induced relaxation. Relaxation to 17alpha-estradiol was not inhibited by propranolol, tamoxifen, ICI 182,780, cycloheximide or actinomycin D. The KCl contractions were also sensitive to 17alpha

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for Typhoid Fever Control: A Call for Coordinated Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A Duncan; Hay Burgess, Deborah C; Diaz, Zoey; Carey, Megan E; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2016-03-15

    The burden of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is substantial and has high impact in toddlers and young children. This burden is relatively well documented in Asia, and this supplement provides new data on the substantial burden in several sub-Saharan African countries. Challenges in standardized surveillance and imperfect diagnostic tools have resulted in patchy local disease data, which are not well acknowledged or integrated into local country evidence and health awareness for decision making. There is a need to strengthen diagnostics for the generation of burden data in country. Furthermore, the guidelines and training for treatment of enteric fever cases in Africa are sorely needed to help mitigate the inappropriate use of antimicrobial treatment. Classic water safety and access to sanitation development remain powerful tools for the control of typhoid fever, yet the huge economic costs and long timelines are unlikely to provide a short- to middle-term solution. Emerging threats, including multidrug resistance and increasing urbanization in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, warrant focused attention to shorter-term interventions including immunization, and must include vaccine strategies with the new typhoid conjugate vaccines. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Increasing access into higher education: Insights from the 2011 African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability Symposium – Education Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lyner-Cleophas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides some insights into the challenges regarding inclusion in higher education of students with disabilities. It does this by elucidating aspects of the proceedings of the Education Commission at the African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability (AfriNEAD Symposium, which took place in Zimbabwe in November 2011. The presentations specifically focused on the education of people with disabilities from early childhood through to higher education. This article, however, is informed by presentations focusing on increasing access to higher education. The article is focused on the implementation of evidence in practice, research and policies stemming from rigorous debate and scientific foundations, whilst taking into account the dynamic realities of the higher education context. Themes such as the systemic approach needed for inclusion to be successful, increasing access and the dynamic role of students with disabilities are highlighted.

  15. Increasing access into higher education: Insights from the 2011 African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability Symposium – Education Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Estelle; Chataika, Tsitsi; Bell, Diane

    2014-01-01

    This article provides some insights into the challenges regarding inclusion in higher education of students with disabilities. It does this by elucidating aspects of the proceedings of the Education Commission at the African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability (AfriNEAD) Symposium, which took place in Zimbabwe in November 2011. The presentations specifically focused on the education of people with disabilities from early childhood through to higher education. This article, however, is informed by presentations focusing on increasing access to higher education. The article is focused on the implementation of evidence in practice, research and policies stemming from rigorous debate and scientific foundations, whilst taking into account the dynamic realities of the higher education context. Themes such as the systemic approach needed for inclusion to be successful, increasing access and the dynamic role of students with disabilities are highlighted. PMID:28730011

  16. Increasing access into higher education: Insights from the 2011 African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability Symposium - Education Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyner-Cleophas, Marcia; Swart, Estelle; Chataika, Tsitsi; Bell, Diane

    2014-01-01

    This article provides some insights into the challenges regarding inclusion in higher education of students with disabilities. It does this by elucidating aspects of the proceedings of the Education Commission at the African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability (AfriNEAD) Symposium, which took place in Zimbabwe in November 2011. The presentations specifically focused on the education of people with disabilities from early childhood through to higher education. This article, however, is informed by presentations focusing on increasing access to higher education. The article is focused on the implementation of evidence in practice, research and policies stemming from rigorous debate and scientific foundations, whilst taking into account the dynamic realities of the higher education context. Themes such as the systemic approach needed for inclusion to be successful, increasing access and the dynamic role of students with disabilities are highlighted.

  17. Catching moving objects : Differential effects of background motion on action mode selection and movement control in 6- to 10-month-old infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wermeskerken, Margot; van der Kamp, John; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2015-01-01

    In human adults the use of visual information for selecting appropriate modes for action appears to be separate from the use of visual information for the control of movements of which the action is composed (Milner & Goodale, [1995] The visual brain in action; [2008] Neuropsychologia 46:774-785).

  18. Catching moving objects: Differential effects of background motion on action mode selection and movement control in 6- to 10-month-old infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wermeskerken, M; van der Kamp, J.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In human adults the use of visual information for selecting appropriate modes for action appears to be separate from the use of visual information for the control of movements of which the action is composed (Milner & Goodale, [1995] The visual brain in action; [2008] Neuropsychologia 46:774-785).

  19. Antidepressant Controlled Trial For Negative Symptoms In Schizophrenia (ACTIONS): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Thomas R E; Leeson, Verity C; Paton, Carol; Costelloe, Céire; Simon, Judit; Kiss, Noemi; Osborn, David; Killaspy, Helen; Craig, Tom K J; Lewis, Shôn; Keown, Patrick; Ismail, Shajahan; Crawford, Mike; Baldwin, David; Lewis, Glyn; Geddes, John; Kumar, Manoj; Pathak, Rudresh; Taylor, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent deficiencies in emotional responsiveness, motivation, socialisation, speech and movement. When persistent, they are held to account for much of the poor functional outcomes associated with schizophrenia. There are currently no approved pharmacological treatments. While the available evidence suggests that a combination of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication may be effective in treating negative symptoms, it is too limited to allow any firm conclusions. To establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of augmentation of antipsychotic medication with the antidepressant citalopram for the management of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. A multicentre, double-blind, individually randomised, placebo-controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Adult psychiatric services, treating people with schizophrenia. Inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, on continuing, stable antipsychotic medication, with persistent negative symptoms at a criterion level of severity. Eligible participants were randomised 1 : 1 to treatment with either placebo (one capsule) or 20 mg of citalopram per day for 48 weeks, with the clinical option at 4 weeks to increase the daily dosage to 40 mg of citalopram or two placebo capsules for the remainder of the study. The primary outcomes were quality of life measured at 12 and 48 weeks assessed using the Heinrich's Quality of Life Scale, and negative symptoms at 12 weeks measured on the negative symptom subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No therapeutic benefit in terms of improvement in quality of life or negative symptoms was detected for citalopram over 12 weeks or at 48 weeks, but secondary analysis suggested modest improvement in the negative symptom domain, avolition/amotivation, at 12 weeks (mean difference -1.3, 95% confidence interval -2.5 to -0.09). There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatment arms over 48-week

  20. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  1. Creation of a Research Community in a K-12 School System Using Action Research and Evidence Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean K. Sand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The purpose of this study was to apply skills developed from an Action Research Training Model (Gordon in the design of two action research projects to ensure that students are ethical users of ideas and information. It was deemed necessary to assess prior knowledge and attitudes of students and teachers in order to identify issues to be addressed. Methods - Both projects employed the use of survey instruments, which presented students with scenarios involving aspects of information use, and asked whether or not the actions in the scenarios were examples of ethical use. The high school survey was administered to 381 students in tenth grade English classes. The elementary survey was administered to 87 students in fifth grade. A more comprehensive survey was administered at the high school level. For each student behavior addressed by the survey, there were two questions: one eliciting the teacher’s perception of how often students engaged in that behavior, and the second how often the teacher had to confront a student about the same behavior. Participation was voluntary, and 36 teachers took the survey. Results - Surveys administered at the high school level showed that most students have a good understanding of the ethical use of information regarding clear instances of plagiarism. Students’ understanding was less clear in two major areas: creating a bibliography that accurately reflects the sources used to create the work, and the level of collaboration or assistance that is appropriate in completing a research assignment. The teacher surveys showed some discrepancy between perception of the frequency of certain types of unethical student behavior and how often teachers challenged students on that behavior. The surveys showed that teachers found plagiarism to be the most prevalent behavior, while obtaining copies of exams and buying papers were the least frequently occurring behaviors. At the elementary level, results indicated

  2. Common foundations of optimal control across the sciences: evidence of a free lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Benjamin; Rabitz, Herschel

    2017-03-01

    A common goal in the sciences is optimization of an objective function by selecting control variables such that a desired outcome is achieved. This scenario can be expressed in terms of a control landscape of an objective considered as a function of the control variables. At the most basic level, it is known that the vast majority of quantum control landscapes possess no traps, whose presence would hinder reaching the objective. This paper reviews and extends the quantum control landscape assessment, presenting evidence that the same highly favourable landscape features exist in many other domains of science. The implications of this broader evidence are discussed. Specifically, control landscape examples from quantum mechanics, chemistry and evolutionary biology are presented. Despite the obvious differences, commonalities between these areas are highlighted within a unified mathematical framework. This mathematical framework is driven by the wide-ranging experimental evidence on the ease of finding optimal controls (in terms of the required algorithmic search effort beyond the laboratory set-up overhead). The full scope and implications of this observed common control behaviour pose an open question for assessment in further work. This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  3. Evidence of the protein content of bovine and human dental pulps by the action of endodontic irrigation solutions through electrophoretic patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis let to show the protein content of different tissues. Dental pulp contains connective tissue which is removed during the endodontic treatment. Many studies consider bovine rather than human pulp tissue because of its size. Aim: To evidence the protein content of bovine and human dental pulps and the action of endodontic irrigation solutions through electrophoretic patterns. Materials and Methods: Extracts of human and bovine dental pulps were prepared. Sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid were used as irrigating solutions. Results: Bovine and human pulps have a small difference in two bands of proteins present between 74 kDa and 80 kDa. The denaturizing capacity of sodium hypochlorite and the washing action of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine were evidenced. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid solution was shown to contain proteins continuously during the endodontic root canal washing. Conclusions: Differences in pulp tissues and the action of irrigating solutions on their protein content would help on the understanding of the biological process of the endodontic treatment.

  4. Should we embed randomized controlled trials within action research: arguing from a case study of telemonitoring

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    Karen Day

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Action research (AR and randomized controlled trials (RCTs are usually considered to be theoretically and practically incompatible. However, we argue that their respective strengths and weaknesses can be complementary. We illustrate our argument from a recent study assessing the effect of telemonitoring on health-related quality of life, self-care, hospital use, costs and the experiences of patients, informal carers and health care professionals in two urban hospital services and one remote rural primary care service in New Zealand. Methods Data came from authors’ observations and field notes of discussions with three groups: the healthcare providers and healthcare consumers who participated in the research, and a group of 17 researchers and collaborators. The consumers had heart failure (Site A, urban, airways disease (Site B, urban, and diabetes (Site C, rural. The research ran from 2008 (project inception until 2012 (project close-off. Researchers came from a wide range of disciplines. Both RCT and AR methods were recognised from early in the process but often worked in parallel rather than together. In retrospect, we have mapped our observed research processes to the AR cycle characteristics (creation of communicative space, democracy and participation, iterative learning and improvement, emergence, and accommodation of different ways of knowing. Results We describe the context, conduct and outcomes of the telemonitoring trial, framing the overall process in the language of AR. Although not fully articulated at the time, AR processes made the RCT sensitive to important context, e.g. clinical processes. They resulted in substantive changes to the design and conduct of the RCT, and to interpretation and uptake of findings, e.g. a simpler technology procurement process emerged. Creating a communicative space enabled co-design between the researcher group and collaborators from the provider participant group, and a stronger

  5. Electrophysiological evidence for the action of a center-surround mechanism on semantic processing in the left hemisphere

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    Diana eDeacon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physiological evidence was sought for a center-surround attentional mechanism (CSM, which has been proposed to assist in the retrieval of weakly activated items from semantic memory. The CSM operates by facilitating strongly related items in the center of the weakly activated area of semantic memory, and inhibiting less strongly related items in its surround. In this study weak activation was created by having subjects acquire the meanings of new words to a recall criterion of only 50%. Subjects who attained this approximate criterion level of performance were subsequently included in a semantic priming task, during which ERPs were recorded. Primes were newly learned rare words, and targets were either synonyms, nonsynonymously related words, or unrelated words. All stimuli were presented to the RVF/LH (right visual field/left hemisphere or the LVF/RH (left visual field/right hemisphere. Under RVF/LH stimulation the newly learned word primes produced facilitation on N400 for synonym targets, and inhibition for related targets. No differences were observed under LVF/RH stimulation. The LH thus, supports a CSM, whereby a synonym in the center of attention focused on the newly learned word is facilitated, whereas a related word in the surround is inhibited. The data are consistent with the view of this laboratory that semantic memory is subserved by a spreading activation system in the LH. Also consistent with our view, there was no evidence of spreading activation in the RH. The findings are discussed in the context of additional recent theories of semantic memory. Finally, the adult right hemisphere may require more learning than the LH in order to demonstrate evidence of meaning acquisition.

  6. Controlling disasters: Local emergency management perceptions about Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security actions after September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Sean

    This article examines local emergency manager's beliefs regarding control over tasks during various stages of the hazard cycle since federal policies went into effect following the September 11 attacks. The study considers whether a disparity exists between the actions of local officials during each phase of the "hazard cycle" and the policy expectations of the federal government, which call for greater federal control over activities in emergency management and homeland security. To do so, hypothesis testing investigates the jurisdiction's use of comprehensive emergency management (CEM) practices, the perceived "clarity" of the federal policy demands, and if the local actors feel coerced to comply with federal policy demands so that grant funding is not compromised. Using a model developed from "third-generation" policy implementation research, the results show that the odds of local officials citing federal control over these actions have very limited statistical significance. This signals that the perceived lack of local input into the development of these federal policies and the policies' limited use of traditional CEM measures may not be in concert with what local actors perform in the field. Simply put, the respondents claim to understand the federal policy demands, support the concept of federal control as the policies describe, yet follow their own plans or traditional CEM principles, even if such actions do not support the federal policy demands. These results align with pre-existing research in the emergency management field that show issues with efforts to centralize policies under the Department of Homeland Security and Federal Emergency Management Agency.

  7. Creativity and Control : A Paradox-Evidence from the Levers of Control Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.F.; van Elten, Hilco; Widener, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Both control and creativity are important drivers of organizational success (Gilson, Mathieu, Shally, and Ruddy 2005; Hirst, Van Knippenberg, Chen, and Sacramento 2011). However, they are often regarded as conflicting. We use the Levers of Control (LoC) framework to examine the relationships between

  8. Creativity and Control : A Paradox: Evidence from the Levers of Control Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.F.; Elten, van H.J.; Widener, S.

    2017-01-01

    Both control and creativity are important drivers of organizational success (Gilson, Mathieu, Shally, and Ruddy 2005; Hirst, Van Knippenberg, Chen, and Sacramento 2011). However, they are often regarded as conflicting. We use the Levers of Control (LoC) framework to examine the relationships between

  9. Successful Strategies to Engage Research Partners for Translating Evidence into Action in Community Health: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Salsberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To undertake a critical review describing key strategies supporting development of participatory research (PR teams to engage partners for creation and translation of action-oriented knowledge. Methods. Sources are four leading PR practitioners identified via bibliometric analysis. Authors’ publications were identified in January 1995–October 2009 in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and CAB databases, and books. Works were limited to those with a process description describing a research project and practitioners were first, second, third, or last author. Results. Adapting and applying the “Reliability Tested Guidelines for Assessing Participatory Research Projects” to retained records identified five key strategies: developing advisory committees of researchers and intended research users; developing research agreements; using formal and informal group facilitation techniques; hiring co-researchers/partners from community; and ensuring frequent communication. Other less frequently mentioned strategies were also identified. Conclusion. This review is the first time these guidelines were used to identify key strategies supporting PR projects. They proved effective at identifying and evaluating engagement strategies as reported by completed research projects. Adapting these guidelines identified gaps where the tool was unable to assess fundamental PR elements of power dynamics, equity of resources, and member turnover. Our resulting template serves as a new tool to measure partnerships.

  10. A role for the precuneus in thought–action fusion: Evidence from participants with significant obsessive–compulsive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Likelihood thought–action fusion (TAF-L refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23 and low (Low-OC, N = 24 levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005, which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19–30 Hz activity in the precuneus (p < .05. Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01, suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network.

  11. A role for the precuneus in thought–action fusion: Evidence from participants with significant obsessive–compulsive symptoms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2013-01-01

    Likelihood thought–action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005), which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19–30 Hz) activity in the precuneus (p < .05). Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01), suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network. PMID:24371793

  12. A role for the precuneus in thought-action fusion: evidence from participants with significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Likelihood thought-action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005), which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19-30 Hz) activity in the precuneus (p < .05). Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01), suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network.

  13. 10-Month-Old Infants Are Sensitive to the Time Course of Perceived Actions: Eye-Tracking and EEG Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen Bache

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that infants are able to track a moving target efficiently – even if it is transiently occluded from sight. This basic ability allows prediction of when and where events happen in everyday life. Yet, it is unclear whether, and how, infants internally represent the time course of ongoing movements to derive predictions. In this study, 10-month-old crawlers observed the video of a same-aged crawling baby that was transiently occluded and reappeared in either a temporally continuous or non-continuous manner (i.e., delayed by 500 ms vs. forwarded by 500 ms relative to the real-time movement. Eye movement and rhythmic neural brain activity (EEG were measured simultaneously. Eye movement analyses showed that infants were sensitive to slight temporal shifts in movement continuation after occlusion. Furthermore, brain activity associated with sensorimotor processing differed between observation of continuous and non-continuous movements. Early sensitivity to an action’s timing may hence be explained within the internal real-time simulation account of action observation. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that 10-month-old infants are well prepared for internal representation of the time course of observed movements that are within the infants’ current motor repertoire.

  14. Successful strategies to engage research partners for translating evidence into action in community health: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsberg, Jon; Parry, David; Pluye, Pierre; Macridis, Soultana; Herbert, Carol P; Macaulay, Ann C

    2015-01-01

    To undertake a critical review describing key strategies supporting development of participatory research (PR) teams to engage partners for creation and translation of action-oriented knowledge. Sources are four leading PR practitioners identified via bibliometric analysis. Authors' publications were identified in January 1995-October 2009 in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and CAB databases, and books. Works were limited to those with a process description describing a research project and practitioners were first, second, third, or last author. Adapting and applying the "Reliability Tested Guidelines for Assessing Participatory Research Projects" to retained records identified five key strategies: developing advisory committees of researchers and intended research users; developing research agreements; using formal and informal group facilitation techniques; hiring co-researchers/partners from community; and ensuring frequent communication. Other less frequently mentioned strategies were also identified. This review is the first time these guidelines were used to identify key strategies supporting PR projects. They proved effective at identifying and evaluating engagement strategies as reported by completed research projects. Adapting these guidelines identified gaps where the tool was unable to assess fundamental PR elements of power dynamics, equity of resources, and member turnover. Our resulting template serves as a new tool to measure partnerships.

  15. Brain mechanisms of self-control: A neurocognitive investigation of reward-based action control and error awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harsay, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation and the ability to detect errors are critical for the interaction with our environment. They provide us with the opportunity to engage in purposive, persistent and corrective behavior, and to take the consequences of our actions into account. Diminished motivation and error awareness have

  16. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the

  17. Selective Attention and Control of Action: Comparative Psychology of an Artificial, Evolved Agent and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the selective attention abilities of a simple, artificial, evolved agent and considered implications of the agent's performance for theories of selective attention and action. The agent processed two targets in continuous time, catching one and then the other. This task required many cognitive operations, including prioritizing…

  18. Goal-Directed Action Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls…

  19. State Actions to Control Fetal Abuse: Ramifications for Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent case law and state statutes for dealing with a pregnant woman's actions which negatively affect her infant. Explains how statutes and case law are applied in civil law to remove a child from the mother at birth and in criminal law to punish a mother while pregnant. (MM)

  20. Goal-directed action control in children with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; de Wit, S.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum

  1. Converging evidence for control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M; Hutchison, Keith A

    2013-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that cognitive control is implemented at the list and context levels in the color-word Stroop task. At first blush, the finding that Stroop interference is reduced for mostly incongruent items as compared with mostly congruent items (i.e., the item-specific proportion congruence [ISPC] effect) appears to provide evidence for yet a third level of control, which modulates word reading at the item level. However, evidence to date favors the view that ISPC effects reflect the rapid prediction of high-contingency responses and not item-specific control. In Experiment 1, we first show that an ISPC effect is obtained when the relevant dimension (i.e., color) signals proportion congruency, a problematic pattern for theories based on differential response contingencies. In Experiment 2, we replicate and extend this pattern by showing that item-specific control settings transfer to new stimuli, ruling out alternative frequency-based accounts. In Experiment 3, we revert to the traditional design in which the irrelevant dimension (i.e., word) signals proportion congruency. Evidence for item-specific control, including transfer of the ISPC effect to new stimuli, is apparent when 4-item sets are employed but not when 2-item sets are employed. We attribute this pattern to the absence of high-contingency responses on incongruent trials in the 4-item set. These novel findings provide converging evidence for reactive control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level, reveal theoretically important factors that modulate reliance on item-specific control versus contingency learning, and suggest an update to the item-specific control account (Bugg, Jacoby, & Chanani, 2011).

  2. From science to action: Principles for undertaking environmental research that enables knowledge exchange and evidence-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanovic, C; McDonald, J; Hobday, A J

    2016-12-01

    Effective conservation requires knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to enable learning and support evidence-based decision-making. Efforts to improve knowledge exchange have been hindered by a paucity of empirically-grounded guidance to help scientists and practitioners design and implement research programs that actively facilitate knowledge exchange. To address this, we evaluated the Ningaloo Research Program (NRP), which was designed to generate new scientific knowledge to support evidence-based decisions about the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Specifically, we evaluated (1) outcomes of the NRP, including the extent to which new knowledge informed management decisions; (2) the barriers that prevented knowledge exchange among scientists and managers; (3) the key requirements for improving knowledge exchange processes in the future; and (4) the core capacities that are required to support knowledge exchange processes. While the NRP generated expansive and multidisciplinary science outputs directly relevant to the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park, decision-makers are largely unaware of this knowledge and little has been integrated into decision-making processes. A range of barriers prevented efficient and effective knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers including cultural differences among the groups, institutional barriers within decision-making agencies, scientific outputs that were not translated for decision-makers and poor alignment between research design and actual knowledge needs. We identify a set of principles to be implemented routinely as part of any applied research program, including; (i) stakeholder mapping prior to the commencement of research programs to identify all stakeholders, (ii) research questions to be co-developed with stakeholders, (iii) implementation of participatory research approaches, (iv) use of a knowledge broker, and (v) tailored knowledge management

  3. Actions for prevention and control of health threats related to maritime transport in European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Guglielmetti, Paolo; Lemos, Cinthia Menel; Nichols, Gordon; Paux, Thierry; Schlaich, Clara; Cornejo, Miguel Davila; Martinez, Carmen Varela; Dionisio, Mauro; Rehmet, Sybille; Jaremin, Bogdan; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Actions at European Union level for International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 implementation and maritime transport were focused on two European projects implemented between 2006 and 2011. Situation analysis and needs assessment were conducted, a Manual including European standards and best practice and training material was developed and training courses were delivered. Ship-to-port and port-to-port communication web-based network and database for recording IHR Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSC) were established. Fifty pilot inspections based on the Manual were conducted on passenger ships. A total of 393 corrective actions were implemented according to recommendations given to Captains during pilot inspections. The web-based communication network of competent authorities at ports in EU Member States was used to manage 13 events/outbreaks (dengue fever, Legionnaires' disease, gastroenteritis, meningitis, varicella and measles). The European information database system was used for producing and recording 1018 IHR SSC by 156 inspectors in 6 countries in accordance with the WHO Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of SSC. Implementation of corrective actions after pilot inspections increased the level of compliance with the hygiene standards in passenger ships sailing within the EU waters and improved hygiene conditions. The communication tool contributed to improvement of outbreak identification and better management through rapid sharing of public health information, allowing a more timely and coordinated response. After the implementation of actions on passenger ships, the European Commission co-funded a Joint action that will expand the activities to all types of ships and chemical, biological and radio-nuclear threats (deliberate acts/accidental). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulin action in vivo: studies in control and exercise trained rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis is primarily concerned with in vivo insulin action and how this is modified by exercise training. The aims are; to define differential insulin action within the major insulin sensitive tissues; to characterize the relationship between these individual responses and whole body insulin action; and to examine the effect of exercise training on whole body and differential tissue insulin action. A technique, based on the euglycaemic clamp, is described for examining in vivo insulin action on glucose utilization and storage in individual tissues in the conscious, unrestrained rat. Tissue glucose metabolic rate (Rg') was estimated using (/sup 3/H)-2-deoxyglucose and glucose disposal was examined by measuring glycogen content and /sup 14/C-glucose incorporation into tissue glycogen or lipids. Elevating plasma insulin to 150 mU/l resulted in significant increases of glucose utilization in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Oxidative skeletal muscle could account for up to 70% of total glucose disposal whereas adipose tissue and liver could account for less than 3%. The following conclusions have been drawn from these studies. The whole body insulin response curve for glucose utilization closely reflects muscle glucose metabolism; mild elevations in plasma insulin will markedly elevate the glucose utilization rate in oxidative but not glycolytic skeletal muscle fibers; the increased whole body insulin sensitivity which is observed following exercise training is due to increased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that exercise training will undoubtedly result in improved glucose disposal in the prandial state. This emphasises the potential benefit of exercise in obesity and Type II diabetes.

  5. Providing reviews of evidence to COPD patients: controlled prospective 12-month trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Smith, B J; Veale, A J; Esterman, A; Frith, P A; Selim, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel patient-held manual designed to reduce the evidence-practice gap in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The intervention manual contained summaries of research evidence. It was developed using current best practice for patient information materials and designed to cause discussion of evidence between patient and doctor. A controlled before-and-after study was employed in two similar but geographically separate regions of metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Participants had moderate to severe COPD, with 249 included at baseline and 201 completing the study. Evidence-based COPD management was measured using an indicator with three components: rates of influenza vaccination, bone density testing, and pulmonary rehabilitation. A survey of behavioral steps leading to practice change was conducted with the trial. Analysis, by median split of socioeconomic disadvantage, showed significant difference between study arms for only one component of the indicator of evidence-based practice, enrollment in pulmonary rehabilitation and only for the most socioeconomically disadvantaged stratum. For both socioeconomic strata, more intervention participants than control participants reported remembering being given the information material, reading part or all, and finding it very or quite helpful. Other significant differences were restricted to the stratum of greatest socioeconomic disadvantage: reading all of the material, learning from it, referring back, and talking to a doctor about a topic from the material. Above 90% of all participants who received the manual reported reading from it, 42% reported discussing topics with a doctor, but only 10% reported treatment change attributable to the manual. We have found that people with COPD will read an evidence manual developed using current best practice. However, the study demonstrated improvement for only one of the three components of an indicator of evidence

  6. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  7. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an 'evidence-based climatic health' transfrontier training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaige, Véronique; Essiembre, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1) the development of advanced training adapted to 'global environment' change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc) and 2) the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives - a chair that emphasizes 'innoversity' (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity) and 'transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions'. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute) based in Montreal is a center for 'transdisciplinary research' on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid adaptation of the public health sector, the public mental health sector, and the public service sector to climate change, as well as a center for complex collaborations on evidence-based climatic health 'training'. This program-focused article comprises two main sections. The first section presents the 'general' and 'specific contexts' in which the

  8. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  9. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Brown, Glen; Kort, Rodney

    2009-10-06

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement.Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure.

  10. Context-dependent control of attention capture: Evidence from proportion congruent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J C; Milliken, Bruce; Leboe-McGowan, Jason; Leboe-McGowan, Launa; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    There are several independent demonstrations that attentional phenomena can be controlled in a context-dependent manner by cues associated with differing attentional control demands. The present set of experiments provide converging evidence that attention-capture phenomena can be modulated in a context-dependent fashion. We determined whether methods from the proportion congruent literature (listwide and item- and context-specific proportion congruent designs) that are known to modulate distractor interference effects in Stroop and flanker tasks are capable of modulating attention capture by salient feature singletons. Across experiments we found evidence that attention capture can be modulated by listwide, item-specific, and context-specific manipulations of proportion congruent. We discuss challenges associated with interpreting results from proportion congruent studies but propose that our findings converge with existing work that has demonstrated context-dependent control of attention capture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Action video gaming and cognitive control: playing first person shooter games is associated with improvement in working memory but not action inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Zmigrod, Sharon; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-03-01

    The interest in the influence of videogame experience in our daily life is constantly growing. "First Person Shooter" (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react and monitor fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to inhibit erroneous actions. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive control tasks. Experienced video game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a N-back task and a stop-signal paradigm that provide a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of the monitoring and updating of working memory (WM) and response inhibition (an index of behavioral impulsivity), respectively. VGPs were faster and more accurate in the monitoring and updating of WM than NVGPs, which were faster in reacting to go signals, but showed comparable stopping performance. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games is associated with enhanced flexible updating of task-relevant information without affecting impulsivity.

  12. The study on the characteristic of Shuangqiao fault and the ore-control action of it in Daqiaowu deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiaozhong; Hui Xiaochao; Wang Mingtai; Liu Rongrong; Liu Quan; Tang Jiangwei; Jin Miaozhang

    2012-01-01

    Shuangqiao fault is the most important one to control uranium ore bodies in Daqiaowu district of Quzhou area, Zhejiang province, but there is the obvious argument about the attitude which results in the restriction of the U- prognosis in the area. It aims at finding out the movement and ore-control action of the fault by the study on the characteristic of geometry and kinematics. and combining with geophysics in the depth. The Shuangqiao fault's trend is SE instead of NW by researching, and it has the polygenetic movement. There are two obvious stages of tension about the Shuangqiao fault which tally with the two stages of mineralization in Daqiaowu deposit to show the controlled action to ore bodies by it. By the study in-depth, the Shuangqiao fault can lead the metallogenic hydrothermal, and the secondary faults which connect with it can store the ore bodies. The point that the hanging side of fault can control the ore bodies is put forward by making a synthesis of tectonic assembled form and ore-control factors in Daqiaowu deposit. This view is approved by exploration to provide the reference for disposition of uranium prospecting. (authors)

  13. Blood-pressure-independent wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in experimental uraemia: evidence for a permissive action of PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, K; Törnig, J; Flechtenmacher, C; Nabokov, A; Mall, G; Ritz, E

    1995-11-01

    Abnormalities in cardiovascular structures, e.g. LV hypertrophy and thickening of vessels (arteries, arterioles, veins) are hallmarks of renal failure. They are in part independent of elevated blood pressure. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to affect cardiac function and has also been identified as a permissive factor in the genesis of cardiac fibrosis. The present study in rats with experimental renal failure was designed to examine whether PTH was permissive for wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles as well. Male SD rats were sham operated or subtotally nephrectomized and maintained for 2 weeks. Subgroups of subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats were parathyroidectomized (PTX). Saline or rat 1, 34 PTH was administered by osmotic minipump. Eucalcaemia was maintained in PTX animals by a high-calcium diet (3%). Serum calcium was not statistically different between the groups. After perfusion fixation, intramyocardial arterioles were assessed using stereological techniques (wall thickness; wall/lumen ratio; minimal lumen diameter; length density). In random samples of the left ventricle, wall thickness of arterioles was 2.2 +/- 0.25 microns in sham-op controls and 2.76 +/- 0.41 in SNX (n = at least 8 animals per group). SNX-PTX animals+solvent did not differ significantly from sham-op controls (2.08 +/- 0.42 microns), while SNX-PTX animals+PTH had values not significantly different from SNX (2.59 +/- 0.54 microns). Differences in wall thickness were not paralleled by differences in systolic blood pressure (sham-op 110 +/- 13.3 mmHg; SNX 138 +/- 8.4 mmHg, SNX-PTX+solvent 142 +/- 5.2 mmHg; SNX-PTX+PTH 148 +/- 5.7 mmHg). PTH treated animals showed signs of marked vascular smooth-muscle cell and endothelial-cell activation. The data suggest that wall thickening of intramyocardial arterioles in short-term experimental uraemia is dependent upon the presence of PTH (permissive effect).

  14. Control Problems in Distribution Channels: Empirical Evidence of Management Control Systems Contributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Sánchez Vázqez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the supply chain, manufacturing firms are increasingly placing greater emphasis on the management of their outsourced distribution channels (DCs. However, the role that interorganizational Management Control Systems (MCS can play in managing DC problems is still not clearly understood. Through an exploratory case study, we show how intra-organizational control problems persist in an inter-organizational context, rooted in informational asymmetries and conflicts of interest and aggravated by interdependencies. Likewise, the case study illustrates the way in which MCS assists the manufacturing firm to communicate to its representatives what the organization wants from them, motivating them and transferring capabilities. Thus, MCS can help to complement and re-orientate inter-firm agreements and constitutes a key tool for managing DCs in a flexible way.Como parte de la cadena de suministros, las empresas productoras están poniendo mayor énfasis en la gestión de sus canales de distribución externalizados (DCs. Sin embargo, aún no existe una clara comprensión sobre el papel que los Sistemas de Control de Gestión inter-organizativos (MCS pueden desarrollar en la gestión de los problemas de los DCs. A través de un estudio de caso, se muestra cómo los problemas de control intra-organizativos persisten en un contexto inter-organizativo, causados por las asimetrías informativas y el conflicto de intereses, y agravándose por las interdependencias. Asimismo, se expone cómo los MCS ayudan a la empresa productora a comunicar a sus distribuidores lo que la organización desea de ellos, motivándolos y capacitándolos. De esta forma, los MCS pueden ayudar a completar y redirigir acuerdos entre firmas y constituir una herramienta clave en la gestión flexible de los DCs.

  15. Mode of action human relevance (species concordance) framework: Evolution of the Bradford Hill considerations and comparative analysis of weight of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M E (Bette); Palermo, Christine M; Bachman, Ammie N; North, Colin M; Jeffrey Lewis, R

    2014-01-01

    The mode of action human relevance (MOA/HR) framework increases transparency in systematically considering data on MOA for end (adverse) effects and their relevance to humans. This framework continues to evolve as experience increases in its application. Though the MOA/HR framework is not designed to address the question of “how much information is enough” to support a hypothesized MOA in animals or its relevance to humans, its organizing construct has potential value in considering relative weight of evidence (WOE) among different cases and hypothesized MOA(s). This context is explored based on MOA analyses in published assessments to illustrate the relative extent of supporting data and their implications for dose–response analysis and involved comparisons for chemical assessments on trichloropropane, and carbon tetrachloride with several hypothesized MOA(s) for cancer. The WOE for each hypothesized MOA was summarized in narrative tables based on comparison and contrast of the extent and nature of the supporting database versus potentially inconsistent or missing information. The comparison was based on evolved Bradford Hill considerations rank ordered to reflect their relative contribution to WOE determinations of MOA taking into account increasing experience in their application internationally. This clarification of considerations for WOE determinations as a basis for comparative analysis is anticipated to contribute to increasing consistency in the application of MOA/HR analysis and potentially, transparency in separating science judgment from public policy considerations in regulatory risk assessment. Copyright © 2014. The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The potential value of the mode of action (MOA)/human relevance (species concordance) framework in considering relative weight of evidence (WOE) amongst different cases and hypothesized MOA(s) is explored based on the content of several published assessments

  16. New evidence for primordial action site of Fluazifop-P-butyl on Acanthospermum hispidum seedlings: From the effects on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and histological observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuhong; Yang, Congjun; Liu, Zhihang; Song, Jiqing; Li, Pingliang; Li, Lingxu; Zhou, Fei; Xin, Hua; Wan, Fanghao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Luo, Xiaoyong

    2017-10-01

    Acanthospermum hispidum DC, an Asteraceae weed species, was very susceptible to fluazifop-P-butyl, but tolerant to other aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides, such as haloxyfop-P-methyl. However, other Asteraceae weeds including Bidens pilosa were all tolerant to fluazifop-P-butyl. Membrane lipid peroxidation by increasing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was proposed as an action mechanism of fluazifop-P-butyl in A. hispidum. To further clarify the primordial action site of fluazifop-P-butyl in this species, the effects on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and cytohistology of apical meristems were studied. Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics (CFC) in sensitive A. hispidum seedlings were markedly affected by 10μM fluazifop-P-butyl, with the dark fluorescence yield (Fo), maximal fluorescence yield (Fm), maximal PS II quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield [Y(II)], and quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation [Y(NPQ)] declining, quantum yield of nonregulated energy dissipation [Y(NO)] rising, but these measures were not affected in Bidens pilosa. The effects of fluazifop-P-butyl on chlorophyll fluorescence properties were observed on the growing point before the mature leaves by about 4-6h. Haloxyfop-P-methyl, a control herbicide, had no effects on CFC of either A. hispidum or B. pilosa. In addition, damage to apical meristem cells of A. hispidum was observed at 6 HAT prior to changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters suggesting that the primary action site of fluazifop-P-butyl in this species is in the apical meristem and the effects on CFC may be the results of secondary action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The supply and demand for pollution control: Evidence from wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, V.D.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determination of pollution control from wastewater treatment plants as an economic decision facing local or regional regulators. Pollution control is measured by plant design effluent concentration levels and is fully endogenous in a supply- and-demand model of treatment choice. On the supply side, plant costs are a function of the design treatment level of the plant, and on the demand side, treatment level is a function of both the costs of control and the regional or regulatory preferences for control. We find evidence that the economic model of effluent choice by local regulators has a good deal of explanatory power. We find evidence that wastewater treatment plant removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD) is sensitive to many local factors including the size of the treatment plant, the flow rate of the receiving water, the population density of the surrounding area, regional growth, state sensitivity to environmental issues, state income, and the extent to which the damages from pollution fall on other states. We find strong evidence that regulators are sensitive to capital costs in determining the design level of BOD effluent reduction at a plant. Thus, proposed reductions in federal subsidies for wastewater treatment plant construction are likely to have significant adverse effects on water quality. ?? 1992.

  18. Control of clustered action potential firing in a mathematical model of entorhinal cortex stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Luke; Wedgwood, Kyle; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Brown, Jon T; Goodfellow, Marc

    2018-07-14

    The entorhinal cortex is a crucial component of our memory and spatial navigation systems and is one of the first areas to be affected in dementias featuring tau pathology, such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. Electrophysiological recordings from principle cells of medial entorhinal cortex (layer II stellate cells, mEC-SCs) demonstrate a number of key identifying properties including subthreshold oscillations in the theta (4-12 Hz) range and clustered action potential firing. These single cell properties are correlated with network activity such as grid firing and coupling between theta and gamma rhythms, suggesting they are important for spatial memory. As such, experimental models of dementia have revealed disruption of organised dorsoventral gradients in clustered action potential firing. To better understand the mechanisms underpinning these different dynamics, we study a conductance based model of mEC-SCs. We demonstrate that the model, driven by extrinsic noise, can capture quantitative differences in clustered action potential firing patterns recorded from experimental models of tau pathology and healthy animals. The differential equation formulation of our model allows us to perform numerical bifurcation analyses in order to uncover the dynamic mechanisms underlying these patterns. We show that clustered dynamics can be understood as subcritical Hopf/homoclinic bursting in a fast-slow system where the slow sub-system is governed by activation of the persistent sodium current and inactivation of the slow A-type potassium current. In the full system, we demonstrate that clustered firing arises via flip bifurcations as conductance parameters are varied. Our model analyses confirm the experimentally suggested hypothesis that the breakdown of clustered dynamics in disease occurs via increases in AHP conductance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae outbreaks in acute settings: an evidence review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, C E; Coope, C; Conway, L; Higgins, J P T; McCulloch, J; Okoli, G; Patel, B C; Oliver, I

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have been increasing globally and present a major public health challenge. To review the international literature: (i) to describe CPE outbreaks in acute hospital settings globally; and (ii) to identify the control measures used during these outbreaks and report on their effectiveness. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, abstract lists for key conferences and reference lists of key reviews was undertaken, and information on unpublished outbreaks was sought for 2000-2015. Where relevant, risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A narrative synthesis of the evidence was conducted. Ninety-eight outbreaks were eligible. These occurred worldwide, with 53 reports from Europe. The number of cases (CPE infection or colonization) involved in outbreaks varied widely, from two to 803. In the vast majority of outbreaks, multi-component infection control measures were used, commonly including: patient screening; contact precautions (e.g. gowns, gloves); handwashing interventions; staff education or monitoring; enhanced environmental cleaning/decontamination; cohorting of patients and/or staff; and patient isolation. Seven studies were identified as providing the best-available evidence on the effectiveness of control measures. These demonstrated that CPE outbreaks can be controlled successfully using a range of appropriate, commonly used, infection control measures. However, risk of bias was considered relatively high for these studies. The findings indicate that CPE outbreaks can be controlled using combinations of existing measures. However, the quality of the evidence base is weak and further high-quality research is needed, particularly on the effectiveness of individual infection control measures. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualitative differences between bilingual language control and executive control: evidence from task switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eCalabria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that highly-proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2, the so called ‘symmetrical switch cost’ effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly-proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC. We tested highly-proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1 or L3 (Experiment 2 depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag. In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (colour and shape. Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system.

  1. Slips of action and sequential decisions: a cross-validation study of tasks assessing habitual and goal-directed action control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsika Sjoerds

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g. overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based and model-free learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. Model-based control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas model-free control did not. Interestingly, parameter estimates of model-based and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g. visual short-term memory. These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly mediate the association between model-based control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and model-based system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the model-free and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural

  2. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  3. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  4. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are associated with dysfunction in stimulus valuation but not action valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piray, Payam; Zeighami, Yashar; Bahrami, Fariba; Eissa, Abeer M; Hewedi, Doaa H; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2014-06-04

    A substantial subset of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffers from impulse control disorders (ICDs), which are side effects of dopaminergic medication. Dopamine plays a key role in reinforcement learning processes. One class of reinforcement learning models, known as the actor-critic model, suggests that two components are involved in these reinforcement learning processes: a critic, which estimates values of stimuli and calculates prediction errors, and an actor, which estimates values of potential actions. To understand the information processing mechanism underlying impulsive behavior, we investigated stimulus and action value learning from reward and punishment in four groups of participants: on-medication PD patients with ICD, on-medication PD patients without ICD, off-medication PD patients without ICD, and healthy controls. Analysis of responses suggested that participants used an actor-critic learning strategy and computed prediction errors based on stimulus values rather than action values. Quantitative model fits also revealed that an actor-critic model of the basal ganglia with different learning rates for positive and negative prediction errors best matched the choice data. Moreover, whereas ICDs were associated with model parameters related to stimulus valuation (critic), PD was associated with parameters related to action valuation (actor). Specifically, PD patients with ICD exhibited lower learning from negative prediction errors in the critic, resulting in an underestimation of adverse consequences associated with stimuli. These findings offer a specific neurocomputational account of the nature of compulsive behaviors induced by dopaminergic drugs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347814-11$15.00/0.

  5. Action control is mediated by prefrontal BDNF and glucocorticoid receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Shannon L; Swanson, Andrew M; Jacobs, Andrea M; Howell, Jessica L; Mo, Michelle; Dileone, Ralph J; Koleske, Anthony J; Taylor, Jane R

    2012-12-11

    Stressor exposure biases decision-making strategies from those based on the relationship between actions and their consequences to others restricted by stimulus-response associations. Chronic stressor exposure also desensitizes glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and diminishes motivation to acquire food reinforcement, although causal relationships are largely not established. We show that a history of chronic exposure to the GR ligand corticosterone or acute posttraining GR blockade with RU38486 makes rodents less able to perform actions based on their consequences. Thus, optimal GR binding is necessary for the consolidation of new response-outcome learning. In contrast, medial prefrontal (but not striatal) BDNF can account for stress-related amotivation, in that selective medial prefrontal cortical Bdnf knockdown decreases break-point ratios in a progressive-ratio task. Knockdown also increases vulnerability to RU38486. Despite the role of BDNF in dendritic spine reorganization, deep-layer spine remodeling does not obviously parallel progressive-ratio response patterns, but treatment with the Na(+)-channel inhibitor riluzole reverses corticosteroid-induced motivational deficits and restores prefrontal BDNF expression after corticosterone. We argue that when prefrontal neurotrophin systems are compromised, and GR-mediated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback is desensitized (as in the case of chronic stress hormone exposure), amotivation and inflexible maladaptive response strategies that contribute to stress-related mood disorders result.

  6. Automatic control of positioning along the joint during EBW in conditions of action of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinina, A. A.; Laptenok, V. D.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenok, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positioning along the joint during the electron beam welding is a difficult scientific and technical problem to achieve the high quality of welds. The final solution of this problem is not found. This is caused by weak interference protection of sensors of the joint position directly in the welding process. Frequently during the electron beam welding magnetic fields deflect the electron beam from the optical axis of the electron beam gun. The collimated X-ray sensor is used to monitor the beam deflection caused by the action of magnetic fields. Signal of X-ray sensor is processed by the method of synchronous detection. Analysis of spectral characteristics of the X-ray sensor showed that the displacement of the joint from the optical axis of the gun affects on the output signal of sensor. The authors propose dual-circuit system for automatic positioning of the electron beam on the joint during the electron beam welding in conditions of action of magnetic interference. This system includes a contour of joint tracking and contour of compensation of magnetic fields. The proposed system is stable. Calculation of dynamic error of system showed that error of positioning does not exceed permissible deviation of the electron beam from the joint plane.

  7. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an 'evidence-based climatic health' transfrontier training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Lapaige

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Véronique Lapaige1–3, Hélène Essiembre41Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Fernand-Seguin Research Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Quebec National Public Health Institute; 4Industrial and Organizational Program, Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1 the development of advanced training adapted to 'global environment' change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc and 2 the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives – a chair that emphasizes 'innoversity' (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity and 'transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions'. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute based in Montreal is a center for 'transdisciplinary research' on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid

  8. Controlling Chronic Diseases Through Evidence-Based Decision Making: A Group-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Allen, Peg; Jacob, Rebekah R; deRuyter, Anna; Lakshman, Meenakshi; Reis, Rodrigo S; Yan, Yan

    2017-11-30

    Although practitioners in state health departments are ideally positioned to implement evidence-based interventions, few studies have examined how to build their capacity to do so. The objective of this study was to explore how to increase the use of evidence-based decision-making processes at both the individual and organization levels. We conducted a 2-arm, group-randomized trial with baseline data collection and follow-up at 18 to 24 months. Twelve state health departments were paired and randomly assigned to intervention or control condition. In the 6 intervention states, a multiday training on evidence-based decision making was conducted from March 2014 through March 2015 along with a set of supplemental capacity-building activities. Individual-level outcomes were evidence-based decision making skills of public health practitioners; organization-level outcomes were access to research evidence and participatory decision making. Mixed analysis of covariance models was used to evaluate the intervention effect by accounting for the cluster randomized trial design. Analysis was performed from March through May 2017. Participation 18 to 24 months after initial training was 73.5%. In mixed models adjusted for participant and state characteristics, the intervention group improved significantly in the overall skill gap (P = .01) and in 6 skill areas. Among the 4 organizational variables, only access to evidence and skilled staff showed an intervention effect (P = .04). Tailored and active strategies are needed to build capacity at the individual and organization levels for evidence-based decision making. Our study suggests several dissemination interventions for consideration by leaders seeking to improve public health practice.

  9. The GPCR membrane receptor, DopEcR, mediates the actions of both dopamine and ecdysone to control sex pheromone perception in an insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eAbrieux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory information mediating sexual behavior is crucial for reproduction in many animals, including insects. In male moths, the macroglomerular complex of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL is specialized in the treatment of information on the female-emitted sex pheromone. Evidence is accumulating that modulation of behavioral pheromone responses occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. We recently showed that a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, AipsDopEcR, with its homologue known in Drosophila for its double affinity to the main insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, and dopamine (DA, present in the ALs, is involved in the behavioral response to pheromone in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Here we tested the role of AipsDopEcR as compared to nuclear 20E receptors in central pheromone processing combining receptor inhibition with intracellular recordings of AL neurons. We show that the sensitivity of AL neurons for the pheromone in males decreases strongly after AipsDopEcR-dsRNA injection but also after inhibition of nuclear 20E receptors. Moreover we tested the involvement of 20E and DA in the receptor-mediated behavioral modulation in wind tunnel experiments, using ligand applications and receptor inhibition treatments. We show that both ligands are necessary and act on AipsDopEcR-mediated behavior. Altogether these results indicate that the GPCR membrane receptor, AipsDopEcR, controls sex pheromone perception through the action of both 20E and DA in the central nervous system, probably in concert with 20E action through nuclear receptors.

  10. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each ac...

  11. Action selection in growing state spaces: control of network structure growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Kappen, Hilbert J; Gómez, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    The dynamical processes taking place on a network depend on its topology. Influencing the growth process of a network therefore has important implications on such dynamical processes. We formulate the problem of influencing the growth of a network as a stochastic optimal control problem in which a structural cost function penalizes undesired topologies. We approximate this control problem with a restricted class of control problems that can be solved using probabilistic inference methods. To deal with the increasing problem dimensionality, we introduce an adaptive importance sampling method for approximating the optimal control. We illustrate this methodology in the context of formation of information cascades, considering the task of influencing the structure of a growing conversation thread, as in Internet forums. Using a realistic model of growing trees, we show that our approach can yield conversation threads with better structural properties than the ones observed without control. (paper)

  12. Aircraft dual-shaft jet engine with indirect action fuel flow controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with an aircraft single-jet engine's control system, based on a fuel flow controller. Considering the engine as controlled object and its thrust the most important operation effect, from the multitude of engine's parameters only its rotational speed n is measurable and proportional to its thrust, so engine's speed has become the most important controlled parameter. Engine's control system is based on fuel injection Qi dosage, while the output is engine's speed n. Based on embedded system's main parts' mathematical models, the author has described the system by its block diagram with transfer functions; furthermore, some Simulink-Matlab simulations are performed, concerning embedded system quality (its output parameters time behavior) and, meanwhile, some conclusions concerning engine's parameters mutual influences are revealed. Quantitative determinations are based on author's previous research results and contributions, as well as on existing models (taken from technical literature). The method can be extended for any multi-spool engine, single- or twin-jet.

  13. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Bailey, Regan L.

    2016-01-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians. PMID:27261273

  14. HuRECA: Human Reliability Evaluator for Computer-based Control Room Actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Lee, Seung Jun; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    As computer-based design features such as computer-based procedures (CBP), soft controls (SCs), and integrated information systems are being adopted in main control rooms (MCR) of nuclear power plants, a human reliability analysis (HRA) method capable of dealing with the effects of these design features on human reliability is needed. From the observations of human factors engineering verification and validation experiments, we have drawn some major important characteristics on operator behaviors and design-related influencing factors (DIFs) from the perspective of human reliability. Firstly, there are new DIFs that should be considered in developing an HRA method for computer-based control rooms including especially CBP and SCs. In the case of the computer-based procedure rather than the paper-based procedure, the structural and managerial elements should be considered as important PSFs in addition to the procedural contents. In the case of the soft controllers, the so-called interface management tasks (or secondary tasks) should be reflected in the assessment of human error probability. Secondly, computer-based control rooms can provide more effective error recovery features than conventional control rooms. Major error recovery features for computer-based control rooms include the automatic logic checking function of the computer-based procedure and the information sharing feature of the general computer-based designs

  15. Cellular adverse actions of dibromoacetonitrile, a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal levels in rat thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Takumi; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Erdenedalai, Erdenebat; Enhetomuru, Anu; Imai, Shoji; Oyama, Yasuo

    2018-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), a by-product in water bacterial control, at sublethal concentrations on rat thymocytes, by using a cytometric technique with appropriate fluorescent dyes. By using this method, the possibility that DBAN induces cellular actions related to oxidative stress was assessed. DBAN reduced the content of cellular nonprotein thiols under Zn 2+ -free conditions. It elevated the intracellular level of Zn 2+ , being independent from external Zn 2+ . DBAN increased cell vulnerability to the cytotoxic action of hydrogen peroxide. These actions of DBAN were likely related to oxidative stress. DBAN is formed by the reaction of bromides and chlorinated oxidants during water disinfection. Hydrolysis of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, an antimicrobial used in hydraulic fracturing fluids for production of shale gas and oil, produces DBAN. Therefore, the concern regarding the levels of DBAN in industrial water systems is necessary to avoid the environmental risk to humans and wild mammals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stroke rehabilitation evidence and comorbidity: a systematic scoping review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle L A; McKellar, Kaileah A; Yi, Juliana; Kelloway, Linda; Munce, Sarah; Cott, Cheryl; Hall, Ruth; Fortin, Martin; Teasell, Robert; Lyons, Renee

    2017-07-01

    Most strokes occur in the context of other medical diagnoses. Currently, stroke rehabilitation evidence reviews have not synthesized or presented evidence with a focus on comorbidities and correspondingly may not align with current patient population. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent and nature of randomized controlled trial stroke rehabilitation evidence that included patients with multimorbidity. A systematic scoping review was conducted. Electronic databases were searched using a combination of terms related to "stroke" and "rehabilitation." Selection criteria captured inpatient rehabilitation studies. Methods were modified to account for the amount of literature, classified by study design, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were abstracted. The database search yielded 10771 unique articles. Screening resulted in 428 included RCTs. Three studies explicitly included patients with a comorbid condition. Fifteen percent of articles did not specify additional conditions that were excluded. Impaired cognition was the most commonly excluded condition. Approximately 37% of articles excluded patients who had experienced a previous stroke. Twenty-four percent excluded patients one or more Charlson Index condition, and 83% excluded patients with at least one other medical condition. This review represents a first attempt to map literature on stroke rehabilitation related to co/multimorbidity and identify gaps in existing research. Existing evidence on stroke rehabilitation often excluded individuals with comorbidities. This is problematic as the evidence that is used to generate clinical guidelines may not match the patient typically seen in practice. The use of alternate research methods are therefore needed for studying the care of individuals with stroke and multimorbidity.

  17. Collective action for effective tobacco control: one province at a time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa Dhage

    2018-03-01

    What started with one province Gadag has now been replicated in 23 other provinces throughout Karnataka. COTPA compliance or comprehensive tobacco control is achievable, replicable and will aid in building momentum for endgame of tobacco in India

  18. Congressional Award Foundation: Management Action Still Needed to Establish and Document Control Requirements and Related Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calbom, Linda

    2000-01-01

    .... The purpose of this management letter is to reemphasize the continuing need for the Foundation's management to strengthen internal controls, especially in the five areas previously reported to you in our July 1999 management letter.

  19. Using Markov Models of Fault Growth Physics and Environmental Stresses to Optimize Control Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A contrived example of a dice throwing game was considered in order to provide some insight into the general problem developing prognostics-based control routines...

  20. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena eKrefta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such ‘bilingual’ mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct – single or dual – language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1 – English (L2 childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading, and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants’ performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual

  1. Binding Action and Emotion in Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  2. Evidence for a neural dual-process account for adverse effects of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Nicolas; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Colzato, Lorenza; Beste, Christian

    2018-06-09

    Advantageous effects of cognitive control are well-known, but cognitive control may also have adverse effects, for example when it suppresses the implicit processing of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings that could benefit task performance. Yet, the neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical structures associated with adverse effects of cognitive control are poorly understood. We used an extreme group approach to compare individuals who exhibit adverse effects of cognitive control to individuals who do not by combining event-related potentials (ERPs), source localization, time-frequency analysis and network analysis methods. While neurophysiological correlates of cognitive control (i.e. N2, N450, theta power and theta-mediated neuronal network efficiency) and task-set updating (P3) both reflect control demands and implicit information processing, differences in the degree of adverse cognitive control effects are associated with two independent neural mechanisms: Individuals, who show adverse behavioral effects of cognitive control, show reduced small-world properties and thus reduced efficiency in theta-modulated networks when they fail to effectively process implicit information. In contrast to this, individuals who do not display adverse control effects show enhanced task-set updating mechanism when effectively processing implicit information, which is reflected by the P3 ERP component and associated with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, BA 40) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG; BA 8). These findings suggest that implicit S-R contingencies, which benefit response selection without cognitive control, are always 'picked up', but may fail to be integrated with task representations to guide response selection. This provides evidence for a neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical "dual-process" account of adverse cognitive control effects.

  3. Changes of right-hemispheric activation after constraint-induced, intensive language action therapy in chronic aphasia: fMRI evidence from auditory semantic processing1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Bettina; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Harrington, Karen; Evans, Samuel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in the neurorehabilitation of language is still under dispute. This study explored the changes in language-evoked brain activation over a 2-week treatment interval with intensive constraint induced aphasia therapy (CIAT), which is also called intensive language action therapy (ILAT). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain activation in perilesional left hemispheric and in homotopic right hemispheric areas during passive listening to high and low-ambiguity sentences and non-speech control stimuli in chronic non-fluent aphasia patients. All patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements of language functions after therapy. In an event-related fMRI experiment, a significant increase of BOLD signal was manifest in right inferior frontal and temporal areas. This activation increase was stronger for highly ambiguous sentences than for unambiguous ones. These results suggest that the known language improvements brought about by intensive constraint-induced language action therapy at least in part relies on circuits within the right-hemispheric homologs of left-perisylvian language areas, which are most strongly activated in the processing of semantically complex language. PMID:25452721

  4. Selective attention and control of action: comparative psychology of an artificial, evolved agent and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the selective attention abilities of a simple, artificial, evolved agent and considered implications of the agent's performance for theories of selective attention and action. The agent processed two targets in continuous time, catching one and then the other. This task required many cognitive operations, including prioritizing the first target (T1) over the second (T2); selectively focusing responses on T1, while preventing T2 from interfering with responses; creating a memory for the unselected T2 item, so that it could be efficiently processed later; and reallocating processing towards T2 after catching T1. The evolved agent demonstrated all these abilities. Analysis shows that the agent used reactive inhibition to selectively focus behavior. That is, the more salient T2, the more strongly responses towards T2 were inhibited and the slower the agent was to subsequently reallocate processing towards T2. Reactive inhibition was also suggested in two experiments with people, performing a virtually identical catch task. The presence of reactive inhibition in the simple agent and in people suggests that it is an important mechanism for selective processing.

  5. Auditory perception and the control of spatially coordinated action of deaf and hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelsbergh, G J; Netelenbos, J B; Whiting, H T

    1991-03-01

    From birth onwards, auditory stimulation directs and intensifies visual orientation behaviour. In deaf children, by definition, auditory perception cannot take place and cannot, therefore, make a contribution to visual orientation to objects approaching from outside the initial field of view. In experiment 1, a difference in catching ability is demonstrated between deaf and hearing children (10-13 years of age) when the ball approached from the periphery or from outside the field of view. No differences in catching ability between the two groups occurred when the ball approached from within the field of view. A second experiment was conducted in order to determine if differences in catching ability between deaf and hearing children could be attributed to execution of slow orientating movements and/or slow reaction time as a result of the auditory loss. The deaf children showed slower reaction times. No differences were found in movement times between deaf and hearing children. Overall, the findings suggest that a lack of auditory stimulation during development can lead to deficiencies in the coordination of actions such as catching which are both spatially and temporally constrained.

  6. [A school program for dengue control in Honduras: from knowledge to action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Montes, Gustavo Adolfo; Araujo, Roxana; Leontsini, Elli; Orellana Herrera, Gabriel; Fernández Cerna, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    The Environmental School Program (PEA, for its Spanish acronym), a dengue control initiative focused on primary schools that took place during 2005-2010 in several cities in Honduras, is described. The environmental health program was designed to increase knowledge and develop skills in the identification and control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites, as well as in water and solid waste management. The results, as measured by behavioral change and reduced larval indices, were satisfactory in the majority of the participating schools. The initiative involved not only children, but also their parents and teachers. In addition to reducing larval indices, PEA was successful in promoting community participation in environmental issues, particularly Aedes control. The inclusion of this educational content in the primary school curriculum in Honduras remains pending.

  7. A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shacham Galia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. Methods In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel. Results Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized. The proposed framework includes: 1 compilation of a list of potential interventions 2 modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3 streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4 refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans. Conclusions Development of a comprehensive

  8. A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura; Rosenberg, Elliot; McKee, Martin; Gan-Noy, Shosh; Levin, Diane; Mayshar, Elana; Shacham, Galia; Borowski, John; Nun, Gabi Bin; Lev, Boaz

    2010-05-27

    Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded) evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a) scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b) organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c) consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel. Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized.The proposed framework includes: 1) compilation of a list of potential interventions 2) modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3) streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4) refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans. Development of a comprehensive tobacco control plan is a complex endeavour, involving

  9. Floating wind generators offshore wind farm: Implications for structural loads and control actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Morant F, Quiles E.; Correcher, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the work currently carried out in the design of floating wind generators and their involvement in the future development of power generation in marine farms in depths exceeding 20 m. We discuss the main issues to be taken into account in the design of floating platforms, including the involvement of structural loads they bear. Also from a standpoint of control engineering are discussed strategies to reduce structural loads such a system to ensure adequate durability and therefore ensuring their economic viability. Finally, the abstract modeling tools for floating wind turbines that can be used in both structural design and the design of appropriate control algorithms

  10. Sustainability Strategy and Management Control Systems in Family Firms. Evidence from a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caputo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how the integration of new forms of sustainable control systems (SCSs and traditional management control systems (MCSs, and the use of these control systems affect the integration of sustainability within organizational strategy. A qualitative case study based on a longitudinal investigation of an Italian family firm operating in an environment-sensitive context, the intermodal transport industry, has been used to trace the company’s pathway to sustainability integration based on the Gond et al. framework. The paper enriches the Gond et al. conceptualization providing evidence of the external and internal factors relevant in affecting the organization’s pathway towards sustainability integration. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first analysis that investigates the integration of sustainability into organizational strategy in the context of family firms, from the point of view of performance management systems (PMSs.

  11. Corticostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in the balance between habitual and goal-directed action control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, S. de; Watson, A.J.P.; Harsay, H.A.; Cohen, M.X.; Vijver, I. van de; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Why are some individuals more susceptible to the formation of inflexible habits than others? In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to demonstrate that brain connectivity predicts individual differences in relative goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in humans.

  12. Receding-horizon control for max-plus linear systems with discrete actions using optimistic planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Busoniu, L; van den Boom, A.J.J.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Cassandras, Christos G.; Giua, Alessandro; Li, Zhiwu

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the infinite-horizon optimal control problem for max-plus linear systems where the considered objective function is a sum of discounted stage costs over an infinite horizon. The minimization problem of the cost function is equivalently transformed into a maximization problem of

  13. Challenges to Cognitive Systems Engineering:Understanding Qualitative Aspects of Control Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the future role of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) in contributing to integrated design of process, automation and human machine systems. Existing concepts and methods of Cognitive Systems Engineering do not integrate well with control theory and industrial automation tools...

  14. Onset of action and seizure control in Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome: focus on rufinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P Saneto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Russell P Saneto1, Gail D Anderson21Division of Pediatric Neurology, Seattle Children’s Hospital/University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USAAbstract: Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome is an electroclinical epilepsy syndrome characterized by the triad of electroencephalogram showing diffuse slow spike-and-wave discharges and paroxysmal fast activity, multiple intractable seizure types, and cognitive impairment. The intractability to seizure medications and cognitive impairment gives rise to eventual institutionalized patient care. Only a small subset of seizure medications has been shown to be helpful in seizure control. Most patients take up to 3 medications at high therapeutic dosing and are susceptible to medication-induced side effects. The lack of medication efficacy in seizure control has led one meta-analysis to conclude that there is no single medication that is highly efficacious in controlling seizures in this syndrome. On this background, a new and structurally novel seizure medication, rufinamide, has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of seizures in this syndrome. In a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, rufinamide was found to reduce seizures by over 30%. More importantly, it reduced the frequency of the seizure type that induces most of the morbidity of this syndrome, the drop seizure, by over 40%. There were few side effects, the medication was well tolerated, and in the open labeled extension study, tolerance was not found. In this review, we describe the main electroclinical features of Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome and summarize the few controlled studies that have contributed to its rational treatment. Currently, there is no single agent or combination of agents that effectively treat the multiple seizure types and co-morbidities in this syndrome. Our focus will be on the role of the new medication rufinamide in

  15. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time, attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness, immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM and executive control (shifting strategy did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02007616http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02007616

  16. ERP evidence for the control of emotional memories during strategic retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Jane E

    2017-08-01

    Neural evidence for the strategic retrieval of task-relevant 'target' memories at the expense of less relevant 'nontarget' memories has been demonstrated across a wide variety of studies. In ERP studies, this evidence consists of the ERP correlate of recollection (i.e. the 'left parietal old/new effect') being evident for targets and attenuated for nontargets. It is not yet known, however, whether this degree of strategic control can be extended to emotionally valenced words, or whether these items instead reactivate associated memories. The present study used a paradigm previously employed to demonstrate the strategic retrieval of neutral words (Herron & Rugg, Psychonomic Bulletin and & Review, 10(3), 703--710, 2003b) to assess the effects of stimulus valence on behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) measures of strategic retrieval. While response accuracy and reaction times associated with targets were unaffected by valence, negative nontargets and new items were both associated with an elevated false alarm rate and longer RTs than their neutral equivalents. Both neutral and negative targets and nontargets elicited early old/new effects between 300 and 500 ms. Critically, whereas neutral and negative targets elicited robust and statistically equivalent left parietal old/new effects between 500 and 800 ms, these were absent for neutral and negative nontargets. A right frontal positivity associated with postretrieval monitoring was evident for neutral targets versus nontargets, for negative versus neutral nontargets, and for targets versus new items. It can therefore be concluded that the recollection of negatively valenced words is subject to strategic control during retrieval, and that postretrieval monitoring processes are influenced by emotional valence.

  17. Taking Action on Air Pollution Control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) Region: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Yu, Jie; Holdaway, Jennifer; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Krafft, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities are affected by heavy air pollution. In order to explore progress, remaining challenges, and sustainability of air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region after 2013, a mixed method analysis was undertaken. The quantitative analysis comprised an overview of air quality management in the BTH region. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders from various levels of government and research institutions who played substantial roles either in decision-making or in research and advising on air pollution control in the BTH region. The results indicated that with the stringent air pollution control policies, the air quality in BTH meets the targets of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, improvements vary across the region and for different pollutants. Although implementation has been decisive and was at least in parts effectively enforced, significant challenges remained with regard to industrial and traffic emission control, and national air quality limits continued to be significantly exceeded and competing development interests remained mainly unsolved. There were also concerns about the sustainability of the current air pollution control measures especially for industries due to the top-down enforcement, and the associated large burden of social cost including unemployment and social inequity resulting industrial restructuring. Better mechanisms for ensuring cross-sectoral coordination and for improved central-local government communication were suggested. Further suggestions were provided to improve the conceptual design and effective implementation of respective air pollution control strategies in BTH. Our study highlights some of the major hurdles that need to be addressed to succeed with a comprehensive air pollution control management for the Chinese mega-urban agglomerations. PMID:29425189

  18. Taking Action on Air Pollution Control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) Region: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Yu, Jie; Nie, Chengjing; Holdaway, Jennifer; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Krafft, Thomas

    2018-02-09

    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities are affected by heavy air pollution. In order to explore progress, remaining challenges, and sustainability of air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region after 2013, a mixed method analysis was undertaken. The quantitative analysis comprised an overview of air quality management in the BTH region. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders from various levels of government and research institutions who played substantial roles either in decision-making or in research and advising on air pollution control in the BTH region. The results indicated that with the stringent air pollution control policies, the air quality in BTH meets the targets of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, improvements vary across the region and for different pollutants. Although implementation has been decisive and was at least in parts effectively enforced, significant challenges remained with regard to industrial and traffic emission control, and national air quality limits continued to be significantly exceeded and competing development interests remained mainly unsolved. There were also concerns about the sustainability of the current air pollution control measures especially for industries due to the top-down enforcement, and the associated large burden of social cost including unemployment and social inequity resulting industrial restructuring. Better mechanisms for ensuring cross-sectoral coordination and for improved central-local government communication were suggested. Further suggestions were provided to improve the conceptual design and effective implementation of respective air pollution control strategies in BTH. Our study highlights some of the major hurdles that need to be addressed to succeed with a comprehensive air pollution control management for the Chinese mega-urban agglomerations.

  19. Taking Action on Air Pollution Control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH Region: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities are affected by heavy air pollution. In order to explore progress, remaining challenges, and sustainability of air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region after 2013, a mixed method analysis was undertaken. The quantitative analysis comprised an overview of air quality management in the BTH region. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders from various levels of government and research institutions who played substantial roles either in decision-making or in research and advising on air pollution control in the BTH region. The results indicated that with the stringent air pollution control policies, the air quality in BTH meets the targets of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, improvements vary across the region and for different pollutants. Although implementation has been decisive and was at least in parts effectively enforced, significant challenges remained with regard to industrial and traffic emission control, and national air quality limits continued to be significantly exceeded and competing development interests remained mainly unsolved. There were also concerns about the sustainability of the current air pollution control measures especially for industries due to the top-down enforcement, and the associated large burden of social cost including unemployment and social inequity resulting industrial restructuring. Better mechanisms for ensuring cross-sectoral coordination and for improved central-local government communication were suggested. Further suggestions were provided to improve the conceptual design and effective implementation of respective air pollution control strategies in BTH. Our study highlights some of the major hurdles that need to be addressed to succeed with a comprehensive air pollution control management for the Chinese mega-urban agglomerations.

  20. Task control signals in pediatric Tourette syndrome show evidence of immature and anomalous functional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Church

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008. A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e. correlations outside the typical developmental range limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009. The present study used functional MRI (fMRI to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals, and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set. Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”. Second, group differences found in task maintenance (i.e., sustained activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents

  1. Hidden action or hidden strategy: China's control of its national oil companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Charles

    China's rapid economic growth has been accompanied by parallel growth in energy demand, particularly in demand for oil. Due to political and economic constraints on domestic reform, the CPC has focused on the international dimension through the creation of vertically integrated national oil companies. The foreign investments of these companies have become increasingly controversial due to the high levels of political and financial support afforded them by the CPC. I measure control by employing a model of institutional constraints on state-owned enterprises in conjunction with a managerial variant of Principal Agent theory well suited to political analyses. I conclude that the combination of institutional overlap, the process which led to the formation of the CNOCs as they currently exist and the current overseas activities of the CNOCs all demonstrate that the CPC is in control of the CNOCs.

  2. Gender differences in condom use prediction with Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Silva, A; Sánchez-García, M; Nunes, C; Martins, A

    2007-10-01

    There is much evidence that demonstrates that programs and interventions based on the theoretical models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been effective in the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of both models in the prediction of condom use, distinguishing two components inside the variable Perceived Behavioural Control of the TPB model: self-efficacy and control. The perspective of gender differences is also added. The study was carried out in a sample of 601 Portuguese and Spanish university students. The results show that the females have a higher average in all the TPB variables than males, except in the frequency of condom use: females request the use of condoms less frequently than males. On the other hand, for both females and males the TPB model predicts better condom-use intention than the TRA. However there are no differences between the two models in relation to the prediction of condom-use behaviour. For prediction of intention, the most outstanding variable among females is attitude, while among males they are subjective norm and self-efficacy. Finally, we analyze the implications of these data from a theoretical and practical point of view.

  3. Refrigerator with variable capacity compressor and cycle priming action through capacity control and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2016-03-15

    A refrigerator appliance (and associated method) that includes a condenser, evaporator and a multi-capacity compressor. The appliance also includes a pressure reducing device arranged within an evaporator-condenser refrigerant circuit, and a valve system for directing or restricting refrigerant flow through the device. The appliance further includes a controller for operating the compressor upon the initiation of a compressor ON-cycle at a priming capacity above a nominal capacity for a predetermined or calculated duration.

  4. Army Airspace Command and Control (A2C2): Action Plan for Issue Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    INFO Information INTEL Intelligence IPR In-Process Review IVIS Inter-Vehicular Information System JACC Joint Airspace Control Center JAOC Joint Air...base, centralized such as intelligence at Fort Huachuca and combat service support at Fort Lee , or a combination of both. It is no longer efficient to...Regiment (ATS) Ft. Bragg, NC 28307 ATTN: AFZF-ATS-C (LTC Ledbetter ) (919) 396-8899/7649 Bldg 87009, 16th Street Ft. Hood, TX 76544 Commander, 1st

  5. The virtual library in action: Collaborative international control of high-energy physics pre-print

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitz, P.A.; Addis, L.; Galic, H.; Johnson, T.

    1996-02-01

    This paper will discuss how control of the grey literature in high-energy physics pre-prints developed through a collaborative effort of librarians and physicists. It will highlight the critical steps in the development process and describe one model of a rapidly evolving virtual library for high-energy physics information. In conclusion, this paper will extend this physics model to other areas of grey literature management

  6. Screening of Various Herbicide Modes of Action for Selective Control of Algae Responsible for Harmful Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    included, Scenedesmus quadricauda and Selenastrum sp. After a two-week exposure period, all flasks were filtered. The planktonic algae were measured...activity against the various algal species tested (Figures 1 through 7). Aside from the reduction in biomass of the green alga Scenedesmus by...controls (Figures 1 through 7). Penoxsulam was highly active against the blue-greens Cylindrospermopsis and Anabaena, and the green alga Scenedesmus

  7. Using Markov Models of Fault Growth Physics and Environmental Stresses to Optimize Control Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, Brian; Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George

    2012-01-01

    A generalized Markov chain representation of fault dynamics is presented for the case that available modeling of fault growth physics and future environmental stresses can be represented by two independent stochastic process models. A contrived but representatively challenging example will be presented and analyzed, in which uncertainty in the modeling of fault growth physics is represented by a uniformly distributed dice throwing process, and a discrete random walk is used to represent uncertain modeling of future exogenous loading demands to be placed on the system. A finite horizon dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve for an optimal control policy over a finite time window for the case that stochastic models representing physics of failure and future environmental stresses are known, and the states of both stochastic processes are observable by implemented control routines. The fundamental limitations of optimization performed in the presence of uncertain modeling information are examined by comparing the outcomes obtained from simulations of an optimizing control policy with the outcomes that would be achievable if all modeling uncertainties were removed from the system.

  8. Action video gaming and cognitive control: playing first person shooter games is associated with improvement in working memory but not action inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Zmigrod, S.; Hommel, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the influence of videogame experience in our daily life is constantly growing. "First Person Shooter" (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react and monitor fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to inhibit erroneous actions. This study

  9. A randomized controlled trial investigation of a non-stimulant in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ACTION: Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Simon D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACTION study (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Controlled Trial Investigation Of a Non-stimulant is a multi-center, double-blind, randomized cross-over trial of the non-stimulant medication, Atomoxetine, in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The primary aims are to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine for improving cognition and emotional function in ADHD and whether any improvements in these outcomes are more pronounced in participants with comorbid anxiety; and to determine if changes in these outcomes after atomoxetine are more reliable than changes in diagnostic symptoms of ADHD. This manuscript will describe the methodology and rationale for the ACTION study. Methods Children and adolescents aged 6 - 17 y with ADHD will be enrolled. Clinical interview and validated scales will be used to confirm diagnosis and screen for exclusion criteria, which include concurrent stimulant use, and comorbid psychiatric or neurological conditions other than anxiety. Three assessment sessions will be conducted over the 13-week study period: Session 1 (Baseline, pre-treatment, Session 2 (six weeks, atomoxetine or placebo, and Session 3 (13 weeks, cross-over after one-week washout period. The standardized touch-screen battery, "IntegNeuro™", will be used to assess cognitive and emotional function. The primary measure of response will be symptom ratings, while quality of life will be a secondary outcome. Logistic regression will be used to determine predictors of treatment response, while repeated measures of analysis will determine any differences in effect of atomoxetine and placebo. Results The methodology for the ACTION study has been detailed. Conclusions The ACTION study is the first controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of atomoxetine using objective cognitive and emotional function markers, and whether these objective measures predict outcomes with atomoxetine in ADHD

  10. Mode of action human relevance (species concordance) framework: Evolution of the Bradford Hill considerations and comparative analysis of weight of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M E Bette; Palermo, Christine M; Bachman, Ammie N; North, Colin M; Jeffrey Lewis, R

    2014-06-01

    The mode of action human relevance (MOA/HR) framework increases transparency in systematically considering data on MOA for end (adverse) effects and their relevance to humans. This framework continues to evolve as experience increases in its application. Though the MOA/HR framework is not designed to address the question of "how much information is enough" to support a hypothesized MOA in animals or its relevance to humans, its organizing construct has potential value in considering relative weight of evidence (WOE) among different cases and hypothesized MOA(s). This context is explored based on MOA analyses in published assessments to illustrate the relative extent of supporting data and their implications for dose-response analysis and involved comparisons for chemical assessments on trichloropropane, and carbon tetrachloride with several hypothesized MOA(s) for cancer. The WOE for each hypothesized MOA was summarized in narrative tables based on comparison and contrast of the extent and nature of the supporting database versus potentially inconsistent or missing information. The comparison was based on evolved Bradford Hill considerations rank ordered to reflect their relative contribution to WOE determinations of MOA taking into account increasing experience in their application internationally. This clarification of considerations for WOE determinations as a basis for comparative analysis is anticipated to contribute to increasing consistency in the application of MOA/HR analysis and potentially, transparency in separating science judgment from public policy considerations in regulatory risk assessment. Copyright © 2014. The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pleiotropic Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs in Dysregulated Metabolic Homeostasis, Inflammation and Cancer: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Simone Laganà

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs have demonstrated a lot of important effects in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and in the correct functioning of adipose tissue. Recently, many studies have evaluated a possible effect of PPARs on tumor cells. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of PPARs, their action and their future prospective; Methods: Narrative review aimed to synthesize cutting-edge evidence retrieved from searches of computerized databases; Results: PPARs play a key role in metabolic diseases, which include several cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired immunity and the increasing risk of cancer; in particular, PPARα and PPARβ/δ mainly enable energy combustion, while PPARγ contributes to energy storage by enhancing adipogenesis; Conclusion: PPAR agonists could represent interesting types of molecules that can treat not only metabolic diseases, but also inflammation and cancer. Additional research is needed for the identification of high-affinity, high-specificity agonists for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and other metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed also to elucidate the role of PPARs in cancer.

  12. Multiple bottlenecks in hierarchical control of action sequences: what does "response selection" select in skilled typewriting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Logan, Gordon D; Li, Vanessa

    2013-08-01

    Does response selection select words or letters in skilled typewriting? Typing performance involves hierarchically organized control processes: an outer loop that controls word level processing, and an inner loop that controls letter (or keystroke) level processing. The present study addressed whether response selection occurs in the outer loop or the inner loop by using the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm in which Task1 required typing single words and Task2 required vocal responses to tones. The number of letters (string length) in the words was manipulated to discriminate selection of words from selection of keystrokes. In Experiment 1, the PRP effect depended on string length of words in Task1, suggesting that response selection occurs in the inner loop. To assess contributions of the outer loop, the influence of string length was examined in a lexical-decision task that also involves word encoding and lexical access (Experiment 2), or to-be-typed words were preexposed so outer-loop processing could finish before typing started (Experiment 3). Response time for Task2 (RT2) did not depend on string length with lexical decision, and RT2 still depended on string length with typing preexposed strings. These results support the inner-loop locus of the PRP effect. In Experiment 4, typing was performed as Task2, and the effect of string length on typing RT interacted with stimulus onset asynchrony superadditively, implying that another bottleneck also exists in the outer loop. We conclude that there are at least two bottleneck processes in skilled typewriting. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: a systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Stephanie; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S.; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:\\ud To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures.\\ud Design/methodology/approach:\\ud A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, adve...

  14. [Carcinogens exposure risk control: balance and strategies of action within the most emblematic industrial divisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    In Italy during the last three decades important changes in employment have occurred. During the '70s, thanks to a variety of factors, the hygiene conditions of work have undergone a process of slow, but gradual improvement, which has not been arrested during the following decades. New legislation, partly deriving from European directives, has been introduced, and processes of outsourcing have moved the most burdensome and pollutants industrial productions to developing countries. Nevertheless, the estimates of the number of exposed (or even potentially so) workers, to carcinogens remain quite high. Currently, in absence of the planned National Information System on Prevention, it is impossible to estimate in how many and which workplaces primary prevention plans and facilities have been already installed. This paper aims to describe the situation related to most occupationally diffused carcinogenic agents: asbestos, wood and crystalline silica dusts, each one for its specificity. It also describes the innovations introduced by the most recent legislation, in particular with regard to the asbestos risk control. Finally, it stresses the need for a reform of the insurance premiums in order to introduce a mechanism for rewarding those employers who implement primary prevention facilities and penalizing those who don't. The economic advantages should gradually cover the cost of risk control technology.

  15. Semi-Active Control of Precast RC Columns under Seismic Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Nicola; Spizzuoco, Mariacristina

    2017-10-01

    This work is inspired by the idea of dissipating seismic energy at the base of prefabricated RC columns via semi-active (SA) variable dampers exploiting the base rocking. It was performed a wide numerical campaign to investigate the seismic behaviour of a pre-cast RC column with a variable base restraint. The latter is based on the combined use of a hinge, elastic springs, and magnetorheological (MR) dampers remotely controlled according to the instantaneous response of the structural component. The MR devices are driven by a SA control algorithm purposely written to modulate the dissipative capability so as to reduce base bending moment without causing excessive displacement at the top. The proposed strategy results to be really promising, since the base restraint relaxation, that favours the base moment demand reduction, is accompanied by a high enhancement of the dissipated energy due to rocking that can be even able to reduce top displacement in respect to the “fixed base rotation” conditions.

  16. Core components for effective infection prevention and control programmes: new WHO evidence-based recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Storr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care-associated infections (HAI are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage. Given the limited availability of IPC evidence-based guidance and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO decided to prioritize the development of global recommendations on the core components of effective IPC programmes both at the national and acute health care facility level, based on systematic literature reviews and expert consensus. The aim of the guideline development process was to identify the evidence and evaluate its quality, consider patient values and preferences, resource implications, and the feasibility and acceptability of the recommendations. As a result, 11 recommendations and three good practice statements are presented here, including a summary of the supporting evidence, and form the substance of a new WHO IPC guideline.

  17. Assessing Awareness and Use of Evidence-Based Programs for Cancer Control in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, William A.; Fernández, María E.; Rivera, Mirza; Díaz, Elba C.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Pattatucci, Angela; Wetter, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Community Cancer Control Outreach Program (CCCOP) is a community-academic partnership aimed at developing and implementing a cancer control outreach, research, and training program in Puerto Rico. The CCCOP surveyed 56 partners to assess their awareness, training needs, and use of resources related to evidence-based programs (EBPs). Despite relatively high levels (70%) of confidence in adopting EBPs, there were low levels of awareness (37%) and use (25%) of existing EBPs resources. Respondents’ who had used EBPs resources were more likely to have positive beliefs about EBPs than nonusers (p<0.05). Training needs were high among respondents and no significant differences were found between those who had and had not used existing EBPs resources. These findings can guide the development of training tools and technical assistance to increase the use of EBPs for Latino audiences. PMID:22528632

  18. Deficits in postural control in individuals with COPD - emerging evidence for an important secondary impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauchamp Maria K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that individuals with COPD demonstrate reductions in balance control that may be associated with an increased fall risk. The purpose of this review is to: 1 provide a brief overview of balance control and its assessment; 2 review relevant literature describing balance impairment in individuals with COPD; and 3 highlight important areas for future research. The observation of balance deficits and an increased fall risk in patients with COPD suggests the need for including balance assessment and training for patients enrolled in pulmonary rehabilitation who may be vulnerable. Further studies are needed to determine which aspects of balance are affected and to examine the impact of interventions.

  19. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  20. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. PMID:25673742

  1. Effectiveness of the actions of antimicrobial's control in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Edilson Floriano dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various strategies to improve the effectiveness of antibiotics in hospitals. In general, the implementation of guidelines for appropriate antibiotic therapy and the participation of infectious disease (ID physicians deserve considerable attention. This study was a prospective ecological time-series study that evaluates the effectiveness of the ID physician's opinion to rationalize and control the use of antibiotics in medical-surgical intensive care units (ICU, and the impact of their intervention on treatment expenditures. There was significant change in the pattern of use of antimicrobials, this pattern approximating that of a medical-surgical ICU that participates in the ICARE (Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology Project. For example, there was a significant increase in the consumption of antimicrobials of the ampicillin group (Relative Risk [RR]=3.39; 95% CI: 2.34-4.91 and antipseudomonal penicillins (RR=2.89; 95% CI: 1.70-4.92. On the other hand, there was a significant reduction in the consumption of 3rd/4th generation cephalosporins (RR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.57-0.77 and carbapenems (RR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.33-0.56. On average, for every patient-day antibiotic expense was reduced 37.2% during calendar year 2001, when compared with 2000. The ID specialists' opinion and the adoption of guidelines for empirical antibiotic therapy of hospital-acquired pneumonia contributed to a reduction in the use of antimicrobials in medical-surgical ICU. However, further studies that have more control over confounding variables are needed to help determine the relevance of these discoveries.

  2. Effectiveness of the actions of antimicrobial's control in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Floriano dos Santos

    Full Text Available There are various strategies to improve the effectiveness of antibiotics in hospitals. In general, the implementation of guidelines for appropriate antibiotic therapy and the participation of infectious disease (ID physicians deserve considerable attention. This study was a prospective ecological time-series study that evaluates the effectiveness of the ID physician's opinion to rationalize and control the use of antibiotics in medical-surgical intensive care units (ICU, and the impact of their intervention on treatment expenditures. There was significant change in the pattern of use of antimicrobials, this pattern approximating that of a medical-surgical ICU that participates in the ICARE (Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology Project. For example, there was a significant increase in the consumption of antimicrobials of the ampicillin group (Relative Risk [RR]=3.39; 95% CI: 2.34-4.91 and antipseudomonal penicillins (RR=2.89; 95% CI: 1.70-4.92. On the other hand, there was a significant reduction in the consumption of 3rd/4th generation cephalosporins (RR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.57-0.77 and carbapenems (RR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.33-0.56. On average, for every patient-day antibiotic expense was reduced 37.2% during calendar year 2001, when compared with 2000. The ID specialists' opinion and the adoption of guidelines for empirical antibiotic therapy of hospital-acquired pneumonia contributed to a reduction in the use of antimicrobials in medical-surgical ICU. However, further studies that have more control over confounding variables are needed to help determine the relevance of these discoveries.

  3. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah; Amos, Amanda; Clifford, David; Platt, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    We updated and expanded a previous systematic literature review examining the impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. We searched the academic literature for reviews and primary research articles published between January 2006 and November 2010 that examined the socioeconomic impact of six tobacco control interventions in adults: that is, price increases, smoke-free policies, advertising bans, mass media campaigns, warning labels, smoking cessation support and community-based programmes combining several interventions. We included English-language articles from countries at an advanced stage of the tobacco epidemic that examined the differential impact of tobacco control interventions by socioeconomic status or the effectiveness of interventions among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. All articles were appraised by two authors and details recorded using a standardised approach. Data from 77 primary studies and seven reviews were synthesised via narrative review. We found strong evidence that increases in tobacco price have a pro-equity effect on socioeconomic disparities in smoking. Evidence on the equity impact of other interventions is inconclusive, with the exception of non-targeted smoking cessation programmes which have a negative equity impact due to higher quit rates among more advantaged smokers. Increased tobacco price via tax is the intervention with the greatest potential to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. Other measures studied appear unlikely to reduce inequalities in smoking without specific efforts to reach disadvantaged smokers. There is a need for more research evaluating the equity impact of tobacco control measures, and development of more effective approaches for reducing tobacco use in disadvantaged groups and communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Prevention and control of mental illnesses and mental health: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Minhas, Fareed A; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Badar, Asma; Mohamud, Khalif Bile

    2004-12-01

    As part of the National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD), mental illnesses have been grouped alongside non-communicable diseases (NCD) within a combined strategic framework in order to synchronize public health actions. The systematic approach for mental illnesses is centred on safeguarding the rights of the mentally ill, reducing stigma and discrimination, and de-institutionalisation and rehabilitation of the mentally ill in the community outlining roles of healthcare providers, the community, legislators and policy makers. The approach has implications for support functions in a number of areas including policy building, manpower and material development and research. Priority action areas for mental health as part of NAP-NCD include the integration of surveillance of mental illnesses in a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system; creating awareness about mental health as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy; integration of mental health with primary healthcare; the development of sustainable public health infrastructure to support community mental health initiatives; building capacity of the health system in support of prevention and control activities; effective implementation of existing legislation and harmonizing working relationships with law enforcing agencies. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to integrate mental health into health services as part of a sustainable and integrated medical education programme for all categories of healthcare providers and the availability of essential psychotropic drugs at all healthcare levels. It lays emphasis on protecting the interests of special groups such as prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, women, children and individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, it promotes need-based research for contemporary mental health issues.

  6. Who responds to financial incentives for weight loss? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyo, Alfredo R; Reichert, Arndt R; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Tauchmann, Harald

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on the heterogeneous impacts of financial incentives on weight loss. Between March 2010 and January 2012, in a randomized controlled trial, we assigned 700 obese persons to three experimental arms. We test whether particular subgroups react differently to financial incentives for weight loss. Two treatment groups obtained a cash reward (€150 and €300 with 237 and 229 participants, respectively) for achieving an individually-assigned target weight within four months; the control group (234 participants) was not incentivized. Participants and administrators were not blinded to the intervention. We find that monetary rewards effectively induced obese individuals to reduce weight across all subgroups. However, there is no evidence for treatment-effect heterogeneity for those groups that were incentivized. Among those who were in the €300 group, statistically significant and large weight losses were observed for women, singles, and those who are not working (all above 4 kg in four months). In addition, the magnitude of the reward matters only for women and migrants. The effectiveness of financial incentives to reduce weight nevertheless raises sensitive ethical issues that should be taken into consideration by policymakers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Government auditing and corruption control: Evidence from China’s provincial panel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation, China’s government auditing system has played a very important role in maintaining financial and economic order and improving government accountability and transparency. Though a great deal of research has discussed the role of government auditing in discovering and deterring corruption, there is little empirical evidence on whether government auditing actually helps to reduce corruption. Using China’s provincial panel data from 1999 to 2008, this paper empirically examines the role of government auditing in China’s corruption control initiatives. Our findings indicate that the number of irregularities detected in government auditing is positively related to the corruption level in that province, which means the more severe the corruption is in a province, the more irregularities in government accounts are found by local audit institutions. Also, post-audit rectification effort is negatively related to the corruption level in that province, indicating that greater rectification effort is associated with less corruption. This paper provides empirical evidence on how government auditing can contribute to curbing corruption, which is also helpful for understanding the role of China’s local audit institutions in government governance and can enrich the literature on both government auditing and corruption control.

  8. Focused cognitive control in dishonesty: Evidence for predominantly transient conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Anna; Pfister, Roland; Schmidts, Constantin; Dignath, David; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-04-01

    Giving a dishonest response to a question entails cognitive conflict due to an initial activation of the truthful response. Following conflict monitoring theory, dishonest responding could therefore elicit transient and sustained control adaptation processes to mitigate such conflict, and the current experiments take on the scope and specificity of such conflict adaptation in dishonesty. Transient adaptation reduces differences between honest and dishonest responding following a recent dishonest response. Sustained adaptation has a similar behavioral signature but is driven by the overall frequency of dishonest responding. Both types of adaptation to recent and frequent dishonest responses have been separately documented, leaving open whether control processes in dishonest responding can flexibly adapt to transient and sustained conflict signals of dishonest and other actions. This was the goal of the present experiments which studied (dis)honest responding to autobiographical yes/no questions. Experiment 1 showed robust transient adaptation to recent dishonest responses whereas sustained control adaptation failed to exert an influence on behavior. It further revealed that transient effects may create a spurious impression of sustained adaptation in typical experimental settings. Experiments 2 and 3 examined whether dishonest responding can profit from transient and sustained adaption processes triggered by other behavioral conflicts. This was clearly not the case: Dishonest responding adapted markedly to recent (dis)honest responses but not to any context of other conflicts. These findings indicate that control adaptation in dishonest responding is strong but surprisingly focused and they point to a potential trade-off between transient and sustained adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Strategic action or self-control? Adolescent information management and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, Maria S

    2018-05-01

    Recent scholarship has begun to challenge the prevailing view that children are passive recipients of parental socialization, including the common belief that parental disciplinary practices are central to explaining adolescent problem behaviors. This research shows that children exert a significant influence over parents via information management, or the degree to which children disclose information about their behavior to parents. Despite the incorporation of child information management into contemporary models of parenting, significant theoretical and empirical concerns cast doubt on its utility over classic parent-centered approaches. The current paper addresses these concerns and adjudicates between disparate definitions of adolescent information management in two ways. First, it provides a theoretically grounded definition of information management as agentic behavior. Second, it specifies a model that tests definitions of secret keeping as agentic against a non-agentic definition of secret keeping supplied by criminological theories of self-control. The model is estimated with three four-wave cross-lagged panel models, which disentangle the interrelationships between parenting, child concealment of information, and child problem behavior in a sample of high risk youth. The results offer support for a definition of concealment as strategic and self-regarding, and have implications for research on delinquency, parent-child interactions, and child agency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social priming improves cognitive control in elderly adults--evidence from the Simon task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aisenberg

    Full Text Available We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task, which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person: 1 negative--characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2 neutral--characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3 positive--excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence for cognitive control during conflict processing in visual spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, Stefanie; Kraft, Antje; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Koch, Stefan P; Hagendorf, Herbert; Kathmann, Norbert; Brandt, Stephan A

    2009-11-01

    Event-related potentials were measured to investigate the role of visual spatial attention mechanisms in conflict processing. We suggested that a more difficult target selection leads to stronger attentional top-down control, thereby reducing the effects of arising conflicts. This hypothesis was tested by varying the selection difficulty in a location negative priming (NP) paradigm. The difficult task resulted in prolonged responses as compared to the easy task. A behavioral NP effect was only evident in the easy task. Psychophysiologically the easy task was associated with reduced parietal N1, enhanced frontocentral N2 and N2pc components and a prolonged P3 latency for the conflict as compared to the control condition. The N2pc effect was also obvious in the difficult task. Additionally frontocentral N2 amplitudes increased and latencies of N2pc and P3 were delayed compared to the easy task. The differences at frontocentral and parietal electrodes are consistent with previous studies ascribing activity in the prefrontal and parietal cortex as the source of top-down attentional control. Thus, we propose that stronger cognitive control is involved in the difficult task, resulting in a reduced behavioral NP conflict.

  12. Evidence for a Heritable Brain Basis to Deviance-Promoting Deficits in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, James R; Venables, Noah C; Hicks, Brian M; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Classic criminological theories emphasize the role of impaired self-control in behavioral deviancy. Reduced amplitude of the P300 brain response is reliably observed in individuals with antisocial and substance-related problems, suggesting it may serve as a neurophysiological indicator of deficiencies in self-control that confer liability to deviancy. The current study evaluated the role of self-control capacity - operationalized by scores on a scale measure of trait disinhibition - in mediating the relationship between P300 brain response and behavioral deviancy in a sample of adult twins ( N =419) assessed for symptoms of antisocial/addictive disorders and P300 brain response. As predicted, greater disorder symptoms and higher trait disinhibition scores each predicted smaller P300 amplitude, and trait disinhibition mediated observed relations between antisocial/addictive disorders and P300 response. Further, twin modeling analyses revealed that trait disinhibition scores and disorder symptoms reflected a common genetic liability, and this genetic liability largely accounted for the observed phenotypic relationship between antisocial-addictive problems and P300 brain response. These results provide further evidence that heritable weaknesses in self-control capacity confer liability to antisocial/addictive outcomes and that P300 brain response indexes this dispositional liability.

  13. Social priming improves cognitive control in elderly adults--evidence from the Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Daniela; Cohen, Noga; Pick, Hadas; Tressman, Iris; Rappaport, Michal; Shenberg, Tal; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task), which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person): 1) negative--characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2) neutral--characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3) positive--excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton) that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities.

  14. Molecular and elemental effects underlying the biochemical action of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in appetite control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowka, Artur D.; Ziomber, Agata; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Migliori, Alessandro; Kasper, Kaja; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies highlight that obesity may alter the electric activity in brain areas triggering appetite and craving. Transcranial direct current brain stimulation (tDCS) has recently emerged as a safe alternative for treating food addiction via modulating cortical excitability without any high-risk surgical procedure to be utilized. As for anodal-type tDCS (atDCS), we observe increased excitability and spontaneous firing of the cortical neurons, whilst for the cathodal-type tDCS (ctDCS) a significant decrease is induced. Unfortunately, for the method to be fully used in a clinical setting, its biochemical action mechanism must be precisely defined, although it is proposed that molecular remodelling processes play in concert with brain activity changes involving the ions of: Na, Cl, K and Ca. Herein, we proposed for the first time Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobes for a combined molecular and elemental analysis in the brain areas implicated appetite control, upon experimental treatment by either atDCS or ctDCS. The study, although preliminary, shows that by stimulating the prefrontal cortex in the rats fed high-caloric nutrients, the feeding behavior can be significantly changed, resulting in significantly inhibited appetite. Both, atDCS and ctDCS produced significant molecular changes involving qualitative and structural properties of lipids, whereas atDCS was found with a somewhat more significant effect on protein secondary structure in all the brain areas investigated. Also, tDCS was reported to reduce surface masses of Na, Cl, K, and Ca in almost all brain areas investigated, although the atDCS deemed to have a stronger neuro-modulating effect. Taken together, one can report that tDCS is an effective treatment technique, and its action mechanism in the appetite control seems to involve a variety of lipid-, protein- and metal/non-metal-ion-driven biochemical changes, regardless the current polarization.

  15. Epigenetic control of learning and memory in Drosophila by Tip60 HAT action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songjun; Wilf, Rona; Menon, Trisha; Panikker, Priyalakshmi; Sarthi, Jessica; Elefant, Felice

    2014-12-01

    Disruption of epigenetic gene control mechanisms in the brain causes significant cognitive impairment that is a debilitating hallmark of most neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Histone acetylation is one of the best characterized of these epigenetic mechanisms that is critical for regulating learning- and memory- associated gene expression profiles, yet the specific histone acetyltransferases (HATs) that mediate these effects have yet to be fully characterized. Here, we investigate an epigenetic role for the HAT Tip60 in learning and memory formation using the Drosophila CNS mushroom body (MB) as a well-characterized cognition model. We show that Tip60 is endogenously expressed in the Kenyon cells, the intrinsic neurons of the MB, and in the MB axonal lobes. Targeted loss of Tip60 HAT activity in the MB causes thinner and shorter axonal lobes while increasing Tip60 HAT levels cause no morphological defects. Functional consequences of both loss and gain of Tip60 HAT levels in the MB are evidenced by defects in immediate-recall memory. Our ChIP-Seq analysis reveals that Tip60 target genes are enriched for functions in cognitive processes, and, accordingly, key genes representing these pathways are misregulated in the Tip60 HAT mutant fly brain. Remarkably, we find that both learning and immediate-recall memory deficits that occur under AD-associated, amyloid precursor protein (APP)-induced neurodegenerative conditions can be effectively rescued by increasing Tip60 HAT levels specifically in the MB. Together, our findings uncover an epigenetic transcriptional regulatory role for Tip60 in cognitive function and highlight the potential of HAT activators as a therapeutic option for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy and mode of action of biological control for suppression of ganoderma boninense in oil palm

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    Alexander, A.; Abdullah, S.; Rossall, S.; Chong, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of potential antagonists, a commercial product containing combinations of microorganisms (TR1) to control Ganoderma boninense growth was investigated in this research. TR1 contained multiple strains of Bacillus spp. and Trichoderma spp. The results from field experiments showed that TR1 was all able to reduce the colonization of G. boninense, based on re-isolation of the pathogen onto a selective medium and the reduction of ergosterol content compared to untreated controls. Effectiveness of TR1 was therefore further investigated for mode of action studies. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations of Ganoderma mycelium, recovered from bioassay plates on which TR1 had inhibited fungal growth, showed that the mycelium was highly disrupted and lysed after exposure to the treatment. The production of potentially antifungal components produced by TR1 microbes in broth cultures was further investigated using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS). Several antimicrobial compounds, which could inhibit G. boninense were detected, including pyrene-1,6-dione, 12-deoxyaklanonic acid, N-methyl-a-aminoisobutyric acid, 4-O-8',5"-5'-dehydrotriferulic acid, halstoctacosanolide A, N-acetyl-leu-leu-tyr-amide, 12-oxo-10Z-dodecenoic acid, Gly-Met-OH and lovastatin. These metabolites probably contribute to the antagonistic effect against G. boninense. The use of TR1 could offer an alternative to the use of fungicides and is worthy of further investigation for the control of Ganoderma infection of oil palm. (author)

  17. Evidence for hydroxyl radical scavenging action of nitric oxide donors in the protection against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rebecca; Saravanan, Karuppagounder S; Thomas, Bobby; Sindhu, Kizhake M; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2008-06-01

    In the present study we provide evidence for hydroxyl radical (*OH) scavenging action of nitric oxide (NO*), and subsequent dopaminergic neuroprotection in a hemiparkinsonian rat model. Reactive oxygen species are strongly implicated in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity caused by the parkinsonian neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Since the role of this free radical as a neurotoxicant or neuroprotectant is debatable, we investigated the effects of some of the NO* donors such as S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nitroglycerin (NG) on in vitro *OH generation in a Fenton-like reaction involving ferrous citrate, as well as in MPP+-induced *OH production in the mitochondria. We also tested whether co-administration of NO* donor and MPP+ could protect against MPP+-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats. While NG, SNAP and SIN-1 attenuated MPP+-induced *OH generation in the mitochondria, and in a Fenton-like reaction, SNP caused up to 18-fold increase in *OH production in the latter reaction. Striatal dopaminergic depletion following intranigral infusion of MPP+ in rats was significantly attenuated by NG, SNAP and SIN-1, but not by SNP. Solutions of NG, SNAP and SIN-1, exposed to air for 48 h to remove NO*, when administered similarly failed to attenuate MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in vivo. Conversely, long-time air-exposed SNP solution when administered in rats intranigrally, caused a dose-dependent depletion of the striatal dopamine. These results confirm the involvement of *OH in the nigrostriatal degeneration caused by MPP+, indicate the *OH scavenging ability of NO*, and demonstrate protection by NO* donors against MPP+-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats.

  18. Marking of verb tense in the English of preschool English-Mandarin bilingual children: evidence from language development profiles within subgroups on the Singapore English Action Picture Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Liow, Susan Rickard

    2016-01-01

    The phonological and morphosyntactic structures of English and Mandarin contrast maximally and an increasing number of bilinguals speak these two languages. Speech and language therapists need to understand bilingual development for children speaking these languages in order reliably to assess and provide intervention for this population. To examine the marking of verb tense in the English of two groups of bilingual pre-schoolers learning these languages in a multilingual setting where the main educational language is English. The main research question addressed was: are there differences in the rate and pattern of acquisition of verb-tense marking for English-language 1 children compared with Mandarin-language 1 children? Spoken language samples in English from 481 English-Mandarin bilingual children were elicited using a 10-item action picture test and analysed for each child's use of verb tense markers: present progressive '-ing', regular past tense '-ed', third-person singular '-s', and irregular past tense and irregular past-participle forms. For 4-6 year olds the use of inflectional markers by the different language dominance groups was compared statistically using non-parametric tests. This study provides further evidence that bilingual language development is not the same as monolingual language development. The results show that there are very different rates and patterns of verb-tense marking in English for English-language 1 and Mandarin-language 1 children. Furthermore, they show that bilingual language development in English in Singapore is not the same as monolingual language development in English, and that there are differences in development depending on language dominance. Valid and reliable assessment of bilingual children's language skills needs to consider the characteristics of all languages spoken, obtaining accurate information on language use over time and accurately establishing language dominance is essential in order to make a

  19. Shrub growth and expansion in the Arctic tundra: an assessment of controlling factors using an evidence-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew C.; Jeffers, Elizabeth S.; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Myers-Smith, Isla; Macias-Fauria, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Woody shrubs have increased in biomass and expanded into new areas throughout the Pan-Arctic tundra biome in recent decades, which has been linked to a biome-wide observed increase in productivity. Experimental, observational, and socio-ecological research suggests that air temperature—and to a lesser degree precipitation—trends have been the predominant drivers of this change. However, a progressive decoupling of these drivers from Arctic vegetation productivity has been reported, and since 2010, vegetation productivity has also been declining. We created a protocol to (a) identify the suite of controls that may be operating on shrub growth and expansion, and (b) characterise the evidence base for controls on Arctic shrub growth and expansion. We found evidence for a suite of 23 proximal controls that operate directly on shrub growth and expansion; the evidence base focused predominantly on just four controls (air temperature, soil moisture, herbivory, and snow dynamics). 65% of evidence was generated in the warmest tundra climes, while 24% was from only one of 28 floristic sectors. Temporal limitations beyond 10 years existed for most controls, while the use of space-for-time approaches was high, with 14% of the evidence derived via experimental approaches. The findings suggest the current evidence base is not sufficiently robust or comprehensive at present to answer key questions of Pan-Arctic shrub change. We suggest future directions that could strengthen the evidence, and lead to an understanding of the key mechanisms driving changes in Arctic shrub environments.

  20. Teaching of evidence-based medicine to medical students in Mexico: a randomized controlled trial

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    Sánchez-Mendiola Melchor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is an important competency for the healthcare professional. Experimental evidence of EBM educational interventions from rigorous research studies is limited. The main objective of this study was to assess EBM learning (knowledge, attitudes and self-reported skills in undergraduate medical students with a randomized controlled trial. Methods The educational intervention was a one-semester EBM course in the 5th year of a public medical school in Mexico. The study design was an experimental parallel group randomized controlled trial for the main outcome measures in the 5th year class (M5 EBM vs. M5 non-EBM groups, and quasi-experimental with static-groups comparisons for the 4th year (M4, not yet exposed and 6th year (M6, exposed 6 months to a year earlier groups. EBM attitudes, knowledge and self-reported skills were measured using Taylor’s questionnaire and a summative exam which comprised of a 100-item multiple-choice question (MCQ test. Results 289 Medical students were assessed: M5 EBM=48, M5 non-EBM=47, M4=87, and M6=107. There was a higher reported use of the Cochrane Library and secondary journals in the intervention group (M5 vs. M5 non-EBM. Critical appraisal skills and attitude scores were higher in the intervention group (M5 and in the group of students exposed to EBM instruction during the previous year (M6. The knowledge level was higher after the intervention in the M5 EBM group compared to the M5 non-EBM group (pd=0.88 with Taylor's instrument and 3.54 with the 100-item MCQ test. M6 Students that received the intervention in the previous year had a knowledge score higher than the M4 and M5 non-EBM groups, but lower than the M5 EBM group. Conclusions Formal medical student training in EBM produced higher scores in attitudes, knowledge and self-reported critical appraisal skills compared with a randomized control group. Data from the concurrent groups add validity evidence to the

  1. A simple heuristic for Internet-based evidence search in primary care: a randomized controlled trial

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    Eberbach A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Eberbach,1 Annette Becker,1 Justine Rochon,2 Holger Finkemeler,1Achim Wagner,3 Norbert Donner-Banzhoff1 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Philipp University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Institute of Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 3Department of Sport Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany Background: General practitioners (GPs are confronted with a wide variety of clinical questions, many of which remain unanswered. Methods: In order to assist GPs in finding quick, evidence-based answers, we developed a learning program (LP with a short interactive workshop based on a simple ­three-step-heuristic to improve their search and appraisal competence (SAC. We evaluated the LP ­effectiveness with a randomized controlled trial (RCT. Participants (intervention group [IG] n=20; ­control group [CG] n=31 rated acceptance and satisfaction and also answered 39 ­knowledge ­questions to assess their SAC. We controlled for previous knowledge in content areas covered by the test. Results: Main outcome – SAC: within both groups, the pre–post test shows significant (P=0.00 improvements in correctness (IG 15% vs CG 11% and confidence (32% vs 26% to find evidence-based answers. However, the SAC difference was not significant in the RCT. Other measures: Most workshop participants rated “learning atmosphere” (90%, “skills acquired” (90%, and “relevancy to my practice” (86% as good or very good. The ­LP-recommendations were implemented by 67% of the IG, whereas 15% of the CG already conformed to LP recommendations spontaneously (odds ratio 9.6, P=0.00. After literature search, the IG showed a (not significantly higher satisfaction regarding “time spent” (IG 80% vs CG 65%, “quality of information” (65% vs 54%, and “amount of information” (53% vs 47%.Conclusion: Long-standing established GPs have a good SAC. Despite high acceptance, strong

  2. Feeling safe in the plane: neural mechanisms underlying superior action control in airplane pilot trainees--a combined EEG/MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ali; Quetscher, Clara; Dharmadhikari, Shalmali; Chmielewski, Witold; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Edden, Richard; Dydak, Ulrike; Beste, Christian

    2014-10-01

    In day-to-day life, we need to apply strategies to cascade different actions for efficient unfolding of behavior. While deficits in action cascading are examined extensively, almost nothing is known about the neuronal mechanisms mediating superior performance above the normal level. To examine this question, we investigate action control in airplane pilot trainees. We use a stop-change paradigm that is able to estimate the efficiency of action cascading on the basis of mathematical constraints. Behavioral and EEG data is analyzed along these constraints and integrated with neurochemical data obtained using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) from the striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) -ergic system. We show that high performance in action cascading, as exemplified in airplane pilot trainees, can be driven by intensified attentional processes, circumventing response selection processes. The results indicate that the efficiency of action cascading and hence the speed of responding as well as attentional gating functions are modulated by striatal GABA and Glutamate + Glutamine concentrations. In superior performance in action cascading similar increases in the concentrations of GABA and Glutamate + Glutamine lead to stronger neurophysiological and behavioral effects as compared to subjects with normal performance in action cascading. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The potent opioid agonist, (+)-cis-3-methylfentanyl binds pseudoirreversibly to the opioid receptor complex in vitro and in vivo: Evidence for a novel mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Band, L.; Xu, Heng; Bykov, V.; Rothman, R.B.; Kim, Chongho; Newman, A.; Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C. (NIDDK, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Greig, N. (NIA, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that pretreatment of rat brain membranes with (+)-cis-3-methylfentanyl ((+)-cis-MF), followed by extensive washing of the membranes, produces a wash-resistant decreasing in the binding of ({sup 3}H)-(D-ala{sup 2}, D-leu{sup 5})enkephalin to the d binding site of the opioid receptor complex ({delta}{sub cx} binding site). Intravenous administration of (+)-cis-MF (50 {mu}g/kg) to rats produced a pronounced catalepsy and also produced a wash-resistant masking of {delta}{sub cx} and {mu} binding sites in membranes prepared 120 min post-injection. Administration of 1 mg/kg i.v. of the opioid antagonist, 6-desoxy-6{beta}-fluoronaltrexone (cycloFOXY), 100 min after the injection of (+)-cis-MF (20 min prior to the preparation of membranes) completely reversed the catatonia and restored masked {delta}{sub cx} binding sites to control levels. This was not observed with (+)-cycloFOXY. The implications of these and other findings for the mechanism of action of (+)-cis-MF and models of the opioid receptors are discussed.

  4. Stimulus- and goal-driven control of eye movements: action videogame players are faster but not better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimler, Benedetta; Pavani, Francesco; Donk, Mieke; van Zoest, Wieske

    2014-11-01

    Action videogame players (AVGPs) have been shown to outperform nongamers (NVGPs) in covert visual attention tasks. These advantages have been attributed to improved top-down control in this population. The time course of visual selection, which permits researchers to highlight when top-down strategies start to control performance, has rarely been investigated in AVGPs. Here, we addressed specifically this issue through an oculomotor additional-singleton paradigm. Participants were instructed to make a saccadic eye movement to a unique orientation singleton. The target was presented among homogeneous nontargets and one additional orientation singleton that was more, equally, or less salient than the target. Saliency was manipulated in the color dimension. Our results showed similar patterns of performance for both AVGPs and NVGPs: Fast-initiated saccades were saliency-driven, whereas later-initiated saccades were more goal-driven. However, although AVGPs were faster than NVGPs, they were also less accurate. Importantly, a multinomial model applied to the data revealed comparable underlying saliency-driven and goal-driven functions for the two groups. Taken together, the observed differences in performance are compatible with the presence of a lower decision bound for releasing saccades in AVGPs than in NVGPs, in the context of comparable temporal interplay between the underlying attentional mechanisms. In sum, the present findings show that in both AVGPs and NVGPs, the implementation of top-down control in visual selection takes time to come about, and they argue against the idea of a general enhancement of top-down control in AVGPs.

  5. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-05-01

    Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: -1.8%, -12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, -7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: -2.1%, -8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, -5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Does peer use influence adoption of efficient cookstoves? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Theresa; Blalock, Garrick; Levine, David I; Simons, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of peer usage on consumer demand for efficient cookstoves with a randomized controlled trial in rural Uganda. The authors tested whether the neighbors of buyers who ordered and received a stove are more likely to purchase an efficient cookstove than the neighbors of buyers who ordered but have not yet received a stove. The authors found that neighbors of buyers who have experience with the stove are not detectably more likely to purchase a stove than neighbors of buyers who have not yet received their stove. The authors found evidence of peer effects in opinions about efficient cookstoves. Knowing that a prominent member of the community has the efficient stove predicts 17-22 percentage points higher odds of strongly favoring the stove. However, this more favorable opinion seemingly has no effect on purchase decisions.

  7. Worksite Environmental Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Control: Evidence from Group Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-06-01

    Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.

  8. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2015-06-05

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds' flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints.

  9. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H.; Hossain, M. Ashraf; Kashem, M. A.; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance. PMID:24723819

  10. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010. Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%, and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%; Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%; and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale and the highest increase (38% of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  11. Control Actions on Leprosy in Primary Health Care in a Brazilian Capital: Profile of Professionals and Users

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    Anselmo Alves Lustosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: analyze  profile of users of primary health care services affected by leprosy, as well as the medical professionals and nurses responsible for the follow - up of these patients.   Methods: This is a field study that surveyed the socioeconomic and clinical profile of 26 patients affected by leprosy, attended at the municipal health units of the urban area of ​​Teresina-PI, as well as the professional profile and clinical practices of 15 physicians and 19 nurses responsible for the follow-up of these patients. Results: It was observed a profile of people affected by leprosy, characterized by: individuals aged 50 years or more; predominantly male; with low schooling and income. The clinical characteristics reveal a high prevalence of multibacillary cases of leprosy and with a significant diagnosis of some degree of physical disability. Regarding the profile of the professionals and their clinical behaviors, it was verified that the majority had post-graduation and a long time of experience in primary health care and leprosy control actions, however, it has been shown that they do not always put into practice all actions necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Conclusions: The profile of patients with leprosy treated at the municipal health units in the urban area of Teresina was similar to that found in other Brazilian territories, thus evidencing the need to implement public social support policies and more effective diagnostic and therapeutic follow-up practices by reduce the high rates of endemicity of the disease.

  12. Effect of parent-delivered action observation therapy on upper limb function in unilateral cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Emma; Pearse, Janice; James, Peter; Basu, Anna

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether home-based, parent-delivered therapy comprising action observation (AO) and repeated practice (RP) improves upper limb function more than RP alone in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). single-blinded parallel-group randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation comparing AO+RP (intervention) with RP alone (control). computer-generated, with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially-numbered envelopes. northern England, August 2011 to September 2013. 70 children with UCP; mean age 5.6 years (SD 2.1), 31 female. home-based activities were provided, tailored to interests and abilities. 15 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 months. Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA; primary outcome measure), Melbourne Assessment 2 (MA2), and ABILHAND-Kids at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Outcome data was available at 3 months for 28 children in the AO+RP group and 31 controls, and at 6 months for 26 and 28 children respectively. There were no between-group differences in AHA, MA2, or ABILHAND-Kids at 3 or 6 months versus baseline (all p>0.05). Combined-group improvements (pMA2 at 3 months, were maintained at 6 months. ABILHAND-Kids also showed improvement at 3 months (p=0.003), maintained at 6 months. Parent-delivered RP (with or without AO) improves upper limb function and could supplement therapist input. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.

  13. Other ways of seeing: From behavior to neural mechanisms in the online “visual” control of action with sensory substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J.; Gwinnutt, James; Dell’Erba, Sara; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; de Sousa, Alexandra A.; Brown, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense for perception-for-action in humans and other higher primates. Advances in sight restoration now utilize the other intact senses to provide information that is normally sensed visually through sensory substitution to replace missing visual information. Sensory substitution devices translate visual information from a sensor, such as a camera or ultrasound device, into a format that the auditory or tactile systems can detect and process, so the visually impaired can see through hearing or touch. Online control of action is essential for many daily tasks such as pointing, grasping and navigating, and adapting to a sensory substitution device successfully requires extensive learning. Here we review the research on sensory substitution for vision restoration in the context of providing the means of online control for action in the blind or blindfolded. It appears that the use of sensory substitution devices utilizes the neural visual system; this suggests the hypothesis that sensory substitution draws on the same underlying mechanisms as unimpaired visual control of action. Here we review the current state of the art for sensory substitution approaches to object recognition, localization, and navigation, and the potential these approaches have for revealing a metamodal behavioral and neural basis for the online control of action. PMID:26599473

  14. Universal health coverage at the macro level: Synthetic control evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias; Wagner, Natascha; Bedi, Arjun S

    2017-01-01

    As more and more countries are moving towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC), it is important to understand the macro level or aggregate impacts of such a policy. We use synthetic control methods to study the impact of UHC, introduced in Thailand in 2001, on various macroeconomic and health outcomes. Thailand is compared to a weighted average of control countries in terms of aggregate health financing indicators, aggregate health outcomes and economic performance, over the period 1995 to 2012. Our results suggest that UHC helps alleviate the financial consequences of illnesses. The estimated treatment effect of UHC on out-of-pocket payments as a percentage of overall health expenditures is negative 13 percentage points and its effect on annual government per capita health spending is US$ 79. We detect a smaller effect of US$ 60.8 on total health spending per capita which appears with a lag. We document positive health effects as captured by reductions in infant and child mortality. We do not find any effect on GDP and the share of the government budget devoted to health. Overall, our results complement micro evidence based on within country variation. The counterfactual design implemented here may be used to inform other countries on the macro level repercussions of UHC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Neural congruence between intertemporal and interpersonal self-control: Evidence from delay and social discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul F; Yi, Richard; Spreng, R Nathan; Diana, Rachel A

    2017-11-15

    Behavioral studies using delay and social discounting as indices of self-control and altruism, respectively, have revealed functional similarities between farsighted and social decisions. However, neural evidence for this functional link is lacking. Twenty-five young adults completed a delay and social discounting task during fMRI scanning. A spatiotemporal partial least squares analysis revealed that both forms of discounting were well characterized by a pattern of brain activity in areas comprising frontoparietal control, default, and mesolimbic reward networks. Both forms of discounting appear to draw on common neurocognitive mechanisms, regardless of whether choices involve intertemporal or interpersonal outcomes. We also observed neural profiles differentiating between high and low discounters. High discounters were well characterized by increased medial temporal lobe and limbic activity. In contrast, low discount rates were associated with activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction. This pattern may reflect biological mechanisms underlying behavioral heterogeneity in discount rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing risk factors in the organic control system: evidence from inspection data in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoli, Raffaele; Gambelli, Danilo; Solfanelli, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Certification is an essential feature in organic farming, and it is based on inspections to verify compliance with respect to European Council Regulation-EC Reg. No 834/2007. A risk-based approach to noncompliance that alerts the control bodies to activate planning inspections would contribute to a more efficient and cost-effective certification system. An analysis of factors that can affect the probability of noncompliance in organic farming has thus been developed. This article examines the application of zero-inflated count data models to farm-level panel data from inspection results and sanctions obtained from the Ethical and Environmental Certification Institute, one of the main control bodies in Italy. We tested many a priori hypotheses related to the risk of noncompliance. We find evidence of an important role for past noncompliant behavior in predicting future noncompliance, while farm size and the occurrence of livestock also have roles in an increased probability of noncompliance. We conclude the article proposing that an efficient risk-based inspection system should be designed, weighting up the known probability of occurrence of a given noncompliance according to the severity of its impact. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Controlling Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Haiti: Implementation Strategies and Evidence of Their Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Desormeaux, Anne Marie; Monestime, Franck; Fayette, Carl Renad; Desir, Luccene; Direny, Abdel Nasser; Carciunoiu, Sarah; Miller, Lior; Knipes, Alaine; Lammie, Patrick; Smith, Penelope; Stockton, Melissa; Trofimovich, Lily; Bhandari, Kalpana; Reithinger, Richard; Crowley, Kathryn; Ottesen, Eric; Baker, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) have been targeted since 2000 in Haiti, with a strong mass drug administration (MDA) program led by the Ministry of Public Health and Population and its collaborating international partners. By 2012, Haiti's neglected tropical disease (NTD) program had reached full national scale, and with such consistently good epidemiological coverage that it is now able to stop treatment for LF throughout almost all of the country. Essential to this success have been in the detail of how MDAs were implemented. These key programmatic elements included ensuring strong community awareness through an evidence-based, multi-channel communication and education campaign facilitated by voluntary drug distributors; strengthening community trust of the drug distributors by ensuring that respected community members were recruited and received appropriate training, supervision, identification, and motivation; enforcing a "directly observed treatment" strategy; providing easy access to treatment though numerous distribution posts and a strong drug supply chain; and ensuring quality data collection that was used to guide and inform MDA strategies. The evidence that these strategies were effective lies in both the high treatment coverage obtained- 100% geographical coverage reached in 2012, with almost all districts consistently achieving well above the epidemiological coverage targets of 65% for LF and 75% for STH-and the significant reduction in burden of infection- 45 communes having reached the target threshold for stopping treatment for LF. By taking advantage of sustained international financial and technical support, especially during the past eight years, Haiti's very successful MDA campaign resulted in steady progress toward LF elimination and development of a strong foundation for ongoing STH control. These efforts, as described, have not only helped establish the global portfolio of "best practices" for NTD control but

  18. Controlling Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs in Haiti: Implementation Strategies and Evidence of Their Success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Frantz Lemoine

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF and soil-transmitted helminths (STH have been targeted since 2000 in Haiti, with a strong mass drug administration (MDA program led by the Ministry of Public Health and Population and its collaborating international partners. By 2012, Haiti's neglected tropical disease (NTD program had reached full national scale, and with such consistently good epidemiological coverage that it is now able to stop treatment for LF throughout almost all of the country. Essential to this success have been in the detail of how MDAs were implemented. These key programmatic elements included ensuring strong community awareness through an evidence-based, multi-channel communication and education campaign facilitated by voluntary drug distributors; strengthening community trust of the drug distributors by ensuring that respected community members were recruited and received appropriate training, supervision, identification, and motivation; enforcing a "directly observed treatment" strategy; providing easy access to treatment though numerous distribution posts and a strong drug supply chain; and ensuring quality data collection that was used to guide and inform MDA strategies. The evidence that these strategies were effective lies in both the high treatment coverage obtained- 100% geographical coverage reached in 2012, with almost all districts consistently achieving well above the epidemiological coverage targets of 65% for LF and 75% for STH-and the significant reduction in burden of infection- 45 communes having reached the target threshold for stopping treatment for LF. By taking advantage of sustained international financial and technical support, especially during the past eight years, Haiti's very successful MDA campaign resulted in steady progress toward LF elimination and development of a strong foundation for ongoing STH control. These efforts, as described, have not only helped establish the global portfolio of "best practices" for

  19. The global health network on alcohol control: successes and limits of evidence-based advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to address alcohol harm have significantly increased since the mid-1990 s. By 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) had adopted the non-binding Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. This study investigates the role of a global health network, anchored by the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (GAPA), which has used scientific evidence on harm and effective interventions to advocate for greater global public health efforts to reduce alcohol harm. The study uses process-tracing methodology and expert interviews to evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this network. The study documents how network members have not only contributed to greater global awareness about alcohol harm, but also advanced a public health approach to addressing this issue at the global level. Although the current network represents an expanding global coalition of like-minded individuals, it faces considerable challenges in advancing its cause towards successful implementation of effective alcohol control policies across many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The analysis reveals a need to transform the network into a formal coalition of regional and national organizations that represent a broader variety of constituents, including the medical community, consumer groups and development-focused non-governmental organizations. Considering the growing harm of alcohol abuse in LMICs and the availability of proven and cost-effective public health interventions, alcohol control represents an excellent 'buy' for donors interested in addressing non-communicable diseases. Alcohol control has broad beneficial effects for human development, including promoting road safety and reducing domestic violence and health care costs across a wide variety of illnesses caused by alcohol consumption. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2015; all rights reserved.

  20. Maternal complication prevention: evidence from a case-control study in southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode O. Osungbade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of strengthening maternal health services as a preventive intervention for morbidities and complications during pregnancy and delivery in developing countries cannot be over-emphasised, since use of prenatal health services improves maternal health outcomes. Aim: This study investigated differences in risk factors for maternal complications in booked and unbooked pregnant women in Nigeria, and provided evidence for their prevention. Setting: The study was carried out in a postnatal ward in a secondary health facility. Methods: This was a case-control study involving booked and unbooked pregnant women who had delivered. Consecutive enrolment of all unbooked pregnant women (cases was done, and one booked pregnant woman (control was enrolled and matched for age with each of these. Both groups were interviewed using a questionnaire, whilst records of delivery were extracted from the hospital files. Findings were subjected to logistical regression at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Booked women had a lower median length of labour (10 hours compared to unbooked women (13 hours. More women in the booked control group (139; 35.1% than in the unbooked case group (96; 23.6% reported at least one type of morbidity during the index pregnancy (p = 0.0004. Booking status was associated with a likelihood of spontaneous vaginal delivery. Young maternal age, low education, rural residence and low socio-economic status were associated with less likelihood of using prenatal services. Young maternal age, low education and intervention in the delivery were associated with a likelihood of experiencing a complication of delivery. Conclusion: Strengthening antenatal and secondary healthcare services as short- and mediumterm measures might be cost-effective as a preventive strategy in complications of pregnancy,whilst socio-economic dimensions of health are accorded priority in the long term.

  1. Fiscal rules, powerful levers for controlling the health budget? Evidence from 32 OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schakel, Herman Christiaan; Wu, Erilia Hao; Jeurissen, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Publicly funded healthcare forms an intricate part of government spending in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because of its reliance on entitlements and dedicated revenue streams. The impact of budgetary rules and procedures on publicly funded health care might thus be different from other spending categories. In this study we focus on the potential of fiscal rules to contain these costs and their design features. We assess the relationship between fiscal rules and the level of public health care expenditure of 32 (OECD) countries between 1985 and 2014. Our dataset consists of health care expenditure data of the OECD and data on fiscal rules of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for that same period. Through a multivariate regression analysis, we estimate the association between fiscal rules and its subcategories and inflation adjusted public health care expenditure. We control for population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), debt and whether countries received an IMF bailout for the specific period. In all our regressions we include country and year fixed effects. The presence of a fiscal rule on average is associated with a 3 % reduction of public health care expenditure. Supranational balanced budget rules are associated with some 8 % lower expenditure. Health service provision-oriented countries with more passive purchasing structures seem less capable of containing costs through fiscal rules. Fiscal rules demonstrate lagged effectiveness; the potential for expenditure reduction increases after one and two years of fiscal rule implementation. Finally, we find evidence that fiscal frameworks that incorporate multi-year expenditure ceilings show additional potential for cost control. Our study shows that there seems a clear relationship between the potential of fiscal rules and budgeting health expenses. Using fiscal rules to contain the level of health care expenditure can thus be a necessary precondition for

  2. Has dopamine a physiological role in the control of sexual behavior? A critical review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Raúl G; Agmo, Anders

    2004-06-01

    The role of dopaminergic systems in the control of sexual behavior has been a subject of study for at least 40 years. Not surprisingly, reviews of the area have been published at variable intervals. However, the earlier reviews have been summaries of published research rather than a critical analysis of it. They have focused upon the conclusions presented in the original research papers rather than on evaluating the reliability and functional significance of the data reported to support these conclusions. During the last few years, important new knowledge concerning dopaminergic systems and their behavioral functions as well as the possible role of these systems in sexual behavior has been obtained. For the first time, it is now possible to integrate the data obtained in studies of sexual behavior into the wider context of general dopaminergic functions. To make this possible, we first present an analysis of the nature and organization of sexual behavior followed by a summary of current knowledge about the brain structures of crucial importance for this behavior. We then proceed with a description of the dopaminergic systems within or projecting to these structures. Whenever possible, we also try to include data on the electrophysiological actions of dopamine. Thereafter, we proceed with analyses of pharmacological data and release studies, both in males and in females. Consistently throughout this discussion, we make an effort to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of dopamine. By pharmacological effects, we mean here drug-induced alterations in behavior that are not the result of the normal actions of synaptically released dopamine in the untreated animal. The conclusion of this endeavor is that pharmacological effects of dopaminergic drugs are variable in both males and females, independently of whether the drugs are administered systemically or intracerebrally. We conclude that the pharmacological data

  3. Empirical evidence for multi-scaled controls on wildfire size distributions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povak, N.; Hessburg, P. F., Sr.; Salter, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological theory asserts that regional wildfire size distributions are examples of self-organized critical (SOC) systems. Controls on SOC event-size distributions by virtue are purely endogenous to the system and include the (1) frequency and pattern of ignitions, (2) distribution and size of prior fires, and (3) lagged successional patterns after fires. However, recent work has shown that the largest wildfires often result from extreme climatic events, and that patterns of vegetation and topography may help constrain local fire spread, calling into question the SOC model's simplicity. Using an atlas of >12,000 California wildfires (1950-2012) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we fit four different power-law models and broken-stick regressions to fire-size distributions across 16 Bailey's ecoregions. Comparisons among empirical fire size distributions across ecoregions indicated that most ecoregion's fire-size distributions were significantly different, suggesting that broad-scale top-down controls differed among ecoregions. One-parameter power-law models consistently fit a middle range of fire sizes (~100 to 10000 ha) across most ecoregions, but did not fit to larger and smaller fire sizes. We fit the same four power-law models to patch size distributions of aspect, slope, and curvature topographies and found that the power-law models fit to a similar middle range of topography patch sizes. These results suggested that empirical evidence may exist for topographic controls on fire sizes. To test this, we used neutral landscape modeling techniques to determine if observed fire edges corresponded with aspect breaks more often than expected by random. We found significant differences between the empirical and neutral models for some ecoregions, particularly within the middle range of fire sizes. Our results, combined with other recent work, suggest that controls on ecoregional fire size distributions are multi-scaled and likely are not purely SOC. California

  4. Stereoelectronic control in peptide bond formation. Ab initio calculations and speculations on the mechanism of action of serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, D G; Taira, K

    1984-01-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been performed on the reaction profile for the addition/elimination reaction between ammonia and formic acid, proceeding via a tetrahedral intermediate: NH3 + HCO2H----H2NCH(OH)2----NH2CHO + H2O. Calculated transition state energies for the first addition step of the reaction revealed that a lone pair on the oxygen of the OH group, which is antiperiplanar to the attacking nitrogen, stabilized the transition state by 3.9 kcal/mol, thus supporting the hypothesis of stereoelectronic control for this reaction. In addition, a secondary, counterbalancing stereoelectronic effect stabilizes the second step, water elimination, transition state by 3.1 kcal/mol if the lone pair on the leaving water oxygen is not antiperiplanar to the C-N bond. The best conformation for the transition states was thus one with a lone pair antiperiplanar to the adjacent scissile bond and also one without a lone-pair orbital on the scissile bond oxygen or nitrogen antiperiplanar to the adjacent polar bond. The significance of these stereoelectronic effects for the mechanism of action of serine proteases is discussed. PMID:6394065

  5. The Impact of Automated Notification on Follow-up of Actionable Tests Pending at Discharge: a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Anuj K; Schaffer, Adam; Gershanik, Esteban F; Papanna, Ranganath; Eibensteiner, Katyuska; Nolido, Nyryan V; Yoon, Cathy S; Williams, Deborah; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Roy, Christopher L; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2018-03-12

    Follow-up of tests pending at discharge (TPADs) is poor. We previously demonstrated a twofold increase in awareness of any TPAD by attendings and primary care physicians (PCPs) using an automated email intervention OBJECTIVE: To determine whether automated notification improves documented follow-up for actionable TPADs DESIGN: Cluster-randomized controlled trial SUBJECTS: Attendings and PCPs caring for adult patients discharged from general medicine and cardiology services with at least one actionable TPAD between June 2011 and May 2012 INTERVENTION: An automated system that notifies discharging attendings and network PCPs of finalized TPADs by email MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome was the proportion of actionable TPADs with documented action determined by independent physician review of the electronic health record (EHR). Secondary outcomes included documented acknowledgment, 30-day readmissions, and adjusted median days to documented follow-up. Of the 3378 TPADs sampled, 253 (7.5%) were determined to be actionable by physician review. Of these, 150 (123 patients discharged by 53 attendings) and 103 (90 patients discharged by 44 attendings) were assigned to intervention and usual care groups, respectively, and underwent chart review. The proportion of actionable TPADs with documented action was 60.7 vs. 56.3% (p = 0.82) in the intervention vs. usual care groups, similar for documented acknowledgment. The proportion of patients with actionable TPADs readmitted within 30 days was 22.8 vs. 31.1% in the intervention vs. usual care groups (p = 0.24). The adjusted median days [95% CI] to documented action was 9 [6.2, 11.8] vs. 14 [10.2, 17.8] (p = 0.04) in the intervention vs. usual care groups, similar for documented acknowledgment. In sub-group analysis, the intervention had greater impact on documented action for patients with network PCPs compared with usual care (70 vs. 50%, p = 0.03). Automated notification of actionable TPADs shortened time to

  6. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND): rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeff D; Miller, Michael E; Bryan, R Nick; Lazar, Ronald M; Coker, Laura H; Johnson, Janice; Cukierman, Tali; Horowitz, Karen R; Murray, Anne; Launer, Lenore J

    2007-06-18

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment are 2 of the most common chronic conditions found in persons aged > or = 60 years. Clinical studies have shown a greater prevalence of global cognitive impairment, incidence of cognitive decline, and incidence of Alzheimer disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. To date, there have been no randomized trials of the effects of long-term glycemic control on cognitive function and structural brain changes in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND) is to test whether there is a difference in the rate of cognitive decline and structural brain change in patients with diabetes treated with standard-care guidelines compared with those treated with intensive-care guidelines. This comparison will be made in a subsample of 2,977 patients with diabetes participating in the ongoing ACCORD trial, a clinical trial sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) with support from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Data from this ACCORD substudy on the possible beneficial or adverse effects of intensive treatment on cognitive function will be obtained from a 30-minute test battery, administered at baseline and 20-month and 40-month visits. In addition, full-brain magnetic resonance imaging will be performed on 630 participants at baseline and at 40 months to assess the relation between the ACCORD treatments and structural brain changes. The general aim of ACCORD-MIND is to determine whether the intensive treatment of diabetes, a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, can reduce the early decline in cognitive function that could later evolve into more cognitively disabling conditions. This report presents the design, rationale, and methods of the ACCORD-MIND substudy.

  7. Evidence logics with relational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...

  8. Control of Human Error and comparison Level risk after correction action With the SHERPA Method in a control Room of petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zakerian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Today in many jobs like nuclear, military and chemical industries, human errors may result in a disaster. Accident in different places of the world emphasizes this subject and we indicate for example, Chernobyl disaster in (1986, tree Mile accident in (1974 and Flixborough explosion in (1974.So human errors identification especially in important and intricate systems is necessary and unavoidable for predicting control methods.   Methods Recent research is a case study and performed in Zagross Methanol Company in Asalouye (South pars.   Walking –Talking through method with process expert and control room operators, inspecting technical documents are used for collecting required information and completing Systematic Human Error Reductive and Predictive Approach (SHERPA worksheets.   Results analyzing SHERPA worksheet indicated that, were accepting capable invertebrate errors % 71.25, % 26.75 undesirable errors, % 2 accepting capable(with change errors, % 0 accepting capable errors, and after correction action forecast Level risk to this arrangement, accepting capable invertebrate errors % 0, % 4.35 undesirable errors , % 58.55 accepting capable(with change errors, % 37.1 accepting capable errors .   ConclusionFinally this result is comprehension that this method in different industries especially in chemical industries is enforceable and useful for human errors identification that may lead to accident and adventures.

  9. Evaluation of chemical spraying and environmental management efficacy in areas with minor previous application of integrated control actions for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2017-12-01

    Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that are transmitted to humans through the bite of Leishmania-infected phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae). The main proved vector of visceral leishmaniais (VL) in the New World - Lutzomyia longipalpis - is well-adapted to urban areas and has extensive distribution within the five geographical regions of Brazil. Integrated public health actions directed for the vector, domestic reservoir and humans for the control of VL are preferentially applied in municipalities with higher epidemiological risk of transmission. In this study, we evaluated the individual impact of two main vector control actions - chemical spraying and environmental management - in two districts with no reported cases of human VL. Although belonging to an endemic municipality for VL in Brazil, the integrated control actions have not been applied in these districts due to the absence of human cases. The number of L. longipalpis captured in a two-year period was used as indicator of the population density of the vector. After chemical spraying a tendency of reduction in L. longipalpis was observed but with no statistical significance compared to the control. Environmental management was effective in that reduction and it may help in the control of VL by reducing the population density of the vector in a preventive and more permanent action, perhaps associated with chemical spraying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence that masking of synapsis imperfections counterbalances quality control to promote efficient meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Mlynarczyk-Evans

    Full Text Available Reduction in ploidy to generate haploid gametes during sexual reproduction is accomplished by the specialized cell division program of meiosis. Pairing between homologous chromosomes and assembly of the synaptonemal complex at their interface (synapsis represent intermediate steps in the meiotic program that are essential to form crossover recombination-based linkages between homologs, which in turn enable segregation of the homologs to opposite poles at the meiosis I division. Here, we challenge the mechanisms of pairing and synapsis during C. elegans meiosis by disrupting the normal 1:1 correspondence between homologs through karyotype manipulation. Using a combination of cytological tools, including S-phase labeling to specifically identify X chromosome territories in highly synchronous cohorts of nuclei and 3D rendering to visualize meiotic chromosome structures and organization, our analysis of trisomic (triplo-X and polyploid meiosis provides insight into the principles governing pairing and synapsis and how the meiotic program is "wired" to maximize successful sexual reproduction. We show that chromosomes sort into homologous groups regardless of chromosome number, then preferentially achieve pairwise synapsis during a period of active chromosome mobilization. Further, comparisons of synapsis configurations in triplo-X germ cells that are proficient or defective for initiating recombination suggest a role for recombination in restricting chromosomal interactions to a pairwise state. Increased numbers of homologs prolong markers of the chromosome mobilization phase and/or boost germline apoptosis, consistent with triggering quality control mechanisms that promote resolution of synapsis problems and/or cull meiocytes containing synapsis defects. However, we also uncover evidence for the existence of mechanisms that "mask" defects, thus allowing resumption of prophase progression and survival of germ cells despite some asynapsis. We propose

  11. Evidence of low dimensional chaos in renal blood flow control in genetic and experimental hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K.-P.; Marsh, D. J.; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    1995-01-01

    We applied a surrogate data technique to test for nonlinear structure in spontaneous fluctuations of hydrostatic pressure in renal tubules of hypertensive rats. Tubular pressure oscillates at 0.03-0.05 Hz in animals with normal blood pressure, but the fluctuations become irregular with chronic hypertension. Using time series from rats with hypertension we produced surrogate data sets to test whether they represent linearly correlated noise or ‘static’ nonlinear transforms of a linear stochastic process. The correlation dimension and the forecasting error were used as discriminating statistics to compare surrogate with experimental data. The results show that the original experimental time series can be distinguished from both linearly and static nonlinearly correlated noise, indicating that the nonlinear behavior is due to the intrinsic dynamics of the system. Together with other evidence this strongly suggests that a low dimensional chaotic attractor governs renal hemodynamics in hypertension. This appears to be the first demonstration of a transition to chaotic dynamics in an integrated physiological control system occurring in association with a pathological condition.

  12. Expanding the Evidence Base: Comparing Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies of Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Dan; Ong, Seleen; Lansberg, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for demonstrating the efficacy of a given therapy (results under ideal conditions). Observational studies, on the other hand, can complement this by demonstrating effectiveness (results under real-world conditions). To examine the role that observational studies can play in complementing data from RCTs, we reviewed published studies for statins, a class of drugs that have been widely used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events by lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. RCTs have consistently demonstrated the benefits of statin treatment in terms of CV risk reduction and have demonstrated that more intensive statin therapy has incremental benefits over less intensive treatment. Observational studies of statin use in 'real-world' populations have served to augment the evidence base generated from statin RCTs in preselected populations of patients who are often at high CV risk and have led to similar safety and efficacy findings. They have also raised questions about factors affecting medication adherence, under-treatment, switching between statins, and failure to reach low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target levels, questions for which the answers could lead to improved patient care.

  13. Evidence for widespread degradation of gene control regions in hominid genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Keightley

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Although sequences containing regulatory elements located close to protein-coding genes are often only weakly conserved during evolution, comparisons of rodent genomes have implied that these sequences are subject to some selective constraints. Evolutionary conservation is particularly apparent upstream of coding sequences and in first introns, regions that are enriched for regulatory elements. By comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes, we show here that there is almost no evidence for conservation in these regions in hominids. Furthermore, we show that gene expression is diverging more rapidly in hominids than in murids per unit of neutral sequence divergence. By combining data on polymorphism levels in human noncoding DNA and the corresponding human-chimpanzee divergence, we show that the proportion of adaptive substitutions in these regions in hominids is very low. It therefore seems likely that the lack of conservation and increased rate of gene expression divergence are caused by a reduction in the effectiveness of natural selection against deleterious mutations because of the low effective population sizes of hominids. This has resulted in the accumulation of a large number of deleterious mutations in sequences containing gene control elements and hence a widespread degradation of the genome during the evolution of humans and chimpanzees.

  14. Efficacy of musical interventions in dementia: evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Clément, Sylvain; Ehrlé, Nathalie; Schiaratura, Loris; Vachez, Sylvie; Courtaigne, Bruno; Munsch, Frédéric; Samson, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Although musical interventions have recently gained popularity as a non-pharmacological treatment in dementia, there is still insufficient evidence of their effectiveness. To investigate this issue, a single-center randomized controlled trial was conducted with forty-eight patients with Alzheimer's disease or mixed dementia to compare the effects of music versus cooking interventions in the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral domain, as well as on professional caregiver distress. Each intervention lasted four weeks (two one-hour sessions a week). Multi-component evaluations (with blind assessors) were conducted before, during, and after the interventions to assess their short and long-term effects (up to four weeks post interventions). Analyses revealed that both music and cooking interventions led to positive changes in the patients' emotional state and decreased the severity of their behavioral disorders, as well as reduced caregiver distress. However, no benefit on the cognitive status of the patients was seen. While results did not demonstrate a specific benefit of music on any of the considered measures, the present study suggests the efficacy of two pleasant non-pharmacological treatments in patients with moderate to severe dementia. Our findings highlight the potential of such interventions in improving the well-being of patients living in residential care, as well as reducing caregiver distress.

  15. Possible extrinsic controls on the Ordovician radiation: Stratigraphic evidence from the Great Basin, western USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droser, M.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Fortey, R.A. (Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Palaeontology)

    1993-04-01

    The Ordovician radiation has been previously examined by looking at 1/analyses of patterns of diversification within small clades, 2/analyses of large databases to elucidate large-scale paleoecological patterns such as increased tiering and onshore-offshore shifts associated with this radiation. In order to resolve the relationships between these two scales of analysis there is critical need to examine in detail the paleoecology and possible biofacies shifts associated with the Ordovician radiation. The authors have examined the base of the Whiterock Series (Lower-Middle Ordovician) in the Great Basin as it represents one of the most complete records of the Ordovician radiation on the North American continent. Detailed field evidence suggests that the base of the Whiterock does not represent a simple faunal turnover but corresponds with the first occurrences in the region of groups that come to dominate the rest of the Paleozoic. Among the trilobites, this includes the lichides, calymenids, proetides, and phacopides. Similar patterns are found among the dominate Paleozoic bivalve, cephalopod, brachiopod and graptolite clades. Global correlation of this time interval suggests that this pattern of first broad geographic occurrences is not unique to North America. This boundary corresponds with a globally recognized sea level lowstand. In the Great Basin, significant facies shifts are present in shallow and deep water settings. While extrinsic controls are commonly reserved for extinctions, these data suggest that extrinsic factors may have been significant in the timing of the Paleozoic fauna rose to dominance.

  16. Evidence from pharmacology and pathophysiology suggests that chemicals with dissimilar mechanisms of action could be of bigger concern in the toxicological risk assessment of chemical mixtures than chemicals with a similar mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrup, Niels

    2014-08-01

    Mathematical models have been developed for the toxicological risk assessment of chemical mixtures. However, exposure data as well as single chemical toxicological data are required for these models. When addressing this data need, it could be attractive to focus on chemicals with similar mechanisms of action, similar modes of action or with common target organs. In the European Union, efforts are currently being made to subgroup chemicals according to this need. However, it remains to be determined whether this is the best strategy to obtain data for risk assessment. In conditions such as cancer or HIV, it is generally recognised that pharmacological combination therapy targeting different mechanisms of action is more effective than a strategy where only one mechanism is targeted. Moreover, in diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, several organ systems concomitantly contribute to the pathophysiology, suggesting that a grouping based on common target organs may also be inefficient. A better option may be to prioritise chemicals on the basis of potency and risk of exposure. In conclusion, there are arguments to suggest that we should concomitantly consider all targets that a chemical can affect in the human body and not merely a subset. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antecedents of self identity and consequences for action control: An application of the theory of planned behaviour in the exercise domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de G.J.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Putte, van den B.; Vries, de N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study whether exercise action control profiles should be usefully extended to include exercise identity. Further, this study investigated theory of planned behaviour antecedents of exercise identity. Design: Prospective data from 413 undergraduate students (M age ¼ 21.4; 73.5%

  18. Task-irrelevant expectation violations in sequential manual actions: Evidence for a “check-after-surprise” mode of visual attention and eye-hand decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Martina Foerster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When performing sequential manual actions (e.g., cooking, visual information is prioritized according to the task determining where and when to attend, look, and act. In well-practiced sequential actions, long-term memory (LTM-based expectations specify which action targets might be found where and when. We have previously demonstrated (Foerster and Schneider, 2015b that violations of such expectations that are task-relevant (e.g., target location change cause a regression from a memory-based mode of attentional selection to visual search. How might task-irrelevant expectation violations in such well-practiced sequential manual actions modify attentional selection? This question was investigated by a computerized version of the number-connection test. Participants clicked on nine spatially-distributed numbered target circles in ascending order while eye movements were recorded as proxy for covert attention. Target’s visual features and locations stayed constant for 65 prechange-trials, allowing practicing the manual action sequence. Consecutively, a task-irrelevant expectation violation occurred and stayed for 20 change-trials. Specifically, action target number 4 appeared in a different font. In 15 reversion-trials, number 4 returned to the original font. During the first task-irrelevant change trial, manual clicking was slower and eye scanpaths were larger and contained more fixations. The additional fixations were mainly checking fixations on the changed target while acting on later targets. Whereas the eyes repeatedly revisited the task-irrelevant change, cursor-paths remained completely unaffected. Effects lasted for 2-3 change trials and did not reappear during reversion. In conclusion, an unexpected task-irrelevant change on a task-defining feature of a well-practiced manual sequence leads to eye-hand decoupling and a check-after-surprise mode of attentional selection.

  19. A randomised controlled trial of a blended learning education intervention for teaching evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Dragan; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Glasziou, Paul; Tilson, Julie K; Villanueva, Elmer

    2015-03-10

    Few studies have been performed to inform how best to teach evidence-based medicine (EBM) to medical trainees. Current evidence can only conclude that any form of teaching increases EBM competency, but cannot distinguish which form of teaching is most effective at increasing student competency in EBM. This study compared the effectiveness of a blended learning (BL) versus didactic learning (DL) approach of teaching EBM to medical students with respect to competency, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviour toward EBM. A mixed methods study consisting of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and qualitative case study was performed with medical students undertaking their first clinical year of training in EBM. Students were randomly assigned to receive EBM teaching via either a BL approach or the incumbent DL approach. Competency in EBM was assessed using the Berlin questionnaire and the 'Assessing Competency in EBM' (ACE) tool. Students' self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviour was also assessed. A series of focus groups was also performed to contextualise the quantitative results. A total of 147 students completed the RCT, and a further 29 students participated in six focus group discussions. Students who received the BL approach to teaching EBM had significantly higher scores in 5 out of 6 behaviour domains, 3 out of 4 attitude domains and 10 out of 14 self-efficacy domains. Competency in EBM did not differ significantly between students receiving the BL approach versus those receiving the DL approach [Mean Difference (MD)=-0.68, (95% CI-1.71, 0.34), p=0.19]. No significant difference was observed between sites (p=0.89) or by student type (p=0.58). Focus group discussions suggested a strong student preference for teaching using a BL approach, which integrates lectures, online learning and small group activities. BL is no more effective than DL at increasing medical students' knowledge and skills in EBM, but was significantly more effective at increasing student

  20. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: A systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie A; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-06-01

    To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures. A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, advertising literacy programmes and parental communication styles. Relevant media included TV, internet, radio, magazines and newspaper advertising. No studies were excluded based on language or publication date. Forty-seven publications were included: 19 provided evidence for the results of statutory regulation, 25 for self-regulation, and six for educational approaches. Outcome measures varied in approach, quality and results. Findings suggested statutory regulation could reduce the volume of and children's exposure to advertising for foods HFSS, and had potential to impact more widely. Self-regulatory approaches showed varied results in reducing children's exposure. There was some limited support for educational measures. Consistency in measures from evaluations over time would assist the development and interpretation of the evidence base on successful actions and measures to reduce the volume, exposure and impact of advertising for foods HFSS to children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycemic Control for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Our Evolving Faith in the Face of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Montori, Victor M

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine the concordance between the accumulating evidence about the impact of tight versus less tight glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus since the publication of UKPDS (UK Prospective Diabetes Study) in 1998 until 2015 with the views about that evidence published in journal articles and practice guidelines. We searched in top general medicine and specialty journals for articles referring to glycemic control appearing between 2006 and 2015 and identified the latest practice guidelines. To summarize the evidence, we included all published systematic reviews and meta-analyses of contemporary randomized trials of glycemic control measuring patient-important microvascular and macrovascular outcomes, and completed a meta-analysis of their follow-up extensions. We identified 16 guidelines and 328 statements. The body of evidence produced estimates warranting moderate confidence. This evidence reported no significant impact of tight glycemic control on the risk of dialysis/transplantation/renal death, blindness, or neuropathy. In the past decade, however, most published statements (77%-100%) and guidelines (95%) unequivocally endorsed benefit. There is also no significant effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke; however, there is a consistent 15% relative-risk reduction of nonfatal myocardial infarction. Between 2006 and 2008, most statements (47%-83%) endorsed the benefit; after 2008 (ACCORD), only a minority (21%-36%) did. Discordance exists between the research evidence and academic and clinical policy statements about the value of tight glycemic control to reduce micro- and macrovascular complications. This discordance may distort priorities in the research and practice agendas designed to improve the lives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the Make Safe Happen® app-a mobile technology-based safety behavior change intervention for increasing parents' safety knowledge and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Clark, Roxanne; McAdams, Rebecca; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Klein, Elizabeth G; Keim, Sarah A; Kristel, Orie; Szymanski, Alison; Cotton, Christopher G; Shields, Wendy C

    2018-03-12

    Many unintentional injuries that occur in and around the home can be prevented through the use of safety equipment and by consistently following existing safety recommendations. Unfortunately, uptake of these safety behaviors is unacceptably low. This paper describes the design of the Make Safe Happen® smartphone application evaluation study, which aims to evaluate a mobile technology-based safety behavior change intervention on parents' safety knowledge and actions. Make Safe Happen® app evaluation study is a randomized controlled trial. Participants will be parents of children aged 0-12 years who are recruited from national consumer online survey panels. Parents will complete a pretest survey, and will be randomized to receive the Make Safe Happen® app or a non-injury-related app, and then complete a posttest follow-up survey after 1 week. Primary outcomes are: (1) safety knowledge; (2) safety behaviors; (3) safety device acquisition and use, and (4) behavioral intention to take safety actions. Anticipated study results are presented. Wide-reaching interventions, to reach substantial parent and caregiver audiences, to effectively reduce childhood injuries are needed. This study will contribute to the evidence-base about how to increase safety knowledge and actions to prevent home-related injuries in children. NCT02751203 ; Pre-results.

  3. Means and ENDS - e-cigarettes, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and global health diplomacy in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Tilson, Melodie

    2018-01-01

    E-cigarettes are a new and disruptive element in global health diplomacy (GHD) and policy-making. This is an ethnographic account of how e-cigarettes and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) were tackled at the 6th Conference of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It demonstrates how uncertainty about ENDS and differences of opinion are currently so great that 'agreeing to disagree' as a consensus position and 'strategic use of time' were the principles that ensured effective GHD in this case. Observers representing accredited non-governmental organisations were active in briefing and lobbying country delegates not to spend too much time debating an issue for which insufficient evidence exists, and for which countries were unlikely to reach a consensus on a specific regulatory approach or universally applicable regulatory measures. Equally, the work of Costa Rica in preparing and re-negotiating the draft decision, and the work of the relevant Committee Chair in managing the discussion, contributed to effectively reining in lengthy statements from Parties and focusing on points of consensus. As well as summarising the debate itself and analysing the issues surrounding it, this account offers an example of GHD working effectively in a situation of epistemic uncertainty.

  4. Housing interventions and control of asthma-related indoor biologic agents: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, James; Jacobs, David E; Ashley, Peter J; Baeder, Andrea; Chew, Ginger L; Dearborn, Dorr; Hynes, H Patricia; Miller, J David; Morley, Rebecca; Rabito, Felicia; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2010-01-01

    Subject matter experts systematically reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of housing interventions that affect health outcomes, primarily asthma, associated with exposure to moisture, mold, and allergens. Three of the 11 interventions reviewed had sufficient evidence for implementation: multifaceted, in-home, tailored interventions for reducing asthma morbidity; integrated pest management to reduce cockroach allergen; and combined elimination of moisture intrusion and leaks and removal of moldy items to reduce mold and respiratory symptoms. Four interventions needed more field evaluation, 1 needed formative research, and 3 either had no evidence of effectiveness or were ineffective. The 3 interventions with sufficient evidence all applied multiple, integrated strategies. This evidence review shows that selected interventions that improve housing conditions will reduce morbidity from asthma and respiratory allergies.

  5. Solving the border control problem: evidence of enhanced face matching in individuals with extraordinary face recognition skills.

    OpenAIRE

    Bobak, Anna K.; Dowsett, A.; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called ?super recognisers? (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the ?Glasgow Face Matching Test?, and some case-by-ca...

  6. Universal health coverage and intersectoral action for health: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Dean T; Adeyi, Olusoji; Anand, Shuchi; Atun, Rifat; Bertozzi, Stefano; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Binagwaho, Agnes; Black, Robert; Blecher, Mark; Bloom, Barry R; Brouwer, Elizabeth; Bundy, Donald A P; Chisholm, Dan; Cieza, Alarcos; Cullen, Mark; Danforth, Kristen; de Silva, Nilanthi; Debas, Haile T; Donkor, Peter; Dua, Tarun; Fleming, Kenneth A; Gallivan, Mark; Garcia, Patricia J; Gawande, Atul; Gaziano, Thomas; Gelband, Hellen; Glass, Roger; Glassman, Amanda; Gray, Glenda; Habte, Demissie; Holmes, King K; Horton, Susan; Hutton, Guy; Jha, Prabhat; Knaul, Felicia M; Kobusingye, Olive; Krakauer, Eric L; Kruk, Margaret E; Lachmann, Peter; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Levin, Carol; Looi, Lai Meng; Madhav, Nita; Mahmoud, Adel; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Measham, Anthony; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Medlin, Carol; Mills, Anne; Mills, Jody-Anne; Montoya, Jaime; Norheim, Ole; Olson, Zachary; Omokhodion, Folashade; Oppenheim, Ben; Ord, Toby; Patel, Vikram; Patton, George C; Peabody, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qi, Jinyuan; Reynolds, Teri; Ruacan, Sevket; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Skolnik, Richard; Smith, Kirk R; Temmerman, Marleen; Tollman, Stephen; Verguet, Stéphane; Walker, Damian G; Walker, Neff; Wu, Yangfeng; Zhao, Kun

    2018-01-01

    The World Bank is publishing nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition (DCP3) between 2015 and 2018. Volume 9, Improving Health and Reducing Poverty, summarises the main messages from all the volumes and contains cross-cutting analyses. This Review draws on all nine volumes to convey conclusions. The analysis in DCP3 is built around 21 essential packages that were developed in the nine volumes. Each essential package addresses the concerns of a major professional community (eg, child health or surgery) and contains a mix of intersectoral policies and health-sector interventions. 71 intersectoral prevention policies were identified in total, 29 of which are priorities for early introduction. Interventions within the health sector were grouped onto five platforms (population based, community level, health centre, first-level hospital, and referral hospital). DCP3 defines a model concept of essential universal health coverage (EUHC) with 218 interventions that provides a starting point for country-specific analysis of priorities. Assuming steady-state implementation by 2030, EUHC in lower-middle-income countries would reduce premature deaths by an estimated 4·2 million per year. Estimated total costs prove substantial: about 9·1% of (current) gross national income (GNI) in low-income countries and 5·2% of GNI in lower-middle-income countries. Financing provision of continuing intervention against chronic conditions accounts for about half of estimated incremental costs. For lower-middle-income countries, the mortality reduction from implementing the EUHC can only reach about half the mortality reduction in non-communicable diseases called for by the Sustainable Development Goals. Full achievement will require increased investment or sustained intersectoral action, and actions by finance ministries to tax smoking and polluting emissions and to reduce or eliminate (often large) subsidies on fossil fuels appear of central importance. DCP3 is intended to

  7. Universal health coverage and intersectoral action for health: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Dean T; Alwan, Ala; Mock, Charles N; Nugent, Rachel; Watkins, David; Adeyi, Olusoji; Anand, Shuchi; Atun, Rifat; Bertozzi, Stefano; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Binagwaho, Agnes; Black, Robert; Blecher, Mark; Bloom, Barry R; Brouwer, Elizabeth; Bundy, Donald A P; Chisholm, Dan; Cieza, Alarcos; Cullen, Mark; Danforth, Kristen; de Silva, Nilanthi; Debas, Haile T; Donkor, Peter; Dua, Tarun; Fleming, Kenneth A; Gallivan, Mark; Garcia, Patricia J; Gawande, Atul; Gaziano, Thomas; Gelband, Hellen; Glass, Roger; Glassman, Amanda; Gray, Glenda; Habte, Demissie; Holmes, King K; Horton, Susan; Hutton, Guy; Jha, Prabhat; Knaul, Felicia M; Kobusingye, Olive; Krakauer, Eric L; Kruk, Margaret E; Lachmann, Peter; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Levin, Carol; Looi, Lai Meng; Madhav, Nita; Mahmoud, Adel; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Measham, Anthony; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Medlin, Carol; Mills, Anne; Mills, Jody-Anne; Montoya, Jaime; Norheim, Ole; Olson, Zachary; Omokhodion, Folashade; Oppenheim, Ben; Ord, Toby; Patel, Vikram; Patton, George C; Peabody, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qi, Jinyuan; Reynolds, Teri; Ruacan, Sevket; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Skolnik, Richard; Smith, Kirk R; Temmerman, Marleen; Tollman, Stephen; Verguet, Stéphane; Walker, Damian G; Walker, Neff; Wu, Yangfeng; Zhao, Kun

    2018-03-17

    The World Bank is publishing nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition (DCP3) between 2015 and 2018. Volume 9, Improving Health and Reducing Poverty, summarises the main messages from all the volumes and contains cross-cutting analyses. This Review draws on all nine volumes to convey conclusions. The analysis in DCP3 is built around 21 essential packages that were developed in the nine volumes. Each essential package addresses the concerns of a major professional community (eg, child health or surgery) and contains a mix of intersectoral policies and health-sector interventions. 71 intersectoral prevention policies were identified in total, 29 of which are priorities for early introduction. Interventions within the health sector were grouped onto five platforms (population based, community level, health centre, first-level hospital, and referral hospital). DCP3 defines a model concept of essential universal health coverage (EUHC) with 218 interventions that provides a starting point for country-specific analysis of priorities. Assuming steady-state implementation by 2030, EUHC in lower-middle-income countries would reduce premature deaths by an estimated 4·2 million per year. Estimated total costs prove substantial: about 9·1% of (current) gross national income (GNI) in low-income countries and 5·2% of GNI in lower-middle-income countries. Financing provision of continuing intervention against chronic conditions accounts for about half of estimated incremental costs. For lower-middle-income countries, the mortality reduction from implementing the EUHC can only reach about half the mortality reduction in non-communicable diseases called for by the Sustainable Development Goals. Full achievement will require increased investment or sustained intersectoral action, and actions by finance ministries to tax smoking and polluting emissions and to reduce or eliminate (often large) subsidies on fossil fuels appear of central importance. DCP3 is intended to

  8. Evidence for the use of Levomepromazine for symptom control in the palliative care setting: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Levomepromazine is an antipsychotic drug that is used clinically for a variety of distressing symptoms in palliative and end-of-life care. We undertook a systematic review based on the question “What is the published evidence for the use of levomepromazine in palliative symptom control?”. Methods To determine the level of evidence for the use of levomepromazine in palliative symptom control, and to discover gaps in evidence, relevant studies were identified using a detailed, multi-step search strategy. Emerging data was then scrutinized using appropriate assessment tools, and the strength of evidence systematically graded in accordance with the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine’s ‘levels of evidence’ tool. The electronic databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PsychInfo and Ovid Nursing, together with hand-searching and cross-referencing provided the full research platform on which the review is based. Results 33 articles including 9 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria: 15 on palliative sedation, 8 regarding nausea and three on delirium and restlessness, one on pain and six with other foci. The studies varied greatly in both design and sample size. Levels of evidence ranged from level 2b to level 5, with the majority being level 3 (non-randomized, non-consecutive or cohort studies n = 22), with the quality of reporting for the included studies being only low to medium. Conclusion Levomepromazine is widely used in palliative care as antipsychotic, anxiolytic, antiemetic and sedative drug. However, the supporting evidence is limited to open series and case reports. Thus prospective randomized trials are needed to support evidence-based guidelines. PMID:23331515

  9. The effectiveness of a clinically integrated e-learning course in evidence-based medicine: A cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulier, Regina; Coppus, Sjors F. P. J.; Zamora, Javier; Hadley, Julie; Malick, Sadia; Das, Kausik; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Meyerrose, Berrit; Decsi, Tamas; Horvath, Andrea R.; Nagy, Eva; Emparanza, Jose I.; Arvanitis, Theodoros N.; Burls, Amanda; Cabello, Juan B.; Kaczor, Marcin; Zanrei, Gianni; Pierer, Karen; Stawiarz, Katarzyna; Kunz, Regina; Mol, Ben W. J.; Khan, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the educational effects of a clinically integrated e-learning course for teaching basic evidence-based medicine (EBM) among postgraduates compared to a traditional lecture-based course of equivalent content. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomised controlled

  10. Location-coding account versus affordance-activation account in handle-to-hand correspondence effects: Evidence of Simon-like effects based on the coding of action direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Antonello; Koch, Iring; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2017-09-01

    An increasing number of studies have shown a close link between perception and action, which is supposed to be responsible for the automatic activation of actions compatible with objects' properties, such as the orientation of their graspable parts. It has been observed that left and right hand responses to objects (e.g., cups) are faster and more accurate if the handle orientation corresponds to the response location than when it does not. Two alternative explanations have been proposed for this handle-to-hand correspondence effect : location coding and affordance activation. The aim of the present study was to provide disambiguating evidence on the origin of this effect by employing object sets for which the visually salient portion was separated from, and opposite to the graspable 1, and vice versa. Seven experiments were conducted employing both single objects and object pairs as visual stimuli to enhance the contextual information about objects' graspability and usability. Notwithstanding these manipulations intended to favor affordance activation, results fully supported the location-coding account displaying significant Simon-like effects that involved the orientation of the visually salient portion of the object stimulus and the location of the response. Crucially, we provided evidence of Simon-like effects based on higher-level cognitive, iconic representations of action directions rather than based on lower-level spatial coding of the pure position of protruding portions of the visual stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Evidence that nitrous oxide enhances the radiosensitivity of bacterial vegetative cells by the co-operative action of the hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Iizuka, H.; Takehisa, M.

    1980-01-01

    When the radiosensitivity in N 2 O suspension was compared with that in N 2 suspension, the dose modifying factors of N 2 O on Micrococcus radiodurans R 1 , Pseudomonas radiora 0-1, M. lysodeikticus and Bacillus pumilus E601 were 3.7, 2.9, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively. The sensitizing action of N 2 O was diminished by ethanol as OH radical scavenger. This sensitization was further prevented by catalase and peroxidase. However, thermally inactivated catalase was without effect. In addition, the number of viable cells did not change in 0.1 mM H 2 O 2 at 0 0 C. These results indicate that N 2 O sensitization is due to the cooperative action of OH radicals and H 2 O 2 , and that it would allow H 2 O 2 to sensitize only when OH radicals were present. (author)

  12. The decision to engage cognitive control is driven by expected reward-value: neural and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Dixon

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is a fundamental skill reflecting the active use of task-rules to guide behavior and suppress inappropriate automatic responses. Prior work has traditionally used paradigms in which subjects are told when to engage cognitive control. Thus, surprisingly little is known about the factors that influence individuals' initial decision of whether or not to act in a reflective, rule-based manner. To examine this, we took three classic cognitive control tasks (Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Go/No-Go task and created novel 'free-choice' versions in which human subjects were free to select an automatic, pre-potent action, or an action requiring rule-based cognitive control, and earned varying amounts of money based on their choices. Our findings demonstrated that subjects' decision to engage cognitive control was driven by an explicit representation of monetary rewards expected to be obtained from rule-use. Subjects rarely engaged cognitive control when the expected outcome was of equal or lesser value as compared to the value of the automatic response, but frequently engaged cognitive control when it was expected to yield a larger monetary outcome. Additionally, we exploited fMRI-adaptation to show that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC represents associations between rules and expected reward outcomes. Together, these findings suggest that individuals are more likely to act in a reflective, rule-based manner when they expect that it will result in a desired outcome. Thus, choosing to exert cognitive control is not simply a matter of reason and willpower, but rather, conforms to standard mechanisms of value-based decision making. Finally, in contrast to current models of LPFC function, our results suggest that the LPFC plays a direct role in representing motivational incentives.

  13. A randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of an interactive mobile messaging intervention for underserved smokers: Project ACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Fletcher, Faith E; Danysh, Heather E; Marani, Salma; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cantor, Scott B; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2012-08-25

    Despite a significant decrease in smoking prevalence over the past ten years, cigarette smoking still represents the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Moreover, smoking prevalence is significantly higher among those with low levels of education and those living at, or below, the poverty level. These groups tend to be confronted with significant barriers to utilizing more traditional smoking cessation intervention approaches. The purpose of the study, Project ACTION (Adult smoking Cessation Treatment through Innovative Outreach to Neighborhoods), is to utilize a mobile clinic model, a network of community sites (i.e., community centers and churches) and an interactive mobile messaging system to reach and deliver smoking cessation treatment to underserved, low-income communities. We are using a group-randomized design, with the community site as the sampling unit, to compare the efficacy of three smoking cessation interventions: 1) Standard Care--brief advice to quit smoking, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and self-help materials; 2) Enhanced Care--standard care components plus a cell phone-delivered text/graphical messaging component; and 3) Intensive Care--enhanced care components plus a series of 11 cell phone-delivered proactive counseling sessions. An economic evaluation will also be performed to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of the three treatment approaches. We will recruit 756 participants (252 participants in each of the 3 intervention groups). At the time of randomization, participants complete a baseline assessment, consisting of smoking history, socio-demographic, and psychosocial variables. Monthly cell phone assessments are conducted for 6 months-post enrollment, and a final 12-month follow-up is conducted at the original neighborhood site of enrollment. We will perform mixed-model logistic regression to compare the efficacy of the three smoking cessation intervention treatment groups. It is

  14. How big is the physical activity intention-behaviour gap? A meta-analysis using the action control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2013-05-01

    The physical activity (PA) intention-behaviour gap is a topic of considerable contemporary research, given that most of our models used to understand physical activity suggest that intention is the proximal antecedent of behavioural enactment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the intention-PA gap at public health guidelines with a meta-analysis of the action control framework. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature searches were conducted in July 2012 among five key search engines. This search yielded a total of 2,865 potentially relevant records; of these, 10 studies fulfilled the full eligibility criteria (N = 3,899). Random-effects meta-analysis procedures with correction for sampling bias were employed in the analysis for estimates of non-intenders who subsequently did not engage in physical activity (21%), non-intenders who subsequently performed physical activity (2%), intenders who were not successful at following through with their PA (36%), and successful intenders (42%). The overall intention-PA gap was 46%. These results emphasize the weakness in early intention models for understanding PA and suggest this would be a problem during intervention. Contemporary research that is validating and exploring additional constructs (e.g., self-regulation, automaticity) that augment intention or improving the measurement of motivation seems warranted. What is already known on this subject? Intention is considered the proximal antecedent of behaviour in many popular models. Intention is also an established correlate of physical activity behaviour, yet discordance is considerable in experimental research. What does this study add? This meta-analysis of studies that have assessed concordance/discordance of physical activity intention and behaviour at public health guidelines shows the intention-behaviour gap at 48% and the discordance is from intenders who do not act. The results demonstrate that discordance is not just from extreme levels of

  15. A randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of an interactive mobile messaging intervention for underserved smokers: Project ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidrine Damon J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a significant decrease in smoking prevalence over the past ten years, cigarette smoking still represents the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Moreover, smoking prevalence is significantly higher among those with low levels of education and those living at, or below, the poverty level. These groups tend to be confronted with significant barriers to utilizing more traditional smoking cessation intervention approaches. The purpose of the study, Project ACTION (Adult smoking Cessation Treatment through Innovative Outreach to Neighborhoods, is to utilize a mobile clinic model, a network of community sites (i.e., community centers and churches and an interactive mobile messaging system to reach and deliver smoking cessation treatment to underserved, low-income communities. Methods/Design We are using a group-randomized design, with the community site as the sampling unit, to compare the efficacy of three smoking cessation interventions: 1 Standard Care - brief advice to quit smoking, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, and self-help materials; 2 Enhanced Care - standard care components plus a cell phone-delivered text/graphical messaging component; and 3 Intensive Care - enhanced care components plus a series of 11 cell phone-delivered proactive counseling sessions. An economic evaluation will also be performed to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of the three treatment approaches. We will recruit 756 participants (252 participants in each of the 3 intervention groups. At the time of randomization, participants complete a baseline assessment, consisting of smoking history, socio-demographic, and psychosocial variables. Monthly cell phone assessments are conducted for 6 months-post enrollment, and a final 12-month follow-up is conducted at the original neighborhood site of enrollment. We will perform mixed-model logistic regression to compare the efficacy of the three smoking

  16. Implementation of evidence-based antenatal care in Mozambique: a cluster randomized controlled trial: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavane, Leonardo; Merialdi, Mario; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Requejo-Harris, Jennifer; Bergel, Eduardo; Aleman, Alicia; Colomar, Mercedes; Cafferata, Maria Luisa; Carbonell, Alicia; Crahay, Beatrice; Delvaux, Therese; Geelhoed, Diederike; Gülmezoglu, Metin; Malapende, Celsa Regina; Melo, Armando; Nguyen, My Huong; Osman, Nafissa Bique; Widmer, Mariana; Temmerman, Marleen; Althabe, Fernando

    2014-05-21

    Antenatal care (ANC) reduces maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality directly through the detection and treatment of pregnancy-related illnesses, and indirectly through the detection of women at increased risk of delivery complications. The potential benefits of quality antenatal care services are most significant in low-resource countries where morbidity and mortality levels among women of reproductive age and neonates are higher.WHO developed an ANC model that recommended the delivery of services scientifically proven to improve maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an intervention designed to increase the use of the package of evidence-based services included in the WHO ANC model in Mozambique. The primary hypothesis is that the intervention will increase the use of evidence-based practices during ANC visits in comparison to the standard dissemination channels currently used in the country. This is a demonstration project to be developed through a facility-based cluster randomized controlled trial with a stepped wedge design. The intervention was tailored, based on formative research findings, to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. The intervention includes four components: the provision of kits with all necessary medicines and laboratory supplies for ANC (medical and non-medical equipment), a storage system, a tracking system, and training sessions for health care providers. Ten clinics were selected and will start receiving the intervention in a random order. Outcomes will be computed at each time point when a new clinic starts the intervention. The primary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending the first ANC visit, and secondary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending second and higher ANC visits as well as the attitude of midwives in

  17. Cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects: lack of evidence for a central nervous system site of action based on hemodynamic studies with cocaine methiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, L W; Rodak, D J; Kuhn, F E; Wahlstrom, S K; Tessel, R E; Visner, M S; Schaer, G L; Gillis, R A

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that cocaine acts directly in the brain to enhance central sympathetic outflow. However, some studies suggested that the cardiovascular effects of cocaine are related to a peripheral action. To characterize further the site of cocaine's cardiovascular effect, we compared the hemodynamic effects of cocaine (2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) with those observed after administration of an equimolar dose (2.62 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) of cocaine methiodide, a quaternary derivative of cocaine that does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, by using sufentanil-sedated dogs. Cocaine produced significant (p < 0.05) increases in heart rate (+37+/-11 beats/min), mean arterial pressure (+55+/-11 mm Hg), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (+5.3+/-1.0 mm Hg), and cardiac output (+2.4+/-0.9 L/min). Cocaine methiodide produced increases in heart rate (+57+/-11 beats/min), mean arterial pressure (+45+/-11 mm Hg), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (+3.4+/-1.0 mm Hg), and cardiac output (1.1+/-0.9 L/min), which were not significantly different from those observed with cocaine. Because opiate sedation potentially might have attenuated central sympathetic outflow, we further confirmed the qualitative similarity of the actions of cocaine and cocaine methiodide on heart rate and blood pressure in unsedated, conscious dogs. Our data suggest that the cardiovascular effects of cocaine result primarily from a peripheral site of action.

  18. Affirmative Action: History and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison-Wade, Dorothy F.; Lewis, Chance W.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception, affirmative action policies were created to improve the employment and/or educational opportunities for members of minority groups and women. Even today, however, the debate continues over the future of affirmative action. Proponents offer empirical evidence illustrating that affirmative action has been favorable in aiding…

  19. Call for action for setting up an infectious disease control action plan for disaster area activities: learning from the experience of checking suffering volunteers in the field after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kodama, Mitsuya; Kanda, Hideyuki

    2013-12-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th, 2011, a journalist visited the disaster area with febrile symptoms and was diagnosed with measles of the D genotype, which is not indigenous to Japan. After continuing activities in disaster areas and Tokyo, 11 measles cases were reported, some of which were identified as genotype D. Meanwhile non-profit activities directed towards volunteers were offered including interviews to screen for subjective symptoms, check body temperature and advise volunteers to refrain from working in shelter areas during the period of sickness. As a consequence, disease transmission was controlled among volunteers. In disaster areas, anyone can be an infection vector. In order to prevent transmission of infectious diseases, a field action plan, which includes body temperature checks and standard precautions should be formulated and put into place. If the action plans are shared among local governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), they can become a norm and be expected to control infectious disease transmission.

  20. Environmental Action and Student Environmental Leaders: Exploring the Influence of Environmental Attitudes, Locus of Control, and Sense of Personal Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Julie; Blood, Nathaniel; Beery, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Student Climate and Conservation Congress (SC3) is a joint educational effort between the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the Green Schools Alliance that aims to develop the next generation of conservation leaders through fostering action competence in youth. Data from SC3 participants was used to investigate four predictors of…

  1. Adaptive control of ionic polymer–metal composite in air and under water using a modified direct self-tuning regulator embedded with integral action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Bo-Kai; Ju, Ming-Shuang; Lin, Chou-Ching K

    2011-01-01

    Due to its large deformation response to a low voltage, ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) is a highly attractive actuator for many applications in air or under water. However, the dynamic characteristics of IPMC are nonlinear and vary with time, especially in water actuations. In this study, a modified direct self-tuning regulator (DSTR) with integral action was designed to control the tip-displacement of the IPMC, which is a non-minimum phase system to serve in air and underwater applications. The modified DSTR consisted of a pole-placement controller embedded with integral action, a reference model, and a self-tuning mechanism. The reference model specified the dynamic characteristic of the closed-loop IPMC system, and the controller parameters were automatically adjusted by the self-tuning mechanism to minimize the tracking error from the comparison between the response and the reference model output. The integral action may circumvent low-frequency distortions such as the back-relaxation phenomenon. Also, the DSTR may easily control the non-minimum phase system of the IPMC by tuning a delay factor in the reference model. The DSTR was implemented to control an IPMC (0.2 mm × 5 mm × 35 mm) actuated in air and under water, and the tracking performances were compared with a proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID). In contrast with the PID, the parameters of which were determined by the Ziegler–Nichols rule and produced large root-mean-squared tracking errors, the DSTR yielded good tracking performances for actuations both in air and under water from 0.01 to 1 Hz. Through control of the modified DSTR, IPMC may have a wide range of applications in the future

  2. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles—Evidence from China’s Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China’s stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank’s policymaking. PMID:27851796

  3. Simposio sobre Educacion de Ninas: Evidencias, Temas, Acciones. Actas de sesiones. (Symposium on Girls Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  4. Camino Verde (The Green Way: evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andersson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus can breed in clean water, WHO-endorsed vector control strategies place sachets of organophosphate pesticide, temephos (Abate, in household water storage containers. These and other pesticide-dependent approaches have failed to curb the spread of dengue and multiple dengue virus serotypes continue to spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. A feasibility study in Managua, Nicaragua, generated instruments, intervention protocols, training schedules and impact assessment tools for a cluster randomised controlled trial of community-based approaches to vector control comprising an alternative strategy for dengue prevention and control in Nicaragua and Mexico. Methods/Design The Camino Verde (Green Way is a pragmatic parallel group trial of pesticide-free dengue vector control, adding effectiveness to the standard government dengue control. A random sample from the most recent census in three coastal regions of Guerrero state in Mexico will generate 90 study clusters and the equivalent sampling frame in Managua, Nicaragua will generate 60 clusters, making a total of 150 clusters each of 137–140 households. After a baseline study, computer-driven randomisation will allocate to intervention one half of the sites, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3–9 years and, in Nicaragua, level of community organisation. Following a common evidence-based education protocol, each cluster will develop and implement its own collective interventions including house-to-house visits, school-based programmes and inter-community visits. After 18 months, a follow-up study will compare dengue history, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection (via measurement of anti-dengue virus antibodies in saliva samples and entomological indices between intervention and control sites. Discussion Our hypothesis is that

  5. Camino Verde (The Green Way): evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Arostegui, Jorge; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Harris, Eva; Ledogar, Robert J

    2017-05-30

    Since the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus can breed in clean water, WHO-endorsed vector control strategies place sachets of organophosphate pesticide, temephos (Abate), in household water storage containers. These and other pesticide-dependent approaches have failed to curb the spread of dengue and multiple dengue virus serotypes continue to spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. A feasibility study in Managua, Nicaragua, generated instruments, intervention protocols, training schedules and impact assessment tools for a cluster randomised controlled trial of community-based approaches to vector control comprising an alternative strategy for dengue prevention and control in Nicaragua and Mexico. The Camino Verde (Green Way) is a pragmatic parallel group trial of pesticide-free dengue vector control, adding effectiveness to the standard government dengue control. A random sample from the most recent census in three coastal regions of Guerrero state in Mexico will generate 90 study clusters and the equivalent sampling frame in Managua, Nicaragua will generate 60 clusters, making a total of 150 clusters each of 137-140 households. After a baseline study, computer-driven randomisation will allocate to intervention one half of the sites, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3-9 years and, in Nicaragua, level of community organisation. Following a common evidence-based education protocol, each cluster will develop and implement its own collective interventions including house-to-house visits, school-based programmes and inter-community visits. After 18 months, a follow-up study will compare dengue history, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection (via measurement of anti-dengue virus antibodies in saliva samples) and entomological indices between intervention and control sites. Our hypothesis is that informed community mobilisation adds effectiveness in controlling

  6. The impact of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" on PM2.5 concentrations in Jing-Jin-Ji region during 2012-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Siyi; Wang, Yangjun; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Chang, Xing; Hao, Jiming

    2017-02-15

    In order to cope with heavy haze pollution in China, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan including phased goals of the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was issued in 2013. In this study, China's emission inventories in the baseline 2012 and the future scenarios of 2017 and 2020 have been developed based on this Action Plan. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region, one of the most polluted regions in China, was taken as a case to assess the impact of phased emission control measures on PM 2.5 concentration reduction using WRF-CMAQ model system. With the implementation of the Action Plan, the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO X ) , PM 2.5 , non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH 3 ) in 2017 will decrease by36%, 31%, 30%,12%, and -10% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. In 2020, the emissions of SO 2 , NO X, PM 2.5 , NMVOC, and NH 3 will decrease by 40%, 44%, 40%, 22%, and -3% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. Consequently, the ambient annual PM 2.5 concentration under the scenarios of 2017 and 2020 will be 28.3% and 37.8% lower than those in 2012, respectively. The Action Plan provided an effective approach to alleviate PM 2.5 pollution level in Jing-Jin-Ji region. However, emission control of NMVOC and NH 3 should be paid more attention and be strengthened in future. Meanwhile, emission control of NO x , SO 2 , NH 3 and NMVOC synergistically are highly needed in the future because multiple pollutants impact on PM 2.5 and O 3 concentrations nonlinearly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Balancing the dual responsibilities of business unit controllers: field and survey evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, V.S.; Matejka, M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine how business unit (BU) controllers balance their dual roles of providing information for both local decision-making (local responsibility) and corporate control (functional responsibility). The existing literature suggests that organizations can improve the quality of financial reporting

  8. Electrophysiological Evidence for Endogenous Control of Attention in Switching between Languages in Overt Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Kim M. W.; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues…

  9. Evaluating remote control and robotics actions in NPPs in an ALARA perspective: lessons from the evolution of steam generator tube plugging technique in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Lochard, J.; Blain, A.

    1989-01-01

    Introducing remote tooling and robotics in NPPs raises many questions. Is it better to develop specific robotic tools for each type of operation, or to conceive more generic multipurpose tool carriers. Does the introduction of remote control and robotics always reduce human involvement and collective doses. What are the impacts on individual doses distribution for the most exposed operators. Under what conditions is robotics justified from an economical point of view. Even if robotics and remote tooling actions can reduce significantly individual and collective exposures, because of their high costs of development, they will be adopted only if simultaneously the potential for operational cost savings is also clearly demonstrated. Integrating operational cost savings in the cost evaluation of the ALARA procedure is important to compare and select among different robotics and remote control actions. This paper presents how to evaluate in a systematic way dose reductions, operational costs savings as well as the conditions under which robotics and remote control actions can effectively improve occupational radiation protection in NPPs. The demonstration is based on an analysis of the evolution of the steam generator tube plugging technique developed in French PWRs

  10. Evidence that nitrous oxide enhances the radiosensitivity of bacterial vegetative cells by the co-operative action of the hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H; Iizuka, H; Takehisa, M [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-08-01

    When the radiosensitivity in N/sub 2/O suspension was compared with that in N/sub 2/ suspension, the dose modifying factors of N/sub 2/O on Micrococcus radiodurans R/sub 1/, Pseudomonas radiora 0-1, M. lysodeikticus and Bacillus pumilus E601 were 3.7, 2.9, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively. The sensitizing action of N/sub 2/O was diminished by ethanol as OH radical scavenger. This sensitization was further prevented by catalase and peroxidase. However, thermally inactivated catalase was without effect. In addition, the number of viable cells did not change in 0.1 mM H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ at 0/sup 0/C. These results indicate that N/sub 2/O sensitization is due to the cooperative action of OH radicals and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and that it would allow H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ to sensitize only when OH radicals were present.

  11. In vitro and in vivo evidences that antioxidant action contributes to the neuroprotective effects of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bobby; Saravanan, Karuppagounder S; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2008-05-01

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) is neuroprotective against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitory action partially contributes to this effect. We tested the hypothesis that 7-NI could be a powerful hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger, and interferes with oxidative stress caused by MPTP. We measured OH, reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in the nucleus caudatus putamen and substantia nigra of Balb/c mice following MPTP and/or 7-NI administration. The nNOS inhibitor caused dose-dependent inhibition in the production of OH in (i) Fenton-like reaction employing ferrous citrate in a cell-free system in test tubes, (ii) in isolated mitochondrial preparation in presence of MPP+, and (iii) in the striatum of mice systemically treated with MPTP. An MPTP-induced depletion of GSH in both the nuclei was blocked by 7-NI, which was dose-dependent (10-50mg/kg), but independent of MAO-B inhibition. The nNOS-mediated recovery of GSH paralleled attenuation of MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. MPTP-induced increase in the activities of striatal or nigral SOD and catalase were significantly attenuated by 7-NI treatment. These results suggest potent antioxidant action of 7-NI in its neuroprotective effects against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Example of Synthesis of Control Actions for Six-Legged Walking Robot when Moving on ‎Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Karginov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control actions are provided on the basis of inverse kinematic problem. Now there is a set of methods to solve this task.This article considers an example of the author’s approach application to the inverse kinematic problem.The main idea of approach is as follows:1. The limited set of the joints necessary to implement the chosen gait is selected from all joints of the robot. For these joints a strict sequence of the movement within each step and restriction of changing generalized coordinates are specified. 2. The joints non-involved in implementing the chosen gait are disabled, with no calculations performed for them.Thus, the sources of basic data for the inverse kinematic problem are the kinematic scheme of the executive mechanism of the walking robot and the chosen gait.To use the offered approach it is necessary:1. To number the legs and their joints.2. To choose joints to be involved in realization of the chosen gait.3. To appoint a sequence of the change of supporting legs when moving by the chosen gait.4. To specify a motion sequence of the chosen joints within a step for each leg.5. To specify restrictions of changes of the generalized coordinates in the chosen joints.The inverse kinematic problem process consists in gradual approach to the solution by change (increase or decrease of the generalized coordinates in the same order in which the joints of a leg corresponding to these coordinates move within a step by the chosen gait when walking.Criterion of completing calculations is the limits reached or the fact that a leg is fixed on a supporting plane by a contact sensor (or a condition in the modeling program. Changes of generalized coordinates are within a cycle; each generalized coordinate changes by a certain value at each of iterations of a cycle. The total time of a cycle corresponds to the estimated time of a step to be done.Advantages of the approach are following: unambiguity of the received solution, possibility to

  13. Founder Control, Ownership Structure and Firm Value: Evidence from Entrepreneurial Listed Firms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Xia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In emerging markets, the deviation between the ultimate controlling shareholders' voting rights and their cash flow rights (hereafter “DVC” in the listed firms is quite prevalent. DVC could be introduced due to the ultimate controlling shareholders' opportunistic incentives, as well as by their incentives to improve firm efficiency. This study uses 229 listed firms ultimately controlled by individuals or families (hereafter “entrepreneurial firms” for 2004 in China, to investigate the effect of DVC on firm value and to determine whether it is different between founder and non-founder controlled firms. We find that DVC has a positive effect on firm value for founder controlled firms. This result implies that investors believe that their interests are better protected by founder controlled firms than by non-founder controlled firms.

  14. An evidence accumulation model for conflict detection performance in a simulated air traffic control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Andrew; Kwantes, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a formal model of conflict detection performance. Our model assumes that participants iteratively sample evidence regarding the state of the world and accumulate it over time. A decision is made when the evidence reaches a threshold that changes over time in response to the increasing urgency of the task. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of conflict geometry and timing on response proportions and response time. The model is able to predict the observed pattern of response times, including a nonmonotonic relationship between distance at point of closest approach and response time, as well as effects of angle of approach and relative velocity. The results demonstrate that evidence accumulation models provide a good account of performance on a conflict detection task. Evidence accumulation models are a form of dynamic signal detection theory, allowing for the analysis of response times as well as response proportions, and can be used for simulating human performance on dynamic decision tasks.

  15. Neurogenetic evidence in the courtroom: a randomised controlled trial with German judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Dressing, Harald; Briken, Peer

    2015-11-01

    Prominent court decisions and recent research suggest that introduction of neurogenetic evidence, for example, monoamine oxidase A alleles, may reduce the sentence of convicted psychopaths. Here, we are aiming to demonstrate that judges' response to neurogenetic evidence is highly influenced by the legal system in which they operate. Participating German judges (n=372) received a hypothetical case vignette of aggravated battery, and were randomly assigned to expert testimonies that either involved a neurogenetic explanation of the offender's psychopathy or only a psychiatric diagnosis of psychopathy. Testimonies were presented either by the prosecution or defence. Neurogenetic evidence significantly reduced judges' estimation of legal responsibility of the convict. Nevertheless, the average prison sentence was not affected in the German legal system. Most interestingly, analysis of judges' reasoning revealed that neurogenetic arguments presented by the prosecution significantly increased the number of judges (23% compared with ∼ 6%) ordering an involuntary commitment in a forensic psychiatric hospital. Such an involuntary commitment due to diminished or absent legal responsibility may last much longer than a prison sentence in the German legal system. Our data, thus, demonstrate the socially contingent nature of legal responses to neurogenetic evidence in criminal cases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. No Evidence of Intelligence Improvement after Working Memory Training: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S.; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L.; Hicks, Kenny L.; Fried, David E.; Hambrick, David Z.; Kane, Michael J.; Engle, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations…

  17. INTERIM ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF HIGH-LEVEL EVIDENCE FOR DENGUE VECTOR CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstick, Olaf; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2015-01-01

    This interim analysis reviews the available systematic literature for dengue vector control on three levels: 1) single and combined vector control methods, with existing work on peridomestic space spraying and on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis; further work is available soon on the use of Temephos, Copepods and larvivorous fish; 2) or for a specific purpose, like outbreak control, and 3) on a strategic level, as for example decentralization vs centralization, with a systematic review on vector control organization. Clear best practice guidelines for methodology of entomological studies are needed. There is a need to include measuring dengue transmission data. The following recommendations emerge: Although vector control can be effective, implementation remains an issue; Single interventions are probably not useful; Combinations of interventions have mixed results; Careful implementation of vector control measures may be most important; Outbreak interventions are often applied with questionable effectiveness.

  18. The Impact of Family Control on Dividend Policy: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Setia Atmaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between family control and dividend policy in Indonesia. There are three possible explanations for the relationship. The expropriation hypothesis predicts that family control has a negative impact on dividend payouts. Meanwhile the reputation hypothesis and the family income hypothesis predict that family control has a positive impact on dividend payouts. Using a panel data of Indonesian publicly listed firms in the period of 2003-2009, the results shows that family control has a significant negative impact on dividend payouts, dividend yields and likelyhood to pay dividends. The results control for other variables that may potentially affect dividend payments such as growth opportunity, debt, profitability, firm size and firm age. From agency theory perspective, the finding is consistent with the argument that family controlling shareholders prefer lower dividends, in order to preserve cash flows that they can potentially expropriate (the expropriation hypothesis.

  19. Efficacy and mechanism of action of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib, lapatinib and neratinib in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: preclinical and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia-Mendoza, Mariana; González-González, María E; Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; García-Becerra, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of tumors, including breast cancer, overexpress proteins of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. The interaction between family members activates signaling pathways that promote tumor progression and resistance to treatment. Human epidermal growth factor receptor type II (HER2) positive breast cancer represents a clinical challenge for current therapy. It has motivated the development of novel and more effective therapeutic EGFR family target drugs, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This review focuses on the effects of three TKIs mostly studied in HER2- positive breast cancer, lapatinib, gefitinib and neratinib. Herein, we discuss the mechanism of action, therapeutic advantages and clinical applications of these TKIs. To date, TKIs seem to be promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast tumors, either as monotherapy or combined with other pharmacological agents.

  20. Arrhythmogenic drugs can amplify spatial heterogeneities in the electrical restitution in perfused guinea-pig heart: An evidence from assessments of monophasic action potential durations and JT intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg E Osadchii

    Full Text Available Non-uniform shortening of the action potential duration (APD90 in different myocardial regions upon heart rate acceleration can set abnormal repolarization gradients and promote arrhythmia. This study examined whether spatial heterogeneities in APD90 restitution can be amplified by drugs with clinically proved proarrhythmic potential (dofetilide, quinidine, procainamide, and flecainide and, if so, whether these effects can translate to the appropriate changes of the ECG metrics of ventricular repolarization, such as JT intervals. In isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations, monophasic action potentials and volume-conducted ECG were recorded at progressively increased pacing rates. The APD90 measured at distinct ventricular sites, as well as the JTpeak and JTend values were plotted as a function of preceding diastolic interval, and the maximum slopes of the restitution curves were determined at baseline and upon drug administration. Dofetilide, quinidine, and procainamide reverse rate-dependently prolonged APD90 and steepened the restitution curve, with effects being greater at the endocardium than epicardium, and in the right ventricular (RV vs. the left ventricular (LV chamber. The restitution slope was increased to a greater extent for the JTend vs. the JTpeak interval. In contrast, flecainide reduced the APD90 restitution slope at LV epicardium without producing effect at LV endocardium and RV epicardium, and reduced the JTpeak restitution slope without changing the JTend restitution. Nevertheless, with all agents, these effects translated to the amplified epicardial-to-endocardial and the LV-to-RV non-uniformities in APD90 restitution, paralleled by the increased JTend vs. JTpeak difference in the restitution slope. In summary, these findings suggest that arrhythmic drug profiles are partly attributable to the accentuated regional heterogeneities in APD90 restitution, which can be indirectly determined through ECG assessments of the

  1. Arrhythmogenic drugs can amplify spatial heterogeneities in the electrical restitution in perfused guinea-pig heart: An evidence from assessments of monophasic action potential durations and JT intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2018-01-01

    Non-uniform shortening of the action potential duration (APD90) in different myocardial regions upon heart rate acceleration can set abnormal repolarization gradients and promote arrhythmia. This study examined whether spatial heterogeneities in APD90 restitution can be amplified by drugs with clinically proved proarrhythmic potential (dofetilide, quinidine, procainamide, and flecainide) and, if so, whether these effects can translate to the appropriate changes of the ECG metrics of ventricular repolarization, such as JT intervals. In isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations, monophasic action potentials and volume-conducted ECG were recorded at progressively increased pacing rates. The APD90 measured at distinct ventricular sites, as well as the JTpeak and JTend values were plotted as a function of preceding diastolic interval, and the maximum slopes of the restitution curves were determined at baseline and upon drug administration. Dofetilide, quinidine, and procainamide reverse rate-dependently prolonged APD90 and steepened the restitution curve, with effects being greater at the endocardium than epicardium, and in the right ventricular (RV) vs. the left ventricular (LV) chamber. The restitution slope was increased to a greater extent for the JTend vs. the JTpeak interval. In contrast, flecainide reduced the APD90 restitution slope at LV epicardium without producing effect at LV endocardium and RV epicardium, and reduced the JTpeak restitution slope without changing the JTend restitution. Nevertheless, with all agents, these effects translated to the amplified epicardial-to-endocardial and the LV-to-RV non-uniformities in APD90 restitution, paralleled by the increased JTend vs. JTpeak difference in the restitution slope. In summary, these findings suggest that arrhythmic drug profiles are partly attributable to the accentuated regional heterogeneities in APD90 restitution, which can be indirectly determined through ECG assessments of the JTend vs. JTpeak

  2. AUDITING INTERNAL CONTROLS IN FINANCING PRESCHOOL PUBLIC INSTITUTION: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana HORVAT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public preschool educational institutions in Slovenia are mostly financed by public money, it means bay state and municipalities. They are also financed by parents. So, it is important that preschool institutions are using public money transparent and responsible, for this reason public preschool institution should have internal controls in financing. The internal auditor as independent professional should verify if internal controls works. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how internal controls in financing public educational institution works it means which internal controls are important in financing the preschool institution - on the selected institution to show and check how internal controls work. For this reason we divide internal controls in the financing in two phases: (1 internal controls in the preparation of the annual financial plan and financial planning of financial resources for institution’s programs and activities, (2 internal controls in obtaining financial resources. We used methods of internal auditing and research approaches as sampling, unstructured interviews and analysis of documents. The results showed that selected preschool institution should work on rules of recovery and monitoring of claims. The findings provide useful academic insight to setting internal controls as well as practical guidance for preschool institutions.

  3. Evidence-based recommendations for analgesic efficacy to treat pain of endodontic origin: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoshariae, Anita; Kulild, James C; Donaldson, Mark; Hersh, Elliot V

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify evidence-based clinical trials to aid dental clinicians in establishing the efficacy for recommending or prescribing analgesics for pain of endodontic origin. The authors prepared and registered a protocol on PROSPERO and conducted electronic searches in MEDLINE, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. In addition, the authors manually searched the bibliographies of all relevant articles, the gray literature, and textbooks for randomized controlled trials. Two authors selected the relevant articles independently. There were no disagreements between the authors. The authors analyzed 27 randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The authors divided the studies into 2 groups: preoperative and postoperative analgesic treatments. There was moderate evidence to support the use of steroids for patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Also, there was moderate evidence to support nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) preoperatively or postoperatively to control pain of endodontic origin. When NSAIDs were not effective, a combination of NSAIDs with acetaminophen, tramadol, or an opioid appeared beneficial. NSAIDs should be considered as the drugs of choice to alleviate or minimize pain of endodontic origin if there are no contraindications for the patient to ingest an NSAID. In situations in which NSAIDs alone are not effective, the combination of an NSAID with acetaminophen or a centrally acting drug is recommended. Steroids appear effective in irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  5. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Katarzyna Bobak

    Full Text Available Photographic identity documents (IDs are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs, on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  6. Direct evidence for microbial-derived soil organic matter formation and its ecophysiological controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, Cynthia M.; Frey, Serita D.; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and the carbon and nutrients therein drive fundamental submicron- to global-scale biogeochemical processes and influence carbon-climate feedbacks. Consensus is emerging that microbial materials are an important constituent of stable SOM, and new conceptual and quantitative SOM models are rapidly incorporating this view. However, direct evidence demonstrating that microbial residues account for the chemistry, stability and abundance of SOM is still lacking. Further, emerging models emphasize the stabilization of microbial-derived SOM by abiotic mechanisms, while the effects of microbial physiology on microbial residue production remain unclear. Here we provide the first direct evidence that soil microbes produce chemically diverse, stable SOM. We show that SOM accumulation is driven by distinct microbial communities more so than clay mineralogy, where microbial-derived SOM accumulation is greatest in soils with higher fungal abundances and more efficient microbial biomass production.

  7. Can controlled drainage control agricultural nutrient emissions? Evidence from a BACI experiment combined with a dual isotope approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Mette Vodder; Poulsen, Jane Rosenstand; Ovesen, Niels Bering

    2016-01-01

    nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, nitrous oxide, total phosphorous, and phosphate when applying regulation levels of 50 and 70 cm above drain pipes were determined by using a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design. The regulation level had to be 70 cm to significantly elevate groundwater levels...

  8. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory